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Int’l Day of the African Child International - Jun 16

The International Day of the African Child has been celebrated on June 16every year since 1991, when it was first initiated by the Organisation of African Unity. It honors those who participated in the Soweto Uprising in 1976 on that day. It also raises awareness of the continuing need for improvement of the education provided to African children. In Soweto, South Africa, on June 16, 1976, about ten thousand black school children marched in a column more than half a mile long, protesting the poor quality of their education and demanding their right to be taught in their own language. Hundreds of young students were shot, the most famous of which being Hector Peterson (see image). More than a hundred people were killed in the protests of the following two weeks, and more than a thousand were injured.

HUNGARY National defence force reservists have done an outstanding job

Unprecedented cooperation in flood protection: PM Orbán

Blooms Day International - Jun 16

Bloomsday is a commemoration and celebration of the life of Irish writerJames Joyce during which the events of his novel Ulysses (which is set on 16 June 1904) are relived. It is observed annually on 16 June in Dublin and elsewhere. Joyce chose the date as it was the date of his first outing with his wife-to-be, Nora Barnacle; they walked to the Dublin suburb of Ringsend. The name derives from Leopold Bloom, the protagonist of Ulysses. The English portmanteau word Bloomsday is usually used in Irish as well, though some purist publications, including the Irish Wikipedia, call it Lá Bloom .

First Bloomsday Celebration Bloomsday (a term Joyce himself did not employ)

was invented in 1954, on the 50th anniversary of the events in the novel, when John Ryan (artist, critic, publican and founder of Envoy magazine) and the novelist Flann O'Brien organised what was to be a daylong pilgrimage along the Ulysses route. They were joined by Patrick Kavanagh, Anthony Cronin, Tom Joyce (a dentist who, as Joyce's cousin, represented the family interest) and AJ Leventhal (Registrar of Trinity College, Dublin). Ryan had engaged two horse drawn cabs, of the old-fashioned kind, which in Ulysses Mr. Bloom and his friends drive to poor Paddy Dignam's funeral. The party were assigned roles from the novel. They planned to travel round the city through the day, visiting in turn the scenes of the novel, ending at night in what had once been the brothel quarter of the city, the area which Joyce had called Nighttown. The pilgrimage was abandoned halfway through, when the weary Lestrygonians succumbed to inebriation and rancour at the Bailey pub in the city centre, which Ryan then owned, and at which, in 1967, he installed the door to No. 7 Eccles Street (Leopold Bloom’s front door), having rescued it from demolition . A Bloomsday record of 1954, informally filmed by John Ryan, follows this pilgrimage.

Bloomsday activities Dublin:

The day involves a range of cultural activities including Ulysses readings and dramatisations,pub crawls and other events, much of it hosted by the James Joyce Centre in North Great George's Street. Enthusiasts often dress in Edwardian costume to celebrate Bloomsday, and retrace Bloom's route around Dublin via landmarks such as Davy Byrne's pub. Hard-core devotees have even been known to hold marathon readings of the entire novel, some lasting up to 36 hours. A five-month-long festival (ReJoyce Dublin 2004) took place in Dublin between 1 April and 31 August 2004. On the Sunday in 2004 before the 100th "anniversary" of the fictional events described in the book, 10,000 people in Dublin were treated to a free, open-air, full Irish breakfast on O'Connell Street consisting of sausages, rashers, toast,beans, and black and white puddings. "Every year hundreds of Dubliners dress as characters from the book ... as if to assert their willingness to become one with the text. It is quite impossible to imagine any other masterpiece of modernism having quite such an effect on the life of a city." On Bloomsday 1982, the centenary year of Joyce's birth, Irish state broadcaster, RTÉ, transmitted a continuous 30hour dramatic performance of the entire text of Ulysses on radio.

Photo: László Beliczay, MTI

Photo: Károly Árvai (Online 13 Jun) Prime Minister Viktor Orbán declared at the training base of the national defence forces in Ócsa that Hungary is winning the fight against the flood, which was also the

first test of the voluntary military reserve force, and it performed outstandingly. The Prime Minister pointed out that during their flood defence activities the national defence

force reservists had exemplified the greatest military virtues, such as loyalty to the homeland, a sense of duty, discipline, bravery and comradeship.

Hungary to repay IMF loan by 2014 at the latest

Hungary:

Bloomsday has also been celebrated since 1994 in the Hungarian town of Szombathely, the fictional birthplace of Leopold Bloom's father, Virág Rudolf, an emigrant Hungarian Jew. The event is usually centered around the Iseum, the remnants of an Isis temple fromRoman times, and the Blum-mansion, commemorated to Joyce since 1997, at 40–41 Fő street, which used to be the property of an actual Jewish family called Blum. Hungarian author László Najmányi in his 2007 novel, The Mystery of the Blum-mansion (A Blum-ház rejtélye) describes the results of his research on the connection between Joyce and the Blum family.

United States:

Italy:

Australia:

In Sydney, Australia, Bloomsday is hosted by the John Hume Institute for Global Irish Studies UNSW in association with the National Irish Association Sydney and the Consulate General of Ireland, Sydney.

Global:

On Bloomsday 2011, @11ysses was the stage for an experimental day-long tweading of Ulysses. Starting at 0800 (Dublin time) on Thursday 16 June 2011, the aim was to explore what would happen if Ulysses was recast 140 characters at a time. It was hoped that the event would become the first of a series.

Literary references

In 2004 Vintage Publishers issued Yes I said yes I will yes: A Celebration of James Joyce, Ulysses, and 100 Years of Bloomsday. It is one of the few monographs that details the increasing popularity of Bloomsday. The book's title comes from the novel's famous last lines. In 1956, Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath were married by special licence of the Archbishop of Canterbury at St George the Martyr Church, Holborn, on 16 June, in honour of Bloomsday. Seamus Sweeney's short story "Bloomsday 3004" is a description of a future in which Bloomsday continues to be celebrated, however its origins are completely forgotten and it is now a quasi-religious folk ritual. Pat Conroy's 2009 novel South of Broad has numerous references to Bloomsday. Leopold Bloom King is the narrator. The book's first chapter describes the events of 16 June 1969 in Leo's story. In the novel by Enrique Vila-Matas Dublinesca (2010), part of the action takes place in Dublin for the Bloomsday. The book's main protagonist, Riba, a retired Spanish editor, moves to this city with several writer friends to officiate a "funeral" for the Gutenberg era.

Photo: Griechisch Tamás (Online 14 Jun) Hungary is determined to repay the IMF loan taken out in 2008 until 2014 at the latest; Minister for National Economy Mihály Varga said in Budapest at a presentation held within the framework of the Fidesz programme entitled Hungary is Doing Better. Evaluating the economic economy of the past three years, Mihály Varga pointed out that the Government faced two enor-

issue. Hungarian families amassed huge debts in 2002-2010, the amount of foreign currency loans increased 140-fold in this period, and it often happened that such loans were “almost forced” on borrowers. The new Government limited foreign currency lending, provided the options of early repayment at preferential rates and a prolonged loan repayment

With regard to flooding, the Minister emphasized that some of the money spent on flood protection should assist people living in flood basins to move to safe places. As far as the employment situation of 2010 is concerned, Mihály Varga highlighted that under Socialist-dominated governments the unemployment rate doubled: it was 11.8 percent in 2010, having increased

In Mel Brooks' 1968 film The Producers, Gene Wilder's character is called Leo Bloom, an homage to Joyce's character. In the musical2005 version, in the evening scene at the Bethesda Fountain in Central Park, Leo asks, "When will it be Bloom's day?". However, in the earlier scene in which Bloom first meets Max Bialystock, the office wall calendar shows that the current day is 16 June, indicating that it is, in fact, Bloomsday. Punk band Minutemen have a song on their 1984 Double Nickels on the Dime album entitled "16 June". Richard Linklater references Ulysses in two of his films. Once in 1991's Slacker, where a character reads an excerpt from Ulysses after convincing his friends to dump a tent and a typewriter in a river as a response to a prior lover's infidelity. And again in 1995's Before Sunrise, where the events take place on 16 June. In 2009 an episode of the cartoon The Simpsons, "In the Name of the Grandfather", featured the family's trip to Dublin and Lisa'sreference to Bloomsday. U2's 2009 song "Breathe" refers to events taking place on a fictitious 16 June.

