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JOINT UNDP / WORLD BANK ENERGY SECTOR MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME (ESMAP) PURPOSE The Joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP) is a special global technical assistance program run as part of the World Bank's Energy, Mining and Telecommunications Department. ESMAP provides advice to governments on sustainable energy development. Established with the support of UNDP and bilateral official donors in 1983, it focuses on the role of energy in the development process with the objective of contributing to poverty alleviation, improving living conditions and preserving the environment in developing countries and transition economies. ESMAP centers its interventions on three priority areas: sector reform and restructuring; access to modern energy for the poorest; and promotion of sustainable energy practices. GOVERNANCE AND OPERATIONS ESMAP is governed by a Consultative Group (ESMAP CG) composed of representatives of the UNDP and World Bank, other donors, and development experts from regions benefiting from ESMAP's assistance. The ESMAP CG is chaired by a World Bank Vice President, and advised by a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) of four independent energy experts that reviews the Programme's strategic agenda, its work plan, and its achievements. ESMAP relies on a cadre of engineers, energy planners, and economists from the World Bank to conduct its activities under the guidance of the Manager of ESMAP, responsible for administering the Programme. FUNDING ESMAP is a cooperative effort supported over the years by the World Bank, the UNDP and other United Nations agencies, the European Union, the Organization of American States (OAS), the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE), and public and private donors from countries including Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Finland, France, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. FURTHER INFORMATION An up-to-date listing of completed ESMAP projects is appended to this report. For further information, a copy of the ESMAP Annual Report, or copies of project reports, contact: ESMAP c/o Energy and Water The World Bank 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 U.S.A.


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Copyright Š 2001 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/THE WORLD BANK 1818 H Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A. All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America First printing August 2001 ESMAP Reports are published to communicate the results of the ESMAP's work to the development community with the least possible delay. The typescript of the paper therefore has not been prepared in accordance with the procedures appropriate to formal documents. Some sources cited in this paper may be informal documents that are not readily available. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the author(s) and should not be attributed in any manner to the World Bank, or its affiliated organizations, or to members of its Board of Executive Directors or the countries they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility whatsoever for any consequence of their use. The Boundaries, colors, denominations, other information shown on any map in this volume do not imply on the part of the World Bank Group any judgement on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The material in this publication is copyrighted. Requests for permission to reproduce portions of it should be sent to the ESMAP Manager at the address shown in the copyright notice above. ESMAP encourages dissemination of its work and will normally give permission promptly and, when the reproduction is for noncommercial purposes, without asking a fee.


"ESMAP Values your Feedback If you have found this report useful, or would like to provide comments on our reports and services, please log on to our website at www.esmap.org and leave your feedback. In this way we can better understand our audience's needs and improve the quality of our knowledge products. Thank you. ESMAP Management"


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H3eJIbHorO ToriHBa Ha Hnl3 B TypKMeH6awH znA 2005 r

Ta6nHua 4.32. EaiiaHc TOnJIHB B Y36eyHcTaHe B 1998 r. (B meTpHmecKHx ToHHax) .

88

.........................

88

76 Ha XepraHCKoM HnI3 anA 2005 r..................89

Ta6nHua 4.35. (DH3HqeCKHe CBOHCTBa 6eH3HHOB 014M 93 Ha (DepraHCKoM HnI3 xiA 2005 r

.................

Ta6nllua 4.36. cLepraHcKHH

Hrl3: flpHpoCTHLIe MOOLUHOCTH H 3aTpaTbl B2roXOBOM HC'4HcjieHHHa..A 2005.

Ta6nuHa 4.37. (H3HqeCKHe HH

CBoHcTBa BblCOKOOKTaHoBbix ........... 6eH3HOB Ha 4)epraHCKOm Hr3 6Ha2005

Ta6rHua 4.38. DepraHCKH

HMI3: flpHpocTHbie MOIUHOCTH H 3aTpaTbi B rOXuOBOM HCqHCJIeHHH XIsA 2005 r.,

6eH3nHoBR rnyni C BblCOKHM O4

87

.........................

Ta6nHua 4.33. BaianHc TOriIiHB B Y36eKHcTaHe B 2005 r. (B meTpwmecKHX ToHHax) Ta6nHua 4.34. DH3HqecKHe CBo0iCTBa 6eH3HHOB O/M

.............

2005 r

90 ........... 90

.........

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Ta6nHua 4.39. (LH3HqeCKHe CBoilCTBa 6eH3HHa 014/M 76 Ha EyxapcKoM HnI3

91

92

a

2005 r ...................................... 92

Ta6JlHua 4.40. (DH3HmeCKHe CBOHCTBa 6eH3HHa 04/M 93 Ha ByxapCKOM HnT3 zni

2005 r ........................................ 92

Ta6JIHua 4.4 1. EyxapCKH Hn3: npHPOCTHie HcqcneHH MOMHOCTH W HHHH ....... H 3aTpaTbI B roaOBOM Ta6nnua 4.42. (DepraHcKHim

HH

2005 r 2005r........

93

HrI3: OueHxa MOIUWOCTerl yCTaHOBOK H 3aTpaT B rOlOBOM HCEHCjieHHH Ha noBbiimeHHe

KaQecTBa AH3enJbHorO TOnflHBa =A 2005 r. (Baonn . 1998 r.).......

.

.

..............................................

93

Ta6nHua 4.43. BaAaHc TOnJIHB B Fpy3HH H ApMeHHH B 1988 r. (B meTpHaecHX TOHHax) o...................... ...................

95

Ta6iHua 4.44. Banaiic TonInHB B r]py3HH H ApMeHHH B 2005 r. (B meTpH

95

MeCKHX ToHHax)

......................

Ta6nluga 4.45. nloTpe6AeHHe TonrnHBa B KHprn3cKorl Pecny6.nHKe H TaZ)KHKHCTaHe B 1998 r. (B meTpH ecKHx ToHHax)

95

.........................................................................................

Ta6nHua 4.46. rIorpe6neHHe TOnnHBa B KHprH3cKori Pecny6InHKe H Taz)KHKHcTaHe B 2005 r. (B MeTpfHqeCKHX ToHHax)

95

.........................................................................................

Ta6nHIHa 4.47 CBoaHbie zaaHHbie no 3arpaTam

HfM3 Ha nOBbIiellHHe

TeXHWIeCKHX xapaKTepHCTHK TOrIHB 9........97

Ta6nHuua 4.48. CBoxumie aaHHbie no HpHPOCTHbIM 3aTpaTaM Ha nOBbllleHHe KaxeCTBa 6eH3HHa =AI CTpaH, HMe1ofHx Hnl3 (,aoi Ta6nHuia

4.49.

CaoaHbie

HMeioIUHx Hrl3 (,aon

1998 98. r.)

99

.....................................................................

aHHblie no npHpOCTHbIM 3aTpaTaM Ha nOBbllu1eHHe xaqecTBa 6eH3HHa anA CTpaH, He

1998 19.

r.)

99

.....................................................................

Ta6niHua 4.50. PeKoMeHzyeMbie TexHHIeCKHe Tpe6oBaHHJ K KaaieCTBy 6eH3HHa H aIH3ejnbHorO TOnnHBa (MaKcHMajbHo

n.O..YCTHMbe

.peXeb.)100.............................................................100

Ta6nHua 4.5 1. TexHH,ecKHe Tpe6oBaHHH EBponeHcKoro COMM3a (MaKcHMajibHo aoryCTHMbie npeeibi) ........ Ta6nHua 4.52.

IloKa3aTenH KaqecTBa 6eH3HHa O04/1

93, onpeeien6HHbie no npo6aM, B3STLIM B ApMeHHH .

100 .

... 105

Ta6nHua 4.53. floKa3aTenH KaMecTBa A43eiIHoro ToniIiHBa, orpezeneHHbIe no npo6aM, B3STbIM B ApMeHHH .

106

vii


....................................... 108

Ta6.iHua 4.54. Pe3ynbTaTbi aHaiH3a 6eH3HHOB A3ep6agaiaHa

Ta6nHiua 4.56. Pe3ynwETaTbl Ta6iniHa

4.57.

ma HalaH3a

Ta6AHua

4.59.

