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JUNE 2019

LOAD RESTRAINT Securing a load for a safe journey Plus, a special feature on brake failure and uncontrolled rolling vehicles


Thanks to this edition’s contributors

CALL FOR CONTENT

Are you an aspiring author? Are you passionate about the safety of your workmates? Do you have an idea for improving safety or efficiency in your workplace? We want to hear from you. Contribute to Lifting Matters’ vision of a safer industry by submitting your ideas and articles to liftingmatters@writestrategy.com.au We are seeking stories about recurring incidents, significant incidents, ideas about safer and more efficient ways of working, any prevalent issues, good reminders, anything of a safety related nature. You can submit a full article, anywhere from 200 to 1000 words, or you can send us ideas about what you would like to hear us discuss in future issues of Lifting Matters. If you’re from a business, we will mention you as a supporter and publish your logo at no cost to you. We can’t wait to hear from you!

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MISSED AN ISSUE? Current and previous issues are all available for download on our website. Visit the archives at; liftingmatters.com.au


From the Editor June 2019 Welcome to the June edition of Lifting Matters. This quarter we are looking at load restraint and the why, what, who and how of securing and appropriately restraining a load while in transit. This edition we clearly outline everyone’s responsibility for load restraint, and provide some basics on how load restraint can be engineered. This issue isn’t just relevant to the transportation of heavy crane components and counterweights – it’s just as important for anyone in the industry transporting small loads on utes so check it out! We also put the spotlight on brakes and brake failure and the ways we can mitigate potential rolling incidents. We also explore the topic of handbrake failure and the weaknesses and limitations of the Cardan Shaft park brake system. This section features several incidents where mechanical or park brake failure has led to a vehicle rolling uncontrollably. In this issue, you can also read some informative and thought-provoking articles from our valued contributors including Smithbridge, Vertikal.net, CICA and Alcohol.Think Again.

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Please get in touch with us! You can visit us on Facebook, LinkedIn or drop us an email at any time. If you have an incident report, ideas about safer and more efficient ways of working, widespread issues, valuable reminders or anything else safety related, we want to hear from you. We look forward to working together to protect our people and save lives in the crane industry. Any contributions for our next edition are due by 16 August 2019. If you prefer printed glossy copies for your crane cabs, cribs, mess hall or reception, please send your postal address and the number of copies you require to liftingmatters@writestrategy.com.au. Lifting Matters is available to view at www.liftingmatters.com.au, or you can subscribe to receive an email copy each quarter. Stay safe and see you next edition!

Thank you DASHELLE BAILEY, EDITOR liftingmatters@writestrategy.com.au


Contents EDITORIAL

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FEATURE ARTICLE The who, what, why and how of load restraint in the crane industry

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INCIDENT REPORT Noumea, New Caledonia Load Restraints - What Not To Do Manchester, United Kingdom Surrey, United Kingdom Restraining: it’s in the small things

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LOAD RESTRAINT FOR LIGHT VEHICLES 2018 Load Restraint Guide for Light Vehicles

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SPOTLIGHT ON SAFE LOADS AND WORKING NEAR WATER Fuel tank relocation from Bell Bay to Newcastle

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SPECIAL FEATURE Brakes, Brake Failure & Uncontrolled Rolling Incident - Gold Coast, 2008 Incident - Queensland, 2006 Eliminating hazards related to brakes and brake failure The limitations and dangers of Cardan Shaft Parking Brakes

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INDUSTRY INNOVATION TRT manufactures innovative load connection device to increase efficiency of Modular Platform Trailers

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OPERATOR’S OPINION Why we see so many incidents relating to unrestrained loads in the field 50 WORKING SAFELY Safety Risk Management and the Industry Code of Practice

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PEOPLE PROFILE Mellanie Pascual

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HEALTH & WELLBEING The effects of drinking alcohol on workplace health and safety

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Feature Article The who, what, why and how of load restraint in the crane industry

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Feature Article

The who, what, why and how of load restraint in the crane industry Co-Authored by DASHELLE BAILEY, Editor; ALBERT SMITH, Chief Lifting Matters Sponsor, and NICK MORRIS. As vertical logistics enthusiasts, the crane industry is mostly focussed on the exciting times when we get to lift and shift things up and down - but another significant component of our operations is road transport. We might be transporting major crane components, counterweights, shackles, chains, bridge beams, piping or even just some wood blocks on the back of a ute. You name it, we move it! Just as important as ensuring a vertical lift is carried out safely, is ensuring we transport all items to, from and around the site safely.

Why? Why is it important to carry out adequate load restraint? Because it’s unsafe if you don’t Did you know the weight of a load is not enough to hold it in place? In fact, heavier loads are subject to higher forces and have just as much chance (if not greater) of moving as a light load. The load can shift forwards, backwards, upwards or sidewards in response to even normal driving conditions.

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Feature Article Serious incidents, sometimes fatal ones, have occurred due to unrestrained loads shifting during transport. These are the three most common types of incidents:

1.

The force from braking causes the load to shift forward at high speed, penetrating the cabin and seriously injuring or killing the driver or passenger

2.

The load shifts causing instability in the vehicle, often as the driver takes a corner, resulting in a vehicle overturn or serious road accident

3.

An item falls off the back of the vehicle and collides with other road users resulting in significant injury or death, or another road user swerves to avoid a fallen item causing a serious road accident

In some instances injury or death is thankfully avoided, but serious property damage can occur. Don’t be fooled. There is a common yet false view that short, slow speed journeys to move counterweights around on site do not require proper load restraint. This is completely WRONG! The load needs to be restrained appropriately, no matter how short or slow the proposed journey is. Serious accidents have occurred on many sites due to inadequate or non-existent load restraint of crane components on

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trailers for short distance on-site moves. This problem is always made worse by the steeper and changing grades on site roads which often add to the horizontal braking force applied to the load restraint system. Because it’s the law The law sets out Performance Standards for load restraints. More on that later when we look at the ‘how’ of load restraint. However, that does bring us to our next question.

Who? Who is responsible for ensuring load restraint? Every individual involved in packing, loading, moving or unloading a vehicle has a legal responsibility to follow load restraint laws. This means that in the event an incident does occur, any one of these individuals in the chain of responsibility may be found guilty of committing an offence. That includes the employer, prime contractor, operator, consignor of the loaded goods, the packer or loader, the packing or loading supervisor, or the driver. We are all responsible for ensuring that no load is ever moved without being properly restrained. The National Transport Commission’s Load Restraint Guide 2018 clearly outlines your legal obligations:


Feature Article

You are legally responsible for restraining your load so that: ɐɐ It does not come off your vehicle under normal driving conditions, including heavy braking and minor collisions. If it comes off, this is evidence you have breached the law. ɐɐ It does not negatively affect the stability of the vehicle, which can cause the vehicle to roll over or swerve uncontrollably, and cause an accident. ɐɐ It does not stick out of the vehicle in a way that could injure people, damage property or obstruct others’ paths. ɐɐ You must pick up any fallen load if it is safe to do so, or arrange for someone to retrieve it. Source: Load Restraint Guide 2018

How? How do you restrain a load? A load restraint design must take into account the forces a load is subject to during travel. This includes forces caused by changes in speed, direction or slope. Key factors in these forces are braking, acceleration, cornering, travelling on uneven surfaces and effects of wind and air flow. The law sets out Performance Standards for heavy vehicles that any load restraint design must meet. These standards ensure a load will not fall off or cause instability to

the vehicle in expected driving conditions, including braking and minor collision. The standard states the load must be restrained to the following minimum standard:

• • • •

Forward: 80% of the Load Weight Sideways: 50% of the Load Weight Reverse: 50% of the Load Weight Vertical: 20% of the Load Weight

Provided the load restraint meets the Performance Standards, you can choose how to restrain the load. When transporting heavy items, like crane components, it is best to engineer the load restraint.

