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Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process


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To My dearest DAD, MOM, FALU AND BANS


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Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process


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Contents a.

Acknowledgment …..vi

1.

Introduction …..01

2.

What is Representation?

…..06

a. What is Design Representation? …..07 b. Interior Design: Profession …..08 c. Types of users to which representation needs to be conveyed …..09 d. History of Design Representation …..10 e. History of Design Representation in India …..11 3.

Methods of Interior Design Representation

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3.1 Sketch …..15 3.2 Orthographic Projections …..17 3.3 Three-dimensional Images …..23 3.4 Modeling …..26 3.5 Layouts and Presentation …..30 3.6 Scale …..32 3.7 Designing softwares majorly used by an Interior Designer …..35 4

The Interior Design Processes

…..38

4.1 Inspiration …..40 4.2 Identification …..42 4.3 Conceptualization …..45 4.4 Exploration …..49 4.5 Modeling …..53 4.6 Communication …..56 4.7 Production …..61 5 Case Studies …..67 5.1 Havmor Restaurant, Surat, Gujarat (Hospitality) …..68 5.2 Evosys, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (Commercial) …..75 5.3 Bindu Sarovar Museum, Sidhpur, Gujarat (Public) …..88 5.4 BIO Pavilion, Delhi (Installation) …..99 b. Conclusion .....105 c. Bibliography …..106 d.

Illustration Credits

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to firstly thank my mentor, my Guide Ar. Canna Patel who pushed me when I was not able to find any directions in my thesis. She has always supported me by staying calm and composed. She taught me many things like time management techniques, believing in myself and majorly making me see and think BIG in life apart from guiding my thesis. I am sincerely grateful to all my professors naming Prof.Krishna Shastri, Prof. Kireet Patel and Prof. Rajan Raval for their guidance and shaping of my thoughts. All the teachings and work experiences throughout the course helped me evolve as a designer. Snehal Mam for believing in my topic and motivating me for taking it forward. Ananya and Kashi sir for discussing with me the topic when I was completely unaware what I want to do for my thesis My whole DICRC team, Jay sir, for giving me the first discussion which changed my perception towards the topic, Prof. M.P. Ranjan for a small discussion but more than that ever smiling face which always motivated me, Rajdeep (Raavan) for giving me various discussions without a drop of sweat on various topics, Smriti (Ms. Fruits) for silently reading my pdfs and religiously putting sticky notes on each correction, Manushi (didi) for explaining me the topic with points, lines and planes, Neha (Junglee) for always demotivating me for my laziness in the harshest words possible! And all others for supporting me in some or the other way. I would like to thank all those Architect and Interior designers who contributed their precious time and work for my thesis case studies.

And all others who responded to my mails from their busy schedule. Nisha, Krutika, Smriti for contributing themselves for the most tedious job in my thesis, Proof Reading! Jay, Kinjal, Shaily, Dhvani for searching for me some beautiful illustrations which I have used in my thesis. I would like to thank Tithi for stay with me all the time, supporting me in all ups and downs and also by motivating me all the time for everything. My best Pals (in alphabetical order, no one should feel bad) Anand, Chirag, Dushyant, Devanshu, Jay, Prachi, Palkan, Radhika, Rajdeep, Sagar, Sagar, Sandy, Sneha, Vinit, Yash and all others who have always been a Piston,valve, engine, crankshaft of my life. I would like to again thank Krishna mam for pushing me at the last moment and helping in all possible senses to sail through and submit my thesis.


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Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process


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Chapter

Introduction


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1.

Introduction

During early middle Ages, skilled painters were hired to paint the walls inside the buildings which never came into the scope of Architects and builders. Gradually, people like ironsmith, glass blowers, weavers, embroiders, sculptors, etc. were hired on board for the decoration. But these caused havoc in the sense that design language for each agency used to be different. To manage these agencies all together, interior decorator came into existence. These decorators later on started giving comprehensive design solutions with variations and came to be known as Interior Designers. There were two important tasks of an interior designer. 1. It helped create a functional system by coordinating skills, materials and objects sourced from different agencies. 2. It showed a user or client, in advance, the solution, in a representative form.(1) This shows that since the time Interior design was segregated as an individual discipline, representing the design has become equally important for discipline to sustain as an individual in the field. Interior designers have immense ideas on their mind which he/she wants to or going to design. An idea leads to the concept which then becomes a sketch. The sketch is then developed into a physical model which is then finalized and converted to set of scale drawings. These drawings are detailed out to working drawings and then executed on site. This process of representing systematically the design ideas from intangible to tangible is known as a Design process.(2) In Interior designing, there are various techniques of representation which he practices depending on his skills, demand of the project and understanding level of the client (user). The major reason for representing drawings came into existence is the lack of understanding ability and develop with this study, an understanding will be developed as to how and what are the factors due to which representation techniques of designing changes in a design process. To successfully steer an idea on its journey from world of imagination to world of objects, a designer must keep focused on where the idea is going and make number of stop overs along the way. This study examines that what are these different stop overs in a professional Interior Design project and that point how methods/tools of representation helps the stage of interior design process flow smoothly. Even there are practical issues which an interior designer needs to notice if the design process stages are not taken into consideration seriously.(3)

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

http://www.gautamshah.in/HTML/DMIJul07. htm#1.1 INTERIOR DESIGNER (2) Spankie, Ro. Drawing out the interiors. SA: AVA publishing, 2009 (3) Aspelund, Karl. The Design process. New York: Fairchild books, 2010 (1)


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According to author Karl Aspelund, there are 7 stages of a design process which is in some or the other way applicable to all the kinds of design disciplines. These stages are as follows. 1. Inspiration 2.

Identification

3. Conceptualization 4. Exploration 5. Modelling 6. Communication 7. Production This study revolves around these design process stages and the factors affecting the change in representation techniques

AIM OF THE STUDY To understand the factors affecting Interior design representation within a framework of the Design Process.

RESEARCH QUESTION 1.

What is Interior Design representation?

2. What is the role of a structured design process and methods of representation in successful completion of an interior design project? 3. What are factors due to which interior design representation changes in an interior design firm?

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. A detailed idea about what is the various possible kinds of representation techniques and at what different stage designers have used this particular technique of representation. 2. The design process is also explained in detail with context of the interior design profession. This gives the reader an idea that what are the stages of the design process and why is it important to follow them. 3. Evolution of representation technique is important to know that why was a representation technique needed to be evolved and due to what all factors it has evolved. 4. A detailed study of the cases following variety of Design processes in different project typologies and through


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that understanding that due to which factors do representation technique changes.

SCOPES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1. All the design practices are limited to Ahmedabad to get an in depth understanding of the kind of projects which are handled in a particular region. 2. The design process of a project is studied only on the basis of representation techniques which is used in that particular project. So stages of contract, administration, etc. will not be taken into consideration. 3. Projects are selected on the basis of availability and accessibility towards the material and the firm. 4. A view of interior design representation are given from various part of the world but case studies will be limited to Ahmedabad. 5. All the interior design and interior architecture project’s representation methods will be taken into consideration.

RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY • Designers have a lot of ideas on their mind but sometimes due to lack of understanding ability of the client, designers find difficult to communicate their ideas to clients. This problem actually generates from the roots i.e. many design students are not able to convey their ideas due to lack of design representation knowledge or lack of soft skills to put forward their design to jurors. With this study, a student will get an idea as to what all are the kind of methods which he can follow. • Students at the same time also face a problem of not finishing the design on time. One of the major reasons for that is lacking the understanding of the design process. By looking at techniques of design professionals, their design process in finishing the live project and the methods of representation involved in that project, they can evaluate that where were they going wrong in conveying design and can also directly adopt a tried and tested design process of a professional. • Also, with this kind of study, there will be an attempt of looking at all the different kinds of Representation Methods in the field of Interior Design. • Also this Study has scope to add any kind of Representation Methods/Tools which might be left out or could not be studied due to various reasons.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY • Literature Review o Understanding the word ‘Representation’ with the history and evolution of that word by time and revolution in technology o Understanding the word ‘Design Offices’ with a brief history, present day design offices and their different kinds. • Interviews o Interviews with Interior Designer in their office and also with their staff members to know how they use to work • Collection of Data o Case studies will be chosen according the Timeline. I.e. Interior Designer who has been working in the field of Interior Designer since last 5 – 1 years. So that thesis gets a rich variety of notable changes in their Design Representation. • Analysis o In what ways methods of representation changes in interior design process in a professional practice is analysed. o What are the factors due to which interior design process changes in a professional practice is studied.


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Chapter

What is Representation?


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What is Representation?

Noun • The act of speaking or acting on behalf of someone can be called as being represented. • The description or portrayal of someone or something in a particular way or being of a certain nature. As described above, the representation can be understood as the way of communicating an idea or action with another person, body or group/s. It is a way to put forward information which needs to be elaborated or communicated. It is a linguistic way to say something meaningful to others.(4) Representation is a common term which is used in various disciplines like arts, design, law, social science, chemistry, physics, etc. all directed towards communicating their thoughts in a better way. Out of which, design representation being the criteria of the study is a very different way of representing the ideas and thoughts than the rest of the disciplines.(5)

What is Design representation? “There can be no design activity without representation. Ideas must be represented if they need to be shared with others, even shared with oneself! Different representation modes and strategies afford distinctive opportunities for reading or for transforming design ideas” The above given quotation is from a brief text from 4th Design Research Thinking Symposium at Massachusetts Institute of technology (MIT) in 1999. The theme of the discussion was ‘Design Representation’.(6) They believed that design representation is an integral topic to study and it has various different forms which need to be addressed for better understanding of the design. Designing is different from the rest of the profession in many different ways. It is a profession where creativity comes into being. Each time there is a new idea of design it’s perspective will always differ from one designer to the other. These ideas need a platform to be conveyed to an individual or a group. These ideas are required to be communicated in any kind of form. One of the major purposes for any kind of representation is explaining an idea from one person to another or group of people. There are 3 different kinds of design representations which were addressed in this symposium which are as follows.

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/ representation?q=representation (5) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representation (6) Goldschmidt, Gabriela. Design Representation. London: Springer-Verlag Limited, 2004 (4)


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Verbal Representation: Conveying the ideas through narratives, using words, explaining a scenario what the designer is visualizing. This technique of representation is generally a spontaneous delivery of ideas. Text based Representation: Explaining ideas through text or using the information which is already conveyed by someone in the form of writings to convey the designer’s ideas. These generally include field notes, case studies and interviews. Visual Representation: Explaining the ideas through imagery, sketch, physical models, etc. (something which can be seen through eyes and visualized). These types of design representation are generated by designers themselves i.e. limited data are used from our sources for conveying the ideas.(7) The above study shows that all these forms of design representation are equally important in the profession of interior designing. These representation forms are always complimenting and supporting each other for better communication of ideas to an individual or group. It is just that these forms are crucially dependent on the level of understanding of the audience. This study will majorly cover one of the integral forms of the design representation which is a visual representation as this is the form which is easily conveyable to the audience.

Interior Design: Profession “Interior design as a profession in India is not a very ancient concept. It emerged from architecture within the last 4 decades. After segregating from Architecture, Interior designers needed to set up their own work environment where the kind of clients, workers, co-designer, and employees changed. Even the way representation used to happen with Architecture completely changed in Interior design. Interior designing profession is now affiliated with various different design disciplinaries like Graphic designers, Furniture designers, Accessories designers, lighting designers, etc. and various other service agencies like Electrical engineer, Civil engineer, computer engineers, HVAC(Heat Ventillation and Air Conditioning) consultants, etc.

http://www.lancs.ac.uk/fss/organisations/netlc/ past/nlc2010/abstracts/PDFs/Conole_2.pdf (8) Shah, Gautam. Interior design practice and office management, Unpublished. (7)

The Interior designer now operated from a Design office or Studio, usually located in an urban area. The studio was used for creating drawings, sketches, other presentations, models, pilots, prototypes, dummies, cartoons (replicas of artwork in full size), samples, etc. It contained samples of materials and catalogs. The studio was a fixed location facility where an interior designer was able to meet clients, suppliers and craftsman�(8)


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Types of users to which representation needs to be conveyed The major purpose of any kind of representation is to explain, convey and communicate the design to the receiver. This receiver can be an individual or a group of people who needs to understand design to use it or take it forward at the level of design thinking. So before understanding the various techniques of design representation, it is important to study that for which kind of people the design representation needs to be done. As the study is looked only through professional interior designer’s point of view, Design representation majorly happens to three different kinds of people. • Client (user): An important entity of any Interior design project, the user. The person or a group who is going to spend on the kind of design to whom a designer would like to deliver. A person who is most responsible person taking forward any design activity in the field. So he would definitely want to know how his design will look, much before it is executed. In major cases, clients are mostly non-designers. At times, they might not have a developed eye for visualizing design the way designers have visualized. So the kind of design representation a client would understand in majority of the cases needs to be more visual, refined and elaborate. • Designer/co-designers: An interior designer will design at various stages of the design process as per his process of working. At each and every stage he would want to see how his design would look visually. Also, there is always a back and forth in the ideation behind the design. Which means a designer needs to alter his few decisions which were taken previously to match the current requirements or to bring the project at par to that current state of interior design. A design representation of the designer is also required when more than one person is involved in the design project. In such case, a designer needs to communicate with his fellow designer in some or the other way to convey his ideas to rest of the designers. Design representation involved for the designers is generally not elaborate and finished as they need to develop the design in further stages rather than finalizing the design.

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

llus. 2(1)  Marble plan of ancient Rome, a few

of the 1,000-plus fragments known. These have been pieced together, but their location in the city remains unknown. This shows even in those times, plans were made carved on the stone slab. Early 3rd century ad.


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• Agencies: The agencies are the group of people who deal with execution part of the design. The time when design decisions are already taken and it needs to go to its tangible form. There are various agencies involved in the interior design profession depending on the kind of the complexities and level of details involved in the project. These include carpenters, fabricators, mason, electricians, lighting consultants, air conditioning (A.C.) consultants, flooring consultants, color consultants, fabric and textile consultants, false ceiling consultants, etc. Their work is just to come up with the desired design client and designer wants. So the kind of design representation required for them is completely detailed as there is no scope of anymore design development left.(9)

History of Design Representation llus. 2(2)  Cross section of the Amarna palace, XVIII Dynasty. It represents both architecture and interior in the space. The bottom most floor represents the three royal gates while top most represents the interior spaces.

Design Representation plays a significant role in the design process as a mode of conversation, communication and documentation. Representation implants ideas, decisions and knowledge through 3D physical models, plans, elevations, sections and perspective views. These primary representation media have been known and used to conceive and represent architectural space for centuries. It has always been a major tool for communication, conversation and documentation of the design.(10) In ancient times, client used to be majorly kings and the designers used to be painters and artists. They used to take all the interior design decisions in one sketch. Interiors of a middle class residence used to be generally done by people themselves. From decorating wall to constructing their own house used to be done by the householders themselves.

Edwards, Clive. Interior Design: A Critical Introduction. New York: Bloomsbury Academics publications, 2011 (10) http://www.slideshare.net/grainne/chapter-8design-representations (11) AKGUN Yenal, Perception of space through representation Media: A comparison between 2D representation techniques and 3D representation environments, Izmir Institute of Technology, Turkey; 2004 (9)

Methods, role and importance of the representation techniques have been changed as the time has passed. In the ancient era, physical models were the main tools in the design process, and primitive illustrative drawings were used for representing some extra details and the imagined life style in the building. However, after the Renaissance, orthographic drawings have gained importance as design media, and perspectives were used for representing imagined life style. Moreover, while the ancient world’s drawing techniques were not rational, easily perceivable and could not express the sense of reality; after the Renaissance, drawing techniques began to represent space in a more rational and realistic way. Today, orthographic drawing techniques and perspectives are common and conventional methods of representation.(11) Use of 3D physical models in architecture has always been as universal as the use of drawings. In fact, the models were the oldest representation technique known in architecture. In ancient Egypt and Greece, wooden and wax models were used generally for representational purposes. 3D physical models were important tools to present design ideas to the


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authorities and prospective clients These models were not necessarily made for clients but at times they were also used to keep in the tombs or the place where that client is going to stay. Decisions were mostly taken on the kind of models they use to make. At the same time, drawings were introduced as an efficient and user friendly representation tool for designing. Ideas were sketched or painted out for the approval of the client. Drawings mostly included plans, elevations, sections, orthographic projections, etc. but as far as interior environment was concerned, these methods were not as successful in making a client understand the design as they were not showing the depth. During, the 15th century, a Renaissance architect Filippo Brunelleschi has discovered technically drawn perspective, after which design started getting depth in itself as it became easy for clients to perceive the design. Soon colors started adding in the perspective drawings which made it much easier for designers to communicate.(12)

llus. 2(3)  Filippo Brunelleschi, wooden model

for the lantern crowning the cupola of Florence Cathedral, ca. 1436; Cathedral museum, Florence.

After the invention of computers, drafting software came into being which completely changed the way designers used to think and used to represent. Design Representation became a smoother element in a design process as producing options of a design and a requirement became quicker. With the invention of digital 3D modeling, explaining and understanding design both became easy. This shows that evolution in design representation has always been of benefit. Following are the benefits of evolution of design representation. • Clarity in understanding of the design for everyone linked with a project became much easier than before as making a client understand through sketch versus making a client understand his space through a digital 3D model. • More options could now be generated due to the flexibility provided by softwares like AutoCAD, Revit, BIM, ArchiCAD, 3Ds Max, Rhino, Google Sketchup etc. • With a fusion of various techniques, design representation has become effective that was not the case before. For example: sketching can be done over a digital 3D model if any decision is changed immediately. • Design execution time got highly affected due to evolution of representation. The decision got faster and as a result, things started building up in no time.

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

llus. 2(4)  St Peter’s, Rome, plan showing

Bernini’s colonnade of 1656–67 that creates a huge elliptical piazza (misrepresented as segments of circles in this engraving by Fontana). Intricately sketched plan in absence of drafting tools.


