From The Editor Dear Members and Friends of WWEA, With this fourth edition of our WWEA Quarterly Bulletin, the first year of our new publication is coming to an end. The year 2012 has not been easy for the wind sector worldwide, with policy uncertainties in several of the main wind turbine markets. In addition, and despite hopeful expectations among many observers, the COP18 that finished recently in Doha failed to deliver any major breakthroughs on additional international finance for climate friendly technologies. However, in spite of this challenging situation, the year 2012 has also brought a lot of encouraging news and, without doubt, the wind industry still is one of the most exciting and dynamic business sectors on the globe. This Bulletin highlights some of the new and most promising developments: - The survival of the Cuban wind farms after hurricane Sandy hit them demonstrates once again how reliable wind turbines are. - The half year report of WWEA shows that, despite the general global slowdown, there are very promising emerging markets that will play a major role in the coming years. - Community Wind in Europe has played an essential role in accelerating wind power deployment and increasing social acceptance. Starting in a few countries, most notably Denmark and Germany, the community power model is now becoming more and more popular in other European countries and in North America. - Some countries, especially in Northern Europe, are approaching a 100 % renewable energy grid, which is a fantastic development that few people dared to dream about only a few years back. However, such developments lead to new challenges, and fossil interests still threaten to spoil the success of these efforts. - The closer we come to 100% renewable energy, the more obvious it is that we need new policies that can regulate such electricity markets, without endangering investments in technologies with marginal costs close to zero. New models are being discussed regarding what such structures could look like in the longer term. - Some African countries are now in a position where they can invest in wind and other renewable energies. Local experts tell us that Ethiopia is one of the most advanced countries, and it is very helpful to understand the situation there well. - Without a doubt, one of the greatest success stories of the wind sector has been the rise of China as a wind super power. Goldwind, one of the most successful Chinese wind turbine manufacturers, presents a fascinating story about how it managed to succeed and what its future plans are. - On the global level, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is getting a more and more important and operational function. One of the key areas of IRENA's work is capacity building, as described in another article in this Bulletin. May this Bulletin again be useful for you, the readers! On behalf of the WWEA, I would like to wish you a peaceful end to this year, and a very good start into a successful 2013! With best wishes Stefan Gs채nger Secretary General of WWEA
Contents ISSUE 4 December 2012
Published by World Wind Energy Association (WWEA) Produced by Chinese Wind Energy Association (CWEA)
Editorial Committee Editor-in-Chief: Stefan Gsänger Associate Editor-in-Chief: Shi Pengfei Paul Gipe Jami Hossain Editors: Frank Rehmet Shane Mulligan Yu Guiyong
01 From the Editor
Visual Design: Jing Ying
Contact Frank Rehmet email@example.com Tel. +49-228-369 40-80 Fax +49-228-369 40-84 WWEA Head Office Charles-de-Gaulle-Str. 5, 53113 Bonn, Germany A detailed supplier listing and other information can be found at
04 Cuba: Two Wind Farms Survive Hurricane Sandy
Report 06 Worldwide Wind Energy—Statistics-Half Year
Regional Focus 10 Community Wind in Europe—Strength in Diversity? 16 Wind Power at a Turning Point—Key Political Challenges in Denmark and Worldwide 22 New Task Allocation in a Context of Growing
Amounts of Intermittent Renewables – Suppliers
28 Prospects and Challenges in Advancing Wind
Energy Developments in Sub-Saharan African
Tel. +86-10-5979 6665
Countries: The Case of Ethiopia (Ⅰ)
Fax +86-10-6422 8215 CWEA Secretariat 28 N. 3rd Ring Road E., Beijing, P. R. China A detailed supplier listing and other information can be found at www.cwea.org.cn
as ‘Residual Portfolio’-Managers
Company 44 Goldwind, Change is in the Air Education 50 IRENA Renewable Energy Learning Partnership
ISSUE 4 December 2012
CUBA Two wind farms survive hurricane Sandy WWEC2013 in Havana will tackle wind power utilization in tropical climates and more
â†“Gibara wind farm in Cuba
efore hitting major parts of the USA, Hurricane Sandy had devastated large areas in the Caribbean,
including Haiti and Cuba, where dozens of people were killed.
Thousands of houses were destroyed in the Eastern part of Cuba, mainly around Santiago de Cuba, the
country's second largest city. Also, the power supply in the area was seriously affected by the hurricane. The affected area, the province of HolguĂn,
accommodates two wind farms: Gibara I (5.1 MW, six 850 kW turbines installed in 2008) and Gibara II (4.5 MW, six 750 kW machines installed in 2010). Both wind farms were directly hit by hurricane Sandy, 4
ISSUE 4 December 2012
Photo: Li Bin
with wind speeds of up to 180 kilometers/110 miles
extreme challenge that the hurricane represents for
Energy Association in Havana that neither of the two wind
strong winds will be crucial in the future, not only
per hour. After first inspections, the Cuban government
announced last week at a meeting with the World Wind
farms were seriously damaged by the hurricane, and that they still provide electricity for the local grid.
Prof. Conrado Moreno, Co-Chair of the WWEC2013
and Professor at the Cuban Center for Renewable Energy Technologies (CETER): "Cuba installed the two wind
farms close by Gibara in the years 2008 and 2010, being aware that they may be hit by a hurricane. Hence our experts have taken all necessary provisions to make
them hurricane-proof. Hurricane Sandy has now clearly demonstrated that wind farms in Cuba are safe and
reliable even under extreme conditions. Thanks to the decentralized structure of the Cuban power supply
system, the overall damage to the power system could be minimized and only a relatively limited part of the island currently faces a lack of power. With more decentralized
renewable energies deployed in the near future, the Cuban power supply will hence become even more resilient and more stable. Of course we want to share our experience
with the world wind community and we are pleased that we can invite that community to the WWEC2013 taking place in Havana in June 2013."
WWEA President Prof. He Dexin: "We congratulate
our Cuban colleagues for having mastered so well this
a wind farm. There are several world regions where the knowledge of how wind farms can survive very
in the Caribbean but also in the East Asian countries where typhoons are a regular threat for wind farms.
International collaboration and exchange of experience
will help us all by learning from each other. And, also very important, wind power, together with other renewable
energy sources, can play a vital role in the recovery of the areas that have been devastated by natural disasters like the recent hurricane Sandy."
Stefan Gs채nger, WWEA Secretary General:
"Hurricane Sandy has reminded us of the vulnerability of our civilization by natural disasters, like the earthquake and tsunami in Japan a year ago. And like 20 months
ago, Sandy has demonstrated the high risks of nuclear power and the reliability of wind power, even under
such extreme conditions. The survival of the Cuban wind farms is a strong sign, like the Japanese wind farm last
year which was hit by the earthquake and a huge tsunami wave without being damaged. All this happened while
nuclear and fossil power stations were unable to provide electricity any more. We should learn our lessons from
this and accelerate as fast as possible the shift towards
decentralized renewable energy such as wind power, all over the world."
ISSUE 4 December 2012
Worldwide Wind Energy Statistics
Half-Year Report 2012 World Wind Capacity has surpassed 250 Gigawatt
The worldwide wind capacity reached 254’000 MW by the end of
June 2012, of which 16’546 MW were added in the first six months of
2012. This increase represents 10% less than in the first half of 2011, when 18’405 MW were added.
The global wind capacity grew by 7% within six months (2% less
than the same period in 2011) and by 16,4 % on an annual basis (mid-
2012 compared with mid-2011). In comparison, the annual growth rate in 2011 was 20,3 %.
●16,5 GW of new installations in the first half of 2012, after 18,4 GW in 2011 ●Worldwide wind capacity has reached 254 GW, 273 GW expected for full year ●Slowdown in China leads to global decrease, additional uncertainties in several key markets Total Installed Capacity 2010-2012 [MW]
Top Wind Markets: China, USA, Germany, Spain, and India continue to lead Still the five leading countries,
China, USA, Germany, Spain and India, represent together a total share of 74% of the global wind capacity.
The top ten markets show a
diverse picture in the first half of
2012: while five countries performed
stronger than in 2011 (USA, Germany, Italy, France, UK), India had a stable 6
market size and four countries saw
significantly less than in the previous
China and India
for new wind turbines, significantly
a decreasing market (China, Spain, Canada, Portugal).
Again in 2012, China represents
by far the largest wind market, adding 5,4 GW in 6 months; however, this is
year, when it added 8 GW. China
accounted for 32% of the world market
less than the 43% in the full year 2011. By June 2012, China had an overall
installed capacity of around 67,7 GW.
Without doubt China will continue in
the foreseeable future its number one
ISSUE 4 December 2012
position, but at a lower speed.
of the Production Tax Credit. Several
the global average: Brazil increased
prospects for the Indian market are
may not be very bright if there is
1002 MW. Both countries are expected
India added 1’471 MW, a similar
amount to the first half of 2011. The
murky due to outstanding payments
for wind generators in some parts of the country and the recent decision to abolish important support schemes.
Europe Most of the European markets
showed stronger growth in the first half of 2012 than in same period of
the previous year: the top markets in
companies have already laid off, and
the near future of the US wind market no support scheme in place. Canada installed 246 MW during the first
half of 2012, less than in the previous period in 2011.
Latin America The two biggest Latin American
markets, Brazil and Mexico, had
modest growth rates but still above
its installed capacity from 1425 MW
to 1543 MW, Mexico from 929 MW to
to continue as the lead markets in the region in the coming years.
Very encouraging developments
are taking place in Australia, whose
wind market installed additional 384
MW, equaling a 17% growth since the end of 2011.
Europe continue to be Germany with
a new capacity of 941 MW and a total
of 30’016 MW, Spain (414 MW, 22’087 MW in total), Italy (490 MW, 7’280
© WWEA 2012
MW total), France (650MW, 7’182MW total), the United Kingdom (822 MW, 6’480 MW) and Portugal (19 MW,
4’398 MW). All these markets, aside
from Spain and Portugal, showed an
increase in their new installed capacity compared to the first half of 2011.
Again, the “emerging” markets in
Total Installed Capacity 2011-2012 [MW]
Eastern Europe are amongst the most dynamic markets, e.g. Romania with
33 % growth (274 MW added), Poland with 32 % (527 MW added by April
2012), Ukraine with 64 % (37 MW
added) and Latvia with 64 % (20 MW added).
USA and Canada
28 % more than in the same period in 2011. Major uncertainties arise from
the unclear situation about the future
2nd half *
© WWEA 2012
The US market added 2’883 MW
between January and June 2012, about
New Installed Capacity 2011-2012 [MW]
ISSUE 4 December 2012
Worldwide prospects for end of the year 2012 and 2013 In the second half of 2012,
additional capacity of 19’000 MW is
the 40’535 MW of the year 2011.
to 35’546 MW, significantly less than
end of 2012.
expected to be built worldwide, which would bring new annual installations
The total installed wind capacity is
expected to reach 273’000 MW by the
Prof. He Dexin, WWEA President: “Wind technology has become a pillar of the electricity
supply scheme of many countries – just recently, Denmark announced a world record wind power share of 28 % of the country’s electricity supply. This success of wind power has become possible
because of wise supportive policies by governments on the one hand and because of innovation and cost reduction by the wind industry on the other hand. Today, wind power can compete with any
other source of energy, without causing environmental problems. WWEA calls on all governments not to reduce but to strengthen their efforts so that more investment in wind power can be done.”
Stefan Gsänger, WWEA Secretary General: “The wind industry, without doubt, is currently
in a difficult situation. Political uncertainties in some of the key markets, namely in the USA, Spain and India, are major matters of concern. At the same time, China has reached its maximum rate of
installing new wind farms, although the Chinese market continues to be much bigger than any other country. However, this leads to strong pressure on Chinese manufacturers and will further increase
pressure on wind turbine prices worldwide. More countries should now make use of the low cost of wind power and implement the technology as fast as possible.”
ISSUE 4 December 2012
Photo: Kang Dahai
ISSUE 4 December 2012
Community Wind in Europe – Strength in Diversity? By Richard Cowell, Environmental Planning at Cardiff University, UK
he World Wind Energy
‘community’ mainly in the sense that people
powerful demonstration of
community wind sector difficult and make it
Conference held in Bonn during July 2012 was a
the global scale of community
wind power, with the Conference attracting a worldwide audience to Europe, to discuss
innovative projects, policy developments and
challenges. But how is community wind faring within Europe, which many would regard as
its modern birthplace? That is what this article sets out to assess.
Just two points of orientation at the start.
First, inevitably, there is the issue of definition – what constitutes ‘community’ wind power? This article focuses on projects where the
public owns a significant, direct stake in wind power projects, but popular use of the term
‘community wind’ embraces everything from intensely local schemes, where wind power projects are developed by, owned by, and
deliver revenues for collective community
purposes, right through to schemes which are 10
from a particular area own shares. Definitional issues can make estimating the ‘size’ of the hazardous to refer to it as a ‘sector’.
