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Использование более чистых видов моторного топлива для обеспечения чистоты воздуха в странах Центральной Азии и Кавказа Документ Всемирного банка Информационный центр в России

защита окружающей среды


JOINT UNDP / WORLD BANK ENERGY SECTOR MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME (ESMAP) PURPOSE The Joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP) is a special global technical assistance program run as part of the World Bank's Energy, Mining and Telecommunications Department. ESMAP provides advice to governments on sustainable energy development. Established with the support of UNDP and bilateral official donors in 1983, it focuses on the role of energy in the development process with the objective of contributing to poverty alleviation, improving living conditions and preserving the environment in developing countries and transition economies. ESMAP centers its interventions on three priority areas: sector reform and restructuring; access to modern energy for the poorest; and promotion of sustainable energy practices. GOVERNANCE AND OPERATIONS ESMAP is governed by a Consultative Group (ESMAP CG) composed of representatives of the UNDP and World Bank, other donors, and development experts from regions benefiting from ESMAP's assistance. The ESMAP CG is chaired by a World Bank Vice President, and advised by a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) of four independent energy experts that reviews the Programme's strategic agenda, its work plan, and its achievements. ESMAP relies on a cadre of engineers, energy planners, and economists from the World Bank to conduct its activities under the guidance of the Manager of ESMAP, responsible for administering the Programme. FUNDING ESMAP is a cooperative effort supported over the years by the World Bank, the UNDP and other United Nations agencies, the European Union, the Organization of American States (OAS), the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE), and public and private donors from countries including Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Finland, France, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. FURTHER INFORMATION An up-to-date listing of completed ESMAP projects is appended to this report. For further information, a copy of the ESMAP Annual Report, or copies of project reports, contact: ESMAP c/o Energy and Water The World Bank 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 U.S.A.


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COBMeCTHaq pa3pa6OTKa nporpaMMbl OOH no pa3BMTW4O (UNDP) v nporpaMMbI OpraHW3aLlMOHHOIAfnOgqep>KKvi 3HepreTl4qeCKoro ceKTopa MwPOBoro 6aHKa (ESMAP)


Copyright Š 2001 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/THE WORLD BANK 1818 H Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A. All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America First printing August 2001 ESMAP Reports are published to communicate the results of the ESMAP's work to the development community with the least possible delay. The typescript of the paper therefore has not been prepared in accordance with the procedures appropriate to formal documents. Some sources cited in this paper may be informal documents that are not readily available. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the author(s) and should not be attributed in any manner to the World Bank, or its affiliated organizations, or to members of its Board of Executive Directors or the countries they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility whatsoever for any consequence of their use. The Boundaries, colors, denominations, other information shown on any map in this volume do not imply on the part of the World Bank Group any judgement on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The material in this publication is copyrighted. Requests for permission to reproduce portions of it should be sent to the ESMAP Manager at the address shown in the copyright notice above. ESMAP encourages dissemination of its work and will normally give permission promptly and, when the reproduction is for noncommercial purposes, without asking a fee.


"ESMAP Values your Feedback If you have found this report useful, or would like to provide comments on our reports and services, please log on to our website at www.esmap.org and leave your feedback. In this way we can better understand our audience's needs and improve the quality of our knowledge products. Thank you. ESMAP Management"


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H3eJIbHorO ToriHBa Ha Hnl3 B TypKMeH6awH znA 2005 r

Ta6nHua 4.32. EaiiaHc TOnJIHB B Y36eyHcTaHe B 1998 r. (B meTpHmecKHx ToHHax) .

88

.........................

88

76 Ha XepraHCKoM HnI3 anA 2005 r..................89

Ta6nHua 4.35. (DH3HqeCKHe CBOHCTBa 6eH3HHOB 014M 93 Ha (DepraHCKoM HnI3 xiA 2005 r

.................

Ta6nllua 4.36. cLepraHcKHH

Hrl3: flpHpoCTHLIe MOOLUHOCTH H 3aTpaTbl B2roXOBOM HC'4HcjieHHHa..A 2005.

Ta6nuHa 4.37. (H3HqeCKHe HH

CBoHcTBa BblCOKOOKTaHoBbix ........... 6eH3HOB Ha 4)epraHCKOm Hr3 6Ha2005

Ta6rHua 4.38. DepraHCKH

HMI3: flpHpocTHbie MOIUHOCTH H 3aTpaTbi B rOXuOBOM HCqHCJIeHHH XIsA 2005 r.,

6eH3nHoBR rnyni C BblCOKHM O4

87

.........................

Ta6nHua 4.33. BaianHc TOriIiHB B Y36eKHcTaHe B 2005 r. (B meTpwmecKHX ToHHax) Ta6nHua 4.34. DH3HqecKHe CBo0iCTBa 6eH3HHOB O/M

.............

2005 r

90 ........... 90

.........

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Ta6nHua 4.39. (LH3HqeCKHe CBoilCTBa 6eH3HHa 014/M 76 Ha EyxapcKoM HnI3

91

92

a

2005 r ...................................... 92

Ta6JlHua 4.40. (DH3HmeCKHe CBOHCTBa 6eH3HHa 04/M 93 Ha ByxapCKOM HnT3 zni

2005 r ........................................ 92

Ta6JIHua 4.4 1. EyxapCKH Hn3: npHPOCTHie HcqcneHH MOMHOCTH W HHHH ....... H 3aTpaTbI B roaOBOM Ta6nnua 4.42. (DepraHcKHim

HH

2005 r 2005r........

93

HrI3: OueHxa MOIUWOCTerl yCTaHOBOK H 3aTpaT B rOlOBOM HCEHCjieHHH Ha noBbiimeHHe

KaQecTBa AH3enJbHorO TOnflHBa =A 2005 r. (Baonn . 1998 r.).......

.

.

..............................................

93

Ta6nHua 4.43. BaAaHc TOnJIHB B Fpy3HH H ApMeHHH B 1988 r. (B meTpHaecHX TOHHax) o...................... ...................

95

Ta6iHua 4.44. Banaiic TonInHB B r]py3HH H ApMeHHH B 2005 r. (B meTpH

95

MeCKHX ToHHax)

......................

Ta6nluga 4.45. nloTpe6AeHHe TonrnHBa B KHprn3cKorl Pecny6.nHKe H TaZ)KHKHCTaHe B 1998 r. (B meTpH ecKHx ToHHax)

95

.........................................................................................

Ta6nHua 4.46. rIorpe6neHHe TOnnHBa B KHprH3cKori Pecny6InHKe H Taz)KHKHcTaHe B 2005 r. (B MeTpfHqeCKHX ToHHax)

95

.........................................................................................

Ta6nHIHa 4.47 CBoaHbie zaaHHbie no 3arpaTam

HfM3 Ha nOBbIiellHHe

TeXHWIeCKHX xapaKTepHCTHK TOrIHB 9........97

Ta6nHuua 4.48. CBoxumie aaHHbie no HpHPOCTHbIM 3aTpaTaM Ha nOBbllleHHe KaxeCTBa 6eH3HHa =AI CTpaH, HMe1ofHx Hnl3 (,aoi Ta6nHuia

4.49.

CaoaHbie

HMeioIUHx Hrl3 (,aon

1998 98. r.)

99

.....................................................................

aHHblie no npHpOCTHbIM 3aTpaTaM Ha nOBbllu1eHHe xaqecTBa 6eH3HHa anA CTpaH, He

1998 19.

r.)

99

.....................................................................

Ta6niHua 4.50. PeKoMeHzyeMbie TexHHIeCKHe Tpe6oBaHHJ K KaaieCTBy 6eH3HHa H aIH3ejnbHorO TOnnHBa (MaKcHMajbHo

n.O..YCTHMbe

.peXeb.)100.............................................................100

Ta6nHua 4.5 1. TexHH,ecKHe Tpe6oBaHHH EBponeHcKoro COMM3a (MaKcHMajibHo aoryCTHMbie npeeibi) ........ Ta6nHua 4.52.

IloKa3aTenH KaqecTBa 6eH3HHa O04/1

93, onpeeien6HHbie no npo6aM, B3STLIM B ApMeHHH .

100 .

... 105

Ta6nHua 4.53. floKa3aTenH KaMecTBa A43eiIHoro ToniIiHBa, orpezeneHHbIe no npo6aM, B3STbIM B ApMeHHH .

106

vii


....................................... 108

Ta6.iHua 4.54. Pe3ynbTaTbi aHaiH3a 6eH3HHOB A3ep6agaiaHa

Ta6nHiua 4.56. Pe3ynwETaTbl Ta6iniHa

4.57.

ma HalaH3a

Ta6AHua

4.59.

.............................. 111

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Pe3yJTTaTEi aHanIH3ma

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B3ATbIX B rpy3Hm

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Ta6rnuia 4.61. Pe3yJITaTEl aHanH3a npo6 6eH3HHa Oq/M 76, B3STMIX B KHprH3CKOAi Pecry6niHKe Ta6nHua 4.62. Pe3yJIETaTEl aHJaIH3a npo6 6eH3HHa O1/H 93, B3aTbIX B KHprH3cKori Pecriy6KKe Ta6nHua 4.63. Pe3ynbTaTEl aHanH3a npo6 6eH3HHa OI/M 76, B3RTb6X B TazCHKIICTaHe

TaKHKHcTaHe

114

............

114

....................

115

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aHan3a iTpo Ta6ArnH.a 4.66. Pe3yJnTaTbH

6

116

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XaH3enE.HOrO TorIHABa, B3ATbIX B TallmKeHTe

TexuwqecKue Tpe6oBaHHs

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1...................................................................121 1999 r., T6HnHcH (Ipy3Hs) ........