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History of Design Representation in India

llus. 2(5)  Vastu purusha mandala, a measure

to find the right direction for carrying forward activities. Written are the different activites which should happen in that direction for its betterment.

llus. 2(6)  Map of Ahmedabad, depicted in a miniature style painting on a cloth, circa 19th Century

http://architectureideas.info/2008/10/vastupurusha-mandala/ (13)

In India, there was a common way of representing the kind of design which used to come up. In other words, there were set standards which a designer needs to follow. Houses were made according to particular styles and codes and every person had to follow that code of language to build the house. One such standard of building a Hindu temple is ‘Vastupurush’-a cosmic person. A grid of 64 and 81 squares and an image of a man fitting inside the square suggesting that the whole universe is within this one man.“The square is the mark of order, of finality to the expanding life, its form; and of perfection beyond life and death” as suggested in ancient Hindu books. These suggested that Indian representation of Architecture was very much dependent on the beliefs and geometry as well.(13) Indian Architecture and designs were then influenced and changed due to British invasion in India over 200 years. This made Indians follow the same techniques of representation which British used to follow. But there was an added advantage of the invasion as the Indians started to learn the techniques which was more elaborate and easy to understand for the clients. Famous architects like Le Corbusier, Louis Kahn, etc. left a beautiful impression of architecture in India and taught efficient ways of representing them for the understanding of the clients. Even designers found a new dimension in understanding and developing a design in a different way. Thus, the influences of sketching, orthographic drawings, 3D physical models came into being.


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Chapter

Methods of Interior Design Representation


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VARIOUS METHODS OF REPRESENTATION IN INTERIOR DESIGN PRACTICES Design representation has been practiced since ages for communicating the ideas for the three different kinds of users as discussed in previous chapters. There are various different modes which Interior Designers have used depending on their flexibility, understanding level of client and agencies and their level of command over that particular mode of representation. There is no set thumb rule which needs to be followed while using a particular technique for explaining a particular design idea but choosing a right mode of representation at the right place in a design process becomes important as it influences the way we think and therefore what we design. The excitement with Interior design representation is to use the language of drawing, to perfect it and to develop it so it communicates the idea to become a unique and a real design experience and to make a design process and project to flow smoothly. Modes of representation can be broadly categorized into 6 different categories. These categories totally depend on the kind of process, which a designer follows professionally in his projects. The categories are as follows: 1. Sketch 2. Scale 3.

Orthographic projections

4.

Three Dimensional images

5. Modeling 6.

Layout and presentation

With this topic, an idea is given about what are the possible different kinds of such technique which are used in practice, which Interior Designers have used, what mode of representation is used to communicate a design idea and why was that used at that point.(14)

llus. 3(1)  A very early nearly abstract exploratory

drawing which holds the meaning only for the interior designer. These sketches are useful in giving a lead for a design. Also these unfinished conceptual sketches leaves room for exploring into design further

Farrelly, Lorraine. Basic Architecture: Architectural Representation. SA: AVA publishing, 2008 (14)

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3.1. Sketch A sketch in context to interior design representation is a loose, freehand and quick mode of communicating an idea. It is majorly speed inherent and generally more an unfinished mode of representation. Sketches are done by Interior Designers at various different places including on site sketching, quick explanatory sketches to fellow Interior Designers and for individual’s understanding and at times even a refined form of sketching which can be used in a client presentation for a client. llus. 3(2)  Church of Vouksenniska, Finland.

Architect Alvar Aalto. Initial cross section sketch to understand only the skylight and the elements responding to that.

Summing up all these, sketching can be broadly categorized into 3 different categories. •

Conceptual sketches

Analytical sketches

Observational sketches

Conceptual sketches

A very rough form of sketch which is generally done at the beginning of the project by the Interior Designers not necessarily shown to the clients but majorly for Interior Designers themselves to think. Every design starts with a bigger picture of an idea depending on the context and the program given. An ideal conceptual sketch is that the bigger picture of idea should be conveyed precisely in a sketch or set of sketches which can help an interior designer sail throughout the project. It should be relevant throughout the design process till the execution of the project. llus. 3(3)  Church of Vouksenniska, Finland.

Architect Alvar Aalto. Interior perspective sketch to put forward his idea of using three cross on the wall and the skylight entering through fenestrations

At any stage of the process the concept is something that drives the design forward and as such it needs to be recorded. A sketch is a quick, easy and useful way to do this, and a concept sketch can take many forms. Interior Designers generally make conceptual sketches in their sketchbook which they can take anytime, anywhere and put forward their design ideas. This mode is the flexible form of sketching as it can include field notes, numbers etc. included in it. In short, this is a form of sketching which doesn’t require a conscious act of looking at it at from a presentation point of view. The sketches can be as rough and unfinished but they should be highly informative and comprehensible to Interior Designer themselves at any point of time in the design process.

Analytical sketches llus. 3(4)  Analytical sketch showing the section

of the working environment. The sketch shows the understanding of blocking direct sunlight which makes work environment pleasent.

The sketches which are used to analyze an interior space are analytical sketches. These can be created at any stage of the design process. In a project’s initial stages they may convey a design intention but later it can be translated into a very tangible form of design.


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Analytical sketches are a less formal form of sketching as it need not be always in the form of free sketching. These sketches can be in a plan, section, elevation, etc. Analytical drawings can be used to isolate specific aspects of any design idea and describe them as a series of parts or components. For example, analytical drawings could be used technically to describe an environmental approach and describe how sunlight moves through a space. This kind of approach of sketching is generally done by the designer because after freezing down on concept, analytical sketching will help them further look into various aspects of interior designing like light, acoustics, color, material, space planning, volume, space allocations, etc. and further create a background for further designing. This kind of sketching will also help a designer to alter or change his initial conceptual sketching as this kind of sketching will deeply look into various practical and technical issues while exploring. Generally, analytical sketching is done after site measurements are taken and again requires a sketchbook for an easy accessibility to putting down design at any point of time. These sketches can also be used at a presentation level for client for making the client understand the design at initial stage.

llus. 3(5)  Analytical sketch with a clear idea as to how interaction would happen at various stages as all the walkways opens towards the central court.

llus. 3(6)  Analytical sketch by Gujreet Singh

Matharoo showing a view of water with indirect lighting

llus. 3(7)  Interior observational sketches of Le Corbusier. All the sketches are made on a single page to easily relate to the previous sketch and get inspired. It also helps to maintain a link while designing. Small written notes are also taken with sketches as few ideas could not be translated visually at that point.

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Observational sketches

A kind of sketch which is done after ‘looking’ at things. Observational drawing is an important part of the design process. Careful observation allows us to first absorb and then comprehend what we see. For a designer, it’s not always possible that he is catered with a new set of ideas everytime. He needs to get inspired from things around him, whether it can be his own environment, any built structure or any images. To get inspired he always needs to ‘see’ things around him. llus. 3(8)  Sketchbook of an interior designer

with a detailed sketch of the building on the left side and the personal observations made by the designer on the right side. This usually helps interior designers in any kind of projects and improves imagination.

In ancient times, when interior design was not a separate discipline in itself, artists used to sketch out the space completely with all details, colors, materials and finishes. So that a king gets a complete idea of how his space would look. This sketch was an outcome of a good observation of the surroundings and his imaginations. This is how observational sketches were made. This sketching mode has helped Interior Designers a lot in developing their design because this mode allows a designer to put a layer of his own imagination on the observation he has made and come to a new level of design. It also has helps Interior Designers because interior design has an immense amount of layers which needs to be addressed.

3.2. Orthographic projections

llus. 3(9)  Study drawing with minimum visible details.

llus. 3(10)  Presentation drawing again with minimum details for clients to understand the space allocation

http://www3.ul.ie/~rynnet/orthographic_ projection_fyp/webpages/history.html (15)

Throughout human history we have used pictures to convey ideas, express ourselves, present information, etc. Basically we have used pictures to communicate. However, different people and cultures used different types of pictures to communicate ideas.This was a problem that engineers, Interior Designers, builders, architects faced throughout history. We did not have one way of communicating our ideas that everybody understood. This was a problem that Gaspard Monge came across when he started as an Engineer in the French Military. He devised a system that could be used to communicate an object to anyone across the world. This system is called Orthographic Projection(15) Orthographic projection has now become an integral part of any design process and understanding that into any kind of design discipline has become mandatory. Orthographic projects consist of a plan (a view from the top of any object or space), elevation (front, sides and rear view of any object or space) and section (cutting the plan or elevation and looking inside it). So it is a system related to two-dimensional view of any interior space or object in terms of interior design. The art of orthographic drawings is to visualize any interior space in three-dimension while the image (drawing) is in two-dimension.


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Plan Most basic and common kind of orthographic projection is a plan. In simplest language, it is a view from top of the object. A plan is a very important mode of representation to give a push start to a project. A project for an interior designer starts with drawing the plan or setting a plan from the builder or an architect. All kind of the major decisions from making some structural changes to understanding the availability of space and of space planning options happen in a plan. In the Design process, a plan is used at all the stages in some or the other way. It is a very handy tool for an interior designer and even design students are taught to start their design process on the basis of a plan. A plan can be represented in many different ways in Interior design drawings. It is a very flexible way of understanding the majority of the design. An Interior designer would study a plan differently than any other design discipline would. The amount of the intricate details of understanding the space and the size of the furniture occupied, the sizes of the doors and windows, marking of spaces with their sizes, understanding wind directions, making spaces according to vastu, etc. These plans are generally represented in a form of sketched plan, presentation plan and working the plan. These categories are discussed in detail in later topics.

Section A section drawing is one of the most useful and revealing drawings in interior designing. As with all two-dimensional drawings, a section is an abstract representation. Interior design sections are not much different from that of architecture but the context for understanding the space completely changes. Interior Designers would like to see the level difference created due to beam or sunk slab, he would like to create new levels according to his design appeal, he would also like to create level difference on the floor. Majorly, all the kinds of volumetric explorations can happen with the help of a section in interior design. Without sections, it would not have been really possible for a designer to understand the scale of the space. It can also help the designer to make an inside outside relationship with the surroundings, landscapes or cityscapes around. Over and above that, a roof detail, plumbing lines, electrical lines, HVAC connections can all be understood with the help of a section. Thus, it is helpful for understanding the interior services. Coming down to minute aspects, details like furniture joinery, stone masonry, floor leveling, false ceiling details, etc. can only be studied through an interior design section.

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process


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llus. 3(11)  Complete set of hand drafted

Orthographic drawings of Glasgow School of Art, Glasgow, London by Charles Rennie Mackintosh(1897). All the drawings are drafted with all the details visible on the drawing so that the client gets the complete idea of all the aspects of design and agencies gets all the details in a single set of drawings.


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Elevation Elevation is one more integral representation mode of orthographic projections for any interior design project. Elevations are the vertical views of any interior space. The difference between an interior section and an interior elevation is that interior elevation need not necessarily show the volumetric differences, the services details or any such detail which is unraveling. Elevation is mostly used in interior design to aesthetically represent an idea which is coming to the vertical surface. For example, a wall panel behind the reception desk which is made out of bamboo sticks which has nothing to do with structure but are just used for aesthetical purpose. Interior Designers use this method of representation for their own understanding, for showing it to clients and for making a design understandable to agencies for execution. At times, it is not possible for a designer to work out options in plan and models. That tool is difficult for an interior designer to manage at times when he is exploring the ideas and thus it is also time consuming. Using elevations can help Interior Designers to quickly create options or even evolving a design from a point as it just requires a pen and paper for representation. Few Interior Designers also create options on AutoCAD or other such drafting softwares to get precise dimensions of their designs. Interior Designers have used elevation as an effective representation mode in many different ways like sketch elevation, presentation elevation and working elevation. One of the important mode of representing through elevation which is prominently used by Interior Designers is folded elevation. It is showing all the walls of the space within one elevation adjoining each other. This is a highly useful method to an interior designer because one can easily and side by side relate the kind of material finishes, sizes, furniture, etc. coming on the wall versus another wall. Thus, a designer can show an ambience of the space easily through the elevations. It is also easy for clients to understand the folding elevations.

Types of Orthographic projections Study drawings A set of measured interior design drawings which includes a plan, section and elevation is generally used by Interior Designers for his early explorations after the conceptualization of the space is finished. These sets can be sketched as they are just done for trying out the designs which is on the designer’s mind. It is also done to check whether the designs can be brought to tangible form or they still need to be mature. It is also used to communicate the design internally between all the Interior Designers within themselves. The advantage of working with such study drawings is they are handy and

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process


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llus. 3(12)  Study drawing of Iscon Platinum,

Ahemdabad. Designer has tried to study the wall alterations in the sketch. Such decisions are convenient to take for the designer on a study plan. This orthographic projections are rough and unfinished version of design.

llus. 3(13)  Presentation Drawings of the same site when client needs to see the decisions of the designers or design needs to be showcased to other audiences. Generally the most refined version of design which is visually appealling.

llus. 3(14)  Working Drawing of the same site

when all the decisions are taken and site is reuqired to be given to the site. This orthographic projection is the refined and final version of the design


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easily manageable. Over and above it is convenient to use this method of design exploration to get a better understanding of the design. Presentation drawings This kind of presentation is mostly done for the clients where an approval of the project or a case of impressing the client for the design job is expected by the designer. The drawings should necessarily be fair and finished. At the same time it should be able to communicate the design easily to the client without any problems. Interior Designers generally use softwares like AutoCAD, Adobe PhotoShop and Coreldraw or are hand rendered details like colors, textures, shades, lighting condition, etc. are filled in to show in the presentation orthographic drawings.

llus. 3(15)  Shop drawing of house model.

Smallest module of the model is given in full scale so that maker gets an idea what to make exactly. Generally used when complex forms are required to be made.

The set of these drawings once represented are shown together to the clients in the form of a physical form of presentation where hard copy of all the work is put up on a board for a client to also relate to the drawings with each other. Interior Designers generally use a Microsoft Office PowerPoint presentation which is screened before client with a brief verbal explanation. At times, a flash or interactive video is also made of these presentation drawings. Working drawings These are the most detailed and highly informative form of drawings which are done by Interior Designers when design decisions of the project are taken and they are mature enough to take the tangible form. An interior designer has to deal with many different kinds of working drawings for a project which is also mandatory as this is to be explained to the agencies. There are various different kinds of working drawings which are required to be delivered. This includes electrical, civil, floor, furniture, flooring, soffit (ceiling), plumbing and detailed set of drawings. This site also includes plans, elevations and sections to completely explain the work. Working drawings generally give more importance in the design process because the time for execution is generally half the time of designing. To save this time, all the details, even the basic once are shown in the working drawing so that agencies don’t have any questions regarding executing the design.

llus. 3(16)  Shop drawing of a wooden section. Also used in various other disciplines like mechanical designing.

Specialized drawings Shop drawings are the detailed drawings made strictly in scale 1:1. These drawings are useful when a complex detail is to be made on site and it is not possible to explain the drawings with just drawings or models. A full scaled set of drawings is required to be given at that time to the agencies. It is generally useful when a complex form needs to be translated on the site. Wall Section is another way of representing the complex

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

llus. 3(17)  Shop drawing of a wooden joinery

which is generally required to the agenicies like carpenters and fabricators


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details which are going to come to the wall. The whole section of all the stories of the structure is made with all the details happening on the wall is seen. This is generally useful for the agencies for easily executing the task. It is also useful for the Interior Designers to make a relation between the designs happening in two different stories. This kind of mode is only used when complex details like roof, parapet, floors, ceiling or any wall mounted furniture needs to be shown.

3.3. Three-dimensional Images llus. 3(18)  Fillipo Brunelleschi was the founder of perspective. He used this technique to view perspective of any image

llus. 3(19)  Fillipo Brunelleschi’s first detailed

sketch of the Church of Santo Spirito, Florence in 1428 A.D.

llus. 3(20)  Stepwise development of the sketch is required to be done for any interior Designer to evolve new design possibilities at every point.

Interior design consists of various different kinds of details in it. These details at times would not be related to each other. The scale, finish, size, its allocation in the interior environment completely changes from each other. These details are not always perceived in two dimensional drawings as all the details are not even seen in one kind of orthographic projection. Perceiving the third dimension in these drawings is a task of imagination and it is not always easy. When the image is shown in three dimensions, it becomes very easy to perceive the space which is not technically possible in two dimensional drawings.

Three-dimensional images create an impression of what it might be like to occupy or work in a space, and can be combined with other two-dimensional drawings to give a convincing overall impression of a scheme or project. It is one of the important mode of representation for all the Interior Designers these days as it is easy for clients to understand a three dimensional space rather than an orthographic projection. Three dimensional views are practiced by Interior Designers in two different ways. One is the scaled views in which the overall scenario of the interior space is visible in one view. This kind of view is known as an Isometric view. A second kind of view is not to scale a view, where a view is within the space and the whole ambience of the space is made to understand. This kind of three dimensional view is called a perspective view.

Perspective view

llus. 3(21)  Three dimensional views are also

created with help of Adobe PhotoShop. A hand drawn sketch is rendered using this medium.