Second, one can see stark differences in
progress with community wind power across Europe between countries where renewable
energy started with local actions and countries where renewable energy policy has long been
dominated by major commercial companies. In
the latter, community wind struggles to expand. Given this divide, a crude distinction between
community wind ‘leaders’ and ‘laggards’ is used to organise this article.
Still in the lead? Denmark Denmark’s reputation as a pioneer in
ISSUE 4 December 2012
community wind is well deserved. Thanks to
project to the local population.
of environmental fees – by 2000, some 80%
engagement: costs are greater, projects tend
a series of supportive government policies – tax breaks, feed-in tariffs, and the recycling of wind turbines in Denmark were owned
by the public, mainly share ownership, with
many schemes being initiated by enthusiastic
groups of local people. Local municipal energy utilities are important players, both as buyers of electricity, and co-investors in projects.
That is not to say, however, that Danish
community wind power has seen consistent growth. From 2000 onwards, changes to
national systems of financial support made
wind development more difficult. Expansion slowed, with most new investment coming
Generally speaking, the move towards
offshore wind diminishes community
to be larger and more complex, and spatial
distance dilutes connections between projects and communities. However, Denmark shows
that community offshore wind is possible. For example, joint investment by a partnership (cooperative) and Copenhagen Energy was
behind the 40MW Middelgrunden project near Øresund.
Germany The pioneering trajectory of community
from the private commercial sector rather
wind power in Germany has parallels with
risks of diminishing social engagement, the
community owned. In contrast with Denmark,
than cooperatives, and directed towards
repowering and offshore wind. To redress the 2008 Danish Promotion of Renewable Energy Act included a requirement for developers of
large wind turbines to offer at least 20% of the
Denmark. By 2000, some 75% of all Germany wind energy capacity could be classified as
however, wind energy investment expanded
consistently through the last decade, bringing
with it further absolute increases in the scale of Photo: Wang Taigang
ISSUE 4 December 2012
the community owned sector. Ownership forms
a whole set of ‘laggard’ countries. Although
Independent companies typically drew a
that could be regarded as ‘community power’
are diverse in Germany, embracing independent companies, farmers and cooperatives.
proportion of their equity from public share
offers. The presence of energy cooperatives is growing (from two in 2006 to 111 by 2011). An important feature of German community
wind is the scale of some of the projects - some
local, citizen-owned wind farms have gradually expanded to exceed 50MW, which is relatively large for community power projects.
In Sweden, the growth of community
wind power has been less meteoric than
Denmark and Germany but nevertheless there are presently a large number of wind power cooperatives in Sweden (more than 80), as
well as numerous farm-owned schemes, and growing municipality engagement. Arguably more remarkable is the institutional form
taken by some community wind projects. A
particular feature is the consumer cooperative
(Vindkonsumföreningar), in which cooperative members receive dividends according to the share of the output of the wind scheme that they have purchased from the cooperative,
plus any environmental bonuses. By selling
electricity directly to its members at a special
low rate, the national Sweden Wind Cooperative also saves its members VAT.
Still in the slipstream? United Kingdom The state of community wind power
in the UK typifies problems that persist in 12
the installed capacity of wind power in the UK reached 6500MW by 2012, the amount
(by any definition) is less than 100MW. The
problems have been rehearsed many times.
The UK has persisted with financial support
systems which are complex, create uncertainty for investors, and are most easily navigated by
large, commercial companies; capital available
to communities for renewable energy schemes is often difficult to obtain; grid connection is tricky.
In this context, UK community wind
projects tend to be small, but some display
interesting features. A number of cooperatives have emerged, and so too have schemes
developed by communities to deliver funds for community purposes rather than profit. One example is the project in the rural village of
Fintry, Scotland, where ownership of a turbine within a bigger commercial windfarm is used to raise funds for micro-renewables, energy
conservation and biofuel projects. A number of projects also see wind as a way of tackling the sustainability challenges of peak oil, climate change and energy poverty, and promoting community resilience.
For twenty years, community wind
projects in the UK have struggled against the odds – is this set to get any easier? There is
vocal government support for communities benefiting from renewable energy and, in
Scotland, a 500MW target has been set for local and community-owned renewables.
Grant schemes are available to help support
scheme development costs which, if fully taken up, may push community wind over 200MW.
The inception of the feed-in tariff in 2008 has
transformed support for small-scale renewables (it only applies to schemes up to 5MW), but the main beneficiaries have been individual, farm
ISSUE 4 December 2012
Photo: Zhang Lu
or business investments rather than collective
installed capacity of 410MW, about 15% of the
France and Belgium
projects, and the main technology of choice has been solar PV rather than wind.
There is an active network of community
total amount of wind power installed in the Netherlands.
Wind farm cooperatives are a very
wind cooperatives in the Netherlands but,
recent phenomenon in France, as they have
of community ownership are just a small
of seeking authorisation from the financial
like the UK, growth in this part of the sector has been slow, and projects with high levels
component of the overall electricity supply. The
reasons are very similar to the UK, too: financial support and regulatory systems tend to be
structured in ways which favour big companies. If one includes farmer-owned turbines within
the definition of ‘community power’, then there is a more significant contribution. For example, Windunie is a partnership between wind
turbines for selling their electricity, and its 250 members – mostly farmers – have a combined
needed to overcome severe problems in
raising finance, notably the complex process markets for issuing shares. Some Non-
Governmental Organisations have sought
to act as intermediaries in the provision of
funds, with support from the French Energy
Agency. This initiative might yield 20 projects, including wind and solar. Important actors in
these French developments have been energy supplier Enercorp, the Energie Partagée
association and Ecopower, a Belgian financing cooperative for renewable energy which, with
ISSUE 4 December 2012
Photo: Tang Taoqi
40,000 members, supplies 1.1% of households
categories of renewables – for example, the
The rest of Europe
sector in a state of uncertainty – so too can
in Flanders with green energy.
Beyond these countries, wider community
ownership of wind power relatively
uncommon. Although Spain and Portugal have seen the massive expansion of wind energy, this has been dominated by big companies
and big projects. A recent project to develop
community wind in Catalonia is something of an exception.
Key themes The sheer diversity of Europe’s
‘community wind sector’ makes deriving clear messages for the future rather difficult, but three themes are important.
1) A fate tied to conventional renewables?
In many respects, the fate of community
wind in Europe is tied up with the broader
fate of the renewable energy sector. Changes to systems of financial support can affect all 14
suspension of Spain’s feed in tariff for all new
renewable energy from 2013 leaves the whole the treatment of fossil fuels and their external costs. But wider renewable energy policy can differentially affect the scope for community projects, and vigilance towards these
distributive effects is required. The adverse
effects of complex systems of financial support
has been noted above, but more might be done in Europe to ensure that community schemes access the support available (some Canadian
provinces allocate a proportion of their feed-
in tariffs to community projects, for example). Planning and consenting systems, too, can
have important effects: in the UK, steps have
been taken to streamline consenting process
for major energy generation infrastructure (as they have elsewhere in Europe), but these do little to help smaller, community projects get through the consenting system. 2) Politics and Policy
Much attention in the ‘community wind
movement’ has focused on disseminating
ISSUE 4 December 2012
knowledge on technical issues and models
transformative energy agendas, especially the
can speak authoritatively and effectively
Germany. One can see examples elsewhere,
of ownership and financing. But is important not to neglect the political dimension – who for the community power sector in national government, to ensure that supportive
policies are created and maintained? In many countries environmental NGOs and Green
Parties have been key actors, in concert with local government, but so too have sectoral
organisations such as the Danish Wind Turbine Owners Association. The voice of community
renewables may now be getting louder. In the UK, the formation of the Community Energy
Coalition could provide an effective counter-
balance to the dominance of big business voices in energy policy.
3) Community wind in a wider sociotechnological system
Undue concentration on wind risks
move towards 100% renewable energy regions. This movement is gathering momentum in such as the Danish island of Samsø, where community-owned wind turbines (ten
of them offshore) are coupled with solar
power to match all energy consumption with
renewables for the island’s 4000 inhabitants. Community ownership might be considered a logical component of the 100% renewable region concept. Indeed, the need for tighter
coupling between electricity generation, heat
and transport, and demand management may well demand renewable energy with more
localised ownership and control, of the sort that community wind can provide.
One of the values attributed to community
drawing unhelpful boundaries around the
wind power, is that as part of a diverse and
One simple point is that for many communities,
sustainability to society as a whole. One might
community renewables movement, and misses some important technological developments. other forms of renewable energy technology may ‘fit’ the social context better than wind.
In countries where the planning and political
atmosphere remains hostile for wind turbines, solar PV offers communities potentially more straightforward means of getting into energy
generation. We are seeing this in England and the Netherlands; for example, the Westmill Wind Farm Cooperative in Oxfordshire,
England, is now looking beyond wind to
invest in solar schemes. We should however
acknowledge the historic debt to community wind which, in many locations, pioneered models of community involvement, and delivered the initial capital.
More fundamentally, there is a need
decentralised energy system it can make
a powerful contribution to resilience and
make the same point in reverse – the diversity and flexibility of community wind power has
enabled it to emerge in an array of institutional contexts, and survive the constant shifts in
energy policy and social priorities. Pluralism is the strength of community wind power in Europe – the future lies in networking that intelligence, and acting on national policy systems to better supports its expansion.
Dr Richard Cowell is a Reader in Environmental Planning at Cardiff University, and article draws on ESRC Research Project Delivering Renewable Energy Under Devolution (RES-062-23-2526). With thanks to Marieke Oteman of Radboud University, Nijmegen.
to see how community wind fits into more 15
ISSUE 4 December 2012
Wind Power at a Turning Point Key Political Challenges in Denmark and Worldwide By Frede Hvelplund, Aalborg University, Denmark
espite the economic crisis
the next steps in wind power development. It
world wind power capacity
these countries as forerunners dealing with the
and a reduction of wind turbine sales in 2011,
will grow by around 15%
in 2012; and even if the present reduced sales rate should continue, it will double by 2020. In a period of economic crisis with
excess capacity in the power sector, this is a high growth rate compared to other power
producing technologies. Nevertheless, it is not enough, as building new wind power capacity
is a part of the solution to the economic crisis (Lund 2012), which is caused by rising prices
on fossil fuels, increased fossil fuel dependency and global warming among other things. It is
therefore essential to find ways of revitalizing
wind power growth and at the same time help solve the economic crisis by means of giving
work to many of the people that have become unemployed during the crisis (Hvelplund 2011).
The reduced growth in wind power
investments is an opportunity to reconsider 16
is important to learn from countries that have
not reduced their wind power growth, and see
new challenges of increasing the share of wind power.
Here I will deal mainly with the Danish
case, as the new Danish Government, backed by an 90% majority in Parliament, has
decided to almost double the wind power
share of electricity consumption from around 28% to 50% in 2020. This is planned to be
implemented by building 1,000 MW offshore
and 500 MW near shore wind turbines before 2020, and to replace 1,300 MW onshore
capacity with 1,800 MW new onshore wind
power capacity in the same period (Ministry for Climate, Buildings and Energy, 2012).
However, whether this goal of a 50% share
of wind power will be achieved depends on a number of factors such as:
a. Can we cope successfully with the
variability challenge? With an increasingly large wind power shares, wind power will
ISSUE 4 December 2012
during a growing number of hours produce
turbine designs that are cheap, with low noise
prices as a result, or is it possible to integrate
societal conditions. It is no longer enough just
more electricity than is consumed in Denmark. Should this production be exported at low
parts of a “surplus” wind power production locally and regionally?
b. Can we redesign and/or extend the
power markets so that the market price is not automatically lowered when the production of wind power increases? At
present, wind power reduces the price at the Scandinavian Nordpool market due to the
merit order effect (Pöyry 2010). Increasing
wind power production will force Denmark
to export at times when the markets are often overcrowded. This will result in a very low
export price which at times could be as low as
1-1.5 eurocents per kWh, decreasing the annual average price of wind power sold to the grid.
The Public Service Obligation costs (PSO) to be paid from the power consumers to the wind
turbine owners will rise by 2-3 eurocents per
kWh around 2020, which may generate political opposition to further expansion of wind power. c. Can we increase the local and
regional acceptance and participation in
wind power projects? Increased wind power capacity in combination with larger turbines
makes wind power more visible and audible at
onshore locations. Combined with an increasing
distant ownership share of wind power, this has
and no light pollution, in combination with
adapting sizes to the local wind, nature and to develop larger wind turbines.
(a and b) Solving the variability
challenge and the merit order problem. A large part of the variability challenge can
be solved by selling the “surplus” wind power
from very windy periods to the heat market, to be used in heat pumps and if necessary stored
in hot water tanks until there is a need for heat and hot water (Lund 2006).
At the same time, this combination of
heat and power markets also solves the merit order problem, as it ensures that electricity from wind turbines is never sold below the
price of the most expensive heat fuel, which
will be gasoil and natural gas, having a price of 5-7 eurocents per kWh. In order not to
encourage the use of coal based electric heat, the buyers of electricity for heat purposes
should be obliged to invest in intermittency
infrastructure such as heat pumps, heat storage systems etc. Consequently, the value of wind power production can be kept at a relatively
high level even in - and after - 2020, when wind power production will be equivalent to 50% of the present power consumption.