Ta6rnHua Al.l. OpraHH3aLugoHHBmI perHoHajmHbli ceMHHap 10-1-

u HEoH

Ta6inHua A

oKTAn6ps 2000 r., EaKy (A3ep6aAalKaH) .

1.3.

114

aHaIH3a npo6 AH3eJTEHorO TorJIHBa, B3ATbIX B Kuprn3cKofl Pecry6JnHKe H IETaTbH

Ta6nrHua 4.65. Pe3yJTaTbi alHanIH3a npo6 6eH3HHa, B3RTbIX B TaIUKeHre

PeKoMeHayeMbwe

113

.......................

Ta6.rrHua 4.60. Pe3yJIETaThi alHaIH3a npo6 zH3eniTHorO ToniiHBa, B3ATbIX B AnMaTbi

Ta6nHua 4.64. Pe3y

111

..............

Pe3yJnlTaTbi aHanH3a npo6 6eH3HHa, B3ATbIX B rpy3HH...........................

Ta6nIHua 4.58. Pe3yJImTaTEi aHani3a npo6 zH3ejnTHorO ToruiHBa,

109

..........................

Ta6nHua 4.55. Pe3yjmlTaThi aHanima 6eH3HHOB A3ep6agaIKaHa (npoaonxKeHHe)

3aJoWEHTejbtbli perHoHaniiHbfI

ceMHHap 26-27

143 146

CnucoK P4CYHKOB PHC.

2.1. ConoCTaBnieHHe CpeaHecyToxHibix KOHueHTpaui4H N02

PHC. 2.2. ConoCTaBneHHe

cpeRHeCYTOHH6lX

KOHUeHTpaEHil CO

B

B

................................ 23

BaKy

PHC. 2.3. COIIOCTaBneHHe cpeaHcCyToxHEIX KOHUeHTpaUHri a3po3iier

B

.....................

nOCTaM)

.....................

PHc. 2.5. ConoCTaBjieHHe KOHUeHTpauHRi SO2 B TaInKeHTe (no KOHTPOJIbHLIM 'qHCTbll BbLIHrpEil OT npOTHBO3aKOHHO

aeATenjbHOCTH B ynpOLfeHHOH aByxnepHOaHOr cxeme

PHc. 6.2. THnoBaag cxema uenoKH c6biTa .......................................................

viii

24

............................

BaKy

PHc. 2.4. ConoCTaB.neHHe KOHUeHTpaUHf NO 2 B TailUKeHTe (no KOHTPOJIERHbM nocTaM)

PHC. 6. 1.

23

..................................

EaKy

28

29 .

127 136


Bblpa)KeHme npH3HaTenbHOCTI4 HacToAluee o6cneaoBaHHe 6brno

(UNDP) 6aHKa

H rlporpaMMbl

npe;nlPHHATO B

paMKax cOBMeCTHOH rlporpaMMbi OOH no pa3BHTHio (ESMAP) MHpoBoro

opraHH3aLjHoHHOrH nIO,iepiuKH 3HepreTHqecKoro ceKTopa

nporpaMMbi <dloBbEumiHHe KatecTBa ropoacKoro B03,ayxa B cTpaHax CpeaHeHi 'HCTb1e ToUjlHBa>>. Mbl BbipaxKaeM

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(CIDA) 3a 4wHaHcoBylo nOMOUb.

rnaBa 2 OCHOBaHa Ha

pe3YnETaTax pa6oTbl, npoBeAeHHOil B 1999 r. CTHBOM TernnHHroM H EpaHaHOM CTeHcH H3 6pHTaHCKOA 4HpMbm AEA Technology npfH yHaCTHH c.reneylolnHx COTPYaHHKOB KOMHTeTOB no rH,apomeTeoponorHHI (FHapoMeT) MHHHCTePCTBa oxpaHbl OKpy(aioueii cpe,abi A3ep6agawaHa H Y36eKHcTaHa: ,-pa MHp3axaHa MaHCHMOBa, r-Ha FHInUHuHxa XanxmHeBa, r-Ha 3aKH FacaH-3aae H r-Ha Fa3aH4apa A66acoBa B A3ep6aAxKaHe H ,-pa BHKTopa 'Hy6a, r-*uH TaTbAHbI OCOCKOBoH, r-ioH BaAeHTHHbi Ha3apoBog H r-xu OjibrH CBeHLIHUKOr4 B Y36eKHcTaHe.

FnaBa 3

OCHOBaHa Ha pe3yflbTaTax pa6oTbI, KOTOpyIO fnpOBenH B 1999 r. rper PaH,ayT H 5IueK POCTKOBCKH H3 MHHHCTePCTBa oxpaHbl oKpyx<aioiue cpe,gbi KaHanbl H npo(eccop AeHH3 KapMaH H3 KaprToHcKoro YHHBepcHiTeTa npH TexHHqeCKOrH nOMOUH H Ha 6a3e HHcopMauHH, nloJlyMeHHOH OT cienyyiouHx JIHU: OT A3ep6ar4zaKaHa - r-H Pay4 CaJIHMOB, HaHaJnHHK oTaena (rocyaapcTBeHHblri KOMHTeT no CTaTHCTHKe), r-H ArHn A. 1IJHxaJIHeB, HaHajnbHHK TeXHHHecKoro oTfena (A3epaBToHarjHnIsIT) H r-H PaMH3 Pa4HeB, 3aMecTHTe.iE aHpeKTopa (3KoMepKe3 - lOCyaapCTBeHHbIi 3KoJIorHqeCKHH ieHTp); OT Ka3axcTaHa - r-H AneKcaHip BorAaHMHKOB, HaHanTbHHK oTzena 3KOHOMHH H CHHXKeHHA

TOKCHYHOCTH

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H

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MaTepHaBJOB

(HayqHo-HccneAoBaTea6cKHri

HHCTHTyT TpaHcnOpTa); OT TypKMeHHCTaHa - r-H BiiaAHmHp A. rna3oBcKHA, HaHanIbHHK YnpaB.neHHA MHHHCTepCTBa 3KOJorHH H OXpaHbl OKpy)KaMILUeri cpeamb); OT Y36eKHcTaHa - r-H Dapxaa Ca6HpoB, fnaBHEbIr cnerUHajiHCT (FnaBHoe ynpasneHHe FocyAapcTBeHHoro KOMHTeTa no oxpaHe npHpoqHoA cpe,aw) H npo4eccop 3,nyapn flAMbnneB H3 TalnKeHTcKoro ABTOMo6HJIbHoro H opolKHo-cTpoHTejbHoro HHCTHTyTa, ABJIASOWHiCS npeCTaBHTeiem Radian International B Y36eKHcTaHe. KpoMe TOrO, B TeXHHecKHXx,aHCKyCCHXx, HawjeAuiHx oTpaXKeHHe B rn. 3, rnpHHHManiH yHacTHe cnegyporue JiHa:

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ix


Om Ka3axcmaua: * F-H MaM6eT MajiHM6aeB, cbIpbeBbIX MaTepHaJIOB).

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KaTanmHamopa (pHopMHIr B nOCTOSHHOM pewKHMe) IjeHTpaAbHas H BOCTO4HaS EBpona

KaHa,IcKoe AreHTCTBO MeX)ZYHapOAHoro pa3BHTHA KpeKHHr-6eH3HH npHpOAHbIri ra3 MOHOKCHA yrnepoAa (OKHCL yrnepoAa) C)KaTbEi

)jiioKcHA yrnepo;la (xaByoKHcb yrnepoAa) CoxpaHeHHe HHCTOrO Bo3LayXa H BOAbl B EBpone EBpOrIeiCKHHi 6aHK peKOHCTpyKIWH H pa3BHTHS4

COBMeCTHaS pa3pa6oTKa IlporpaMMbl OOH no pa3BHTH10 H HpOrpaMMbm OpraHH3auHOHHOH

EU F

noflep)KKH (3HepreTH4ecKoro ceicropa M HpoBoro 6aHKa) EBponericKH9 C0103 (EC) IHTpa4Hbie CaHKLIHH, HaKBaqblBaeMbie Ha KOMriaHHH 3a ytaCTHe B npOTHBO3aKOHHbIX KOMMepHecKHx ZaeACTBHAlX

FBP TeMneparypa FCC

KOHua neperoHKH (KHneHWA)

YCTaHOBKa KaTaBiHTHHeCKOrO KpeKHHra B

nceBAOO)KH)KeHHOM cnoe

FID FSU FTIR GAI

HIaMeHHb6ii HOHH3aUHOHHblr XIeTeKTop EBIBUIHHi CoBeTcKHrH C0103 HK-cneKTpOCKonHAs (HHwpaKpacHaa cneKTpOCKOnHA) c npeo6pa3oBaHHeM 0ypbe Focy,AapcTBeHHaA aBToMo6HRIbHaS HHcneKUHS

(rAIl)

GC GC-MS G/D

xpoMaTorpa4 ra3oBaA xpoMaTorpa¢H. ra30BblI

- Macc-cneICTpocKonHA

OTHolueHHe 6eH3HHa K CpeHlHHM AHCTHJIJIATaM

(xRH3eJbHoMy H peaKTHBHOMY TonnIHBaM)