Perspective, the visual system that attempts to represent 3 dimensional space on a flat surface, has been challenging artists for thousands of years.In very early times, most art was depicted with a flat picture plane. While this art was meaningful and symbolic, it was not very visually accurate. Some artists conducted careful observations of nature and even anatomical dissections to try to better understand the


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world around them. But it wasn’t until the early 15th Century that a Florentine architect and engineer named Filippo Brunelleschi developed a mathematical theory of perspective through a series of optical experiments(1) This shows that the invention of perspective was a boon to all the Architects and Interior Designers as it has helped a viewer to easily visualize the interior view of the space. Since then, perspective views have become handy to both Interior Designers and architects. It is the most handy and quick way of representing a design idea. Generally used by Interior Designers to understand the space and the design which he is proposing for the space. Perspective sketch is a useful tool to quickly communicate a realistic impression of an existing space or to suggest a design concept. Interior Designers generally use this method of representation at various stages but mostly used at the initial stage of the interior design project. When a design idea needs to be quickly explained to a client or fellow Interior Designers, sketch perspectives are done by a designer.

llus. 3(22)  Sectional Perspective of Yale

University by Architect Paul Rudolph in 1962. An effective tool for visualizing all the space together when their are more than two floors

Sectional perspective A section cut across with a view of the rest of the left out space is known as a sectional perspective. It is a combination of typical, conventional section and a perspective sketch. Used by Interior Designers mostly when a depth of the space is required to be understood with reference to the volume and the volumetric exploration done in the space by the Architect. Generally done in the refined version only because it is the combination of a scaled method of representation versus the non scaled method.

llus. 3(23)  Isometric view of an interior space

Virtual perspectives(software generated) A smartest way of creating finished perspectives is just by putting a camera and target. A perspective is generated on its own. A simplest way to create quick views of the interior space. Interior Designers have found it an efficient method of creating single line perspective on software and then sketching over the space for further exploration in design. It saves time of sketching the shell of the space. So that an interior designer can directly focus on putting forward their designs. These perspectives have a scope to incorporate materials, light, finishes and interior elements. That will be studied in detail in the next chapter.

llus. 3(24)  Axonometric view of an interior space

Axonometric views An axonometric drawing (which is also known as a plan oblique drawing) is produced from a plan drawing and is the easiest of the three-dimensional projections to draw. Axonometric drawings allow an overall aerial view of an

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

llus. 3(25)  A perspective view which reveals

all the different kind of services coming into the house. This kind of representation doesnt require any other techniques to explain the design to client


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object. The advantage an axonometric drawing provides to the designer is that it allows an understanding of both the plan and the building’s internal or external elevations.1

Isometric views Isometric drawings offer similar three-dimensional views to those of axonometric drawings. However, these drawings attempt to make the very technical representation of an axonometric view slightly more accessible and more of a perspective representation. 1

llus. 3(26)  Interior exploded views are helpful

in revealing all the details at a time. It demands all the details to be thought of at one go as all the details are seen.

In the professional interior design practice, there is not much of a difference between two because it is totally on the interior designer’s level of understanding that he would choose to use any one of them. This technique is useful for an interior designer as it covers almost all the techniques of representation in itself. A view of plan, elevation, section and interior details are covered in this mode of representation. Easy for a designer to relate to rest of the space and thus helps him create a same language of design throughout the space. Even for clients, the whole space is visualized in just one drawing. Easier and smarter way of representation when it comes to seeking approval from the client about the design at one go. They are generally software generated as it is easier to build the outer shell and then creating various views.

Exploded views Terminology majorly generated from the engineering field, this is a technique which is generally used by the engineers to show minutest detail of the machineries and other spare parts. Adopted by the designer, its another way of representing the interior space when a space needs to be visualized at various levels. Mostly done for interior elements like furnitures and accessories. Generally done when a complex detail is needed to be explained to an agency.

Spatial sequence A series of three-dimensional drawings can arrange a sense of looking around or through an image. Spatial sequences can be used to explain an important aspect of the design concept, such as a route through the building or the means of access and entry to it. 1

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filippo_Brunelleschi http://www.msichicago.org/scrapbook/ scrapbook_exhibits/reverspective/history.html (16) (17)


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3.4.

Modeling

Model allows a designer to understand a design three dimensionally as well as tangibly. Models communicate an idea in a very accessible way showing the aspects of scale, form and material. The model can be sub categorized into two different forms. •

Physical models

Virtual(software generated) models

Physical models Physical models allow an idea to be explored in greater depth, as certain elements of the project or their scale may not be understood until they are seen in the context of a model form. The first physical architectural model is recorded to be made in Renaissance period where it became a popular method of representation. This happened because people started realizing the importance of physical model making as it became very convenient for a designer to make a model and get the approval from the king(client) in that time. Just one technique of representation can work throughout the whole project. Antonio Gaudí for example, famously used models to help develop the complex structural shapes of Barcelona’s La Sagrada Familia cathedral. Conceptual physical models These models are made at an initial stage of a design process. These are mostly study models to understand the interior environment of the space. They are generally made out of any available materials around as they are not required to be finished. It becomes an important mode of communication between two or more Interior Designers to put forward their ideas. The models built in the interior design profession are quite different from that of any other discipline. The reason behind that is the amount of details undergone in the interior space is quite different and more. Conceptual interior models are mostly done at space planning level because making a complete physical conceptual model is time consuming. As a result, Interior Designers generally prefer to make models only on the certain part of the space or the elements of the space which requires a study in detail or sometimes a design problem of that particular element needs to be solved only after it is seen in three dimensions. For example, a model of the complex partition needs to be made individually to see how it will work in the space. Accessories and interior element models Interior Designers mostly prefer to make models of the elements because it is the interior details which make the space which needs to look upon sometimes. So the scaled models are made of that element depending on the size of

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

llus. 3(27)  Catenary model of Architect Antonio

Gaudi. He made scale models of the elements in the church upside down to examine the structural forces and those required to resist the forces. Mirrors were then used to reflect the building to the correct orientation to design the structure.


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llus. 3(28)  Examples of 3D physical model of Interiors. All the

details are manually made with finishing. The advantage of making 3D physical model is client gets an Idea of his interiors will look

llus. 3(29)  3, 4, 5 BHK schemes of the same builder. Examples

of Virtual(software generated) model of Interiors. All the details are equally visible on this 3D model. The advantage of using this model over physical model is the smallest scale of pattern of floor, curtain, etc. can be achieved which might sometimes be difficult to source out in the physical models


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the model. For example, a model of the lighting element designed would be in 1:1 scale versus a model of the 10 ft x 10 ft partition could be a 1:5 or 1:10 scale model. It is not always possible to understand a detail in orthographic projections, that is the reason why an interior designer adapts to physical models which he can twist, turn, rotate and see from all sides. By making such models and working with that at the very initial stage, a designer can crack all details very prior and can give the product for the mass production if required. Mock-ups Sometimes it is required to make a model in 1:1 scale so that details can be better recognized. For these reasons. These models are called Mock ups. Generally used by Interior Designers when a production of an individual unit like a cabinet, sofa, etc. is more in quantity. So before experimenting on a big scale and even bigger requirement of multiplying it, mock ups are made.The intention is often to produce a full-sized replica, using inexpensive materials in order to verify a design. Mock-ups are often used to determine the proportions of the piece, relating to various dimensions of the piece itself, or to fit the piece into a specific space or room. The ability to see how the design of the piece relates to the rest of the space is also an important factor in determining the size and design.(18) Rapid Prototyping This is the only method of generating a 3D physical model from software. This is not prominently used in India because of its affordability for an individual but is commonly used nowadays in the rest of the world. It makes the 3D modeling task even simpler as just a 3D model of software is required to be given to the CAD CAM modeler and a 3D model is generated on its own out of plaster of Paris. With the invention of such technique, it has become really convenient for Interior Designers to generate a physical model and easily communicate with the client. Mostly used to make smaller prototypes and models as it is still an expensive deal to make models from such mediums.

llus. 3(30)  Joinery details in wood. A small yet integral element for creating interior character. These details sometimes help creating interior environments

Virtual (software generated) models Commonly know as 3D modeling is very prominently used method of representation these days. Most commonly used software for generating this model is CAD(Computer-aided Design). It uses the two dimensional orthographic projections to create a three dimensional model. Originally developed in the 1960s for commercial application in the aerospace and electronic industries, CAD was further developed for desktop computer use during the 1980s. These models are generated using various softwares (discussed in the next discussion).

llus. 3(31)  Mockup of the seating arrangment.

This is generally practice when client is not able to visualize how much space will the element occupy in his space.

(18)

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mockup


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Conceptual Models Like physical models, Interior Designers prefer to make conceptual models on the softwares. The reason behind thinking or conceptualizing with such softwares is that a designer can easily put forward his thoughts. He can also explore through his concept by creating various options and hence deciding upon the final outcome in the software itself. For example, a designer would have a basic idea behind designing a chair. Using any such 3D modeling softwares, he can create various options and finalize the design with details on the software itself. Softwares like Google Sketchup and AutoCAD are used in creating conceptual models. One more reason behind its extensively increasing use is that a very refined 3D models are made on these softwares, so the options are even worth presenting before clients if wanting an approval or while finalizing a design. Rendered views

llus. 3(32)  Examples of the forms created

through Rapid prototyping. Certain complex forms are difficult to create physically. In such case, Rapid prototyping is used by designers.

A very refined form of a three dimensional model where all the interior design decisions are seen in the view itself. These decisions include material, light, color, texture, furniture, accessories, etc. Precisely, a finalized realistic image is what which is available at the end. These views are generally used to make finalized image i.e. it is used only when all the interior design decisions are taken. It is a technique of representation just used for production purpose. Mostly used by Interior Designers to get an approval of the design which a designer has proposed. It is majorly useful to Interior Designers these days because sometimes it is difficult for clients to visualize their space with any other technique of representation. So the designer has to show them the exact view of the space to make the client understand the design. This method of representation is mainly used before the project for achieving the project from the client or at the end of the project when an approval is expected or to make a presentation if a project is done at a corporate level. Fly through or Walk through Fly-through views are usually produced in a series and are generated from a three-dimensional CAD model. Each image in the series is joined together using editing software to create a film that simulates the viewer ‘flying’ through the interior environment. Fly-through presentations can create an impressive means to view a scheme and understand all its three-dimensional spaces. It is again a time consuming and expensive deal as 3D modeling of such kind is generally outsourced by the Interior Designers. That’s why Interior Designers use it only when the project’s scale is worth spending such money or when the client is insisting and ready to pay the expenses of the 3D models and walk through other than Interior designer’s design fees.


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llus. 3(33)  Series of 3D views of a Multi functional furniture. Keeping a single camera view, all the functions are shown so that it becomes easy to relate one function with another.

3.5. Layouts and Presentations The most integral part of presenting a design in an effective way to a client or audience is how the design is presented. In any kind of design discipline, layout and presentation form a critical part of the design process because the designer relies heavily on the successful representation of their ideas to convince the viewer of the possibility of their scheme. The architect needs to create graphically engaging images that are interesting, and describe the proposed scheme so well that the viewers can imagine themselves in his future space.

Difference between presentation and representation of design With this chapter, a clear question may arise that what can be the difference between Presentation and Representation. There is not much of difference between both the terminologies except time it is used in a Design process. Essentially, the presentation would be the display or the proposal of the idea and then representation would take that idea but replace it

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

http://wilcoxae.wordpress.com/2011/02/16/ presentation-vs-representation/ (20) http://www.juliakendell.com/Julia_Kendell/ Mood_Boards.html (19)


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with something else to prove the idea further. For example, considering a residential project, when all the design decisions are taken by the interior designer, it is presented in the form of a client presentation which helps client get the better idea about the space and the feel of the space.(19)

Layouts It is a very integral part of any design practice. All the techniques of representation done in the office need to be within a pre-defined layout for a better impact on the client. The mode of representation also needs to fall in the right kind of layout as the wrong layout can misguide an agency or a worker.

llus. 3(34)  Mood board examples which is

created for both Client and Interior Designers to understand the kind of ambience Interior Designer is visualising for the space. Images used in the mood board are just the reference images.

Interior designers mostly use International paper styles A4, A3, A2. Sizes like A1 and A0 are very rarely used because the scale interior designers deal with is generally a small scale as compared to that of an Architect or a Builder. Drawings nowadays are mostly made on CAD software which is then printed on these paper sizes. But choosing the right format for the right kind of representation becomes equally important. Larger formats like A2 and A1 are useful for presentation drawings and even for any larger scale interior orthographic drawings. The smaller A3 and A4 formats are quicker and cheaper to produce; these are mostly used for printing furniture detail drawings, perspective views or 3D models which are not to scale. Sometimes these formats are also used to print a smaller scale orthographic drawing if the amount of detail coming into the drawing is not more. Because, of the use of the right scale of the layout, Represented drawings can be properly put forward.

Mood Boards/material boards A mood board is a collection of images and swatches collated onto the card or foam board to illustrate either a conceptual idea or an accurate description of a design. Professional interior designers use mood boards as a visual tool to describe their ideas to clients.

llus. 3(35)  Material board examples which is

generally decided after mood board as mood board decides the ambience of the space and with the help of material board, it is possible to make such ambience possible.

Interior designers sometimes are carried away by the same language of materials and colours in an interior environment which unfortunately turns out to be a similar kind of ambience which is already done by some interior designer previously in his projects. To get out of that shell, interior designers generally make a mood board so that they can use various other materials and colors also which are non obvious. Also, after developing a concept and finalizing the space planning, a mood board is made by an interior designer to show the client so that he can compare and get to visualize the kind of ambience he is going to get at the end of the project.(20)


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Pre-project presentation A presentation which is generally made at the beginning of the project for client approval and achieving the project from the client, a presentation is prepared. These presentations consist of the previous projects done by the interior designer to make the client understand the taste and language with which he designs. An interior designer would also gather up some reference imageries which correspond to the project brought by the client. These presentations are generally prepared in Microsoft Office PowerPoint because these kind of presentations generally happens more than twice in a project and every time there can be minor changes in these presentations. With this presentation, a designer also gets to understand the client, his taste and knowledge about designing his house. Also he can judge whether a designer would be able to match up with the language or not and thus can decide whether to go for the project or not.

Post-project presentation A presentation which is generally created when the project is finished and a presentation are needed to be given to the client or audiences. Mostly prepared for public presentations like presentations in School, Architects and designer gatherings and competitions. Videos are generally made of such kind of presentations

Portfolio Group or set of projects which an interior designer has professionally completed goes into a form of portfolio into various categories like Residential, Commercial, Retail, etc. This is generally than used on their websites or even the used for making firm presentation which is required to be shown the clients or even for the public presentations.

2.1.

Scale

The Scale has nothing to do with representation if it is understood literally but it is a very important part of any design process. It is a measure of documenting or communicating a kind of representation method. It is important to select the right scale for putting forward any kind of design ideas because interior design has different scales of categories to deal with. Historically, architects have employed a range of scale systems. Classical Greek and Roman architecture, for example, used a modular system of measurement. In classical architecture, each module was the width of the column base, and this was used to determine the classical

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

http://www.toysperiod.com/blog/scale-models/ scale-models-through-the-ages/ (22) Slotkis, Susan. Foundation of Interior Design. USA: Fairchild Publications, 2012. (21)


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system of orders and their relative proportioning. Le Corbusier also used a modular system based on the proportions of the human body, which ensured that his architectural designs related to human scale.(21)

llus. 3(36)  Le Corbusier’s Modulor man. It

was developed as a visual bridge between two incompatible scales, the Imperial system and the Metric system. It is based on the height of an English man with his arm raised

llus. 3(37)  Graphical Scale is a means of

visually showing the scale of a map, nautical chart, engineering drawing, or architectural drawing.

When drawing to scale, the right scale system needs to be used in the appropriate context. Smaller or larger scale investigations will lend themselves better to different types of projects, for example, the scale of the representation done for a designed house would be very different from the representation of the scale of the furniture coming into the house. Representing to the scale is also mandatory to understand because while executing agencies need to The Scale has nothing to do with representation if it is understood literally but it is a very important part of any design process. It is a measure of documenting or communicating a kind of representation method. It is important to select the right scale for putting forward any kind of design ideas because interior design has different scales of categories to deal with. Historically, architects have employed a range of scale systems. Classical Greek and Roman architecture, for example, used a modular system of measurement. In classical architecture, each module was the width of the column base, and this was used to determine the classical system of orders and their relative proportioning. Le Corbusier also used a modular system based on the proportions of the human body, which ensured that his architectural designs related to human scale.(22) When drawing to scale, the right scale system needs to be used in the appropriate context. Smaller or larger scale investigations will lend themselves better to different types of projects, for example, the scale of the representation done for a designed house would be very different from the representation of the scale of the furniture coming into the house. Representing to the scale is also mandatory to understand because while executing agencies need to understand the design. They should not be misguided about the design which they need to execute on site.

Measuring

llus. 3(38)  Measurements of a room in a house

at Mandvi documented by DICRC, CEPT Uni. Very detailed measurements are taken on the site which makes it easy for an individual to draw a plan.

A Project always starts with measuring the site to check each and every corner of the site as there can be many mistakes done by agencies sometimes in building up the structure. Measuring an existing building also helps if a designer wants to renovate, extend or make some structural changes. It also helps a designer to relate and design according to the existing site conditions i.e. respond to floors, levels, doors, windows, etc. Measuring a site is also useful because the designer can interpret in his own terms what could have been the concept of the architect while building up the structure. He can then take a call of continuing with the same language or enter in with the contradicting concept of interior design.