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Feature Article

Lashing Method There are two key forms of Lashing Design; Direct and In-Direct.

Lashing Designs commonly use a combination of the above below techniques.

1. Direct Lashing

Relies upon blocking, containing or direct lashings between load and vehicle. An example of direct lashing is a blocked frame whereby a counterweight is positioned within the frame, preventing movement. Another example is a wheeled crane carrier, restrained by direct lashings between the crane and trailer.

Direct Lashing

2. In-Direct Lashing

In-direct (commonly referred to as tie-down) relies upon friction, whereby the load is tied down using lashings. An example of tie-down is where a clamping force is created; such as lashings direct over a counterweight biscuit positioned on load matting.

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In-Direct Lashing


Feature Article

Lashing System Components Several components are utilised in lashing design.

1.

2.

Load / Friction Matting Load or friction matting is a product specifically developed to increase the friction force between a load and the support surface. The use of this matting, several types of which are issued with design data, can greatly assist a load restraint design in tie-down and combination design. It is important to note that without a friction mat, the coefficient of friction can be unknown, and therefore, conservative assumptions are often utilised. Whereas, the friction coefficient on a load mat could be as high as 0.6. Load Chain & Binders Within Australia, the industry will often refer to Grade 70 Transport Chain. This chain is inherently different from G80 and G100 Lifting Chain and is also designed only on a 2:1 Safety Factor (whereas Lifting Chain is 4:1). Note that G80, G100 and beyond can be used in a Lashing Design to increase capacity, and some manufacturers are providing specialist products of this nature. However, Grade 70 Transport Chain / Components should never be used for Lifting. The chain, however, is only one component of the arrangement, and not usually the limiting factor. Special attention must also be paid to the load binder itself as this also affects the chain capacity.

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Feature Article

Image provided by Drake Trailers in conjunction with Budden Transport.

3.

4.

Lashing Pre-Tension Lashing pre-tension refers to the force within a lashing provided by a mechanical means, such as a load binder. The Load Restraint Guide 2018 states as a guideline that approximate pretension in a Load Binder 7mm and above is 1000kg. However, several organisations will often complete their own testing to confirm they can achieve a pre-tension in excess of this figure. The available pre-tension becomes an important factor in a tie-down lashing design. Tie-Down Force The tie-down force is the sum of the tensions on each side of a load, taking into account the angular effect. That is, multiple load binders can be used on one lashing, provided the overall lashing capacity is not exceeded. The angular effect adopts the same principles of rigging design, whereby if a tie-down lashing is not vertical, then its effectiveness will reduce below 100%.

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What next? We have looked at the why, who and how of load restraint mainly for heavy items that require engineered load restraint solutions, which in our industry is most often the transportation of crane components, counterweights and precast concrete or piping. However, the law and the principles outlined here are just as applicable to transporting smaller items such as furniture tools or on a ute tray. We look more into National Transport Commission’s Load Restraint Guide for Light Vehicles specifically in another article in this issue of Lifting Matters, so be sure to check that out also. Never take for granted load restraint standards, even if you are transporting counterweights mere metres on a site. All of us are responsible at all times for ensuring loads are safely restrained.


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Incident Report

November 2014

Noumea, New Caledonia Project

Koniambo Crane Hire

Cranes The Outcome

Iveco Stralis 450 truck and trailer loaded with counterweights and hook blocks for an 80t and 130t crane Significant property damage including truck cab, counterweight and hook block out of order. Minor injuries.

Key Learnings

• Provide transport subcontractors with clear load restraint instructions and drawings

• Load restraints to be inspected prior to departure. • All loads need to be restrained in accordance with the

National Transport Commission Load Restraint Guide (or local equivalent).

In November 2014, employees of Universal Cranes New Caledonia loaded up the crane counterweights and hook blocks on a subcontractor’s trailers in Noumea. The two trailers were being prepared for an 80t crane and a 130t crane in preparation for a 270km road journey to Koniambo, north of Noumea.

Had the truck driver been travelling at a higher speed at the time of the incident, he would have suffered serious injury and potentially fatal consequences. A short way into the journey, as the trucks were approaching a set of traffic lights, the

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lights changed to red, and the driver of one of the trucks applied the brakes suddenly. This action caused each of the counterweights and the hook blocks to separate from the restraint straps and slide forward on top of the trailer, hitting the rear of the front cab. Two counterweight slabs fell on the road as did the 5-sheave hook from the 130t crane. The truck cab was crushed inward into the driver’s cab resulting in minor injuries to the truck driver. As a result, the counterweights needed to be repainted, a guide pin on one of the counterweights snapped off, and the 5-sheave hook block was left out of order, leaving the 130t crane with only a 20t capacity hook block to complete lifts.


Incident Report

Several factors contributed to the occurrence of this incident. Most importantly, there was inadequate load restraint for the type and weight of the load. The counterweights and hook blocks had been restrained with tie-down straps only.

Key learnings from this incident

Clear written instruction needs to be provided to the transport subcontractor on how individual loads are to be restrained, including drawings of the type of restraint required and how many tie-down and attachment points. In Australia, the Load Restraint Guide 2018 should be referred to.

All loads, fixing points and tie downs are to be inspected by a supervisor prior to departure and again 10km into the journey.

All loads need to be restrained in accordance with National Transport Commission Load Restraint Guide (or local equivalent). In this example, chains and rubber matting should have been used to increase friction and provide direct restraint for the load

Contributor (content and images): Universal Cranes New Caledonia LIFTING MATTERS

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Incident Report

These images clearly show what NOT to do when it comes to load restraint. The possibilities for serious injury or death are all too obvious and avoidable when looking at these images. The National Transport Commission Australia Load Restraint Guide 2018 makes several key observations when travelling with a load.

You must restrain any load you are carrying on a vehicle so that it: • Stays on the vehicle during normal driving conditions • Doesn’t negatively impact the stability of the vehicle • Doesn’t protrude from the vehicle

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Incident Report

Restraining your load is not complex, but it does require training and knowledge

Loads can and do move if they are not properly restrained

Contributor (content and images): Smithbridge LIFTING MATTERS

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Incident Report

A restraint system specific to the type and size of your load and vehicle must be used and be able to withstand force in each direction – forwards, sideways, rearwards and upwards

You are responsible for picking up a dropped load if it is safe to do so or arranging for someone to assist in doing so

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Incident Report

Each load is different; consider the restraint method that will work best – tie-down or direct (contain, block, attach)

Check your loads and lashings regularly during your journey

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Incident Report

June 2015

Manchester, United Kingdom Project

Pedestrian barriers in transit

Truck

Two-axle flatbed crane truck

The Outcome Key Learning

• One fatality. • Damage to third party vehicle. • Damage to traffic lights. • A safety pin should be installed and used to secure the outrigger into place while in transit.

• An alarm should be fitted to alert the driver if

outriggers are not adequately secured. Alarm should not disengage until outriggers are secured. • Checking for the correctly engaged pin should form part of any pre-departure inspection procedure.

A truck equipped with a loader crane was travelling through a residential area when, unbeknownst to the operator, the outrigger extended while the vehicle was moving and tragically struck a pedestrian causing fatal head injuries. 20

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It is believed the outrigger first clipped a traffic light, then struck the pedestrian, before finally catching a car and ripping the bumper bar off. It was then the operator stopped the vehicle, having been unaware of the first two incidents. Initially, the operator and bystanders thought they were dealing with a traffic incident when it quickly became apparent that the pedestrian was also involved and severely injured. The individual who had been walking on the footpath when they were struck, suffered serious head injuries and sadly died at the scene.