GDP GF/A g/i

BajiOBOR BHyTpeHHHri npoJyKT CTeKJIOBOJIOKHO, MapKH

rpaMMOB

A

Ha £iHTp

GNP BajbOBOIl HaLuHOHaIibHblH fpOUYKT GOST rOCCTaHaapT HC YrneBojopo,al xii


RD HDS

HD-VKT IBP ICP-AES ICP-MS

T/M IPCP

ISO kg

kg/i kg/m3 km km

2

kPa I

LD LD-VKT LNG LOD urM Mg Mn/i mg/m 3 ml mm

mm2 /s MMT Mn MON MTBE NEAP

BoJIbLuerpy3HblH; MOLUHblH FHapoo6eccepMBaHHe flpo6er 6o.rbieerpy3Horo TpaHCnopTHorO cpeaCTBa B

KHKnOMeTpaX TeMnepaTypa Haxiajia neperoHKH (KHneHHA) HHAYKTHBHO CBA3aHHaS niia3ma- aToMHa

3MHCCHOHHa3 CrieKpTOMeTpHA I4HJayKTHBHO CBs3aHHaA nnIa3Ma - MaccCnepKTpOMeTpHA TexocMoTp H Texo6cny)KHBaHHe 14HCT4TyT He#TexHMHiecKHx npoueccoB MexcAyHapoAHaA opraHH3auHS no cTaHaapTH3aUHH (14CO) KunorpaMMbl KHorpaMNoB Ha iiHTp

KHnorpaMMoB Ha Ky6HqecKIH MeTp KKnoMeTpEl

KYBapaTHblX KKnoMeTpoB

KnionacKanH JHTpb61

JIerKHH; nerKoBoH; MaioMOWHbEH rlpo6er nerKoBoro TpaHCflOpTHOFO CpeaCTBa B KimOMeTpax c>KHiceHHbEJ npHpoHEiHbi ra3 flopor o6Hapy>KeHHs .J4HTpOB B MHHYTY

MHnjIHrpaMMoB mapraHua Ha JUHTp MHnJIHrpaMMOB Ha Ky6HqecKHA MeTp MnwiHnHTpbi MHuniHMeTpbi KBaapaTHlIx MmHmiHMeTpOB BceKyHAy

MeTHJILHaIOneHTaZHeHHlTPHKap6OHHJ mapraHua MapraHeu OKTaHoBoe qHcjio no MOTOPHOMY MeTO)TY MeTHnTpeTHMHo6yTHnoBbEH

34Hp

HaiuOHa.iHas nporpamma npHpoaooxpaHHbIX aeCTBHA

NGO

NIOSH NIS

nm N0

2

NO, 03

P

HenpaBHTenbcTBeHHaA opraHH3aUHA HaUHOHajTEHblH HHCTHTYT TeXHHKH 6e3onaCHOCTrH H oxpaHbI -rpyAa HoBwne He3aBHcHMbie rocyzapcTBa

HaHoMeTp AHOKCHA a3OTa (zByoIKHcb a3oTa)

OKHC.rbI a3oTa 030H

Bbiroaa OT HeyqaCTHA B npOTHB03aKOHHblX KoMMep'lecKHx ,aerCTBHAX

PM PM1 0

ToHKoaHcnepcHbie MaCTHLbl (a3po3onH) ToHKo;HcnepcHbie qaCTHUEJ c a3pOaHHaMHMeCKHM

,aHaMeTpoM MeHee 10 MHKPOHOB

PM2 .5 xiii

ToHKo0acnepcHbie MaCTHULlc a3pOZIHHaMHqeCKHM


ppb ppm

PTFE

ZaHaMeTpOM meHee 2,5 MHKPOHa MaCTHU Ha MHHuapa (Mnpa-') MacTu Ha MHnnHOH (MnH) rIOJIHTeTpaBTop3THjieH (ToproBoe HaHMeHOBaHHe <<TeJInoH>>)

RON rpm S02

T96

OKTaHOBOe {Hcjio no HcciieAoBaTenibCKOMY MeTOay 060pOTOB B MHHyTy lHoKcHg cepwi (JByoKHcb cepbl)

TeMnepaTypa, iIpH KOTOpOHi wcnapseTcA

96%

TOrLTIHBa

TEL TML

TSP tVy

UNDP

TeTpa3THnCBHHeu

TerpaMeTnu1cBHHeu CyMMapHbwe B3BelueHHbie '4aCTHLIbI (MeTpH,4ecKHx) TOHH B rox

lIporpaMMa

pa3BHTHS OpraHH3auHH 06iexmHiHHbWx

HauHui

UNECE

9KOHOMHqeCKaA KOMHCCHA

EBponBl iAs

OpraHH3auHH 06¶beaHHeHHbIx HauHH

USALD

US$ US$A1 USTDA VKT vol%

W HO wt%

wt ppm XRF jggm

3

Jm

AreHTCTBO CIIA no MexAyHapO[aHOMY pa3BHTHIO

,ojmapbi CLUA JlojmapoB CIllA Ha nHTp YnpaBneHHe TOPrOBJIH H pa3BHTHA CIA rIpo6er TpaHCnOPTHOFO CpeaCTBa B KHJOMeTpaX 06XbMHbEI

npOueHT -

BceMHpHaA opraH43auH 3paBooxpaHeHHA BeCOBoi npoueHT LacTeil Ha MHJIJIHOH no Becy

PeHTreHOBCKaA 4.nyopeciieHMlA MHKporpaMMOB Ha Ky6HMecKHH MeTp MHKPOH (TEcICAHaA AojSl MHnJIHMeTpa)

xiv


TepMHHbl U onpeAeneHH4 ApoMaTHnca

YrneBonopoqbI,

(Aromatics)

qHcJIo

MojieKyJIa KOTOPbIX Coaep>KHT OaHO HJIH 6oJbUlee

6eH3oJmbHbx

KoneLu.

ApoMaTHKa

HMeeT

UeHHbIe

aHTHaeTOHaUHOHHbie (BblCOKOoKTaHOBble) XapaKTepHCTHKH.

]eH3oji (Benzene)

ApoMaTH4ecKHrl

yrnepoaa

6e3

yrjieBOqOpoR

C

OAHHM

KOJIbLOM

H3

6 aToMOB

anKHJIbHbIX ueneri. BeH3O] SBJISeTcS KaHueporeHHbIM

BeLueCTBOM.

BaaoBoii nPHPOCT

Banowoi

(Gross increment)

nlpOIYKTOB (He#Teg

npupocm

npeArcTaBnieT

(B ueHaX H

co6ori

KOMHOHeHTOB),

HO

pa3HOCTb

1-11713)

TepMHHaie

Ha

H

CTOHMOCTH

CTOHMOCTH

HpHBeaeHHas

K

CbIpbA

KOHTpOJIbHOMy

BapHaHTy. CM. Ta6nHLUbl B rn. 4.

BHc6peKCHHr (Visbreaking)

flpoLtecc

"MArKOrO"

rfJaBHbIM

o6pa3oM

TepMHHeCKOrO ARS

npHMeHMeMbih

KpeKHHra,

CHHCKeHHS

BS3KOCTH

H

TemnepaTypEi

3aCTbIBaHHA BaKyyMHbIX OCTaTKOB.

rFHpoo6eccepHBaHne

npoLtecc y2JaneHHA cepb H3 TOrIHBa B flPHCYTCTBHH BOAOpOza.

(Hydrodesulfurization) rHapoo6jiaropa>KHBaowuHf [HII3]

(Hydroskimming) FHjpooSHcTKca

(Hydrotreating)

Hn3 c

npOCTOHi CxeMOri, B KOTOpOH eCTb YCTaHOBKH pH4¢OpMHHra aJIS

nlOBbHiieHHM

OKTaHOBOrO mHcCia 6eH3HHa, HO HeT apyrHx YCTaHOBOK

BTOpHMHHoI nepepa6oTKH. He#Te3aBoUcKori AUS

apOMaTHKe

H30Mepxi3aT (Isomerate)

ripoLiecc,

B

KOTOPOM

riOTOK

o6pa6aTbIBaloT

coaepaKaHHS Cepbl, a3OTa H apyrHx reTepoaToMOB H ARA HaCEi6ieHHS ZIBOjHbIX CBR3eH (HanpHMep, B BOAOPOAOM

H

CHHX(,KeHHS

gHOnecPHHax).

TepMHHb6

"rHapOOMHCTKa,

rH,apoo6pa6oTKa H riiApoo6eccepHBaHHe" HcrloJIb3YOTCAS B npoMLiwnjeHHOCTH cpaBHHTe.JbHO yCJIOBHO. npO.LyKT npoLecca, B KOTOPOM yrnieBogopoabi C rlpAMOi uernlo (o6bi4Ho c 5 HnH 6 aTOMaMH yrnepoza) npeBpawUBOTCA B pa3BeTBfl6HHbie

rapa4HHbl

C 66nbEUHM OKTaHOBbM MHCJIOM.

KaTajIHTHqeCICHi IOHBepTep

YCTpOU4CTBO,

BCTpOeHHOe

(Catalytic converter)

coztepwxawuee

KaTanIH3aTop,

B

BbIXAonHyio Ha

CHCTeMy

KOTOPOM

OKCHA

aBTOMo6HRA

yrniepoaa

H

(CO)

npeBpawaeTcA B AHOKCHA yrnepoaa, a HecropeBIUHe yrneBO,aOpObI B aHOKCHZ yrnepoaa H BOAy. KaTaiH3aTop, Ha KOTOPOM npeBpaigaloTcA TORbKO CO H HecropeBlUHe yrjieBoAopOabI, Ha3bIBaIOT

,RByxnyTeBbIM. TpexnyTeBoR KaTaJIH3aTop npeBpaLuaeT, KpOMe TOrO, OKCHJ4bI a3oTa (NOx) B a3OT H BOAY (HAM B KHCYIOPO2 HnH B aHOKCHL yrnepoaa).