Bunker Hill Day U.S. - Jun 17

Independence Day Iceland - J u n 1 7

Iceland is a Nordic European island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The country has a population of about 320,000 and a total area of 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi). The capital and largest city is Reykjavík, with the surrounding areas in the southwestern region of the country being home to two-thirds of the country's population. Iceland is volcanicallyand geologically active. The interior mainly consists of a plateau characterised by sand fields, mountains and glaciers, while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle. According to Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in AD 874 when the chieftain Ingólfur Arnarson became the first permanent Norse settler on the island.Others had visited the island earlier and stayed over winter. Over the following centuries, Norsemen settled Iceland, bringing with them thralls (slaves) of Gaelic origin. From 1262 to 1918 Iceland was part of the Norwegian and later the Danish monarchies. Until the 20th century, the Icelandic population relied largely on fisheries and agriculture, and the country was one of the poorest and least developed in the world. Industrialisation of the fisheries and aid from the Marshall Plan brought prosperity in the years after World War II, and by the 1990s it was one of the world's wealthiest countries. In 1994, Iceland became party to the European Economic Area, which made it possible for the economy to diversify into economic and financial services. Iceland has a free market economy with relatively low taxes compared to other OECDcountries, while maintaining a Nordic welfare system that provides universal health careand tertiary education for its citizens. In recent years, Iceland has been one of the wealthiest and most developed nations in the world. In 2011, it was ranked as the 14th most developed country in the world by the United Nations' Human Development Index,and the fourth most productive country per capita. In 2008, the nation's entire banking system systemically failed, resulting in substantial political unrest. Though it remains one of the world's most economically and politically stable nations, Iceland has yet to fully recover from the crisis. Icelandic culture is founded upon the nation's Norse heritage. Most Icelanders are descendants of Norse and Gaelic settlers. Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is closely related to Faroese and some West Norwegian dialects. The country's cultural heritage heritage includes traditional Icelandic cuisine, poetry, and the medieval Icelanders' sagas. Currently, Iceland has the smallest population among NATO members and is the only one with no standing army.

History

Photo: Griechisch Tamás mous problems in 2010, a debt trap and a dire employment situation, but now it can already be announced that Hungary is doing better in both fields. In his keynote speech, Fidesz parliamentary faction leader Antal Rogán emphasized that over the past three years economic policy focused on crisis management, but positive news are already appearing. In his words, the best news would be if next week the economy and finance ministers of the EU decide to abrogate the Excessive Deficit Procedure against Hungary. Mihály Varga said that in 2010 the direction of economic policy was determined by the legacy of former governments; government debt and employment were two issues affecting each Hungarian family. Three years ago, from an economic perspective Hungary belonged to the most risky countries of the world; we were in the same league with Greece. Speaking about the latter topic, the Minister recalled that the IMF also acknowledged that crisis management regarding Greece had been unsatisfactory. Therefore, the Hungarian Government was right in formulating conditions for IMF negotiations, the Minister said. He pointed out that not only the state and the government budget but enterprises and households were also deeply indebted. Between 2004 and 2008, taking out foreign currency loans was “easy as apple pie”, and that was making Hungary vulnerable while nobody was raising alarm over the

scheme, Mihály Varga said. He informed the audience that the early repayment scheme helped 170 thousand people “escape the debt trap”, while until the end of March some 150 thousand families joined the prolonged repayment scheme. Speaking about the Ócsa housing estate, he said it is a pilot project which opens the window of opportunity for a new start for families, adding that “it may take a while for it to work out”. The Minister for National Economy also said that general government debt increased by HUF 12 000bn in 2002-2010, for which amount interest payment liabilities average HUF 1000-2000bn per year. While in this period Europe was booming, Hungary deteriorated from “group leader to also-ran”, Mihály Varga stressed. He pointed out that the country lost its economic independence and competitiveness, therefore eliminating the debt trap was top priority in 2010 – a huge task in itself. However, by now Hungary has been among those five EU countries where debt is decreasing: the government debt-to-GDP ratio is 78 percent, and in 2014 it is expected to go below 77 percent, whereas this figure was 83 percent back in 2010. As Mihály Varga explained, Hungary managed to reduce the government deficit as well: it was below 3 percent in 2011 and 2012, and it will also be below this threshold in 2013. The Minister added that he hopes this trend to continue in 2014.

from 240 thousand to 480 thousand, while the number of people in employment was down by 90 thousand. In contrast, recently 140-150 thousand more people have a job and many more people are given the opportunity to return to the labour market via public work schemes. As he emphasized, the Government has been keen to provide work instead of welfare benefits for people. The Job Protection Action Plan was launched in 2013. This helps enterprises create jobs by exempting them of paying contributions and offering contribution allowances. He also said that the employment of mothers with small children is supported via incentives for part-time jobs and lower social security contributions: thanks to these measures, the number of women in employment increased by 42 thousand over the past three years. In addition, the Government has overhauled the taxation system: the flat-rate personal income tax stimulates work. The minimum wage was also raised by 5.4 percent in 2013, while the minimum wage for skilled workers increased by 5.6 percent – a similar wage hike was introduced for the last time in 2001. “We are fighting on,” the Minister said referring to impending Government-mandated public utility tariff cuts; some politicians and lobbyists are against these, but it is important for the Government to help families and improve the country’s competitiveness.

WORLDWIDE EVENTS NEWSPAPER CONGRATULATES GREENLAND ON NATIONAL DAY - 2013

Settlement and Commonwealth 874 – 1262:

According to both Landnámabók and Íslendingabók, Irish monks known as the Papar had lived in Iceland before the Norse settlers arrived, possibly members of a Hiberno-Scottish mission. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed the ruins of a cabin in Hafnir on the Reykjanes peninsula, and carbon dating indicates that it was abandoned somewhere between 770 and 880, suggesting that Iceland was populated well before 874. This archaeological find may also indicate that the monks left Iceland before the Norse arrived. The first known permanent Norse settler was Ingólfr Arnarson, who built his homestead in Reykjavík in the year 874. Ingólfr was followed by many other emigrant settlers, largely Norsemen and their Irish slaves. By 930, most arable land had been claimed and the Althing, a legislative and judiciary parliament, was initiated to regulate the Icelandic Commonwealth.Christianity was adopted around 999–1000, although Norse paganism persisted among some segments of the population for several years after. The Commonwealth lasted until 1262, when the political system devised by the original settlers proved unable to cope with the increasing power of Icelandic chieftains.

