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Write On, Downtown! A Journal of Student Writing at the ASU Downtown Phoenix campus

Vol. 2 April 2008

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Write On, Downtown! A Journal of Student Writing at the ASU Downtown Phoenix campus

EDITORS Regina Clemens Rosemarie Dombrowski Catherine Rezza COVER ARTIST Aleta Lynch Rose Intersections DESIGN EDITOR Rosemarie Dombrowski

Write-On, Downtown! Š 2007 ASU Downtown Campus, English Faculty

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Contents _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

Acknowledgements

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Introduction

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Rhetorical Analysis (ENG 102) Danielle Dalton: A Whisper of AIDS

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Interview Assignment (ENG 301) Liliana Figueroa: Jury Administrator Interview Report

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The Academic Completion Report (ENG 301) Sarah Flint: Rhetorical Analysis of Converging Accounting Standards and Business and Finance

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Profile Essay (ENG 101) Jennifer Hinz: Green Scrubs and Hearts of Gold

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The Academic Completion Report (ENG 301) Kristianna Kane: Nurse Practioners: Fast and Current Information

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Personal Narrative Essay (ENG 101) Patricia Lysikowska: A Token of Appreciation Andrew Patterson: One Voice

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The Academic Completion Report (ENG 301) Andi Robbins: Rhetorical Analysis of the Writings Performed in the Public Relations Profession Peter Sendejas: Rhetorical Analysis of the Writing Styles Used by Hospital Managers

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Causal Argument (ENG 102) Siobhan Trotter: Africa: Increased Aid Isn’t the Answer

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Ethnographic Essay (ENG 101) Kayla Wilcox: Life after Rape: A Look Inside Post-Rape Culture

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The editors of Write-On, Downtown! would like to express their gratitude to Fred Corey, Dean of University College and Director of the School of Letters and Sciences, for his continued support of our endeavors. Additionally, we’d like to thank Shari Gustafson for arranging and planning the awards luncheon and Karen Mancini for her technical assistance. We would also like to extend our sincere gratitude to the director of the Languages and Cultures unit of SLS, Barbara Lafford, whose support, encouragement, and direction has been invaluable to us over the past year. In addition, we would like to thank Aleta Lynch, a resident of Phoenix and an accomplished visual and graphic artist, for loaning her work to the cover of our publication. Finally, we would like to thank all of the students who submitted their writing for this publication and who continue to make our teaching experiences on the Downtown campus some of the most positive and enjoyable of our careers.

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Introduction _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

When you approach 411 N. Central Ave., home to University College and our newly formed School of Letters and Sciences, you no longer see a solitary, sign-less building nestled between concrete “visitor lots.” Today, nearly two years after welcoming its first student, University Center has become the home to general studies courses, including English Composition, and is now emerging as the hub of our burgeoning Downtown campus. Students will soon have to navigate between state-ofthe-art buildings, television station towers, and newly constructed dormitories, and many of the newcomers won’t even be able to recall a time when the campus was comprised of just one or two lonely buildings. Those of us who have been working on this campus since its inaugural year, however, will continue to take pride in what this building symbolizes—new and innovative approaches to education, interdisciplinary relationships between faculty, students, and curricula, and perhaps most importantly to us, an opportunity to establish a student writing publication that is unique in its presentation and its agenda. As we celebrate the second year of our campus, the growth of the English department under Professor Barbara Lafford, and the second issue of a remarkably diverse writing journal, we also welcome new full and part-time English faculty, all of whom have contributed creative methodologies, sound pedagogies, and a passion for teaching to our department. This issue of Write-On continues to reflect the diversity amongst our faculty as well as the interdisciplinarity of the students who enroll in our classes, something that we believe makes our Downtown campus unique. As writing instructors, our vision is to encourage students to explore the particulars of their fields/majors while imparting to them the foundational concepts of sound college writing. We strongly believe that the essays within this collection exemplify our instructional dedication and passion as well as the unique academic and personal interests of the students who enroll in our courses. Additionally, by providing a context for the student essays – via the inclusion of the writing prompts/assignments from which they sprang – we hope to increase the relevance of these socially significant, academically superior pieces of writing to readers throughout the community. As we approach the close of the second, wonderfully successful year at the ASU Downtown campus, we ponder our future potential and reflect on the significant achievements we have accomplished to date. We are confident that if we continue to strive for excellence in education, we will continue to encounter students who approach the craft of writing with

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conscientiousness, passion, and a genuine desire to produce meaningful and impacting pieces.

Regina Clemens, M.A. Rosemarie Dombrowski, Ph.D. Catherine Rezza, M.F.A.

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Rhetorical Analysis _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

ENG 102 An analysis is a judgment – a reasonable, educated interpretation of a text. Your interpretation should be informed not only by the text’s content, but also its context, genre, and purpose. Analyses are never solely based on claims made by/within secondary sources, but your research into the text’s context, genre, etc. should ultimately inform your claim. Structure of Analysis: introduction of text to be analyzed establish/define context, genre, information pertaining to author, etc. thesis claim + supporting points brief overview/summary/description of the text (assume that your readers are less familiar with the text in question than you) body paragraphs topic sentences first sentence of a paragraph; revisits claim and introduces supporting point evidence from the text that substantiates each supporting point conclusion reiterate your claim and the conclusion you’ve come to; reflect on the significance of the text’s context; compare/contrast your text to others within the genre For your 4-5 page assignment, choose one of the top 100 speeches of the 20th century (which can be found at www.americanrhetoric.com) and write an analysis of its rhetoric. In order to successfully analyze a great political speech, you’ll need to identify and judge/evaluate the rhetorical strategies it employs. Significant rhetorical elements that should be addressed in your analysis are as follows: purpose (is it clearly defined?) target audience (awareness/knowledge of) context (knowledge/establishment of) appeals (effective use of ethos, pathos, logos) diction (effective employment of persuasive language, figurative language, strong language, repetition, etc.) structure/organization (are all key areas of classical argument addressed? Opposition acknowledged and rigorously refuted?)

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Danielle Dalton _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

A Whisper of AIDS Officially beginning in 1981, the AIDS epidemic has killed millions of people and affected people of different races, genders, and socioeconomic status around the world. HIV, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus, can be defined as a retrovirus that can lead to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections (“HIV”). On August 19, 1992 a woman by the name of Mary Fisher delivered a speech to the Republican national convention in the hopes of exposing this silent epidemic in all its seriousness and changing the world’s perception of people with this acquired disease. In the beginning of her speech, Mary Fisher says, “I have come tonight to bring our silence to an end. I bear a message of challenge, not self-congratulation. I want your attention, not your applause” (Fisher, 1992, ¶1). This quote is especially important because it introduces her (and her speech) as a symbol of change for the HIV/AIDS community. Fisher, not an intravenous drug user or typical HIV stereotype, but a mother and wife, is able to capture the audience and put in place her goal of informing and educating America in hopes of changing the future. She accomplishes this by her use of ethos in establishing her credibility and reference to God. Fisher establishes pathos through personification, analogies, and emotional self referencing. Using logos, Fisher is able to educate the audience through use of facts, statistics, and analogies. By using guilt tactics and these three appeals, Fisher is constantly targeting the opposition. Mary Fisher's credibility, background, and experience increased her speech's appeal, especially given that her audience was comprised of a large group of well educated conservatives. Fisher references herself and uses references to God to further her ethical appeal. In the beginning of her speech, Fisher says, “I would never have asked to be HIV positive, but I believe that in all things there is a purpose” (Fisher, 1992, ¶2). In this quote, she declares to the audience that she is HIV Positive, making her an acceptable candidate for a speech about HIV/AIDS. In the middle of her speech, she appeals to the Republican Party as "her" party: “My call to you, my Party, is to take a public stand, no less compassionate than that of the President and Mrs. Bush” (Fisher, 1992, ¶7). By doing this she relates herself to the audience, and refers to the Republican President as empathetic to her cause. Due to the fact that the conservative audience is largely evangelical or Christian, Fisher talks about her feelings toward God in order to relate to the audience on a religious level: “Each of them is exactly what God made: a person; not evil, deserving of our judgment; not

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victims, longing for our pity -- people, ready for support and worthy of compassion” (Fisher, 1992, ¶6). This quote not only shows that she believes in the virtues of God, but also helps the audience understand the disease in comparison to something they are familiar with. Through her use of ethos, Fisher is able to establish her credibility, making her speech authentic.

Although Fisher established her credibility, an educated group of people from the Republican National convention needs statistics and facts. Logos is the logical appeal which proves that the epidemic is real and educates people about it effects. After Fisher explains why she is credible, she explains the significance of the disease: “The reality of AIDS is brutally clear. Two hundred thousand Americans are dead or dying. A million more are infected. Worldwide, forty million, sixty million, or a hundred million infections will be counted in the coming few years” (Fisher, 1992, ¶2). Using this legitimate information, Fisher informs the audience that the disease is real and is actually affecting millions of American lives. While alluding to the Holocaust, Fisher establishes logos by using the words of Martin Niemöller to inform the audience that if you are not concerned with your fellow man, then you are not safe: They came after the Jews, and I was not a Jew, so, I did not protest. They came after the trade unionists, and I was not a trade unionist, so, I did not protest. Then they came after the Roman Catholics, and I was not a Roman Catholic, so, I did not protest. Then they came after me, and there was no one left to protest (Fisher, 1992, ¶10). By using this example, Fisher informs the audience that if you do not believe you are at risk, then you are not safe. The logical element that she portrays is that we are not safe from evil; we must unite against evil before it’s too late. In using the Holocaust, Fisher explains that by ignoring the problem only damaging consequences can result. Fisher explains that if we come together, we can protest and fight for good. In her use of logos, Fisher appeals to an educated group of people, informing them of statistics and putting the past in perspective in hopes of changing the future. Fisher’s biggest strength is her use of emotional appeal. By using pathos, Fisher can appeal on a personal level and open her heart to the audience by revealing her experience and pain while referencing herself and her family. She is able to establish this by personification, analogies, and personal referencing. Through her use of personification, she gives the virus human like or animal like qualities: “It does not care whether you are Democrat or Republican; it does not ask whether you are black or white,

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male or female, gay or straight, young or old” (Fisher, 1992, ¶3). In this passage, Fisher describes the disease as a monster not a stereotype. This is a direct reference to her personal experience because she is not the stereotypical drug user; instead she is a mother and wife who contracted this disease through marriage. Fisher also shows this through the use of an analogy when she says, Though I am white and a mother, I am one with a black infant struggling with tubes in a Philadelphia hospital. Though I am female and contracted this disease in marriage and enjoy the warm support of my family, I am one with the lonely gay man sheltering a flickering candle from the cold wind of his family’s rejection (Fisher, 1992, ¶4). While relating herself to the common stereotypes, she debunks them, and by dong this puts the audience’s preconceptions to rest. Near the end of her speech, Fisher references her family often and in turn shows the audience that AIDS has robbed her as it has does everyone if affects no matter what race, gender, or sexual orientation. In her speech, Fisher uses pathos to directly demonstrate the effects HIV/AIDS has on families in America, including her own: Tonight, HIV marches resolutely toward AIDS in more than a million American homes, littering its pathway with the bodies of the young -- young men, young women, young parents, and young children. One of the families is mine. If it is true that HIV inevitably turns to AIDS, then my children will inevitably turn to orphans. My family has been a rock of support (Fisher, 1992, ¶12). Not only does this passage show her as a stable woman with a supporting family, but what is happening is not something to be ignored. Using pathos, Fisher effectively appeals to the audience with her story and experience as a pathway for a new way of thinking among the American people. In her speech, Fisher’s main goal is to produce change and debunk stereotypes, in doing this she effectively targets her opposition to make certain her goal can be reached. One way Fisher targets her audience is through guilt. When she speaks about people with HIV suffering in silence, she refers to the opposition as the ones who should experience shame: “It is not you who should feel shame. It is we -- we who tolerate ignorance and practice prejudice, we who have taught you to fear” (Fisher, 1992, ¶14). In this quote, Fisher forces feelings of guilt onto her audience to help them better understand that it is not people with HIV that are the problem but

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the people who practice prejudice that are the problem. Targeting the opposition is a rhetorical strategy that plays into all appeals and employs all forms of figurative language, and Fisher does this efficiently throughout the course of her speech. Mary Fisher was not just a victim of HIV, but a messenger for a great cause. With her credentials and qualifications she was the perfect candidate to implement change and bring hope to all people suffering from HIV. With her detailed descriptions, personification, and analogies she is able to appeal on a personal and emotional level. By using statistics, facts, and references to the past Fisher is able to appeal to an educated crowd and help to prevent further injustice. By targeting the audience, Fishers speech effectively appeals to the members of the audience and helps debunk their previous stereotypes and preconceptions. Her speech largely increased federal funding for research and helped break down barriers between the infected and non-infected. Now sixteen years later, although the fight to survive HIV/AIDS rages on, Fishers inspirational speech continuously provides hope and understanding to those suffering. Although much has been accomplished, prejudices still exist, and people still suffer in silence with feelings of shame and doubt. Perhaps the question she asked then can apply to the figures of injustice today, “Are you human?” (Fisher, 1992, ¶6). References “HIV.” Wikipedia. (n,d). Retrieved 02/11/08, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiv Fisher (1992). A Whisper of AIDS. Retrieved 2/5/08, from http://americanrhetoric.com/speeches/maryfisher1992rnc.html

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Interview Assignment _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

ENG 301 Purpose/Rationale: I want to find out what people in real professions do when they approach the rhetorical situation; I need you to interview a professional and get the nuts and bolts of her/his writing process, i.e. what questions she/he considers when engaging in professional writing. Conducting the Interview/Gathering Primary Data Some of the best data you can gather comes from individuals. These individuals are often experts in their professions, and these experts are the people you are going to consider when finding your research-participant for Writing Project Two. Steps to take in your data gathering: (1) Locate an expert: Find someone you consider to be most knowledgeable in her/his field/profession. (2) Prepare for the interview: Make sure you do your homework on this person, and on the position she/he holds in her/his place of employment. You should know as much as possible about her/him. Make a list of the questions you want to ask her/him in advance (see p. 58-59), but be willing to deviate from your questions if your research-participant takes you in an interesting direction. However, also be willing to steer the discussion back to the topic if it gets off of the discussion about rhetorical approaches to writing in the profession. (3) Maintain a professional attitude: Call or email before the interview, if possible, to confirm the appointment, and be sure to arrive on time. Bring two pens (in case one quits on you) and a notebook. Dress professionally and be respectful. (4) Make your questions objective and friendly: Be as objective and courteous as possible: Try to listen more and talk less. Explain that you are not going to be evaluating, rather you are going to be reporting in the final written report. Offer to send your research-participant a copy of the paper, and/or work together to edit and revise it. Collaboration with your research-participant is absolutely acceptable. (5) Watch the time: tell research-participants in advance and after the interview how much you appreciate their input and time. (6) End graciously: End the interview on time, with a question such as “Is there anything else you would like to add?� Ask for permission to call/email later and ask to have points clarified. Send a thank-you note in a day or two.