Incident Report

Key learnings from this incident While we do not have access to the specific learnings, there are some obvious learnings for all owners and operators of vehicles with outrigger and stabilising arms:

The crane truck involved in this incident was fitted with a manually operated outrigger. A safety pin must be installed as part of the outrigger and must be used to secure the outrigger into place while in transit.

New and recent model cranes and crane trucks should be manufactured with a warning system on the outrigger. Older vehicles should be retrofitted with an audible and visible alarm system to alert the driver while in the cabin if outriggers are not adequately secured and continue to sound until the outriggers are secured.

Checking for the correctly engaged pin should form part of any pre-departure inspection procedure.

Adequate inspections and maintenance should be undertaken on the outriggers and outrigger pins to prevent mechanical failure.

Several very similar incidents have occurred in Australia. In February, a truck fitted with a vehicle loading crane struck a parked vehicle when it was driving along a road with the stabiliser extended, crushing and killing a worker who was standing behind the vehicle. In 2017, an outrigger on an amusement ride trailer killed the driver of an oncoming vehicle when it swung out and struck the vehicle. In 2013, a manually operated outrigger on a crane truck unintentionally extended while travelling on a public road and killed a cyclist. (Source: Australian Transport News)

Contributor (content and images): Vertikal.net LIFTING MATTERS

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Incident Report

January 2015

Surrey, United Kingdom Project

Mobile crane in transit

Crane

Two-axle Demag All-Terrain Crane

The Outcome

• Three damaged cars, no injuries.

Key Learning

• An audible and visual alarm should be installed to alert the driver if the outrigger is not fully secure.

• Checking the outrigger pin is correctly engaged should form part of any pre-departure inspection procedure.

• Proper maintenance should be undertaken on hydraulic and electrical systems, including the outriggers.

In January 2015, the outrigger beam on a city type all-terrain crane severely damaged three cars when it extended while travelling to a job in Surrey, United Kingdom. The two axle Demag crane was driving along a residential street when the beam extended damaging three cars but fortunately causing no injuries. A statement from Surrey Police stated that the crane experienced “a hydraulics failure, causing the support leg to be extended outwards.” Modern cranes with outriggers have safety features that prevent the outriggers from deploying while in transit, however, the crane experienced a possible hydraulic 22

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fault and the outrigger deployed itself, bypassing its safety features and opening while travelling. The crane driver could not see the deployed outrigger from the cabin and therefore continued driving, subsequently striking several cars parked on the side of the street. Fortunately, the incident occurred very early in the morning, and therefore, there were no members of the public in the immediate area. Incidents involving extended outrigger beams during travel - while not impossible, are relatively rare with all-terrain cranes. The cause is likely to be related to some form of contamination in the hydraulic system or an electrical fault.


Incident Report

Modern cranes with outriggers have safety features that prevent the outriggers from deploying while in transit, however the crane experienced a possible hydraulic fault and the outrigger deployed itself.

Key learnings from this incident Even though these incidents are rare with all-terrain cranes, a secondary safety measure or alert should be in place to make the driver aware if the outrigger is not secure. Regardless of what electric outrigger extender system is in place, a safety pin should also be fitted and engaged before departure, or an alarm installed to alert the driver if the outrigger is not entirely secure. Most modern cranes are equipped with an alarm system, and older cranes can be retrofitted with a similar system.

Checking that the pin is correctly engaged in the outrigger should form part of any pre-departure inspection procedure.

Regular checks of a crane’s hydraulics and electrical systems should include specific checks of the outrigger system to ensure it’s in good working condition.

If an incident does occur due to a faulty outrigger, the crane owner should refer the incident to the manufacturer so they can be aware of the potential of this incident occurring again and make safety updates where required.

Contributor (content and images): Vertikal.net LIFTING MATTERS

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Incident Report

Restraining loads

Often, it’s in the small things Incidents related to unrestrained loads can seem minor and in the general order of business in the crane industry given we transport big and small items on the back of anything from a large All-Terrain crane through to a light ute on a daily basis. It’s often these seemingly insignificant incidents that don’t get much attention, but unrestrained loads still pose a risk to every individual, our work colleagues and clients, and the people we share public roads with.

Outrigger box fell from trailer in yard Murarrie, Brisbane 30 November 2016

Spreader bar fell off Franna on highway Gateway Motorway, Brisbane 17 March 2017

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We want to demonstrate the need for attention to detail with the small things when it comes to adequately retraining loads. This collection of incidents from Universal Cranes has many practical lessons to be applied daily for anyone who is involved with loading, carrying or unloading things safely.

A yardperson loaded a truck with the outrigger box belonging to an all-terrain crane. The truck was moved forward to make way for another truck to pass. As the load wasn’t secured and was top heavy, the outrigger box fell off the trailer onto the ground resulting in damage to two lights.

A spreader bar fell off the back of a Franna onto one of Brisbane’s busiest motorways. The operator had to stop the crane in a safe location on an off-ramp to retrieve the bar that fortunately did not hit any vehicles.


Incident Report

Rubber mat flew off trailer on highway Gateway Motorway, Brisbane 12 June 2017

Shackle tie down loosened in transit, fell off trailer Ballina, NSW 26 September 2017

Load moved due to insufficient restraint Brisbane 25 June 2018

Outrigger pad fell off crane due to loosening from transit vibrations Inner City Bypass, Brisbane 17 July 2018

Gas bottle unsecured Brisbane 14 December 2018

An unsecured rubber mat left on a trailer blew off when traveling on one of Brisbane’s busiest motorways. The mat was left behind as it wasn’t safe to stop and leave the cab to collect it.

A shackle from the float of a crawler crane was not adequately tied down/fastened and the vibration from road travel worked it loose, causing it to fall off and contact the car traveling behind. No injuries were sustained.

A bundle was loaded together with the bundle puller onto the back of a semi-trailer at a refinery plant. The driver failed to add the correct quantity of straps over the bundle and attach them to the trailer to secure the load. As only two straps were used, it left the bundle puller only partially strapped to the trailer. When the truck started moving, the load shifted, forcing one side of the bundle to slip off the bundle puller.

A left rear outrigger pad was lost from a crane after vibrating loose in transit. The operator didn’t realise it had fallen off until he arrived at site and begun setting up the crane. A colleague retrieved the pad from a very busy arterial motorway in Brisbane; fortunately, no injuries or accidents occurred. The incident was the result of bent and warped runners used to store the pads on the crane.

An empty gas bottle was lying down and unsecured when traveling around a refinery site. The driver was stopped by the onsite supervisor and asked to stand the bottle up and tie it to the vehicle, the correct method of traveling safely with a gas bottle.

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Incident Report

These events reveal several simple DOs and DON’Ts for load restraint and show how easy it can be for an incident to occur.

DON’T

Fortunately, no one was injured in any of these incidents, but an unrestrained load can and has proved fatal.