Middle Ages to the Early Modern Era 1262–1814:

The internal struggles and civil strife of the Sturlung Era led to the signing of the Old Covenant in 1262, which brought Iceland under the Norwegian crown. Possession of Iceland passed to Denmark-Norway around 1380, when the kingdoms of Norway, Denmark and Sweden were united in the Kalmar Union. In the ensuing centuries, Iceland became one of the poorest countries settled by Europeans. Infertile soil, volcanic eruptions, and an unforgiving climate made for harsh life in a society where subsistence depended almost entirely on agriculture. The Black Death swept Iceland twice, first in 1402–04 and again in 1494–95,. The former outbreak killed 50% to 60% of the population, and the latter 30% to 50%. Around the middle of the 16th century, King Christian III of Denmark began to imposeLutheranism on all his subjects. Jón Arason, the last Catholic bishop of Hólar, was beheaded in 1550 along with two of his sons. The country subsequently became fully Lutheran. Lutheranism has since remained the dominant religion. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Denmark imposed harsh trade restrictions on Iceland, while pirates from several countries raided its coasts. A great smallpox epidemic in the 18th century killed around a third of the population. In 1783 the Laki volcano erupted, with devastating effects. The years following the eruption, known as the Mist Hardships (Icelandic: Móðuharðindin), saw the death of over half of all livestock in the country, with ensuing famine in which around a quarter of the population died.

Independence movement 1814–1918:

In 1814, following the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark-Norway was broken up into two separate kingdoms via the Treaty of Kiel. Iceland, however, remained a Danish dependency. Throughout the 19th century, the country's climate continued to grow worse, resulting in mass emigration to the New World, particularlyManitoba in Canada. About 15,000 people out of a total population of 70,000 left. However, a new national consciousness had arisen, inspired by romantic and nationalist ideas from mainland Europe. An Icelandic independence movement took shape in the 1850s under the leadership ofJón Sigurðsson, riding on the burgeoning domestic nationalism inspired by the Fjölnismenn and other Danish-educated Icelandic intellectuals. In 1874, Denmark granted Iceland a constitution and limited home rule, which was expanded in 1904.

Kingdom of Iceland 1918–1944:

The Danish-Icelandic Act of Union, an agreement with Denmark signed on 1 December 1918 and valid for 25 years, recognized Iceland as a fully sovereign state in a personal union with the King of Denmark. The Government of Iceland established an embassy in Copenhagen and requested that Denmark should handle Icelandic foreign policy. Danish embassies around the world would display two coats of arms and two flags: those of the Kingdom of Denmark and those of the Kingdom of Iceland. During World War II, Iceland joined Denmark in asserting neutrality. After the German occupation of Den- Jón Sigurðsson, leader of the Icemark on 9 April 1940, the Althing declared that the Icelandic Govern- landic independence movement ment should assume the Danish king's duties, taking control of foreign affairs and other matters previously handled by Denmark. A month later, British Armed Forces occupied Iceland in order to stop the nation siding with the now occupied Denmark. In 1941, the occupation of Iceland was taken over by the United States so that Britain could use its troops elsewhere. On 31 December 1943, the Act of Union agreement expired after 25 years. Beginning on 20 May 1944, Icelanders voted in a four-day plebiscite on whether to terminate the personal union with the King of Denmark and establish a republic. The vote was 97% in favour of ending the union and 95% in favour of the new republican constitution. Iceland formally became a republic on 17 June 1944, with Sveinn Björnsson as the first President.

Independent republic 1945–2003:

In 1946, the Allied occupation force left Iceland, which formally became a member of NATO on 30 March 1949, amid domestic controversy and riots. On 5 May 1951, a defence agreement was signed with the United States. American troops returned to Iceland, as the Iceland Defence Force, and remained throughout the Cold War; the US withdrew the last of its forces on 30 September 2006. The immediate post-war period was followed by substantial economic growth, driven by industrialisation of the fishing industry and the Marshall Plan programme, through which Icelanders received the most aid per capita of any European country (at USD 209, with the war-ravaged Netherlands a distant second at USD 109). The 1970s were marked by the Cod Wars — several disputes with the United Kingdom over Iceland's extension of its fishing limits. The economy was greatly diversified and liberalised when Iceland joined the European Economic Area in 1994. Iceland hosted a summit in Reykjavik in 1986 between United States President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev, during which they took significant steps toward nuclear disarmament. Only a few years later, Iceland would become the first country to recognize the independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania as they broke away from the USSR. Throughout the 1990s, the country expanded its international role and developed a foreign policy that was oriented toward humanitarian and peacekeeping causes. To that end, Iceland provided aid and expertise to various NATO-led interventions in Bosnia, Kosovo, and Iraq.

World Day to Combat Desertification & Drought Worldwide - Jun 17

The World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought is a United Nations observance each June 17. Its purpose is to highlight ways to prevent desertification and recover from drought. Each annual celebration has a different theme. This day was proclaimed on January 30, 1995 by the United Nations General Assembly resolution A/RES/49/115.

Artigas Day Uruguay - J u n 1 9

José Gervasio Artigas Arnal (June 19, 1764 – September 23, 1850) is a national hero of Uruguay, sometimes called "the father of Uruguayan nationhood".

Biography Early life:

Artigas was born in Montevideo on June 19, 1764. His grandparents were from Zaragosa, Buenos Aires and Tenerife (Canary Islands), his grandparents fought in the War of the Spanish Succession and moved to the Americas to escape from poverty, settling in Buenos Aires in 1716. Artigas was the son of Martín José Artigas and Francisca Antonia Arnal, who came from a wealthy family. His parents enrolled him in the Colegio de San Bernardino, to pursue religious studies, but Artigas refused to submit to the school's strict discipline. Before he left the school, he developed a strong friendship with Fernando Otorgues, who would work with him in later years. At the age of 12, he moved to the countryside and worked on his family's farms. His contact with the customs and perspectives of gauchos made a great impression on him. Once he had come of age, he distanced himself from his parents and became involved in cattle smuggling. This made him a wanted man among the owners of haciendas and with the government in Montevideo. A reward was put out for his death. Things changed with the opening of the Anglo-Spanish War, and the threat of a British attack upon the viceroyalty. The viceroy Antonio de Olaguer y Feliú negotiated a pardon with his family, on the condition that he joined the Corps of Blandengues with a hundred men, to form a battalion. Thus, he began his military career in 1797, at age 33, with the rank of lieutenant. The attack finally came in 1806, when William Beresford invaded Buenos Aires, in the first British invasions of the Río de la Plata. Although Artigas's unit was tasked with patrolling the frontier with Brazil, he requested to take part in the military expedition that Santiago de Liniers launched from Montevideo to drive the British out of Buenos Aires. His request was granted, and the British were defeated. After the liberation of Buenos Aires, he was tasked with returning to Montevideo and informing the governor Pascual Ruiz Huidobro of the result of the battle. A second British attack aimed to capture Montevideo, which was captured in theBattle of Montevideo. Artigas was taken prisoner, but he managed to escape and returned to the countryside. He organized groups of gauchos and began a guerrilla war against the invaders. The British tried to capture Buenos Aires a second time, but were defeated by the local armies, and returned Montevideo to Spanish control as part of the terms of capitulation. Artigas was promoted to captain in 1809.

WORLDWIDE EVENTS NEWSPAPER CONGRATULATES ICELAND ON ICELANDIC NATIONAL DAY - 2013 Juneteenth (Milwaukee, Wisconsin & Texas) U.S. - Jun 19

Juneteenth, also known as Freedom Day or Emancipation Day, is a holiday in the United States honoring African American heritage by commemorating the announcement of the abolition of slavery in the U.S. State of Texas in 1865. Celebrated on June 19, the term is a portmanteau of June and nineteenth, and is recognized as a state holiday or state holiday observance in 41 states of the United States.