(c and d) Generating local and regional
acceptance and participation and replacing
increased the local resistance to wind power
some planned offshore capacity with
participation from people in the wind resource
procedures should be in place (Sperling, 2010),
sites and in that way avoid high kWh costs?
regional ownership and thus increasing the
projects, hampering their implementation. This
onshore wind turbines.
but this is not enough if there is an ongoing
underlines the need to establish acceptance and d. Can we avoid overusing difficult wind
In many areas, the best and socially most easily accessible wind power locations are already
in use. Therefore, an expansion of wind power necessitates a further development of wind
The general wind power area planning
process of reducing the share of local and
resistance to onshore wind parks. Politically
this makes it tempting to increase the share of offshore wind in the energy plans. The “only”
problem in this strategy is that offshore wind
ISSUE 4 December 2012
turbines produce electricity at double the price
it is cheaper than offshore wind. Despite
MW offshore power plant) compared to 6-7
planning processes to shift to a larger share
of onshore wind turbines, which means 14
eurocents for offshore electricity (Anholt 400
eurocents per kWh for a good onshore locality.
It is necessary to introduce new legislation
requiring at least 60% of any wind power
project to be offered, at cost price controlled by an independent auditor, to local and regional households. This ensures that a large part of the ownership profit will be earned by local
actors getting incomes from and paying taxes to the local communities. This again furthers local acceptance (Warren 2010) (Musall 2011) and makes it much easier to implement onshore projects. For instance, if local and regional
offshore wind power, it is economical in the
of onshore wind power for the years to come
(Mรถller 2012). This should also include a more consumer driven wind turbine development
process, where it is possible to get cheap wind turbines of different sizes fitting the diverse
conditions from place to place both socially and with regard to onshore wind conditions. If this shift to a larger share of onshore wind power is not done, wind power could become so
expensive that it may lose its political support. 2. Local and regional majority
ownership of onshore wind power plants
ownership makes it possible to replace 550
should be furthered, as acceptance will
and electricity consumers would save around
communities where the wind turbines are
MW offshore capacity of the planned 1500
MW with 800 MW onshore capacities, society 140 million euros annually. In addition, the wind turbines will give an annual profit to
households and organizations in the host areas of around 40-80 million euros.
The result of solving the above problems
(a, b, c, d) altogether is that (I) the costs of
wind power will decrease considerably and (II) the value of the produced wind power
will increase, resulting in (III) improved wind
increase when a majority share of incomes and taxes flow into the local and regional
located. This will facilitate a larger onshore wind power capacity, and thus reduce the
average cost of wind power. Consequently,
the political support for wind power will be
consolidated which would also be beneficial for offshore wind on a long-term basis.(Hvelplund 2012).
3. Support the establishment of
smart energy systems (Lund et al. 2012)
power economy and competitiveness. This will
by combining heat, cooling, power and
make it more probable that the politically
wind power expansion on electricity prices
minimize the PSO payment from the electricity
transportation markets. It is important to find
determined wind power share of 50% in 2020
at the electricity markets, the so called merit
consumers to wind power, which will then will be realized.
The following lists some of the planning
needs in order to further the development of
wind power under the present economic crisis: 1. Onshore wind power should be
supported, as its costs are only around 50% of the costs of offshore electricity in good
wind locations, and even in low wind areas 18
the importance of further development of
ways of avoiding the downward pressure from
order effect. This can be done by integrating the electricity, heat, and transportation markets. In order to do this, it is a great help to accelerate the implementation of district heating and
cooling systems including heat pumps and heat storage systems. Often it is argued that this is a
solution just applicable for Denmark, which has a very high share of district heating systems.
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However, district heating has not always been present in Denmark and its district heating
systems were mostly built decades ago. Since then, massive technological innovations have
made district heating networks both better and cheaper than when the average Danish system was built. Thus, it would be considerably
cheaper for Germany, UK, France, etc. to build district heating/cooling systems than it was
for Denmark decades ago, and such systems
can be used both as infrastructure for variable renewable energy and for geothermal energy. Furthermore, wind turbine producers should in parallel with further development of wind
turbines, increase collaboration with companies dealing with the development of smart energy systems, and also participate in the design of
policies supporting the development of smart energy systems.
4. Local integration first, long distance
grid systems next. We are not proposing 100% local integration via smart energy systems,
and there still is a need for building new grid
systems. However, the sequence of investment has to be subjected to a subsidiarity principle, where local integration of wind power should be developed and implemented first; once
this is done, the investments in grid systems
should be implemented based on calculations
of the real need for expansion of these systems. Today, the investment procedure seems to be
the other way around, which is wrong from an
investment optimization point of view, and also results in resistance to what people rightfully could call unnecessary power lines, again
resulting in delays in both necessary power lines and investment in wind parks.
In the present situation it is important to
not just wait for better times, but to develop ideas and policies that can support the next phases of wind power development.
This article does not claim to have found
â†‘Horns Rev Wind Farm in Denmark. (Source: Vestas)
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the only way forward, but it does call for a
discussion on how to deal with a situation
characterized by economic crisis with difficult conditions regarding wind power costs and prices, combined with an increased need
for local and regional acceptance, and the
integration of still higher shares of variable wind power into the energy system. References 1. Hvelplund,F.2011: Innovative Democracy and Renewable Energy Strategies : A full-Scale Experiment in Denmark 1976-2010. In Energy,Policy and the Environment: Modeling Sustainable Development for the North. red. / Marja Järvelä ; Sirkku Juhola. Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2011. s. 89-113 (Studies in Human Ecology and Adaptation, Vol. 6). 2. Hvelplund,F. 2012: Black or Green Wind Power To be published in:
"Power for the World: the Emergence of Wind Energy" by Pan Stanford, Autumn 2012.
3. Lund,Henrik and Münster,Ebbe:“Integrated energy systems and local energy markets”, Energy Policy nr. 34, 2006, p. 1152-1160. 4. Pöyry 2010: Wind energy and Electricity Prices-exploring the
Photo: Yang Jun
“merit order”effect, Pöyry, for the European Wind energy association, 2010. 5. Lund,Henrik;Andersen,Anders;Østergaard,Poul, et al: From electricity smart grids to smart energy systems: A market operation based approach and understanding. In: Energy 42 (2012)1,p.96-102. 6. Lund,Henrik; Hvelplund,Frede: The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development : The Design of Job Creation Strategies by Use of Concrete Institutional Economics. / : Energy, Vol. 43, Nr. 1, 01.2012, s. 192-200. 7. Ministry for Climate,Building and Energy, Agreement concerning the Danish energy policy 2012-2020, 22 March, 2012. 8. http://www.kemin.dk/en-US/Climate_energy_and_building_ policy/Denmark/energy_agreements/Sider/Forside.aspx 9. Möller, Bernd; Hong, Lixuan; Lonsing, Reinhard; Hvelplund, Frede. Valuation of offshore wind resources by scale of development. / I: Energy, 11.02.2012. 10. Musall,F.D;Onno Kuik: Local acceptance of renewable energy-A case study from Southeastern Germany. Energy Policy 2011 p.3252-3260. 11. Warren, R; McFadyen, M.: Does Community ownership affect public attitueds to wind energy? Land Use Policy 2010, p. 204-213. 12. Sperling,K;Hvelplund,F,Mathiesen,Brian: Evaluation of wind power planning in Denmark – Towards an integrated perspective. I: Energy, Vol. 35, Nr. 12, 2010.
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New Task Allocation in a Context of Growing Amounts of Intermittent Renewables – Suppliers as ‘Residual Portfolio’-Managers By Eva Hauser, Uwe Leprich, Martin Luxenburger
Germany aims at constituting a new energetic
the 20%-mark with nearly
on non-renewable fossils or nuclear energy
production in Germany in 2011 closely approached
122 TWh produced while
Germany’s gross electricity generation reached about 612 TWh. Germany thus doubled its
renewable production since 2004. While the amount of hydroelectricity and electricity
stemming from the use of organic household
waste remains stable with about 25 TWh since 2004, it is mainly the ‘new’ renewables like
wind, photovoltaic and biomass that contribute to the growing share of electricity production.
Their development has largely and successfully been incentivized by the German Renewables Act (the “EEG”).
Like all other EU member states,
infrastructure in order to decarbonise the
energy system and to minimize the dependency sources and to reduce the external effects of
these conventional energies. Consequently, the
German legislator set a precise goal concerning renewable energy supply for the decades to
come. With the new EEG 2012, this goal is set by at least 35% of the total electricity supply
in 2020 and is set to increase consequently up until at least 80% in 2050.
But this rapid growth leads to many new
challenges. Most spectators would guess they
are of a technical kind, but there are also many economic and institutional challenges to be
faced as well. One of them is the question of how to allocate the renewable electricity in
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the markets or – finally - among end users.
Photovoltaic energy strongly influences spot
EU member states whose share of renewables
8 p.m. on the French-Austrian-German EPEX).
While this question actually may seem to be a
specific German one, it may soon concern more is growing or who simply take part in the interconnected electricity exchanges.
Since the beginning of 2010, the German
TSOs are obliged to sell the production of the EEG-producers exclusively on the GermanAustrian day-ahead spot-market of the
common French-German-Austrian electricity exchange, the EPEX. With about 65.5 GW of
installed renewable capacity at the end of 2011 (consisting of 29.1 GW wind generators and
24,8 GW PV), renewable power amounted to a total production of nearly 122 TWh while
the German-Austrian EPEX day-ahead volume reached about 225 TWh. Thus, renewables
represented more than 50% of the EPEX day
market prices during the actual peak price
phases in electricity markets (from 8 a.m. to This is illustrated in graph 1. Consequently,
the ratio of the hourly average peak prices to the respective annual base prices decreases continually since 2007. This can be seen in
graph 2. While the average base prices vary
(but generally tend to slightly fall due to the
renewables-induced merit-order-effect), the
peak base ratio fell from about 128% in 2007 to an actually rather stable value of 111%.
The daily profile of the electricity spot market prices has thus generally been levelised,
approaching base values. Furthermore, a new kind of profile seems to emerge: While the
ahead volume in 2011. The increasing amount of renewables sold unlimited on the spot-
market thus lead to declining spot-market
prices via the right-hand-shift of the German
merit order. According to the respective peak
load which varies between 40 and maximum 80
GW with a mean load of 65 GW, renewable feedin becomes continuously more price setting.
This development – the so-called “merit-ordereffect of renewable energies” leads to falling spot market prices in general.
But the different kinds of renewables
do not all present the same effects on the
electricity (spot) market prices: While some renewables can –at least technically - be
regulated by their operators, wind energy is intermittent, but does not follow a specific daytime pattern. Principally photovoltaic presents a specific pattern due to its
synchronicity with daylight. Wind, hydro or
biomass do generate a kind of ‘overall’ meritorder-effect which contributes to generally
lowering the electricity spot market prices.
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former daily maximum prices occurred at noon
fostered, this cannot be granted by revenues
intervals now lie during the morning and the
and a second interval with high prices occurred in the early evening hours, the daily maximum evening hours. The mid-day peak has been cut and the (average) afternoon prices even lie
beyond the annual average base prices. In sum, there is no longer a continuous peak interval
from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m., but some quite short peak phases in the morning and the evening and one may even talk about an “off-peak phase” quite close to the middle of the day, i.e. in the early afternoon.
These emerging daily price profiles show
up an important characteristic of intermittent electricity production: Their ‘market value’ (defined as the ratio of earnings obtained
in the electricity spot market to the average
price in the spot market) seems not to permit
a full recovery of investment and capital costs of these energy sources. This can be seen in Graph 3. The ‘market value’ of photovoltaic
energy decreases with growing shares of PV 2
installed in Germany and approaches the value
of the average base price. Wind energy hardly
passes the market value of more than 100% of the average German-Austrian EPEX price, but tends to slightly decrease as well. This means
that intermittent renewables - whose main cost
arise from investment and capital cost, but who do have no significant marginal cost – suffer from an intrinsic ‘non-marketability’. Their own merit-order-effect prevents first of all
themselves from profitable business prospects. If the investment in intermittent renewables is to be refinanced and their expansion to be
from spot markets3 and probably neither from future markets who tend to show up the same Therefore, the concept of ‘market
integration’ and many of its implications need
to be reviewed. Many of its advocates claim for example that their ‘market integration’ would
be able to steer synchronously the quantity of
renewables built or to be built and the ‘feed-in
behaviour’ of these power plants. In subjecting
intermittent renewables to the development of spot market prices, this would mean to adapt
them to the ‘needs of the market’. But regarding the shaded prospects of marketability of
intermittent renewables, market integration cannot be seen as an instrument which will
lead to the system integration of renewables. If
Germany as well as all other EU member states
wishes to pursue their renewables’ and climate protection objectives, other means have to be found to foster the expansion of renewable capacities to be installed.