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(7) Write, write, write: after the interview, go someplace quiet and write as much as you can remember about the interview that you may not have had time to write earlier.

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Liliana Figueroa _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

Jury Administrator Interview Report INTRODUCTION As an employee of the government sector, specifically in the court system, I have chosen to concentrate my interview efforts on a professional in the Justice Administration field. The purpose of my interview in this field was to rhetorically analyze the writing styles used to communicate with other departments within and outside of the court. I decided to interview the Jury Administrator of the United States District Court for the District of Arizona, Ana M. Baca. I considered Baca due to her responsibilities and the admiration by her peers. The writing that Baca is responsible for includes letters, memos and time sensitive reports that are sent directly to the Administrative Office in Washington, DC. The reports that I will focus on are the Monthly Jury Panel Utilization and the Monthly Naturalization Ceremony reports. The information contained in the reports represents federal funding for the continuous operation of two key components of the United States Federal Government. I am satisfied that as a result of the interview, I have a more thorough understanding of the writing styles that are used in the US Federal Court. I have also learned of the important degree of responsibility to complete time critical reports while maintaining a professional relationship with the District Court Judges and management staff. METHODS OF RESEARCH/ANALYSIS As a Jury Administrator, Ana M. Baca is responsible for various writing styles necessary to communicate daily with administrative, immigration, management staff and Judges but most importantly, with the Administrative Office located in Washington, D.C. Baca has been employed by the United States Federal Court for 25 years and has served as the Jury Administrator for the last 18 years. I was immediately impressed by her degree of responsibility and therefore concluded she was the best candidate for my Jury Administrator Interview project. Having worked closely with Baca, I felt comfortable approaching her in person about setting up an interview which we agreed would take place during the lunch hour on Thursday, February 21, 2008. I conducted the interview by asking the following questions: 1) What type of writing styles do you engage yourself in? 1a) Is your writing informative, persuasive, etc.? 2) What is the purpose of your writing and to whom is it directed? 2a) What format do you use to present or submit your report?

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3) Are you providing information so that others can act or make a decision? 3a) What type of decisions? 4) Are there any ethical dilemmas to consider when writing your reports? 4a) Is the information provided in the reports truthful as far as you understand it? 5) Do you encounter any physical, financial, political, or time constraints? 5a) Do you have critical deadlines?

DISCUSSION The interview progressed as follows: Q1: What type of writing styles do you engage yourself in? Is your writing informative, persuasive, etc.? Baca is responsible for various reports including the monthly Jury Panel Utilization report that contains information pertaining to the use of jurors by individual judges and the costs associated. The monthly Naturalization Ceremony report submitted directly to the Administrative Office in Washington, D.C. reflects the number of candidates naturalized as United States citizens and the number of candidates whom requested a formal name change. “The reports are both informative and persuasive,” says Baca referring to the JPU report, “…because the information contained in the reports can enable the judges to take action.” Q2: What is the purpose of your writing and to whom is it directed? What format do you use to present or submit your report? The monthly Jury Panel Utilization report is submitted to the distribution clerk via electronic-mail for distribution of the information to the judges, the Clerk of Court and the Chief Deputy Clerk. The report indicates the number of jurors who were summoned to report, appeared, but who were not used for jury selection process and the associated cost. Based on the information provided in the report, the Judges and administration staff can determine if excessive overspending is occurring and if measures need to be taken to decrease the number of jurors going unused. “If all the Judges would agree to jury pool, that would reduce the number of jurors needed to report,” as Baca refers to specific type of jury

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selection in which numerous Judges select a jury on a specific date taking turns with the same group of jurors. In contrast, the Naturalization Ceremony report is submitted directly to the Administrative Office through a secure web data base that requires a log-in and password. The information submitted is provided to the District Director of the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) “to justify costs they receive from government resources,” says Baca and to ensure that the number of candidates becoming citizens per month is meeting the quota. For example, the goal per month for 2008 is 1800 candidates per month for a total of 21,600 new citizens at the end of the year. Q3: Are you providing information so that others can make a decision? What type of decisions? “The information contained in the monthly Jury Panel Utilization report will give the Judges an idea as to who among them is spending more on jury trials per month,” describes Baca. As a result of the figures shown in the report they might take action and call for stricter methods of jury selection and a reduced number of jurors requested. As per the December 2007 report (Appendix B1), the cost would have been $3,360 instead of $8320 if the Judges would have used a more cost-effective method of jury selection, such as jury pooling. The numbers reflected in the monthly Naturalization Ceremony report will be used to determine funding for USCIS for the purposes of new hires, more frequently scheduled ceremonies, and larger ceremonies to ensure that the annual quota is met and that the backlog is reduced. Q4: Are there any ethical dilemmas to consider when writing your reports? Is the information in the reports truthful as far as you understand it? For the purpose of the Jury Panel Utilization report, the figures are obtained from a calendar in which the information is documented when a Judge requests a jury and from the schedules that indicate how many jurors actually appeared for the particular trial. At the time of preparation of the report, Baca considers that the Judges might be potentially bothered by the numbers reflecting that they are causing a higher cost to the court for unused jurors than their fellow Judges. However, the primary purpose of the reports is to consider making the jury selection process easier and more cost-effective.

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Q5: Do you encounter any physical, financial, political, or time constraints? Do you have critical deadlines? Baca is responsible for submitting the Jury Panel Utilization report via email by the 15th of every month. The Naturalization Ceremony report is due by the 10th of each month. In order to submit accurate information, she must obtain the numbers from various calendars and excel worksheets in which the numbers are collected after each trial. In the case of the Naturalization report, the numbers are compiled each Friday after the conclusion of the morning and afternoon ceremonies. Other potential constraints involve the ability to make the time and analyze all the information for accuracy prior to submission in addition to her numerous daily tasks. CONCLUSION In conclusion, I have gained a greater understanding of the rhetorical analysis used in the writing styles of the Jury Administration department of the United States District Court, for the District of Arizona. I was impressed by Baca’s level of knowledge, professionalism and her willingness to educate me further in the aspect of her communication responsibilities. I learned that when providing such significant information to the Administrative Office in Washington, D.C., Baca must ensure that she is providing accurate figures, as any errors committed could potentially represent inaccurate work performance by the US District Court as well as USCIS. I have also acknowledged that while she considers the sentiments of the Judges when reporting the amount spent by each for jury trials and while the court may not meet the quota for naturalized citizens each month, it continues to remain as her responsibility to provide this information to management thus allowing them to make improvements where needed. In addition, as a result of the interview, I have come to greatly appreciate the responsibilities of the Jury Administrator for the US District Court. Reference Kennedy E. G., & Montgomery T. T (2002). Technical and Professional Writing Solving Problems at Work. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.

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The Academic Completion Report _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

ENG 301 Purpose/Rationale I am an academic researcher who is greatly interested in teaching and learning as much as possible about rhetorical writing/communication in different professions. I have asked you, another researcher, to analyze some writing in your profession using a rhetorical approach to teach fellow researchers and me about the writing in your profession. Task/ Breakdown of Sections To teach other researchers about writing in your profession, you must put together a completion report (remember chapter 7). The report will incorporate the following sections: (1) Brief memo: should formally identify the report, accompany it, but not be part of it. It should reiterate why it was written, and explain the work that was done, in a general way. If any problems arose, or if questions, comments or concerns are being elicited, the memo is a good place for them. It should be just a short paragraph or two (see p. 364). When memos are written for people within the same company, business, school, etc, and your audience knows you personally, the logo is unnecessary. Use formal headings as shown on p. 364. (2) Cover page: should contain the title of the report, your name, the recipient’s name, and the function/assignment, if applicable (see the APA handout). (3) Table of contents: list all major sections (4-10) of your paper and their page numbers, including the references page and appendixes. (4) Introduction: in a paragraph, should discuss the purpose and objectives of the report, give a general overview of the research (i.e. mention the articles you chose and why), limitation or scope of the report, and direction the report will take. Basically it is an overview of the report’s contents, including your major impression or conclusion. (5) Review of literature: should provide a citation and summary of each respective article. (6) Methods of research and/or analysis: should explain how you chose articles, and which rhetorical questions you used to analyze each article.

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Also tell why those particular questions where chosen, how they were most appropriate for your readings. You are a researcher, so don’t say that you chose the articles because it was all you could find; you had other reasons, such as they came up when you were looking in the literature of your chosen field/discipline/profession. Be specific. Do not add your analyses to this section; just tell what tools (keywords, readings, and questions) you used to conduct the analyses. Make sure you word the questions so they fit into your writing! Do not word them exactly the way they are in the book. (7) Results section: this is optional. Results typically just give raw data, often in a table or graph, with only a factual rendering of your findings, but with little or no analysis or discussion of what the findings mean. You can incorporate this into the discussion if you prefer. (8) Discussion: should be both of your analyses of your two articles. You will need to include the questions either as subheadings, or as integrated into your text, so your reader does not have to flip back to check on which questions you are responding to. (9) Conclusion: should in a paragraph wrap up, review what you have covered, and perhaps note what you have discovered in your research. (10) References page: should follow APA guidelines (see handout). Cite your readings and the textbook in the references page (we took the questions from it). (11) Appendixes: should each have a cover sheet; label them “Appendix A,” and “Appendix B.” Have your articles in the first appendix, and all process work in the second.

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Sarah Flint _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

Rhetorical Analysis of Converging Accounting Standards and Business and Finance Introduction I rhetorically analyzed two articles dealing with converging accounting standards and business and finance. The authors in both articles provided information and statistics to back up their theories. Their purposes were to inform their audiences. In the first article, the author gave examples of problems in accounting that convergence theories might solve. Through theories, the author convinced me that convergence was a good idea. In the second article, the author gave statistical information on the financial markets and how turmoil might affect the market. Through perspectives and statistical evidence the author persuaded me to believe that turmoil will affect growth in the different financial markets. The following analysis will help the reader understand the way that accountants write to their audiences. It will give them an understanding of what types of audiences that accountants write to and the types of issues that they write about. Review of literature Fajardo, C. (2007, September). The move towards convergence of accounting standards worldwide. Journal of American Academy of Business, 12 (1), 57-62. According to the article, accounting standards are different in every county. This causes problems for multinational companies. Right now, employees of multinational companies must comply with the many different national standards. According to the article, the accounting company must consolidate different national financial reports into single statements in accordance with its own home country's accounting rule. This is costly and time consuming. The author claims that many financial crises and the accounting scandals around the world, during recent years have made reliable financial reporting important to the effective and efficient functioning of capital markets and their productivity. According to the article, it is expected that uniform accounting and reporting standards would lessen the risk of corporate scandals. This would also reduce costs and loses to investors and creditors. The author further concludes that in the US, the move towards convergence started in 1994 and is still in process today. Many countries are following our lead and moving towards convergence.