KaTajiHTUHecIHi icpeiCHHr B "icunsnueM" crioe (KKqD)

He#Te3aBOaCKO9 npouecc npeBpaXueHHsi uHpKyjiHpyOUHHi

roa3Onb,

TSKeJIbliX MmaceJ

B nerKHH4

6eH3HH H 6onee jierKHe npOAyKTbI.

(Fluidized catalytic cracking

(FCC)) KOKCOBaHHe

(Coking)

He4Te3aBoacKori npouecc - TepMHqeCKHr4 KpeKHHr B )KeCTKHX yCJOBHAX, B KOTOPOM TA)KeJIOe OCTaTOHHoe TOriIiHBO npeBpaulaeTcA B

TBdpAbEJA

KOKC,

AerKOKHriAUHe

nepepa6oTKH Ha apyrHx KpeKnHr (Cracking) 030H

yrfleBOaOpOabI, ripHrOAHbie JAD HTJ3, H B Hai¢Ty H AirKHA

YCTaHOBKaX

ra3o0mb. XHMH4eCKHrI npouecC, B KOTOPOM mojieKyna ("KpeKHpyeTcs") Ha MojieKyJIbi MeHbuiero pa3Mepa. BeCUBeTHbIH

ra3;

xv

030H

ripeaCTaBlAeT co6oi

pacKarbiBaeTCs

armoTponiyHo 4opMy


(Ozone) OKcHrenaTbI

Kmcnopoaa H HMeeTXHMHmieCKyIo 4OpMyYIy 03.

(Oxygenates)

He4Tenepepa6oTKe,

Jmo6ble CnHpTbl

OIcTaHoBoe IHcjio no HCCIeAOBaTenJbCKOMy MeTOZay (01I)

B

MaCTHOCTH,

06blIHO

K OKCHreHaTaM

B

OTHOCAT

nOBblleHHA

DIA,

HcnORb3yeMbie

3¢Hpbi,

npOCTbie

H

KHCnOpOa.

cozepcawlHe

coeaHHeHHA,

opraHHqeCKice

OKTaHOBOrO ,Hcjia H/HfH yMeHblleHHS coaepAKaHHS4 CO B BblIxOnHLIX ra3ax aBToMo6HSi. OKTaHoBOe qHCJIO TonJIHBa, onpeaenIseMoe B pe3KHMe, oTBelaioLeM aBToMo6HAs

aBHlKeHHIO

C

HH3KOH

CKOPOCTbIO

HnH

B

rOPOflCKHX

yCJIOBHAX.

(Research octane number (RON)) OIcTaHoBoe

HCJIO no

meTOAy (O'M (Motor octane number

MOTOPHOMY

OKTaHoBoe

'Hcno

TonrIHBa,

KOTOpbIH

aBHraTenSI,

oripeaenSeMoe

COOTBeTCTByeT

ero

Ha

TaKOM

pa6oTe

npH

peKHMe aBHwKeHHH

aBToMo6Hns no aBToMarHcTparnH.

(MON)) Ilepepa6aTilBaeMan Helj6Tb (Crude run) flpnMOrOHHlIfl

(Straight-run)

He4Te3aBoacKoA TepMHH, OTHOCSAlHiiCS K THfly nepepa6aTbIBaeMop

He#TH. BeH3HH, Ha3bIBaIoT

HenOCpeRCTBeHHOfi npauOOouHbim 6eH3HHoM; TO we

noniylaeMblE

pa3rOHKOA

camoe

He4¢TH,

OTHOCHTCA

K

AH3MfbHOMY TOrUIHBy.

PH4opMaT (npOxRyKT pHNjopMHHra) (Reformate)

rlpozyKT rpeBpaieHHA

npAMOrOHHOii

H KpeKHHr-HacTbI,

KOTOpoe

CBOAHTCA npex)fe scero K .erHH2pHpOBaHHEO HaTCHOB B apOMaTHKy. PH4opMaT npeacTaB.JLeT co60ur HaH6onee BaBKHLbl HCTOIHHK 6eH3oua

H CyMMapHori apOMaTHKH B 6eH3HHe. YrueBoz0opoAbI

OpraHHMecKHe coeAHHeHHA, COCTOSiWHe H3 yrnepoaa H BoAopoaa.

(Hydrocarbons) LteTaHOBoe qucjio (Cetane number)

3MnHpHMeCKaA mepa KawecTBa BocniiaMeHeHHA AH3eJIbHoro TonjiHBa, KOTOpaA xapaKTepH3yeT CKJIOHHOCTb TOIlJHBa K caMoBocnIIaMeHeHHIo npH TeMnepaType H gaBjieHHH, HMeiOiiIHX MeCTO B Kamepe cropaHHA aBTOMo6HRA.

IleTaHOBLIH

UjeTaHOBoe

MONKHO

YBejiHw4HT

c C

noMoLubio

UeTaHOnOBbilualOII1HX ,o6aioK. Ha 3MnHpH'HeCKOA OCHOBaHHa3 suciia, ueTaHOBOrO KOppeJIUHH C rliOTHOCThIO H napaMeTpaMH JneTyIeCTH. [1eTaHOBbIiH HH2eKC He MO)KeT OTpa)KaTb pe3yJIbTaT BBeaeHRA ,ro6aBoK, nOBbIuIaaioIutHx UeTaHoBoe qHCjiO.

uHjecKc OueHKa

(Cetane index)

MHCJIO

xvi


npeaM6yina I

3arpq3HeHHe ropo,acKoro Bo3fyxa IBfSIeTCA npo6neMori, Bbl3blBaioLuei pacTyinee 6eCnOKOACTBO BO MHOrHX HOBblIX He3aBHCHMbix rocyrapcTBax (HHEF) 6ElBiIero CoBeTcKoro CEoo3a. B ropoaax CTpeMHTeJIbHO yBeJIHHHBaeTCS qHCjieHHOCTb aBToMo6HlEHoro napKa, OaHaKO cny)K6bl perHcTpaUHH, TexocMoTpa H Texo6cj1yxKHBaHHs aBToMo6Hneii He B COCTOSHHH o6ecrieqHT no,uaepwxKy riporpammam nOBbhiueHHS Ka4eCTBa Bo3xyxa. rIpo6enbl, CBI3aHHbie C BpeqHbIMH Bbi6pocaMH, ycyry6nIAIOTCs HH3KHM Ka-eCTBOM noTpe6nIeMorO TOnnHBa. XOTA HeKOTOpble BH.Ibl

Bpe,aHbIX Bbi6pocOB (HanpHMep, rlapHHKOBbie ra3bi) r'no6ajbHoM MacimTa6e, HaH6onbLLIHH YPOH 3Ja0pOBbIO 3arPA3HeHHe

B03,ayLUHoro 6acceriHa.

npOcTpaHcTBe

HEW

Bo3raeACTBHe

rO HeKOTOpbiM

ipe3mepHo

npe aMeTOM

6eCnOKOACTBa B

mnoaeg Ha £IOKaTibHOM

YPOBHe HaHOCHT

ABnSlOTCA

OUeHKaM,

3arps3HeHHoro

B KpyrIHbEX ropoaax Ha BCeM

B03IYXa ewKeronHo

rpHBOaHT K

npe)IeBpeMeHHOH cMepTH OKOJIo 40 TEJC. H 3a6oneBaHHIo OKOJIO 100 TblIC. qenojBeK (Hughes and Lovei, 1999 r.). MHCTbie 3KOHOMH,4ecKHe noTepH OT TaKoro poqa BpeIHbIX BO3ZAerCTBH9 OUeHHBaiOTCA B 5% ropO,CKOro 6io,a>eTa. HpHqeM CTeneHb BO3AeACTBHA Ha 3ZIOPOBbe JIIOaeg He6onibEuIHx H paCcpe,aoToteHHEIX HCTO-HHKOB 3arpA3HeHHS (THna aBToTpaHCnOPTHbIX CpeaCTB) OKa3bJBaeTCS

HenpOfIOPLIHOHaIbHO

BbICOKOH, riOCKOJIbKy 3TH Bbi6pOCbi HMelOT MeCTO Ha YPOBHe

yJIHUbi, a pacceHBaHHe 3arpI3HHTeJieA TaKorO THna npoHCXOaHT C TpyaOM. HaH6oflee Bpe;lHbIMH B 3TOM oTHUILeHHH ABJISIOTCS TOHKOAHCnepCHbie B3BeweHHbie LiaCTHUbI (a3po3onH), Bbl3bIBOiliHe

ibIxaTeEbHbiX riyTeH, a TaKwoe CBHHeU, KOTOPbIH OKa3b3BaeT flary6Hoe BO3AerlCTBHe Ha YMCTBeHHOe Pa3BHTHe AeTeH H, ABJIAACb CTOHKHM 3arPA3HAlOflHM BelUeCTBOM, HaKannJHBaeTCA B oKpy)KaiouieH cpege. 3a6oJIeBaHHA

2.

Oco6eHHO xKryqHe npo6neMbl CTOAT nepe, HII, rae 3arpS3HeHHe B03IYUIHoro 6acceriHa CBS3aHO c pa60TO TPaHCnOPTHbIX cpefaCTB, 'TO o6ycnOBneHO H3HOIIeHHOCTbIO HX aBTOMO6HnEbHbiX naPKOB H OTCYTCTBHeM

aBToMo6HnJeH

pa3BHTOH

HH4paCTpyKTypbi CHa6)KeHHA

H CHCTeMbE

TOniiHBOM,

TeXOCMOTpa H Texo6cniyxHBaHH4.

