Beijing is an ancient capital with a history of more than 3,000 years. As the capital of China, Beijing plays an important role both culturally and economically. However, in the context of rapid urbanization, Beijing faces a huge problem: alleyways and courtyards in traditional neighborhoods have been massively dismantled and converted, and the influx of population has no suitable place to live. How to find a sustainable development path for traditional architecture, provide a better living space for those who live in it, and find a reasonable direction for an expanding city is my question.
1.Seeing Huangjue: Kowloon Peninsula 1 activation plan 2. Common Magaplot: Social Housing 13 Design
3. Hutong Metabolism Project
4.Retreat within Comfort
6.Other design works
Seeing Huangjue: Kowloon Peninsula activation plan Chongqing, China | 2018.5 Instructor: Lin Li
How to commemorate the past of an age of civilization with forms of art and performances. This is a planning and architectural design project. First of all, we made a revitalization plan for the Kowloon Peninsula in chongqing, and selected an area within the first phase of development for the key architectural renovation design. What I designed is a center of situational experience drama and performing arts. There is no clear boundary between actors and audience, and even actors are not necessarily professional actors.Sometimes the audience is not like a spectator, like an experiencer.Theater is completely different from traditional theater: the auditorium and stage are integrated.The audience enters the theatre through different doors and people walk through the space.The performer penetrates deeper into the audience, shuttles back and forth among the audience and even talks with the audience, so that the audience has the opportunity to interact with the audience as part of the drama.
Overall development strategy structure
Ecological tourism area
Industrial art tourism area
4 Transportation analyze
Design of important nodes on Kowloon Peninsula 1. Functional zoning in phase I planning
The development of the Kowloon Peninsula will be affected by the arts and cultural tourism corridor, First phase of the plan
while the development of the Kowloon Peninsula. The important node is located in the industrial site, the
ninth node in the cultural and art tourism corridor. It is in the first period of the whole Kowloon Peninsula phasing plan.
Second phase of the plan
Third phase of the plan
Ur Forth phase of the plan
5 Bird view of the first phase of the plan
Pedestrian overpass 1
Pedestrian overpass 2
Sichuan Fine Arts Institute
Pedestrian overpass 3
501 arts district
Art park Industrial heritage
chimney and discharge pipe
Division of labor The hall of steam turbine room, high-rise building and office building were renovated and updated by Chunrong Li, the boiler room and the volume of dust removal and denitrification equipment were renovated by Zhihao Liang, I'm incharge of the chimney and discharge pipe renovation.
it to sy
Hall of steam turbine room
Chimney and discharge pipe
located in the yellow Jue ping
ct, ficus virens is one of the most
mon trees in this film district, is a
of a banyan tree can grow in the
l wall, chongqing people often use
ymbolize their tenacious vitality.
t exis ly ear er n h f T . to e. are eigh squ ssag h a e a p 动 al ith f th 演活 g co es o re w 与展 n d a i i 式 u s p 形 slo wo a sq 生动 ng ard its t i 术的 w v d 艺 a p ？ an , le eu 何以 过去 ney blu hed ：如 s 代的 m a i i 忆 l 时 h o o 记 ec als 文明 em 工业 s th 一个 nd e is n r e i 念 e e a 纪 t th as b con ney m nt, ey h i a n l h c rp he chim owe he of t p t h f r t eo alle sou he t sid t s e sm e h o t w ts.T t of the par par on o t g s w mo ldin to t bui e in tern t s e i a s h e .T he he site es t in t d e i d v h di in t cate line s lo ney e i p m i e i sit sp ch My s ga tall u ere o m dh inu 240 e s t g a in m.A lim atic sub 100 * s am i 0 r n d 10 o l na rati ulp atio ene s i g a sc v r s o i e r y mp e ne pow ns.I imn him l of o c h i a c i t e r the ate f th volu de rt o l re r of wm a a o a i he p r r o t l t e f e s l e t h t idd .T ndu firs ora iler em ur i he em t o h o f m b n T . e om ge the rs.I f th to c ce a floo f rom n f o ke o d e s o o llig er s an sm ene inte tair n th s l d sc s or o a e a l i g a fic dow lue form spir arti win nd per ot f d a e h n s r h a e the ht lin cto ge sky na for oug nt a r o r e i n h a t r l o t a i e es rcu rm ilat diff e ci shin ent info ey, h v , t n n s e u ee ag es chim vide to s tric d th he p c pro t n e u t l f a a k ,e ro th