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Business and finance. (2007, August 16). Wall Street Journal. A.1. In this article, the author talks about a person by the name of Paulson who stated that turmoil in financial markets would affect U.S. growth rates. However, the author also talks about the treasury secretary who said that the global economy is strong and that the US will avoid recession. Paulson said that the government should not do anything to protect financial market investors against risk-taking or losses. This article goes on to give statistics for different financial markets. Methods of Research and Methods of Analysis I chose these two articles because when I read them they kept my attention by talking about current issues in accounting and using examples and statistics. The articles were about issues affecting the accounting world today. I was interested in what they had to say, so I wanted to analyze them more closely. I chose the following questions: • Is the author simply providing information? • What purposes does the audience have for reading or listening to what the author communicates? • What is the environment of the problem? • Does anything about this subject present an ethical problem? I chose these questions because the rhetorical analysis was conducted by choosing four questions of technical and professional writing. These questions applied to my articles because answers to all the questions were given. Discussion/Rhetorical Analysis Primary Purposes: Is the author simply providing information? My first article focused on proving information on convergence of accounting standards worldwide and the problems caused by having different accounting standards throughout the world. The author is trying to persuade the audience that convergence is a good idea. Right now, employees of multinational companies must comply with the many different national standards. The accounting company must consolidate different national financial reports into single statements in accordance with its own home country's accounting rule. My second article focused on providing information and also providing opinions about financial markets and U. S. growth rate. In the

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opinion of one person, the government should not do anything to protect financial market investors against risk-taking or losses. This same person also said that turmoil in financial markets would affect U.S. growth rates. However, the treasury secretary said that the global economy was strong and that the US will avoid recession. The article gives statistics to give further information on the different financial markets in the U.S. Primary Audience: What purposes do they have for reading or listening to what the author communicating? In my first article, the audience would be reading to find out information about converging accounting standards worldwide and to find out why it is a good idea. To comply with the many different accounting standards, the accounting company must consolidate different national financial reports into single statements in accordance with its own home country's accounting rule. The accountants spend a lot of time and money. Converging accounting standards would save time and money for many multinational companies. Instead of having to prepare many financial statements and then having to convert them into one statement they could just prepare one final statement. Many financial crises and the accounting scandals around the world, during recent years have made reliable financial reporting important to the effective and efficient functioning of capital markets and their productivity. It is expected that uniform accounting and reporting standards would lessen the risk of corporate scandals. There would be one set of standards and all companies would be held accountable to these standards. This would also reduce costs and losses to investors and creditors. The audience is probably accountants or business professionals because the article is written on a more academic level. In my second article, the audience would be reading to get information on whether turmoil in financial markets will affect U.S. growth rates. They also get statistics on different financial markets. Countywide shares fell 13% after a Merrill analyst issued a sell rating and fueled worries about the mortgage-lender’s ability to cope with the credit crunch. Amgen said it plans to cut staff, slash capital expenses, and close some plants as sales of its anemia drug, Aranesp, tumble. The audience is probably the general public because the article is written in general terms and is easy to understand and follow. Context Considerations of place: What is the environment of the problem?

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The environment of the problem in my first article is worldwide. The problem is that the accounting standards are different in different countries. The solution that the author offers is to move towards convergence in accounting standards worldwide. The environment of my second article is in the U.S. This article gives information about the financial markets in the U.S. and the growth rates of these markets. Ethical stance: Does anything about this subject present an ethical problem? Ethics is defined as the analysis of concepts such as right and wrong, good and evil, and responsibility. In my first article, the subject of convergence of accounting standards worldwide and the benefits of convergence does not present any ethical problems. It is more a subject of fact then a subject about values or customs of a person or group. In my second article, the subject of the financial market and U.S. growth rates does not present an ethical problem. It list statistics and has some opinions of fact in the article, but none dealing with ethics. Conclusion Based on the above referenced articles, writing in the field of accounting is accurate and full of statistical evidence to back up the author’s theories. Even though there are ethics in accounting, ethics are usually left out of the writing in accounting. The purpose of the author’s writing is to inform their audience of current accounting issues. Accountants write to specific audiences, sometimes to the general public and sometimes to other accountants. They usually write about a specific environment and about a specific issue. After reading the above analysis, the reader should have a better understanding of the way that accountants write to their audiences. References Business and finance. (2007, August 16). Wall Street Journal. A.1. Fajardo, C. (2007, September). The move towards convergence of accounting standards worldwide. Journal of American Academy of Business, 12 (1), 57-62. Kennedy, G. & Montgomery, T. (2002). Technical and Professional Writing: solving problems at work. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

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Profile Essay _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

ENG 101 Overview This assignment requires you to profile either a person within his/her environment or an activity (and its associated place/venue and/or organization). Since profiles are stylistically similar to journalistic writing (somewhat sensationalized, but informative), they should employ some of the basic principles of narration, as well as description that results from your observations. In addition, they should include general commentary (your thoughts, other observer’s/participant’s thoughts) and questioninitiated responses (interview-based responses). Before beginning your project, you’ll need to consider the possible approaches or angles – more specifically, what you might want to convey or reveal by delving into your chosen subject (Note: I’m asking you to determine your PURPOSE). For example, profiles typically reveal new or previously inaccessible information to their audiences. They take audiences behind the scenes, offer them a new perspective, or attempt to debunk established stereotypes. You’ll also need to ask yourself what you expect to discover or learn based on societal assumptions, stereotypes, preconceived notions, etc. Types of Profiles The person profile should include… responses to open-ended interview questions (some can be summarized and paraphrased, others should be quoted directly) observations of the person’s environment (their context) personal descriptions – physical, personality-based, etc. commentary/quotation (both from yourself and others) The activity profile should include… the history of the activity and/or venue a chronological account of the highlights of the activity observations of both the activity and the participants commentary/quotation both from yourself and other participants Pre-Writing Activities (Fieldwork and Field Notes) prepare for your interview by constructing open-ended questions or by making plans to visit a place or participate in an activity

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explore your preconceptions by answering the following questions: How do I currently perceive the subject? What do I expect to find? What are some of the general societal perceptions of the subject? conduct fieldwork – record responses to interview questions, record observations (of both people and the environment), gather pertinent information pertaining to subject (via research, authoritative sources at the site, etc.), note personal thoughts, impressions, feelings, etc.

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Jennifer Hinz _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

Green Scrubs and Hearts of Gold Florence Nightingale once said, "No man, not even a doctor, ever gives any other definition of what a nurse should be than this – 'devoted and obedient.' This definition would do just as well for a porter. It might even do for a horse." When with nursing, actions speak louder than words. A nurse can be defined as a person who is formally educated and trained in the care of the sick or infirmed. Ultimately, the type of people who are capable and willing to make a difference makes the overall profession one to appreciate. Let's face it, nursing isn't the typical nine to five job where you can leave your stresses at work. Each day is a new emotional experience. "No one said nursing wouldn't be a challenging profession, it requires critical thinking and good communication skills. To me, the most rewarding aspect of my job is when I am able to take fear away from scary situations for patients," declares Cheryl Kliesely, a nurse in the field for nine years. This woman makes it her priority to tend to any person who needs her, regardless of the effects of twelve hour shifts, or the patients who spring from their hospital beds naked and under the influence, but that's another story in itself. It's easy to envision an average hospital setting, yet this facility seemed different from the rest. Located in a less favorable area of downtown Phoenix, the hospital's entrance was impressive. The building stands seven stories high and is painted a deep taupe with white trim. "Maricopa Medical Center" was inscribed in large plated letters above two separate double door ways that lead to the lobby. As I walked in I could picture Cheryl’s stories in my mind as if they were a play by play, similar to the sports rewinds on ESPN. The walls, as predicted, were stark white. The floors were a multi-colored laminate, the kind you'd see in any cafeteria or elementary school gymnasium. As I followed Cheryl through the many hallways of the hospital, she introduced me to every person we approached. It seemed like everyone had something to add other than a courteous handshake. "Just remember this, keep your head low, nod and smile and keep your mouth shut. You'll do fine kid," encouraged one of the random staff members. Walking though the Labor and Delivery Unit was an experience in itself; it was an array of styled hair, green scrubs, and extremely sarcastic women. Each lady was animated and had a lot to say. It wasn't difficult to see just how close everyone really was. Greeting Cheryl with a warm embrace, another RN routinely introduced herself. Without hesitation she found amusement in my name. "See there are so many Jens here, it's the default name. You can just call out the name Jen and know you'll be safe

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and still get the person you need." Cheryl led me to the small break room. It was an extremely small space but the ladies designed it to their advantage; a miniature colored television rested on top of the refrigerator and chairs were sporadically placed for optimal viewing. Before I had time to comment, Cheryl's friend broke the silence, "Girls, get this. So she goes to Target intending to buy Cheez-Itz but instead she just gets some hair dye and makes her hair the color of them," mocking one of the other nurses, coincidently named Jen. I was surprised to see just how quiet the hospital actually was, other than the middle aged women's laughter. In that instant, it was like Cheryl read my mind; she exclaimed, "You'll come to learn that with this job you'll probably be eating with all your friends and then out of nowhere ten very nervous women are ready to be induced at once. This job has elements of repetitive actions, but it is very unpredictable." After asking if any of them would have switched their majors given the chance, I was dumbfounded by how many women could simultaneously say "No"; it had to be a record. Despite encountering the occasional cracked out patient, the stories Cheryl most often chooses to recall are the ones that encourage her to take pride in her profession." One of my most memorable patients was a mom who was losing a twenty five week pregnancy. The baby had died. She was with us to deliver the baby; I personally cared for her and her family during labor and finally the delivery. When the baby was born, I bathed her and dressed her and asked the family if they wanted photos taken. We always do this if the patient wants us to. The family kept the baby with them, and their extended family came to see her and they grieved together. A few days later, I received the most touching letter from the family. They thanked me for being with them during such a difficult time. They thanked me for treating the baby like a person, talking to her, and pointing out how she resembled her mother and father. They said they felt I had made them feel like she was real, and had actually been a member of their family. They described me as compassionate, and said that they had asked God to bless me for helping them. I have never been so honored by anything in my life," explained Cheryl as she began to speak softer. "What I would have liked was to have the opportunity to thank them for allowing me to be present during, and part of such an intimate and important event in their lives. They opened their hearts to me, and then took the time to show gratitude even though something so devastating had happened to them." A brief silence filled the room. She smiled and asked "Is there anything else you'd like to know?"

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Out of all the open positions available, Cheryl decided to pursue her career at Maricopa Medical Center because she felt like she could really make a difference there. You would never be able to tell that she is pressured by endless expectations by the calmness she exudes. Due to her assistant manager responsibilities, she arrives at the hospital by 6:20 in the morning, one half hour before the rest of the staff. "By seven I will have assigned patients to the oncoming staff and placed students with nurses for their clinical experience. I try not to assign myself a patient so I am free to help nurses when one of their patients delivers; a second nurse makes the process smoother," claims Cheryl as she sips her predictable Starbucks espresso, non fat. Whether it's inspecting the code chart for medication discrepancies or making sure temperature logs are up to date, Cheryl flawlessly completes every task. "If time allows, I will also work on scheduling, record maternal transports that come in from other facilities, and attend whatever meetings are scheduled. At the same time, I am keeping an eye on all our patients and fielding phone calls from the OB triage regarding patients that need to be admitted. Sometimes I will also work with the physicians to make sure our scheduled OR cases for the day are happening in a timely fashion," she says confidently. "I try to round on all our patients and make sure they are happy and comfortable. That is my favorite part of the job." At 6:30 in the evening she wraps up any unfinished details of the day. "Finally I get to jump back in the car and enjoy the music on 96.9 as I drive home; I truly yearn for the voices of my family and the comfort of my favorite chair." Despite her desire to relax and spend time with her family, Cheryl agreed to indulge me further and continue answering my questions at her house. As I leaned back into her oversized plush sofa, I couldn't help but notice how every element in the room coordinated flawlessly. The neutral colors of the wooden floors and beige walls added to the cozy ambiance. Her home was filled with priceless artwork in large bold frames, designer frayed rugs, and intricate light fixtures; she even had matching silver plated frames around each electrical outlet. Blankly staring into her kitchen, she had to do everything in her power not to jump up and rewash the immaculate stone tile; she has a slight case of OCD, but she still makes it seem charming. "It's true," she said, "I'm neurotic. But after having a career in a hospital, a sloppy fiancĂŠ and three kids, can you blame me?" Her family's pictures were sporadically arranged on her refrigerator supported by her eight-year-old's vibrant toy magnets. I leaned towards the ebony coffee table to retrieve my Diet Coke and I couldn't take my eyes

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off of a very expensive looking bowl full of nothing. I could see Cheryl's classy reflection in it but I was almost automatically distracted in the deep black swirling of the paint. "Honestly, we're the same at work as we are at home. We are who we are," she said as she was scrubbing the grout. What kind of person does it take to be a successful nurse? I could list all sorts of personality traits and things that a nurse should be good at, but in my heart I believe it is a calling, much like a calling to the priesthood. I think that being there to comfort a patient in a moment of need is what defines a nurse's job. After witnessing a shift as a rookie in a highly animated hospital, the experience was nothing like I thought it would be. I foresaw uptight women, strict policies and incredibly bright hallways; I envisioned myself on the set of ER. On the contrary, the only thing similar to that was the cramped locker room space. Real life was nothing like what I had seen on television. These people's personalities outshined any attempt that a paid actor makes to portray people in this profession. I learned that compassion is key and cooperation is what keeps everything stable. It's plain to see that with gain there is loss, but at the end of the day, it was real. Similar to life, nursing will throw out its obstacles. So then the question arises, why is there such a nursing shortage? Why has nursing lost its appeal? To me the answer is simple. I don't think it has lost its appeal, but it's plain to see that not anyone can choose this career and be successful; it takes someone with strength, intelligence, and a positive attitude. Florence Nightingale made it clear that nurses are more then just "obedient and devoted;" they make a significant contribution to the society we live in and it is safe to say Cheryl could easily be her ideal example.

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The Academic Completion Report _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

ENG 301 Purpose/Rationale I am an academic researcher who is greatly interested in teaching and learning as much as possible about rhetorical writing/communication in different professions. I have asked you, another researcher, to analyze some writing in your profession using a rhetorical approach to teach fellow researchers and me about the writing in your profession. Task/ Breakdown of Sections To teach other researchers about writing in your profession, you must put together a completion report (remember chapter 7). The report will incorporate the following sections: (1) Brief memo: should formally identify the report, accompany it, but not be part of it. It should reiterate why it was written, and explain the work that was done, in a general way. If any problems arose, or if questions, comments or concerns are being elicited, the memo is a good place for them. It should be just a short paragraph or two (see p. 364). When memos are written for people within the same company, business, school, etc, and your audience knows you personally, the logo is unnecessary. Use formal headings as shown on p. 364. (2) Cover page: should contain the title of the report, your name, the recipient’s name, and the function/assignment, if applicable (see the APA handout). (3) Table of contents: list all major sections (4-10) of your paper and their page numbers, including the references page and appendixes. (4) Introduction: in a paragraph, should discuss the purpose and objectives of the report, give a general overview of the research (i.e. mention the articles you chose and why), limitation or scope of the report, and direction the report will take. Basically it is an overview of the report’s contents, including your major impression or conclusion. (5) Review of literature: should provide a citation and summary of each respective article. (6) Methods of research and/or analysis: should explain how you chose articles, and which rhetorical questions you used to analyze each article.