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Interior Designers generally sketch out the whole plan of the site and then take the measurements. This is the ideal practice so that before starting design, the designer has complete command over the site considering what will be the kind of heights which are available to him, what are the heights of sill and lintel, what is the height of beams and slab, etc. A basic idea of space planning can also start from that point only which can make a designer’s task easier. Measurement systems are universally agreed or understood. Today we commonly use metric or imperial systems of measurement. The metric system uses millimeters (mm), centimeters (cm), meters (m) and kilometers (kms) as its basic units of measurement and the imperial system uses units of inches (in), feet (ft), yards (yd) and miles (mi). In India, the imperial system is working majorly as it is easy to understand for the agencies. The size of the space, height of the doors and windows, length of the sofas, etc. are generally measured in feet and inches while a groove left between the wall and door frame or a thickness of the hinge is measured in mm. The local terminology for the word is ‘Dora’ which means the thread thickness. 1 dora=1 mm.(23)

llus. 3(39)  A proportionatly sketched plan of the

same house is made for showing the allocation of the furniture and the space. Generally made for for counting the number of elements in the space.

llus. 3(40)  A bed drawing detail of the same

house at Mandvi. Each and every detail of leg is taken so that even a complex form can be drafted. Also by taking measurements in detail, a designer gets an idea as to how it was made in earlier times. Even the old effective construction techiques are discovered by the designer

Farrelly, Lorraine. Basic Architecture: Architectural Representation. SA: AVA publishing, 2008 (23)

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process


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Designing softwares majorly used by an interior designer Autodesk AutoCAD It is the most important software which is used by all the Interior Designers these days because all the two dimensional orthographic drawings are done with this software. It saves time of manual drafting and with the help of various commands; a drawing comes up within no time. It is the most useful and effective medium to represent orthographic projections. Majorly used for the production of the drawings while some designer can think with the help of this software. AutoCAD also helps in making 3D models which are mostly done for the production for the interior environment, elements and planning.(24) Google Sketchup A software with a simple and user friendly interface. A very recent modeling software which is vector based but now it is majorly used by all the interior designers for both visualization, development, production and presentation of design. Moreover, this is a freeware, so all the interior designers can use it without facing any difficulties. This is one of the software due to which design process highly accelerated and projects started ending soon. That helped interior designers to take up multiple projects.(25) Adobe PhotoShop This software from Adobe is now nearly synonymous with “digital image editing” and a standard requirement in most design job descriptions. In allowing us to manipulate digital images to our hearts’ desire. Photoshop has completely changed how images are approached and treated for printing. Colours can be altered and matched, images edited, combined and merged.(26) CorelDRAW

Dawson, Susan. Architects Working Details (The Architects Journal). London: Emap Construct, 2004 (25) Chopra, Aidan. Google SketchUp for dummies. New York: Whiley Publications Inc., 2009. (26) http://helpx.adobe.com/photoshop/kb/64-bit-osbenefits-limitations.html (27) http://www.ehow.com/info_8226145_usescoreldraw.html (24)

CorelDRAW offers many practical applications and features to its users. This software program is designed to assist with vector graphic editing. This flexible design application can help you create complex drawings with multiple layers and details. AutoCAD is another popular software program that is commonly used by interior designers. While using CorelDRAW, an interior designer is able to work with and make changes to import AutoCAD design drawings.(27)


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3Ds Max Autodesk 3ds Max, formerly 3D Studio Max, is 3D computer graphics software for making 3D animations, models, and images from Autodesk. It is an efficient software for creating photo realistic views. These views are majorly made for the clients to understand the design or for competition, exhibition or publication purpose. This is an efficient tool when all the design decisions need to be shown together. But it doesn’t allow a designer to visualize and develop through this software as it is more of production software.

llus. 3(41)  Corel Draw working window. Majorly used for rendering Orthographic projects and exploring multiple options

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process


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llus. 3(42)  AutoCAD working window. Highly

used software creating 2D projections and 3D virtual models. Most effective tool of representing anll different kind of Methods

llus. 3(43)  Google Sketchup working window.

Visualising the space in three dimensions is most convenient with this software. Conceptulizing the possibilites for the space is the most preffered use of this software

llus. 3(44)  Adobe PhotoShop working window. Rendering the 2D projections becomes very easy on this software. Majorly used to bring the visualized ambience in Orthographic projections

llus. 3(45)  3Ds Max working window. Used to

make realistic photo images. Highly used in the firms these days in option of 3D physical modelling and detailed sketching.


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Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process


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4

Chapter

The Interior Design Process


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3. The Design Process Interior design is a fascinating as well as an interesting profession in itself. There are no boundaries while designing anything and that is how design thinking happens. But in the field of interior design, designing can only be enjoyed if the non-bounded dreams become real. Design needs to take a tangible form for it to be an experience for self and for others. For making it tangible, an interior designer needs to go through various stages where a design is developed and where it takes a gradual tangible form. These stages are known as a design process, a process through which a design is refined, polished and grounded towards its being(28) As interior designing profession is looked at from only representation techniques point of view in this study, it is divided into 7 different design process stages which an interior designer or for that instance any design discipline can use it for taking forward their design project. These stages are as follows. 1. Inspiration 2.

Identification

3. Conceptualization 4. Exploration 5. Modeling 6. Communication 7. Production These stages cover all the aspects of interior designing which from a brief to build (i.e. From a design project received by an interior designer to the project being executed) In the below given chapters, basic questions will be asked to each and every stage which can lead to conclusion suggesting the importance of each and every stage of the design process.

llus. 4(1)  Inspiration sketch which was then

transformed to a physical model by Architect Le

Aspelund, Karl. The Design process. New York: Fairchild books, 2010 (24)

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4.1.

INSPIRATION

The word itself suggests the meaning of being inspired from the surroundings. A designer always needs to be surrounded by positive energy and needs to keep his eyes and mind open for any kind of inspiration available whether be it for the current or the upcoming projects. An Interior designer needs something which drives his creativity. Even the most mundane, practical designing requires an energetic attitude. Inspiration can take countless guises and exist in many places. An interior designer may be inspired from a poet’s poetry, artist’s painting or a poet’s poem. No matter what form it takes, inspiration is an energy that drives people to be creative and infuses their creations to life.

llus. 4(2)  Inspiration sketch of historical

building is a good practice done by designers to understand all the intricate details which were thought at that time. This details are otherwise not noticed just by looking

Since past, designers of all the disciplines have got inspiration for designing from their surroundings. From Indian temples which were inspired from literal things like a chariot, a lotus or even from sun to modern architects like Frank Lloyd Wright considered the inspiration available from waterfall while designing Falling water. Inspiration can be literal or non-literal, tangible or non-tangible, from thoughts, from actions, from words, etc. It totally depends on what an interior designer wants to get inspired from depending both on his needs and his curiosity for learning about it. What is required after getting inspired is how to translate that inspiration and communicate it to himself and to the audience i.e. how to represent that inspiration. Types of representation which an interior designer can use for representing his ideas are as follows: 1. Sketch 2.

3D images

3. Modeling 4.

Layout and presentation

Sketch

llus. 4(3)  Inspiration sketch which was made out of intuitions of the Architect Nendo.

Most effective and convenient way of representing for inspiration as a stage of the design process because inspirations are never a planned action which needs a refined method of production. It is the simplest and the easiest method of communication as an interior designer just need to put down the set of ideas which he is thinking about. Also, sketching out those ideas make it easy to record the initial ideas which he might need at various other stages of the design process. Even looking at the past, this method has been the most obvious for any kind of individuals to translate his ideas. For example, the cave paintings where the literal inspirations from the animals and the activities which they used to do every day were used for decorating their caves.


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3D images A quick and handy use of softwares can also help an interior designer to quickly translate the inspiration which he got available from his surroundings. The advantage of using this method of representation is that the data recorded at that time will be saved in the form of soft copy for a long time. With the use of 3D images, inspiration can even move towards literal translations quickly and projects start finishing quickly. But few designers find it binding when software skills are used over hand skills. Thus ideas remain confined till the limit what software allows and does not leave a room for development. Yet again, it depends on the kind of flexibility which interior designers have with the technique of representation. Knowledge of various 3D imaging softwares can also help an interior designer for representing their ideas in the way they want.

llus. 4(4)  Frank Gehry’s Gehry Tower, An ideal

example for how inspiration was literally translated into a built form.

Modeling Modeling in itself is a design process which interior designers specifically use because few details are difficult to study even in the sketches and the orthographic projections. For this particular process of design, models are rarely used in interior designing because it gives a refined form of space or any interior element which a designer would not want at this stage of interior designing. Few inspirations can also be communicated through models which can inspire the interior designer throughout his project.

Layout and presentation Inspiration can take any form as discussed above completely depending on the kind of inspiration he got from his surroundings. An interior designer will try to document that inspiration for his further reference in the form of a photograph, scan, photocopy, etc. i.e. he will try to digitize that inspiration so that he can use it for their further reference. In this case, interior designers practice this method of representation where he uses to create a PowerPoint presentation with his thought written beside as a note which he thought about when he got inspired. This generally is a very good practice because a phase in a project can come when an interior designer might get confused with design. At this time he can go through his presentation and get his mind on right track. Factors which lead to use of these representation methods for inspiration • Inspiration is very important stage of the whole design process as it gives a start to any project and at the same time it helps drive through the project smoothly. •

Stronger the inspiration derived for the project, better

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

llus. 4(5)  Colour inspiration which is mostly

useful in interiors. Inspiration can also be collected from the surroundings. Making a board of inspiration is good practice to do by interior designers.


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and easier the later stages of the design process. • Due to this reason, the inspiration needs to be properly communicated and represented to self. • Yet it needs to be vague as a designer would not want to open all the scopes of design at the same time. • These inspirations are mostly not shown to clients because the interior designer has left scope to design and develop something in it which he would not want to show to clients always. • Sketching is the most preferred technique of representation used by interior designers in this stage as it is the most raw and continuing form of representation from where any other designers can take off towards the project. A nice sketch of the inspiration can be the best approach towards designing.

llus. 4(6)  Inspiration from Ammonite shell cross section.

Importance of Inspiration as a Design process stage in the interior design discipline • Unlike other design disciplines, Interior designers have various design responsibilities which they needs to deal while finishing a single project. These responsibilities include furniture, lighting, plumbing, civil changes, color, flooring, soft furnishing, etc. These all responsibilities need to be strictly dealt with in the project. At the same time, the design language which a designer intends to follow in the space also needs to be satisfied. A good design inspiration helps an interior designer to maintain the language. • Also in interior design, same kind of inspiration can have multiple faces, for example, if an interior designer is inspired by the landscape of the space then at times he also gets inspired from the kind of colour, elements, products, texture, etc. which are available in that particular landscape.

4.2.

llus. 4(7)  A sketchbook page where the design problems and solutions are identified.

IDENTIFICATION

Once the project is finalized, an interior designer puts his mind towards setting himself free towards thinking in whatever directions he wishes to which was studied in the previous chapter in detail. At the end of this thinking process, an interior designer is left with a palette of several ideas of different kinds. Some can be irrelevant while some can be really useful which can be taken further in designing the interiors. The single idea is then needed to be finalized


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depending on the various factors which are more practical because an interior designer needs to take a standpoint in his design. This process of identifying is known as identification. An interior designer knows that when he has to deal with the project, he has to identify various things which if done at this stage makes an interior designer’s task easy in the rest of the project.

Constraints This is the first factor which is required to be taken care of before finalizing the design. • Client constraints: One of the major constraints which is before an interior designer are client constraints. Clients always have their constraints depending on various factors like money, requirements, space and choice constraints which a designer has to always keep in mind. This is important because it is the end user which is going to use the space for his purpose and understanding the client constraints and still designing what an interior designer thinks is the biggest challenge.

llus. 4(8)  Bubble Diagram. One of the effective way of representing the identified problems, constraints, etc. It helps designer to relate with other problem at the same time. Designers can manage the bubble diagram in the way they require or the project demands.

llus. 4(9)  Slides of lecture conducted by Prof.

M.P. Ranjan. Various different techniques digitally done which can be useful to designer in explaining or understanding the problems, constraints and get to the solution.

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process


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• Designers constraints: Designers also have their own constraints which he always keeps in mind while designing. A designer keeps in mind the level of inclination required in the project depending on the workload of the rest of the project running in the office. He also keeps in mind the resources which he has for working on the design of the project. These resources include number of employees working in the office, the level of detail up to which an employee can give to the project.

Requirements Clients have their requirements for designing their space which an interior designer needs to follow strictly as the space is going to be designed for the client to use. Due to this factor, many inspirational ideas narrow down to a smaller set of ideas.

Budget One of the most important factors which narrows down the design further more. A big idea can only be translated into tangible work if a client is willing to pay for it. That is a big challenge for an interior designer to design and that too on a particular budget.

Sources Sources can be in various forms of material to man power. The availability of sources is also an important factor which leads an interior designer to narrow down his design. These are factors which an interior designer keeps in mind while designing further. For that an interior designer needs a thorough understanding of the constraints so that he can easily keep a record of what is required and what not is required to be done apart from his personal choices. There are no specific kinds of representation which an interior designer can use for representing this design process as this stage is more verbal and textual rather than visual. An interior designer majorly needs to note down the client’s requirements in the initial meetings which is generally done through voice recording or taking notes. A practice generally happens where an interior designer generally takes notes in his diary. He would also make sketches along with these notes which are the initial ideas which he would have got while taking notes. This is a good practice because an interior designer would generally prefer the initial set of ideas for taking the design further. The reason behind doing that is that the interior designer has been recently briefed about the requirements and he would start building up the image of the space in his mind. He would like to translate these images at


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the same time which he does at this stage while writing down the text.

Factors which lead to use of representation methods for identification • An interior designer always wants that he translates all his ideas into any mode of representation whether it is a sketch, an orthographic drawing or a model. This is because at this stage an interior designer starts getting his requirements clear. He starts identifying the requirements of the project which is important to be communicated at the same time. • The representation techniques used are generally quick at this stage because the project requirement filters the inspirational ideas achieved in the previous stage.

Problems which can be probably faced due to the absence of this Design process.

llus. 4(10)  Conceptual sketch from Steven Hall.

The sketch suggests the kind of space Architect is looking forward to. The design is not a final design and it is left with a scope of development

• If the above given factors are not properly identified, An interior designer might confuse himself with a design and requirements of clients which may lead to spoiling the project or even spoiling relations with clients. • Also, if the stage of identification is not properly represented than even the co-designers or employees can misunderstand design which can lead up to working on a wrong set of instructions and hence a design language can be lost. • These can even lead to material wastage on site which a client would not allow it to be happening. llus. 4(11)  Conceptual sketch of the plan. Sketch

4.3.

CONCEPTUALIZATION

As studied in previous stages, inspiration was a stage which can even happen if the project is not on hand as it was the stage which helps an interior designer to do a good mental exercise about the design. This stage is nowhere near to any practical approach towards design but can strongly help developing a design. In the stage of identification, an interior designer identifies all what is required to be done in the project with the kind of resources he has for designing. A concept means ‘an abstract general conception’ or ‘a notion’. It is an idea which an individual has but not necessarily all the people around have that same idea. In the language of design, a concept is a vision about the project which an interior designer has and which he conveys to the audience around

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

is still at rough stage where designer is thinking of keeping skew walls


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him(1). A concept is the most important aspect of any interior design project as it is the only factor which can make an interior design project different apart from the requirements which a client has for his space.

Importance of conceptualization in the design process • Every interior designer wants that his design is sustainable as well as aesthetically beautiful. Stronger the concept for designing, better and different the design. • A good and strong concept can help drive the project smoothly because concept is a big idea which an interior designer proposes which can help him take various design decisions throughout the project. The points above prove that conceptualization requires strong representation as it is not a regular idea which everyone follows or witnesses often. Thus it needs to be explained to the audience in a very simple yet powerful way so that it doesn’t take time for them to understand yet can properly understand the new idea. Concepts can be representation of any kind of mode as it totally depends on the project and clients choice of use of the technique. Types of representation which an interior designer can use for representing his ideas are as follows: 1. Sketch 2.

Orthographic projections

3.

3D images

4. Modeling

Sketch

llus. 4(12)  Cconceptual sections where in

both the cases light is studied but using different methods of representation.

A conceptual sketch is the first preference of any interior designer to use as a technique of representation. These kind of sketches are generally done by an interior designer so that he can easily communicate between the design employees. Few detailed sketches are also shown and discussed with the clients. Conceptual sketches are either made by an interior designer when he has his personal choice of using that technique or when a complicated form needs to be worked out. Architects and interior designers have been using these techniques extensively for years because this is the easiest and user friendly way of communicating ideas.


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Orthographic projections Conceptual projections are generally less used because it creates a refined form of design which an interior designer still does not want at this stage. Still few interior designers use this technique to explain their concept because either he might be dealing with geometry or he would be dealing with linear forms whose scale, proportions can only be verified if they are tested through conceptual projections. Advantages of using conceptual projections are that a few design decisions can be taken at the same time which can be easily digitize for further execution. This makes the design process quick and project can be executed quickly but majorly it is practiced by interior designers who can visualize at the same time when he is drafting which is not the case with all the other designers.

llus. 4(13)  Conceptual sketch of Municipal

Services Building, Philadelphia, 1965 by Architect Vincent Kling.

3D images Conceptual three dimensional images or shortly known as conceptual 3Ds are also an effective way of conceptualizing a bigger picture of the project. It can be one image or set of images to explain the project depending on the kind of concept and project. With the invention of various 3D imaging softwares, it has become really easy these days to imagine or thinking with the softwares. When an interior designer is convenient with the software he is using, he can create desired forms and outcomes which he can imagine, which is not always possible with sketching as at times it limits the use of pen and pencil. But, a thorough understanding of softwares is required because it can also limit the mind. For example, insufficient knowledge of softwares can also lead to a thinking which is confined within walls. Even the conceptual 3D sketches are the efficient way of conceptualizing for a project as it doesn’t bind an interior designer with the knowledge of software skills.

Modeling The technique of making conceptual models is majorly used by architects as they have to imagine a space as the whole. It becomes an interesting approach for architects to give a push start to a project through conceptual models. While in interior designing, many more details are to be dealt with to make an interior space efficient and look good. Because of that reason, conceptualizing an interior space generally doesn’t happen with the help of models. But an interior designer is generally specializing in various other disciplines like furniture, graphic, product designing, etc these days so that he can create his own interior environment without the help of the rest. For that, an interior designer at times prefers a model for smaller objects like furniture and products which contributes in building up the interior ambience. At times, the

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

llus. 4(14)  Proposal of ‘La Sala Della Balla’

as Auditorium and conference room by studio architetti BBPR, Milan.

llus. 4(15)  Christ college, Cambridge, England by Casson, Conder and Partners architects.

llus. 4(16)  House conceptual sketch in Louisana by Architect Felix Augenfield.


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readily available furniture or product doesn’t suit the desired interior language of the designer, so he would propose a conceptual model of that product which is easier to manage and better to brainstorm.

Factors which lead to use of representation methods for conceptualization llus. 4(17)  Conceptual model of the interior

where space planning decisions are visible but still their is scope of designing left out in terms of colours and finishes.