Observation The state of Texas is widely considered the

first U.S. state to begin Juneteenth celebrations with informal observances taking place for over a century; it has been an official state holiday since 1890. It is considered a "partial staffing holiday", meaning that state offices do not close, but some employees will be using a floating holiday to take the day off. Schools are not closed, but most public schools in Texas are already into summer vacation by June 19th. Its observance has spread to many other states, with a few celebrations even taking place in other countries. As of June 2011, 41 states and the District of Columbia have recognized Juneteenth as either a state holiday or state holiday observance; these are Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming.

Liga Federal:

In 1814, Artigas organized the Liga de los Pueblos Libres (League of the Free Peoples), of which he was declared Protector. In the following year, he liberated Montevideo from the control of the "Unitarians" from Buenos Aires. In 1815, Artigas attended the Proto-congress of the Independence of Argentina, held in Arrollo de la China (today known as Concepción del Uruguay). It was at this congress that the provinces of the Oriental Province (today the country of Uruguay), Córdoba, Corrientes,Entre Ríos, Misiones and Santa Fe declared themselves independent from Spain and formed the Liga Federal ("Federal League"). The Liga Federal invited other provinces of the former Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata to join them under a federal system. In this congress, Artigas ratified the use of the flag created by Manuel Belgrano (which would later become the flag of the Argentine Republic), but added a diagonal festoon in red, the color of federalism in Argentina at that time.

Luso Brazilian invasion:

The continued growth of influence and prestige of the Federal League frightened the governments in Buenos Aires (because of its federalism) and Portugal (because of its republicanism), and in August 1816, Portugal invaded the Eastern Province (with tacit complicity from Buenos Aires), with the intention of destroying Artigas and his revolution. The Portuguese forces, led by Carlos Frederico Lecor, captured Artigas and his deputies and occupied Montevideo on 20 January 1817, but the struggle continued for three years in the countryside. Infuriated by Buenos Aires's passivity, Artigas declared war on Buenos Aires while he was losing to the Portuguese. His subordinates, members of the Federal League -- Francisco Ramírez, governor of Entre Ríos, and Estanislao López, governor of Santa Fe— managed to defeat the centralism of Buenos Aires. But hope for a new nation was short-lived; both commanders entered agreements with Buenos Aires that went against the principles of Artigas. They rebelled against him and left him to be crushed by the Portuguese. Without resources and men, Artigas withdrew to Paraguay in September 1820. In Paraguay, Dr. Francia, the dictator, banished him to Candelaria. He then disappeared from the political life of the region. (B. Nahum). After a long exile, he died in Paraguay in 1850, at age 86. It is said that Artigas, feeling himself to be near death, asked for a horse and died in the saddle, as a gaucho. His remains were buried and then re-interned at the Panteón Nacional in 1855. On the 19th of June, 1977, his remains were transferred to the Artigas Mausoleum in the centre of the Plaza Independencia.

Ideals Artigas was a staunch democrat and federalist, opposed to monarchism. In his thought is visible the influence of Catholic clerics, such as his secretary José Benito Monterroso.

(Online 15 Jun) The Ministry of National Development together with the Hungarian Office for Mining and Geology and the Geological and Geophysical Institute of Hungary held an investment forum on the 14th of June 2013, in the Karolyi Csekonics Residency in Budapest. Potential investors, trade union representatives and other interested parties had been informed about the Hungarian legal framework of the proposed mining concessions as well as about the EU member states’ working solutions and characterized basic conditions. Forum attendees had been welcomed by Prime Minister's chief adviser, Ms Réka Szemerkényi and Mr Pál Kovács Minister of State for Climate and Energy Affairs. Réka Szemerkényi underlined Hungary’s national economic interest in utilizing mineral wealth responsibly. Hungary will certainly find part-

ners who will be able to create added value with their cooperation. Minister of State Pál Kovács claimed that the domestic energy security is the Hungarian government’s basic interest, regarding the dysfunctions of the European market (i.e. loop flow, low quota prices and negative electricity prices). In this aspect the Hungarian mineral wealth represents a value that can play an important role in securing the energy supply of our country – he added. Participants got insight into the Hungarian hydrocarbon and geothermal sector’s position, and also learned about the legal, economic, tax and environmental framework of the concession process. Invited experts held presentations on industrial practice, service experience and legal issues. Two areas had been identified by the representatives of the industry sector where the Hungar-

ian legislative framework should be slightly modified. Making the calculation method of royalty fee more predictable, clarifying the conditions of the official authorization mechanism of the hydraulic fracturing (fracking) technology would strengthen the stability of the investment environment. The event will be closed by a speech of Ms Anita Orban, Ambassador for Energy Security of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the evening. Seven public calls for the exploration, development and production of traditional and non-traditional hydrocarbons and increased use of geothermal energy will be launched under a concession contract by the instruction of the Minister for National Development. Hungarian and international representatives had been properly informed by the Ministry during the forum in order to promote effective consession procedures.

(Online 14 Jun) The Government adopted the National Research, Development and Innovation Strategy for 20142020, Minister of State for EcoStrategy Zoltán nomic Cséfalvay announced. He called it one of the key objectives of the programme to increase the share of R&D spending in Hungary from 1.2 percent to 1.8 percent of GDP, adding that almost two-thirds of funding comes from the private sector, and the Government wants to keep this “healthy proportion” also in the future. He called it another top priority to increase the number of researchers from the current 37 thousand to more than 50 thousand by 2020 in Hungary. Zoltán Cséfalvay is of the opinion that R&D&I will be given a prominent role in the new, seven-year EU fiscal period, when 8 percent of total funding is expected to be channelled to this field, he said.

The Ministry for National Economy considers it crucial to support R&D by “market-based” financial instruments besides the traditional schemes with unrefundable subsidies. These include, among others, combined loans, refundable grants, guarantees and capital-based financing. The Minister of State considers the establishment of a support system very important, of which “certain elements are already visible, but some components are still missing:” The breakthrough in the field of venture capital financing Zoltán Cséfalvay called a success; this has led to the strengthening of technology-oriented small enterprises. A business start-up incubation scheme is about to be launched, and the cooperation between universities and the private sector shall also be enhanced. One objective of the Strategy is to assist technology companies

from the field of academia and to establish an institutional system for the support of applied R&D. In the opinion of the Minister of State, additional R&D tax incentives are necessary, and the Ministry for National Economy is creating a task force for this purpose. He emphasized that as the Government has access to a R&D qualification base via the Hungarian Intellectual Property Office, it can be ensured that these tax incentives will applied only by enterprises with R&D activities. Talking about the Strategy, Zoltán Cséfalvay remarked that the first draft of the Innovation Strategy was announced in autumn, and the final version, which takes into consideration the recommendations of 500 enterprises, was submitted to the Government as a result of a country-wide consultation series.

New youth employment schemes (Online 14 Jun) The Ministry for National Economy is launching two new employment programmes: the Road to Your Job ("Út a szakmaválasztáshoz") scheme assists young people with social disadvantages in finding a profession, and another programme will help local governments to employ students during the summer vacation period. Minister of State for Employment Sándor Czomba stressed at a press conference in Budapest that European Union funds of EUR 6bn are available for the Road to Your Job scheme, which is aimed at about 6-8 thousand – mainly Roma – school students. According to the Minister of State for Social Inclusion at the Ministry of Human Resources Zoltán Kovács, the Road to Your Job scheme will effectively complement ongoing programmes such as the so-called MACIKA scholarships, which support those with multiple social disadvantages in their studies all the way from primary school to university. As Sándor Czomba explained, the scheme targets marginalised young people of primarily Roma origin by providing scholarships for the final years of primary-level education in order to enable them to join and complete a vocational training course. Pupils from grades seven and eight may apply for the scholarship in the 2013/2014 school year, the Minister of State said adding that at least half of approved applications shall be from Roma pupils.