.............................. 111

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Pe3yJTTaTEi aHanIH3ma

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B3ATbIX B rpy3Hm

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Ta6rnuia 4.61. Pe3yJITaTEl aHanH3a npo6 6eH3HHa Oq/M 76, B3STMIX B KHprH3CKOAi Pecry6niHKe Ta6nHua 4.62. Pe3yJIETaTEl aHJaIH3a npo6 6eH3HHa O1/H 93, B3aTbIX B KHprH3cKori Pecriy6KKe Ta6nHua 4.63. Pe3ynbTaTEl aHanH3a npo6 6eH3HHa OI/M 76, B3RTb6X B TazCHKIICTaHe

TaKHKHcTaHe

114

............

114

....................

115

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aHan3a iTpo Ta6ArnH.a 4.66. Pe3yJnTaTbH

6

116

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XaH3enE.HOrO TorIHABa, B3ATbIX B TallmKeHTe

TexuwqecKue Tpe6oBaHHs

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1...................................................................121 1999 r., T6HnHcH (Ipy3Hs) ........

Ta6rnHua Al.l. OpraHH3aLugoHHBmI perHoHajmHbli ceMHHap 10-1-

u HEoH

Ta6inHua A

oKTAn6ps 2000 r., EaKy (A3ep6aAalKaH) .

1.3.

114

aHaIH3a npo6 AH3eJTEHorO TorJIHBa, B3ATbIX B Kuprn3cKofl Pecry6JnHKe H IETaTbH

Ta6nrHua 4.65. Pe3yJTaTbi alHanIH3a npo6 6eH3HHa, B3RTbIX B TaIUKeHre

PeKoMeHayeMbwe

113

.......................

Ta6.rrHua 4.60. Pe3yJIETaThi alHaIH3a npo6 zH3eniTHorO ToniiHBa, B3ATbIX B AnMaTbi

Ta6nHua 4.64. Pe3y

111

..............

Pe3yJnlTaTbi aHanH3a npo6 6eH3HHa, B3ATbIX B rpy3HH...........................

Ta6nIHua 4.58. Pe3yJImTaTEi aHani3a npo6 zH3ejnTHorO ToruiHBa,

109

..........................

Ta6nHua 4.55. Pe3yjmlTaThi aHanima 6eH3HHOB A3ep6agaIKaHa (npoaonxKeHHe)

3aJoWEHTejbtbli perHoHaniiHbfI

ceMHHap 26-27

143 146

CnucoK P4CYHKOB PHC.

2.1. ConoCTaBnieHHe CpeaHecyToxHibix KOHueHTpaui4H N02

PHC. 2.2. ConoCTaBneHHe

cpeRHeCYTOHH6lX

KOHUeHTpaEHil CO

B

B

................................ 23

BaKy

PHC. 2.3. COIIOCTaBneHHe cpeaHcCyToxHEIX KOHUeHTpaUHri a3po3iier

B

.....................

nOCTaM)

.....................

PHc. 2.5. ConoCTaBjieHHe KOHUeHTpauHRi SO2 B TaInKeHTe (no KOHTPOJIbHLIM 'qHCTbll BbLIHrpEil OT npOTHBO3aKOHHO

aeATenjbHOCTH B ynpOLfeHHOH aByxnepHOaHOr cxeme

PHc. 6.2. THnoBaag cxema uenoKH c6biTa .......................................................

viii

24

............................

BaKy

PHc. 2.4. ConoCTaB.neHHe KOHUeHTpaUHf NO 2 B TailUKeHTe (no KOHTPOJIERHbM nocTaM)

PHC. 6. 1.

23

..................................

EaKy

28

29 .

127 136


Bblpa)KeHme npH3HaTenbHOCTI4 HacToAluee o6cneaoBaHHe 6brno

(UNDP) 6aHKa

H rlporpaMMbl

npe;nlPHHATO B

paMKax cOBMeCTHOH rlporpaMMbi OOH no pa3BHTHio (ESMAP) MHpoBoro

opraHH3aLjHoHHOrH nIO,iepiuKH 3HepreTHqecKoro ceKTopa

nporpaMMbi <dloBbEumiHHe KatecTBa ropoacKoro B03,ayxa B cTpaHax CpeaHeHi 'HCTb1e ToUjlHBa>>. Mbl BbipaxKaeM

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(CIDA) 3a 4wHaHcoBylo nOMOUb.

rnaBa 2 OCHOBaHa Ha

pe3YnETaTax pa6oTbl, npoBeAeHHOil B 1999 r. CTHBOM TernnHHroM H EpaHaHOM CTeHcH H3 6pHTaHCKOA 4HpMbm AEA Technology npfH yHaCTHH c.reneylolnHx COTPYaHHKOB KOMHTeTOB no rH,apomeTeoponorHHI (FHapoMeT) MHHHCTePCTBa oxpaHbl OKpy(aioueii cpe,abi A3ep6agawaHa H Y36eKHcTaHa: ,-pa MHp3axaHa MaHCHMOBa, r-Ha FHInUHuHxa XanxmHeBa, r-Ha 3aKH FacaH-3aae H r-Ha Fa3aH4apa A66acoBa B A3ep6aAxKaHe H ,-pa BHKTopa 'Hy6a, r-*uH TaTbAHbI OCOCKOBoH, r-ioH BaAeHTHHbi Ha3apoBog H r-xu OjibrH CBeHLIHUKOr4 B Y36eKHcTaHe.

FnaBa 3

OCHOBaHa Ha pe3yflbTaTax pa6oTbI, KOTOpyIO fnpOBenH B 1999 r. rper PaH,ayT H 5IueK POCTKOBCKH H3 MHHHCTePCTBa oxpaHbl oKpyx<aioiue cpe,gbi KaHanbl H npo(eccop AeHH3 KapMaH H3 KaprToHcKoro YHHBepcHiTeTa npH TexHHqeCKOrH nOMOUH H Ha 6a3e HHcopMauHH, nloJlyMeHHOH OT cienyyiouHx JIHU: OT A3ep6ar4zaKaHa - r-H Pay4 CaJIHMOB, HaHaJnHHK oTaena (rocyaapcTBeHHblri KOMHTeT no CTaTHCTHKe), r-H ArHn A. 1IJHxaJIHeB, HaHajnbHHK TeXHHHecKoro oTfena (A3epaBToHarjHnIsIT) H r-H PaMH3 Pa4HeB, 3aMecTHTe.iE aHpeKTopa (3KoMepKe3 - lOCyaapCTBeHHbIi 3KoJIorHqeCKHH ieHTp); OT Ka3axcTaHa - r-H AneKcaHip BorAaHMHKOB, HaHanTbHHK oTzena 3KOHOMHH H CHHXKeHHA

TOKCHYHOCTH

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H

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MaTepHaBJOB

(HayqHo-HccneAoBaTea6cKHri

HHCTHTyT TpaHcnOpTa); OT TypKMeHHCTaHa - r-H BiiaAHmHp A. rna3oBcKHA, HaHanIbHHK YnpaB.neHHA MHHHCTepCTBa 3KOJorHH H OXpaHbl OKpy)KaMILUeri cpeamb); OT Y36eKHcTaHa - r-H Dapxaa Ca6HpoB, fnaBHEbIr cnerUHajiHCT (FnaBHoe ynpasneHHe FocyAapcTBeHHoro KOMHTeTa no oxpaHe npHpoqHoA cpe,aw) H npo4eccop 3,nyapn flAMbnneB H3 TalnKeHTcKoro ABTOMo6HJIbHoro H opolKHo-cTpoHTejbHoro HHCTHTyTa, ABJIASOWHiCS npeCTaBHTeiem Radian International B Y36eKHcTaHe. KpoMe TOrO, B TeXHHecKHXx,aHCKyCCHXx, HawjeAuiHx oTpaXKeHHe B rn. 3, rnpHHHManiH yHacTHe cnegyporue JiHa:

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ix


Om Ka3axcmaua: * F-H MaM6eT MajiHM6aeB, cbIpbeBbIX MaTepHaJIOB).