• A designer has always tried to create new things which apart from being different from others are efficient. To translate these concepts and make it reach to the audience, representation techniques are required. • Using a right technique for conceptualizing is very important as it is the start point from where ideas of interior designer take a flight. • Also these ideas are necessarily required to reach the audience or even the client so it also needs to be equally refined • This stage of interior design always demands a rigorous brainstorming. This brainstorming can happen individually or in groups. The ideas translated by an individual designer should be communicable enough to rest of the team so that they can work further on that idea. • Agencies as such don’t require to understand a concept for executing a project but if explained to an agency skilled person, it can help the execution process go smoother. He would take care of a few of the interior details which otherwise require an instruction of the interior designer to be executed.

Problems which can be probably faced due to the absence of these Design processes • A concept is something which defines a language of design in the space. It binds all the interior elements together to create a singular ambience of the space. In the absence of a concept, an interior space might look beautiful but it cannot give the essence of the space. • Even the proper representation of a concept is equally important. There are various chances that fellow designers can be misguided with the kind of concept which the senior designer has thought about.

llus. 4(18)  Sketchbooks is the most handy

medium which is used by interior designers to explore the ideas.


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4.4.

EXPLORATION

As studied in the previous chapter, a strong concept can lead an interior designer throughout the project as well as can come up with different as well as efficient design ideas. The next stage for developing a concept is exploring those concepts and coming up with tangible solutions. A concept for a design contains many unexplored possibilities. An interior designer is always exploring these unexplored possibilities no matter what is the outcome. At this point, the true representation skills of interior designers are tested at this stage because all the major design decisions are taken at this stage. An interior designer can explore the ideas to his best at this stage which are both presentable and decisive.

llus. 4(19)  Exploration elevation of a kids room.

Options were explored on the Corel Draw software by the Interior Designer Shailesh Manke, D’Frame design

This is the stage where an interior designer’s idea can be taken forward by any other interior designer in the team as the concept is required to be explored to come up with a final outcome. The stage of exploration allows a designer to question the viability of the concept by testing the imagined elements involved against reality. This process is generally taken forward with various different modes of representation which examines the effects of bringing the ideas into the world. It becomes very important of using the right tool for representing exploration from a concept. Types of representation which an interior designer can use for representing his ideas are as follows:

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

llus. 4(20)(right)  Space planning options are

explored on the plan manually by the interior designers. This practice is generally done by keeping a tracing paper on the original plan and creating options


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1. Sketch 2.

Orthographic projections

3.

3D images

4. Modeling 5.

Layout and presentation

Sketch As seen in earlier stages, sketching is again a very effective and handy technique of representation. Interior designers if choose this method of representation than he would make a quick set of sketches at the same time which make him not lose the link of designing. An exploration sketch is done on a single page so that he can relate to all the option which he has done on a single page. This practice generally helps an interior designer to easily come up to the final outcome. Exploration sketches are also made on the tracing paper layer after layer so that the final layer will have the final outcome or at least the hint to reach towards the final outcome. An interior designer will always maintain a file, folder or a diary of all his sketches which allows him to refer all those sketches anytime he wants even for his upcoming projects. Most of the exploration sketches are kept up to the interior designers because they are sometimes not worth accessing for the clients. Exploration sketches are also required to be made when some quick decisions are required to be made before the agency or the client regarding an element or a space. In such cases, designers have developed their soft skills so that he can easily sketch out almost fair results before the client.


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Orthographic projections At times, using computer-aided software and exploring few geometrical options becomes easier for an interior designer to work further. For example, if a stool needs to be explored keeping the stool legs constant, then stool legs can simply be copied several times on the software and then the seat and the back rest can be changed keeping in mind the design language of the space. These make work easier as an interior designer would save a lot of time. With CAD softwares, the designer can interpret the vision with much more clarity than before for the benefit of everyone involved in the project. Considering a fact that a sketched exploration would still be left with possibilities as it is still a raw form of interpretation, which is at times beneficiary but also dangerous as fixing the same old concept several times confuses the design and it is time consuming. At the same time, CAD explorations can get the clarity of designing quickly as decided elements of design just need to carry forward to designing till the whole element gets a complete clarity. Majorly used to explore the smaller elements like furniture or other interior elements.

llus. 4(21)  Exploration sketches for developing a swing. All the sketches are done meaningfully smaller and together so that development of design is stepwise and designer is continously aware about the change.

3D images Exploring design through sketching various three dimensional images is the most difficult task these days as an interior designer is never served with more time for doing that. 3D images are thus explored through CAD. The advantage of using this technique of representation for exploration is that all the decisions taken in the third dimension can be explored and related to the other two dimensions. Sketching and CAD are also merged together by various designers by creating an interior space in CAD and then exploring the options with the help of sketching over it on tracing. When an interior ambience is required to explore, 3D images are explored using CAD softwares. Explorations like colours, materials, textures, space planning, lighting, etc can be explored.

llus. 4(22)  Exploration of the furniture but

possibilities are explored with the help of software Google sketchup. Exploring through software at times becomes convenient as development of the design becomes easier.

Modeling Few details are complex which needs to be explored by looking through different perspectives for the better understand of that element. Models are generally explored at that time when even the 3D images or sketches won’t be sufficient for the better options. Generally practiced by interior designers to explore a complex form and still visualize it by feeling it.

Layout and presentations The kind of presentations made for the clients or for company identity also needs an evolution as and when the company develops and more projects are executed. Even the options for how making it better are explored by the interior designers

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

llus. 4(23)  Exploration of the furniture with

software 3Ds Max. Advantage of exploring with software is all the details like colour, finish and material are properly reflected. Thus, all the exploratory ideas are refined.


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i.e. how to showcase the executed work properly and beautifully before the audiences. For an individual project, even the mood boards require a set of exploration which is generally done in groups so that a group discussion can happen on how the ambience of the space can be built with the use of certain materials and colours.

Factors which lead to use of representation methods for Exploration • Each concept has immense potential of converting into an idea which can be executed on site. But a concept is an unseen idea which needs to be explored to make it visible to rest of the audience. • There are various techniques of exploring this concept. It is just required to choose the right method of exploring those possibilities so that an idea can be communicated in a better way. • A sketch is generally explored throughout at any point of this design process stage because it is the most effective way of communicating the possibilities. Also it is the most user-friendly way of translating the concept into ideas.

llus. 4(24)  Exploration of the foyer area with

physical model. Elevation is printed on the paper and the model of the same paper is made. This saves time of the Designer and client gets the complete idea of the space.

• A sketch is then either translated to a CAD image or model for further exploration if required because the explored ideas needs a refinement before execution. It also requires an approval from the client and fellow designers so that no problems technical or aesthetical problems are faced while executing the idea.

Problems which can be probably faced due to the absence of this Design process. • Unexplored ideas can leave the concept left half way which can even lead to finally copying some else’s design as project requirements are mandatory and is required to be finished on time as explained in identification. • The client might not get convinced if he is not able to see enough exploration done which suites his choice of design which can finally lead to a false impression of the firm and the designer. • If the explored ideas are not represented properly, the client might not understand the design which can lead to factors like lagging of time and project execution dates, project not getting executed as imagined or even loosing the project.


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• Also, an interior designer might loose connect with the project if the concept exploration stage is taken lightly which can also lead to the factors mentioned above. Skills of representing the exploration make an interior designer’s task easy for further stages.

4.5.

MODELING

Since ages, models have been the most efficient and easily understandable mode of representation. The models were also known as the most ancient technique of representation used in architecture. 3D physical models where the most important tool of representation to the higher authorities and clients in those times. Modeling is considered a different design process stage in this study because it is the most user friendly mode of representation since ages as it is the convenient form to explain the clients the design and a client would understand the design even without any kind of narratives from the designers. Interior designers generally try to give equal importance to models in all their projects. At this stage, not just models are made, it is the point from where the explorations take shape to final outcomes. Modeling nowadays can be categorized into two different kinds •

Physical model

Virtual/3D model

llus. 4(25)  Modular interior model by Le

Corbusier of a conference building. Model was made in such a way that it can be inserted in any floor.

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Physical modeling The oldest technique of communicating the idea is physical models. As mentioned above, models have helped architects to create beautiful yet sustainable buildings and spaces. A drawing has the ability to be modified instantly and spontaneously. But, a drawing llus. 4(26)  Physical cross sectional model of a Cathedral by Charles Rennie Mackintosh.

llus. 4(27)  Basic model of a house with plan

printed on the floor. This practice makes it easy for when due to time constraints or any such reasons the complete model is not made.

Only deals with lines as a graphic element, which lack a volumetric sense because of the flatness and abstractness of the quality. It is difficult to visualize the space in the limited number of drawings that one can produce. Even though a model does not have the ability to be modified instantly and spontaneously once it Is finished, a model has the ability to transform immediately of the ideas of the concept. An option given here is, instead of producing many drawings to achieve better understanding of the space, one can use the effort to build one finish model that shows the best understanding of the space. Especially, in architecture and interior design reality, people will use the design to build a three dimensional form from it. By building the physical model of the proposed design, it becomes the nearest visible media that people can use, see, and understand for the proposed solution made by its designers. Interior physical models are generally made by interior designers when they have to show just a part of the space or singular elements of the space like furniture. These are because showing the complete ambience of the space through physical models is a difficult yet time consuming task. At the same time, it is not a changes friendly or exploration friendly affair because it might loose its character after exploring. Also scale is the major factor which can misguide a client or even an interior designer while designing. For example, if a space model is made at 1:20 scale, even the scale of the curtain patterns needs to be lowered down to that scale so as to get the perfect understanding of the space.

Virtual/3D modeling

llus. 4(28)  Detail virtual model of the roof top of the house with the details written on the side.

An interior space has an immense amount of details. All these details gather up to make a good living interior. These details majorly include flooring, furniture, wall treatments, lighting, texture. As discussed in the previous topic, it is practically not possible for any interior designers make a model which shows all these details. In such conditions, virtual/3D models are used to show all the details. An individual can create look alike images of the interiors as if photographed after execution. With this both client and interior designers get the feel of the space much before the design is even executed. Use of virtual models even leaves a scope of exploring ideas and changing the decisions if the final outcome is not convincing. Softwares like AutoCAD, 3Ds Max, Google Sketchup, Rhino are used to make detailed virtual models of the space.


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llus. 4(29)  All the

images shown here are rendered with 3Ds Max rendering software. It is the nowadays most used method of representation when presentation needs to be shown to the client. It can give a photorealistic effect which make designers task easier to explain the design

Details ‘God lies in the details’

- Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

The most crucial part of any interior design lies in its details. From a joinery detail to the seat height, details play a major role in making the space look aesthetically beautiful and at the same time making the space workable. Modeling generally relates to details in the field of interior design because as discussed above modeling is the most important stage in finalizing upon the design and introducing details of the final design is the most required and best way to make a design both work and look. Physical models of these details are generally made by the interior designers which are called the prototypes.

Fusing the techniques This stage also being a technique of representation, interior designers try to merge the rest of the techniques of representation with this technique to come up with bold

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results. There can be various permutations and combinations depending on the creativity and skills of the interior designers and the demand of the design which is required to be represented.

Factors which lead to use of representation methods for Modeling • As discussed above, interior designers might need to fuse various techniques together to create unusual results.

llus. 4(30)  This image is rendered in PhotoShop. Methods are nowadays also fused together to create results. The virtual 3D model is created in any CAD software and the rendering is done in PhotoShop. It is difficult to create photo realistic images but one can quickly create a conceptual rendering image

• This is majorly required to be done because of the clients understandings, sometimes it might happen that the client would not be able to visualize the design even after the model is constructed. He would like to see various other details in that model which completes his loop of understanding the ambience of the space. • Sometimes, few complicated concepts or even the interior space requires an added understanding through other modes of representation.

Problems which can be probably faced due to the absence of this Design process • Designs can be equally understood from the representation techniques mentioned before but model is the most effective and convenient way of conveying the design to the clients. But sometimes lack client’s understanding can misguide him for the design.

llus. 4(31)  Composition of Orthographic

projection, 3D image and modeling can be seen over here.

• Few details which an interior designer has proposed which is not commonly available in the market needs to be made by the designer himself or get it made by continuously inspecting the detail when it is made. If this is not taken care of, then a worker can create problems in making that detail which can lead to even failure of the design.

4.6.

COMMUNICATION

When the designs are ready with all the execution details and models, it requires both approval and appraisal in various forms from the audiences. Communication is the key issue throughout the whole design process. Presentations and discussions happened from the very beginning of the project stage at the time of inspiration. Presenting communication as the separate stage should in no way be taken to mean that it is only important at this stage of the process. It is shown at this stage because at this stage an interior designer is ready to present his ideas in a very finished stage. Even if the concepts


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and its execution is extraordinary, an interior designer’s job is still incomplete without properly communicating it to the audience. An interior designer needs to carefully decide which mode of representation to use for communicating the idea. An interior designer’s responsibility is to clearly communicate the idea to the audience. Which means ideas need to be crisp, clear, to the point and explained in simple language so that even a layman (non-designer) can understand the idea. An interior designer majorly needs to communicate to three different types of audiences at this stage. •

Clients

For competitions

For public presentations

Clients The most important person who drives the project is the client of the project. He is the one who is paying for design to come up on the site. He would always want that he is aware about each and every stage of design which the interior designer is dealing with and would like to make necessary corrections if required. Thus the communication which is made for clients is majorly issue related and not the whole presentation of the project is explained. For example, if the space planning options are currently discussing, then an interior designer will just come up with various space planning options before the client. A client understands the simplest technique of representation yet communicable. Communication for clients can happen with any mode of representation like a PowerPoint presentation, printouts or sketches.

For competitions and publications An interior designer would always wish to showcase their designs to a larger group of people. For that he needs to communicate the design in such a way that the whole understanding of the design is understood and that too precisely without adding additional information. This kind of communication generally happens at the end of the project completion and even after the execution so that an interior designer can compare his thoughts and outcomes side by side. In competitions, generally a panel of experience designers is placed. Due to that reason, the concept of the project should strongly be communicated because they are equally interested in judging the idea and the sustainability of the design. While for publications, the final outcome of the design is stressed upon more as the reader would be interested in how the design looks aesthetically rather than how it was developed.

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llus. 4(32)  This kind of presentation is mostly made when it is required to be shown in public. Note that all the methods of representation are used in this presentation. SLIDE 7

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llus. 4(33) PowerPoint Presentation made for the client by Architect Errol Reubens from Errol Reubens Associate, Ahmedabad. This is the project of a Bamboo store in Ahmedabad and this presentation was made for the clients at the conceptualization stage of the project. Bamboo being the major thing in the project, products, accessories and details where explored with bamboo itself.

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For public presentations These kind of presentations is mostly done when interior designers are especially called for putting forward their work to various audiences which mostly consists of fellow interior designers and students. At this point an interior designer would want his work to be shown to others for the teaching purpose for the junior designers. As a result more emphasis is given on the concept and at the same time the presentation is visually appealing so that it creates and leaves an impression of that designer on others.

Narratives The most effective mode of representation of ideas which is not done visually but through words. A design is still incomplete if it is not conveyed to the audience properly with the concept getting revealed even if the design and the presentation speaks by itself. Choosing of right words and fantasizing the interior ambience through is an art in itself to be learnt. A strategy which is must for any interior designers to explain and sell his design. The most efficient way of verbal communication to the people. The whole image of the interior scenario needs to be clear in the mind of people even if the design is not represented visually. There are almost all techniques of representation are used in communicating ideas. The only condition is any technique used needs to be presentable and refined so that even a layman gets an idea of how the design will look like at the end. The prominent ways of presenting the ideas are through PowerPoint presentations, Adobe Flash, Windows movie maker and large scale printouts if the projects needs to be showcased in a comparatively smaller non digital platform.

Problems which can be probably faced due to the absence of this Design process • This is the most crucial stage of the design process when problems phase comes into consideration. This is because howsoever better the idea, if it is not conveyed to the audience, it is of no use. • The designs must be presented clearly. If there is anything unclear about the message, the reception will be likewise unclear and the audience can get confused. Which can turn into a bad impression of the interior designer and can also ruin the career. • Even if the idea doesn’t go up to the client while communicating, he might get confused about both design and the work efficiency of interior designer’s designing skill.


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This can also lead up to loosing the project. • A big idea even if not visually communicated properly can be rejected by the client even if an interior designer is confident about his designs which in turn gives non desirable results.

4.7.

PRODUCTION

The last and the final stage when all the design decisions which are taken needs to be sent to the respective agencies for its execution. At this stage there is a crucial role of ‘leader’ played by an interior designer for executing the designs which need to be delivered as the designer is desiring to be. An interior designer should know how to make the most out of their agencies as they are skilled enough to work about what an interior designer tells him to. Sometimes it happens that agencies are not skilled enough to understand the design. At that point, the role of representation becomes important as better the idea is represented, quicker the agency will understand designs. The techniques of representation involved in this design process are completely informative as the designs require to be executed and no further changes are involved on the site. There are various sets of representation techniques used for various purposes in this stage. An interior design project includes various sets of drawings like space planning, Furniture, electrical, false ceiling, civil changes, flooring, plumbing layouts. It also includes lighting, furniture, detail, staircase, accessory drawings which needs to be delivered at the required time depending on the project At this stage, it is equally important for the fresh designers to learn from the execution. Initially, it is a good practice if the fresh design or student visits the site often while execution is happening. He can get the answers of the following questions about the site. •

How the execution happens on site?

• How much time each agencies consume for the execution? This can lead an interior designer to plan out his time for each agency. • Can understand the difference between a design on paper and executed design. Few decisions might go wrong in terms of scale, lighting, colour combination, space planning, etc. • It is at times also important to change certain design decisions on the spot on site if the above given aspects happen. In such case also, good knowledge of representation technique will matter as they will be able to face that challenge

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of quick decision making on the site. • It is always good to learn the local terminologies which the agencies use while execution as it doesn’t make an interior designer feel different on the site. This is also one of the small factor for better execution of the site. Types of representation which an interior designer can use for representing his ideas are as follows: 1. Sketch 2.