The funding received will hinge on grade point average: young people may receive a monthly grant ranging between 10-18 thousand forints above a GPA of 2.51. Pupils may receive the stipend for two years, either in grades seven and eight or in grade eight and the first year of technical college. Young people who also work on the basis of a student contract at enterprises or who learn a profession for which there is high demand may be allotted an extra amount. Sándor Czomba mentioned as an example, that the grant received for a GPA of 3.6 is HUF 13 000, to which extra amounts of HUF 15 860 and HUF 20 000 may be added for working with a student contract or learning a scarce skill, respectively. As an excellent student, provided all the aforementioned conditions are fulfilled, young people joining the scheme may receive as much as some HUF 64 000. He added that students will be assisted by mentors and applications may be submitted from convergence regions. Application information details can be obtained at labour institutions and minority local governments. Speaking about MACIKA scholarships, Zoltán Kovács said that these are allotted to some 17 thousand young people each year, to which figure 6-8 thousand more are expected to be added via the Road to Your Job scheme, and thus government grants will aid a total of 25 thousand young people with multiple social disadvantages. The Minister of State for Social Inclusion said that HUF 400 million is available this year to fund

the Road to Your Job scheme within MACIKA scholarships; this is currently the only scholarship for young people with multiple social disadvantages. On the basis of estimates by the Ministry of Human Resources and declarations by beneficiaries of the schemes, there are currently 5 000 young people of Roma origin among those who receive grants. The MACIKA scholarship programme is also similar to the Road to Your Job scheme in the sense that the former has always been performance-based and linked to a steady grade point average. In the opinion of Zoltán Kovács, the initiative may contribute to fulfilling the commitment about which the Government concluded an agreement with the Hungarian Roma Local Government two years ago, which aims to assist 20 thousand Roma students obtain a technical college qualification until 2015. Sándor Czomba also announced that students will also be helped in finding a summer vacation job via local governments, and to this end 7000-7500 full-time students will be supported by HUF 1.5bn between 1 July and 31 August. One hundred percent of monthly wage costs up to HUF 100 000 will be subsidised by the National Employment Fund, the Minister of State said, adding that employers can be exempted of paying contributions within the framework of the Job Protection Action Plan for employing young people aged 1625 years.

The EU economic development funds will be fully drawn (Online 13 Jun) The progress of the Economic Development Operational Programme (EDOP) of the New Széchenyi Plan was reviewed by a Monitoring Committee consisting of civilians, European Commission delegates and economic actors in Balatonfüred on 13 June 2013. The head of the Committee is Mrs Sára Nemes Hegmanné, Minister of State for State Property under the Ministry of National Development. The Monitoring Committee established that the institutions had made good progress toward the end of the 2007-2013 EU budget cycle and in the past three years managed to make up for the former lag in the utilisation of funds. At the meeting Mr Jordán Bocskov, head of the Managing Authority of the NDA said that the tenderers had shown extremely keen interest in the EDOP funds which can be explained by two reasons: on the one hand, it is the final year of the 2007-2013 EU budget cycle, and the institutions have been capable of managing the increased interest with adequate effi-

ciency. As Mr Bocskov explained, almost 100% of the funds have already been announced and the allocation rate is close to this level. He also added that the full drawdown of the funds of the Operational Programme would not be endangered by any potential faulty tenders due to the availability of substantial reserve lists with projects worth supporting. It was briefly mentioned that compared to the former period the number of rejected applications had increased the explanation to which, according to the Ministry of National Development is quite simple: while formerly a total of 12,600 applications for the EDOP funds had been submitted in 17 months, the number of applications received in the past 6 months reached 19,900. It means that almost twice as many applications arrived in a third of the time, and this huge increase radically increased the number of rejected applications as well. Naturally it is bad news for the tenderers who would have benefited from winning support, while it is good for the country as the number of

developments competing for the funds increased significantly, ensuring that support has been given for the best ideas. As part of the meeting the members of the Monitoring Committee visited the over 1 billion HUF worth development of the Maxon Motor Hungary Elektronikai Kft. in Veszprém which had received HUF 280 million non-refundable support under the New Széchenyi Plan. Within the framework of this complex technology development the investment implemented by the company involved the acquisition of new machinery and production lines contributing to the creation of 48 new workplaces. The altogether HUF 228 million worth research and development project of the rEVOLUTION Software Kft. in Balatonfüred had been assisted by HUF 136.8 million under the New Széchenyi Plan. As a result of the IT development a modern work process based document management platform system has been developed.

Audi launches production at its new plant in Győr

History

Though Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862, with an effective date of January 1, 1863, it had minimal immediate effect on most slaves’ day-to-day lives, particularly in the Confederate States of America. Texas, as a part of the Confederacy, was resistant to the Emancipation Proclamation, and though slavery was very prevalent in East Texas, it was not as common in the Western areas of Texas, particularly the Hill Country, where most German-Americans were opposed to the practice. Juneteenth commemorates June 18 and 19, 1865. June 18 is the day Union General Gordon Granger and 2,000 federal troops arrived in Galveston, Texas, to take possession of the state and enforce the emancipation of its slaves. On June 19, 1865, legend has it while standing on the balcony of Galveston’s Ashton Villa, Granger read the contents of “General Order No. 3”: The people of Texas are informed that, in accordance with a proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free. This involves an absolute equality of personal rights and rights of property between former masters and slaves, and the connection heretofore existing between them becomes that between employer and hired labor. The freedmen are advised to remain quietly at their present homes and work for wages. They are informed that they will not be allowed to collect at military posts and that they will not be supported in idleness either there or elsewhere. That day has since become known as Juneteenth, a name coming from a portmanteau of the words June and teenth like nineteenthand other numbers ending with -teenth. Former slaves in Galveston rejoiced in the streets with jubilant celebrations. Juneteenth celebrations began in Texas the following year. Across many parts of Texas, freed people pooled their funds to purchase land specifically for their communities and increasingly large Juneteenth gatherings — including Houston’s Emancipation Park, Mexia’s Booker T. Washington Park, and Emancipation Park in Austin.

World Refugee Day Worldwide - Jun 20

Photo: Gergely Botár (Online 12 Jun) Production has started in the new, EUR 900 million Audi plant in Győr, Northwest Hungary. The inauguration ceremony was attended by Prime Minister Viktor Orbán, who stressed the role of the

new jobs will be created, and in addition, through suppliers, Audi will indirectly create jobs for a further 15 thousand people. He also highlighted that the positive effects of the country's new economic policy are already

capacity and innovation, Thomas Faustmann, Managing Director of Audi’s Hungarian subsidiary said. He stressed that the A3 limousine will be the first Audi model to be entirely manufactured and assembled in

World Refugee Day, observed June 20 each year, is dedicated to raising awareness of the situation of refugees throughout the world.