It is rather an electricity system
transformation these states should aim to
implement. This new electricity system will consist of three main technical parts: its
core part will be constituted by intermittent
renewables (wind, photovoltaic and most of the run of the river power plants who are exempt
from marginal cost) being backed up by power plants (or grid devices) performing must-
run functions necessary to guarantee system stability and the different flexibility options whose function it is to provide the residual
energy. There is a strong probability that these
1: Cumulated feed-in data for photovoltaic energy in Germany are published since August 2010 when the total installed capacity reached about 14,7 GW peak. By the end of September 2012, it reached about 31 GW peak.
2: A recently published study from the German energy company MVV comes to the same results. They authors calculated market revenues for wind energy with different levels of CO2 emission certificate prices, with a spread reaching up to
285€2011/ t CO2 in 2050. Even this high price scenario would not guarantee the investment in new wind power plants to be recovered. Cf. Kopp, O./ Eßer-Frey, A./ Engelhorn, T. 2012: Können sich erneuerbare Energien langfristig auf wettbewerblich
organisierten Strommärkten refinanzieren?, in Zeitschrift für Energiewirtschaft, DOI 10.1007/s12398-012-0088-y, published 24
online on 27th of July 2012
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different components will rely on different
need of flexibility to be provided by those
account their absence of marginal cost while
options – and this need for flexibility
financing mechanisms. Intermittent renewables will need specific mechanisms who take into the other plants will be financed by a mix of
sales revenues or revenues from performing the different must run functions (including providing balancing energy) and some
revenues issued from future possible capability mechanisms. This is illustrated in Graph 4.
As discussed above, this necessary system
transformation needs new mechanisms capable to allocate renewable feed-in electricity if
the allocation cannot sufficiently be fulfilled by today’s market mechanisms which are
principally based on revenues stemming from marginal cost. The actual system merges
renewable electricity into the EPEX sales
volumes thus taking their ‘green’ character,
but permitting to sell them (regardless of their non-marketability via spot market revenues) at the market clearing price. The electricity
purchasing companies therefore do not have to take care of this distinction between ‘green’ or
‘grey’ electricity and their principal differences. This new system architecture –with
intermittent renewables as its core – has two
further principal characteristics: There is a high
power plants which do not depend on a
natural energy supply – i.e. the flexibility should shape the future market rules.
These rules should reward those power
plants who are able to react conforming to the intermittent renewable energy supply as close to real time as possible.
This need for flexibility and new
market rules accompanying them led
the authors to try to develop a new EEGallocation scheme that is intended to
incentivize flexibility and make best use of the core competences of the different
actors of the electricity system. This new scheme will be presented briefly in the following lines.
Principally, this new scheme lays
the responsibility for the handling of
the interaction between intermittent
renewables, non-intermittent renewables and conventional power producers on
two different ‘shoulders’: the TSOs and in particular the electricity suppliers. This scheme is illustrated in GRAPH 5.
The TSOs still keep the balancing
responsibility and their role as trustees for 25
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the financial management of the EEG-account.
present a higher error probability than those
but on a very short-time basis, i.e. preferably a
actor for the whole German territory, the broad
They would become responsible for the
‘physical’ part of an EEG power allocation ratio, quarter-of-an-hour. This could take place via a permanent data exchange processes between the Distribution System Operators (=DSO),
the TSOs and the suppliers concerning both
forecasts of renewable electricity production
and load. The final real-time physical allocation ratio could be communicated one or two
hours before delivery, just leaving the time
necessary for the suppliers to finalize their
residual portfolio on the new “residual load
spot market”. The allocation would thus nearly become a real-time allocation. This allocation ratio could help to decrease balancing
requirements. It could be based on renewables’ forecasts close to real-time (about four to two hours before delivery) which considerably improves the quality of the forecast. In the
actual system, spot-market sales of the EEG
power are based on a day-ahead basis with the forecast made in the early morning preceding
the day-ahead-auction. It thus covers a 24 hours time span with an additional preliminary of
about 16 hours. With this advance of maximum 40 hours before delivery, renewables’ forecasts
Graph 5. →
that are made very close to delivery time. In
addition, as forecasts are made by one single
geographical basis itself reduces forecast errors by the geographic leveling effect.
The TSOs then transmit the assembled
EEG power into the balancing groups of the second bulk of actors whose role would be
heavily strengthened with this new scheme: the electricity suppliers. They would be delivered with close to real-time – also on a quarter-ofan-hours-basis – renewables’ shares.
In order to complete their delivery
portfolio, they can either purchase the
remaining quantity on the electricity spot-
markets or they can make use of any kind of flexibility option within their portfolio. This
can include both additional power produced
by decentralized generation capacities or even
storage facilities, but also demand side options. Choosing the suppliers as new main actors
to handle with the residual load presents the advantage of involving just those actors who
have a well identified market competence and
a good knowledge of their clients’ behavior and load demand.
In general, this new real-time EEG-
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allocation scheme is supposed to give
incentives to render both conventional
production devices and electricity market
procedures more flexible. As the allocation of
the EEG power takes place nearly in real-time, all kinds of market participants should try to
adapt their offer and demand on the quarter-ofan-hour basis induced by this new scheme. It is thought to give flexible power plants a market-
based back-up and to better integrate ramps of renewable and conventional power plants into the markets whose sales intervals should also become 15 minutes.
This does not necessarily mean that
financial products sold at the electricity
exchanges’ forward trading become obsolete as market participants certainly will still try
to achieve price foresight. Part of this ‘foreseeability’ could for example partly be achieved
with an annual “weighted EEG-full-cost-price” analogous to the current annual financial EEG
allocation. As the TSOs would possess real-time data of the quarter-of-an-hourly production by the different types of renewables, they could
- on the above cited annual basis - pass these
costs to the suppliers. Suppliers would then be
obliged to include the share of renewables into their final consumers’ bills.
This new scheme would certainly change
many aspects of the German electricity sector and have important consequences for the
different actors of the German, if not European, electricity system. Even if it may seem to be a
specifically German discussion for the moment, the necessity to complement the marginal-
cost-based electricity market should sooner
or later concern all EU-member states where
intermittent renewables form a growing part of the power production.
Its further development and possible
implementation needs further research.
Some points have already been identified by the
authors in discussing with scientific colleagues or experts from the energy business. Principally six considerations emerged from these discussions: ● The need to precise the necessary
procedures of data allocation or financial transactions.
● The necessity of new hedging instruments
and their costs as well as the financial ability of
suppliers of each type and size to handle with a
prevalent spot market purchase. Are all suppliers
able to handle the new challenges? Will they have to concur or outsource services? Could a mark adjustment begin?
● The necessity of future instruments
(regulatory ones or tariff-based ones) capable to
give production signals to intermittent renewables once they have obtained the majority of electric power produced
● The ability of this new scheme to include
future possibly necessary capacity mechanisms if the existing market design proves to be unable to (re-)finance the costs of flexibility options (both production or storage devices).
● Last but not least the conformity with
European Law, especially in terms of non-
discrimination of foreign electricity producers whose interests should have to be weighed
against a prerogative of national governments to introduce instruments capable to increase
renewable electricity supply and hence the general development towards an affordable, sustainable
and responsible non-fossil and non-nuclear power generation.
Eva Hauser and Martin Luxenburger are researchers at the IZES (Institut für ZukunftsenergieSysteme, Saarbrücken, Germany), Uwe Leprich is Scientific Director of the IZES. The authors wish to thank Matthias Sabatier, IZES, for his support in editing this article.
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Prospects and Challenges in Advancing Wind Energy Developments in Sub-Saharan African Countries: The Case of Ethiopia (Part I - Wind Power Development for Grid Integration) Wolde-Ghiorgis, Woldemariam, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, Addis Ababa University
fter a brief introduction to wind energy potentials in Ethiopia, a Sub-Saharan African (SSA) country on the Horn of Africa,
the contribution mainly focuses on current attempts (i.e. since 2006) to explore and develop wind power generation for grid 28
integration. With a population of over 86 million engaged in traditional-pastoral
farming practices spread over 1.14 million sq.
kilometers, and a mountainous topography, the country has pressing needs for modern energy services, notably electricity. Currently, after
long delays, Ethiopia is at last engaged on a fast and growing hydro-power based electricity
supply generation development strategy based on its unharnessed hydropower potentials. Still, in view of the hindrances commonly involved in initiating and implementing
hydropower projects, alternative energy mixes are also continually being sought. Henceforth,
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prospects for, and challenges in developing
developing countries. Such procedures are
extensively considered. After wind data
it is being proposed that key grid stability
wind power generation for integration with the growing grid have been purposely and collections and analyses, designs of wind
farms (or parks) analysis, constructions of
upcoming wind farms (parks) are thus being
implemented, all dependent on imported and hopefully suitable wind turbine technologies with accompanying grid integration devices and techniques. The country has first
been pushing towards a 120 MW wind
farm development which is currently being
constructed on a site 2500 m above sea level in three phases for completion and full-capacity commissioning by 2013. Also, a 51MW wind farm located at 99 km away from the capital
city (Addis Ababa) has been constructed and now it is ready for commissioning by end
of 2012. Another bigger wind farm (with a
capacity of 153 MW) is being furthered closely by the national electric utility for construction within the coming two to three years. There are also additional wind farms that will be
apparently expected to be recommended by
consultants and assigned experts. In any case, problems with windpower integrations will need to be considered early, and as fully as
possible. Appropriate solutions will then have
to be implemented strictly after careful testing and experimentations. The contribution finally attempts to provide preliminary
recommendations and conclusions by stressing needs for urgent technology transfers, capacity building and financial supports in wind energy developments. Much could be achieved in
implementing wind energy and with other
renewables (e.g. solar photovoltaic) in line
with the new trends leading to climate-change resilient developments for all countries,
including those in SSA countries like Ethiopia, and also in the neighboring countries in the Horn of Africa.
Photo: Luo Bin
located both inland and at about 60 km from the Red Sea in the desert area of the country near the Ethiopia â€“ Djibouti border. The key
methods for reliable grid-integration of wind power are apparently still being considered
for reliable technology transfers into countries with less developed economies. Two key
technical issues of wind power integration of immediate and long-term concerns are: on
one hand, reliable methods that are needed
for implementing for stable grid connections,
and on another side, the basic needs for types of certification(s) of three â€“ and/or two-
blade wind turbines in the various wind farms that are being constructed and finalized. To
resolve the first challenge, one option would be simply to try to follow implementing the practices and trends that have been tested
and adopted in both developed and advanced
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1. Introduction: A Brief Overview of Wind Energy Potentials in Ethiopia Endowed with, but practically untapped
plentiful renewable energy resources, Ethiopia has remained for far too long as is a less
developed country. With a population heading towards 85 to 90 million, and located on the Horn of Africa (or eastern sub-region) subSaharan Africa, reportedly the country has
been in existence for 3,000 years. With plentiful rainfall, the mountainous country is the major source (circa over 85%) of Nile River that
transverses from central-eastern Africa to, then flows through Egypt into the Mediterranean Sea. The country has therefore immense
hydropower potentials (i.e. anywhere between 30 to 45 GW) which are just beginning to be
tapped to reach a generating capacity of 8 GW to 10 GW within a short time.
All agricultural practices in the country
have been practically based on animalâ€”human powers and energies. Consequently, while for
example traditional wind mills were being used for irrigation and grain grinding in ancient
Egypt and Persia, such practices have remained unknown to farmers residing in Sub-Saharan
African countries, with possible exceptions in
Kenya, Zimbabwe and South Africa. Pastoralists residing with their herds mainly in the low
and hotter lowlands have also been dependent on rain-fed water supplies. However, water
pumping from surface or underground sources for irrigation or animal drinking using wind
mills has been mostly untried and unknown.
The main reasons behind the extreme delays
in basic or traditional technology adaptations will need to be exhaustively investigated
by interested socio-economists. From the point of view advancing both traditional
and modern wind energy technologies for development, the challenges for research
activities and advancements could be seen to 30
be of universal interests or common concern to all professionals or international associations, and especially researchers on renewables and energy for development.
Focusing on relatively recent
developments in wind energy technologies for both integrated and distributed power
generations, it is well known that advancements were first progressing fast in the developed
countries in Europe and north Americas since the early 1980s. Then, similar advancement
followed in the fast advancing countries in Asia also, but which were also followed by North
African countries and South Africa. Except for
some exceptional cases, developments in most
Sub-Saharan African countries have been either to rare, or somewhat too early and ambitious. It could be said that this has been pattern of
wind power development in Ethiopia and the neighboring countries in the Horn of Africa.
While opting for grid-integrated wind power generation, Ethiopia had not been fortunate
enough to benefit from traditional wind power utilizations despite its long history in settled agricultural practices.