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KaTanmHamopa (pHopMHIr B nOCTOSHHOM pewKHMe) IjeHTpaAbHas H BOCTO4HaS EBpona

KaHa,IcKoe AreHTCTBO MeX)ZYHapOAHoro pa3BHTHA KpeKHHr-6eH3HH npHpOAHbIri ra3 MOHOKCHA yrnepoAa (OKHCL yrnepoAa) C)KaTbEi

)jiioKcHA yrnepo;la (xaByoKHcb yrnepoAa) CoxpaHeHHe HHCTOrO Bo3LayXa H BOAbl B EBpone EBpOrIeiCKHHi 6aHK peKOHCTpyKIWH H pa3BHTHS4

COBMeCTHaS pa3pa6oTKa IlporpaMMbl OOH no pa3BHTH10 H HpOrpaMMbm OpraHH3auHOHHOH

EU F

noflep)KKH (3HepreTH4ecKoro ceicropa M HpoBoro 6aHKa) EBponericKH9 C0103 (EC) IHTpa4Hbie CaHKLIHH, HaKBaqblBaeMbie Ha KOMriaHHH 3a ytaCTHe B npOTHBO3aKOHHbIX KOMMepHecKHx ZaeACTBHAlX

FBP TeMneparypa FCC

KOHua neperoHKH (KHneHWA)

YCTaHOBKa KaTaBiHTHHeCKOrO KpeKHHra B

nceBAOO)KH)KeHHOM cnoe

FID FSU FTIR GAI

HIaMeHHb6ii HOHH3aUHOHHblr XIeTeKTop EBIBUIHHi CoBeTcKHrH C0103 HK-cneKTpOCKonHAs (HHwpaKpacHaa cneKTpOCKOnHA) c npeo6pa3oBaHHeM 0ypbe Focy,AapcTBeHHaA aBToMo6HRIbHaS HHcneKUHS

(rAIl)

GC GC-MS G/D

xpoMaTorpa4 ra3oBaA xpoMaTorpa¢H. ra30BblI

- Macc-cneICTpocKonHA

OTHolueHHe 6eH3HHa K CpeHlHHM AHCTHJIJIATaM

(xRH3eJbHoMy H peaKTHBHOMY TonnIHBaM)

GDP GF/A g/i

BajiOBOR BHyTpeHHHri npoJyKT CTeKJIOBOJIOKHO, MapKH

rpaMMOB

A

Ha £iHTp

GNP BajbOBOIl HaLuHOHaIibHblH fpOUYKT GOST rOCCTaHaapT HC YrneBojopo,al xii


RD HDS

HD-VKT IBP ICP-AES ICP-MS

T/M IPCP

ISO kg

kg/i kg/m3 km km

2

kPa I

LD LD-VKT LNG LOD urM Mg Mn/i mg/m 3 ml mm

mm2 /s MMT Mn MON MTBE NEAP

BoJIbLuerpy3HblH; MOLUHblH FHapoo6eccepMBaHHe flpo6er 6o.rbieerpy3Horo TpaHCnopTHorO cpeaCTBa B

KHKnOMeTpaX TeMnepaTypa Haxiajia neperoHKH (KHneHHA) HHAYKTHBHO CBA3aHHaS niia3ma- aToMHa

3MHCCHOHHa3 CrieKpTOMeTpHA I4HJayKTHBHO CBs3aHHaA nnIa3Ma - MaccCnepKTpOMeTpHA TexocMoTp H Texo6cny)KHBaHHe 14HCT4TyT He#TexHMHiecKHx npoueccoB MexcAyHapoAHaA opraHH3auHS no cTaHaapTH3aUHH (14CO) KunorpaMMbl KHorpaMNoB Ha iiHTp

KHnorpaMMoB Ha Ky6HqecKIH MeTp KKnoMeTpEl

KYBapaTHblX KKnoMeTpoB

KnionacKanH JHTpb61

JIerKHH; nerKoBoH; MaioMOWHbEH rlpo6er nerKoBoro TpaHCflOpTHOFO CpeaCTBa B KimOMeTpax c>KHiceHHbEJ npHpoHEiHbi ra3 flopor o6Hapy>KeHHs .J4HTpOB B MHHYTY

MHnjIHrpaMMoB mapraHua Ha JUHTp MHnJIHrpaMMOB Ha Ky6HqecKHA MeTp MnwiHnHTpbi MHuniHMeTpbi KBaapaTHlIx MmHmiHMeTpOB BceKyHAy

MeTHJILHaIOneHTaZHeHHlTPHKap6OHHJ mapraHua MapraHeu OKTaHoBoe qHcjio no MOTOPHOMY MeTO)TY MeTHnTpeTHMHo6yTHnoBbEH

34Hp

HaiuOHa.iHas nporpamma npHpoaooxpaHHbIX aeCTBHA

NGO

NIOSH NIS

nm N0

2

NO, 03

P

HenpaBHTenbcTBeHHaA opraHH3aUHA HaUHOHajTEHblH HHCTHTYT TeXHHKH 6e3onaCHOCTrH H oxpaHbI -rpyAa HoBwne He3aBHcHMbie rocyzapcTBa

HaHoMeTp AHOKCHA a3OTa (zByoIKHcb a3oTa)

OKHC.rbI a3oTa 030H

Bbiroaa OT HeyqaCTHA B npOTHB03aKOHHblX KoMMep'lecKHx ,aerCTBHAX

PM PM1 0

ToHKoaHcnepcHbie MaCTHLbl (a3po3onH) ToHKo;HcnepcHbie qaCTHUEJ c a3pOaHHaMHMeCKHM

,aHaMeTpoM MeHee 10 MHKPOHOB

PM2 .5 xiii

ToHKo0acnepcHbie MaCTHULlc a3pOZIHHaMHqeCKHM


ppb ppm

PTFE

ZaHaMeTpOM meHee 2,5 MHKPOHa MaCTHU Ha MHHuapa (Mnpa-') MacTu Ha MHnnHOH (MnH) rIOJIHTeTpaBTop3THjieH (ToproBoe HaHMeHOBaHHe <<TeJInoH>>)

RON rpm S02

T96

OKTaHOBOe {Hcjio no HcciieAoBaTenibCKOMY MeTOay 060pOTOB B MHHyTy lHoKcHg cepwi (JByoKHcb cepbl)

TeMnepaTypa, iIpH KOTOpOHi wcnapseTcA

96%

TOrLTIHBa

TEL TML

TSP tVy

UNDP

TeTpa3THnCBHHeu

TerpaMeTnu1cBHHeu CyMMapHbwe B3BelueHHbie '4aCTHLIbI (MeTpH,4ecKHx) TOHH B rox

lIporpaMMa

pa3BHTHS OpraHH3auHH 06iexmHiHHbWx

HauHui

UNECE

9KOHOMHqeCKaA KOMHCCHA

EBponBl iAs

OpraHH3auHH 06¶beaHHeHHbIx HauHH

USALD

US$ US$A1 USTDA VKT vol%

W HO wt%

wt ppm XRF jggm

3

Jm

AreHTCTBO CIIA no MexAyHapO[aHOMY pa3BHTHIO

,ojmapbi CLUA JlojmapoB CIllA Ha nHTp YnpaBneHHe TOPrOBJIH H pa3BHTHA CIA rIpo6er TpaHCnOPTHOFO CpeaCTBa B KHJOMeTpaX 06XbMHbEI

npOueHT -

BceMHpHaA opraH43auH 3paBooxpaHeHHA BeCOBoi npoueHT LacTeil Ha MHJIJIHOH no Becy

PeHTreHOBCKaA 4.nyopeciieHMlA MHKporpaMMOB Ha Ky6HMecKHH MeTp MHKPOH (TEcICAHaA AojSl MHnJIHMeTpa)

xiv


TepMHHbl U onpeAeneHH4 ApoMaTHnca

YrneBonopoqbI,

(Aromatics)

qHcJIo

MojieKyJIa KOTOPbIX Coaep>KHT OaHO HJIH 6oJbUlee

6eH3oJmbHbx

KoneLu.

ApoMaTHKa

HMeeT

UeHHbIe

aHTHaeTOHaUHOHHbie (BblCOKOoKTaHOBble) XapaKTepHCTHKH.

]eH3oji (Benzene)

ApoMaTH4ecKHrl

yrnepoaa

6e3

yrjieBOqOpoR

C

OAHHM

KOJIbLOM

H3

6 aToMOB

anKHJIbHbIX ueneri. BeH3O] SBJISeTcS KaHueporeHHbIM

BeLueCTBOM.

BaaoBoii nPHPOCT

Banowoi

(Gross increment)

nlpOIYKTOB (He#Teg

npupocm

npeArcTaBnieT

(B ueHaX H

co6ori

KOMHOHeHTOB),

HO

pa3HOCTb

1-11713)

TepMHHaie

Ha

H

CTOHMOCTH

CTOHMOCTH

HpHBeaeHHas

K

CbIpbA

KOHTpOJIbHOMy

BapHaHTy. CM. Ta6nHLUbl B rn. 4.