History

On 4 December 2000, the United Nations General Assembly in Resolution 55/76 decided that, from 2001, 20 June would be celebrated as World Refugee Day. In this resolution, the General Assembly noted that 2001 marked the 50th anniversary of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. African Refugee Day had been formally celebrated in several countries prior to 2000. The UN noted that the Organization of African Unity (OAU) had agreed to have International Refugee Day coincide with Africa Refugee Day on 20 June. In the Roman Catholic Church, the World Day of Migrants and Refugees is celebrated in January each year, having been instituted in 1914 by Pope Pius X.

Celebrations

From June 18 to 20 the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) commemorates World Refugee Day in Washington, DC, in order to draw the public's attention to the millions of refugees worldwide who are forced to flee their homes. Each year, UNHCR selects a theme and coordinates events across the globe.

National Day Greenland - Jun 21

World Refugee Day, observed June 20 each year, is dedicated to raising awareness of the situation of refugees throughout the world.

History The area now known as Greenland was taken into Norwe-

gian control in the 13th century, and then passed to Denmark through a union of the countries in 1380. Though little was done with Greenland initially, Denmark eventually asserted its sovereignty over the land in the 18th and 19th centuries. Though Norway tried to reclaim parts of eastern Greenland in 1933, the area remained fully under Danish control. On May 1, 1979, Greenland was legally granted home rule by Denmark’s national parliament. Unhappy with the European Economic Community’s regulations and bans on commercial fishing and products made from seals, Greenland left the international organization. In late November of 2008, 75 percent of voters approved a referendum for greater autonomy, and on June 21, 2009 the referendum went into effect making Greenland responsible for its own future. While not true independence, the government of Greenland has called the referendum a major step in the direction towards independence.

Celebrations National Day celebrations are marked by a variety of programs in every settlement in Greenland. The celebrations

include morning songs, speeches, hoisting the national flag, and the act of “kaffemik”, a social gathering around a cup of coffee. Apart from this there are a number of programs for entertainment like music and dance and several cultural events which portray the culture and tradition of Greenland. The national channel broadcasts news from all the towns as to how the celebrations are taking shape.

Oriental revolution:

The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the outbreak of the Peninsular War in Spain, along with the capture of King Ferdinand VII, generated political turbulence all across the Spanish Empire. The absence of the king from the throne (replaced by the French Joseph Bonaparte) and the new ideas of the Enlightenment sparked the Spanish American wars of independence, between patriots (who wanted to establish republics or constitutional monarchies) and royalists (who wanted to keep an absolute monarchy). Artigas, who thought that the gauchos were not treated well, supported the new ideas. Buenos Aires deposed the viceroy in 1810, during the May Revolution, replacing him with the Primera Junta. Mariano Moreno, secretary of war, wrote at the Operations plan that Artigas would be a decisive ally against the royalists in Montevideo, and called him for an interview. However, by the time Artigas arrived in Buenos Aires, Moreno had already left the government. He was still welcomed, but received little help. He was promoted to colonel and received some weapons, money and 150 men, very little to organize a rebellion at the Banda Oriental. This was the last time Artigas saw the city of Buenos Aires. Spain declared Buenos Aires a rogue city, and appointed Montevideo as the new capital, with Francisco Javier de Elío as the new viceroy. The city had financial problems, and the measures taken by Elío to maintain the royalist armies were highly unpopular in the countryside. This allowed Artigas to channel the popular discontent against the colonial authorities. A hundred men met near the Asencio stream and made the cry of Asencio, a pronunciamiento against the viceroy. They captured many villages in the Banda Oriental, such as Mercedes, Santo Domingo, Colla, Maldonado, Paso del Rey, Santa Teresa and San José. They also capturedGualeguay, Gualeguaychú and Arroyo de la China, at the west of the Uruguay river. Elío sent some soldiers to kill Artigas, who failed. Then, he sent Manuel Villagrán, a relative of Artigas, to offer him the pardon and appoint him general and military leader of the Banda Oriental if he gave up the rebellion. Artigas considered the offer an insult, and sent Villagrán prisoner to Buenos Aires. Montevideo was soon surrounded by Artigas's forces. A Montevidean army tried to stop the patriots at the Battle of Las Piedras, but they were defeated, and the city was put to siege. José Rondeau, commanding forces from Buenos Aires, joined the siege. Artigas wanted to attack the city right away, but Rondeau thought that there would be less loss of lives by establishing a blockade and waiting for the city to surrender. However, the besiegers did not consider the naval forces of Montevideo, who kept the city supplied and enabled them to endure the blockade. On the verge of defeat, Elío allied himself with Brazilian forces, requesting their intervention in the conflict. Dom Diogo de Sousa entered into the Banda Oriental, leading an army of five thousand men. This added to the defeat of Manuel Belgrano at the Paraguay campaign, the defeat of Juan José Castelli at the First Upper Peru campaign and the Monte- La Mañana de Asencio, portrait videan naval blockade of Buenos Aires. Fearing a complete defeat, by Carlos María Herrera about Buenos Aires signed a truce with Elío, recognizing him as the ruler of the Banda Oriental and half of Entre Ríos. Artigas felt the truce to be the cry of Asencio. treasonous. He broke relations with the city, and lifted the blockade over Montevideo. Artigas left the Banda Oriental and moved to Salto Chico, in Entre Ríos. All his supporters moved with him. This massive departure is known as the Oriental exodus. The Supreme Director Gervasio Antonio de Posadas offered a reward of $6.000 for the capture of Artigas, dead or alive. The only consequence of this action was increased resentment of the orientals towards Buenos Aires. Several royalist leaders, such as Vigodet or Pezuela, sought an alliance with Artigas against Buenos Aires, but he rejected them: "I may not be sold, nor I want more reward for my efforts to see my nation free of the Spanish power". Despite the deep disputes, Artigas was still eager to return to good terms with Buenos Aires, but only if the city accepted a national organization based on federalist principles. Posadas sent two more armies to capture and execute Artigas, but they mutinied and joined the orientals. When the Artiguist influence expanded to Corrientes, Posadas sought to negotiate by accepting the autonomy of the provinces. Artigas accepted the terms, but clarified that such autonomy must not be understood as national independence. He did not want to secede the Banda Oriental from the United provinces, but to organize them as a confederation. Posadas, who supported the authority of Buenos Aires as the head of a centralized state, delayed the approval of the treaty. Buenos Aires renewed the military actions against Montevideo. This time, the naval skills of William Brown helped to overcome the strength of the Montevidean navy, leading to the final defeat of the royalist stronghold. Carlos María de Alvear led the capture of Montevideo, and lured Artigas there by promising that he would turn over the city to the Oriental patriots. Alvear attacked them without warning at Las Piedras, but Artigas managed to escape from the trap.

pressed that the economic upswing will be greater than expected and the expansion may exceed also the anticipations of the government, then added that the economic development may result in new economic policy decisions. In relation to the newly launched credit program of the Hungarian National Bank Prime Minister Viktor Orbán emphasized that the interest towards the program is great. This must be tried, and if this is good for the Hungarian economy, the entrepreneurs, then it must be continued, he said. Concerning the SMEs he repeated his standpoint that they must be supported and it is an untenable situation that the Hungarian bank system may provide loans for them with 8-10 percent interest rates which is almost impossible to produce.

Government endorsed new innovation strategy

Popular cultural references Jefferson Airplane's 1967 album After Bathing at Baxter's contains the track, "Rejoyce", inspired by Joyce's Ulysses.