m, loo age floo tfor an ture a m c h c l a c u p e e ea str on , st the .On is a ney age on n y t m d o f e i i e a n ch zat icr lac chim the ivili is p and f e c r h o l h o e a r t T stri era e th floo gen ndu rst r ar i i r o f f e o o the ow h fl al p sixt ring m e e t r h t the .En site l of l e a d in mo n re a nya e a h b w of a in nd i k und a o s r i sur ict, the istr ram d o t g el f lm i n e f i t s d s thi nd ten t. , ex te a s in e d e lan r r e c p a r t n r w o t e n ou dc ow mo om ead of p orte r c p g p t p s s su elin ot mo and a fe s ro he t n s e f e t e r o p rea s vi ne t pi to c is o ficu aus g s f h n n x o le ire er tryi eta ann us v ick, m c r i m f y b , an the red rict re m nd y in dist e a e g w n y im ne pin ere him e ch , th Jue c t h t n e w th llo pla om g fr e ye with wer n h o i t d t p e r sta d in nal cho de rigi p is cate n o o o a l h e e is th re s fram Site y of qua e e s t n i , 9 wh lity chim the vita the h t i d w un cted Aro e s r nte an e is
ent num o m to to a oor l n f i ney ond orig sec e chim e h h e t of mt d th , ins Fro me u ney . r r o m m f i e r s h h o n t ec in tra latf e th ep s. I arts d h e i t p s s s l n e in oce tria ly o f pr dus nich ree f o n i a s rie om into form d fr a se ed per e r s m d e t l r t e fo rtis e af sw e is or a g uin a r s s r l to pas tria c ac ust dus a n i h x f e t. re o he lan p ptu of t r d en owe the ep h t ey, f no litio o em
s iou r. ir illa the p e l z a oli itu ldspir ymb bui s a l l o o e it t als l sh use y is eta e n m n e he oft him n. T ple n, c g o i o e s i t p ica r de ng ind ate gqi l e n a h o t c y phi l, ch in m gra wal o l m e a e g th ter of e la lied ula h s p t n p i a w in pen nd gro ts a the n n y e a l on lem ee c not oe n tr l w e t e se k, f the par d e t ng trac abs I . s me ac ten
re e er a t a the es the f n th o O r . o em fr t flo he n th firs i e g of t h n i t e d rm sid .S e an ast erfo dor e m i p r a s e r r r lf co s th me h the stee er i rfor h e h t t e e, t g i o p e ou o tag wh r s s h l t h e k a t c h re ba in and ter r. T re a ary lso rm hea ate e a t n o e i h f t e t t h d c or pla , bu ce t ien and so age rom oor per t nt, rien f s x d a eat e t t l e s p e n u p x e e h e o r t e r n e , th on ne sce iffe owe is th ent Th sce he nly .D ep e t m o e n h n e t h h o t lly. o g i t c f a o t n a s , o u a i a N r d par arr n re art er. ido nce gra rs o pre eat orr ara st p e ca ng age c l i h t e o p t r s cto p p e u a a m o e p d h e e c n t e a e k n pp th ter ith ga ma e, p nal rien th eas disa dw for ous rigi atin with xpe e e e h e o e s t t s ow, h s a c c e l u d e l T e c e a a o t n h a r a i n n t h n p w ku ea tio inte con eS rigi how ra the10 hui ld t itua lso tag eo ces o h s g a s t to s a h n rive e l y t k u i n c h p e o n a m t a s m h e c o n o tw op dt eep re b the t fr nce ce i are r an hen ma to k die om ren ien e r r w u e s d v f o f i a , a f u f a er er lat so Di tea he
Another idea about the chimney is that 出口空气 10℃
another chimney in the area within the scope of the second phase planning will be transformed into a solar power plant combined with chimney effect, which can reduce a lot of energy consumption for the whole industrial art heritage area.Sun to "tower of the sun" air heating in the disc at the bottom of the collector, because the "chimney effect", heating area of air heated by solar radiation and went toward the bottom flow, concentrated in the tower and form a strong air flow of upward mobility, the heat flow along the "tower of
the sun" this "chimney" continue to rise, pushing the tower special design of the turbine, to produce electric power. 太阳能集热板
热空气 70℃ 15m/s
Common Magaplot: Social Housing Design Beijing, China | 2016.12 Instructor: Tao Han,Keren He,Siyong Liu
How do we live together in a place where the skyrocketing housing prices is high and social housing is lacking? Because of the rapid urbanization, a large population has flooded into Beijing. The update of infrastructure facilities, however, is not keeping pace.Besides due to policy and other reasons, most of the houses developed in cities are middle-class apartments. I hope that the â€œnew knowledege workersâ€? who do not have the high demands on living conditions but hope to enjoy the rich urban life can be provided in this community, which will minimize the living space to meet the basic needs of life, so that the remaining space can be maximize to meet their expectations for the city: learning, shopping, working, communicating, entertaining, etc.