BHc6peKCHHr (Visbreaking)

flpoLtecc

"MArKOrO"

rfJaBHbIM

o6pa3oM

TepMHHeCKOrO ARS

npHMeHMeMbih

KpeKHHra,

CHHCKeHHS

BS3KOCTH

H

TemnepaTypEi

3aCTbIBaHHA BaKyyMHbIX OCTaTKOB.

rFHpoo6eccepHBaHne

npoLtecc y2JaneHHA cepb H3 TOrIHBa B flPHCYTCTBHH BOAOpOza.

(Hydrodesulfurization) rHapoo6jiaropa>KHBaowuHf [HII3]

(Hydroskimming) FHjpooSHcTKca

(Hydrotreating)

Hn3 c

npOCTOHi CxeMOri, B KOTOpOH eCTb YCTaHOBKH pH4¢OpMHHra aJIS

nlOBbHiieHHM

OKTaHOBOrO mHcCia 6eH3HHa, HO HeT apyrHx YCTaHOBOK

BTOpHMHHoI nepepa6oTKH. He#Te3aBoUcKori AUS

apOMaTHKe

H30Mepxi3aT (Isomerate)

ripoLiecc,

B

KOTOPOM

riOTOK

o6pa6aTbIBaloT

coaepaKaHHS Cepbl, a3OTa H apyrHx reTepoaToMOB H ARA HaCEi6ieHHS ZIBOjHbIX CBR3eH (HanpHMep, B BOAOPOAOM

H

CHHX(,KeHHS

gHOnecPHHax).

TepMHHb6

"rHapOOMHCTKa,

rH,apoo6pa6oTKa H riiApoo6eccepHBaHHe" HcrloJIb3YOTCAS B npoMLiwnjeHHOCTH cpaBHHTe.JbHO yCJIOBHO. npO.LyKT npoLecca, B KOTOPOM yrnieBogopoabi C rlpAMOi uernlo (o6bi4Ho c 5 HnH 6 aTOMaMH yrnepoza) npeBpawUBOTCA B pa3BeTBfl6HHbie

rapa4HHbl

C 66nbEUHM OKTaHOBbM MHCJIOM.

KaTajIHTHqeCICHi IOHBepTep

YCTpOU4CTBO,

BCTpOeHHOe

(Catalytic converter)

coztepwxawuee

KaTanIH3aTop,

B

BbIXAonHyio Ha

CHCTeMy

KOTOPOM

OKCHA

aBTOMo6HRA

yrniepoaa

H

(CO)

npeBpawaeTcA B AHOKCHA yrnepoaa, a HecropeBIUHe yrneBO,aOpObI B aHOKCHZ yrnepoaa H BOAy. KaTaiH3aTop, Ha KOTOPOM npeBpaigaloTcA TORbKO CO H HecropeBlUHe yrjieBoAopOabI, Ha3bIBaIOT

,RByxnyTeBbIM. TpexnyTeBoR KaTaJIH3aTop npeBpaLuaeT, KpOMe TOrO, OKCHJ4bI a3oTa (NOx) B a3OT H BOAY (HAM B KHCYIOPO2 HnH B aHOKCHL yrnepoaa).

KaTajiHTUHecIHi icpeiCHHr B "icunsnueM" crioe (KKqD)

He#Te3aBOaCKO9 npouecc npeBpaXueHHsi uHpKyjiHpyOUHHi

roa3Onb,

TSKeJIbliX MmaceJ

B nerKHH4

6eH3HH H 6onee jierKHe npOAyKTbI.

(Fluidized catalytic cracking

(FCC)) KOKCOBaHHe

(Coking)

He4Te3aBoacKori npouecc - TepMHqeCKHr4 KpeKHHr B )KeCTKHX yCJOBHAX, B KOTOPOM TA)KeJIOe OCTaTOHHoe TOriIiHBO npeBpaulaeTcA B

TBdpAbEJA

KOKC,

AerKOKHriAUHe

nepepa6oTKH Ha apyrHx KpeKnHr (Cracking) 030H

yrfleBOaOpOabI, ripHrOAHbie JAD HTJ3, H B Hai¢Ty H AirKHA

YCTaHOBKaX

ra3o0mb. XHMH4eCKHrI npouecC, B KOTOPOM mojieKyna ("KpeKHpyeTcs") Ha MojieKyJIbi MeHbuiero pa3Mepa. BeCUBeTHbIH

ra3;

xv

030H

ripeaCTaBlAeT co6oi

pacKarbiBaeTCs

armoTponiyHo 4opMy


(Ozone) OKcHrenaTbI

Kmcnopoaa H HMeeTXHMHmieCKyIo 4OpMyYIy 03.

(Oxygenates)

He4Tenepepa6oTKe,

Jmo6ble CnHpTbl

OIcTaHoBoe IHcjio no HCCIeAOBaTenJbCKOMy MeTOZay (01I)

B

MaCTHOCTH,

06blIHO

K OKCHreHaTaM

B

OTHOCAT

nOBblleHHA

DIA,

HcnORb3yeMbie

3¢Hpbi,

npOCTbie

H

KHCnOpOa.

cozepcawlHe

coeaHHeHHA,

opraHHqeCKice

OKTaHOBOrO ,Hcjia H/HfH yMeHblleHHS coaepAKaHHS4 CO B BblIxOnHLIX ra3ax aBToMo6HSi. OKTaHoBOe qHCJIO TonJIHBa, onpeaenIseMoe B pe3KHMe, oTBelaioLeM aBToMo6HAs

aBHlKeHHIO

C

HH3KOH

CKOPOCTbIO

HnH

B

rOPOflCKHX

yCJIOBHAX.

(Research octane number (RON)) OIcTaHoBoe

HCJIO no

meTOAy (O'M (Motor octane number

MOTOPHOMY

OKTaHoBoe

'Hcno

TonrIHBa,

KOTOpbIH

aBHraTenSI,

oripeaenSeMoe

COOTBeTCTByeT

ero

Ha

TaKOM

pa6oTe

npH

peKHMe aBHwKeHHH

aBToMo6Hns no aBToMarHcTparnH.

(MON)) Ilepepa6aTilBaeMan Helj6Tb (Crude run) flpnMOrOHHlIfl

(Straight-run)

He4Te3aBoacKoA TepMHH, OTHOCSAlHiiCS K THfly nepepa6aTbIBaeMop

He#TH. BeH3HH, Ha3bIBaIoT

HenOCpeRCTBeHHOfi npauOOouHbim 6eH3HHoM; TO we

noniylaeMblE

pa3rOHKOA

camoe

He4¢TH,

OTHOCHTCA

K

AH3MfbHOMY TOrUIHBy.

PH4opMaT (npOxRyKT pHNjopMHHra) (Reformate)

rlpozyKT rpeBpaieHHA

npAMOrOHHOii

H KpeKHHr-HacTbI,

KOTOpoe

CBOAHTCA npex)fe scero K .erHH2pHpOBaHHEO HaTCHOB B apOMaTHKy. PH4opMaT npeacTaB.JLeT co60ur HaH6onee BaBKHLbl HCTOIHHK 6eH3oua

H CyMMapHori apOMaTHKH B 6eH3HHe. YrueBoz0opoAbI

OpraHHMecKHe coeAHHeHHA, COCTOSiWHe H3 yrnepoaa H BoAopoaa.

(Hydrocarbons) LteTaHOBoe qucjio (Cetane number)

3MnHpHMeCKaA mepa KawecTBa BocniiaMeHeHHA AH3eJIbHoro TonjiHBa, KOTOpaA xapaKTepH3yeT CKJIOHHOCTb TOIlJHBa K caMoBocnIIaMeHeHHIo npH TeMnepaType H gaBjieHHH, HMeiOiiIHX MeCTO B Kamepe cropaHHA aBTOMo6HRA.