DO

✗✗ Move a vehicle when the load hasn’t been fully restrained, even when moving very short distances

✓✓ Conduct pre-departure checks of restraints whether you are the primary operator or assisting as a Dogman or Yardperson

✗✗ Depart without conducting a full pre-check of the vehicle for any possible unstrained load

✓✓ Do obtain supervisor approval to depart if part of your company’s procedures

✗✗ Assume vibrations during transit won’t affect the position or security of the load

✓✓ Carry out mousing items such as shackles before departure to prevent them from vibrating loose in transit

✗✗ Assume your colleague has done the load check

✓✓ Ensure loads are restrained even when moving very short distances on site

✗✗ Neglect a pre-departure inspection even when you’re in a hurry

✓✓ Where necessary use wedges to stabilise the load and prevent movement during the journey ✓✓ Use appropriate lashing to secure loads to the truck and adapt the lashings to the weight and size of the load ✓✓ Always ensure loads are secured together and restrained to the trailer

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Load Restraint for Light Vehicles

2018 Load Restraint Guide for Light Vehicles Last year the National Transport Commission (NTC) in Australia released an updated Load Restraint Guide, and for the first time a complementary guide focussing exclusively on Light Vehicles (vehicles under 4.5t). These guides are designed to provide advice on the basic safety principles to follow to ensure loads are loaded, carried and unloaded safely. Members of the crane industry often own or drive a light utility vehicle which may be used to transport items either during the week for job related tasks or for personal use outside work hours. It important to understand your legal obligations in regard to Load Restraint even on Light Vehicles for personal use. The Load Restraint Guide

provides transport drivers, operators, and other participants in the transport chain of responsibility with basic safety principles for the safe carriage of loads on road vehicles. The updated Load Restraint Guide and Load Restraint Guide for Light Vehicles was reviewed and endorsed by Australia’s Transport Ministers. The Ministers also approved the NTC’s recommendation to retain the current load restraint performance standards and approved updates to the Australia Road Rules which move load restraint obligations into the law.

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Load Restraint for Light Vehicles

You are legally responsible for restraining any load you are carrying on a Light Vehicle so that it:

Stays on the vehicle during normal driving conditions

Doesn’t negatively affect the stability of the vehicle

Doesn’t protrude from the vehicle in a way that could injure people, damage property or obstruct others’ paths

You are also responsible for picking up any fallen load if it is safe to do so. The Performance Standards provided by the NTC set out the minimum amount of force a restraint system must be able to withstand in each direction by law. These are:

Source: National Transport Commission Load Restraint Guide 2018 28

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80% of the weight of the load forwards

50% of the weight of the load sideways and rearwards

20% of the weight of the load upwards (if the load isn’t fully contained).

As well as properly restraining a load it is vital to keep it within the vehicle’s maximum safe and legal loaded weight and dimensions. Not being within limits is one of the most common reasons people are fined for load breaches. Breaching load limits can lead to significant on the spot fines as well as voiding insurance in the event of a crash. In the event of damage to property or injury, there can be substantial additional penalties.


Load Restraint for Light Vehicles

These guidelines apply to the Australian Road Rules model law and are adopted by states and territories within their own laws. Be sure to check out the applicable laws in your own state as some states do have more specific requirements.

For more information about the National Transport Commission’s Load Restraint Guide for Light Vehicles visit www.ntc.gov.au

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Spotlight on safe loads and working near water

Fuel tank relocation from Bell Bay to Newcastle An example of good practice

In our March issue we explored executing crane lifts safely on and around water, and this issue we’re talking about secure transportation of loads. Smithbridge Group’s project to relocate fuel tanks from Bell Bay to Newcastle tackled both these challenges, safely and effectively. Smithbridge was contracted to move three large fuel tanks each weighing 420 tonnes from the decommissioned Hydro Tasmania Bell Bay Power Station to Mayfield Terminal in Newcastle. The project provides a practical example of good practice when transporting complex loads, as well as planning and executing crane lifts nearby to water. 30

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✓✓ Maritime engineers and naval architects engaged for barge design, marine engineering and tow plan ✓✓ Design and build of custom transport frames


Spotlight on safe loads and working near water

Smithbridge worked closely with two specialist consultants to ensure there was appropriate planning for this highly complex relocation. Melbourne-based Constructioneering was engaged for structural engineering to ensure the load was safe to lift. As we discussed in the March edition of Lifting Matters, an all-important naval architect and marine engineer was also engaged, International Maritime Consultants, for the marine engineering and tow plans. Before the tanks could be relocated, assessments had to be conducted to ensure the tanks could structurally withstand being moved. Constructioneering conducted this assessment, and the resulting methodology involved cutting into the tank to remove existing pipework and oil waste, then reinforcing the tanks with support beams and vertical tensioned steel tendons.

Transportation After they were prepped for transport, the tanks were individually jacked high enough for a customised transport frame and self-propelled trailer system to be placed beneath them. The transport frame was designed in-house by Smithbridge engineers using Bailey bridge trusses running between fabricated headstocks, supported laterally across the tanks. The frame was placed on four trailers, one on each corner of the frame, with a jacking height of 3.5m to allow the tank shell to maintain clearance from sea swell during travel and have sufficient clearance from any safety rails.

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Spotlight on barge-mounted cranes

A custom-built jetty was required that could sustain the load of the self-propelled trailers and tanks, for the tanks to be loaded onto the barge.

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Spotlight on barge-mounted cranes

Loading onto barges A custom-built jetty was required that could sustain the load of the self-propelled trailers and tanks, to enable the tanks to be loaded onto the barge. Smithbridge mobilised a 150t Kobelco crawler crane and a 50t Grove rough terrain crane to assemble two parallel 48m jetties at Bell Bay for this purpose. The tanks were supported on braced support stools during jacking. They were jacked 150mm at a time using an airbag system until they were approximately 3.5m off the ground. The chosen vessel was a 76 metre by 24 metre dumb barge. The barge design included pedestals welded to the deck, which the shell of each tank rested on. To allow for the flexing of the barge on the ocean, the tank was not fixed onto the pedestals but was secured using support bollards and engineered stops.

The ocean journey The size of the tanks meant that individual journeys had to be made for each one. After the 579 nautical mile journey, the tanks were unloaded directly onto the wharf in Newcastle with water ballast used to tilt the deck of the barge to align it with the wharf. Once the self-propelled trailers were safely back on dry land, they transported the tanks over 1.5km to the destination at the Mayfield Terminal.

Safely delivered through extensive planning Smithbridge worked with qualified and certified specialists on the structural and maritime aspects of this project. Lifting and moving anything near or on the water is high risk, particularly unusually large or heavy items. The combined planning effort on this project meant the team achieved turnaround times of 50 to 58 hours in Newcastle and Bell Bay.

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Special Feature Brakes, Brake Failure & Uncontrolled Rolling

This issue we make a special investigation into brakes and brake failure, and how we can prevent serious injuries and fatalities related to uncontrolled rolling vehicles.

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Brakes, Brake Failure & Uncontrolled Rolling

SafeWork Australia conducted a study on work-related fatalities involving trucks between 2003 and 2012. SafeWork’s analysis revealed that 16% of workers killed in non-public road incidents involving trucks died because they or another worker failed to adequately brake a vehicle. In some instances, brake failure occurred.

Uncontrolled rolling of trucks, as well as other vehicles such as forklifts or utes, is a very real, but very preventable risk faced daily in the crane industry. Let’s take a look at a couple of incidents where this occurred.

Incidents

Gold Coast, 2008 Project

Casual Crane Hire

Cranes

20t Rough Terrain, Semi-trailer

The Outcome

• Severe injuries

Key Learning

• Designated area of truck parking should consider other workers nearby

• Always ensure brakes are engaged when starting the ignition

• Always ensure park brake is engaged before exiting the vehicle

A subcontractor working as a dogman for Gold Coast Cranes was seriously injured when he was crushed between a truck and a timber rack. A 20T Rough Terrain Crane was being packed up in preparation for road travel, and the dogman was assisting the crane operator in placing the crane timbers into the rear timber rack of the crane. At the time, there was a semi-trailer parked a short distance behind the crane, with the crane driver and dogman working in between the

crane and the semi-trailer. From a position outside the truck, the truck driver turned the ignition to start the truck. The brakes on the truck were not engaged, so the truck lunged forward when the engine started, pushing the dogman into the timber rack of the crane until the truck driver got into the semi-trailer cabin to turn the engine off. The dogman suffered numerous internal injuries, including multiple fractures.