This is a renovation project, the purpose is to transform B venue is located on the southeast side of the West Third
on the south side, the northeast side is Beijing's Third Rin
hospital, university and other infrastructure facilities near it
Housing Price changing from 2005 to 2015
Since 2005, Housing prices have experienced a dramatic increase in Beijing. By 2015, the average price per square meter has risen to nearly 20,000 yuan, which has caused foreigners to discourage to buy the house in Beijing.
Average time people spend on going to work
People live in the low-cost suburbs spend a large amount of the time on the way to work, and also increases the traffic pressure in the city. 28min
West of the site lies the high-class hotels
There 15 are the high-rise and low-rise middle-class apartments on the south side.
Beijing West Auto Parts City into a social housing, the Ring.A train station and the railway are to be built
ng Road with convenient transportation.There is the
t, but almost no office buildings. Remained auto retail in the north of the site
In the east there is a large park which greatly improved the environment.
High-rise middle-class apartments on the south side.
Blurred Distinction Between Living and Working
It has existed for the integration form of the resi-
Both Chinese and western government officials have com-
dence and office since ancient times.
pleted their work through such forms of collective discussion as meetings.
Oridinary day of a "new knowledge worker"
Target People The target population for the social housing I designed is the newly graduated “new worker” class with high education but low incoming. Most of them came from other cities. They have can’t afford housing in Beijing and are engaged in mental work through the Internet in the form of cooperation. They usually live in the suburbs and spend a lot of time on 17
the road every day. They enjoy the holidays to participate in various forms of entertainment.
PUBLIC VS PERSONAL Traditional housing has high standards of specifications so that middle class people can have good living environment. As a result ,new workers can only choose to share an apartment illegal or live in the basementas a rat.It'sa huge waste of high quality commercial residential building and also unfair for the new workers.The biggest benifit of lots of people living together is that they can share more infrastructure with the same expenses.This proposal aimed at creat a kind of low expense living space,trying to let the richness of public space makeing up for the lack in personal living space.
20 1Floor Plan
ORDER & ACCIDENTAL The second floor of the building is all coworking space.There are many moveable containers on the outside platform.These containers were placed randomly. Each three container form a small courtyardof their own and several group of them make up a bigger courtyard.The courtyard is where people have public gatherings. commercial place on the first floor was cut into several pieces,living many passageways for people to pass through which make the building integrate into the city,not like traditional gate community become what people revere and fear.The atriun space on the first floor is a free market.There are four pairs of elevators for people to get on to the second floor where people can work 2rd Floor Group
here,go home through stairs or go to the platform wait for something happen. In contract to the lined up ,modile producted living space upstairs,these two floors are for incidence,adding spices to your dull everyday life.
On the second floor, containers are set the square for temporary rental and hosting, public offices.
2rd Floor Unit
LIVING & WORKING Traditional housing aimed at provide more comfortable living condition,separte peope's living and working space,This kind room is not suitable for new workers.Many jobs new workers are involved in don't need people stay at the office all day.They an finish their work with a computer at home.I placed a public working space for each 10 to 20 unit provide chance for peer communication and form community.there are also working place in every unit to unify the work and life,meeting the needs of new workers.
3rd Floor upper Floor
23 3rd Floor lower Floor
Third floor are doublestorey dwelling apartments for single person , with three thermocline rooms divided between each two pillars, the large corridor is set aside for public office and activity space in the middle. single metod 3rd Floor Unit
coming alone without things to solve.