IleTaHOBLIH

UjeTaHOBoe

MONKHO

YBejiHw4HT

c C

noMoLubio

UeTaHOnOBbilualOII1HX ,o6aioK. Ha 3MnHpH'HeCKOA OCHOBaHHa3 suciia, ueTaHOBOrO KOppeJIUHH C rliOTHOCThIO H napaMeTpaMH JneTyIeCTH. [1eTaHOBbIiH HH2eKC He MO)KeT OTpa)KaTb pe3yJIbTaT BBeaeHRA ,ro6aBoK, nOBbIuIaaioIutHx UeTaHoBoe qHCjiO.

uHjecKc OueHKa

(Cetane index)

MHCJIO

xvi


npeaM6yina I

3arpq3HeHHe ropo,acKoro Bo3fyxa IBfSIeTCA npo6neMori, Bbl3blBaioLuei pacTyinee 6eCnOKOACTBO BO MHOrHX HOBblIX He3aBHCHMbix rocyrapcTBax (HHEF) 6ElBiIero CoBeTcKoro CEoo3a. B ropoaax CTpeMHTeJIbHO yBeJIHHHBaeTCS qHCjieHHOCTb aBToMo6HlEHoro napKa, OaHaKO cny)K6bl perHcTpaUHH, TexocMoTpa H Texo6cj1yxKHBaHHs aBToMo6Hneii He B COCTOSHHH o6ecrieqHT no,uaepwxKy riporpammam nOBbhiueHHS Ka4eCTBa Bo3xyxa. rIpo6enbl, CBI3aHHbie C BpeqHbIMH Bbi6pocaMH, ycyry6nIAIOTCs HH3KHM Ka-eCTBOM noTpe6nIeMorO TOnnHBa. XOTA HeKOTOpble BH.Ibl

Bpe,aHbIX Bbi6pocOB (HanpHMep, rlapHHKOBbie ra3bi) r'no6ajbHoM MacimTa6e, HaH6onbLLIHH YPOH 3Ja0pOBbIO 3arPA3HeHHe

B03,ayLUHoro 6acceriHa.

npOcTpaHcTBe

HEW

Bo3raeACTBHe

rO HeKOTOpbiM

ipe3mepHo

npe aMeTOM

6eCnOKOACTBa B

mnoaeg Ha £IOKaTibHOM

YPOBHe HaHOCHT

ABnSlOTCA

OUeHKaM,

3arps3HeHHoro

B KpyrIHbEX ropoaax Ha BCeM

B03IYXa ewKeronHo

rpHBOaHT K

npe)IeBpeMeHHOH cMepTH OKOJIo 40 TEJC. H 3a6oneBaHHIo OKOJIO 100 TblIC. qenojBeK (Hughes and Lovei, 1999 r.). MHCTbie 3KOHOMH,4ecKHe noTepH OT TaKoro poqa BpeIHbIX BO3ZAerCTBH9 OUeHHBaiOTCA B 5% ropO,CKOro 6io,a>eTa. HpHqeM CTeneHb BO3AeACTBHA Ha 3ZIOPOBbe JIIOaeg He6onibEuIHx H paCcpe,aoToteHHEIX HCTO-HHKOB 3arpA3HeHHS (THna aBToTpaHCnOPTHbIX CpeaCTB) OKa3bJBaeTCS

HenpOfIOPLIHOHaIbHO

BbICOKOH, riOCKOJIbKy 3TH Bbi6pOCbi HMelOT MeCTO Ha YPOBHe

yJIHUbi, a pacceHBaHHe 3arpI3HHTeJieA TaKorO THna npoHCXOaHT C TpyaOM. HaH6oflee Bpe;lHbIMH B 3TOM oTHUILeHHH ABJISIOTCS TOHKOAHCnepCHbie B3BeweHHbie LiaCTHUbI (a3po3onH), Bbl3bIBOiliHe

ibIxaTeEbHbiX riyTeH, a TaKwoe CBHHeU, KOTOPbIH OKa3b3BaeT flary6Hoe BO3AerlCTBHe Ha YMCTBeHHOe Pa3BHTHe AeTeH H, ABJIAACb CTOHKHM 3arPA3HAlOflHM BelUeCTBOM, HaKannJHBaeTCA B oKpy)KaiouieH cpege. 3a6oJIeBaHHA

2.

Oco6eHHO xKryqHe npo6neMbl CTOAT nepe, HII, rae 3arpS3HeHHe B03IYUIHoro 6acceriHa CBS3aHO c pa60TO TPaHCnOPTHbIX cpefaCTB, 'TO o6ycnOBneHO H3HOIIeHHOCTbIO HX aBTOMO6HnEbHbiX naPKOB H OTCYTCTBHeM

aBToMo6HnJeH

pa3BHTOH

HH4paCTpyKTypbi CHa6)KeHHA

H CHCTeMbE

TOniiHBOM,

TeXOCMOTpa H Texo6cniyxHBaHH4.

TexHHqecKoFo

coaep)KaHHS

HIMeIOTCA coo6IueHHs,

corinacHo

KOTOpbIM BO MHOrHX ropoaax A3ep6agzwaHa, Ka3axcTaHa H Y36eKHcTaHa TpaHCriOPT ABJISeTCS OCHOBHblM

HCTO4HHKOM

npHXOaHTCA

3BrPSI3HeHI{B BoaIIyxa, npHf4M B HeKOTOPbIX qaCTb cyMMapHoro o6feMa Bbi6pocOB. B

3Ha'{HTeCibHaA

3KOHoMH'ieCKOrO cna4a cyMMapHoe noTpe6neHHe

nPHBeJTO

3HeprHH B 3THX

MeCTaX

Ha ero

.rno

90-x rr. B pe3yfIbTaTe cTpaHax yMeHblUHnOCb, 4TO

K CHHKeHHIO YPOBHA BpeAHbIX BbI6pOCOB, o6yc.noBjieHHbIx

c)KHraHHeM HCKonaeMbix

TOruiHB. XOTS B KpaTKOCpOMHO riepcrieKTHBe 3TO H npHBO,lHT K CHH)KeHHfO HHTeHCHBHOCTH 3arpA3HeHHS ropoacKoro Bo3ayxa, 3KOHoMH'IeCKaSl nenpeccmu o6ycnomHna TaKxce coKpaieHme pecypcoB, BbEieJIAeMbiX Ha 6opb6y C Bper4HbIMH BbI6pocaMH, H CTMan npHMHHOi 3aMeaneHHA npouecca o6HOBneHHA napKa aBTOMo6HJneii, YTO B AoJIrocpoT{HoH riepcneKTHBe aOJDKHO oTpHuaTejibHO CKa3aTbCA Ha MepOrIpHATH5[X no o6ecneTieHHIo KameCTBa ropocKoro Bo3IyXa. Ecni He

ripe,npHHATE

TeXHHMwCKHX

Heo6Xo2aHMbIX

Tpe6oBaHHH

K

mep no H3MeHeHHIO HOpMaTHBaM

HbIHelIHeH

Bbi6poCOB

ITOJIHTHKH

aBToMo6HJEbHbIX

B

OTHOUieHHH

aBnHraTenerl

npH

perHCTpaUHH HOBbIX TpaHCnOpTHblIX CpeACTB, Hane)KacaueMy Texoc6JIy>KHBaHHio HMeiOlIIHXCS napKOB aBToMo6HneH H ,JaeKBaTHbIM TeXHHqeCKHM YCJIOBHAM Ha KaxleCTBO TOnIUHB, TO B Tet'eHHe nocnie,youLux 10 - 15 neT POCT 'Hcjia aBToMo6HJeg H noBbEIJIeHHe HHTeHCHBHOCTH H4X 3KCnUiyaTalIHH npHBexyT K YCTOHr4HBOMY yBeJIH'ieHHIO o6'beMoB Bbli6poCOB Bpe,HbIX BeLUeCTB.

3.