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Also tell why those particular questions where chosen, how they were most appropriate for your readings. You are a researcher, so don’t say that you chose the articles because it was all you could find; you had other reasons, such as they came up when you were looking in the literature of your chosen field/discipline/profession. Be specific. Do not add your analyses to this section; just tell what tools (keywords, readings, and questions) you used to conduct the analyses. Make sure you word the questions so they fit into your writing! Do not word them exactly the way they are in the book. (7) Results section: this is optional. Results typically just give raw data, often in a table or graph, with only a factual rendering of your findings, but with little or no analysis or discussion of what the findings mean. You can incorporate this into the discussion if you prefer. (8) Discussion: should be both of your analyses of your two articles. You will need to include the questions either as subheadings, or as integrated into your text, so your reader does not have to flip back to check on which questions you are responding to. (9) Conclusion: should in a paragraph wrap up, review what you have covered, and perhaps note what you have discovered in your research. (10) References page: should follow APA guidelines (see handout). Cite your readings and the textbook in the references page (we took the questions from it). (11) Appendixes: should each have a cover sheet; label them “Appendix A,” and “Appendix B.” Have your articles in the first appendix, and all process work in the second.

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Kristianna Kane _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

Nurse Practitioner: Fast and Current Information Introduction The articles under consideration in this report revealed purpose and benefit to the professional nurse. The articles were chosen using the database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature or CINAHL. This database is utilized by professionals in the field of nursing to gather relevant data. The style of these two articles is the object of discussion. The articles are providing facts about extremely current issues around progressive health topics. They are written in simple prose and are very short. One article was released as a newswire and the other as a newsletter. Both were under 500 words in length. The authors summarized relevant points of ongoing, complex, health issues. The attributes of this form of writing cater to the needs of the audience. Review of Literature Miller, J., Smith A., Kouba E., Wallen E., Pruthi R.S., (2007, August 24). Robotics; Quality of Life in Men Following Prostatectomy: Robotic Assisted. Medical Devices & Surgical Technology Week. Retrieved September 4, 2007 from http://www.newsrx.com/ article.php?articleID=686549 Summary: This article is about a small study done on a group of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy surgery using one of two surgical procedures. The patients’ overall health was monitored. They were asked to complete a survey regarding their quality of life after surgery. The results were compared, and it was found that there was a slight increase in QOL for men with laparoscopic procedure. The study was probably not valid due to small and unequal groups, and the lack of patient response. It was unclear whether the procedure was worth the increase in cost. Wakerman J. (2007, August 27). ‘Super Clinics’ Demand Boost in Funding and Workforce Numbers. National Rural and Health Alliance. Retrieved September 4, 2007 from http://nrha.ruralhealth.org.au/ cms/uploads/media/super%20clinics%20and%20areas%2027%20 august.pdf Summary: This article is about the proposed budget for health clinics in rural areas to improve access to healthcare services. Authorities doubt the proposed funding is adequate to cover the needs that go along with these “super

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clinics.” Although the need for these clinics was affirmed, the financial proposal was under scrutiny as to whether it was realistic. Methods of Research/Analysis A series of rhetorical questions was used to help analyze the articles. They were: • Is the author simply providing information? • What does the author want the audience to do after listening to his communication? • What does the audience want to know? • What does the audience need to know? While researching the writing in the field of nursing, it became evident that there was a theme in format. So, these questions were chosen to reveal the purpose of writing in short, pointed prose. These questions were chosen because in researching the literature in the field of nursing it became pretty evident that the majority of the articles were written for a certain audience and in very short, easy to understand formatting. Obviously, these articles were written to quickly overview current topics. The reasons they were written this way was to be determined in conjunction with the demands of the audience. As more questions were being answered it was clear that despite the simple structure of these articles the audience is specialized. Discussion These articles are written to provide information. The authors (Miller 2007, Wakerman 2007) are relaying facts about the circulating discourse surrounding healthcare topics. They are providing information in a brief, straightforward manner without any direct opinion from the author. In the super clinics article, the author generally uses quotes from authorities in the healthcare community to illustrate the concerns of the proposal. Within the quotes, the proposal is both validated and criticized, “But the plan does not make it clear how these workforce shortages would be overcome…. we could make this [proposal] work for people in rural areas.” The event is progressive. The article is the raw reactions to an initiatory proposal. Nothing written is a final decision and instead the focus is on the commentary of the healthcare community. The second article about comparing the quality of life of patients having different procedures for the same health problem was also informative. The paragraphs outlined the design and results of the study. Weaknesses of the study were addressed by a health professional saying, “[t]he study had only a 50% patient response

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rate without explanation, that the group sizes were unequal, and that a 1.3 week improvement may not be justified with the increase in cost of the procedure” (Miller, 2007). This article is a summation of another article in a prominent journal. It appears to be a synopsis of the study. It is another example of compact information for professionals staying up-to date on healthcare issues. These articles provide the latest discoveries and opinions of those in the field of nursing. These articles aim to give the reader an overview of a complex issue. I think the authors (Miller 2007, Wakerman 2007) would like the reader to come away from the reading feeling more educated about the latest topics and colleagues’ perceptions. These perceptions are included, perhaps to give the reader a direction to form their own opinion. Since the articles are so condensed, the reader may just pull enough information to pursue it more in depth, or just get a swift update. There really isn’t a hook statement. This is probably not necessary because the medical communities reading these are skimming article titles to find relevant information. In the article about the plan for super clinics the author uses a quote to roughly describe who will benefit from these clinics. He says, “[w]e are encouraged that some of the focus would be in rural and regional areas (where Medicare is underutilized because of workforce shortages) and in town ‘which are currently poorly served’ by Commonwealth services” (Wakerman,2007). This article goes on to give concerns being raised by others indicating an infancy of the program. The proposal is not final as illustrated here; “Implementation of the scheme would need to be flexible to account for the diversity of rural and remote practice settings” (Wakerman, 2007). The way in which the proposal will be carried out is not determined. It seems the implementation is still in discussion. This gives professionals an opportunity to participate in the decision making. It is probable a professional might be inspired to respond after reading this article. Then they could be informed and involved in healthcare practices. The fact that this information is available quickly as a news press or newsletter is relevant because the reader is so up-to-date that it allows the reader response time to support or negate the issue at hand possibly influencing the success or dissolve of ideas surrounding the industry of healthcare. The audience needs to know some information to understand these readings. There is some terminology used that is evidently for a unique audience. One article refers to the use of an SF-12 and uses an acronym for quality of life (Miller, 2007). The term “super clinic” is never defined,

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assuming the reader already knows what that structure entails. It is a structure that functions as an alternative to emergency medicine to alleviate some strain on hospitals. The super clinic article makes reference to the point that the very remote areas “may only have a visiting general practitioner” (Miller, 2007). This point was made to illustrate the needs of communities. Therefore, a basic understanding of what a general practitioner does would be mandatory to understanding what those communities needs are. Also, the clinic proposal is based in Australia. Some of the organizations referenced may not have an equivalent here in the US or there maybe distinct differences in that nation’s overall healthcare organization. Australia has vast areas of remote land so the needs of the communities may not be the same as the US. This background information may also be necessary in appreciating the author’s summary of fact. The audience wants to know some things about these issues. The surgical procedure article leaves the audience wanting to know more about the risks involved in this type of surgery. Statistics to back up these claims would be part of this information. The reader would like to know how common this surgery is for men. This would help decide the question of whether a more expensive procedure would be worth the improvement of the quality of life after surgery. Since this study was done on such a small and unstable scale the reader wonders if more studies for the future are being planned. The article is focused on the quality of life and patient follow up visits; stitches, pain management, and the length of the procedure is not addressed. These are all aspects of QOL. As for the super clinic article, the reader wants to know what the community thinks about these structures. Knowing what the prevalent health disparities are in these communities would reflect the individuality of the clinics’ resources in alignment with each community’s needs and wants. The reactions to the proposal didn’t specifically indicate how short the proposal funds might be. It also failed to comment on what areas the shortage would neglect. It was not clear if the proposed $220 million dollars would be for super clinics alone. Conclusion These types of writings work beautifully for a nurse practitioner’s utilization. Nurse practitioners are responsible for dealing with a wide array of patient needs. It is crucial to have summarized information about current health issues to best serve the patient. They are trained to direct the patient to the proper specialist when necessary and therefore need to know

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a little bit about everything to know what direction to go. Also, having a meaningful communication with patients would be better achieved with adequate background of the patient. So, getting information on population disparities is paramount. Healthcare is an ever-changing field so there is much information to keep up with. It would be impossible to work as a nurse practitioner and keep current with thousands of lengthy articles. These forms of writings aren’t presented as detailed emotional debates but rather as boiled down delivery of facts. There is little time spent giving background history and no time at all concluding the article.

References Kennedy, G. E. & Montgomery, T. T. (2002). Technical and Professional Writing Solving Problems at Work. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Miller, J., Smith A., Kouba E., Wallen E., Pruthi R.S., (2007, August 24). Robotics; Quality of Life in Men Following Prostatectomy: Robotic Assisted. Medical Devices & Surgical Technology Week. Retrieved September 4, 2007.from http://www.newsrx.com/ article.php?articleID=686549 Wakerman, J., (2007, August 27). Super Clinics’ Demand Boost in Funding and Workforce Numbers. National Rural and Health Alliance. Retrieved August 27, 2007 from http://nrha.ruralhealth.org.au/ cms/uploads/media/super%20clinics%20and%20areas%2027%20 august.pdf

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Personal Narrative Essay _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

ENG 101 Most personal essays are like “photographic self-portraits.” Though both essays and photographs can capture our essence at a particular moment in time, the essay allows us to recreate the past, uncover new details, and actively engage with the past from our present perspective. Ultimately, the personal essay should convey something significant to the audience, and in the process, you should discover something unique about yourself. Hence, the questions that you should be attempting to answer before beginning the writing process are the “what” the “how” and the “why”: what do I want to convey (topic/purpose, theme)? how do I want to convey it (organization, voice, style)? why is it significant to me (and why might it be to the audience)? Possible Focuses of the Braided Personal Essay moments of enlightenment/catharsis transitional moments/rites of passage moments of crisis/critical choices *(your three moments must be connected through a common artifact, symbol, image, theme, emotion, person, etc.) Features of the Personal Essay subject is often commonplace (think minutia, the everyday) written in first person implicit/unconventional thesis; because the essay is exploratory in nature, the meaning isn’t generally revealed (i.e. “told” to the audience), but should be implied near the beginning and woven (i.e. “shown”) throughout employment of basic narrative/autobiographical conventions: Plot = fragmented narratives, all of which are based on the writer’s experiences, though not necessarily chronologically organized; essentially, a narration of memories linked through a common theme, object/artifact, etc. Setting = descriptions of the environment in which the memories take place; oftentimes, these descriptions of place/exterior spaces also serve as reflections of the writer’s interior Character = descriptions of behaviors and moods, as well as dialogue, can help to establish your identity as well as the identity of others

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Theme = personal reflection that ultimately leads to a more universal significance, something that resonates with your audience Using an “Artifact” In order to facilitate the “translation” process (abstract ideas into concrete concepts/words) as well as the “braiding” together of your three moments, consider bringing abstract concepts/memories to life through the use of an “artifact,” a concrete object or photograph that will help you engage with the past. Not only will this artifact instigate memories, it will also provide you with a visual object from which you can derive some of your physical descriptions.