Orthographic projections

3.

3D images

4.

Layout and presentation

Sketch Rarely used but sometimes it can happen that an interior designer might just sketch out a complex drawing with basic dimensions written on it. This is again a quick mode of representation which is just to be shown to agencies if he is not able to understand how the execution can happen. It might also happen that an interior designer needs to sketch out the basic look alike form on the site for the workers to understand. This sketch can happen anywhere on the wall, on the sketchbook or even on the layer of sand lying on the site. In short, production sketches are most informal technique of representation.

Orthographic projections The most important technique of representation at this stage which is maximum used at this stage of the design process. A set of orthographic drawings which are known as working drawings is the must requirement on site for the execution of the design. These drawings includes Plan, Section, elevation, folded elevation and perspectives which are duly drafted on CAD software or hand drafted. Better the details reflected in the drawings, less the visits it requires on the site for consulting the execution. This is the reason why an orthographic projection drawing needs to be readable, understandable and should consist of enough information llus. 4(34) Wall section detail. This is generally required to be made when a complex detail is coming on the wall which is required to be made on the site.

for execution.


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llus. 4(36) Detailed working drawing(section) of Walt Disney Concert Hall by Architect Frank O Gehry.

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llus. 4(35) Detailed working drawing(section) of Walt Disney Concert Hall by Architect Frank O Gehry. He explored a lot with forms in his architecture. Due to this reason all his drawings were required to be highly detailed so that agencies dont find it difficult to build.

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3D images It is always better to make an agency understand the three dimensional view which can be isometric, axonometric or a perspective view of the element or the space so that a worker(layman) can easily get an idea of that and can easily execute. Nowadays, interior designers have started making 3D working drawings which means all the dimensions are provided on the 3D view itself so that there is no need to explain the design to the workers. There is a good practice which interior designers follow these days is with working drawings, they provide the 3D view which makes both worker’s and designer’s task simpler or making and making understand respectively.

Layout and presentation Layout is an important factor while executing any drawing. An interior designer knows what can be printed on which paper. For example, a furniture drawing which is generally printed in 1:5 or 1:10 scale can be printed on an A4 or A3 size paper but an electrical plan might also require an A2, A1 or A0 size paper. Also the format is the important factor which has all the details of the interior designer, design firm and firm policies which are strictly required to be followed by all agencies once the drawing is out for execution. Thus the layout should be represented in a simple way yet it should be informative.

Factors which lead to use of representation methods for Production • It is not quite possible to explain all the designs verbal, with a sketch, 3D image or even with the help of a model. There are production drawings required which can make the design come live. • Agencies consist of just the workers who have specialized in making the elements. They are not able to visualize as interior designers can and they are not meant to visualize also. Thus, drawings to be easy to understand for any person. • Unlike other design disciplines, interior designing has an immense amount of small details to deal with in an interior space. Also, an interior designer would not necessarily handling only one project at a time. This makes him communicate through production drawings to make his tasks easy.

llus. 4(37) Wall section detail. This detail is sketched out. This method of representation is required to be used when decisions are required to be taken on site or agencies needs to be explained manually and quickly the decisions on the site

llus. 4(38) Detailed sketch. Few interior designers have a practice of thinking all the materials and details at the exploration stage. Detailed sketch is useful their. Advantage of using this method is decisions are taken at the time of exploration.


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Problems which can be probably faced due to the absence of this Design process • As discussed above, agencies are not meant to visualize. In the absence of production drawings, an agency might start designing considering his pre-conceived notions and templates which will not suite interior designer’s language of design. This can lead to ruining the aesthetics of the complete site even if the concept was beautifully developed. • Lack of details can make an interior designer run every now and then on site for explaining the details which wastes a lot of time of the interior designers and he cannot concentrate on multiple projects at a time. • Even a non-readable drawings can create a havoc on site as workers might not be able to understand the drawings which can lead to either creating a different design all together or agencies bothering for explanations every now and then. • These in turn can also create a false impression on both agencies and clients which spoils the good will of the interior designer.

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5

Chapter

Case Studies


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5.1. CASE STUDY • Project: Havmor restaurant, Surat, Gujarat • Interior designer: Niraj Shah • Firm: IDO Designs • Project duration: 5 months o

Designing duration: 2-3 months

o

Execution duration: 2 months

Project Brief Havmor is one of the largest food and ice cream chains in India. Which over 50 eatery outlets all over India, Havmor is the serving India with the best quality food and ice creams since 1944. Havmor is known for its innovative combination of lip smacking ice creams, appetizing snacks and delectable cuisines. In the world of restaurants, people spend for the taste of food as well as the ambience of the space. But, Havmor has now reached up to a level that all the consumers are attracted towards the taste of the food served rather than the ambience of the space. Interior Designer/firm brief IDO design ran by Interior Designer Niraj Shah is a practicing now over a decade. He has been into designing restaurants and hospitality interiors since he started practicing professionally. He has also specialized in graphic designing which is also one of his forte while designing the interior spaces. Havmor is one restaurant which he has previously designed. So both the client and the interior designer are used to each others taste of design.

Stage 1: Communication As the client and interior designer knew each other from before, the client gave full freedom of designing the way interior designer wanted. The client just demanded a presentation of the interior language which he was willing to put forward in the space. A whole .Pdf presentation was created which the client approved at the first meeting itself.

Stage 2: Inspiration The restaurant was going to be built in Surat city which is famous for diamond industry. Also people are fond of diamonds and the jewelry out of it. Which means a place where people love glitter and shine. Getting inspired from that fact, interior designer thought of considering the attributes of the diamond and create the ambience of the space.

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Stage 3: Identification The client had a fixed set of requirements which was discussed soon after the first presentation was discussed with the interior designer. These requirements are generally documented manually in the first meeting and then it is digitized on the letter pad of the company firm and the copy of the same is pinned to the work desk of all the designers who will be involved in the project.

Stage 4: Conceptualization Once the interior designer was inspired from the city of Surat and diamonds, a brainstorming session of conceptualization began where all the attributes related to diamonds like facets, shine and color came into being. At the same time, interior designer didn’t want to bring any other qualities from Surat with an idea which might lead him to design an exclusive outlet of Havmor. The concept was explored with the help of mood boards as visual attributes were the most important factor in the space.

Stage 5: Exploration Explorations based on light, color, texture and graphics started happening on each and every element. Attributes like warm, gold, yellow, shine, intricacy, orange, etc. were explored on the interior elements. Jalis was incorporated which depicted the intricacy and detail of that of the diamond. Explorations where mostly done with the help of rendered elevations on photoshop so that options can be easily achieved and it didn’t require a major client intervention. Few options of jalis were tried with 3D images achieved from Google Sketchup models.

Stage 6: Modeling The major detail which was explored through model was lighting element. Various 1:1 scale prototypes were made to check the kind of lighting it gives. All the lighting elements were tried in the firm itself and they got it done in the local market in Surat for the mass production.

Stage 7: Production Working drawings of all small details were made for the execution which include furniture, lighting elements, jalis, etc. All the details are required to be intricately made because travelling to the site every now and then is practically impossible. Even the lamp folding detail was provided so that workers can make it without even designers to visit their everytime.


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Slide. 1(1)  1 SLIDE

Slide. 1(2) 2 SLIDE

Slide. 1(3)  3 SLIDE

Slide. 1(4)  4 SLIDE

Slide. 1(5)  5 SLIDE

Slide. 1(6)  6 SLIDE

Slide. 1(7) 7 SLIDE Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

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• SLIDE 1(1): Introduction of the project with the company name and the name of the project with the project date written which gives an acc of when did the presentation happen • SLIDE 1(2): Basic presentation plan is required to be shown to get an idea about the space planning decision to client. Also client comes to know whether he wants to change his requirements if required. • SLIDE 1(3): After space planning, mood board is presented with attributes written on it which interior designer would like to include in his interior space. • SLIDE 1(4): Mood board is followed by material board which gives a complete idea about how interior space will take its form • SLIDE 1(5), 1(6), 1(7): These elements are then translated into elevations with all the details of the materials shown used on the elements. Decisions of materials, colours, textures, elements gives a rough idea about how interior space will look like after execution. • SLIDE 1(8): A brief summary is then given to the client which completely clears up the idea of the space.


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SLIDE 1 llus. 1(1) 

SLIDE 2 llus. 1(3) 

SLIDE 3 llus. 1(5) 

SLIDE 4 llus. 1(2) 

SLIDE 5 llus. 1(4) 

SLIDE 6 llus. 1(6) 

Illus. 1(1)-1(4): Graphical images collected for developing the Jali pattern corresponding to the attributes of the Diamond. Images were developed with the help of Graphic designers hired in the firm. Illus. 1(5)-1(6): The graphics developed was then applied to the Jali Partition using Google Sketchup. This Jali was translated to the ceiling as well. It was then looked at with hanging lighting elements to understand the nature of light. Also, this was created so that Interior Designer would come to understand visually how it will look. Illus. 1(7)-1(9): 1:1 scale lighting element was then prepared in the firm itself before it gets executed on site to check the material and colour possibilites. This prototyping helped an interior designer to visualize the lighting in the space as lighting was the major factor which lead the project from the beginning.

llus. 1(7) 

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L1

L1

L1

L1 L2

L2 L2

L1

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LAMP C - HT. 16"

LAMP D - HT. 13"

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llus. 1(10)  The client brief noted down by the firm which stays as a data for the referral anytime whenever required by any of the

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Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

LAMP 1 - total no. - 15

llus. 1(11)  Lighting design. Jali lamp detailed working drawing.

ido design g 2 geekini house next to bank of baroda, law garden ellsibridge, ahmedabad - 06 079 26461404 / 05 design@idodesignindia.com SLIDE 8

51 2"

2"

51 2"

3"

3"

dark oragnge acrylic

1" 52

Format also includes the quantity of the lamp which needs to be made so that agencies gets a complete set of details from one drawing

3"

Colour coding of the lamp which the Interior designer is planning to use. Lamps are made out of Acrylic sheets.

1" 52

Lamp detail is coloured and coded below so that worker get an as ideas to where to use which kind of lamp.

2" 3"

employee of the firm.

light oragnge acrylic

LAMP 2 - total no. 10 scale : 1:20 dealt : priyanka date : 06-06-12 p.c.date:

drg code

--e.c.date:

client : HAVMOR FOOD PVT. LTD project : RESTAURANT address : G1, Western Shivalik Complex, L.P. Savani road, Adajan, Surat

JALI LAMP DETAIL


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llus. 1(12)  Space planning option with all the detail. Drawing always have colours used in it so that an interior drawing is pleasant reading experience. SLIDE 7

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5.2. CASE STUDY • Project: Evosys, Ahmedabad, Gujarat • Architect: Yatin Pandya • Firm: FOOTPRINTS E.A.R.T.H. • Project duration: 8 months o

Designing duration: 4 months

o

Execution duration: 4 months

Project Brief Evosys is an Information technology multinational corporate on an eleventh floor of a commercial tower. Architect Yatin Pandya generally thinks about the whole ambience of the space which he wants to build on the site. This thought is generally communicated in the form of a write up of 2-3 pages. All the fellow designers and employees are trained accordingly and they generally read the text when they feel they are stuck up while designing. The text created by the Architect for this site goes like this. Inventing Green within a Pa’caged’ context: Explorations in creating Humane, Interactive and Eco friendly Corporate Interiors Interior design is always a challenge to transform an indifferent environment into personalized, intimate and peculiar as per the functional, aesthetic and ideological needs of the specific user group. It becomes even more challenging when given architectural envelope is created with the preoccupation of economic returns rather than comfort and image. The challenge is even harder when prevailing byelaws are regressive and do not synchronize with the expected environmental performance of the place. And finally, the program brief often comes loaded with predefined form imagery or preconceived formulae. Interior space designing for Evolutionary Systems Pvt. Ltd. – an Information technology multinational corporate on an eleventh floor of a commercial tower was one such challenge except for the client’s brief which had an open window on concerns for “Green” and “Sustainable”. Here is an account of design explorations to evolve humane, interactive and Eco friendly interiors within an Information Technology corporate office. Concerns for Humane and interactive work environments: In view of the profile of the user group as I.T. Professionals as well as in the philosophy of the corporation it was decided to have nonhierarchical set up. Open office plan with

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equitable opportunities of view, scale and space situation were created for over three hundred users. No private toilets attached to cabins but instead common and distributed wash areas were also an outcome of such philosophy. If specific functions demanded acoustic privacy, the transparent partitions were introduced to break down the barrier value. Spatial organization even within the singular open office organization bring an element of surprise through sequential unfolding of views by strategic placement of objects and spatial elements along the movement route at nodal positions from the entrance lounge. Ceiling modulations also help accentuate work zones from circulation. The workstations, while for functional convenience were polarized in their mutual proximity, they were as such not isolated by zoning but instead spread out all through the floor plate. To break the monotony of space condition and formality of work environment, the workstations are arranged in different ways and in even more varied finishes and formats, offering informality and choices of work situations. For example in addition to linear workstation with see through glass tops, there are opaque, bright colour top desks placed in different arrangements to offer multiple combinations of clustering, orientation and scales of grouping. Yet another variation is the format change for work postures, from desk based to sofa based as well as even bean bags. These help break the formality and monotony set by standardization and rigidity of location. Informality is also enhanced by providing recreation area as a pantry, dining, library, music station, board games sport and Gym facilities. Graffiti on the back painted glass wall surfaces as well as ideation through brain storming on such disbursed installations has been integral to space syntax. There are also interactivity and involvement brought in through indulgence in display boards, digital screens and spontaneous lounges. Concern for eco-friendly work environments: Within a ‘touch me not’ and indifferent to environmental concern envelop created by the architectural construct, a number of opportunities are explored in space design for possible interventions of environmental sustainability. The first bold step is to create practically the entire internal periphery of the floor plate next to windows amounting to nearly as green belt with live plantation indoors. While the periphery takes the shrubs like and, the entrance lounge with additional exposure to outdoors has small trees like Champa. (Temple trees). Choice of vegetation and their density is governed by solar orientation, negligible maintenance needs and endurance to the indoor conditioned environment. Natural light is put to the optimum use by zoning of activity spaces to periphery, open plan organization and detailing of partitions with visual transparency. The bulk of work stations is organized along the perimeter zone next to window within reach of natural light. The passive functions such as server, services and storage as well as closed in functions like


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audiovisual rooms and teleconferencing areas are organized around opaque – non window- surfaces of the envelope. Inner core meant for circulation, informal lounging and occasional group activities also continue to receive day lighting through glazed partitions or open voids. Predominantly white colored wall surfaces within also help dissipate light through internal surface reflections. In addition to natural plants roller screens with alternated opaque bands offer softening of the glare as well as manual control of the environment for the intensity of light, blocking of the direct Sun yet allowance of breeze and partial views outdoors. The direct glare of the fully glazed lounge space is moderated by contemporary application of a traditional ‘jaali’ like element. While, the workspaces are air conditioned by provision, the fenestration systems are maintained as operable to allow for natural ventilation and cross breeze in a favorable climate conditions through parts of spring, fall and winter. An open plan office organization with minimum partitions for bulk of floor area also facilitates the natural ventilation system. Combination of natural wind and fan could be allowed to maintain comfort as an option and only in intense climate conditions operate through mechanized cooling through air conditioners. Air conditioning is prioritized in peripheral zones intense for working spaces while inner zones rely on borrowed or say sheltered ventilation. Apart from common sense wisdom the state of the art gadgetry and VRV technologies optimizes the tonnage by variable factors of occupancy fluctuation, external conditions and ambient temperatures. Fresh air is introduced in work environments through separate ducting while plants help oxygenate in addition. General toilets are installed with low flush systems as well as fully dry waterless urinals. The lighting fixtures are energy savers from the current technology band. Self perpetuating water elements like fountains bring in a dash of nature within packaged interior space. Spatial integration of traditional craft: In addition to interactivity and environmental management, design consciously includes a concern for patronizing local craft in space making. Narrative art on two curved partitions in Warli tradition depicts subtle nuances of communication along with human interaction with nature and traditions. Similarly the terracotta – clay tile narrative from Molala Rajasthan not only create bas relief and visual texture on a planar wall surfaces but remain narrative art form depicting primordial life, traits and traditions. While pre provided flooring is retained in most areas the altered surface flooring is carried in natural Jaisalmer stone with handcrafted inlay motifs from nature or spiritual notations. Traditional jaali form from Sidi siyad’s mosque - symbolic of Ahmedabad city’s identity is placed at the entrance light to be naturally backlit from peripheral glazing provides association and visual reference to the locale for the multinational company. Art works punctuate the pulse points by their strategic locations along sight lines in the movement, while their subject

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matters and theme accentuate the association and ease comprehension. This text is written in such a way that all the fellow employees and even the client would not feel bored while reading it. An idea is presented in the form of a story which gives a clear idea for designing and for imagining the space.

Interior Designer/firm brief Yatin Pandya is an author, activist, academician, researcher as well as the practicing architect from India with his firm FOOTPRINTS E.A.R.T.H. The architect has been involved with city planning, urban design, Mass housing, architecture, interior design as well as conservation projects. He has written a number of articles in National and International Journals. This interest of his make him conceptualize a project in the form of a story. Even the way he explains make a client easily visualize a space.

Stage 1: Inspiration As mentioned above, Architect is influenced by the use of earthy and natural materials for all this project. It is his personal choice of incorporating nature in all his projects, tangibly or non-tangibly, literal or non-literally. He likes to get inspired from all nature and its elements. Thus, continuing the same inspiration, inspiration became the first stage of design process even before showing a presentation to the client.

Stage 2: Communication Client being a part of a Multinational Company had given the brief of the project for the first time when he met the Architect. So for the first meeting, the designer presented a pre project PowerPoint presentation which was approved by the client at the first go. This helped him give a start to the project and in the first place, Architect got the idea about the taste of the client.