The problem of underdevelopment was
fundamentally rooted in underdevelopment due to lack of skills and knowledge in the transfer of modern energy services and
technologies. Too many efforts were devoted to traditional biomass energy conservations
and the efficiency improvements of fuel-wood stoves. Through the supports of concerned
professionals, Ethiopia was still assisted to opt
for wind power generation for grid-integration, a rapid step that proceeded small-scale and
community-based utilizations of wind power. So, with reasonably adequate experience, the country is moving towards the preparation of a master plan for wind power and solar
energy utilizations. The geographical locations of Ethiopia and prospective windy sites are
indicated on a map of Ethiopia (as shown in the
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Photo: Tang Taoqi
So, if availabilities of wind energy sources can
pursued to implement safe, economic and
and other special or small scale applications,
The present contribution is aimed at
discussing the ongoing efforts being seriously reliable wind-power generation systems for
integration with a growing hydro-power based
grid. There are first challenges to be addressed and surmounted since the wind farm projects being constructed are totally dependent on
imported technologies and mainly expatriate experts.
2. Ongoing Developments and Challenges in Wind Farm Power Generation for Grid-Integration in Ethiopia 2.1 Justifications for Opting Directly for Wind Power Generation for Grid-integration Despite its intermittency, globally, wind
energy is becoming a reliable renewable energy sources urgently required for sustainable
development in developed, developing, and
more recently also in less developed countries.
be firmly established, wind energy sources can be used both for electricity generation as shown in Golding . As it is being
demonstrated widely in Northern Africa, wind energy sources are also being sought in the
less developed Sub-Saharan African countries
as savers of avoided costs in view of increasing prices of imported fossil fuels. In the case of
Ethiopia, one of the countries in the Nile Basin,
while unexploited hydropower resources could be given higher priorities, alternatives, like wind energy resources, can be regarded as
additional options for rapid development. And in Ethiopia, where both hydropower and wind energy resources are found to be plentiful, as
investigated by Wolde-Ghiorgis. Generation
of electricity is being seriously seen as the key basis for transformation and socio-economic
benefits in line with millennium development goals (MDGs). Henceforth, serious efforts
are being exerted to mix hydropower and
wind energy resources where available and
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economically affordable. Still, issues like viable
highest governmental level and policy decision
resolved after operations of grid-integrated
developments and wind energy, including
feed-in tariff and power purchase agreements, all of direct interests to investors, can only be
wind power generation have been successfully implemented.
Starting from a growing hydropower-
base, with a current capacity limited to about 2,000 MW (i.e. up to end of 2012), Ethiopia is
aiming at a power system generation capacity expansion. In line with a set national Growth and Transformation plan (GTP), the present capacity is aimed at growing to about 8,000
MW to 10,000 MW within the next five years.
Within the context of sustainable development, the country is heading towards a clean climate
resilient development strategy, which is actually Photo: Tang Taoqi
being adapted as the overall national goal at the
making processes. This strategy is pursued by
focusing on significantly additional hydropower also other renewable energy programs like untapped geothermal energy resources.
Thus, the countryâ€™s national and publicly
owned utility is thus embarked on including grid-integrated wind power generation to strengthen hydropower generation.
Henceforth, starting from a 120 MW wind farm plant (WFAP) under construction in
three phases, there are also additional WFPs
of capacities ranging from 51 MW to 300 MW,
which are planned for rapid grid integrations. As being envisaged, the penetration of wind
power generation is estimated to be anywhere from 3% to 5% of the total national power
ISSUE 4 December 2012
generating capacity. If achieved, this range
going wind power developments in Ethiopia,
have to be imported. Still, even if the technically
guidelines to be recognized and addressed if
could be regarded as substantial achievement when it is fully realized that all components and economically feasible hydropower and
wind energy resources have been established to be plentifully available within the country,
there are critical considerations and challenges to be taken into account in implementing the needed energy harnessing processes.
As far as wind power development
for reliable grid integration is concerned in a less developed economy, there is the
need to choose and decide upon the most economical and appropriate wind energy
conversion technologies. Many useful lessons will have to be learned and adopted from the developed and developing countries where wind power generation has been gradually and successfully advanced during the last
three decades. Secondly, there also needs for
adopting testing, commissioning and certifying actions and steps if the electricity derived
from wind power generation is to be utilized and integrated in an existing grid system
for sustainable development, in spite of the
inherent intermittent nature of wind energy as a primary energy sources. Thirdly, there
is the pressing need for technology selection and transfer for the reliable operation and
maintenance of wind power generation for grid
a less developed country. The key objectives
have been set to seek basic formulations and grid-integrated wind power development is
going to succeed with reliability and quality
of power service delivery. The integration of electricity from different sources of energy into power systems with interconnected transmission and distribution networks
had actually stabilized much earlier before
the progresses made in implementing grid-
integrated wind power generation. However,
the integration of wind power generation is still progressing even in less developed economies.
The main objective aimed at is fast penetration of wind power generation in less developed economies that are also working hard to
benefit from grid-integrated wind power
generation. So, starting from a background
of wind power generation, the study focuses on issues at testing and commissioning,
followed by certification requirements for gridintegration. As it will finally be shown in the
concluding remarks and recommendations, any useful and viable lessons are being sought from experiences from interested countries.
2.2 Aspects of Wind Turbine Technologies and Economic Analysis for Grid Integration While the developments of grid-integrated
integration. While the physics of wind energy
wind power generation in developed and
including environmental costs incurred in
are yet being recognized and addressed in the
conversion is well understood, it has to be
noted that the total economic and social costs, developing wind energy for significant power
generation are just beginning to be explained
in more complete and recent publications , . Within the above general introduction,
this study attempts to explore the above issues in terms of set objectives to benefit from gridintegrated wind power development. The aim of the study has been to address on-
advanced developing countries have been
continually progressing, fundamental issues less developed countries. The starting and underlying issues to be taken into account
are on one hand, technology transfer, and on
another side, the need to base developments on standard economic analysis. Estimation
of viable wind conditions are also to be given serious considerations. Without going into detailed discussions, it is seen to be vital
ISSUE 4 December 2012
to base the planning and construction of
and the generator can be excited electrically
namely: wind turbine technologies for grid
generator (WRIG), or by a permanent magnet
integrated wind farms in countries like Ethiopia on three key foundations of development,
integration; economic aspects; and estimation of wind conditions.
Wind Turbine Technologies for Grid
Integration Wind turbine technology concepts have
generator (WRSG), or a wound rotor induction synchronous generator (PMSG), as shown by Heier .
The nominal and useful electric power
produced is given by 
been developed and standardized by adopting
expounded by Ackermann . The key wind
is the area swept by a turbine whose rotor
experiences from past and on-going practices over long periods since the late 1980s, as
turbines are: (i) the Type A (i.e. fixed speed
blade diameter is D; ρ is the prevailing air
Type C (i.e. variable speed with partial scale
the power coefficient.
scale frequency converter turbine) technology.
been shown that the nominal performance
turbine) technology; (ii) the Type B (i.e. limited variable speed turbines) technology; (iii)
frequency converter turbines) technology;
and (iv) Type D (i.e. variable speed with fullType A is claimed to have normalized to
use asynchronous squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) in which the induction
generator is supposed to draw reactive power from the grid. While the Type B depends on
density; v is the wind speed at the hub of, and perpendicular to the wind turbine; and Cp is As a function of wind speed
perpendicular to the wind direction, it has also
coefficient of a wind turbine can be determined (Kiranoudis et al )
where Cpr is defined as nominal power
using wound rotor induction generator (WRIG)
coefficient for a given wind turbine technology,
compensation. Then the Type C configuration
speed again for a given turbine, i.e. ranging
directly connected to the grid, a capacitor
bank is needed to perform the reactive power depends on the use of a doubly fed induction
generator (DFIG) concept corresponding to a
limited variable speed wind turbine and partial
vr is the nominal wind speed, and s is a
parameter expressing the operating range of from the cut-in speed to the cut-out speed.
So, as it seems well established by the leading wind turbine manufacturers, if vr ≈ 7.2 m/
frequency converter on the rotor circuit. So
s to 8.2 m/s , and cut-in speed ≈ 3.5 m/s, and
providing a smoother grid connection. Finally,
settled for a value of s ≈ 1.7.
the partial scale frequency converter performs the reactive power compensation, thus
the Type D technology has been developed to be compatible with variable speed with the generator connected to the grid through a
full-scale frequency converter. The frequency converter provides the reactive power
compensation with a smoother grid connection, 34
either with a wound rotor synchronous
cut-out speed ≈ 25 m/s, then all commercial
manufactures of wind turbines seem to have Economic aspects
The economic feasibility of a wind farm
is equally important as the technical potential (Kennedy ). Within broad approaches
mostly refined and advanced in the developed
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and large developing countries, vast amounts of experiences have been accumulated. There are
two issues to be carefully evaluated in advance. On the one hand, determination of investment costs is a crucial factor in determining
feasibility. This may mainly depend on the cost of the wind turbines and associated
technologies and components. Then secondly, there are the operating and maintenance
costs that are still new and mostly unknown in advance unless carefully and accurately determined by consultants using relevant research results. In assessing economic
feasibility, the cost of operation (maintenance, repairs, insurance, etc.) and provisions for the dismantling of the wind turbines must henceforth be considered and calculated
equally in the planning of a wind farm. For
economical and safe operation of a wind farm should also be expected to be viable in less
developed economies. When opportunity costs
are to be taken into account when assessing
electricity generation from wind power, these must include (Rajsekhaer et al ):
● Components of the total social and
economic costs of electricity generation:
○ Environmental costs – carbon dioxide
(CO2) costs plus the costs of other green house gas emissions;
○ Capacity costs – fixed or investment
costs, plus operation & maintenance (O&M) costs plus installed capital costs
○ Energy costs – additional variable
O&M costs plus and fuel costs
● Henceforth, total economic and social
costs will be equal to environmental costs plus capacity costs and energy costs.
The planning of the wind farm projects
being considered in a mountainous country like Ethiopia at sites far from seaports have henceforth been subjected to standard
economic analyses ,  and . Still though, Photo: Xu Hujiang
ISSUE 4 December 2012
the investment and operational costs are yet
earlier, the country is also endowed with
the new wind farms.
potentials resources (at least exceeding 2 GW).
to be fully assessed after the successful testing, commissioning, operation and maintenance of Estimation of wind conditions for wind
power generation for grid integration An estimation of local wind conditions
is especially crucial in the selection of the site. If the wind speeds are 10% smaller than expected, the energy yield will fall
and still blessed with appreciable wind power Based on preliminary estimates, the wind
power resources have been found in highlands (e.g. . around 2500 meters above sea level,
masl), semi-pastoralist farmlands (e.g. around 1,000 meters above sea level, masl -1500 masl).
At last, after delays due to many causes
, the first phase (30 MW) built with
short by more than 30%, which can quickly
1-MW two-bladed turbines is presently is
meteorological data, wind prediction also
remaining 90 MW second and third stages are
cause economic problems. In addition to an
evaluation of the wind speed based on general requires an analysis of the orography of the
site selected, i.e. the structure of the terrain,
the roughness of the surface, and the type and size of the terrain's boundaries. Furthermore,
any individual obstacles - such as rows of trees, buildings, and any other wind turbines - must be registered accurately. Already at this stage, an experienced expert must be consulted to help determine how to continue and which
methods will be used to accurately determine
the potential of local wind energy production.
Various methods have been used to measure, simulate, and evaluate wind conditions , S , and . Depending on local conditions
and the quality of any wind and data available
for the region - such as from measuring stations - a methodology will be chosen, and a decision will be made as to whether additional wind
measurements are required to corroborate the initial findings.
2.3. Prospective wind farms for grid
integration in Ethiopia From the point of view of exploiting
potential wind energy sources, it must be stressed again that Ethiopia is a highland 36
practically untapped immense hydropower,
country with varying altitudes. As indicated
being tested and final commissioning as of
2012. With significant design changes, the
going to be also completed within a short time using 1.67 MW turbines. The wind farm was
originally investigated, designed and approved for construction to be compatible with a new
hydropower plant (capacity 300 MW) located
at a distance of approximately 150 km (called
the Tekeze Hydropower plant). There is also a
nearby substation within a 10â€“km with which the new wind farm plant will be integrated. The available energy source from the wind
farm will go together with hydropower energy source, and the interconnected national grid , 
. So, if everything goes well as planned
and constructed, the countryâ€™s first grid-
integrated wind power generations are being
implemented within a period of a maximum of two years. This will be followed by another 51 MW plant, and then by a bigger 153 MW plant
in the central (Adama) and 300 M in the Ayesha sub-regions of the country, respectively. While the Ashegoda wind farm is
apparently dependent on Turbines of either Types A or C, it is expected that the Adama
turbine will be mostly of the Type D as it is
being investigated and planned with direct assistance from China. It will be built with
permanent magnet synchronous generators
ISSUE 4 December 2012
(PMSG machines), to be followed with
electronic converters for integration to a nearby grid.