Fourth and fifth floor are double houses, two double living spaces are divided into between each two columns, with the atrium and plants such as the bamboo in the middle to create an indoor park to make up for the lack of a scarce urban landscape.
4th&5th Floor Group
4th&5th Floor Unit
The seventh floor is on the top of the building, this floor consists of the type of rooms where three partners can live together. The corridor is located on either side of the room.
6th Floor Group
Beijing has a large number of young people who can not afford the house prices and want to stay to work and live. Some people live in the basements in harsh cities and are called â€œrat clans.â€? Others live in the low-cost suburbs and spend a large amount of the time on the way to work, but also increases the traffic pressure in the city. The entertainment needs of their holidays can only be met in the city.It would be great beneficial to these people if the housing problem can be solved in a architectural way .
Hutong Metabolism Project (group work) Beijing, China | 2015.12 Instructor:Wenbao Liu Group member: Xiao Fang,Jiawen Zhang,Zhihao Liang Individual contribution:design,drawing,layout
The project was published in the Modernology And Beyond column of the fifty-first issue of Urban Flux magazine in October 2016.
With the development of industrialization, the types and total amount of municipal waste are also on the rise. Although the capacity of harmless garbage treatment is increasing year by year, the per capita waste recycling rate is declining due to the continuous increase of the total urban population. Many cities are surrounded by rubbish, the earth has become a big dump. "Garbage Besieged City" has become an urgent environmental issue to be solved in our country. However, judging from the existing waste disposal technologies in our country, the secondary pollution caused by garbage disposal methods such as incineration and landfilling is not optimistic. The problem we are trying to solve in the "Metabolism Program" is how to use the power of community residents to minimize waste output and how to make idle and discarded items become necessities of the community in the "Garbage Besieged City" , while at the same time enhance the cohesion of the community.
Metabolic Planning Process
Improve the community environment and create a new life
Loathe to give up stuff though they take Too dangerous for children to too much up place play in the street
Hand-work exhibition is going to be held in Shijiazhuang
Create a better community
Could the public space can be transformed by
First of all, we classified the daily abandoned and unused items as three parts based on
Then under the guidance of volunteers, residents can transfor
handling methods: requiring domestic composting treatment, community treatment or outside
be disposed within the community to community landscapes, c
community treatment; secondly, undergo more detailed classification according to the
same time through the Internet platform exchange for goods an
material, the possibility of transformation to facilitate the "Metabolism Program" and make the
atmosphere can be created in a modern community where p
best use of everything.
What should we do? Lets try letting them exchange stuff spoiled meals could be piled into fertilizer in their home
Seventy percent of new chair ninety percent of new camphorwood box
y the exchanged sungries?
rm waste that have completed classification to
children's toys and alley furniture, etc. At the
nd information with each other. Thus a sharing
public space is scarce and neighborhoods are
Hutong is an important feature that distinguishes Beijing from other cities. At the same time, the garbage disposal in the alley community has become more and more difficult under the modernized waste disposal system because of
waste providing functions like rest,
the narrow and fragmented relationship between the alley and the property ownership chaos left over from history,
residents as well as a walking alley.
We chose Nanluoguxiang area as ou
Sharable community In the â€œMetabolism Programâ€?, community residents take the initiative Design Work Hello, what can I help you,what do you have? Tens hanger and some clothes
to process rubbish, and they themselves build the "park" at the gate by
previously discarded wastes. People are happy through participation.
Trash transportation and landfilling will be replaced by creative
handcrafts. Garbage will become part of the community landscape and
I'd like to join the XXX
become a medium for neighborhood communication. On the network platform, people can not only get the information of renovating items, but also share the anecdotes and change the indifferent neighborhood relationship.
ur research object. The program seeks to create subtle public spaces made by play, socializing, afforestation and service, creating a "living room" for alley
Disassemble Diagram of the Monomer Production
Before and After Comparison
Create screens that block public toilets consists a large number of abandoned bottles, which can produce unique entrances and block the view and odors.
Make chic clocks by discarded bicycles at the entrance of the main hutong to inform pedestrians the time, set up a wishing bottle hanging area to guide people to recycle the water bottles and make people more willing to walk into the hutong. 41
Long strips of waste clothes can be knot together and fixed on the two adjacent street trees to form hanging chairs for pedestrians to sit and rest , which will provide recreation space for hutong residents and improve the hutong atmosphere.