Stage 3: Identification After the presentation, the client had given the brief about what was the kind of requirement he had for the space. It was an IT company, so client requirement was the must thing to be fulfilled as there can be no compromise in missing even a little detail from the client. Thus, details were briefly noted down manually and then digitized so that it can be referred by a designer working on the project at that firm.


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Stage 4: Conceptualization Once the client brief was noted down, a brainstorming session took place between the Architect and fellow interior designers in the firm where they came to a decision that instead of creating cabins and thus leaving the center area dark and dingy, it is better to make an open space where central area is served with equal lights. These automatically leaves a scope of creating interactive spaces. Hence the concept of designing revolved around 4 major attributes for designing a work environment. 1. Humane 2. Inspiring 3. Engaging 4. Sustainable

Stage 5: Exploration Explorations then started happening keeping in mind the above given attributes. The space planning options were worked out as it was the most important stand which was required to be taken by the designer. Options were generally worked out on the plan by keeping a tracing and working out option on that only using different colour pens. At the same time, nature as a source of inspiration was explored in using it throughout the office.

Stage 6: Modeling Space planning being the most crucial part of the project was worked out in detail. Interior space planning model was made for making the client understand the kind of space Architect was imagining. Also ceiling was totally influenced by the nature to which physical model was made to understand the ambience it creates in its presence. Various virtual Google Sketchup models were made for clients to understand the interior space.

Stage 7: Production Working drawings were started building up at the same time as the client was rigorously involved in the project. Each and every decision finalized was given for execution on the site. Detailed working drawing is issued on site. Few changes are also required to be made on the site depending on the client changing his decision at that point or a designer changing his decision of design by relating with the other elements in the space.

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Slide. 2(1)  SLIDE 1

Slide. 2(2) 

SLIDE 2

Slide. 2(3)  SLIDE 3

Slide. 2(4)  SLIDE 4

Slide. 2(5)  SLIDE 5

Slide. 2(6)  SLIDE 6

Slide. 2(7)  SLIDE 7

Slide. 2(8) 

SLIDE 8

Slide 2(1)-2(8): Slide presentation showing the concepts which where thought of before starting the project. Attributes given in the slides are just the single words so that it becomes easy to apply them whenever designing happens.


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llus. 2(1) 

llus. 2(2) 

SLIDE 1

llus. 2(5) 

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llus. 2(6) 

llus. 2(9) 

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llus. 2(10) 

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llus. 2(8) 

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llus. 2(11) 

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llus. 2(4) 

SLIDE 3

llus. 2(7) 

SLIDE 4

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

llus. 2(3) 

IIus. 2(1) - 2(11): Reference imageries collected for the slide presentation. Such imageries helps designer to boost their thinking in the direction which he had thought about. He can always get inspired from such images if he is not able to design.


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SLIDE 1

llus. 2(12) 

SLIDE 2

llus. 2(13) 

SLIDE 4

llus. 2(14) 

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llus. 2(15) 

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llus. 2(16) 

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llus 2(12): Sketch of the ceiling inspired from leaves which was graphically explored. llus 2(13) - 2(16): Explorations of the sketch on the plan considering the lighting and space planning llus 2(17): Inspirational image of the table which designer wanted to use in the space .

llus. 2(17) 

SLIDE 7

llus. 2(18) 

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llus. 2(19) 

llus 2(18) - 2(19): Table designs were then explored according to the inspirations. A practice of finalising the ideas happens by working on the print out copy of already finalized ideas.


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SLIDE 1

SLIDE 2

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llus. 2(20)  llus. 2(20)  Presentation plan and sections which were created for the understand of the clients about the space planning. Colours are majorly used to make the drawings come out. Colours are just used as the medium of coding to differentiate the elements and it doesnt mean that they are used in this space.

SLIDE 7 Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

SLIDE 8


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View 2(1) 

SLIDE 1

View 2(4) 

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View 2(7) 

View 2(2) 

View 2(3) 

SLIDE 2

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View 2(5) 

View 2(6) 

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View 2(8) 

View 2(9) 

Views from Google Sketchup used for the visualization of both the client and the designer. Note that the views are not made in detail as visualizing the space was much more important than visualizing the finishes and colour at that point of the design process. View 2(1): Conference area View 2(2): Reception View 2(3): Entertainment area View 2(4): Bigger Conference area View 2(5): Lounge area View 2(6): Formal Space View 2(7): Big meeting room View 2(8): Fountain area View 2(9): Round passage view View 2(10): General sitting area

SLIDEView 7 2(10) 

View 2(11)  SLIDE 8

View 2(11): Lounge area 2


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SLIDE 1

SLIDE 2

SLIDE 3

SLIDE 4

SLIDE 5

SLIDE 6

llus. 2(21)  Option 1 of the Physcial model of the space. llus. 2(22)  Option 2 of the Physcial model of the space. Note that the models are made in monochrome colours as showing the space planning option of the space was much more crucial at that stage of exploration.

llus. 2(21)  SLIDE 7 Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

llus. 2(22) 

SLIDE 8

llus. 2(23) 

llus. 2(23)  Physical model of the ceiling of the space. As the designer incorporated nature as the source of inspiration, thus he explored the complex forms with the help of model.


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AHMEDABAD

MANAGER'S CABIN

6 OR MORE 15 AMPERE PLUGS AS PER AC REQUIREMENT

6 OR MORE 15 AMPERE PLUGS AS PER AC REQUIREMENT

MANAGER'S CABIN

WORKSTATIONS

MANAGER'S CABIN

RED

YELLOW

RED

MANAGER'S CABIN

ORANGE

LIFT

ORANGE

3M AUTOMATIVE FILM RE SERIES RE 70

LIFT

SERVER ROOM

YELLOW

Date : 6.07.'12

MCB

architect YATIN PANDYA

MANAGER'S CABIN

ORANGE

ORANGE

LIFT

LIFT

MANAGER'S CABIN

WORKSTATIONS

RED

YELLOW

RED

CABIN

1'-8" [5081]

5'-0"

6 OR MORE 15 AMPERE PLUGS AS PER AC REQUIREMENT

15'-0"

3M AUTOMATIVE FILM RE SERIES RE 70

0

TV TO BE HUNG ON COLUMN WITH A READY STEEL HARDWARE WHICH IS AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET

Fan Telephone Line 5 Amp Plug LAN 15 Amp Plug Smoke Detector Speaker Smoke Detector Floor Point Switch Board

LED Star light ( from China )

A/C

Wall Bracket LED Bulb OR Philips ESI 18 W

LED Tubelight Double

1' x 1' LED Panel mounted on ceiling

LED Concealed Spot

Suspended Decorative Lamp ( From China )

llus. 2(24)  N

Suspended Decorative Lamp ( From China )

35'-0"

SLIDE 8 SLIDE 7

SLIDE 6 SLIDE 5 SLIDE 4

SLIDE 3 SLIDE 2 SLIDE 1

llus. 2(24)  Working Drawing of the office with all the details like Electrical layout, furniture layout, Space planning, A.C. Layout are shown in this plan. Note that a table is given beside the plan which is a legend to the symbols used on the plan. This helps an individual agency worker to work smoothly without asking small details to the Interior Designer. MCB


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Site Photographs after completion


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5.3. CASE STUDY • Project: Bindu Sarovar Museum, Sidhpur • Architect: Dilip Patel • Interior Designer: Toyam Patel • Firm: Aakruti Architects • Project duration: 12 months (Ongoing)

Project Brief Bindu Sarovar is a project proposed by the Tourism Corporation of Gujarat Limited. It was a tender based project which was achieved by Aakruti Architects as it they were the one who managed to quote the least. The client was involved only for the first time when the project brief was required to be given to the Architect. Architecture of the Bindu Sarovar Museum was done by CEPT University. With designing, the archeology department at M.S. University, Baroda was also involved in deciding what were kind of artifacts which was required to be kept in the museum. As a result, both Interior designer and the Archeological department had to work in coordination with each other.

Interior designer/firm brief Aakruti Architects are a Firm started by Ar. Dilip D. Patel graduated with a bachelor degree in Architecture from CEPT university. The Interior architecture department in the firm is led by Toyam Patel who is actively involved in this project. Both the designers have a keen interest in incorporating the essence of vernacular architecture in their Architecture and interior spaces respectively. This essence can be in the form of colour, texture, material, space planning, volumes, etc.

Stage 1: Identification Firstly the project was identified by the designer which lead them to apply for the tender. After when the project was available, the client sent them the list of requirements which they had to fulfill. As a task of identification, the designer had to majorly identify the amount of time required for finishing the tasks on time as late submission of project might lead to penalization to the firm. Daily all the tasks were allotted to the employees which was strictly required to be finished. A check of all that was kept by the designer.

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Stage 2: Inspiration The site and the context were the biggest source of inspiration for the design. The designer had tried to create Sidhpur inside the museum as the elements of the display guided the journey through the whole space. Space planning of the town was also taken as a source of inspiration. Thus it can be understood that the urban level study was taken into consideration and it helped designer to design further. Methods used for the representation of this design process was sketching over orthographic projection as urban context was the main lead in designing.

Stage 3: Conceptualization “Experience interwoven with the character of the local streets is conceptualized as that moving from darkness to light, from enclosed to open, heightened by glimpses of natural elements like water, sun and finally terminating into the courtyard.� A concept was developed with the help of sketches, 3D virtual models worked out on Google Sketchup which helped him quickly alter the ideas and save the various interior views. Two more options of concepts were provided by the Archeological department at M.S.Uni. which was totally based on their perspective of arranging the elements in the space but it definitely gave lead to the designer for designing.

Stage 4: Communication After deciding all these things, there was only one meeting which was conducted between the client and the designers as far as design finalization and presentation is concerned. At that meeting, designers had to explain the whole project before the clients and what they are planning to do in terms of design. This also confirms the project of the designer if the clients are impressed with kind of work and thinking. Thus the presentation which is required to be made needs to be very formal, informative yet visually appealing.

Stage 5: Exploration Once the project is finalized with the desired conceptualization, concept is explored in finalize the design ideas. These ideas were translated in the form of sketches and Google Sketchup models. At this stage, even the Archeological team is involved as they had to put the elements in proper sequence so that all of them are linked with each other. All the ideas explored where shared and discussed with the Archeologists which was executed only after their approval.


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Stage 5: Modeling This stage was going on side by side with exploration as the Google Sketchup was the most important medium for exploring the design possibilities. This stage will last till the end because there are many changes which are borne to happen as there can be always back and forth in design ideas when two different discipline bodies are involved in taking decisions.

Stage 6: Production Finally a detailed set of working drawings was made all the smallest details. The drawing is made very precisely as going to the site every now and then is not possible. Also the scale of the site is much bigger than a residential or a retail outlet. So the level of complexities and details increase which is required to be put forward in one medium.

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93 Slide. 3(1) 

Slide. 3(2) 

SLIDE 1 Slide. 3(4) 

Slide. 3(3) 

SLIDE 2 Slide. 3(5) 

SLIDE 4 Slide. 3(7) 

SLIDE 3 Slide. 3(6) 

SLIDE 5

SLIDE 6

Slide 3(1) A brief overview about the museum is given just in a line.

Slide. 3(8) 

Slide 3(2) An axial path which comes directly from bindu sarovar is marked on the plan. Sidhpur was the main lead towards designing. Slide 3(3) An intersection point is then marked which is the station point. All the explorations are done on the plan with layers Slide 3(4) A motion path is than defined considering the movement in sidhpur. Path is sketched out manually on the plan. Slide 3(5) With the help of 3D model, three zones are marked on two levels which connects each other. Slide 3(6) Ideas are in the form of thoughts are identification is placed in a series with a sequential understanding of the development of ideas. Slide 3(7) A rough idea of the kind of space of the Garbh griha is shown in the sketch with location indicated on the plan. SLIDE 7

SLIDE 8

Slide 3(8) Kind of experience designer will try to give is shown in the form of sketch and an verbal idea.


94 Slide. 3(9) 

Slide. 3(10) 

SLIDE 1 Slide. 3(12) 

SLIDE 2 Slide. 3(13) 

SLIDE 4 Slide. 3(15) 

SLIDE 3 Slide. 3(14) 

SLIDE 5 Slide. 3(16) 

SLIDE 7 Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

Slide. 3(11) 

SLIDE 8

SLIDE 6


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View 3(1) 

SLIDE 1

SLIDE 2 llus. 3(1) 

llus.SLIDE 3(2)  3

View 3(2) 

SLIDE 4

SLIDE 5

SLIDE 6

View 3(3) 

llus. 3(3) 

llus. 3(4) 

llus. 3(5) 

Artifacts and other elements which is going to come in the museum. The designer were also influenced from the intricacy and detail of the art forms. These was also one of the lead which helped interior designer through out the project.

SLIDE 7

View 3(4) 

3D views generated on the Google Sketchup. These conceptual views makes it easy for designer to explore on the views physically by tracing over it. SLIDE 8


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SLIDE 2

SLIDE 3

SLIDE 4

SLIDE 5

SLIDE 6

SLIDE 7

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llus. 3(6) 


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SLIDE 1

SLIDE 2

SLIDE 3

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SLIDE 6

SLIDE 7

SLIDE 8

llus. 3(7) 


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Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

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SLIDE 2

SLIDE 3

SLIDE 4

SLIDE 5

SLIDE 6

SLIDE 7

SLIDE 8

llus. 3(8) 


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SLIDE 1

SLIDE 2

SLIDE 3

SLIDE 4

SLIDE 5

SLIDE 6

llus. 3(9) 

llus. 3(6) A very detailed flooring layout plan of the llus. 3(7) A detailed panelling layout is shown of space is drafted with the help of AutoCAD software. the space. All the 3 elevations of the gallery are Note that all the details are incorporated in the shown with the details marked at the below level drawing whose print is taken in the A1 size format of the page. Wall elevation being a smaller part of and at 1:100 scale. This drawings has various the whole builder is drafted at 1:50 scale with all the codes which is at times difficult for a layman to detials shown at 1:10 scale. Proper abbreviations understand. Thus, their is always a site supervisor are marked on the legend on the right for the who takes care of making the drawings understand better understanding of the drawings. Making such to the layman in such large scale projects. Flooring details for the first time consumes a lot of time for layout is a difficult task to manage. From deciding the designers but makes the tasks easy when the the tiling layout to managing the slope is to be done production stage comes. by the designer. By making such detailed drawings, it becomes simpler to understand the drawing at once for the site supervisor who can then easily guide the workers without disturbing the designer. SLIDE 7

llus. 3(8) A detailed drawing of wall elevation of the entrance of the museum. As the scale of the design is becoming smaller, the level of intricacies and details starts increasing. A wall elevation was first proposed in Adobe PhotoShop software which is then imported to AutoCAD for a easy reference for the workers to make. Smaller the scale of design, more precise the details needs to be. Designers cant afford to let go something wrong on site without even visiting the site. Thus even the section of the detail is drafted for the easy referral of the site supervisor to guide the workers.t

SLIDE 8

llus. 3(9) Artist representation of False ceiling in the entrance of the space (Artist : Vyom Mehta). Few things which can interior designer cant deal with, at that point he needs to consult various other design disciplinaries. This drawing was made by the designer in presence of the artist as he is the one who has better graphics knowledge and designer knows how to execute the idea. This is the first level proposed drawing (Not to Scale). After finalizing the design, shop drawings were made of each and every detail so that it gets executed properly as visualized


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Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

SLIDE 1

SLIDE 2

SLIDE 3

SLIDE 4

SLIDE 5

SLIDE 6

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Site Photographs as of March 2013


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5.4. CASE STUDY • Project: BIO Pavilion, Delhi • Architect: Jwalant Mahadevwala, Kanika Mahadevwala • Firm: Andblack design Studio • Project duration: 3 months

Project Brief The Bio Pavilion was a project for a Chennai based company called ‘Bio Incorporated’. It was a concept pavilion made of paper tubes, which is essentially a waste material from many industries. The entire pavilion was conceptualised and built in Ahmedabad and was then transported to Delhi for its launch at the event India Design 2013. It was a temporary structure made just for the exhibition purpose. Main purpose of using paper tubes was to show the use of the material in building and the kind of light quality it creates and the light weightness it gives is shown.

Interior designer/firm brief The inception of andblack design studio happened in a small flat in London in the cold winters of 2009. After few competitions, unrealised projects and some collaborative work the studio moved to India in 2011. Since then the new setup in Ahmedabad is focusing on projects of all scales ranging from master planning, bridge design, residential towers, farm houses, factories and interiors

Stage 1: Identification Bio Inc led by Sakthivel Ramaswamy was the client in the development of this installation. A brief was given to the Architects that paper tubes were the first and the only thing which is mandatory and which needs to be used in making the installation. The client was an Interior designer himself and he had a personal liking of exploring this material. So he actually gave a constraint of using the material without using any other materials supporting the structure except the joinery details. So more than a regular project, it was a challenge to be finished by the designer.

Stage 2: Inspiration The inspiration for both the client and the architect was out of their personal interest in Design which was sustainability. Paper tube is a material which is a waste in various industries every year in tonnes. This led them to design the pavilion out of the paper tube.

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Stage 3: Conceptualization The installation was out the keen interest of the Architects into parametrics and kinetics in Architecture. Possibilities were explored on that basis. They wanted the structure to be flexible enough to move in the way required. Also the light was the important element with which architect played as each time the position of the structure is changed, light condition changes from inside.

Stage 4: Exploration Various different kinds of explorations were made on the basis of the concept and inspiration. The architect is more into designing with the help of various 3D images and modeling methods. CAD softwares like AutoCAD, 3Ds Max, Rhinoceros, Grasshopper, etc. These softwares gives a freedom of exploring complex forms.

Stage 5: Modeling After exploring the possibilities of software, the main task was now to make that structure stand at 1:1 scale. A miniature study model was made of thread tubes to explore how the paper tubes can be joined together with each other so that it does not fail on site. Even a mock up at 1:1 Scale was created just to understand how two paper tubes can be joined.