The Battle of Bunker Hill took place on June 17, 1775, mostly on and around Breed's Hill, during the Siege of Boston early in the American Revolutionary War. The battle is named after the adjacent Bunker Hill, which was peripherally involved in the battle and was the original objective of both colonial and British troops, and is occasionally referred to as the "Battle of Breed's Hill." On June 13, 1775, the leaders of the colonial forces besieging Boston learned that the British generals were planning to send troops out from the city to occupy the unoccupied hills surrounding the city. In response to this intelligence, 1,200 colonial troops under the command of William Prescott stealthily occupied Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill, constructed an earthen redoubt on Breed's Hill, and built lightly fortified lines across most of the Charlestown Peninsula. When the British were alerted to the presence of the new position the next day, they mounted an attack against them. After two assaults on the colonial lines were repulsed with significant British casualties, the British finally captured the positions on the third assault, after the defenders in the redoubt ran out of ammunition. The colonial forces retreated to Cambridge over Bunker Hill, suffering their most significant losses on Bunker Hill. While the result was a victory for the British, they suffered heavy losses: over 800 wounded and 226 killed, including a notably large number of officers. The battle is seen as an example of a Pyrrhic victory, because the immediate gain (the capture of Bunker Hill) was modest and did not significantly change the state of the siege, while the cost (the loss of nearly a third of the deployed forces) was high. Meanwhile, colonial forces were able to retreat and regroup in good order having suffered few casualties. Furthermore, the battle demonstrated that relatively inexperienced colonial forces were willing and able to stand up to regular army troops in a pitched battle.

made between the government and leaders of local governments which will be provided by all necessary assistance. The Prime Minister pointed out that everything has been protected that had to be, but it must be considered what can be done for the future, emphasizing that the protection of human lives remains top priority. The government has decided this week to propose the amendment of the Fundamental Law related to the indications of the European Commission that may result in abolishing court case transfers and tax levies based on court decisions. The Prime Minister said that the amendment of the Fundamental Law is in the interest of the country, and concessions must be made time by time. Regarding the economic situation the Prime Minister ex-

Forum on investment opportunities in domestic mining

The Rosenbach Museum & Library in Philadelphia is the home of the handwritten manuscript of Ulysses and celebrates Bloomsday with a street festival including readings, Irish music, and traditional Irish cuisine provided by local Irish-themed pubs. New York City has several events on Bloomsday including formal readings at Symphony Space and informal readings and music at the downtown Ulysses' Folk House pub. The Syracuse James Joyce Club holds an annual Bloomsday celebration at Johnston's BallyBay Pub in Syracuse, New York, at which large portions of the book are either read aloud, or presented as dramatizations by costumed performers. The club awards scholarships and other prizes to students who have written essays on Joyce or fiction pertaining to his work. The city is home to Syracuse University, whose press has published or reprinted several volumes of Joyce studies. There have been many Bloomsday events in Trieste, where the first part ofUlysses was written. The Joyce Museum Trieste, opened on 16 June 2004, collects works by and about James Joyce, including secondary sources, with a special emphasis on his period in Trieste. Since 2005 Bloomsday has been celebrated every year in Genoa, with a reading of Ulysses in Italian by volunteers (students, actors, teachers, scholars), starting at 0900 and finishing in the early hours of 17 June; the readings take place in 18 different places in the old town centre, one for each chapter of the novel, and these places are selected for their resemblance to the original settings. Thus for example chapter 1 is read in a medieval tower, chapter 2 in a classroom of the Faculty of Languages, chapter 3 in a bookshop on the waterfront, chapter 9 in the University Library, and chapter 12 ("Cyclops") in an old pub. The Genoa Bloomsday is organized by the Faculty of Languages and the International Genoa Poetry Festival.

(Online 14 Jun) Prime Minister Viktor Orbán participated in an interview at the public Kossuth Radio. Regarding the flood situation the Prime Minister declared that with unprecedented cooperation, good organization and expertise the danger could be averted and dykes were functioning well. The Prime Minister will visit on Saturday those areas, where the flood will leave the country. He said that attention must be paid to the Serbian parts of the river, because if there is a trouble there then the water may flow back to Hungary because of the features of the terrain. According to the Prime Minister it may not be excluded that Hungary would receive EU funds for restoriation work stating that the Czechs, Germans and Hungarians are in the same shoes. An agreement has already been

White Nights Festival Russia - Jun 22

The White Nights Festival in St. Petersburg, Russia is an annual international arts festival during the season of the midnight sun. The White Nights Festival consists of a series of classical ballet, opera and music events and includes performances by Russian dancers, singers, musicians and actors, as well as famous international guest stars. The Scarlet Sails celebration is the culmination of the White Nights season, the largest public event anywhere in Russia with the annual estimated attendance about one million people, most of whom are students from thousands of schools and colleges, both local and international. Organised by the Saint Petersburg City Administration, the festival begins in May with the "Stars of the White Nights" at Mariinsky Theatre and ends in July. However, some performances connected to the festival take place before and after the official dates. Numerous night-time cultural festivals, White Night festivals, have been inspired by this, in French they are called Nuit Blanche.

National Aboriginal Day Canada - Jun 21

National Aboriginal Day is a day recognizing and celebrating the cultures and contributions of the First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada. The day was first celebrated in 1996, after it was proclaimed that year by then Governor General of Canada Roméo LeBlanc, to be celebrated on June 21 annually. Most provincial jurisdictions, however, do not recognise it as a statutory holiday.

Overview

The day of recognition came about after a series of calls for such a celebration. In 1982, the National Indian Brotherhood (now the Assembly of First Nations) called for the creation of a National Aboriginal Solidarity Day to be celebrated on June 21. Slightly more than a decade later in 1995, the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples recommended that a National First Peoples Day be designated. Also in that same year, a national conference of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people chaired by Elijah Harper, titled The Sacred Assembly, called for a national holiday to celebrate the contributions of Aboriginal peoples to Canada. June 21 often coincides with the summer solstice. National Aboriginal Day is now part of a series of Celebrate Canada days, beginning with National Aboriginal Day, and followed by St-Jean Baptiste Day on June 24, Canadian Multiculturalism Day on June 27, and concluding with Canada Day on July 1.

National Music Day France - Jun 21

The Fête de la Musique, also known as World Music Day, is a music festival taking place on June 21.

History

The idea was first broached in 1976 by American musician Joel Cohen, then employed by the national French radio station France Musique. Cohen proposed an all-night music celebration at the moment of the summer solstice. The idea was taken up by French Music and Dance director Maurice Fleuret for Minister of Culture Jack Lang in 1981 and first took place in 1982 in Paris. Its purpose is to promote music in two ways: Amateur and professional musicians are encouraged to perform in the streets. The slogan Faites de la musique (Make music), ahomophone of Fête de la Musique, is used to promote this goal. Many free concerts are organized, making all genres of music accessible to the public. Two of the caveats to being sanctioned by the official Fête de la Musique organization in Paris are that all concerts must be free to the public, and all performers donate their time for free. In 2011, the festival utilized online booking site Gigmaven to organize its performers. Despite there being a large tolerance about the performance of music by the general public of amateurs in public areas after usual hours, the noise restrictions still apply, and can cause some establishments to be forbidden to open and broadcast music out of their doors without prior authorization. So the prefectures of police in France can still forbid them to install any audio hardware in the street.

Antifascist Struggle Commemoration Day Croatia - Jun 22

Anti-Fascist Struggle Day is a national holiday and celebration in Croatia. It is celebrated on June 22, as it marks the beginning of the uprising of Croatian anti-fascist Partisans against German and Italian occupying forces, that started with the forming of the First Sisak Partisan Detachment on June 22, 1941 near Sisak, Croatia.