Assemble a lamp holder using discarded iron rods, iron support frames, thick plastic tubes, etc; fix clean beer bottles on the holder and put small bulbs into beer bottles, connect the electric wires to the bulb for hutong lighting.
Based on waste hard plastic pipes, iron pipes, ropes and thick boulevard trees to erect a children's garden on the triangular area supported by trunks and walls. Collect waste newspapers, leaflets and other waste papers to be stacked and formed a cat house to provide shelters for stray cats.
Before and After Comparison After investigating the status of the hutong, it was found that the direct sunshine in the area
without trees can cause a very unpleasant feelin
to the pedestrians. In order to increase the publ
communication space in the hutong, we collecte discarded plastic bottles and used fishing lines to form a net shade between telegraph poles, building roofs and other objects. Bicycle parts can be assembled in the fixed frame on the buildingâ€™s walls with less windows
according to oneâ€™s own preferences to decorate the wall.
Waste books, bike chains, plastic basins, planks, buckets of drinking servers can be utilized to transform old areas where trash was stored into places for seniors to play chess and rest. 43
The plastic waste vases and rigid plastic pipes can be linked together with metal gaskets, angle irons and bolts and then be fixed on the ground and put on the
roadside for the use of vases, adding a rich green visual experience.
We use the bottle caps to create beautiful patterns on the surface of modern equipment that are incompatible with the hutong to beautify the environment. We built a shelter for critters using scrap tires.
Retreat within Comfort Beijing, China | 2016.08 Instructor:Na Wei
As an old Chinese saying goes, “The greatest retreat exists in the noisiest space”, it is believed in Taoism that man’s inner peace is purely subjective and can be truely achieved through living in a boisterous urban environment. Driven by the philosphy behind “retreat”, we approached this courtyard renovation project from the pursuit of such mental ideal. We embraced the courtyard as an opportunity to engage in a state of inner tranquility. As courtyards address the interactive relationship between the urban fabrics of the city and the spiritual mentality of individuals, we intended to reclaim and maximize the function of courtyards as places for quiescent spiritual introspection. Living in the hustle and bustle of the Bai-ta-si neighborhood, contemporary courtyard dwellers are encouraged to utilize our newly proposed courtyards not only as functional spaces for living but also as spiritual realm of meditation within the city.
Traditional singlefamily Courtyard
Urban structure of traditional courtyards
Our redesign for the new courtyards aims at bridging the transitioning stage between satisfying the ever-
Courtyards Current Add-on Apartments
changing needs for the mixed inhabitant structure of
regenerating an enclosed environment for spiritual retreat characterized in traditional courtyards.
Destroyed Buildings Newly-proposed Functional Compartments
We treated this project not only as a solution to be implemented solely in Baita Temple area but also as a universal solution that could provide insights into the urban development of the surrounding neighborhoods and the evolving types of contemporary courtyard spaces in Beijing.
Urban structure of contemporary courtyards
Contemporary mixed multi-family courtyard
Pursuit of personal retreat; Regeneration of â€œthe Spiritual Spaceâ€?
Adaption to contemporary mixed inhabitant structure; Creation of efficient functional compartments for living
Liminal space and narrow corridors
Our redesign concept sees the courtyards as an evolving building type created through the process of urban transition and the inheritance of the hutong culture. While corresponding to the functional needs of the contemporary mixed inhabitant structure, our design proposal intend to inhere the cultural identities emobodied in traditional courtyards and hutongs in Beijing. We approached the courtyard design from two aspects - the pursuit of both“comfort” and “retreat”. On the one hand, we created efficient functional living compartments that satisfy the physcial demands of contemporary hutong dwellers. By minimizing the necessary dwelling footage and eliminating current addon apartments, we hoped to regenerate the spiritual space for personal retreat and contemplation and to reclaim the courtyard that was currently occupied and displaced.
Roof and Ceiling Stucture The new buildling preserves the old roof structure of the original building.
Roof and Ceiling Stucture The new buildling preserves the old roof structure of the original building.
Interior Finishing The interior finishing is inspired by traditional residential apartments of the Chinese intellecturals
Living compartment configurations
Adaption to contemporary mixed inhabitant
structure;Creation of efficient functional com-
partments for living
1.Cultural Exchange The creation of public space fosters the social exchange of traditional culture
Means Profound cultural cultivation
Means modesty and intergrity
Means everything goes well
Pavement The route in the courtyard is highlighted by the alternation of ground pavement patterns.