Stage 6: Communication The idea was then communicated to the client in the form of a booklet which was also designed by Andblack studio. These booklets consisted the views of the Bio pavilion developed with various softwares with the data written which communicated how the idea was developed and how it finally led to the making. The designer was then asked to make several copies of the booklet which he then used in the exhibition.

Stage 7: Production The actual structure was made in Ahmedabad itself so that the whole construction happens in the presence of the designer. So the drawings required for the execution were mostly the three dimensional views of the pavilion. The major challenge was how to set the pavilion up on the site as the site was an undulated surface. Designers in this case planned to cover the surface with the triangular adjoining forms which held the structure. Detailed shop drawings of each of these triangular module was made at the studio and sent to the site for its construction with pavilion.


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SLIDE 1

llus. 4(1) 

SLIDE 4

SLIDE 2

llus. 4(2) 

SLIDE 3

llus. 4(3) 

SLIDE 5

SLIDE 6

llus. 4(1) - 4(2) Form was the first thing which was proposed by the

Architects. They had a clear idea on their mind about what kind of form which they want to make. According to that, they planned to use the paper tubes. Freehand sketches done on the tracing paper sketchbook which becomes important when it is required to relate to the previous sketches.

llus. 4(3)  The form was then looked at the volume and plane point of view.

The obscured lines suggest the rough orientation of the paper tubes. Also the dark sketch suggest the kind of opacity which is required to be shown from the pavilion. It is considered a good practice of interior designers when he notes down the attributes and take notes related the sketch he draws.

llus. 4(4)  After deciding upon the opacity, paper tubes in the form of lines was

explored. The kind of rhythm which the paper tubes follow was worked out in the at the bottom of the page. Note that sketches made are free flowing and quick as that is something what the designer wanted to make the straight line to follow the sequence.

llus. 4(5)  Paper tubes were then studied in the form of a cross section i.e. the llus.SLIDE 4(4)  7 Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

llus. 4(5) 8 SLIDE

how circles behave when straight line follows a rhythm. Exploration where than studied from a different perspective.


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B

Plan showing pavilion

A

A

Section BB showing only upper base and lower base

Plan showing upper base made by architects

B

Height variable

SLIDE 6 B

Section BB showing only lower base

Section AA

Height as per Site condition (maintain top of lowerbase to be flat)

SLIDE 5 Plan showing lower base to be made by Delhi contractor (please refer to notes)

B

Paper tubes

Upper Base Lower Base

design studio

andblack

SLIDE 8 SLIDE 7

SLIDE 3

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SLIDE 2 SLIDE 1

llus. 4(7)  llus. 4(6) 


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SLIDE 1

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llus. 4(9) 

SLIDE 4

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SLIDE 6

llus. 4(10) 

llus. 4(6) Orthographic projections obtained from the 3D model of the pavilion with platform on which pavilion was installed. llus. 4(7) Detailed drawing on the undulated platform on which pavilion was installed. All the modules are marked on the drawing which was referral from other drawing. llus. 4(8) Detailed shop drawing of few of the polygonal modules.

SLIDE 7 Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

llus. 4(8) 

llus. 4(9) - 4(10) Modules where worked out on the plan with dimensions manually marked for designers understand ing andSLIDE it was 8 then drafted with AutoCAD.


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llus.SLIDE 4(11) 1

SLIDE 2

SLIDE 3

llus.SLIDE 4(12) 4

SLIDE 5

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llus. 4(11) - 4(13) Pavilion was first worked out with the thread reels. Advantage of making such model was designer could figure out the loads it can handle, the stability and the till what point it can sustain the tension. llus.SLIDE 4(13) 7

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Site Photographs after completion


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Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

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Conclusion “Design is not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works.�

Steve Jobs

Interior designing is a very vast and deep discipline to understand. It is not just about how beautifully an Interior Designer is able to design on paper. Till the point it is not executed on site, it is not considered a good design. It should take a tangible form so that it is felt by people rather than explaining the design to individual and making them imagine. For completing a project on site, the most important thing which is required is the proper planning of for execution of the design step wise. I.e., following a defined design process which becomes very important for the execution of the project. Every project demands a different process of execution depending on the various factors like scale and typology of the project. It also depends on the kind of interior designer involved in the project. It is not necessary that the design process stages come in the same sequence in all the projects. There are various factors which can lead to changes in the sequence of the design process. It is also not necessary that all the stage of design process mentioned should be the part of a project. Few projects might not demand certain stages of the design process. It is very much possible that the design process stage which has come once in the project can repeatedly come again in the process as it is a back and forth process i.e. the decision of design can change depending on the client and interior designer both. As discussed in the second chapter, design representation needs to be done for three different kinds of people. Client, Designer and Agencies. It can often happen that coordination between all the three might not set. For example, If the client and designers agree for the design, It can happen that agency denies as he would be lacking skills to execute the design. In such case, Designer or the client needs to search for similar such agencies who can execute their design. The client is the most important individual who drives a project. He is the one who is funding the whole project and the one who is responsible for a designer and agencies employment. Thus, representing the design in the best possible way is very important as a client deserves to visualize what he is spending for. In this study, it can be stated that methods of representing design are the most integral part of any design process and the project. Methods of representation changes depending on various different factors like knowledge and handy use of the methods by the designer, Level of understanding of the client, the amount of time allotted for finishing the project, the level of skills of representing the project in the employees of the firm.


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Bibliography Spankie, Ro. Drawing out the interiors. SA: AVA publishing, 2009 Aspelund, Karl. The Design process. New York: Fairchild books, 2010 Goldschmidt, Gabriela. Design Representation. London: Springer-Verlag Limited, 2004 Shah, Gautam. Interior design practice and office management, Unpublished. Edwards, Clive. Interior Design: A Critical Introduction. New York: Bloomsbury Academics publications, 2011 (15) Dawson, Susan. Architects Working Details (The Architects Journal). London: Emap Construct, 2004 (22) Chopra, Aidan. Google SketchUp for dummies. New York: Whiley Publications Inc., 2009. (26) Slotkis, Susan. Foundation of Interior Design.USA: Fairchild Publications, 2012. (27) Kostof, Spiro. The Architect. New York: Oxford University press, 1977 (28) Farrelly, Lorraine. Basic Architecture: Architectural Representation. SA: AVA publishing, 2008 (29) Elaine, Stephanie. Design communication through model making: A taxonomy of physical models in interior design education. USA: IOWA state university, 2009. (30) Mitton Maureen. Interior Design visual Presentation. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2004.

Internet Reference http://www.gautamshah.in/HTML/DMIJul07.htm#1.1 INTERIOR DESIGNER http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/representation?q=representation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representation http://www.lancs.ac.uk/fss/organisations/netlc/past/nlc2010/abstracts/PDFs/Conole_2.pdf http://www.slideshare.net/grainne/chapter-8-design-representations http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filippo_Brunelleschi http://architectureideas.info/2008/10/vastu-purusha-mandala/ http://www.toysperiod.com/blog/scale-models/scale-models-through-the-ages/ (16) http://www3.ul.ie/~rynnet/orthographic_projection_fyp/webpages/history.html (17) http://www.msichicago.org/scrapbook/scrapbook_exhibits/reverspective/history.html (18) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mockup (19) http://wilcoxae.wordpress.com/2011/02/16/presentation-vs-representation/ (20) http://www.juliakendell.com/Julia_Kendell/Mood_Boards.html (21) http://www.westfield.ma.edu/math/prime/concrete.ideas/gsupapernctm.pdf


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(23) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Photoshop (24) http://www.ehow.com/info_8226145_uses-coreldraw.html (25) http://www.dvdesigns.com.au/docs/2013/3ds_max_design_2013_features_and_benefits_en.pdf http://helpx.adobe.com/photoshop/kb/64-bit-os-benefits-limitations.html

Unpublished thesis AKGUN Yenal, Perception of space through representation Media: A comparison between 2D representation techniques and 3D representation environments, Izmir Institute of Technology, Turkey; 2004 Rosario Robledo, Melissa Betancourt. Drawing for Interior Design, London; 2008 Pearson Mark. The Architect’s Sketchbook: a compilation of design sketches from my sketchbooks, prepared as a guide for second year pre-architecture students at College of DuPage, United States, 2010

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Illustration Credits Chapter 2 llus 2(1) Kostof, Spiro. The Architect, New York: Oxford University Press, 1977 llus 2(2) Harbison, Robert. Travels in history of Architecture. London: Reaktion books, 2009 llus 2(3) AKGUN, Yenal, Perception of space through representation Media: A comparison between 2D representation techniques and 3D representation environments. Turkey: Izmir Institute of Technology; 2004 llus 2(4) Kostof, Spiro. The Architect. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977 llus 2(5) http://delhi.click.in/classified/education-learning/professional-courses/professional-coursevastu-shastra-4727617.html llus 2(6) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cloth_map_of_ahmedabad.jpg

Chapter 3 llus 3(1) Plunkett, Drew. Drawing for Interior Design. United Kingdom: Laurence King Publishing Ltd., 2009 llus 3(2) Schildt, Goran. Alvar Aalto: Masterworks (Universe Architecture Series).New York: Universe; Revised edition, 1998. llus 3(3) Schildt, Goran. Alvar Aalto: Masterworks (Universe Architecture Series).New York: Universe; Revised edition, 1998. llus 3(4) Spankie, Ro. Drawing out the interiors. SA: AVA publishing, 2009 llus 3(5) http://buildipedia.com/aec-pros/featured-architecture/dr-byen-dr-city llus 3(6) http://www.matharooassociates.com/gallery.php?Id=23#1 llus 3(7) Cohen, Jean-Louis. Le Corbusier Le Grand. Phaidon Press Inc., 2008 llus 3(8) http://lindaquaro.tumblr.com/ llus 3(9) http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Glasgow_School_of_Art.html llus 3(10) http://my.opera.com/coolStasek/albums/showpic.dml?album=5990552&pictu re=121423672 llus 3(11) http://www.archdaily.com/108152/dental-inn-stasek/00-floor-plan/ llus 3(12) http://isconplatinum.com/images/unit-plan/final-tower-f-g-big.jpg llus 3(13) http://isconplatinum.com/images/unit-plan/final-tower-f-g-big.jpg llus 3(14) http://isconplatinum.com/images/unit-plan/final-tower-f-g-big.jpg(AutoCAD drawings) llus 3(15) http://www.woodlandia.ca/depository/pictures/solutions-products-matrix/3m-2-l-1.jpg llus 3(16) http://carpatys.com/structural-wood-corporation-shop-drawings/structural-wood. com*images*Shop-Drawing-1.jpg/ llus 3(17) http://www.timberframe-houseplans.com/images/Walton-shop-prints/j12.gif


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llus 3(18) http://maitaly.wordpress.com/2011/04/28/brunelleschi-and-the-re-discovery-of-linearperspective/ llus 3(19) http://www.explore-drawing-and-painting.com/perspective-drawing.html llus 3(20) http://jewoo.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/saudi-villa-concept-sektch.jpg llus 3(21) http://www.irendering.com/current_projects llus 3(22) http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/arch-311-presentation-13-le-corbusier--paulrudolph/deck/5999847 llus 3(23) Self Generated llus 3(24) Self Generated llus 3(25) http://buffalosbesthomeinspection.com/about-home-inspections.html llus 3(26) http://forums.autodesk.com/t5/Autodesk-Revit-Architecture/construction-exploded-views/ td-p/3501400 llus 3(27) http://wieler.com/homes/rapson-greenbelt/designs/greenbelt-2-exploded-view/ llus 3(28) Nonel Juan Bassegoda. Antonio Gaudi: Master Architect, Abbeville Press; 1st edition, 2009 llus 3(29) http://popnrocks.com/berlin-house-model-mies-van-der-rohe-berlin-urbig-haus-howard. html llus 3(29) http://latestinteriormodels.blogspot.in/2012/08/howard-architectural-models.html llus 3(29) http://www.laboratorio1.unict.it/2006/lezioni/ada02/pagine/108.htm llus 3(29) http://www.archivisionmodels.com/Architectural-Models/interior/imgpages/model-building.html llus 3(30) http://www.realtyminister.com/project/81/ahmedabad/bopal/iscon-platinum/3 bhk llus 3(30) http://www.realtyminister.com/project/81/ahmedabad/bopal/iscon-platinum/4 bhk llus 3(30) http://www.realtyminister.com/project/81/ahmedabad/bopal/iscon-platinum/5 bhk llus 3(31) http://www.theinteriorevolution.com/style/http://www.theinteriorevolution.com/media-files/ Artisan-Furniture-Joinery.jpg llus 3(32) http://www.treehugger.com/natural-sciences/its-5813-or-fibonacci-day-america.html llus 3(33) http://www.onsiteconsortium.org/Graphics.html llus 3(34) Graph book, Design Innovation and Craft Resource Center, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, Unpublished llus 3(35) Graph book, Design Innovation and Craft Resource Center, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, Unpublished llus 3(36) Graph book, Design Innovation and Craft Resource Center, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, Unpublished llus 3(37) http://www.horizon-custom-homes.com/Wood_Joinery.html llus 3(37) http://blog.naver.com/PostView.nhn?blogId=macho750&logNo=20143000088 llus 3(37) http://yachtdesignpro.com/images/portfolios/fabiano%20Pacheco7.jpg llus 3(38) http://www.notjustprototypes.com/rapid_prototyping llus 3(38) http://www.mymodernmet.com/profiles/blogs/bathsheba-grossman-3d-printed-lamps llus 3(38) http://flickrhivemind.net/Tags/3dprinting,jewelry/Interesting

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llus 3(39) Self Generated llus 3(39) Self Generated llus 3(40) http://artsourceblog.wordpress.com/2013/03/21/50-amazing-architectural-renders/ llus 3(41) http://www.zephyrinteriors.com/design-process.html llus 3(41) http://thecraftbegins.com/wordpress/category/inspiration-boards/ llus 3(42) http://aartigandhi.wordpress.com/2012/08/12/ag-designs-from-monochromatic-to-beachchic/ llus 3(42) Self Generated llus 3(43) Self Generated llus 3(44) Self Generated llus 3(45) Self Generated

Chapter 4 llus 4(1)

Boesiger, Willy. Le Corbusier : Complete Works (Oeuvre Complete). Germany: Birkh채us-

er Architecture, 1990 llus 4(2) http://spitalfieldslife.com/2012/02/25/a-return-visit-to-alfred-daniels/ llus 4(2)

http://koikoikoi.com/2008/10/my-sketchbook-feat-anna-rusakova/

llus 4(3)

http://www.dezeen.com/2013/07/29/movie-oki-sato-nendo-my-sketches-are-really-bad/

llus 4(4)

http://www.artparks.co.uk/artpark_sculptures.php?sculpture

section=79&category=nudes__male_sculpture llus 4(4)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gehry_Tower_Hannover.jpg

llus 4(5)

http://corporatedesigninteriors.wordpress.com/

llus 4(6) King, Susan. Drawings of Eric Mendelson. California: University of California, 1969. llus 4(7) Plunkett, Drew, Drawing for Interior Design.United Kingdom: Laurence King publishing, Ltd., 2009 llus 4(8) http://www.flickr.com/photos/michaelsurtees/3775104402/ llus 4(9) Ranjan M.P., Lecture on Demystifying Design, CEPT Uni. llus 4(10) Pile John, Drawing for Architectural Interiors. Whitney library of Design, 1967 llus 4(11) Plunkett Drew, Drawing for Interior Design. New York: Laurence King publishing, Ltd., 2009 llus 4(12) http://pinterest.com/neillehepworth/architecture-drawings/ llus 4(12) http://pinterest.com/neillehepworth/architecture-drawings/ llus 4(13) Pile, John, Drawing for Architectural Interiors. New York: Whitney library of Design, 1967 llus 4(14) Pile, John, Drawing for Architectural Interiors. New York: Whitney library of Design, 1967 llus 4(15) Pile, John, Drawing for Architectural Interiors. New York: Whitney library of Design, 1967 llus 4(16) Pile, John, Drawing for Architectural Interiors. New York: Whitney library of Design, 1967 llus 4(17) http://www.sweetonioncreations.com/soc_images/uploads/gallery/ llus 4(18) http://sketchpadstudio.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/sketchbook.jpg


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llus 4(21) http://justinivydesign.com/portfolioindustrial.html llus 4(22) http://www.behance.net/gallery/Sketches/316170 llus 4(23) Self Generated llus 4(24) Folded physical model, D’Frame Design Studio, I.D. Shailesh Manke llus 4(25) James, Palmes. Le corbusier my work - Le corbusier. London: Architectural press, 1960 llus 4(26) Murotani, Bunji. Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Hong Kong: Daichi Co. Ltd., 1970 llus 4(27) http://www.maryville.edu/as/art-design/interior-design/ llus 4(28) http://freshome.com/2011/09/07/energy-efficient-single-family-home-in-dallas-texas/ llus 4(29) http://www.evermotion.org/portfolio/show/rohitarora/763929 llus 4(30) http://vvmasterdrfan.deviantart.com/gallery/6595616 llus 4(31) http://www.soa.utexas.edu/interiordesign/studentportfolio/pyke.html llus 4(32) Interior Design Portfolio, John Shannon, NYC. llus 4(33) Client Presentation, Errol Reubens Associates, Ar. Errol Reubens, Ahmedabad llus 4(34) http://www.astrolandofoz.com/images/Observatory-South_Wall_Section2.jpg llus 4(35) Dal Co, Franscesco. Frank O. Gehry: The Complete Works. New York: The Monacelli Press, 1997. llus 4(36) Dal Co, Franscesco. Frank O. Gehry: The Complete Works. New York: The Monacelli Press, 1997. llus 4(37) http://www.carrotstick.ca/interior-design/bath-room-remodel/bath-room-remodel.html llus 4(38) http://www.alleghanycounty.us/public_works/BuildingInspections/requesting_a_building_permit.htm

Methods of representation in Interior Design Practices: An inquiry of the Design process

Methods of Representation in Interior Design practices: An inquiry of the Design Process  

This is my(Yash Rathod) bachelor's research thesis from CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India. It majorly talks about the importance of represen...

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