Bo

H36e)KaHHe TaKOrO pa3BHTHA co6b6lTH, B cTpaHax o6cneaoBaHHoro perHoHa Heo6xoaHMo paMKH KpaTKOCpO'IHbIX H CpeaHecpO'IHbIx MeponpHl1THurno yJIly'iueHHio He M)OlbKO KaqecTBa TonnHBa, HO U XapaKTepHCTHK BbI6pOCOB aBToMo6HJEHb>IX aBHraTeneH, nOCKOJIEKy OmepTHTb

JIOCTH)iceHHe JiHUlb OXaHo4 H3 3THX LefieHriaCT BeCbMa orpaHH'eHHbli4 pe3yJIbTaT. KpoMe Toro, onpeAeneHHA

OrIepaTHBHOCTH

nporpaMMa, B 3THX cTpaHaX

H

TBepaOCTH,

C

KOTOpbIMH

mOnHma

pean4H3OBbIBaTbCA

lAB

TaKaq

aOJTKHbI oTfaBaTTb ce6e oP-eT B xapaKTepe H 3Ha'IHMOCTH npo6neMbm

1


2

nlpHmeHeHHe 6o0iee

MHCTbIX MOTOpHblX TOJIUHB 0nA

o6ecneqeHHA

4HCTOThI

B03Xayxa B cTpaHax CpezHeH

A3HH H KaBKa3a 3arpA3HeHHS B03 ayXa, HHame rOBOpA, Heo6xOZWMo o6ecneqHTb HaadeKHbiH MOHHTOPHHr KaqecTBa

Bo3,ayxa. Mepbi no BBeaeHHIO 3arPA3HeHHM

B

aeACTBHe

(H o6eCnemeHHIO BbEnOJ]HeHHA) 6onee )KeCTKHX HOpMaTHBOB eAeTenJbHOCTH OTeqeCTBeHHbIX He4)Tenepepa6aTbiBalowHx

B03AyXa CKa)KYTCA Ha

3aBO,AOB, Ha pexKHme HajIoroo6JIoKeHHS ABH)KeHH31. ApyrHMH CnOBaMH,

Bce

H TapHi4HKaUHH, a TaKwKe Ha opraHH3aLHH Aopo*KHoro

3TH npo6neMLl

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1440

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3aMepOB, co6paHHbIx Ha npoTqxKeHHH Bcero 24-MacoBro nepHoga. ConocTaBfleHHe pe3ynlETaToB no NO2 CBHAeTenJbCTByeT 0 TOM, 4TO coriiacHe aHHbIX KOJIe6JIeTCS OT OqeHL 6JIH3Kor0 COBnazeHHA (10 HlOJIA) AO .ByKpaTHOrO pacxoicAeHHA (15 HIOJA). COnOCTaBjieHHe KOHiieHTpaiIHHi CO H a3pO3oJieri OKa3aJIOCE 3aTpyAHHTeJIbHbIM H3-3a TOrO, 'TO pe3yJTbTaTbI, rIOAyMeHHbie OT 1HgpOMeTa, HaXOAITCS Ha nopore t1YBCTBHTenJTHOCTH ipHMeHABweICS aannapaT'ypBI, B TO BpeMA KaK IIOpTaTHBHBie aHBaiH3aTOpbi ropavo '1yBCTBHTeJIbHee K HH3KHM KOHueHTpaLHIAM.


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2.15

flo BcerH TeppHT0PHI4 BaKy 6BuTio pa3BdpHyTo 20 3K3emrLJIHPOB na~cCHBHbIX IIpo6o0T60pHHKOB. Pe3yumETaTi riocuiea~yioiuero aHlaiIHa 4HjniapOCHEix npo6ooTr60PHHKOB rHpHBOLIATCA B

2.16

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25

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(MKZ/M 3)

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C 12 no 20 Huonsj 1999 r. C 12 no 19 HIojTh 1999 r.

31.6 (60.8) 21.9 (42.2)

5.7 (15.2) 4.9 (13.1)

9.0 (18.1) 19.0 (38.1)

C 12 no 19 HioflA 1999 r. C 12 no 19 HMORA 1999 r. C 12 no 19 MnoAs 1999 r.

7.7 (14.8) 10.8 (20.7) 13.7 (26.4)

4.9 (13.1) 2.5 (6.6) 3.2 (8.6)

43.3 (86.6) 34.6 (69.2) 35.7 (71.4)

17.2 (33.1) 3.2 (8.6) 10.2 (19.5) < LOD 16.6 (31.9) 4.1 (10.9) 17.6 (33.9) < LOD 16.4 (31.5) 4.1 (11.0) 11.4 (22.0) 4.9 (13.2) 10.6 (20.5) < LOD 15.0 (28.8) 4.1 (11.1) 7.4 (14.2) 5.0 (13.3) 16.7 (32.1) < LOD 19.1 (36.7) 3.3 (8.8) 44.1 (84.9) 3.3 (8.8) 15.3 (29.3) 3.3 (8.8) 6.3 (12.2) 6.5 (17.4) 38.6 (74.2) 4.8 (12.8) nopora o6HapyweHHA.

22.2 (44.5) 24.1 (48.2) 18.9 (37.9) 24.2 (48.5) 31.3 (62.7) 33.1 (66.2) 26.3 (52.6) 33.3 (66.6) 22.9 (45.8) 19.4 (38.8) 30.2 (60.3) 8.7 (17.4) 29.3 (58.5) 37.9 (75.7) 26.3 (52.6)

K_7accu(PuKazu,q flpoMeXCyToqHbIri

rpoMexKyToMHbIi / OCHOBHOii MacCHB OCHOBHOiH MacCHB OCHOBHOH MacCHB

IHpoMeKyToxlHblR / OCHOBHOii MaccHB

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

HpoMewKyToRHblii OCHOBHOHi MacCHB OCHOBHOHl MacCHB

OCHOBHOH MaccHB

rlpoMexcyToMHbEii OCHoBHoHiMmaccHB OCHOBHOH MacCHB OCHOBHOi MacCHB OCHOBHOH1 MacCHB

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Tporyap lpuMetaunu: Mlpa

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12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 14

no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 20 no 20 no 20

HlonS 1999 r. HIoJI 1999 r. HIoJI 1999 r. HIOJA 1999 r. HlonJ 1999 r. HioniS 1999 r. HlO4JI 1999 r. HIons 1999 r. oIJIA 1999 r. H}OJIS 1999 r. HIOJIA 1999 r. HIoJIA 1999 r. HIOJIA 1999 r. Hions 1999 r. HIOnJIS 1999 r. Ha MHnmHapl; < LOD - HHXKe

'MecTo YCTaHOBKH aHanIH3aTopOB HenpepblBHoro

2.17 143yqeHHe

1I IacTHLi,

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aRA c6opa npo6 CBHHUa HcnoEb3OBanJH

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leTbipe

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2.4).

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HCTO'qHHKa BbEieJ1eHHS TaKHX IaCTHU. cDHnETpbl, yCTaHoBJIeHHbie B BIaKy, coaepcaKaiH nblib KOPHHHeBOrO uBeTa, a 3TO aat

OCHOBaHHA npearioJ1araTb, 4TO aaHHbIe xaCTHUbl HMelOT nOLIBeHHoe npoHcxo)KLeHHe,

T.e. He npezacTaBJIoAT co6orl npOgyKTbi cropaHHA.

Ta6jmia.2.4. 17epuo6 om6opa npo6 C9no l2HIons 1999r. C 12 no 14MonA 1999 r. C 14no 16HIonA 1999r. C 16 no 19 HIonA 1999 r.

KOHL4eHTpaLp4U

1Hpooon.wIcumeAbHocmb om6opa npo6, 4ac

BaKy 06beM KoHnzenimpazua npo6, M 3 c6uwna, MKZ/M

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68.5

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0.10

45.5 48

4.9 5.2

0.04 0.06

75

8.1

0.03


26

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qHCTbIX MOTOPHbIX TonIHB Xns o6ecnegeHm qHCTOTbl BO3,ayXa B cTpaHax Cpe.Herl

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90 250

4.2 13.9

72 218

TeqeHme 1 Imaca MaKcHMajibHOe 3HaqeHHe B 8 MacOB TeweH

171

8.7

162

MaKCHMajibHOe 3HaqeHHe 3a CYTKH

109

5.7

75

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He


rlpHMeHeHHe

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B

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Ta6nu4a 2.6. JQaHHbie, nOny4eHHbie C nOMOU4bIO cf,nJbTpOCHbWX Tpy6oK B TaWKeHTe Kniaccu1buKazfuA OCHOBHOii MacCHB

H7epuoo om6opa npo6 C 30

HIOJIA

no 7 aBrycTa 1999

N02 M7lpca 3 (MK3/M )

S02

03

(MKZ/M )

A4..lpa' (MKZ/M )

20.2 (38.8)

3.6 (9.5)

61.7 (123.5)

3

r. OCHOBHOii MacCHB

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C 30

HIOJIA

no 7 aBrycTa 1999

Tpy6Ka

Tpy6Ka

Tpy6Ka

yTepAHa

yTepAHa

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31.8 (61.1)

16.7 (44.4)

26.0 (52.0)

20.3 (39.1)

5.1 (13.6)

56.9 (113.8)

38.9 (74.8)

5.8 (15.4)

32.1 (64.2)

31.2 (60.0)

5.9 (15.8)

64.1 (128.1)

32.1 (61.8)

7.4 (19.6)

20.3 (40.6)

r~. OCHOBHOH MaccHB

C 30

HnonJ

rlpoMexKyTotHblHH

C 30

H1onA

no 7 aBrycTa 1999 r. no 7 aBryCTa 1999 r.