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Patricia Lysikowska _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

A Token of Appreciation The brass lightweight New York City subway token hits the spare change tossed carelessly inside my wallet. It seems almost ironic that this small detailed coin engraved with the words “good for one fare,” along its round outer edge was once the key to the city and its underground world of endless tunnels and mazes filled with railroad tracks and subway cars. It led to a city of opportunities and education, a world anxiously waiting to be discovered. Replaced by the simple, sleek, and more modern design of the Metro card, the token is now tucked away amidst the number seven subway train tracks. Once an essential part to the daily life of any New Yorker, the token is slowly forgotten as the beauty of its meaning fades from everyone’s mind. Every morning, rain or shine, my mom would take my brother and I to school on the number seven subway train en route to work. The start of a new day began as she tossed the three glistening tokens into the slots that opened up a gate anywhere to the city. I would enter a hidden world, condensed and filled with people in a hurry to get to work. Dreamily, I would sit in school, gazing out the window, as I watched the city come alive in front of my eyes. September 11th was no other day. I sat in English class, distracted by the window facing the East Side River onto the World Trade Center, as the teacher talked of Hamlet in the background. With a blink of an eye, everything that seemed so normal and ordinary was gone. The view I took for granted every morning was gone from plain sight, and its only traces were those engraved in my memory. What once stood proudly in the financial downtown Tribeca district was now covered in debris, dust and smoke. As I watched the airplanes hit the two steel towers, a thousand thoughts flooded my head. The balls of fire coming out on the opposite ends of each building only made me think of the horrors the people within must be facing. It was surreal. The TV in the classroom displayed continuous clips of the two towers falling to the ground as people ran from the smoke onto the city streets. It was an action movie coming to life. Along with the towers fell a city that came alive at night, a city represented by its tall structures and lively nightlife. That night, there was no nightlife, just mourning as the faces of those missing in the remaining debris ran across the ten o’ clock news. My brother and I watched as parents entered the big metal doors of the school, leaving behind the dark night outside, to pick up their children. With each ring of the doorbell, our ears perked up in hopes of it being our turn to go home. Several times while waiting, the horrible

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thoughts of my parents not ever showing up crossed my head. Deep down inside I wanted to cry, but I knew if my brother saw tears running down the sides of my cheeks, his would come shortly after. The sound of my eight year old brother crying would confirm the fears that were now starting to become reality. Finally, our turn came at eight that night. The gut feeling from my stomach diminished within seconds as relief overwhelmed me when I heard the buzz of the doorbell loudly ring. We were the last to leave the quiet auditorium. The hundreds of chairs that filled the room were left behind empty. Because all incoming and outgoing traffic to and from Manhattan came to a halt, my parents had to cross the East Side River through a connecting bridge along with thousands of others. The bus that took them to the private school we attended on the outskirts of Brooklyn was filled with survivors of the attacks. My dad’s car was left behind amongst the chaos and tragedy of what was once a lively city. That night, my parents casually announced to my brother and me that Arizona would become our new home within the next year. The tiny things we did every day, the boring subway rides to school, and the city lights at night leaving no visible stars in the sky became the moments I began to cherish. Every minute became my last; the minimal became an essential part of my life. The day finally came when we loaded the last of our apartment into the car and took that 3000 mile trip across the country. The only memories I had of driving out of the city were always on those hot and humid summer days when we left for vacation. It had yet to sink in that this time I would be leaving for good. About midway through the trip it finally hit me that I would not be going back. To the right of me sat my brother, gazing out the window with endless thoughts playing across his face. Knowing it would annoy him, I argued with myself if I should poke him to get his attention. I considered the two options I had: continue to sit quietly and let a moment in time when my brother and I can bond pass, or risk getting yelled at for a couple of seconds to maybe connect with him on the feelings we were both sharing. As he turned around, aggravated, the feelings of gloom were visible on his face. We were finally able to find a common ground, a moment in our lives where we both shared the same emotions. We looked back and reminisced about the summers on Coney Island and winters in the Catskills. When we reached Chicago that first night, we stayed at a hotel in the middle of downtown. Once again, I was reminded of what I was leaving behind and what was ahead of me.

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No longer would I have the privilege to go outside and walk to wherever I pleased. The easy and convenient access I had to anywhere was now gone. I left behind what I thought was my opportunity to enjoy and live life to its fullest. The burden of taking me anywhere and everywhere, once the token’s duty, fell on my parents. It was then my parents became fed up and hired a driving instructor to teach me how to drive. Now, my freedom came disguised as a car; replacing what the subway token once meant. The car became my escape. Whenever I was upset or angered by a situation, a short drive to nowhere would help me collect my thoughts. The music blasting loud, it was just me and the road; that endless path that had the power to take me anywhere. On one of these short drives, I finally had a moment of enlightenment as I realized how far I had come from when I lived amongst the hustle and bustle of city life. Surrounded by the tranquility of the empty desert, I looked up at the star filled sky, taking in each and every bright light peering through that cloudy night. The dreams I had as a child of moving out and growing up finally left the imagination of that young girl sitting and daydreaming in that classroom and were finally becoming a reality. Shopping for furniture with my boyfriend for our apartment within recent months led me to the most unexpected pleasant memory. As we stared at the white couch on display at IKEA pondering and making quick measurements in our heads, he pointed out a picture to me that unveiled a wave of emotions. Looking up, the New York City skyline stared at me just the way I remembered it last, from the rear windshield off the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway. The memories hit me like the cold on a winter day. I looked at it for what seemed an eternity and my gaze finally fell back to reality. Change happens at the most unexpected times in life. Regardless of its effect, positive or negative, the comfort of everyday life is stripped away. Just like the token, replaced by the more innovative Metro card, life can take unforeseen turns. For years, people search for the meaning of life, without taking in the simplicity of the everyday. Its beauty is not in what we lack, but in what we have.

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Andrew Patterson _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

One Voice “You look at me and see the girl.” Girl—that is what the other kids called me. “Who lives inside a golden world.” A golden world—that is what my parents made for me. “But don’t believe that’s all there is to see.” No one could see what I was going through. “They’ll never know the real me.” The real me—that is what I wanted everyone to see. The emotional distress that some kids experience as a result of growing up bi racial in a black or white society reflected the conflicts I struggled with as I tried to understand how to be gay in a straight world. Time and time again, Mariah Carey’s ability to mend feelings of despair with faith and determination has given me the strength to live when life has given me the yearning to die. I stood on an old wooden stage that faced a half-sized gymnasium full of empty metal folding chairs. The smell of burnt pizza filled the air as the lunch ladies prepared the Friday usual. Carol Vernon’s sixth grade class was rehearsing for the annual spring concert. Brian Hess towered over me on my right. Brian was the class genetic lottery winner. He lit up any room when he walked in with his big dazzling white smile. His sandy blonde hair, full of shiny waves, danced around his perfectly round face with the bluest eyes I have ever seen. Neil Christopher, the class jock, soared above me on my right. Neil was the sixth grader that looked like a twelfth grader. He was very tall with well-defined muscles that showed through his clothes. He had a strong jaw and a perfectly molded face with big round brown eyes. His hair was short and full of little spikes each positioned perfectly into its place. I stood there motionlessly and collected all of the hurtful words they directed at me. My mind raced in search of an answer, “Why do I have these feelings of attraction and admiration for two boys that I hate more than anyone? Why do I want to be around someone that is so mean to me? Why do I like them? Why don’t they like me?” All of a sudden I felt two hands push me from behind. I fell to the cold floor where I laid for the longest 10 seconds of my life. I didn’t want to look back and see either one of them laughing at me. I was afraid of tarnishing the image of their beautiful faces in my mind. I quickly crawled upward into a fast dash out the door to the safety of my homeroom. During the car ride home, I refused to talk to my mother. I did not know what to say. I had no answers for myself, let alone her. Upon arriving home, I ran to the sanctity of my bedroom where I loaded my Mariah Carey CD. I listened more carefully than ever before. I was amazed by her ability to express what she felt. The emotional tone in her

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voice moved me. I stood in front of my mirror with my television remote control in my hand. This time I wasn’t motionless or speechless. I sang into my microphone and told everyone that I saw in my mirror how I felt. How Mariah felt. How we felt. I think about all of the gay boys that I know. There seem to be certain ones that have this same admiration and kinship towards some sort of female celebrity. Are these incredible boys all inspired by Mariah’s fellow divas? Cher, Madonna and Janet are all tremendously strong women who have endured many hardships and yet still have made it to the top. For years, I felt like Mariah and I were the only one who had intense feelings of inferiority. All this time my friends were coping the same way. Jason Michaels turned to Cher; Ryan Miller identified with Madonna; Cory Brenson understood Janet Jackson just as I relied on Mariah. Now I realize that they all have their stories of struggling for acceptance and Mariah and I were not alone. I was fortunate enough to accept my homosexuality. Even though it took me a long time to understand what it meant to be gay, I never denied it (to myself). I never wanted to be any other way. As a child, I had to hide it. Some of the kids at school teased me about it but they never really knew. I never told them. Hearing about the bad things that happen to gay boys like Mathew Shepard, I had no choice but to never tell anyone. I wasn’t only afraid of being rejected by my peers and possibly even my family, I was afraid for my life. Finally the day came to leave all of my friends from high school behind. I moved into the city and began my college life during which I met many others that were like me. I saw with my own eyes that I would be okay to live the life I always wanted. I felt secure enough to be me. I felt alive. I felt gay! I never disbelieved Mariah when her comforting lyrics promised me happiness when I became true to myself. It wasn’t until I was living in the city that I felt it. That is when I realized I had to tell my family. They were the first that needed to know. After two months at school, I returned home for a weekend for the first time since I left. My family acted as if I had never left. Saturday morning I joined my mother, my brother and my sister for breakfast. My mom was dramatically flailing around the kitchen while arguing with my sister about her dramatic behavior at school. As usual, my brother was captivated by ESPN on the television. I just sat there and absorbed it all as I ate my cereal, waiting for an opportunity to take over the spotlight and sing my song. Finally my siblings left the room as my mom and I remained

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in awkward silence. I asked her to sit and talk with me. I just wanted her full attention long enough to unload the weight I had been carrying around for 18 years. As she sat, I began to tell her how much I missed her but also how much I loved being at school. I led the conversation to a point where I was able to bring up the boy that I had met and was falling in love with. I was so scared. My stomach ached as if not butterflies but pterodactyls were flying around in it. I remember thinking to myself, “Is this what Mariah feels like before she goes on stage?” Finally, before I could even get to the point of telling my mom that I was gay, she asked “Honey, are you trying to tell me that you are gay?” Gay! I don’t think I had ever even heard the word come out of my mother’s mouth before. I was afraid that I was going to have to explain to her what gay mean.. Now there she was, asking me if I was gay. I immediately began to cry. “Yes. Yes! How? I mean how did you know?” I asked. After she explained how she had known for some time and told me all about her reasons for suspicion, the only thing I could feel was joy. The whole time I was worried that I would have to comfort her and there she was comforting me. But she wasn’t just comforting me, she was accepting me. I had finally reached the top. I had made it! I successfully achieved one of my lifelong dreams. I had let my mother into my heart and soul. I let her know her real son and she accepted him and still loved him. From that point on, it became easier and easier for me to face the next person. Eventually I came to the point where I am today, at which I don’t even hesitate to hide myself. I have the same feeling of acceptance and freedom that I had in front of my mirror with Mariah Carey years ago. “I know, there is a rainbow.” Rainbow--the rainbow is the universal symbol for the gay community. “For me to follow.” I followed Mariah through her music. “To get beyond my sorrow.” I’m sorry that I hid myself for so long. “Thunder precedes the sunlight.” My dark childhood is behind me with my bright future in front of me. “So I’ll be alright.” I have faith in myself. “If I can find that rainbow’s end.” I have found that rainbow’s end. Me being able to be myself freely is the pot of gold at the end of my rainbow.

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The Academic Completion Report _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

ENG 301 Purpose/Rationale I am an academic researcher who is greatly interested in teaching and learning as much as possible about rhetorical writing/communication in different professions. I have asked you, another researcher, to analyze some writing in your profession using a rhetorical approach to teach fellow researchers and me about the writing in your profession. Task/ Breakdown of Sections To teach other researchers about writing in your profession, you must put together a completion report (remember chapter 7). The report will incorporate the following sections: (1) Brief memo: should formally identify the report, accompany it, but not be part of it. It should reiterate why it was written, and explain the work that was done, in a general way. If any problems arose, or if questions, comments or concerns are being elicited, the memo is a good place for them. It should be just a short paragraph or two (see p. 364). When memos are written for people within the same company, business, school, etc, and your audience knows you personally, the logo is unnecessary. Use formal headings as shown on p. 364. (2) Cover page: should contain the title of the report, your name, the recipient’s name, and the function/assignment, if applicable (see the APA handout). (3) Table of contents: list all major sections (4-10) of your paper and their page numbers, including the references page and appendixes. (4) Introduction: in a paragraph, should discuss the purpose and objectives of the report, give a general overview of the research (i.e. mention the articles you chose and why), limitation or scope of the report, and direction the report will take. Basically it is an overview of the report’s contents, including your major impression or conclusion. (5) Review of literature: should provide a citation and summary of each respective article. (6) Methods of research and/or analysis: should explain how you chose articles, and which rhetorical questions you used to analyze each article.

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Also tell why those particular questions where chosen, how they were most appropriate for your readings. You are a researcher, so don’t say that you chose the articles because it was all you could find; you had other reasons, such as they came up when you were looking in the literature of your chosen field/discipline/profession. Be specific. Do not add your analyses to this section; just tell what tools (keywords, readings, and questions) you used to conduct the analyses. Make sure you word the questions so they fit into your writing! Do not word them exactly the way they are in the book. (7) Results section: this is optional. Results typically just give raw data, often in a table or graph, with only a factual rendering of your findings, but with little or no analysis or discussion of what the findings mean. You can incorporate this into the discussion if you prefer. (8) Discussion: should be both of your analyses of your two articles. You will need to include the questions either as subheadings, or as integrated into your text, so your reader does not have to flip back to check on which questions you are responding to. (9) Conclusion: should in a paragraph wrap up, review what you have covered, and perhaps note what you have discovered in your research. (10) References page: should follow APA guidelines (see handout). Cite your readings and the textbook in the references page (we took the questions from it). (11) Appendixes: should each have a cover sheet; label them “Appendix A,” and “Appendix B.” Have your articles in the first appendix, and all process work in the second.