Half Floor Plan
Laundry / Storage
Living + Dining 1st Floor Plan
To satisfy the ever-changing needs of contemporary Chinese dwelling
Living compartment configurations
structure, we managed to pack all fundamental facilities required for living into these highly efficient living units of minimal footage. Its flexibility of volumes and maximum number of occupants allows individuals to tailor thieir compartment according to their personal needs, preferences and budgets and to reconfigurate the space when necessary.
2 Economic Estimation Total Area: 105m2 Total Building Area: 43.5m2 Vegetation Area: 21m2 Volume Ratio: 0.40 Building Density: 40% Vegetation Ratio: 20% Cost: 300k00-450k RMB
围 “Enclosed"(group work) wei
Beijing, China | 2017.05 Instructor:Yong Su Group member:Xiao Fang, Huangjie Chen, Yuxin Ye, Weiqi Jin, Yuman Huang, Jiaxin Ao Individual contribution:design,drawing,modeling,layout
The ancient Chinese conceived of the sky and earth as round and square, respectively, calling them collectively as “round sky and square earth.” Round and square are the most basic geometric shapes. Our design combines the square with the circle. The mutual supplement of each other symbolized the complementation of Confucian and Taoist which inherits the main spirit of Chinese traditional culture. In this construction, we reconstructed the earth building, based on the site, the square and the circular earth building were combined. to form a square space on the outside for gathering, while the interior is the space for meditation. People cross, communicate, generated unlimited possibilities around circles and squares. It is no longer an centripetal defensive space , but a space for open communication.
Site Information Tulou (earthen fort)is one of the most representative forms of residence in Fujian. Due to social unrest in the Song, Yuan and Ming Dynasties, these fortified forms of military defense(stockade and fortress) have gradually been transplanted to residential buildings.Tulou buildings usually consist of rammed earth outer wall and internal wooden framework.
Form Generation 59
Form Generation The treatments of external walls in Minnan dwellings are invested with traditional features. It emphasizes the balance between the compact space and sparse space. For example, irregularities are reflected in the organized structures and logical rules are implicit in the irregular forms. For the external structure, we simplified the structure and brought back to the essentials on the basis of the square forms, making balance between intensified and dispersed spaces, people can walk through the central circular space with different heights, while feeling the quiet sky and noisy crowd.
Four groups of eight trapezoid connectors with an L-shaped edge and a circular board are need to form the roof
9 short corrugated paper connecting 2 vertical long corrugated paper
insert together at an oblique angle
8 short corrugated paper together with a circlar board connecting 2 vertical long corrugated paper
insert together at an oblique angle
finished exterior wall
finished interior wall
Before going to Xiamen for construction, we made a 1:10 model in our school to test the stability of the structure and the lighting effects. The result was very satisfactory.
However, at Huaqiao University, we encountered an unexpected problem. So it was particularly wet , the construction site city was near the ocean and only a few monolithic cardboard at the bottom could stand that big pressure, the cardboard was very good in tension but could not stand such pressure as we imagined, we temporarily added a lot of slanting cardboard with the same elevation to ensure that the overall structure is stable, but due to the damp, as a whole the structure still had a slight deformation.
This project made me feel that the construction of the entity and the production of the conceptual scheme were quite different, it would expose all the problems of the structure and the material nature when the model was be enlarged to such a large proportion.
This project finally won Silver Award of 4th Cross-Strait Young Students “City of Light” Entity Construction Competition
Minnan local-style dwelling houses Fujian, China | 2015.04 Instructor:Xiaohong Wang
CAI's ancient dwellings are located in zhangli village, guanqiao town, nanan city, fujian province. CAI's ancient residential buildings are mainly built by CAI qichang and his zi CAI from the reign of qing dynasty to the third year of xuanqing.We mapped it in the sophomore year, and was deeply shocked and effected by its dipper structure, space layout, and decoration.
jewelry, porce dynasty in the
The imperial color system of the qing dynasty
Beijing, China | 2015.06 Instructor:Keren He,Siyong Liu,David Porter
With the emp
press dowager cixi as the main ect, we analyzed the color of
elain, clothing and so on in qing
e Forbidden City.