OCHOBHOH1 MaccHB

OCHOBHOU1 MacCHB

C 301H0onA no 7 aBrycTa 1999 r. C 30 IojSA no 7 aBrycTa 1999

r. OCHOBHOH MacCHB

OCHOBHOiU MaccHB

C 30

HIOIm

no 7 aBryCTa 1999

Tpy6Ka

Tpy6Ka

Tpy6Ka

yTepsHa

yTepsHa

yrepAHa

24.9 (47.9)

7.3 (19.5)

40.2 (80.4)

21.1(40.5)

4.4 (11.7)

41.7 (83.5)

43.1 (83.0)

9.8 (26.2)

26.0 (51.9)

40.9 (78.6)

11.5 (30.6)

24.2 (48.5)

29.9 (57.4)

7.4 (19.7)

39.8 (79.6)

22.2 (42.6)

4.1 (10.9)

29.4 (58.9)

20.5 (39.5)

5.8 (15.4)

48.8 (97.5)

40.0 (76.9)

10.7 (28.6)

54.0 (108.0)

43.4 (83.5)

7.4 (19.8)

19.2 (38.3)

30.2 (58.1)

7.3 (19.5)

31.0 (62.0)

45.8 (88.1)

8.1 (21.7)

74.0 (148.0)

35.2 (67.6)

9.2 (24.5)

22.9 (45.8)

r.

Tpoiyap/

no 7 aBrycTa 1999 r. C 31 1o115 no 7 aBrycTa 1999 r. C 31 HIoJ no 7 aBrycTa 1999

rIpoMeXCyTo0HbEI

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r. TpoTyap flpoMeXCyTo0HbEii

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no 7 aBrycTa 1999 r. C 31 H1O1Arino 7 aBryCTa 1999 r. C 31 H1o10A no 7 aBryCTa 1999 r. C 31 1H1O03A no 7 aBrycTa 1999 r. C 31 HlOn0A no 7 aBryCTa 1999 HIOJIA

r. Il7puMe4aHmR: M.ap-l - 'lacTeU Ha MHjinHapA.

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27


28

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6bmia pa3pa6oTaHa MO,aenb B BHAe 3neKTpOHHOHi Ta6JHIbli no KaxcOHi CTpaHe, KpOMe ApMeHHH H KHprH3cKoA Pecny6JIHKH, B KOTOpbEX ,AaHHbIX no napKam aBToMo6HIei nOHOJy-HTE He yaajocE. I4MeiouylocA no KaXc,flOio CTpaHe HH4OpMaUHo BBOaHtHl B 3Ty 3iieKTpOHHyIO Ta6HUy, InpHMeM nOhIHOTa BBOqHMOH HH4opMaUHH 6bma pa3JIHqHOH B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT TOi HnIH cTpaHbI.

3.11

B

nywem cjiy4ae, TOJIbKo no OTAeJfbHbIM Mo(enJISM HMeJIHCb peanbHbIe aaHHbie KaK no

B cnyqae TaHKHKHCTaHa 6bmiH nOflYmeHbl TOJIbKO cyMMapHblie aHpbi no 6eH3HHoBbEM H 4H3enfbHbIM aBTOMo6HnJAM. xiA Toro 4TO6bi npHMeHHTb Ta6nIH4Hy1O Moaenlb K TaHxKHKHCTaHy, Ha ripHmepe Ka3axcTaHa onpeae.JHRH pacnpeRiieneHHe aBToMo6HnreH no MeTbIpeM rpynnam (rpy3oBble aBTOMo6HJH, aBTo6ycbi, nierKoBbie H cneuHanLHbHbie aBToMo6HH), aTaKoe Hx pa3aeneH4e no noTpe6nMeMoMy Tor1HBy (6eH3HH H 4H3enJbHoe TonrHBo). Jns oTexecTBeHHbIM, TaK H no HMIIOpTHbiM aBTOMo6HASM.

Ka2K,aOri

no,arpynnbw

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pacnpocTpaHeHHOCTH 3Toro THna B Ka3aXCTaHe. TaKOHi noixoA co'nH KoppeKTHblIM,

Ha

oCKOJIbKy no

napKy Ka3axcTaHa HMeBJHCb notapo6Hbwe CBeaeHHJ. QaHaKo, COOTHOLUeHHe aBTOMo6HlJbHOMy aBToMo6Haerl c 4H3enJbHbEMH H 6eH3HHoBbEMH aBHraTeJ]AMH B 3THX cTpaHax xapaKTepH3yeTCA pe3KHMH pa3J]H'HHMH.

3.12

B OnOJIHeHHe K xHcjieHHOMy cocTaBy napKa aBToMo6HnieH B o6cJiegOBaHHbix cTpaHaX, B HCXOaHbIX KOJIOHKaX 3J1eKTpOHHOHi Ta6HUbi ripeOcTaBHeHElOCHOBHbIe XapaKTePHCTHKH KaxcAoro THna aBToMo6HIeH aaHHoro napKa, a TaKwKe zaHHbie c pa36HBKori no rojam (TaM, rae OHH HMenIHcb). BaKHeri[uHMH xapaKTepHCTHKaMH, npeIcTaBJISAIIUHMH HaH6oJIbmHH HHTepec, ABJIAIOTCA THn TOnJIHBa H ero pacxog Ha 1 KM npo6era (OHUl onpeAennKoTcA H3roToBHTeJieM aBToMo6HJUI). rlpH flpOBeaeHHH aHYain3a 6buTH r]pHHATbE cneapyowHe qOnyrueHHi: aBTOMo6Hnb pa6oTaeT Ha Tpe6yeMoM ToruiHBe (HanpHMep, Ha 6eH3HHe C MHHHMajibHbIM 014, OrOBOpHHbIM H3rOTOBHTejieM MaIUHHbl); yaenbHblHi


38

rIpHmeHeHHe

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B

npHBe,aeHHbie B aHaniH3e BenHqHHbi,

BO3MO)KHO, OKa3anIHC6 3aHH.CKeHHbiMH no CpaBHeHHIO C 4DaKTHqeCKHM pacxoaoM TOriJIHBa. B HaCTOsAlLeHi rniaBe aJU3 HH3KOOKTaHOBbEx 6eH3HHoB (T.e. 6eH3HHoB C OI/M, paBHbIM 72 H 76 nYHKTaM) nPHASTO paBHbIM 91 o6o3HatIeHHe 76 OTI/M, B TO BpeMA KaK BbICOKOOKTaHOBbLIe 6eH3HHbl (T.e. 6eH3HHEl C 011,

l1YHKTy H Bl6liue) o6o3HaqalOTCs KaK 93

01O.

B TorHBe RAS KOHTPOJTEHOro roxaa paccliHTaHbl C HcriOflb3oBaHHeM cpeACTBa B KH5oMeTpax (HITCK) no rpynnam (T.e. 40 TEIC. KM TpaHcnOPTHoro npo6era oueHOK rogoBoro ,anA rpy30BHKOB, 50 TbiC. KM ,WASaBTO6yCOB, 15 TbIC. KM AAA JierKOBbIX H 10 TbIC. KM ,AiA cneLHanJbHbIX wTO o6sAcHAeTcA OaHHaKOBbIMH X4AIA BCex cTpaH, aBTOMo6HneH). BeniqHHbl nTCK npHHSTbE

3.13

HoTpe6HOcTH

[aHHblIX no OTaej1bHbIM CTpaHaM. Pac'&rTEJ BbInOJIHeHbl =Ana Kaxc,forO THna aBToMo6Hneii a pe3yjThTaTbi CYMMHPYIOTCA no TpeM BH,IaM ToHYIHBa. TaKHM cnoco6oM 6bmH noJ1yqeHbi ,aaHHble o TeopeTHqecKoM noTpe6neH4HH TornHBa B KOHTPOnIbHOM, 1998 ro,gy. Pe3ynbTaTI 3THX paC'I6TOB rpHBEeAeHbl Ha B Ta6ni. 3.2. TaM )Ke npeaCTasneHbl AaHHb1e o noTpe6JIeHHH 6eH3HHa H ZH3e2ThHOrO TOnjiHBa, noJIyqeHHble rpynno alHanIH3a He#Tera3oBoro ceKTopa H3 npaBHTeniCTBeHHEIX HCTO'HHKOB, H OTCYTCTBHeM

rpynnoH

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3.14

OueHKH

KOHTPOJIbHOM

no

Mo2eniH

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no

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3.15 aBToMo6HneeH. aBTo6yCOB

H

A6COJlIOTHbie KOJIHqeCTBa TOIJ1HB 3aBHCAT OT HlpHHATOi BeJIH'HHbi flTCK no rpynnam roay npo6er rITCK COCTaBlAIeT 50 TblIC. KM B roz 2MA

HanpHMep, B KOHTpOJIbHoM

40

TbiC. KM

B roA .nA

rpy3OB4KOB.