TexHHqecKoFo

coaep)KaHHS

HIMeIOTCA coo6IueHHs,

corinacHo

KOTOpbIM BO MHOrHX ropoaax A3ep6agzwaHa, Ka3axcTaHa H Y36eKHcTaHa TpaHCriOPT ABJISeTCS OCHOBHblM

HCTO4HHKOM

npHXOaHTCA

3BrPSI3HeHI{B BoaIIyxa, npHf4M B HeKOTOPbIX qaCTb cyMMapHoro o6feMa Bbi6pocOB. B

3Ha'{HTeCibHaA

3KOHoMH'ieCKOrO cna4a cyMMapHoe noTpe6neHHe

nPHBeJTO

3HeprHH B 3THX

MeCTaX

Ha ero

.rno

90-x rr. B pe3yfIbTaTe cTpaHax yMeHblUHnOCb, 4TO

K CHHKeHHIO YPOBHA BpeAHbIX BbI6pOCOB, o6yc.noBjieHHbIx

c)KHraHHeM HCKonaeMbix

TOruiHB. XOTS B KpaTKOCpOMHO riepcrieKTHBe 3TO H npHBO,lHT K CHH)KeHHfO HHTeHCHBHOCTH 3arpA3HeHHS ropoacKoro Bo3ayxa, 3KOHoMH'IeCKaSl nenpeccmu o6ycnomHna TaKxce coKpaieHme pecypcoB, BbEieJIAeMbiX Ha 6opb6y C Bper4HbIMH BbI6pocaMH, H CTMan npHMHHOi 3aMeaneHHA npouecca o6HOBneHHA napKa aBTOMo6HJneii, YTO B AoJIrocpoT{HoH riepcneKTHBe aOJDKHO oTpHuaTejibHO CKa3aTbCA Ha MepOrIpHATH5[X no o6ecneTieHHIo KameCTBa ropocKoro Bo3IyXa. Ecni He

ripe,npHHATE

TeXHHMwCKHX

Heo6Xo2aHMbIX

Tpe6oBaHHH

K

mep no H3MeHeHHIO HOpMaTHBaM

HbIHelIHeH

Bbi6poCOB

ITOJIHTHKH

aBToMo6HJEbHbIX

B

OTHOUieHHH

aBnHraTenerl

npH

perHCTpaUHH HOBbIX TpaHCnOpTHblIX CpeACTB, Hane)KacaueMy Texoc6JIy>KHBaHHio HMeiOlIIHXCS napKOB aBToMo6HneH H ,JaeKBaTHbIM TeXHHqeCKHM YCJIOBHAM Ha KaxleCTBO TOnIUHB, TO B Tet'eHHe nocnie,youLux 10 - 15 neT POCT 'Hcjia aBToMo6HJeg H noBbEIJIeHHe HHTeHCHBHOCTH H4X 3KCnUiyaTalIHH npHBexyT K YCTOHr4HBOMY yBeJIH'ieHHIO o6'beMoB Bbli6poCOB Bpe,HbIX BeLUeCTB.

3.

Bo

H36e)KaHHe TaKOrO pa3BHTHA co6b6lTH, B cTpaHax o6cneaoBaHHoro perHoHa Heo6xoaHMo paMKH KpaTKOCpO'IHbIX H CpeaHecpO'IHbIx MeponpHl1THurno yJIly'iueHHio He M)OlbKO KaqecTBa TonnHBa, HO U XapaKTepHCTHK BbI6pOCOB aBToMo6HJEHb>IX aBHraTeneH, nOCKOJIEKy OmepTHTb

JIOCTH)iceHHe JiHUlb OXaHo4 H3 3THX LefieHriaCT BeCbMa orpaHH'eHHbli4 pe3yJIbTaT. KpoMe Toro, onpeAeneHHA

OrIepaTHBHOCTH

nporpaMMa, B 3THX cTpaHaX

H

TBepaOCTH,

C

KOTOpbIMH

mOnHma

pean4H3OBbIBaTbCA

lAB

TaKaq

aOJTKHbI oTfaBaTTb ce6e oP-eT B xapaKTepe H 3Ha'IHMOCTH npo6neMbm

1


2

nlpHmeHeHHe 6o0iee

MHCTbIX MOTOpHblX TOJIUHB 0nA

o6ecneqeHHA

4HCTOThI

B03Xayxa B cTpaHax CpezHeH

A3HH H KaBKa3a 3arpA3HeHHS B03 ayXa, HHame rOBOpA, Heo6xOZWMo o6ecneqHTb HaadeKHbiH MOHHTOPHHr KaqecTBa

Bo3,ayxa. Mepbi no BBeaeHHIO 3arPA3HeHHM

B

aeACTBHe

(H o6eCnemeHHIO BbEnOJ]HeHHA) 6onee )KeCTKHX HOpMaTHBOB eAeTenJbHOCTH OTeqeCTBeHHbIX He4)Tenepepa6aTbiBalowHx

B03AyXa CKa)KYTCA Ha

3aBO,AOB, Ha pexKHme HajIoroo6JIoKeHHS ABH)KeHH31. ApyrHMH CnOBaMH,

Bce

H TapHi4HKaUHH, a TaKwKe Ha opraHH3aLHH Aopo*KHoro

3TH npo6neMLl

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1440

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3aMepOB, co6paHHbIx Ha npoTqxKeHHH Bcero 24-MacoBro nepHoga. ConocTaBfleHHe pe3ynlETaToB no NO2 CBHAeTenJbCTByeT 0 TOM, 4TO coriiacHe aHHbIX KOJIe6JIeTCS OT OqeHL 6JIH3Kor0 COBnazeHHA (10 HlOJIA) AO .ByKpaTHOrO pacxoicAeHHA (15 HIOJA). COnOCTaBjieHHe KOHiieHTpaiIHHi CO H a3pO3oJieri OKa3aJIOCE 3aTpyAHHTeJIbHbIM H3-3a TOrO, 'TO pe3yJTbTaTbI, rIOAyMeHHbie OT 1HgpOMeTa, HaXOAITCS Ha nopore t1YBCTBHTenJTHOCTH ipHMeHABweICS aannapaT'ypBI, B TO BpeMA KaK IIOpTaTHBHBie aHBaiH3aTOpbi ropavo '1yBCTBHTeJIbHee K HH3KHM KOHueHTpaLHIAM.


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2.15

flo BcerH TeppHT0PHI4 BaKy 6BuTio pa3BdpHyTo 20 3K3emrLJIHPOB na~cCHBHbIX IIpo6o0T60pHHKOB. Pe3yumETaTi riocuiea~yioiuero aHlaiIHa 4HjniapOCHEix npo6ooTr60PHHKOB rHpHBOLIATCA B

2.16

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25

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(MKZ/M 3)

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C 12 no 20 Huonsj 1999 r. C 12 no 19 HIojTh 1999 r.

31.6 (60.8) 21.9 (42.2)

5.7 (15.2) 4.9 (13.1)

9.0 (18.1) 19.0 (38.1)

C 12 no 19 HioflA 1999 r. C 12 no 19 HMORA 1999 r. C 12 no 19 MnoAs 1999 r.

7.7 (14.8) 10.8 (20.7) 13.7 (26.4)

4.9 (13.1) 2.5 (6.6) 3.2 (8.6)

43.3 (86.6) 34.6 (69.2) 35.7 (71.4)

17.2 (33.1) 3.2 (8.6) 10.2 (19.5) < LOD 16.6 (31.9) 4.1 (10.9) 17.6 (33.9) < LOD 16.4 (31.5) 4.1 (11.0) 11.4 (22.0) 4.9 (13.2) 10.6 (20.5) < LOD 15.0 (28.8) 4.1 (11.1) 7.4 (14.2) 5.0 (13.3) 16.7 (32.1) < LOD 19.1 (36.7) 3.3 (8.8) 44.1 (84.9) 3.3 (8.8) 15.3 (29.3) 3.3 (8.8) 6.3 (12.2) 6.5 (17.4) 38.6 (74.2) 4.8 (12.8) nopora o6HapyweHHA.

22.2 (44.5) 24.1 (48.2) 18.9 (37.9) 24.2 (48.5) 31.3 (62.7) 33.1 (66.2) 26.3 (52.6) 33.3 (66.6) 22.9 (45.8) 19.4 (38.8) 30.2 (60.3) 8.7 (17.4) 29.3 (58.5) 37.9 (75.7) 26.3 (52.6)

K_7accu(PuKazu,q flpoMeXCyToqHbIri

rpoMexKyToMHbIi / OCHOBHOii MacCHB OCHOBHOiH MacCHB OCHOBHOH MacCHB

IHpoMeKyToxlHblR / OCHOBHOii MaccHB

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

HpoMewKyToRHblii OCHOBHOHi MacCHB OCHOBHOHl MacCHB

OCHOBHOH MaccHB

rlpoMexcyToMHbEii OCHoBHoHiMmaccHB OCHOBHOH MacCHB OCHOBHOi MacCHB OCHOBHOH1 MacCHB

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Tporyap lpuMetaunu: Mlpa

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12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 14

no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 19 no 20 no 20 no 20

HlonS 1999 r. HIoJI 1999 r. HIoJI 1999 r. HIOJA 1999 r. HlonJ 1999 r. HioniS 1999 r. HlO4JI 1999 r. HIons 1999 r. oIJIA 1999 r. H}OJIS 1999 r. HIOJIA 1999 r. HIoJIA 1999 r. HIOJIA 1999 r. Hions 1999 r. HIOnJIS 1999 r. Ha MHnmHapl; < LOD - HHXKe

'MecTo YCTaHOBKH aHanIH3aTopOB HenpepblBHoro

2.17 143yqeHHe

1I IacTHLi,

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aRA c6opa npo6 CBHHUa HcnoEb3OBanJH

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leTbipe

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2.4).