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Brakes, Brake Failure & Uncontrolled Rolling

Incidents

Queensland, 2006 Project

Queensland Mine Site

Cranes

Iveco Acco 2350G truck

The Outcome

• Near miss

Key Learning

• Limitations to brake design • Ensure park brake works whether ignition is on or off • Driver’s understanding of the braking system was

inadequate – drivers must be aware of design weaknesses

An unattended partly loaded bulk explosives truck was parked with its engine running. The driver had applied the parking brake before disembarking and was walking away from the truck when he noticed it moving. While the truck was rolling away, he climbed back in the cab and stopped the truck by applying the foot brake. The truck had travelled about 20 metres and ended up with its front wheels suspended over the edge of a 2.5m drop.

The park brake lever is designed to be locked into position by a detent (a spring-activated pin that automatically drops into a catch hole). Tests showed that the parking brake could be ‘applied’ while the pin remained unlocked. A slight jolt to the lever was all it took to release the brake.

The park brake lever did not lock into position when applied. When the driver closed the door as he left the cabin, the vibration jolted the lever into the release position.

The truck’s ‘brake not applied’ alarm is activated by a sensor that monitors the position of the lever rather than the status of the detent.

The Department of Natural Resources, Mines and Energy identified several learnings in their mine’s safety alert (no. 150) outlining the incident, including:

Post-incident testing revealed that the alarm worked only when the ignition was on.

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Brakes, Brake Failure & Uncontrolled Rolling

The driver’s understanding of the truck’s braking system was inadequate.

Climbing into the cabin of a runaway vehicle is dangerous and can result in serious injuries, or worse.

The designated area in which the truck was parked was not suitably designed to prevent vehicles rolling away in the event of a park brake failure.

Recommendations Truck operators should ensure:

Drivers of trucks with similar park brake levers are aware of the design weakness and that they doublecheck the lever is locked in position when parking

The ‘brake not applied’ alarm works regardless of the ignition position

Risk controls—including parking procedures and the design of designated parking areas—adequately reduce the risk of vehicles or mobile equipment rolling away

Manufacturers and suppliers of trucks with similar park brake levers should:

A slight jolt to the lever was all it took to release the brake.

Review the design of the lever’s locking mechanism to reduce the risk of similar failures, and

Improve the alarm systems so that they can detect whether the levers are locked in position.

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Brakes, Brake Failure & Uncontrolled Rolling

Smithbridge Guam experienced an incident of this nature several years ago when a vehicle began uncontrollably rolling due to mechanical failure. An operator was driving a forklift up the steep access road out of a quarry, and lost power when the engine stalled. The driver had been trained on what to do in this situation and followed his training in the moment. He was wearing his seat belt and simply held the steering wheel, attempting to turn toward the bank as the machine began rolling backwards down the slope. When the rear wheels contacted the safety berm on the road side, the forklift tipped over toward the operator’s cab. When the vehicle had come to a complete rest, the operator unbuckled his seat belt and safely exited the cab uninjured. This incident is proof that training on good procedure can save lives. Smithbridge Guam had implemented comprehensive training on uncontrolled rolling and roll overs, and what to do in these situations. There is sadly a long list of fatalities from similar incidents around Guam and internationally where operators were not belted in and tried to jump off rolling machinery only to be pinned to death by the equipment they were operating. Reviewing those events always makes an impression. The rule is: sit down, buckle in, and hold on with both hands. If rolling down a slope, turn the vehicle toward the bank. Those who follow this guideline live! Russ Prokos, Operations Manager, Smithbridge Guam

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Brakes, Brake Failure & Uncontrolled Rolling

Eliminating hazards related to brakes and brake failure

In the event there is a failure to engage brakes or, if for some reason a vehicle’s brakes do fail, the consequences can be fatal. Vehicles can unexpectedly lurch forward or begin rolling uncontrollably. We investigated some control methods and found the standards and requirements around brakes, brake failure, and rolling vehicles varies significantly between different countries, states, and companies. Some basic controls are consistent across the industry, including:

Installing fit-for-purpose barriers to prevent uncontrolled vehicles and plant going over embankments or into buildings, workshops and other areas where people may be located.

Selecting as level as possible ground when parking in a non-designated area, and parking across the slope with the steering wheels positioned to use gravity to prevent the vehicle from rolling away.

Developing parking procedures in line with appropriate risk assessments, situational factors such as ground gradient, manufacturer’s instructions and current practice in the industry.

Continuously educating on parking procedures and the importance of fully applying the hand brake when parking.

We also found other more stringent controls that can and should be explored include the use of chocks and park break alarms. Governing bodies in some jurisdictions outline specific standards, while in other jurisdictions it is left to the discretion of individual organisations to mandate minimum requirements.

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Brakes, Brake Failure & Uncontrolled Rolling

1. Wheel Chocks Wheel chocks are an effective control measure to prevent uncontrolled rolling, providing control in addition to the park brake alone.

WorkSafe NZ issued a Technical Bulletin in July 2018, which was developed in consultation with and was endorsed by the Commercial Vehicle Safety Team of the New Zealand Police, and the New Zealand Transport Agency (NZTA). The Technical Bulletin recommended correct maintenance and adjustment of Cardan shaft brakes in particular, but the Bulletin’s recommendations on chocks are relevant for all vehicles.

600mm

In the USA, the Mine Safety and Health Administration’s (MSHA) Standard for Surface Operations outlines parking procedures for unattended equipment. It states ‘Mobile equipment shall not be left unattended unless the controls are placed in the park position and the parking brake, if provided, is set. When parked on a grade, the wheels or tracks of mobile equipment shall be either chocked or turned into a bank.” Some organisations, including Smithbridge Guam, have decided to follow a more stringent policy on the use of wheel chocks. “We decided to

implement a standard of 100 per cent use of wheel chocks and emergency brakes when mobile equipment is unattended, even on flat ground,” said Mellanie Pascual, Occupational Health & Safety Administrator at Smithbridge. “This is more stringent than the MSHA standard, but we felt this would encourage the right behaviour and habits in our workforce.”

150mm

Figure 1: Wheel Chock

Wheel chocks should be chosen to ensure their size and design will keep the vehicle stationary on the steepest slope on which the vehicle is required to be parked. A wheel chock should be approximately 25% of the diameter of your vehicle tyre and fit snugly into the tyre (e.g. a 600 mm diameter tyre would require a 150 mm high wheel chock). Source: Worksafe NZ

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Brakes, Brake Failure & Uncontrolled Rolling

2. Park Brake Alarm SafeWork Australia’s study on work-related fatalities involving trucks also revealed that most (25 of the 34 fatalities) involved a truck driver who had exited the vehicle to undertake a task and had not put the brakes on properly. Additional controls are essential to remind operators to ensure park brakes are appropriately engaged. This includes warning alarms to alert the operator if the parking brake has not been engaged when the vehicle door has been opened, or systems that automatically engage the parking brake when sensors in the seat detect no pressure and doors have been opened, or the engine is turned off. Owners must ensure park brake alarms work whether the ignition is on or off and that the alarm continues to sound until the brake has been engaged. In New Zealand, construction company Fulton Hogan has recently implemented more stringent minimum requirements concerning brakes for subcontractors and hired in plant. In 2017 Fulton Hogan updated their Vehicle Standards to mandate park brake alarms, either compulsory upon purchase or through aftermarket retrofit installation.

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Brakes, Brake Failure & Uncontrolled Rolling

The limitations and dangers of Cardan Shaft Parking Brakes Cardan Shaft Parking Brakes are fitted to many light-to-medium weight (3.5 to 10 tonne) trucks, mainly of Japanese origin (Mitsubishi, Isuzu and the like) as well as other vehicles.