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Andi Robbins _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

Rhetorical Analysis of the Writings Performed in the Public Relations Profession INTRODUCTION The most important element of public relations is successful and effective communication. It is the responsibility of the public relations department to ensure that the company or organization is portrayed in a positive way. The most common channel for publicizing information is through writing. As a public relations student, it is essential that I familiarize myself with the most commonly used writing types and styles. To further my knowledge of public relations communication, I interviewed the Marketing/Public Relations Director of Desert Schools Federal Credit Union, Jason Meyers. Jason currently oversees the creative team in marketing in addition to handling all of the public relations responsibilities. He issues all press releases, manages all television, radio and press interviews, and tracks the Desert Schools name as it makes its way through all channels of media. METHODS OF RESEARCH/ANALYSIS Based on his many years in the public relations field, Jason Meyers is an excellent resource for professional writing in the media. Since Meyers is also the director of my department at Desert Schools, I knew he would have an interest in further explaining his job responsibilities. Our interview consisted of the following seven questions, some of which were taken from pages 58-59 of Technical and Professional Writing: Solving Problems at Work: 1. What types of writing are you responsible for? 2. What is the purpose of your writing? 3. What factors do you consider when identifying your audience? 4. What limitations do you face with your writing? a. Ethical, personal or otherwise? 5. How is your writing affected by deadlines? 6. What are the main differences between internal and external communication? 7. Any tips or advice for effective public relations writing? DISCUSSION What types of writing are you responsible for? As the sole employee in the public relations “department” at Desert Schools Federal Credit Union, Jason Meyers is responsible for maintaining the image and brand reputation for the organization as a whole. This large and ever demanding task is tackled by issuing “public relations press releases, fact sheets, [and by delivering, conducting and prepping for]

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interviews” with all facets of the media. Even when not personally being interviewed, Meyers is responsible for all of the pre-interview communication and organization. What is the purpose of your writing? Public relations plays an important role in every company and organization. It’s important to be able to successfully create publicity that will increase positive awareness, while being able to spin the potentially negative events that could be detrimental to the client. Public relations also provides the opportunity to “promote the organization’s brand within the community.” This helps to increase recognition and familiarity within the public, which in turn will help the client generate more business. What factors do you consider when identifying your audience? When pinpointing his target audience, Jason takes advantage of marketing demographics and research to help identify what tone and vernacular to use. He advises to “write how people talk.” Doing so puts the reader at ease, and increases interest and comprehension. He also emphasizes the importance of brevity in all media communication. Anything too lengthy, and you would be at risk of losing the attention of your audience. Another important factor to consider is the amount of press releases being issued daily. With thousands of statements being sent to the media, it’s crucial to find a way to make your message one that won’t end up in the trash. To do so, you have to “make news.” To create newsworthy references, Jason relies on the “’So What?’ test.” This requires putting himself in the role of the reader, and then asking himself, “so what?” It helps the writer to establish why the piece is important to the readers, and what they will gain from being exposed to it. What limitations do you face with your writing? Ethical, personal or otherwise? When writing press releases, it’s important to take on a role similar to a ghostwriter. The piece isn’t meant to represent the writer, it is meant to represent the company, organization, or client. Sometimes you have to “forget who wrote it.” It’s not uncommon for a press release to be edited by multiple parties prior to its issuance. Often times, the client will be unhappy with the draft, and it’s essential to remember not to take criticism personally. The focus should be on “find[ing] goals [and realizing that] things get changed.” If the client is not happy with the outcome, the fault

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lies with the publicist, and in the field of public relations, some mistakes cannot be undone. How is your writing affected by deadlines? In the public relations industry, deadlines are everywhere. Damage control cannot wait, and that means that there isn’t always time for second drafts, and multiple revisions. Jason feels that it’s the sense of urgency that makes him more efficient. With “no time for extra drafts [or] second-guessing,” he knows that his final result needs to be flawless. It’s the pressure of a ticking clock that motivates him to produce results that will impress while maintaining his accurate and newsworthy approach. What are the main differences between internal and external written communication? When addressing internal clients, it’s common to do so with a less formal approach. Slang and jargon are more likely to be used when the risk of confusion is eliminated. When dealing internally, Jason uses the “language of [the] institution. [He] communicates [an entire] culture” through his style, and ability to relate to his audience. When working with external communication, he focuses mainly on the “company brand image.” Every press release and public interview is a challenge to represent the client while constructing a story to create a positive and newsworthy experience. Any tips or advice for effective public relations writing? Of all the elements to consider with public relations, Jason is quick to assure that brevity is the key to successful work. He explains that he never knows how much of his press release will be used in the newspaper, or which portions of his interview will be displayed in the news. Because of this uncertainty, it’s important to avoid including too many details. Reporters and journalists alike want to “copy and paste. They basically want their work to be done for them.” Expecting someone else to sort through pages of facts and details while a deadline looms overhead tends to inspire creative reporting. It’s less work to make up your own facts and information, and apologize later. If you “target [specific] reporters or media [outlets], it’s easier to write to their interests” while ensuring that the correct information is publicized. Keeping the length to a minimum, and writing for the target demographic, as opposed to a blanket audience will help the piece to serve its intended purpose in a more effective approach.

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CONCLUSION With the many challenges faced within the public relations field, it’s extremely beneficial to learn the tricks of the trade from a seasoned and successful professional. My interview with Jason Meyers answered questions regarding the types of writing used in public relations, factors to consider when identifying an audience, limitations that may be experienced, the impact of deadlines, differences between internal and external communication, as well as helpful tips and advice to be successful with my own writing. The advice that seems to resonate most is that of brevity and targeting a specific audience. It seems that spotlighting these two elements will help me to be more successful within the field of public relations, and should help to set me ahead of my competition. REFERENCE Kennedy E.G., & Montgomery T.T. (2002). Technical and Professional Writing Solving Problems at Work. New Jersey. Prentice Hall.

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Rhetorical Analysis of the Writing Styles Used by Hospital Managers INTRODUCTION The purpose of this Academic Completion Report is to provide information on the writing styles used by my current employer’s Director of Nursing, Gregory Scaggs. In this report I will talk about a rhetorical analysis of an interview that I had with Scaggs on February 18, 2008 at Banner Good Samaritan Hospital. In addition to mapping out how Scaggs goes about writing new policy and procedure documents, I will also provide a few examples of daily e-mails and memos that he writes during his daily routine. The scope of this report was limited in that I was unable to obtain any actual policy or procedure writings due to a hospital policy that forbids the release of these documents to the general public. This completion report will show how much time is truly dedicated to professional writing. It will also reveal how team writing is absolutely essential to meet the daily deadlines that otherwise would be missed. Lastly, we will talk about how important tone is when writing to the workforce. METHODS OF RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS I was able to secure an interview with Scaggs, the Director of Nursing for Select Specialty Hospital at Banner Good Samaritan, due to my being an employee at the facility. Scaggs has over 15 years experience in the field of Nursing, so I thought he would be a perfect candidate to field questions concerning the processes of professional writing. I contacted Scaggs using the company’s in-house e-mail and an interview was set up for Monday, February 18, 2008. Using the questions on pages 58-59 from the textbook, Technical and Professional Writing Solving Problems at Work, I conducted an interview with Scaggs in his office, on the morning of February 18th. The questions that I used during my interview are listed below. 1) What type of professional writing do you do on a daily basis? 2) How often do you write to communicate to your employees why something was done? 3) What type of professional writing do you do that provides information so that others can act or make decisions? 4) When you write do you try to create, maintain, or improve your professional image? 5) When writing, do you consider your audiences’ background or level of education?

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6) What do you want your readers to be able to do after reading your communication? 7) Are there things you must know or do by a certain time? 8) Are you dependent on others to meet deadlines? The first question that I asked Scaggs was, “What types of professional writing do you do on a daily basis?” I thought that this would be a good opening question because it would give me a good idea of what types of writing we would be talking about. I then moved on to a question about the primary purpose of his writing. I asked, “How often do you write to communicate to your employees why something was done?” I used this question because I knew from the many e-mails and memos I receive from his office that he would have a lot to talk about when answering this question. The final question that I asked about the primary purpose of his writing dealt with his role in policy and procedure writing. I asked, “What type of professional writing do you do that provides information so that others can act or make decisions?” Having worked in the clinical setting for several years I knew that there are many policy and procedure documents and I wanted to know how he went about writing new policies and procedures. The first and only question that I asked Scaggs about the secondary purpose of his writing was, “When you write do you try to create, maintain, or improve your professional image?” I thought this was an important question to ask a professional writer because I think that creating and maintaining one’s professional image would be a very important thing in becoming a successful manager. Questions 5 and 6 had to do with the professional writers intended audience. Question 5 asked, “When writing, do you consider your audiences’ background or level of education?” and question 6 asked, “What do you want your readers to be able to do after reading your communication?” In order to become a good professional writer both of these questions must be answered and working in a very specific field I wanted to know if Scaggs ever asked himself these two questions while writing his correspondence. I ended my interview with two questions about the context of professional writing. I first asked, “Are there things you must know or do by a certain time?” and then ended with, “Are you dependent on others to meet deadlines?” Working for a large corporation I know that there are

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many deadlines and felt that these two questions would be an appropriate way to end my analysis of the professional writer. RESULTS INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

INTERVIEWEE’S RESPONSE

1) What type of professional writing do you do on a daily basis?

Memos, E-mail, Employee Reviews, Policy and Procedures, Incident Reports, Letters This is done on a daily basis. It is important to have open communication with the employees; it improves morale. Whenever a new medication or intervention is implemented I work with a team to write a policy and procedure document. As a director it is important to write in the proper tone so that your image as a respected individual remains intact. The audience that I write to is mostly healthcare professionals, so I conduct my writing to fit their knowledge level I want things to be as clear with my message as possible. I want the nurses to be able to carry out any instructions without confusion to ensure a safe environment for the patients. I have daily deadlines so communication is very important in this industry I work daily with several people in the office to get all the information I need communicated to the people who need it. I have a secretary and I also count on several other individuals to get work completed by the deadline.

2) How often do you write to communicate to your employees why something was done? 3) What type of professional writing do you do that provides information so that others can act or make decisions? 4) When you write do you try to create, maintain, or improve your professional image? 5) When writing, do you consider your audiences’ background or level of education? 6) What do you want your readers to be able to do after reading your communication? 7) Are there things you must know or do by a certain time? 8) Are you dependent on others to meet deadlines?

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DISCUSSION 1. W hat ty pe of profe ssio nal w ri tin g do yo u do on a d aily b asi s? Being the Director of Nursing, Scaggs writes on the professional level day after day. He mentioned in our interview that e-mail was his most frequent means of communication. He uses e-mail on a daily basis to get information from other hospitals concerning prospective patients. He also said that he uses e-mail to keep in touch with the entire staff about anything that is going on that he feels is important. Scaggs also mentioned in our interview that his use of memos and letters are a big part of his daily routine, often times he asks his assistant to type a memo or letter and then signs off on it after reading the content. Another type of professional writing that Scaggs does daily is employee reviews. (Please see example Appendix A-6). One type of professional writing that nobody likes to talk about is the incident report. Scaggs told me that he writes and reviews many incident reports every week and that he uses his professional writing skills to write corrective action letters to whoever is involved. Unfortunately I was unable to obtain an example of an incident report due to the confidentiality of such documents. The last type of writing we talked about was the hospital policy and procedures. Scaggs said, “Whenever there is a new medication or new intervention, a team of writers meet to write a policy and procedure document that nurses can reference when using the new treatment.” It is hospital policy that no policy and procedure documents get released to the public unless subpoenaed by a judge, so no examples are provided in this completion report. 2. How ofte n do you w rite to com mun ica te to you r e mp loyees w hy somet hi ng wa s do ne? In response to this question Scaggs said, “A good director of nursing must do this on a daily basis It is important to have open communication with the employees; it improves morale.” He went on to talk about how he keeps in contact with all the employees through email and that he most often addresses the questions and concerns of his night shift staff through email, due to him not being able to see the night shift staff on a daily basis. 3. W hat ty pe of profe ssio nal w ri tin g do yo u do t ha t p rovid es informat ion so t hat o t hers c an act or ma ke dec isio ns?

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Scaggs immediately brought up the writing of the policy and procedure documents that we had briefly touched on earlier in the interview. I asked him if he could tell us a little bit about how he and his writing team go about writing new policy and procedure documents. He said that they first compile all the information that is available on the new drug or intervention. Then they try to put the information into a readable document that is both easy to follow and is a step by step representation of what should be done to ensure the best possible outcome. Again, I was unable to obtain a policy and procedure document because the hospital does not release them to the general public. 4. W hen you write do yo u t ry to c re ate, mai nta in or i mp rove you r profes sion al i ma ge ? “As a director of any corporation, it is important to write in the proper tone so that your image as a respected individual remains intact,” were the words of Scaggs. He said that even when writing memos or announcements to the staff he has to be very careful how he chooses to say his message. He says that when talking to his staff members, who are all educated adults, he needs to ask for their cooperation in a tone that will not be taken as sarcastic or demeaning. For example, in his Flu Vaccine 2007 memo, (Please see example Appendix A-1), he says that if given the opportunity he would rewrite a sentence that was taken out of context by some of the staff. The sentence reads, “Be sure everyone knows how important it is to get a flu shot!!!” (Scaggs, Appendix A-1). Scaggs said that some of the staff members were offended by his use of the three exclamation marks that ended the sentence. The employees said that it seemed like he was talking to them like they were uneducated or clueless. 5. W hen w rit in g, do you cons ide r yo ur a udie nces’ ba ck gro un d o r le vel of educ atio n? When posed with this question Scaggs said, “The audience that I write to is mostly healthcare professionals, so I do conduct my writing to fit their knowledge level.” He went on to say that he is able to use words and abbreviations in his writings that would not be familiar to a person that wasn’t educated in the healthcare field. In Scaggs’ e-mail entitled “January Schedule” (please see example Appendix A-2) he uses abbreviations such as SBAR, GI/GU, and EKG. These abbreviations are familiar to the nurses and healthcare professionals that were the recipients of this email, but have