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HCTO'qHHKa BbEieJ1eHHS TaKHX IaCTHU. cDHnETpbl, yCTaHoBJIeHHbie B BIaKy, coaepcaKaiH nblib KOPHHHeBOrO uBeTa, a 3TO aat

OCHOBaHHA npearioJ1araTb, 4TO aaHHbIe xaCTHUbl HMelOT nOLIBeHHoe npoHcxo)KLeHHe,

T.e. He npezacTaBJIoAT co6orl npOgyKTbi cropaHHA.

Ta6jmia.2.4. 17epuo6 om6opa npo6 C9no l2HIons 1999r. C 12 no 14MonA 1999 r. C 14no 16HIonA 1999r. C 16 no 19 HIonA 1999 r.

KOHL4eHTpaLp4U

1Hpooon.wIcumeAbHocmb om6opa npo6, 4ac

BaKy 06beM KoHnzenimpazua npo6, M 3 c6uwna, MKZ/M

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68.5

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0.10

45.5 48

4.9 5.2

0.04 0.06

75

8.1

0.03


26

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qHCTbIX MOTOPHbIX TonIHB Xns o6ecnegeHm qHCTOTbl BO3,ayXa B cTpaHax Cpe.Herl

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90 250

4.2 13.9

72 218

TeqeHme 1 Imaca MaKcHMajibHOe 3HaqeHHe B 8 MacOB TeweH

171

8.7

162

MaKCHMajibHOe 3HaqeHHe 3a CYTKH

109

5.7

75

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He


rlpHMeHeHHe

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B

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Ta6nu4a 2.6. JQaHHbie, nOny4eHHbie C nOMOU4bIO cf,nJbTpOCHbWX Tpy6oK B TaWKeHTe Kniaccu1buKazfuA OCHOBHOii MacCHB

H7epuoo om6opa npo6 C 30

HIOJIA

no 7 aBrycTa 1999

N02 M7lpca 3 (MK3/M )

S02

03

(MKZ/M )

A4..lpa' (MKZ/M )

20.2 (38.8)

3.6 (9.5)

61.7 (123.5)

3

r. OCHOBHOii MacCHB

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C 30

HIOJIA

no 7 aBrycTa 1999

Tpy6Ka

Tpy6Ka

Tpy6Ka

yTepAHa

yTepAHa

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31.8 (61.1)

16.7 (44.4)

26.0 (52.0)

20.3 (39.1)

5.1 (13.6)

56.9 (113.8)

38.9 (74.8)

5.8 (15.4)

32.1 (64.2)

31.2 (60.0)

5.9 (15.8)

64.1 (128.1)

32.1 (61.8)

7.4 (19.6)

20.3 (40.6)

r~. OCHOBHOH MaccHB

C 30

HnonJ

rlpoMexKyTotHblHH

C 30

H1onA

no 7 aBrycTa 1999 r. no 7 aBryCTa 1999 r.

OCHOBHOH1 MaccHB

OCHOBHOU1 MacCHB

C 301H0onA no 7 aBrycTa 1999 r. C 30 IojSA no 7 aBrycTa 1999

r. OCHOBHOH MacCHB

OCHOBHOiU MaccHB

C 30

HIOIm

no 7 aBryCTa 1999

Tpy6Ka

Tpy6Ka

Tpy6Ka

yTepsHa

yTepsHa

yrepAHa

24.9 (47.9)

7.3 (19.5)

40.2 (80.4)

21.1(40.5)

4.4 (11.7)

41.7 (83.5)

43.1 (83.0)

9.8 (26.2)

26.0 (51.9)

40.9 (78.6)

11.5 (30.6)

24.2 (48.5)

29.9 (57.4)

7.4 (19.7)

39.8 (79.6)

22.2 (42.6)

4.1 (10.9)

29.4 (58.9)

20.5 (39.5)

5.8 (15.4)

48.8 (97.5)

40.0 (76.9)

10.7 (28.6)

54.0 (108.0)

43.4 (83.5)

7.4 (19.8)

19.2 (38.3)

30.2 (58.1)

7.3 (19.5)

31.0 (62.0)

45.8 (88.1)

8.1 (21.7)

74.0 (148.0)

35.2 (67.6)

9.2 (24.5)

22.9 (45.8)

r.

Tpoiyap/

no 7 aBrycTa 1999 r. C 31 1o115 no 7 aBrycTa 1999 r. C 31 HIoJ no 7 aBrycTa 1999

rIpoMeXCyTo0HbEI

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r. TpoTyap flpoMeXCyTo0HbEii

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no 7 aBrycTa 1999 r. C 31 H1O1Arino 7 aBryCTa 1999 r. C 31 H1o10A no 7 aBryCTa 1999 r. C 31 1H1O03A no 7 aBrycTa 1999 r. C 31 HlOn0A no 7 aBryCTa 1999 HIOJIA

r. Il7puMe4aHmR: M.ap-l - 'lacTeU Ha MHjinHapA.

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27


28

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6bmia pa3pa6oTaHa MO,aenb B BHAe 3neKTpOHHOHi Ta6JHIbli no KaxcOHi CTpaHe, KpOMe ApMeHHH H KHprH3cKoA Pecny6JIHKH, B KOTOpbEX ,AaHHbIX no napKam aBToMo6HIei nOHOJy-HTE He yaajocE. I4MeiouylocA no KaXc,flOio CTpaHe HH4OpMaUHo BBOaHtHl B 3Ty 3iieKTpOHHyIO Ta6HUy, InpHMeM nOhIHOTa BBOqHMOH HH4opMaUHH 6bma pa3JIHqHOH B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT TOi HnIH cTpaHbI.

3.11

B

nywem cjiy4ae, TOJIbKo no OTAeJfbHbIM Mo(enJISM HMeJIHCb peanbHbIe aaHHbie KaK no

B cnyqae TaHKHKHCTaHa 6bmiH nOflYmeHbl TOJIbKO cyMMapHblie aHpbi no 6eH3HHoBbEM H 4H3enfbHbIM aBTOMo6HnJAM. xiA Toro 4TO6bi npHMeHHTb Ta6nIH4Hy1O Moaenlb K TaHxKHKHCTaHy, Ha ripHmepe Ka3axcTaHa onpeae.JHRH pacnpeRiieneHHe aBToMo6HnreH no MeTbIpeM rpynnam (rpy3oBble aBTOMo6HJH, aBTo6ycbi, nierKoBbie H cneuHanLHbHbie aBToMo6HH), aTaKoe Hx pa3aeneH4e no noTpe6nMeMoMy Tor1HBy (6eH3HH H 4H3enJbHoe TonrHBo). Jns oTexecTBeHHbIM, TaK H no HMIIOpTHbiM aBTOMo6HASM.

Ka2K,aOri

no,arpynnbw

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pacnpocTpaHeHHOCTH 3Toro THna B Ka3aXCTaHe. TaKOHi noixoA co'nH KoppeKTHblIM,

Ha

oCKOJIbKy no

napKy Ka3axcTaHa HMeBJHCb notapo6Hbwe CBeaeHHJ. QaHaKo, COOTHOLUeHHe aBTOMo6HlJbHOMy aBToMo6Haerl c 4H3enJbHbEMH H 6eH3HHoBbEMH aBHraTeJ]AMH B 3THX cTpaHax xapaKTepH3yeTCA pe3KHMH pa3J]H'HHMH.

3.12

B OnOJIHeHHe K xHcjieHHOMy cocTaBy napKa aBToMo6HnieH B o6cJiegOBaHHbix cTpaHaX, B HCXOaHbIX KOJIOHKaX 3J1eKTpOHHOHi Ta6HUbi ripeOcTaBHeHElOCHOBHbIe XapaKTePHCTHKH KaxcAoro THna aBToMo6HIeH aaHHoro napKa, a TaKwKe zaHHbie c pa36HBKori no rojam (TaM, rae OHH HMenIHcb). BaKHeri[uHMH xapaKTepHCTHKaMH, npeIcTaBJISAIIUHMH HaH6oJIbmHH HHTepec, ABJIAIOTCA THn TOnJIHBa H ero pacxog Ha 1 KM npo6era (OHUl onpeAennKoTcA H3roToBHTeJieM aBToMo6HJUI). rlpH flpOBeaeHHH aHYain3a 6buTH r]pHHATbE cneapyowHe qOnyrueHHi: aBTOMo6Hnb pa6oTaeT Ha Tpe6yeMoM ToruiHBe (HanpHMep, Ha 6eH3HHe C MHHHMajibHbIM 014, OrOBOpHHbIM H3rOTOBHTejieM MaIUHHbl); yaenbHblHi


38

rIpHmeHeHHe

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B

npHBe,aeHHbie B aHaniH3e BenHqHHbi,

BO3MO)KHO, OKa3anIHC6 3aHH.CKeHHbiMH no CpaBHeHHIO C 4DaKTHqeCKHM pacxoaoM TOriJIHBa. B HaCTOsAlLeHi rniaBe aJU3 HH3KOOKTaHOBbEx 6eH3HHoB (T.e. 6eH3HHoB C OI/M, paBHbIM 72 H 76 nYHKTaM) nPHASTO paBHbIM 91 o6o3HatIeHHe 76 OTI/M, B TO BpeMA KaK BbICOKOOKTaHOBbLIe 6eH3HHbl (T.e. 6eH3HHEl C 011,

l1YHKTy H Bl6liue) o6o3HaqalOTCs KaK 93

01O.