Compatibility and procedures for
integration of wind power with hydropowerbased growing system: The issues relating to the grid connection
of wind farms to growing grids can be classified in the following key steps and actions , , , :
● Dimensioning and optimizing the wind
farm grid connection, in general, and especially to weak grids;
● Defining thermal limits associated with
the electrical network, actually included in the design specifications;
● Assessing the impacts of wind turbines
on the voltage quality, a task that is not usually or clearly agreed upon in the basic contractual specifications;
● Appraising quantitatively transient and
power planning in general . Nonetheless, in
general terms, all aspects of the above list are necessary for defining the grid connection of
a wind farm in a less developed economy. The last three issues are in particular important. Still, all critical methods so as to guarantee minimum requirements for stable power
system operations need to be considered in
recommending grid integrations with growing grids however; they are more relevant in the
analysis of large-scale wind energy penetration in the regional power systems.
In summarizing the envisaged
compatibility of the growing hydropower-
based grid of Ethiopia, the wind-generated
electric power will need to have the following implementation steps:
● The cluster supplies of 33 kV from
the groups of turbines (up to 6 clusters) can be brought to a common bus-bar feeding 33
dynamic stability issues of electric power flow from the wind turbine integrations in a wind farm , again possibly not clearly specified in contractual agreements; and
● Verifying the transmission problems of
bottlenecks and electrical losses that would be incurred in the transmission and distribution (T&D) networks near to the wind farm.
↑Graph 1. Wind energy conversion and electricity generation system in a wind farm for grid integration: Wind energy → Mechanical energy → Electrical energy (active power)
The key procedures as identified above
appear to be relevant, and of immediate concerns, after the power testing of the
constructed wind farms, in phases or in final stages . In the case of the wind farms being
constructed and planned in Ethiopia, much therefore needs to be learned in particular
from experiences accumulated in integrating
weak farms in the late1990s and early 2000s 
. Lasting solutions to expected operational
problems and challenges will also need to be learned from experiences of the early wind 
farm developments in India , and in wind
↑Graph 2. System planning for expanded wind power generation in wind farm for grid integration after .
ISSUE 4 December 2012
Photo: Chai Sujin
kV/230 kV transformer. As per the designs
statistically) in relation to the national system
acquisition) system to be included in the grid
the completion of the 30 MW phase of the 120
that are being finalized, each cluster will have
its SCADA (supervisory and data collection ad connection system.
● The underground cables will also
be conveniently grouped (each with 5 to 20 turbines) to deliver power to overhead 33
kV lines after transformation from the 11 kV generator voltage.
● As part of the design objective, when
fully developed after 3 years, the 120-MW wind farm will complement the hydropower plants, even if done in phases and finally delivering 478 GWh annually.
● Two key questions have been raised and
preliminary discussed as carefully as possible.
● Firstly, will there be detrimental effects
on the integrated grid network, and will there be needs for additional protection?
● Secondly, how will the timing of
wind power generation be determined (i.e. 38
or local power duration?
● At this stage of development (i.e. after
MW wind farm., answers to be both hopefully be found to guarantee safe operations of the
existing power system with the integrated wind power supply.
● If there is going be an urgent need for
modifications of substation control equipment at strategic sites like near the entry of the
existing substations, this is possibly part of current or future contractual obligations. Further, because of claimed equivalent
performances of two-blade turbines with
three-blade turbines, these could be additional advantages to be derived, but these are yet to verified or substantiated during the testing procedures.
● Otherwise, even better, faster transfer
of technology and capacity building can
be realized with provisions of published/
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computed data on performance values of threebladed and or two-bladed turbines.
● Still, as the new 30 MW first phase of the
Ashegoda 120 MW wind farm with two-blade turbines and three-blade turbines have been
constructed for immediate implementation and commissioning in Ethiopia’s first wind farm.. ● So, by taking useful lessons, the
remaining 90-MW of the Ashegoda Wind Farm is being constructed with turbine units with
capacity of 1.67 MW, longer blades and higher
towers. Similarly, the Adama 51 MW wind farm has been completed with 1.7 MW units. ● As far as it could be established,
it is important to stress that any cooling
requirements for the grid-integrations of the planned and constructed wind farm power
plants are yet to be identified and designed for the current or future wind farms.
↑Graph 3. (a) Nominal wind turbine output estimates for different turbine diameters (with typically three-blade turbines, and with two-blade turbines, as in the first-phase of the Ashegoda Wind Farm Project, and tower heights: D=62m, H=70m, Pr=1MW, 1x1MW =30MW for 30MW 1st phase of Ashegoda; 60x1.5MW=90MW for second-and third-phases of Ashegoda Wind Farm under final construction; (b) D=70m, H=85m, Pr=1.5MW, first phase 34unitsx1.5MW =51-MW at the Adama Wind farm, ready for final testing and commissioning in 2012.
2.4 Concerns about Key Technical Issues Measurements and assessment of power
computational methods. This would need to
will need to be made available to all interested
methods being followed in the installations,
quality characteristics of grid connected wind
turbines prepared and approved have been, and decision makers in wind power generation
construction and expansion for grid integration. Hopefully and ideally, the most relevant
parameters related to the power quality and grid connection of wind turbines/farms in
Ethiopia will be addressed and recommended by the contractors for adaptations and
be done by going beyond the physics of wind power principles and general engineering
testing and commissioning of wind farms for grid integrations.
3. Preliminary Conclusions and Recommendations 3.1 General Findings Drawn From
implantations. Also methods on how to assess
Preliminary Wind Farm Performances in
turbines will need to be significantly stressed
Ethiopia were first situated in the northern
wind power generation for grid integration,
coastal plain in the direction of the Red Sea (see
the power quality and to give an estimation
as part an overall technology transfer scheme.
highland areas at an altitude of 2400 m above
of the voltage quality influenced by the wind
As well known to experts and professionals in
these concerns have been reasonably addressed in recent publications , . Hopefully,
the needed solutions could be worked out by adding simulation studies by using relevant
The proposed wind farms (parks) in
sea level (i.e., near Ashegoda), still far from the Fig.4). Performance capacity factors of 31.0% to 37.7 % have been deduced as superior
values in comparison with other international projects. Various turbine types have been
ISSUE 4 December 2012
recommended from reputable manufactures
integration operation of the constructed and
claimed to be feasible. Starting from 2006,
Four critical issues can henceforth be
as being suitable for the planned project as
well. A grid connection to the 230 kV level was the interconnected national grid of Ethiopia
was technically regarded as being of low level with only an m existing capacity of 2000 MW, but currently growing fast to reach 8,000 to
10,000 MW capacities with new hydropower generation by 2012 and beyond. The
preliminary appraisal presented henceforth
stresses three interrelated aspects will need
to be considered. These are: (i) significance of
wind energy generation in mix with a growing
hydropower-based grid system. (ii) Importance of a rapid capacity building process, including minimum acquisition of full capabilities in wind power systems; and (iii) investment assurances.
Preliminary Conclusion Drawn from the
Ongoing Testing and Commissioning Stages: Despite obvious constraints and
limitations, reasonably good prospects for
wind farm developments in Ethiopia are being confirmed for grid-integrated wind power
generation. Needs for guaranteeing the grid-
Photo: Zhao Minkui
designed wind farms (parks) are however
being posed for further and closer studies.
recognized with key questions to be addressed can finally be stated as follows: First Issue:
Guaranteeing the availability of the needed wind energy resources. Second Issue: the
smooth integration of the parallel wind plants
to the interconnected national grid. Additional key concerns to be Resolved will also need to
be posed as follows: Third Issue: Guaranteeing a fixed common voltage level and a constant frequency are going to be requirements for grid-integration and safe connection, and
optimizing the capacity of the Wind Plant
in relation to the peak and base-load power
Capacity of the National Grid will need to be carefully considered. Fourth Issue: Further,
considerations of possible additional protection of reactors in the grid Network may also need to be confirmed by simulation studies. An average timing of wind power generation in relation to the national grid system or local power
duration will also need to be further monitored with possible disconnection of generating
units in the hydropower power plants. While
ISSUE 4 December 2012
it may not be necessary continuously, from
time to time, there could also be needs to for
modifications of substation control equipment at strategic locations.
3.2 Main Recommendations Wind energy technology is developing
fast and turbines are becoming cheaper and
more powerful, bringing the cost of renewably-
generated electricity down. Europe is at the hub of this high-tech industry and now the world
total turbine installed capacity reached 120.8
GW where over 27 GW of which came online in 2008 alone, representing a 36% growth rate in
In the mean time though, one can suggest that
to develop wind farms in different parts of
national electric utilities, as in the case of
the annual market . The national utility has
been carrying out feasibility studies and plans the country. Extensive discussions have been
held with the contractors, financers and other technical aspects which were not properly
addressed during the feasibility study such as aviation and military corridor issues to inject 
power to the national grid . The pressing
tasks can be summarized as follows:
● Expected challenges are to be exerted in
adopting known engineering standards for GI-
perhaps the WWEA will authorize preparations of studies and documents for uses by starting Ethiopia. Nonetheless, as a less developed economy dependent on imported oil, the
country will need to opt for expanding the mix of renewable energy sources for increasing access to modern energy services and technologies.
3.3 Closing Remarks Due to the potential available wind
WECS in growing hydropower-based grids
conditions at the project site at Ashegoda (120
interconnected system .
grid-integrated wind energy conversion is
● There are needs for minimizing
unwanted risks and disturbances of the
● Useful lessons are to be adopted as soon
as possible from the extensive experiences of 
other countries .
● There are definitely needs for adopting
codes and standards for wind power-grid integration.
● Constraints due to meteorological
conditions and altitude characteristics of different wind farms will also need to be
further investigated, including the statistical wind speed distributions.
Lessons could be adopted later during
and after commissioning the new wind farms.
MW), Adama (51 MW), and the other potential wind farms (up to 300 MW), a realization of
going to be feasible in Ethiopia. Possible energy crisis due to decreasing rainfalls and the
increasing power demand, a short term supply solution has to be implemented with wind
power generation as viably afforadable. One
main risk lies in reducing the time frame for the construction of the wind farms, as being faced currently. The extension of the construction phase is unexpectedly being prolonged for
various reasons. Still, the timely realizations of the construction works are possible after the supply contracts have been signed, and
supervisions of the construction works are
strictly followed. This would coorespond to a wind energy penetration in the range of 5%
to 10% when the total hydropopwer-bassed
generation reaches or exceeds 10 GW by 2015. The contribution has mainly attempted
to summarize Ethiopiaâ€™s wind power for grid integration from selected resources to date (i.e. November 2012). Then, it has focused
on continuing and expanding wind energy developments for grid integrations, and
community-based wind power developments,
hopefully and preferably parallel with other SSA
countries. Firstly, an outline has been presented a summary of ongoing achievements in
relatively-appreciable wind power generation
for grid integration. These developments have been presented in past WWEA Conference
participations since the Delhi Conference in
November 2006. Now (i.e. by October 2012), we have passed about 81 MW, and we are hopeful
that we will soon reach 141 MW to 300 MW or
so. Then there are plans and aims to go higher anywhere between 500 MW and 1000 MW. As expected, we are facing a number of tests in
needed technology transfer (i.e. both software and hardware technologies), and also in
successfully integrating wind power with grid interconnections reliably and technically. It
will be recalled that I had tried to point out that there were indeed challenges to be faced and
surmounted as soon as possible. In wind power development strategies in less developed
economies, There are of course massive cost
considerations and issues of rapid technology
transfer to be considered and decided upon by interested donors, as fully explained in Gibeâ€™s outstanding book . References
 E.W. Golding, E.W., 1976. The Generation of Electricity by Wind Power, Halsted Press, UK, 1976.  W. Wolde-Ghiorgis, W., Wind energy survey in Ethiopia.,
ISSUE 4 December 2012
Solar & Wind Technology, 5 (4), pp. 341-351, 1988. 