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no significance to the common email reader. He said that being able to use abbreviations cuts down on time spent drafting emails and memos. 6. W hat do you wan t yo ur re ade rs to be able to do aft er rea di ng you r comm uni cat ion ? Scaggs says that the most important thing he wants to convey after writing a correspondence is message clarity. He wants the message to be as clear as possible so that the reader can complete the task at hand. “I want the nurses to be able to carry out any instructions without confusion to ensure a safe environment for the patients,” says Scaggs. The first example he gave me was a document that he drafted telling nurses how to use WebEx Web training (Please see example Appendix A-3). The sheet that he gave me had directions on how to complete an online education module. The document is a simple step by step instruction on how to access a computer website and complete any necessary training. The second example he gave me was a three day orientation schedule (Please see example Appendix A-4). This is an organized document that breaks down an hour by hour schedule for general hospital orientation. The things that are nice about this document are that it fits on one page and it very easy to read. 7. A re there t hi ngs you m ust kno w o r do by a c ertai n time ? I decided to wrap up the interview with two questions from the context portion of our professional writing textbook. When asked the above question Scaggs responded, “I have daily deadlines, so clear communication is very important in this industry.” The example that he gave me was an e-mail that was sent out to notify all staff members that the hospital’s lease with Xerox had ended and that there were some specific things that needed to be done until all copiers and printers were exchanged with the new company’s products ( Please see example Appendix A-5). This email tells the office staff that they are expected to not order any more toner and that if there is a breakdown with the equipment before it gets replaced they are to call the hospital’s help desk and not the Xerox hotline. 8. A re yo u depe nde nt o n ot hers to meet de adli nes ? Answering with a big smile on his face Scaggs replied to my last question, “I would not be able to do a sufficient job as Director of Nursing if I didn’t have such a great staff to help me meet all the daily deadlines that

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are involved in this job.” He said that without team writing, things would never get done on time. “I work daily with several people in the office to get all the information I need communicated out to the people who need it,” says Scaggs. He continued by saying, “I have a secretary and I also count on several other individuals to get the work completed by their deadline.” He was very grateful for all his assistants and his secretary and admitted that without them he would be an ineffective manager. CONCLUSION Writing professionally is very time consuming in the field of Nursing. There are many types of professional writings such as e-mail, memos, letters, and policy and procedure documents. Without the contributions of several members of his staff Scaggs would not be able to effectively meet his daily deadlines. The most important lesson that I learned from this interview was how important tone is when writing professionally. It can be said that the tone one chooses to use in their professional writings can have a huge effect on how the reader interprets the correspondence; for better or worse. It is safe to say that one should never write a piece of professional writing when angry or when experiencing any other emotions. I hope that this Academic Completion Report has been useful to you and that you can use the information compiled above in your ongoing research of the various rhetorical writing styles used in today’s many professions. Reference Kennedy E.G. & Montgomery T. T. (2002). Technical and Professional Writing Solving Problems at Work. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

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ENG 102 Choose a controversial issue involving the cause or consequences of a trend, event, or other phenomenon. Write an argument that persuades an audience to accept your explanation of the causes or consequences of your chosen phenomenon. Within your essay, you should examine alternative hypotheses or opposing views and explain your reasons for rejecting them. Possible organizational patterns/outlines for this paper are found on page 257 in your textbook. Regardless of the organization pattern used, the paper must, as stated above, include opposing or alternative viewpoints and your response to them. Use a minimum of four (4) sources. Of these sources, three (3) must be from an ASU Library research resource: database, book, government document, etc. Any source of less than a page does not count as one of the above sources; nor does material gleaned from dubious or non-credible sources (or USA Today). If you are not sure if a source is sufficiently credible, check with me. The paper should be approximately 4-6 pages (not including the References page), in accordance with all syllabus and APA formatting instructions. Standard conventions of written English, including clarity and precise word choice, factor into the acceptance of the paper for grading and determination of its final grade. The grade is 20% of your final class grade.

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Africa: Increased Aid Isn’t the Answer Back when I was a dewy-skinned, idealistic co-ed with the requisite shoulder pads and permed, teased hair of the 1980s, our generations’ Woodstock was Live Aid. Live Aid was an historic concert organized by rockers Bob Geldolf and Midge Ure, in response to horrifying widespread starvation in Ethiopia. That concert went on to inspire other artists, raise hundreds of millions of dollars in aid for Africa, and create the song of a generation, “We Are The World.” Many of us can still hum or sing the words to We Are The World, dedicated to the efforts to ease starvation. The lyrics were eloquent in calling all good people of the developed world and they melodically implored, “There comes a time when we need a certain call, when the world must come together as one- There are people dying, oh and it’s time to lend a hand to life, the greatest gift of all” (in the 80s, p.1). Along with the song of this generation, were images of mass starvation. You only have to close your eyes and mention two words, Africa and child poverty, and the nightmarish image of emaciated children with stick-figure arms and legs, sunken eyes and swollen bellies will pop into your head. The intense images of human wreckage raised the consciousness of the entire western world about Africa’s plight and firmed up financial commitments to provide aid to developing nations. We all wanted to stop the suffering. No one felt this more keenly than Bono, rock legend, leader of the group U2, and friend of Bob Geldof. Bono actually made a trip to Africa to witness the abject starvation of innocent people and returned home, changed forever by the experience. Africa’s plight seared Bono’s soul causing him to crusade for aid relief ever since. The depth of his passion and dedication is impressive; he regularly cajoles and berates world leaders into not forgetting about Africa. Flash forward twenty years and we find he has recruited some of the most notable and influential people of our time to the causes of DATA. DATA is an acronym for Debt, AIDS, Trade, Africa. Activists like Bill Gates, famous economist Jeffrey Sachs, former British PM Tony Blair and actress/activist, Angelina Jolie, have joined the campaign; even coining the catchy phrase, “Make Poverty History.” Few of us would ever doubt the integrity of Bill Gates, one of history’s most generous philanthropists and successful businessmen. When Mr. Gates believes in a cause, few would dare disagree. This stellar group, advised by expert economist, Jeffrey Sachs, promoted the idea of the Monterrey Consensus. In 2002, the developed

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nations concurred and passed the Consensus; if we could annually send .07% of each nation’s GDP to Africa, it would solve the problem of poverty (Macleans, p.1). This has been one of the cornerstones of belief for Sachs, Bono and other supporters. The argument states that we haven’t ever given enough money; the “magic” number is .07% of GDP, which they claim will finally alleviate Africa’s poverty. Debt relief has been a part of the argument, but the majority of the focus has been on giving enough money, regardless of the outcome. The thinking was that even if some monies get wasted or go astray through corruption or sheer incompetence, it would still be effective (Wall Street Journal, p. A15). What could possibly be wrong with this picture? There was no doubt in my mind that these inspirational leaders were right, at least until reading a provocative article questioning why we still had indications of extensive and worsening poverty in Africa. That article’s origin is lost to the fog of memory, but it did lead me to question some deeply held beliefs and start researching reliable expert opinions for some answers. What’s wrong is that our current strategies of increased aid are simply not working. No matter that we have seen increased aid to Africa, there is still abject poverty. If only money were the panacea, there should be some change in Africa’s outcome. We should see some improvement in the conditions of the developing nations, but when we look at key economic indicators, like GDP, there is not only no improvement, only shocking decline. Simply put, there is a disturbing paradox: the more money we give, the poorer Africa gets. Almost every country in the world has experienced decades of incredible growth and technological advances, except Africa. Those of us in the developed world have contributed staggering amounts of financial aid. In the American Spectator (2006), William Easterly, an NYU Economics Professor and former head of Global Development at the World Bank, testifies to the amount of aid poured into Africa’s coffers. Easterly estimates, “The West spent 2.3 trillion dollars over the last fifty years on aid” (p. 70). In order to make a judgment about how well Africa is doing financially, we must examine GDP. Gross Domestic Product (GDP), is a complicated economic formula that speaks to the heart of how well a country is doing and is a snapshot of how many goods and services are produced during the course of a year. Increased GDP indicates an economy

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is healthy and jobs are available. Declining GDP points towards indicators of a recession. Why is this important? It’s crucial because by all indicators of GDP, Africa’s economy is sick and dying. According to the Canadian Government (2007), not only is Africa the only continent that hasn’t experienced significant global growth, but per capita GDP in Sub-Saharan Africa actually declined from 17.1% of the world’s average in 1965 to 9.1% in 2004” (p.1). “Africa continues to be wracked with famine, malnutrition, high infant mortality rates and the average life expectancy has declined to 43 years” (p.2). There is significant consensus that aid not only doesn’t work, but also actually hurts economies. In an article in the Wall Street Journal, Arvind Subramanian (2007), senior fellow at the Center for Global Development, a prestigious independent think tank that was founded by the co-founder of DATA (with Bill Gates) emphasizes, “As researchers pored over the data, it became increasingly difficult to maintain there was any systematic relationship between aid and long term growth.” Further, “Aid, especially in large amounts, can damage an economy and make it uncompetitive” (p. A15). By any measures that count, Africa has not advanced. If increased money was the answer, we should see some economic improvement along with the ever-increasing amounts of aid money that has been given to Africa. So why is it that we think pouring more money down the same drain will solve the problem? Albert Einstein once famously quipped that the definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results. What is clear is the need to rethink our solutions to Africa’s problems. In fact, fresh ideas are emerging from the economics community, leading us in a radically new direction. What helps is to identify countries that were once desperately poor and are now at the forefront of economic expansion. We need to discover what has been successful for other countries and utilize some of their models as a pathway for helping Africa succeed. In comparing other economies in developing nations, most of these that are now experiencing growth and poverty reduction, were once also victims of a colonial society and yet did not depend on foreign aid. Economist magazine (2005) emphasizes, “…None of the signal events in the recent history of poverty eradication depended on the generosity of strangers. China’s first cautious turn to the market in 1978, India’s nod to

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entrepreneurship in 1982…all these were homegrown policy reforms which allowed countries to get richer by making money, not receiving it” (p. 11). Thus, China converted to a free market economy successfully and India had a farming revolution, called the Green Revolution. India also had exceptional success in attracting outsourced businesses and in creating small entrepreneurial ventures. Neither country accomplished these tremendous advances with foreign aid. A more modern example of a developing nation that has pulled itself out of poverty by its own bootstraps is Chile. Chilean poverty has plummeted more than any other Latin American country. In 1990, 38.6% of Chileans lived in poverty and in 2006, that figure dropped to 13.7%. This was accomplished without any foreign aid, simply by the center-left leaning Chilean government’s commitment to social programs and allowing their poorest residents access to loans, enabling entrepreneurship. (MacLean’s, p.38) Clearly, a pattern of entrepreneurship, small business growth, farming revolutions and especially the development of a free market economy has been key to the economic expansion of these nations. Recently, the Gallup poll, noted for a long history of accuracy and reliability, conducted a worldwide survey about opinions and attitudes. The results were ground-breaking in scope. Very significantly, when Africans were asked what their most important issue was, it wasn’t aid, health or debt relief, as Bono, Gates, et al seem to think. The African’s key issue was employment. “People in developing countries think good jobs would help them far more than the food and health aid that industrialized countries send” (Arizona Republic, p. A14). Africans are hungry for the dignity of employment and the long-term ability of being able to support themselves and their families. There are some strategies that need to be put in place for setting up the economic environments required for job growth. Paul Collier, one of the foremost experts on foreign aid to Africa and Professor at Oxford University in the Study of African Economies, has recently written a book, titled The Bottom Billion, that outlines a plan that will actually work. Dr. Collier identifies three major problems that require a solution in order for long-term progress in Africa. Coincidentally, the Canadian government also sponsored a 2-year study on foreign aid to Africa, which parallels many of Dr. Collier’s assessment and conclusions. The Standing Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade government study is titled “Overcoming 40 years of failure: A New Road Map for Sub-

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Sahara Africa” and required expert and witness testimony from 400 people intimately involved with the situation. Both Dr. Collier (2007) and the Senate Sub-Committee (2007) address these key issues: First, Africa must have the right trade policies in place for significant and effective job creation. Africa has not diversified in any way by creating manufacturing sectors that are labour intensive, like the garment industry. Asian economies have massive manufacturing sectors with corresponding free trade agreements, thereby allowing explosive economic growth. (p. 1; p. 1) Secondly, there must be good governance, institutional reform and better accountability in spending of the public’s money. There has been extensive and frustrating waste in nations that have been resource rich, because of a lack of accountability. Collier (2007) states “Accountability depends on a range of effective checks and balances which are currently missing because nobody has an incentive to supply them” (p. 1). Thirdly, there must be political and military stability in the region. The Canadian Senate says it in the clearest language possible: Economic development will not occur if countries are mired by violent conflict. Western governments have a responsibility to demonstrate that the sentiment of ‘never again,’ which followed the genocide in Rwanda in 1994, actually has meaning. Canada and likeminded nations must devote significant financial and military resources and diplomatic energy to prevent and resolve violent conflicts in Africa, and to provide long-term peace building assistance so that those countries that have suffered from war can rebuild (p.3). Without exception, when researching expert opinions on this subject matter, the most common denominator in the failure of African advancement was the lack of good government and political stability. American Spectator (2006) quotes Robert Calderisi, a former 30-year resident of Africa and research economist for the World Bank, who comments, “the simplest way to explain Africa’s problems is that it has never known good government. No other continent has experienced such prolonged dictatorships” (p. 70). Dr Collier (2007) concurs and informs us that an example of effective military aid was one where Sierra Leone’s peace was secured by a few hundred British troops who helped them overcome their civil war. “This was so cheap relative to the gains from a secure peace that it was about the most effective form of aid Europe has ever given to Africa”