B TorHBe RAS KOHTPOJTEHOro roxaa paccliHTaHbl C HcriOflb3oBaHHeM cpeACTBa B KH5oMeTpax (HITCK) no rpynnam (T.e. 40 TEIC. KM TpaHcnOPTHoro npo6era oueHOK rogoBoro ,anA rpy30BHKOB, 50 TbiC. KM ,WASaBTO6yCOB, 15 TbIC. KM AAA JierKOBbIX H 10 TbIC. KM ,AiA cneLHanJbHbIX wTO o6sAcHAeTcA OaHHaKOBbIMH X4AIA BCex cTpaH, aBTOMo6HneH). BeniqHHbl nTCK npHHSTbE

3.13

HoTpe6HOcTH

[aHHblIX no OTaej1bHbIM CTpaHaM. Pac'&rTEJ BbInOJIHeHbl =Ana Kaxc,forO THna aBToMo6Hneii a pe3yjThTaTbi CYMMHPYIOTCA no TpeM BH,IaM ToHYIHBa. TaKHM cnoco6oM 6bmH noJ1yqeHbi ,aaHHble o TeopeTHqecKoM noTpe6neH4HH TornHBa B KOHTPOnIbHOM, 1998 ro,gy. Pe3ynbTaTI 3THX paC'I6TOB rpHBEeAeHbl Ha B Ta6ni. 3.2. TaM )Ke npeaCTasneHbl AaHHb1e o noTpe6JIeHHH 6eH3HHa H ZH3e2ThHOrO TOnjiHBa, noJIyqeHHble rpynno alHanIH3a He#Tera3oBoro ceKTopa H3 npaBHTeniCTBeHHEIX HCTO'HHKOB, H OTCYTCTBHeM

rpynnoH

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3.14

OueHKH

KOHTPOJIbHOM

no

Mo2eniH

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no

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3.15 aBToMo6HneeH. aBTo6yCOB

H

A6COJlIOTHbie KOJIHqeCTBa TOIJ1HB 3aBHCAT OT HlpHHATOi BeJIH'HHbi flTCK no rpynnam roay npo6er rITCK COCTaBlAIeT 50 TblIC. KM B roz 2MA

HanpHMep, B KOHTpOJIbHoM

40

TbiC. KM

B roA .nA

rpy3OB4KOB.

BepOSTHO,

BnonHe

MeHSTbCS KaK X,IA TOH HuH HHOH CTpaHbI, TaK H ,LAS KOHKpeTHblIX yCJIOBHi H3 3THX CTpaH. ALiAon

'TO

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KOHTpOjTbHOrO rojAa B KaXCfOH

pa3HbIX THHOB TOnnHB H o6ulee ero noTpe6jieHHe B KaXKzxOM cTpaHe B KOHTpOJIbHOM

aBTOMO6HtIbHorO napKa HanIpHMep, nTCK (aBTo6yCOB)

cTpaHe H OT COOTHOWeHHA (rpy3oBHKOB) = 5/4.

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IITCK no


rlpHMeHeHHe

6o0ee MHCTbIX MOTOPHbIX TOIIJIHB Aim o6ecne'1eHHA A3HH H KaBKa3a

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B cTpaHax CpeaHeR

39

Ta6nmLAa 3.2 Pacxoq TonnfsBa B o6cneAOBaHHbIX CTpaHaX B 1998 r. (B MnH. TOHH) 76 OYL/M 92 OT I'H

CmpaHa

qgu3eAbHoe

mornueo A3ep6afiLOJcaH aaKTHqecKKHeaaHHi6e

0.12

0.35

0.52

PacqeT noMoaeniH

0.50

0.27

0.56

cDaKTHqeCKHe,aaHHbme

0.09

0.35

0.29

Pacv4T no MoaeJ]H

0.57

0.37

0.26

qaKTHqeCKHe AaHHEie

1.6

PacqeT no MoaeJiH

2.2

0.38 1.1

2.8 1.4

0.27 0.40

0.03 0.08

0.90 2.7

rpy3Uw

KamaxcmaH

TaioacuxucmaH 4aKTHqeCKHe

gaHHbme

PaclqT no MoaenIH

TypKMeHucmaH qaKTHmteCKHe aaHHbie

-

0.70

0.63

0.20

0.09

1.8 2.3

0.17 0.65

2.5 0.78

0.64

Pac4eT no Moaern

Y36eKucmaH DaKTHmeCKHe aaHHbie PacqeT no MoaenIH

IAaHHLDI

o pacnpeaenieHHH cnpoca

MeWKAy BbICOKOOTaHOBbIM H HH3KoOKTaHOBbiM 6eH3HHaMH Ha cocTaBnaeT 0,64 MJIH. TOHH.

UMeCTcS; CYMMaPHOe nPlOH3BO4CTBO 6eH3HHa BcTpaHe 3.16

3aBbI6meHHbie

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no moueju 3HameHHA pacxoAa TOrUIHB MaCTI4NHO o6ycnoBaneHbE npHXoaZHnOCb npHHHMaTb H3-3a OTCYTCTBHA CTaTHCTHT4eCKHX AaHHbEX. OJ,HHM H3 HaH6ojiee OMeBHaHbIX ciia6bEx MeCT Ta6JIHqHOrl MOJIej]H ABflMeTCA gonymeHHe 0 TOM, 'TO BCe 3aperHcTpHPOBaHHb6e aBTOMo6HnH aeiCTBHTejEbHO 3KcnC1yaTHPYIOTCA H 'TO 3a ro, OHH npOXOJAT nyTb, PaBHblH nPHHHTOMY IITCK. XOTA B 3THX cTpaHax npaKTHKa CnHCaHHA H3HOIIIeHHbix aBToMo6HJIeH OCTaBJIAeT )KeJiaTb

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B

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3TOH rpynnbi

TaKxce MoAKeT 6blTE o6ycnoBj]eH npo6enaMH B HMe1OIaHXCS .aaHHbIX. KpoMe TOrO, B03MO)KHO, HMeeT MeCTO HeXBaTKa cbaKTHweCKHX aaHHbIX

O

pacxoaax TOruIHBa H3-3a TOrO, 'ITO He YMHTEIBaeTCA TOnIUHBO,

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3.17

Pacxox.eHHiA Mewny BeniHqHHaMH noTpe6neHHA 6eH3HHa pa3Hbix xapaKTepHCTHK, PaCC'IHTaHHbIMH rio Moae.jH H B3STbIMH CTaTHCTHKH, aJA pa3HbIX CTpaH IlpHMeHeHHe 6eH3HHa c 6onee BblCOKHM, qeM Heo6xoaHMo, OKTaHOBblM qHCjiOM He CO3,aaeT pa6oTbl aJnA 605ELUiHHcTBa aBBHraTeJierl. Hcno11Eb3OBaHHe TOnniHBa C MeHblUHM, wmM

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qTO


40

rIpHMeHeHHe 6o0iee qHCTBIX MOTOpHLIX TOruiHB aut o6ecneveHHA 4HCTOTbl Bo3Jayxa B CTpaHax CpeaHef4 A3HH H KaBKa3a

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A3ep6agawaHa H Fpy3HH, rae ,i YKa3aHHbie pacxox<AeHHA 6onee cyUeCTBeHHbl cbaKTHMeCKOe noTpe6neHHe BbICoKoOKTaHOBoro 6eH3HHa npeBbliuaeT 3HaqeHHe, gaBaemoe paCMeTaMH no OHM He CTOJIb BenJiKH ,JIA Ka3axCTaHa H Y36eKHcTaHa, rAe noTpe6neHHe BbICOKOoKTaHOBOrO Mo,Aenf. He MHHHMyM, KaK Bblme, npHBeadHHbie 061bICHeHHS, npearnonaraeMoro. 6eH3HHa MeHhuIie

3.18

rpOTHBopemaT nOPSAaKy BeJIHMHHbl 3THX paCXo)KfeHHH.

3.19

MTO KacaeTCA 4H3eJTlHOrO TOnIJiHBa, TO Ta6JIMHHas MOaeJIb OileHHBaeT ero noTpe6nieHHe aaHHbIe BKJIIOHaeTCA TaKoKe noTpe6JIeHHe

TOnbKO Ha aBTOaoporaX, B TO BpeMA KaK B CTaTHCTH4ecKHe

TOrMHBa BHeaOPO)KHbIMH TpaHCrIOPTHbIMH cpe,-CTBaMH. fIo3TOMy MO)KHO npeInOlO)KHTb, TOnInHBa no CTaTHCTMqeCKOH OT4eTHOCTH npeBbICHT OueHKH cnpoca no MogfeAH. ii ZIeACTBHTeJLbHO, OUieHKH no MOaenJH OKa3bIBaioTCS HH)Ke ,qS AH3enjbHorO TOnHIHBa (3a HCKmIO'eHHeM TaawHKHcTaHa). 3HaMHTenbi6Ho 60niee BbICOKOe noTpe6neHHe aH3eilEHOrO TOrLTHBO, rioAC'qHTaHHoe no AH3eJbHorO

'ITO pacxoaL ,H3efLbHorO

MO,aeJIH, yKa3blBaeT Ha TO, HTO 'HHCJIO AH3eJlbHbIX MaIUHH CHAbHO 3aBbiLueHO. flO3TOMy pa36poc Meway no Mo.enJH, H CTaTHCTHM'eCKHMH gaHHbMMH noTpe6neHiA TOnriHBa, BeiIHxIHHaMH, pacC'qHTaHHb6Mm TaxIKHKHcTaHa B Ta6ji. 3.2, o6ycjiOBneH, cKopee Bcero, 3aBbillUeHHb6M HHCJIOM npHBe,ReHHbIMM ,4AnA aBTOMo6HJIeii C aH3efibHbIMH UBHraTeJ1AMH H zIOriyweHRAMH, npHHATblMH no aBToMo6HIbHL6M napKaM.