This type of parking brake acts by locking the driveshaft at the gearbox output shaft and may use either a single brake drum or a disc calliper, rotor and pad design. The brake drum is the most common and universally used on trucks. Disc brakes are generally installed on off-road equipment such as JCB Telehandlers and the like.

Cardan shaft park brake assembly fitted onto rear of gearbox.

Typically, a Cardan Shaft Parking Brake system uses a ratcheted handbrake lever and cable to apply the brake – similar to what you would find in your car. It can also be a ‘pull’ type lever next to the steering column.

Cardan Shaft Parking Brake Limitations These brakes are not as efficient as other systems that act on the vehicles wheel brakes directly. They have a limited amount of holding capacity compared to other systems and are unlikely to hold a vehicle stationary, especially when it 42

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is laden and parked on any significant slope. This is in both the forward and reverse directions. Of particular concern, is that the drum type brakes may only have about 60% of the holding power when the vehicle is facing uphill compared to when facing downhill. In two recent fatal accidents, the Cardan Shaft Parking Brakes were properly


Brakes, Brake Failure & Uncontrolled Rolling

maintained and adjusted and were correctly applied. The vehicles were parked on slopes well within their operating range.

The parking brakes held for a period of minutes before suddenly failing.

They are only a parking brake. They cannot be used to slow or stop a moving vehicle as to do so can severely damage the brake, gearbox or driveline. Any damage to the brake will likely further degrade its effectiveness, and this may not be evident to the Driver.

As the braking is applied through the differential, any slippage of one wheel will allow the other wheel to roll and the vehicle to ‘run away’. Similarly, if one wheel is jacked up, braking on the other wheel is lost and if on a slope the vehicle will move.

The location of these brakes makes them susceptible to contamination, especially from a leaking gearbox output seal. Any such contamination will likely degrade the effectiveness of the brake, and this will not be evident to the driver. There are no practical means for a driver to effectively check the performance of a Cardan Shaft Parking Brake. The manufacturer’s specified ‘stall’ tests do not adequately represent the required parking brake holding requirement and a brake that

passes such a test is still unlikely to hold on any significant slope, especially if the vehicle is laden.

The Bottom Line There are many thousands of vehicles, fitted with Cardan Shaft Parking Brakes, that are currently in service. Notwithstanding that failures of such parking brakes have been responsible for a number of fatalities and serious injuries, knowledge of the inherent limitations and dangers of Cardan Shaft LIFTING MATTERS

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Brakes, Brake Failure & Uncontrolled Rolling

Parking Brakes is considerably lacking among owners and users of affected vehicles. These parking brake systems represent a real and present danger to the vehicle users and other people that may be in the vicinity of a vehicle ‘roll-away’.

Mitigating the Danger Check your vehicles to determine if they have Cardan Shaft Parking Brakes installed. If they do, install a highly visible placard in the cab of the vehicle advising that such a parking brake is installed and include the information in this ‘alert’. Advise all users of the limitations and dangers of such parking brake systems. In particular, advise them that the parking brake cannot be relied on if the vehicle is parked on a slope, especially if laden.

Parking on slopes should be avoided if at all possible.

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Supply, and require the use of wheel chocks (both rear wheels) in all parking situations. Wheel chocks should be approximately 25% of the vehicle’s tyre diameter and fit snuggly. Note, however, that if the vehicle is on a slope, chocks should be placed by another person while the Driver holds the vehicle stationary on the Service Brake.

It is crucial that wheel chocks are used if a vehicle is jacked. Be aware of any fluid leaks under the vehicle and have them checked ASAP to avoid contamination of the parking brake. Ensure that the parking brake is properly maintained and adjusted.


Brakes, Brake Failure & Uncontrolled Rolling

Selwyn’s son, Graeme, was killed in a workplace accident early last year. The accident was directly attributable to the failure of a properly maintained and correctly set Cardan Shaft Parking Brake on a JCB Telehandler. In the course of his investigation into the accident, Selwyn learned there are serious deficiencies with such park brake systems. Just nine months prior to Graeme’s accident one person was killed and another critically injured in very similar circumstances – that is, due to the failure of a properly maintained and correctly set Cardan Shaft Parking Brake on a waste disposal truck. Whilst the regulatory authorities have been aware of the issues relating to these types of parking brakes for a number of years, nothing has been done to address the problem and there is an almost total lack of knowledge among the Owners and Users of affected vehicles. Selwyn has been actively working with the New Zealand Transport Agency (NZTA) to quantify the performance issues relating to the parking brakes including initial testing of several light/medium weight trucks. These tests confirmed the limitations of Cardan Shaft Parking Brakes. The challenge now is to ensure this knowledge has the widest possible dissemination and to have NZTA take definitive action to deal with the limitations and dangers of these types of park brake systems. If you have had any experience with Cardan Shaft Parking Brakes relevant to Selwyn’s efforts, he would appreciate it if you could contact him accordingly. Similarly, if you are interested in any further information please do not hesitate to contact him. Selwyn Rabbits, +64 21 656 661

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Industry Innovation

TRT manufactures innovative load connection device to increase efficiency of Modular Platform Trailers TRT is a New Zealand manufacturer of specialist trailers for the crane and heavy haulage industries. Having sold our first trailer into Australia back in 1992 we learnt that whilst the Australian Road Transport Industry had codes and standards that covered trailer lighting and brakes, at that time it had no standard that load restraints were required to be engineered too.

This duplicates the section of the deck and coaming rail to be tested. We then take it to a test facility and have it pull tested. The structure (load restraint) must retain its structural integrity to a minimum of 1.5 times its given load rating without permanent deformation. Typical load ratings in low loaders is 10,000 kg per deck or coaming rail load restraint.

In NZ, all vehicles over 3.5 tonne are required to have their various tie down (load restraints) points certified by a registered Transport Engineer. They are engineered to NZS 5444:2005, which covers rope rails through to the more complex restraints engineered into the deck of a low loader. For these to be rated correctly, TRT manufacture a weldment section of the trailer (see image Fig 1).

Whilst there was no load restraint standard that was a requirement to get a trailer registered back in 1992, TRT used the NZ standard 5444, for designing and engineering in the load restraint points in all trailers sold into the Australian market.

Fig 1 – Certified load restraint system

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As Bruce Carden, Manufacturing Director for TRT says, “It’s all very well having a requirement to use rated chain securing the load, but if the points that some chain are secured to are not engineered to the same code as the dogs and chains, then the weak point may well be the attachment at the trailer.” Knowing a load restraint requirement within the trailer may come one day, TRT ensured all trailers sold in Australia from those early days onwards have all been built to a code which gives the operator and company owner piece of mind.


Industry Innovation With our ongoing focus on load security, safety and providing workable solutions for the owner/operator of trailers, TRT then developed a unique system for Crane Support Trailers. These trailers are specially designed for the payload they are intended to transport. The goal is to reduce the number of standard dogs and chains, and in most cases TRT completely eliminates these. Instead, the trailer is designed around the payload. Counterweights, jib sections, hook blocks, spreader bars, outrigger pads and the rigging box are all placed on the trailer in positions that allow the combination to weigh out correctly, making it legal for axle mass (see image Fig 2).

The use of these to secure the various items to be transported takes the decision away from the operator and ensures all items are placed in the correct position, to both weigh out legally and have everything secure. This provides for a safe vehicle on the road as well as peace of mind for the company, knowing their duty of care to others on the road hasn’t been compromised.