T. Ackermann, (Editor), Wind Power in Power Systems, Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 2008.
S. Heier, Grid Integration of Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Wile & Sons, Chichester, UK, 2006.
C. T. Kiranoudis, et al, Short-cut design of wind farm,. Energy Policy, 29 (2001) pp.567-578, 2001.
 S. Kennedy, Wind power planning: assessing long-term costs and benefits, Energy Policy 33, pp.1661-1675, 2005.  B. Rajsekhar, et al, Indian wind energy programme: performance and future directions, Energy Policy 27, pp.669-768, 1999.  GTZ, German Technical Cooperation Agency, 2004. TERNA: Technical Expertise in Renewable Energy Application , Wind Energy and Wind Park (Farm) Study- Site Selection, Report, Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation, EEPCO, Addis Ababa , Ethiopia, 2004.  B. Jargstroff, Practical Aspects of Wind Power Project Planning: Wind Farm Projects, Factor 4 Energy, Projects, GmbH, Wismar, Germany, and Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation, EEPCO, Addis Ababa , Ethiopia, 2005.  W. Wolde-Ghiorgis, Renewable Energy Policy and Impacts in Ethiopia; Options for lessening impacts of barrier to developments, Proceedings, World Renewable Energy Congress VIII, August 29-September 3, 2004, Denver, Colorado, USA, 2004..  SWERA, Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment, UNEP, 2004. Ethiopian Wind Energy Resources, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2004.  W. Wolde-Ghiorgis, Issues and Prospects in Opting for New Off-Grid in Favor to Grid-Integrated Wind Power Generation Systems: The Case of Ethiopia, paper presented at the World Wind Energy Conference WWEAC7, Ontario, Canada. September 2008.  W. Wolde-Ghiorgis, 2009. Ongoing Progress in Wind Farm Development for Power Generation (120-MW) with a Challenge in Technology Option and Obstacles in Site Availability: The Case of Ethiopia, paper presented at WWEAC8, Jeju, Korea, June 23, 2009.  W. Wolde-Ghiorgis, Prospective Integrations of Future Wind Farms into a Growing Grid: Expected Challenges to be Surmounted in the Case of Hydropower-Based System in Ethiopia, paper presented at WEWEAC9, Istanbul, Turkey, June 15- 17, 2010.  W. Wolde-Ghiorgis, Community-Based Wind Energy and Renewables Advancement for Rural Development in a Less Developed Country in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Ethiopia, paper presented at WWEAC11, July3-5, 2012, Bonn, Germany July3-5, 2012, Bonn, Germany  P. Gibe, WIND POWER, Renewable Energy for Home, Farm, and Business, Hhelse4a Green Publishing Company, 2004,White River Junction, Vermont, USA.
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Goldwind, Change is in the Air By Su Xiao
oldwind celebrated a growth milestone earlier this year, surpassing 10 GW of installed capacity of its
permanent magnet direct-drive wind turbines. Goldwind has provided its highly reliable and efficient turbines to wind farm projects located in 18 countries spread across six continents.
The global wind power industry has gradually shifted away from traditional gearbox turbines in
favor of permanent magnet direct drive, or PMDD, turbines in recent years. As one of the earliest adopter
of the PMDD technology, China-based Xinjiang Goldwind Science & Technology Co., Ltd. (Goldwind) has demonstrated the advantages of PMDD turbines, which are widely viewed as low maintenance and highly reliable. As the world’s largest
manufacturer of PMDD wind turbines, Goldwind is pursuing the development of larger-capacity PMDD wind turbines suitable for offshore wind farms, with its characteristic emphasis on quality, efficiency and reliability.
Thanks to over 20 years of experience in the wind industry and nearly fifteen years of dedicated R&D, Goldwind’s
turbines are now among the most advanced in the world, featuring PMDD technology and full power convertors. Goldwind's PMDD turbines provide the highest in-class efficiency, lowest lifecycle costs and exceptionally grid-friendly power output.
This summer, Goldwind commissioned its largest international project to date - the Shady Oaks wind farm in Illinois,
USA, marking over 6,500 units or 10 GW of installed PMDD wind turbine capacity. Due to the superior performance of its products, Goldwind has expanded its footprint to 18 nations on six continents.
A winning design and product portfolio “Several years ago, Goldwind made the strategic
decision to transition its entire fleet to PMDD technology
as we believed the industry would move in that direction,”
said Goldwind’s Chairman and CEO, Wu Gang. “It was clear to us that for the wind industry to evolve, it must become
more efficient, more cost competitive and more appealing to potential customers, and these are exactly the benefits that Goldwind now provides to its customers thanks to PMDD technology.”
To adapt to the complex and diverse operating
conditions in China, Goldwind designed and produced a broad range of wind turbines, which can be installed in wide-ranging climates and work efficiently in different
operating conditions including high and low temperatures, high altitude, low wind speed, and intertidal and offshore environments.
Goldwind’s ultra-low wind speed GW93/1500 turbine,
a 1.5 MW unit with a 93-meter rotor diameter, for instance, are designed for IEC Class S wind resource areas, where
the annual average wind speed is lower than 6.5 m/s. This
wind turbine has the largest rotor diameter and the highest
power generation efficiency among comparable products in
China. The GW93/1500 series was awarded an accreditation certificate by the China General Certification Center (CGC), the mainland’s leading accreditation institution, affirming that it meets national safety standard requirements. In addition to the ultra-low wind speed series,
Goldwind offers low wind speed, high altitude, low
temperature, high temperature, off-shore and intertidal PMDD series. Ever seeking to maximize value for its customers worldwide with innovative technologies
designed by its global R&D team, Goldwind has deployed its
customized wind turbines to accommodate a broad range of operating environments outside of China, utilizing them in
overseas projects such as a high altitude project in Ecuador,
a low wind speed project in Chile, a high temperature project
ISSUE 4 December 2012
in Pakistan and a low temperature project in Minnesota,
system, provide for superior operational performance and
come to recognize the advantages of Goldwind’s PMDD wind
These days, customers from around the world have
turbines, including low maintenance requirements, robust
low voltage ride-through capability, high reliability and high power generation efficiency.
Grid connection capability meets international standards The growth of renewable power places new demands
on power grid systems and so it has become increasingly
important that wind farms are able to generate stable power output and withstand fluctuations of voltage on the grid.
Goldwind has developed grid-friendly solutions ensuring its wind turbines pass on-site checks by China’s largest power grid company, State Grid. The Company was also among the first to demonstrate compliance with new national standards put into place in mid-2012. The company’s
PMDD technology is considered to be an inherently grid-
friendly technology, which when combined with Goldwind’s
proprietary full-power converters, low voltage ride-through system, SCADA system for wind farms management, wind
energy management platform, and wind energy prediction
stability. All of this helps wind farms meet new national
grid connection technological standards and enable remote Additionally, Goldwind’s PMDD wind turbines have
successfully passed a number of tests for low voltage ridethrough requirements. In November 2011, Goldwind’s Mortons Lane project was successfully approved for
grid connection in Australia, having passed a stringent
assessment by local network operator Powercor Australia.
In July 2011, Goldwind’s 1.5MW PMDD wind turbine passed the ultimate zero voltage ride-through test administered by international engineering firm GL Garrad Hassan.
PMDD wind turbines have become more and more
popular around the world because the gearless design and
superior grid connection compatibility reduce maintenance costs throughout the wind turbine 20- to 25-year lifecycle. Combine lower lifecycle costs with over 5% higher power output from PMDD turbines as compared with traditional
gearbox turbines, and the resulting cost of energy is at least 20% lower. Starting with the original 1.2 MW design in
2003, Goldwind has developed the 1.5 MW, 2.5 MW, and 3.0 MW PMDD wind turbine units throughout the past decade. Goldwind’s 6MW PMDD off-shore wind turbine is under development, with a prototype nearing completion.
Photo: Li Dahai
Globalization through localization In addition to leading its domestic market as China‘s
largest wind turbine manufacturer, Goldwind has also
achieved strong growth in international markets. Goldwind is committed to a strategy of “globalization through
localization.” It has pursued internationalization of its
R&D program, products, marketing, capital resources, and employees. Goldwind will advance the global wind energy
industry through local job creation and diversified product
offerings suitable for a wide range of international markets. Goldwind is a responsible partner in each of the local
markets that it serves. It hires local teams in key regional markets to manage marketing and sales, establish a local supply chain, secure local financing, manage wind farm construction and provide maintenance services. As of
September 2012, Goldwind employed more than 300 team members in its growing international business, which encompasses the North American, Central and South
American, European, Australian, Asian and African markets. Of Goldwind’s team members working in regional offices,
over 95% were hired locally based on their strong technical skills, managerial experience and wind industry expertise. A strategy of global professionalism together with
local wisdom is ensuring Goldwind’s ongoing success in its overseas expansion. In 2011, nearly 10% of the company’s
revenues came from overseas markets and this is expected
to grow to more than 30% by 2015. As of September 2012,
the Company had shipped over 300 MW of wind turbines to overseas projects. Looking forward, the Company has over
350 MW of overseas projects scheduled for future delivery.
Since Goldwind opened its USA office in 2010, the
Company has won 18 projects in the Americas with a total capacity over 300 MW, including 14 projects in the United
States, and the Penonome Wind Farm in Panama, Villonaco Wind Farm in Ecuador, and the Negrete and Ckani Wind Farms in Chile.
In the United States, Goldwind’s largest overseas
project to date, the 109.5 MW Shady Oaks wind farm,
has been successfully connected to the power grid and is 46
ISSUE 4 December 2012
providing affordable, clean power to homes and businesses in the greater Chicago area. In June, Goldwind announced
that it will provide 2.5 MW units to a project in Vermont that is supported by local bank financing. The 10.0 MW Georgia Mountain project will generate enough power to supply an estimated 4,200 households.
The Central and South American markets represent
another success story for the Company. Goldwind USA and
Union Eolica Panameña recently announced that the multiphase Penonome wind farm in Panama’s Cocle province
will use Goldwind’s 2.5MW PMDD wind turbines. Goldwind
Capital has committed to providing equity for the first phase of the wind farm, representing 25% of the project. The full
project, which is planned for operation in 2013, will be the largest in both Panama and Central America. In Ecuador, Goldwind is constructing the country’s first wind farm -
the high altitude Villonaco wind farm. Recently, Goldwind
USA has enjoyed tremendous success over the past several months in Latin America. With close to 200 MW of sales in
Chile, Panama and Ecuador, the Chicago-based subsidiary of the world’s second largest wind turbine manufacturer has
established itself as a leader in the increasingly competitive Latin America market.
Goldwind has been active in the African market, as
well. Goldwind’s first project in Africa, Ethiopia’s Adama
wind farm, has been successfully connected to the grid and commenced generating power. The Adama wind farm won
ISSUE 4 December 2012
an award for the best wind power project in Africa in 2011. The Australian wind market is picking up speed and
Goldwind is there to meet demand. Goldwind completed the sale of its first Australian project, Mortons Lane wind farm,
in June. The following month, Goldwind’s second Australian project, Gullen Range wind farm, received approval from
TransGrid to connect to the Australian grid. Gullen Range will be the first project in Australia to use Goldwind´s 2.5 MW wind turbines.
Most recently, Goldwind finalized an agreement to
provide wind turbines to the THEPPANA wind farm project
in Thailand, marking Goldwind’s first inroad into Southeast Asia. In September 2012, the company signed a turbine
supply contract with Thailand’s Electricity Generating Public
Company Limited, an independent power producer, for three GW109/2500 low wind speed series PMDD turbines and a
Executive Vice President of Goldwind.
Global recognition through international certifications In addition to its expanding international footprint,
Goldwind has been recognized globally for its quality design and engineering. For example, the GW87/1500 low wind
speed turbine has received design assessment certification
from TÜV Nord, demonstrating that the GW87/1500 meets international standards and supporting the company’s efforts to further expand in overseas markets. The
GW87/1500 series has an 87-meter rotor diameter with a
rated capacity of 1.5MW. It is designed for IEC Class III wind areas with an annual average wind speed of 6-8m/s.
In September 2012, Goldwind’s ultra-low wind speed
series GW93/1500 Permanent Magnet Direct-Drive (PMDD)
milestones in established wind markets such as the United
leading accreditation institution, demonstrating that the
“Thanks to our comprehensive internationalization
strategy, Goldwind has not only achieved significant
States and Australia with large scale wind farm projects in
operation, but has also expanded in emerging markets such
as Latin America, Africa and Asia. Winning new orders from
turbine was awarded an accreditation certificate by the
China General Certification Center (CGC), the mainland’s
GW93/1500 meets domestic wind industry accreditation and national safety standard requirements.
The GW93/1500 ultra-low wind speed PMDD turbine
Asian countries such as Pakistan and Thailand reflects the
has a 93-meter rotor diameter with a rated capacity of
customers,” said Wang Haibo, Executive Director and
m/s. This wind turbine boasts the industry’s largest rotor
fact that our products and services are progressively earning recognition from worldwide markets and international
Photo: Yan Xufei
1500kW. It is designed for IEC Class S wind resource areas where the annual average wind speed is lower than 6.5
diameter along with the highest power generation efficiency plus lower cost of energy compared to other turbine models in China with the same rated capacity. The GW93/1500 series can generate more than 2,000 standard hours of
power per year based on an annual average wind speed
of 5.5 m/s (assuming a standard air density and Rayleigh distribution).
Exceptional R&D and design create maximum value for customers and environment Goldwind is an integrated provider of comprehensive
wind power solutions, including wind turbine R&D,
manufacturing and sales; wind power services; and wind farm investment, development and sales.
ISSUE 4 December 2012
Goldwind, with its strong R&D capabilities, is the
system and wind energy management platform exceeded
turbines have enabled more cost efficient operation of wind
investors with completed wind farms that it has invested
world’s largest manufacturer of PMDD wind turbines, which represent the industry’s next-generation technology. PMDD farms due to the removal of what many in the industry consider to be a technical vulnerability: the gearbox.
BTM Consult’s World Market Update found that
that average annual power output from direct drive wind turbines is 3-5% higher compared to traditional designs. According to the latest report, the global market share of direct drive wind turbines increased to 21.2% in 2011,
up from 17.6% in 2010, which was largely attributed to Goldwind’s sales of PMDD wind turbines.