BepOSTHO,

BnonHe

MeHSTbCS KaK X,IA TOH HuH HHOH CTpaHbI, TaK H ,LAS KOHKpeTHblIX yCJIOBHi H3 3THX CTpaH. ALiAon

'TO

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KOHTpOjTbHOrO rojAa B KaXCfOH

pa3HbIX THHOB TOnnHB H o6ulee ero noTpe6jieHHe B KaXKzxOM cTpaHe B KOHTpOJIbHOM

aBTOMO6HtIbHorO napKa HanIpHMep, nTCK (aBTo6yCOB)

cTpaHe H OT COOTHOWeHHA (rpy3oBHKOB) = 5/4.

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IITCK no


rlpHMeHeHHe

6o0ee MHCTbIX MOTOPHbIX TOIIJIHB Aim o6ecne'1eHHA A3HH H KaBKa3a

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B cTpaHax CpeaHeR

39

Ta6nmLAa 3.2 Pacxoq TonnfsBa B o6cneAOBaHHbIX CTpaHaX B 1998 r. (B MnH. TOHH) 76 OYL/M 92 OT I'H

CmpaHa

qgu3eAbHoe

mornueo A3ep6afiLOJcaH aaKTHqecKKHeaaHHi6e

0.12

0.35

0.52

PacqeT noMoaeniH

0.50

0.27

0.56

cDaKTHqeCKHe,aaHHbme

0.09

0.35

0.29

Pacv4T no MoaeJ]H

0.57

0.37

0.26

qaKTHqeCKHe AaHHEie

1.6

PacqeT no MoaeJiH

2.2

0.38 1.1

2.8 1.4

0.27 0.40

0.03 0.08

0.90 2.7

rpy3Uw

KamaxcmaH

TaioacuxucmaH 4aKTHqeCKHe

gaHHbme

PaclqT no MoaenIH

TypKMeHucmaH qaKTHmteCKHe aaHHbie

-

0.70

0.63

0.20

0.09

1.8 2.3

0.17 0.65

2.5 0.78

0.64

Pac4eT no Moaern

Y36eKucmaH DaKTHmeCKHe aaHHbie PacqeT no MoaenIH

IAaHHLDI

o pacnpeaenieHHH cnpoca

MeWKAy BbICOKOOTaHOBbIM H HH3KoOKTaHOBbiM 6eH3HHaMH Ha cocTaBnaeT 0,64 MJIH. TOHH.

UMeCTcS; CYMMaPHOe nPlOH3BO4CTBO 6eH3HHa BcTpaHe 3.16

3aBbI6meHHbie

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no moueju 3HameHHA pacxoAa TOrUIHB MaCTI4NHO o6ycnoBaneHbE npHXoaZHnOCb npHHHMaTb H3-3a OTCYTCTBHA CTaTHCTHT4eCKHX AaHHbEX. OJ,HHM H3 HaH6ojiee OMeBHaHbIX ciia6bEx MeCT Ta6JIHqHOrl MOJIej]H ABflMeTCA gonymeHHe 0 TOM, 'TO BCe 3aperHcTpHPOBaHHb6e aBTOMo6HnH aeiCTBHTejEbHO 3KcnC1yaTHPYIOTCA H 'TO 3a ro, OHH npOXOJAT nyTb, PaBHblH nPHHHTOMY IITCK. XOTA B 3THX cTpaHax npaKTHKa CnHCaHHA H3HOIIIeHHbix aBToMo6HJIeH OCTaBJIAeT )KeJiaTb

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B

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3TOH rpynnbi

TaKxce MoAKeT 6blTE o6ycnoBj]eH npo6enaMH B HMe1OIaHXCS .aaHHbIX. KpoMe TOrO, B03MO)KHO, HMeeT MeCTO HeXBaTKa cbaKTHweCKHX aaHHbIX

O

pacxoaax TOruIHBa H3-3a TOrO, 'ITO He YMHTEIBaeTCA TOnIUHBO,

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3.17

Pacxox.eHHiA Mewny BeniHqHHaMH noTpe6neHHA 6eH3HHa pa3Hbix xapaKTepHCTHK, PaCC'IHTaHHbIMH rio Moae.jH H B3STbIMH CTaTHCTHKH, aJA pa3HbIX CTpaH IlpHMeHeHHe 6eH3HHa c 6onee BblCOKHM, qeM Heo6xoaHMo, OKTaHOBblM qHCjiOM He CO3,aaeT pa6oTbl aJnA 605ELUiHHcTBa aBBHraTeJierl. Hcno11Eb3OBaHHe TOnniHBa C MeHblUHM, wmM

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qTO


40

rIpHMeHeHHe 6o0iee qHCTBIX MOTOpHLIX TOruiHB aut o6ecneveHHA 4HCTOTbl Bo3Jayxa B CTpaHax CpeaHef4 A3HH H KaBKa3a

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A3ep6agawaHa H Fpy3HH, rae ,i YKa3aHHbie pacxox<AeHHA 6onee cyUeCTBeHHbl cbaKTHMeCKOe noTpe6neHHe BbICoKoOKTaHOBoro 6eH3HHa npeBbliuaeT 3HaqeHHe, gaBaemoe paCMeTaMH no OHM He CTOJIb BenJiKH ,JIA Ka3axCTaHa H Y36eKHcTaHa, rAe noTpe6neHHe BbICOKOoKTaHOBOrO Mo,Aenf. He MHHHMyM, KaK Bblme, npHBeadHHbie 061bICHeHHS, npearnonaraeMoro. 6eH3HHa MeHhuIie

3.18

rpOTHBopemaT nOPSAaKy BeJIHMHHbl 3THX paCXo)KfeHHH.

3.19

MTO KacaeTCA 4H3eJTlHOrO TOnIJiHBa, TO Ta6JIMHHas MOaeJIb OileHHBaeT ero noTpe6nieHHe aaHHbIe BKJIIOHaeTCA TaKoKe noTpe6JIeHHe

TOnbKO Ha aBTOaoporaX, B TO BpeMA KaK B CTaTHCTH4ecKHe

TOrMHBa BHeaOPO)KHbIMH TpaHCrIOPTHbIMH cpe,-CTBaMH. fIo3TOMy MO)KHO npeInOlO)KHTb, TOnInHBa no CTaTHCTMqeCKOH OT4eTHOCTH npeBbICHT OueHKH cnpoca no MogfeAH. ii ZIeACTBHTeJLbHO, OUieHKH no MOaenJH OKa3bIBaioTCS HH)Ke ,qS AH3enjbHorO TOnHIHBa (3a HCKmIO'eHHeM TaawHKHcTaHa). 3HaMHTenbi6Ho 60niee BbICOKOe noTpe6neHHe aH3eilEHOrO TOrLTHBO, rioAC'qHTaHHoe no AH3eJbHorO

'ITO pacxoaL ,H3efLbHorO

MO,aeJIH, yKa3blBaeT Ha TO, HTO 'HHCJIO AH3eJlbHbIX MaIUHH CHAbHO 3aBbiLueHO. flO3TOMy pa36poc Meway no Mo.enJH, H CTaTHCTHM'eCKHMH gaHHbMMH noTpe6neHiA TOnriHBa, BeiIHxIHHaMH, pacC'qHTaHHb6Mm TaxIKHKHcTaHa B Ta6ji. 3.2, o6ycjiOBneH, cKopee Bcero, 3aBbillUeHHb6M HHCJIOM npHBe,ReHHbIMM ,4AnA aBTOMo6HJIeii C aH3efibHbIMH UBHraTeJ1AMH H zIOriyweHRAMH, npHHATblMH no aBToMo6HIbHL6M napKaM.

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6

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3.21

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41

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3.22

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3.53


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41,000 325,000 0

56,000 786,000 176,000

104,000 654,000 237,000

110,000 175,000 487,000

310,500 1,940,000 900,000

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891,000

770,000

304,000

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1,091,000

950,000

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