Image – B-double set up for GMK6400 showing auxiliary winch pinned in place and ground pads on the lead trailer module attachment

Fig 2 – GMK5150 Equipment Semi Trailer with specifically designed mounting system

In doing this, the design takes into consideration how all these items will be secured. This might be a combination of;

• • •

Headboards and corner fabrications Pinning systems Soft sling type straps, pre-set for length

TRT has recently developed a unique load connection device to enable large Modular Platform Trailers to be interconnected. Typically, Platform Trailers that are used to carry loads in excess of 80 tonne take hours to “build” when the configuration needs to be altered. Going from a trailer that is 6 Rows of 8 out to 10 lines long, can take the operator up to half a day with 3 personnel to add in 4 axle lines and reconfigure the steering to have it operate safely on the road. A long-time client threw down a challenge to TRT: “this reconfiguring cannot take any longer than 20 minutes to complete to be ready for the road”.

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Industry Innovation This drove TRT down a path to develop a joint (see Fig 3) between each modular axle group that:

Is quick to operate for the user.

Is safer with less chance of harm to the operator as there is no need to climb under the trailer or use large hammers and drifts to extract the various securing pins.

Has a stronger joint and allows for camber as more axle lines are attached.

Figure 3 - TRT’s Electronic Steering System (ESS) Modular Platform System with Quick Connect joint

When the load is applied to the trailer, the top plates take all the compression, whilst the bottom point takes all the tension (shown in coloured blue and purple in Fig 3). This lower pin is hydraulically engaged/ disengaged by a double acting cylinder. No longer does the operator need to lie on his back to drive out pins manually. Instead, he or she simply turns a switch at the outside edge of the coaming rail, stands clear for safety and watches the cylinder engage itself as the lower pin (See Fig 3).

TRT’s unique Electronic Steering System (Aust. Innovation Patent Pending number 201802100) allows “the geometry to be reconfigured for the addition of axle lines at the touch of a button”. This ensures a safe and efficient trailer is put back on the road. This new concept does away with the need for the operator to climb under the trailer at each wheel group to remove tie rods, reposition them to different hole centres, which is required to ensure the trailer steers correctly. This is done via the truck producing the steering angle required to turn (see Fig 4).

Fig 4 – Encoder sends a signal to the electronic steering controller when the Prime Mover turns

The slew ring moves and indicates to the individual rams at each wheel group what angle they are designed to steer to. Refer to Fig 4 which shows the skid plate and slew ring set up. Figure 3 has the steer rams coloured green. Efficiency has been the main driver for this innovation to secure various modules together. TRT has developed a much safer unique load connection device for large Modular Platform Trailers.

For more information about TRT’s Load Connection Device visit www.trt.co.nz 48

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Incident Report

CALL FOR CONTENT Contribute to Lifting Matters’ vision of a safer industry by submitting your ideas and articles to: liftingmatters@writestrategy.com.au

Contributor (content and images): Vertikal.net LIFTING MATTERS

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Operator’s Opinion

Why we see so many incidents relating to unrestrained loads in the field Matthew Moller has been in the crane industry for 14 years, starting as a Franna operator and later working his way into operating slew cranes. These days he primarily operators a Grove 4100 All Terrain and is also involved with truck driving and rigging at Universal Cranes. Have you been personally involved in any accidents or near misses involving an unrestrained load? Yes, I have seen unrestrained loads fall off trailers, which is usually a result of rushing to get the job done or a lack of training. I have also witnessed incidents occur because there was not the required number of chains or straps used resulting in the shifting of the load, showing the importance of ensuring you know the load restraint has been properly engineered. What is the most common action or behaviour you witness in the field when operators don’t restrain loads appropriately, and how do you think we can fix it? The most common behaviour I see is rushing and cutting corners to get the job done. A lot of our jobs are done during a road closure with strict time limits. My advice to my colleagues and others is to slow down and do it right. If a load doesn’t look secure or you aren’t sure, don’t drive away. Put another chain or strap on or ask someone for help if you don’t know. 50

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Matthew Moller Universal Cranes

Have you any thoughts or ideas on an innovation or process that may help to prevent or alert workers when their load is unsafe before they depart on a journey? Create a checklist that’s always visible in the truck to follow if you’re unsure of the required procedure. This should visually depict and verbally explain the type of restraint, the number required, and how to attach and secure it properly. What do you feel is the most important safety issue affecting your particular role in the industry today? There are a lot of new starters who don’t always know the right way to do things and must be provided with full and proper training before they’re allowed out on site. If you don’t know or have any doubt, always ask someone. We are all here to help each other get the job done safely.


Working Safely

Safety Risk Management and the Industry Code of Practice Article contributed by ALICE EDWARDS, Project Engineer - CICA In the March issue, we talked about the basics of the Chain of Responsibility Law (CoR), the four components of the Safety Management System (SMS) and the Industry Code of Practice. As discussed previously, the best way for crane companies to comply with the CoR law requirements is to have Safety Management Systems and controls in place. Depending on the size of the company,

not all four components are required for a company’s SMS. Crane owners should develop their own SMS based on their business operation. When implementing your SMS, it is suggested that you use a phased approach, rather than try to put all the components and elements in place at once. The following table provides guidance on the sequence for establishing SMS elements.

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Working Safely

IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE - SMS ELEMENTS1

P1

P2

P3

P4

Safety Policy and Documentation

✓ ✓ ✓

Management commitment Safety responsibilities Key safety personnel

✓ ✓

Documentation (SMS manual and procedures) Third party interactions Safety Risk Management Hazard identification and reporting Risk assessment and mitigation/treatment Risk monitoring and review Incident reporting

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓

Safety Assurance Internal safety investigations

Safety performance monitoring and measurement

Change management

✓ ✓

Continuous improvement Safety Promotion and Training Safety training and education Safety promotion Safety communication

Positive safety culture Table 1 Implementation Schedule

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✓ ✓ ✓

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Working Safely Safety Risk Management is the core part of your SMS and should be implemented in the first phase when you build your SMS. Safety Risk Management refers to the architecture (principles, framework and process) for managing risks effectively, and it includes the following parts:

• • • •

Hazard identification Risk assessment and treatment Risk monitoring and review Incident reporting

The Industry Code of Practice published by the National Heavy Vehicle Regulator (NHVR) establishes the higher order risks and the features of management systems or business practices to assist crane owners and crane companies in building their SMS, especially the Safety Risk Management part of the SMS.

The Master Code2 is a Registered Industry Code of Practice which applies to all types of heavy vehicles and loads covered by the HVNL law. It identifies the types of risk for the four core responsibilities of CoR for all types of transport activities:

• • • •

Speed Fatigue Mass, Dimension and Loading Vehicle Standards

The Master Code is structured to identify and address the risks associated with each activity and responsibility that is covered by HVNL, against the role of each party in the CoR. In addition to the Master Code, to assess risks and control measures that are specific to the crane industry and crane operations,

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Working Safely the Crane Industry Council of Australia (CICA) developed a Registered Industry Code of Practice (The Crane Code) for the industry. The Crane Code adopted similar formats as the Master Code and focusses particularly on:

• • • •

Roadworthiness Mass and Dimension Configuration Load Security Road Travel Competency

The Crane Code also provides clarifications on unique operating situations for transport activities within the crane industry and the risks and control measures identified in the Master Code that are not applicable for the crane industry, which includes:

• •

Fatigue Mobile Crane Loading/Unloading other Vehicles

Both Codes are structured as:

What is the Risk? - The general risks relevant to the crane industry when operating the cranes or crane supporting vehicles on the road

What does the law say? - A summary of the relevant parts of the duties under the HVNL

Why do it? - The risks to be managed by each party in the supply chain

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What you can do? - The suggested controls identified for each type of risk available to each party in the supply chain.

The Master Code and The Crane Code are both developed by industry associations with input from industry experts, business owners and crane crews with firsthand experiences on driving the heavy vehicle on the road. Risk identified in the Codes are based on:

How work is organised for the crane transport activities, including routine and non-routine activities and situations

Previous coronial inquests, incidents or near misses that occurred within the crane industry (i.e. road travel competency requirements)

Industry experiences from various crane operators.