Photo: Gergely Botár German car manufacturer in boosting Hungary’s importance as a regional automotive industry centre. The company’s CEO called the Győr plant one of the pillars of Audi’s growth. The new Győr headquarters of Audi, which is now capable of performing the full vehicle production process, have begun operations. The brand new A3 Limousine will be made in this plant, the foundation stone of which was laid in 2011. Thanks to the project, the company could increase its vehicle production to 125 thousand annually, compared to 33500 in 2012. The investment is worth a total of EUR 900 million, and the number of staff, with additional employees recruited in recent months, has risen to nearly 9200. The Prime Minister called Audi’s role in Hungary becoming the region’s car manufacturing centre determinative. As a result of the investment, 2100

noticeable; the Hungarian economy is performing better. The Government’s objective is to ensure that the greatest possible number of the car manufacturing industry's 21st century high-quality products will be made in Hungary. Audi has become a significant partner in this endeavour, the Prime Minister stated. He expressed his gratitude for Audi’s contributions to helping victims of the current floods. Rupert Stadler, General Manager of Audi AG, noted that Audi Hungaria had become a strategic pillar of the company and that the Győr plant is one of the engines of Audi’s growth, adding that in the 1990’s, the Northwest Hungarian city was selected out of 180 potential locations due to its ideal conditions. The Győr plant was chosen to be the site of the new factory since it could develop rapidly in terms of production

Győr. In addition to the recently inaugurated new production site, Audi Hungary also boasts the world’s largest engine factory. A number of further projects are connected to Audi’s expansion. Győr-Pér International Airport, serving mainly Audi, will be developed with a budget of HUF 2 billion (EUR 6.7 million) and the construction of Audi’s logistic park, worth EUR 30-35 million, will be finished in the summer of 2013. Moreover, Audi has numerous new suppliers and expanded premises in the region. In February 2013, the Government concluded a Strategic Partnership Agreement with Audi Hungaria Motor Ltd. in view of its key role in Hungary’s economic performance, GDP and employment, and its intention to develop its business presence in Hungary.

Hungary thanks Croatia and Slovakia for solidarity (Online 12 Jun) Foreign Minister János Martonyi thanked the solidarity expressed by the governments of Slovakia and Croatia in relation to the flooding of the Danube and Hungary's flood defence operations. János Martonyi spoke with his Croatian counterpart Vesna Pusić by tele-

phone on Monday and they agreed that they would continue to inform each other about the flood wave that will reach the lower section of the Danube later in the week, and coordinate defence operations and mutual assistance. Earlier, the Hungarian Foreign Minis-

ter also spoke with the Slovak Ambassador Peter Weiss by telephone and thanked him for the technical rescue assistance he had offered. The flood defence operative corps of the two countries have established contact, the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs confirmed in a statement.

The EU’s industrial innovation policy may facilitate the reduction of energy costs (Online 11 Jun) The growing use of biofuels, the measures to be taken in favour of the completion of the internal energy market as well as the industrial innovation policy of the European Union were on the agenda of the session of the Energy Council held in Luxembourg on June 7, 2013. The session adopted a progress report on directive amendments fostering the use of innovative biofuels causing no indirect land use change and significantly restricting the application of first generation biofuels. In compliance with an earlier commitment, EU states must guarantee that at least 10 per cent of the ultimate energy consumption in the transport sector should come from renewable energy sources by 2020. Since the second and third generations of biofuel, currently still in the development phase, are not yet marketable, they are not expected to be at users’ disposal in industrial quantities by the end of this decade yet. Their application is necessary at the same time, while technological realities must be appreciated when the targets on their use are set. Thus, in accordance with the stance negotiated with industry and agricultural players, the Hungarian delegation did not support maximising the share of first generation biofuels within the above 10 percent target to 5 percent. Deputy State Secretary for Green Economy Development, Climate Policy and Key Public Services Attila Imre Horváth renewed his proposal to

work out EU programmes to provide financial assistance for the development of second generation technologies with high R&D costs and for the establishment of plants. The Deputy State Secretary also urged further scientific research to set the grounds for finalising the draft legislation. The goal of the initiative is to enable the analysis of feedstock use and the impacts of biofuel production, with the help of data collection examining potential land use change, in all areas affected (food and catering, foraging and environment protection). The representatives of Member States adopted conclusions on the Commission communication on making the internal energy market work. In the Communication, Member States reinforced their commitment to the completion of the internal energy market. They set the directions of the measures to be accomplished in order to achieve the targets for 2014 and 2015 and to improve consumer rights and roles. The adopted conclusions are the result of long discussions and reflect a realistic compromise that is in accordance with the interests of Hungary. The Energy Council held a policy debate on the Commission communication on energy technologies and innovation. According to this document, the related European strategy must accelerate the development of low carbon-dioxide emission technologies and new solutions. In order to facilitate Europe’s indus-

trial competitiveness, the energy technology and innovation policy of the EU must implement the speedy reduction of costs and the acceleration of the market access of new, sustainable technologies. Based on the schedule planned by the European Commission, the EC is to design an Integrated Itinerary by the end of this year for the attainment of these goals. This is to be followed by mid 2014 by defining, in collaboration with Member States an Action Plan to include both national and community investments. The Hungarian delegation supported the basic principles and the idea of designing the plan documents, while they found that the deadlines were too early. Head of the delegation Attila Imre Horváth underlined that determining the energy mix was within national competence, and thus the coordination mechanism to be worked out must guarantee implementation in accordance with the subsidiarity principle. He emphasised at the same time that, during implementation, special attention must be paid to guarantee that the monitoring of energy technologies and innovation should not involve extra administrative burden for Member States. At the Energy Council session, a briefing was held on the international energy relations of the European Union as well as on the work programme of the Lithuanian presidency in the second half of this year.

The Hungarian State has been doing well in handling the state of emergency (Online 09 Jun) This weekend public dignitaries and high-ranking officials have been closely following up flood protection operations along the flooding Danube. Prime Minister Viktor Orbán held regular press conferences where he provided up-to-date information on the efforts to defend the dykes and he personally took part in the defensive operations, too. Although Hungary is facing the highest flood wave of all time the Prime Minister praised flood defence efforts in the country and the fact that no human life had been lost due to flooding, which he had emphasised should be the most important aspect. The Prime Minister also said that the Hungarian State is currently doing well in handling the state of emergency and that never before had he seen such

an intensive pooling of efforts that is currently under way. Apart from professionals, there are thousands of volunteers working at the dkyes, recruited on the internet or by various organizations, including church organizations or the National Roma Self-Government. At a press conference held this morning jointly with the Prime Minister in Esztergom, north of Hungary, Defence Minister Csaba Hende informed public that the Hungarian Defence Force increased the number of people involved in the defensive operations to 7011 and there are another 700 soldiers in reserve. During the weekend, President of the Republic János Áder also visited the most critical locations affected by the floods. On the request of the Prime Minister, the Parliament is

scheduled to approve the extension of the state of emergency on Monday and the government will decide on Tuesday whether to call a state of emergency for the section of the river that runs through the capital. According to information provided by the disaster management authority (OKF) so far 1,200 people have been evacuated from 28 settlements in 6 counties in Hungary, while 44 roads have been closed, due to the flooding Danube. Regular and up-to-date information on the flood is transmitted on the flood information radio, launched this weekend by the public media and on the Facebook page entitled ’Flood 2013 National Solidarity’ (Árvíz 2013 Összefogás) where the recruitment of volunteers is also taking place.


Worldwide events; zarb e jamhoor newspaper; 128 issue; 16 22 jun, 2013