Additionally, according to an IHS Emerging Energy
Research report and Morgan Stanley’s Wind Power Sector report, multi-MW direct-drive turbines register 20%
fewer failures than similar capacity geared turbines. The
IHS ERR report also states that direct drive technology is
250 and 120 units, respectively.
Goldwind also provides wind farm operators and
in, developed and equipped with its advanced PMDD wind turbines. Leveraging its competitive strengths in R&D,
manufacturing and provision of comprehensive wind power services, Goldwind aims to offer its customers maximum value for their wind farm investment. Wind farms in
operation are managed by the specialized and experienced
service personnel of Goldwind’s subsidiary, Tianyuan, which also helps guarantee lifecycle value of customers’ wind
farms equipped with Goldwind PMDD turbines through “one-stop” wind power services.
Toward a brighter future Though the wind power industry faces a variety of
set to become the preferred technology concept as it will
challenges caused by global economic downturn, industry
annual average fleet-wide availability for 2009, 2010 and
innovation, wind power companies will maintain their
significantly improve the final cost of electricity.
As a result of its continuous product optimization, the
2011 was above 97%. To date, Goldwind has successfully developed and installed 1.2 MW, 1.5 MW, 2.5 MW and
3.0 MW PMDD wind turbines. As of December 31, 2011,
Goldwind’s accumulated installed capacity of wind turbines reached over 12 GW, including 10 GW of PMDD turbines,
equivalent to 9.6 million tons of coal saved per year, 23.94
million tons of carbon emissions reduced per year, or 13.11 million cubic meters of newly planted forest.
Comprehensive wind power solutions provider Wind power services are key to Goldwind’s growth
strategy. To ensure its competitiveness, the company
continues to improve its service quality with comprehensive services incorporating every stage of the wind farm
lifecycle, beginning with wind resource assessment and
continuing through to project warranty and the operations and maintenance phases. To date, the cumulative number
of wind turbines that have undergone maintenance exceeds over 4000 units. Since 2008, cumulative sales of the SCADA 48
consolidation and fierce competition both in China and
abroad, Goldwind is confident that, with a spirit of constant strategic importance. In the face of complex and sometimes unfavorable industry conditions, Goldwind has sought to increase the pace of new product development, upgrade
existing products, optimize lifetime costs, and expand its
global reach. Goldwind will work together with its local and regional partners to ensure a sustainable energy future. Providing clean, cost-efficient energy to power the
world is an urgent global imperative – and it is Goldwind’s driving force.
Goldwind strongly believes that renewable energy
plays an essential role in protecting the environment and
achieving energy sustainability. Providing the most efficient and advanced wind power technology, products and
comprehensive wind power solutions is an essential step
toward fulfilling its mission of “preserving white clouds and blue skies for the future”.
Su Xiao is corespondent of CWEA Wind Energy Magazine
ISSUE 4 December 2012
4th World Summit for Small Wind WSSW2013 "Small Wind Certification - Status, Barriers, Prospects" Husum, Germany, 21 & 22 March 2013
CALL FOR PAPERS WWEA and New Energy
The World Summit for Small
Husum are pleased to invite you
Wind will be held on the first two
place in Husum/Germany on 21
New Energy Husum is a trade
to the 4th World Summit for Small Wind WSSW2013, taking and 22 March 2013, during the New Energy 2013 trade fair.
The World Summit for Small
Wind is an annual opportunity to discuss the most important
issues affecting the domestic and foreign small-scale wind industry and to present news
from a variety of countries. It
is the perfect meeting place f o r e x p e r t s , p o l i c y m a ke r s , interested individuals, providers,
manufacturers and supply industries from the small-scale
wind turbine sector from all over the world.
days of the New Energy Husum trade fair (21- 24 March 2013).
fair for all types of renewable energy, and is the leading trade fair for small-scale wind turbine technology, and as such is the
ideal platform for a congress of such international importance.
Again top in tern at ion al
small wind experts and
participants from all over the world will discuss the latest
developments and achievements of the small wind sector.
WSSW2013 will feature
the special topic "Small Wind
Certification - Status, Barriers, Prospects" and will comprise a
two-day program covering all
important aspects of small wind
power. Papers are invited on the following topics: ● ●
Safety and quality standards
National and international
National policies for small wind
National markets for small
Off grid applications and hybrid
systems ● ●
Manufacturing of small wind
Ke y c o m p o n e n t s : b l a d e s ,
generators, controllers & inverters ● ●
Small wind for water pumping Financing small wind turbines
Abstracts format: The abstract should be concise and clearly state results, objectives or key components of the paper. They
should not exceed 500 words and should contain a list of key words. Please submit electronic copy (in doc format) of your abstract (not exceeding 2 A4 pages) by 15 December 2012 to Mr. Thomas Seifried (Messe Husum & Congress)
Phone: +49 4841 902 492
On 4 July 2012,
IRENA hosted the
‘IRENA Renewable Energy Learning
Partnership’ (IRELP) side-event in
collaboration with York University’s
Initiative (SEI) at the 11th World Wind
Energy Conference and Exhibition. The event
in meeting the growing demand for skilled and specialized
individuals in the
IRENA’S SIDE-EVENT AT THE WORLD WIND ENERGY CONFERENCE 2012
there is an obvious and challenging disparity
IRENA Renewable Energy Learning Partnership (IRELP) By Hugo Lucas, Director of Policy Advisory Services and Capacity Building, IRENA
renewable energy sector; discussed
IRENA’s goal to raise
capacity added worldwide, and this
ways in which the IRELP database can
billion to USD 450 billion by 2030.
education and training programmes
through the IRELP platform; explored be sustained and further developed; and examined current trends in the demand and supply of renewable energy curricula.
The Challenge Population growth and
development projections indicate that the global demand for energy is rising and will continue to increase rapidly. Approximately 5 million people
worldwide currently work either
directly or indirectly in the renewable energy sector. In 2011, renewables
accounted for 44% of new generation
between the skills being demanded
from employers in
the renewable energy sector and those
currently taught in many educational institutions
main concern, raised
unanimously, was that there is an unequal
global distribution of existing renewable
awareness of renewable energy
the event agreed that
is set to continue with investment
predicted to increase from USD 257
The question raised during this event
was: to what degree will the projected growth of this sector influence employment?
Education and training in
the renewable energy sector is a
critical component in achieving the
widespread deployment of renewable
energy technologies. While the fields of fossil fuels and renewable energy share certain knowledge and skill sets, to
maximise employment opportunities, further development of education
programmes specific to renewables will be required.
as well as insufficient
training opportunities in developing
regions that have significant renewable generation potential.
At this event, IRENA presented
the IRELP portal (www.irelp.org), developed to raise awareness of existing renewable energy
programmes, thereby enhancing
their accessibility. IRELP was created to meet the growing worldwide
demand for skilled renewable energy personnel; especially in developing
countries where renewable energy has
an important role to play in the growth of the green economy.
Several features of IRELP were
introduced, including the global
education and training database that is
comprised of both past and upcoming
Participants recognized the mutual
to develop appropriate renewable
e-learning platform where users
expanding outreach, and suggested
IRELP by providing them with
is accelerating rapidly. The positive
with organizations specialized in
education and training that is made
webinars, the library of renewable energy training materials, and the
receive support through online lectures and tutorials. IRELP also provides
information on workshops, courses
and degree programmes, connecting
users with institutions where they may further their education in the field of renewable energy.
Sustaining and Developing the IRELP Database
benefits of collaboration, which include opportunities for networking and
that these benefits extend especially to those scholars contributing to valuable exposure to the field of
renewable energy. In collaboration
human resource, IRELP will evolve to include more opportunities in career development, and has already begun
posting internship positions through IRELP’s social media network.
IRELP has formed strategic
partnerships with a variety of
institutions including BMU, CIEMAT,
REEEP, NREL, CEDDET, SEI, CEM, CGC, 1
RCREEE, IGA, ISES, IHA and WWEA . These partners, in addition to other
Demand and Supply of Renewable Energy Curricula
Experts in academia have
voluntary members from non-profit
observed a significant increase in
Global Student Network play a critical
With this increased interest, there is
organizations; academic, research and training institutions; and the IRELP role in contributing content to the
portal. All contributors are briefed
on IRELP’s standards and uploading
procedures, ensuring the continuous quality of the database.
The importance of providing
incentives to those individuals and institutions contributing to the
database was one of the core messages explored during the side event.
the number of applicants interested in renewable energy programmes.
a need to connect global renewable energy education providers with
each other, as well as with employers, to establish the current needs and
future demands of the market, and to
adjust the renewable energy curricula
accordingly. Having already recognised this need, IRENA is developing a
knowledge exchange Forum where
professors, renewable energy experts
and training providers can collaborate
energy content for curricula.
Global investment in renewables
impact this growth will have on
employment will depend upon the
available worldwide. The estimated 5 million jobs related to renewable
energy today could grow considerably, especially if education and training meet the needs of the burgeoning
sector. The side-event promoted active
dialogue between the participants, and
encouraged future interaction between educators and the industry; stressing the importance of facilitating and
increasing access to renewable energy education and training.
One of the challenges faced by the
industry is the disparity between the
skills being demanded from employers in the renewable energy sector and
those currently taught in educational
institutions worldwide. The IRELP sideevent was successful in conveying the importance of identifying these skills.
There was consensus among participants that IRELP will play a pivotal role by
continuing to raise awareness of readily available renewable energy education and training worldwide.
1: Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety; The Centro paraInvestigacionesEnergéticas, Medioambientales y
Tecnológicas; Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Partnership; National Renewable Energy Laboratory; La Fundación Centro de Educación a Distanciapara el DesarrolloEconómico y Tecnológico; York University Sustainable Energy Initiative; Clean Energy Ministerial; Canadian GeoExchange Coalition; Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency; International Geothermal Association; International Solar Energy Society; International Hydropower Association; World Wind Energy Association.
The World Wind Energy Association
12th World Wind
(WWEA) and Center
Caribbean Winds" Havana, Cuba, 3-5 June 2013
Visit www.wwec2013.net or www. c u b a s o l a r. c u / w w e c 2 0 1 3 f o r m o r e
and presentations for the 1 2 t h Wo r l d W i n d E n e r g y Con f e ren ce an d Exh ibiti o n WWEC2013, taking place 3-5
June 2013 in Havana, Cuba. The conference is aimed at presenting, exchanging and discussing the latest knowledge on the state of wind energy and renewable energy in general, including the state of the technology. WWEC2013 will have a special focus on the Caribbean and Central America region and will hence feature the special topic of "Opening Doors to C a r i b b e a n W i n d s " . T h e re g i o n i s j u s t about to start using wind power on a large scale, and the first wind farms have been implemented. WWEC2013 aims at developing comprehensive strategies for businesses, governments as well as for local communities
Call for Papers
provide ample opportunities to present and discuss research results which will be supported by various panels and several keynote speeches with special emphasis on public dialogue. A trade show exhibition
3. Community power, poverty alleviation and further strategies to optimize social benefits of wind power and other renewable energies 4. Local and regional plans for 100% renewable energy supply 5. Capacity building, training and education 6. System integration and optimization, grid connection 7. Decentralized and distributed energy generation 8. Wind turbine technology, systems, and components 9. Wind resource assessment and prediction 10. Wind farm planning 1 1 . W i n d f a r m s u n d e r ex t re m e c l i m a te conditions 12. Wind in the built environment: energy,
14. Wind power and tourism 15. Energy and water 16. Food and energy 17. Energy supply for communities in rural areas 18. Small wind energy systems, their potential role, and what policies are necessary 19. Hybrid systems, offgrid systems and storage 20. Financing: Equity, loans and other measures including international funds like CDM, Green Climate, Global FIT, etc. 21. Industrial strategies, cost optimization and
will showcase new technologies, suppliers
creation of local manufacturing capacities
and manufacturers in the renewable energy
22. Energy culture and communication
2. International frameworks and programs
and capacity building. The meeting will
energy integration, technology, governance
1. Local, national and regional policies,
13. Monitoring, operation and maintenance of
financing, local and regional renewable
Fax +49-228-369 40-84
Abstracts are invited on the following topics:
habitability and vulnerability.
on ownership and business models, policy,
Tel. +49-228-369 40-80
potentials, together with the other renewable
program of panels and presentations focused
53113 Bonn, Germany
information about the conference.
i n o rd e r to m a ke u s e o f i t s va s t w i n d
WWEC2013 is comprised of a three-day
WWEA Head Office
be English and Spanish.
for the Study of
pleased to invite papers
The official conference languages will
Renewable Energy Technologies (CETER) are
"Opening Doors to
Abstracts format: All abstracts should be concise and clearly state results, objectives or key components of the paper. They should not exceed 500 words and should contain a list of key words. An electronic copy (in doc format) must be submitted before 15 January 2013 to: wwec2013@ wwindea.org
WWEA Bulletin issue 4 2012