The control measures specified in the Codes aim at balancing the costs and efforts of implementation against the benefits derived, with regard to legal, regulatory, and other requirements such as social responsibility and the protection of the natural environment. In the event of legal proceedings, complying with the Registered Industry Code of Practice will not afford a defence as such. However, the contents of the Codes will be a way of admitting evidence of what is known about risks and controls


Working Safely

and could be used by a court to determine what is reasonably practicable in the circumstances to which the Code relates (section 632A of the HVNL). CoR parties who use the Codes to develop and apply risk-based systems in their everyday business practices will improve the safety and legal compliance of their activities and contribute to continuous improvement in best practice within their industry3.

The Crane Code has been submitted by CICA to the NHVR, and has now been uploaded to the NHVR site (https:// www.nhvr.gov.au/safety-accreditationcompliance/industry-codes-of-practice/ registers) for industry stakeholders to review and provide feedback. Feedback must be submitted by 25 June 2019.

Please contact Alice Edwards: projeng@cica.com.au for a copy of the Draft Crane Code. 1. Frequently asked questions about Safety Management Systems (SMS). NHVR www.nhvr.gov.au/safety-accreditation-compliance/safety-management-systems/faqs 2. Master Code. NHVR www.nhvr.gov.au/files/ricp-master-code.pdf 3. Acknowledgement of use of National Heavy Vehicle Regulator (NHVR) Registered Industry Codes of Practice Introduction, Fact Sheet 1 and Guidelines content throughout the Master Code.

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People Profile

Mellanie Pascual

scual Mellanie Pa Safety Health and

Occupational dge Guam r, Smithbri Administrato

Mellanie has been a member of the Smithbridge Guam team since March 2016. With a long career grounded in safety, Mellanie accepted the role of OHS Administrator responsible for championing the safety and compliance regulations and culture in the organisation. We recently spent some time with Mellanie to learn more about her unexpected path into safety and how she is working to embed safety systems at Smithbridge Guam.

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Give us a summary of your professional journey so far. What is your current role, and how did come to be in this role? What are your current safety responsibilities and accountabilities? I actually found myself in the safety field by accident! I was working as a Property Manager, and the company had two technicians who needed to get certified for electrical and HVAC roles. We went to Guam Trades Academy and saw they were offering scholarship grants for any construction-related courses being offered in anticipation for the US military build-up on Guam. I initially wanted to take classes in human resources, but a friend urged me that safety management would be better for me and my skills, so I selected that instead. The more I studied it, the more my interest grew. After completing the program in 2011, I started working as a part-time safety consultant for a construction company. In 2012, I began teaching classes at Guam Trades Academy for the core curriculum and then eventually taught classes at Guam Community College as an Adjunct Instructor for industrial safety. I am also currently the Occupational Health & Safety Administrator for Smithbridge Guam, responsible for implementation and management of the Mining Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) compliance program. I am also an OSHA Authorised Instructor and MSHA


People Profile Competent Trainer, and since February 2019, now hold a Construction Health and Safety Technician under the Board of Certified Safety Professionals. What do you think is the most important issue in crane safety today? There have been some recent changes in requirements for crane operator certification in Guam. A pressing issue for us is the demand and need for an operator who not only knows how to operate the crane in line with these new requirements but also has a strong moral obligation to embrace safety culture, uphold their duty for the safe operation of cranes and keep themselves and their work colleagues safe. What motivates you in your role and/ or what motivated you to become a safety professional? As a mother of three and a wife of someone who works at a construction company, I feel motivated to do my share when it comes to spreading safety awareness and teaching others about safety. Everyone deserves to come home from work safely to their family every day. I love that in my job, I play a part to ensure this happens and being able to impart my knowledge in the best way it will be understood. For example, our company recently hired some workers from the Philippines, and they required a safety induction and education. I was able to conduct a class largely in Filipino (and a bit of English), which made it easier for them to understand, remember and embrace our safety culture.

How do you help to build an effective safety culture? What do you think are the keys to this? Personally, I believe in positive reinforcement. While it’s important to acknowledge an individual’s unsafe act, you have to do it in a positive way and take the opportunity to have a positive safety interaction. I always assure the individual that while they made a mistake, it does not make them a bad person. Some other important keys to effective safety culture are communication, training and leading by example. In communication, it is important that we all understand each other regardless of the differences in nationality and languages. Our Guam team is multicultural, so this is an important area for us to consider in our communications. Companies should make sure they impart the importance of safety through safety meetings, stand downs, toolbox talks and safety newsletters. As for training, committing to the continuous improvement in your team’s knowledge and capability demonstrates a company’s commitment to safety and team members are more likely to embrace the safety culture if they are aware of the hazards. In leading by example, management must not only implement, but they must also follow. Safety is more than talking the talk. It is walking the walk also.

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Health & Wellbeing

The effects of drinking alcohol on workplace health and safety Article contributed by Alcohol.Think Again The National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines recommend that healthy men and women drink no more than four standard alcoholic drinks on a single occasion to reduce the risk of alcoholrelated injury arising from that occasion. Every additional drink significantly increases the risk of injury and death for the drinker and also increases the risk of harm to others. In Australia, a standard drink is any drink containing 10 grams of alcohol, regardless of container size or type of alcohol. Did you know a pint of full-strength beer contains 2.2 standard drinks?

Alcohol and the workplace All employees have obligations under the Occupational Safety and Health Act to take reasonable care of their own health and safety and not endanger the safety of others in the workplace. Alcohol is a depressant drug, and the most immediate effects are on the brain. Alcohol slows down your brain, affecting the way you think, feel and behave. An increased blood alcohol level impairs your balance, motor control function, alertness and ability to exercise judgement. Drinking both in and out of work hours becomes a workplace health and safety issue when it reduces your ability to do your job successfully and

increases the risk of injury to yourself and co-workers. Heavy drinking the night before can result in a residual high concentration of alcohol in the blood, leading to a hangover effect at work the next day. This can result in headaches, irritability, problems concentrating, fatigue and nausea; all of which can affect fitness for work, work attendance and performance and relationships with co-workers. If you enjoy a few beers after work, why not try some low or mid-strength alternatives? A third of Australian workers have experienced the negative effects of a co-worker’s use of alcohol, with 3.5% of workers reporting having to work extra hours to cover for others. Different industries will have different regulations, so it is important to familiarise yourself with your workplaces policies and procedures. Some mining and construction employers do not tolerate a blood alcohol concentration greater than 0.00%. The Alcohol Risk Assessment Tool, available on the Alcohol.Think Again website, can be used to assess your drinking and determine whether your drinking is putting you at risk and if you may benefit from changing your current drinking patterns.

For more information and resources on how to create a safe and healthy workplace, see the ‘Alcohol & Your Community’ tab on the Alcohol.Think Again website at www.alcoholthinkagain.com.au 58

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Content deadline for next issue: 16 August 2019 Next issue available: 16 September 2019

Disclaimer – This newsletter is not an exhaustive list of all safety matters that need to be considered. Whilst care is taken in the preparation of this material, Lifting Matters does not guarantee the accuracy and completeness of this information and how it applies to your situation. Lifting Matters will not be responsible for any loss, damage or costs incurred as a result of errors or omissions in relation to the material in our publication or for any possible actions ensuing from information contained in our publication. Any views or opinions represented in this publication are personal and belong solely to the author and do not represent those of people, institutions or organisations that the publisher may or may not be associated with in a professional or personal capacity unless explicitly stated.

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Lifting Matters June 2019  

Lifting Matters June 2019  

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