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(Huffington Post, p.1). The Senate Subcommittee makes extensive and sensible recommendations, which are highly recommended reading. There is so much detail in the policy paper, that it would be difficult to discuss or debate these issues in this forum. Suffice to say that the Canadian Senate (2007) and many economists point out the need to develop these policies in the form of an ‘African Marshall Plan.’ “The Marshall plan was the Allies’ Plan, post WWII, to restore Europe to economic health. It succeeded beyond our wildest dreams. Africa needs and deserves a solid political agenda that will allow us to position them to help themselves” (p. IX). Why not give money or food to Africa? When we donate food, it puts farmers out of work, unable to sell their products. If we donate clothes, free is a lot cheaper than buying garments from the factory in town or the local tailor. What business can compete with free? When we give money, it doesn’t help the African to start a new business; it goes to a foreign aid organization and corrupt or incompetent government. During a 1990s American financial recession, Democratic election strategist, James Carville, coined the phrase, “It’s the economy, stupid.” At a time when the economy was shaky, Americans’ three most important issues were jobs, jobs and jobs. What makes Bono think that Africans are so different from us? If I could spend some time with Bono and other world leaders, I would challenge them to stop subscribing to the status quo. Giving more money does not work. Together, let’s sing the protest song of a new generation. If we really want to “make poverty history,” what will succeed for us all is to find a way to get Africa working and trading their goods among the rest of us in the free world marketplace. It’s much simpler to just write a check, instead of committing to the hard work of free market reform. Africa doesn’t need just another hand out- it needs a hand up. References The Canadian Government, The Standing Sub-Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade (2007, February) Overcoming 40 years of Failure: A New Road Map for Sub-Saharan Africa Ottawa, Canada. p. 1-163 Retrieved from The Government of Canada’s Parliamentary Database on October 2, 2007. Collier, P. (2007, June 21) How the G8 Got It Wrong: or Why Aid Isn’t The Answer. Message posted to The Huffington Post archived at

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http:/www.huffingtonpost.com/paul-collier/how-the-g8-got-itwrong_b_53184.html. Currie, D. (2006, November) Aid Is Not Enough. American Spectator, Vol. 39 Issue 9, p.70-73, 4p. Retrieved October 1, 2007 from Academic Search Premier (22838309). Economist (2005, July) Helping Africa Help itself. Economist Magazine Vol. 376 Issue 8433, p11-11, 1p, 1c Retrieved October 2nd, 2007 from Academic Search Premier Database (17568634). Greve, F. (2007, October 5) Worldwide Gallup survey first opinion poll of its kind. The Arizona Republic, p. A14. Krotz, L. (2007, January 22) So much for foreign aid. Maclean’s magazine. Retrieved September 27, 2007 from Macleans’ article database. Subramanian, A. (2007, August 22) A Farewell to Alms. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p, A.15. Retrieved October 2nd, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database (Document ID: 1323553151). Vincent, I. (2007, September) Chile: well on the way to eradicating poverty. Maclean’s Magazine p. 38- 39.

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Ethnographic Essay _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ _________ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ____

ENG 101 What is Ethnographic Writing? Ethnography is a written record of a particular culture or sub-culture, a comprehensive definition that addresses the most critical features of the culture. Typically, ethnographies are the result of extensive anthropological field work – research that is based on close observation of all aspects of a group’s behaviors, interviews with group members, and the examination and analysis of cultural “artifacts.” Since most of you will not be able to experience the culture of your choice firsthand, you will have to rely on published images, interviews, and reputable material that discusses/examines the members’ way of life. Research Methodology Keep in mind that ethnography does not involve quantitative research; hence, your final product should not only attempt to define the culture via the ethnographic areas of inquiry (see below), it should also reflect the multiple truths about the culture. Generally speaking, your interpretation should strive to represent the “emic” or the insider’s perspective (as opposed to the “etic” or foreigner’s perspective). Areas of Inquiry Before beginning your research, you’ll have to define some areas of inquiry, which in this case are synonymous with ethnographic/cultural criteria. Since we can only understand a culture by examining specific areas of that culture, you’ll want to examine most of the following: History Geographical location/parameters Criteria for membership restrictions (age/gender/ethnicity) initiation/rite of passage Behavior language/speech patterns/phrases rituals/daily activities Appearance Beliefs religious political common motivations/purpose Social/family structure social hierarchy

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significance of gender/ethnicity/age Artifacts (images or tangible objects) use and significance

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Life after Rape: A Look Inside Post-Rape Culture The US Department of State defines culture as, “The accumulated habits, attitudes, and beliefs of a group of people that define for them their general behavior and way of life; the total set of learned activities of a people” (Programs). The number of cultures that exist in the US alone are countless, but perhaps the most important cultures to learn about are those are often overshadowed by their umbrella culture. For years Feminists have been talking about the Culture of Violence Against Women, and more specifically about rape culture: “…a culture in which rape is prevalent and pervasive and is sanctioned and maintained through fundamental attitudes and beliefs about gender, sexuality, and violence” (Hamlin, 2003). While the Feminists are hoping to change rape culture by bringing extreme criticism to American culture as a whole, they have forgotten about an integral part of the culture they are so desperate to change – the victims. By recognizing the victims of rape, another culture emerges. Post-rape culture is defined by the victim’s attitudes, beliefs, and their way of life after an incident of rape. Men and women of all ages, races, and geographical locations can be victims of rape and subsequently can become part of postrape culture. Even though rape does not discriminate, the majority of the victims who enter into this culture are women who have been attacked by men. Once in post-rape culture, members share common psychological and behavioral disorders that often times influence each other, as well as a shared language. The Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network (RAINN) defines rape as, “…forced sexual intercourse, including vaginal, anal, or oral penetration. Penetration may be by a body part or an object” (RAINN, 2006). Immediately upon the act of rape, that is the first penetration, the victim begins his/her passage into post-rape culture. It is during the time following the rape that determines whether or not the passage into postrape culture will be complete or if one will stay in a liminal stage, a stage of denial. If the victim is killed as a result of the rape, they will forever remain in a state of limbo – no longer a member of mainstream culture yet with no opportunity to fully enter post-rape culture. For those who do live, they are immediately left to make decisions that will impact how well they will be able to heal from the attack and determine their full presence in post-rape culture. The first decision is to recognize that one has been raped. Once the victim is able to admit this to themselves, the first level of emotional healing has begun; an ignorance of the act of rape will hold the victim in the rite of passage stage indefinitely or until a time when denial is dismissed. This is

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the first level of post-rape culture. The second level comes when a decision is made to be examined by a medical professional and to submit evidence to the hospitals records through a Rape Kit. A Rape Kit examination allows a medical professional to collect samples from the “…genitals, the rectum, and the mouth; combings of the head and pubic hair and collecting of material from beneath your fingernails” (Office of the Vice President and Dean of Students, 2007). In addition, “The clothes you were wearing may also be sent to the crime lab and kept as evidence until your case is closed. Photographs may be taken of bruises, cuts, and other injuries that occurred during the assault” (Office of the Vice President and Dean of Students, 2007). It is important to realize that, “Evidence may be collected and held at the hospital even if you do not plan to report the attack to the police. This way, if you decide to report at a later date, the evidence will still be available” (Office of the Vice President and Dean of Students, 2007). While a late report is better than no report at all, statutes of limitations on the prosecution of a crime differ by state; in Arizona, the statute of limitations is seven years. When the decision to report a rape is made, a third level of post-rape culture is presented. This is often the point at which rape victims are able to begin the journey from victim to survivor that will end most successfully. With the right resources such as counseling, support groups, and/or supportive family and friends, this process could begin at the first level of Post-Rape Culture. Regardless of the medical and legal path a woman takes after an incident of rape, “nearly a third of all victims develop some degree of raperelated psychological trauma such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)” (Lauer, 2002, p. 119). In order to be diagnosed with PTSD the following symptoms must be present for at least one month and show a significant effect on the victims life: “exposure to trauma, re-experiencing of the trauma in the form of nightmares, flashbacks, dreams, and intrusive memories; a numbing of emotions including a reduced interest in your family, friends, social and work activities, and hyperarousal symptoms, such as irritability, sleep disorders, rage, and exaggerated startle responses” (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Ed, as cited in Lauer, 2002, p.119). In addition to PTSD, another psychological response to rape is Rape Trauma Syndrome (RTS). According to RAINN, RTS takes form in three phases: acute, outward adjustment, and resolution (RAINN, 2006). The Acute Phase occurs immediately after the assault and can last anywhere from several days to several weeks after the attack (RAINN, 2006). Within

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the acute phase victims can have a variety of reactions. However, reactions generally fall into three categories: expressed, controlled, or shocked disbelief (RAINN, 2006). The Outward Adjustment Phase begins when the victim appears to be living their “normal” life but is suffering tremendously on the inside (RAINN, 2006). Symptoms that can appear in this phase of recovery include continuing anxiety, severe mood swings, sense of helplessness, persistent fear or phobia, depression, rage, difficulty sleeping, eating difficulties, denial, withdrawal from friends, family, or activities, hypervigilance, reluctance to leave the house and/or go places that remind the individual of the assault, sexual problems, difficulty concentrating, flashbacks (RAINN, 2006). Finally, during the Resolution Phase “the assault is no longer the central focus of the individual’s life. While he or she may recognize that he or she will never forget the assault; the pain and negative outcomes lessen over time” (RAINN, 2006). In this culture, extreme emotional distress is a recurring theme which is heightened by the medical conditions explained above. Often times these are the most difficult effects of rape to overcome as many of the symptoms involve reliving the assault. These symptoms can stay with the victim indefinitely unless resources, such as counseling or support groups, are sought out. Although, there are those victims who are able to recover without professional help, but, as one would expect, it is a difficult journey. In addition to PTSD and RTS, there is another aspect of rape trauma that can be equally as damaging to the victim; that is - sexual trauma. After the sexual assault, the victim can experience confusion surrounding their own sensuality. Many victims experience decreased sexuality post-rape which can affect one’s sexual feelings to several different degrees. One victim may feel a lack of sensuality altogether, lacking the desire to be sexually active or even get “done up” (Lauer, 2002, p. 230). Other victims are afraid to be touched or just don’t feel like having sex anymore because they feel as though they lost their sexuality to their rapist (Lauer, 2002, pp. 232, 240). There are also those who are able to be sexually active and are comfortable with the exception of certain positions that trigger a remembrance of the rape (Lauer, 2002, p. 234). In addition to a lack of sensuality, some victims also feel a tremendous amount of guilt for having responded sexually during the rape (Lauer, 2002, p. 236). This reaction in specific can be extremely detrimental to the victim as it deepens the feeling of a lost sensuality. Another integral aspect of post-rape culture is the language that surrounds the person who has been raped. Would this person be labeled as

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a victim or a survivor? Throughout, the person who has been raped has been referred to as the victim and they are just that, a victim of rape. However, in the simplest sense those who live through the rape are also survivors. Essentially, anyone who lives through a rape is both a victim and a survivor, although there is a deeper issue at hand: how do the persons who have been raped view themselves? In a study performed by United Kingdom clinical psychologist, Monica Thompson, PhD, the women who had been raped felt as though the term ‘survivor’ had a positive connotation, describing “someone who was `over’ the rape” and was in recovery (Thompson, 2000, p. 328). On the other hand, “the term `victim’ was viewed negatively and ascribed characteristics such as being weak, powerless, vulnerable and still affected by the rape. However, the image of the `victim’ was also endowed with `innocence’, which was viewed positively” (Thompson, 2000, p. 329). Moreover, the women described feeling dual identities of victim and survivor. One participant said, “I can talk to people I trust and say I am a survivor but I prefer to be a victim in the eyes of people I don’t know and in the eyes of men because otherwise they would say if she got over it, it couldn’t be that bad” (P2, as cited in Thompson, 2000, p. 329). This participant’s response is an example of the Victim-Survivor Paradox illustrating “how first, behaving in a way that depicts a victim or survivor influences the way others respond to you and, second, the choice of language used to describe oneself in relation to the rape can result in different experiences for different women” (Thompson, 2000, p. 329). The study’s participants went on to say that they “…seemed to move from victim to survivor identity, with victim firmly placed at the beginning of the journey and survivor as the final stopping point in terms of identity” (Thompson, 2000, p. 331). Teresa Lauer, M.A., terms the stage of survival as Acceptance. Acceptance is “being able to say to yourself, yes, I was raped, but I can continue. I can learn about myself and what it takes to survive” (Lauer, 2002, p. 171). It is important to realize PTSD, RTS, the Victim-Survivor Paradox, and sexual issues that exist in post-rape culture have the power to impact the victim mentally, emotionally, physically, and spiritually on a day to day basis. Healing from rape trauma is a process that could take anywhere from weeks to months to years to overcome. Regardless of the time frame it takes to heal, the victims will forever live in post-rape culture because the trauma of rape may be suppressed, or may be overcome, but it will never be forgotten. The experiences lived out by the victim or survivor disconnect

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them from mainstream culture so much so that it is impossible for them to ever fully re-enter the culture of which they were originally a part. References Hamlin, J. (2003, June 9). The Rape Culture: An American Epidemic. Retrieved November 10, 2007, from University of Minnesota Duluth, Sociology of Rape Class Readings: http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/ faculty/jhamlin/3925/Readings/. Lauer, T. M. (2002). The Truth About Rape. Gold River: RapeRecovery.com Programs, U. D. (n.d.). An Outline of American Geography Glossary. Retrieved November 10, 2007, from US Deptartment of State: http:// usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/geography/glossary.htm Office of the Vice President and Dean of Students (2007). Sexual Violence Immediate Help. Retrieved November 20, 2007, from The University of Chicago: http://sexualviolence.uchicago.edu/index.shtml RAINN. (2006). Rape. Retrieved November 10, 2007, from Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network: http://www.rainn.org/types-ofassault/sexual-assault/rape.html Thompson, M. P. (2000). Life after rape: a chance to speak? Sexual and Relationship Therapy, Vol 15, No 4 , 326-343.

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Profile for College of Integrative Sciences and Arts

Write On, Downtown issue 2, 2008  

A Journal of Student Writing at the ASU Downtown Phoenix campus

Write On, Downtown issue 2, 2008  

A Journal of Student Writing at the ASU Downtown Phoenix campus

Profile for writeon
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