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6

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3.21

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41

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3.22

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3.53


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56,000 786,000 176,000

104,000 654,000 237,000

110,000 175,000 487,000

310,500 1,940,000 900,000

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891,000

770,000

304,000

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400,000 900,000 224,000

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Bblpa6oTKa 6eH3HHa B 2005 r. 6a3HpyeTcA Ha KOJfHmecTBe 6eH3HHa, noTpe6nqeMoro B TypKmeHHcTaHe. Bi6ipa6oTaHHEbIi BbICOKOOKTaHOBbIi 6eH3HH (Ta6f. 4.28) paCnpeAeneH no MapKaM C TaKHM pactIeToM, MT06b6 HMeTb zWns npoaa)Km 413 TblC. T/roA 6eH3HHa OqlH 95. rlpeAnonaraercs, 'TO 180 TblC. T/rog 6eH3HHa O111 95 6yneT peaT1H3OBbIBaTECA B TypKMeHHcTaHe, a OCTanjEHaA npO,iyKuHA

4.60

OCTaHeTCA ZJIA 3KcnopTa. KpeKHHr-6eH3HH noaBepraeTcA rHgpooqHcTKe OT DH3H'IecKHe CBOHCTBa 3THx 6eH3HHoB npHBOASTCA B Ta6nI. 4.29.

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Ta6rnu4a 4.29. OM3NM4eCKMe CBOMCTBa 6eH3IHoB Ha Hn3 B TypKMeH6awM AnFi 2005 r.

H7oKa3ameAu Kawecmea 6eH3una 014 OWM JaBsneHHe napoB, Kna 1 CogepxcaHHe cepbI, Bec. MjiH CoIepxKaHHe 6eH3ona, o6. % Co,aepxaHHe apoMaTHKH, o6. % CogepwaHHe oWe43HHoB, o6. %

B

4.61 6eH3HHax

apyrHx

KOMrlO3HUHH

c

0111

O/tIH 95

83.5 76.4

OW/H 93 93.4 83.0

60 70

60 190

60 100

1.4 28 7

1.5 34 18

1.6 39 15

OYI/M 76

95.0 84.9

93 6onBlne 6eH3HHa KaTaiHTHmeCKOrO KpeKHHra, 4eM B

MapOK, H HMeHHO 3THM o67AccHAeTcA noBEiLueHHoe coAepxcaHHe B HeM One4HHOB H

c 6eH3HHaMH apyrHx MapoK, 6oraie KoMnoHeHToM C apoMaTHKH. B BbEcoKooKTaHoBExX 6eH3HHax pH4OpMHHra, nocnie nycKa yCTaHOBKH H3oMepH3aIIHH, a go6HTECA 6yaeT MOiKHO % 2 o6. MeHee coaepwaffi 6eH3ona 20 MJIH. xRonn. nopsAxKa COCTaBsT 4.30, B Ta6nI. 3aTpaTb61 Ha 3TO, KaK nlOKa3aHO cepuI.

BeH3HH

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B

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npHmeHeHHe 6onee A3HH H KaBKa3a

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B03Xayxa B cTpaHax CpeaHeg

87

Ta6jmua 4.30. Hn3 B TypKMeH6awm: npHpocTHble MOLMHOCTM 1 3aTpaTbl B rOAOBOM mCLimCJemHH Ann1 2005 r. BapuaHm c u3womepu3aiue 150,000

rlpHpocTHas MOI.IHOCTb, T/rOa KanHTaHioB2ioweHHs, MJIH. ZJIOnT.

CyMMapHO

20.0

B rOaOBOM HCqHcj1eHHH

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rIpHpocTHble 3KCnLyaTaBLHOHHbIe 3aTpaTbl, MJIH.

0.3

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2.4

BanoBoiH IIpHpOCT, M.IH. aoxI. O6seM 6eH3HHoBoro nyjia, MJIH. n

2,500

3aTpaTbl Ha 1 ni, goinn./ji

0.0008

Bbipa6omxa Ou3eLbHOZO monivuea 4.62

Ha HII3

Ha H13 a TypK,meH6auwu 6 2005 Z.

B TypKmeH6almH 6yaeT BbIpa6aTbIBaTbCs AH3ejbHoe TOIIJIHBO HCKnIUOHTen3bHO

aMH3eibHoro TorIAHBa, npHBeadHHoe B Ta6n. 4.31, OCHOBbIBaeTC31 Ha rPAMorOHHOM AH3enJbHOM TorUTHBe. B AH3eJnbHOM nyne HII3 B TypKmeH6aLlUH Mo)KeT cogepxaTECA OKOJIO 12 Bec. % njrKoro uHpKy.lHpyioLnero ra3oHnr KaTajiHTHqeCKoro KpeKHHra H OT 7 ao 8 Bec. % jierKoro ra3oHrM KOKcOBaHHA. 3TH KOMnOHeHTbi MOA(HO 6ygeT noaaBaTb Ha KOMIayHAHpOBaHHe nocne Toro, KaK Ha Hfl3 nOCTPOAT YCTaHOBKy rHgpooOHcTKH flH3enfbHOrO TOrinHBa. B 3TOM c.rymae coaep)KaHHe cepbl B aH3enJbHOM TOnHJHBe He 6yaeT npeBbeiuaTm 0,05 Bec. %, a ero uLeTaHOBbiH HHaeKC 6yaeT COCTaBJI.STb OKoJIo 49. BbIcoKorO

KaqecTBa.

KatecTBo

Ta6nMLna 4.31. C0H3M4eCK4e cBoIIcTBa A3enbHorO TOnnlBa Ha Hn3 B TypKMeH6awH Aml 2005 r.

HoKa3amemu Kalecm6a )u3enbHOzo momwuea

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TeMnepaTypa BcnbllUKH, 째C [InOTHOCTb, Kr/M3 UeTaHOBE.H HHAefKc

68

829 55.6 1,500

Co,aepwaHHe cepxi, Bec. MJIH KHHeMaTHHeCKaA BA3KOCTb npH

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355 B CeKyHay.

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KanHTaJIOBJlo)KeHHs4 Ha H-3, oleHHBaeMbie

nOBbIUIeHHA KaneCTBa TOnIHB 3a nepHoa nocne H3oMepH3aUHH. KanHTaIOBJIO)KeHHS4,

273

AAs TypKMeHHcTaHa, npeaHa3HatafoTcs ARA

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HaripasBjeHHbie Ha rioBbilleHHe KaqeCTBa 6eH34Ha, raaOT OCHOBHYIO

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3aTpaTbl Ha CHHxKeHHe coaep)KaHHA 6eH3ona H o6wei apoMaTHKH B 6eH3HHe COCTaBAT 0,0013 aonn./Ii npH CYMMapHbIX 3aTpaTax B 3100 TbIC. aofln./roA, BKJIOMaA KanHTaJIoBSIo)KeHHSl, PaBHbie B rO.OBOM HCqHCfIeHHH 4000 TbIC. Aomn. Ha 1113 6yaeT Bbipa6aTbiBaTbcM aH3efEbHoe TOrmHBO, coAep)Kaigee OT 0,05 go 0,15 Bec. % cepwb (B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT CBOHCTB nepepa6aTmxBaeMoR He4H, cocTaBa AH3ejibHbIX #paKuH9

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88

flpRmeHeHHe 6o.nee 4q1CTm6X MOTOPHbIX TOrJMHB A3HH H KaaKa3a

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4.64

BpeMeHH

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B

HIl3

SyxapcKoro

HOBoro,

3KcnnyaTauHlO

B

1997

r.

Heq)Tenepepa6aTblBaiowaA npOMbEnIeHHocTb Y36eKHcTaHa npeTepneiia KpynHbie H3MeHeHHA. EeH3HH Bbipa6aTbElaeTcs Ha HTI3 B Byxape H (DepraHe. 95% 6eH3HHa, Bbipa6aTbIBaeMoro cDepraHcKHM HTI3,

Ha ByxapcKoM Hfl3 B 6eH3HH HHKOraa He ao6aBniuAH T3C. B Ta6fl. 4.32 rlpHB0oaATCB AaHHbIe o pa36HBKe Heq)TenpoAyKTOB no THnaM H o6 HX Biipa6oTKe Ha 3aBogax B 1998 r. HporHo3Hbxe ,aaHHbi6e no Bblpa6oTKe HpO.1yKUHH Ha HnI3 npHBeAeHbI B Ta6ni. 4.33. Bbipa6oTKa HT3 c6aaaHcHpoBaHa c 3THAHpyIoT.

3KCrIOpTOM,

H

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HO

aRA

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BeH3HH OMN4M76 BeH3HH OI/H 93 cyMMapHO PeaKTHBHoe TonuiHBO BeH3HH

-

TonJHsBO

AH3ejibHoe

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-

300,000 313,000 0 313,000 76,000 382,000

1998 r.

(B MeTp4LieCKHX TOHHax)

Hunopm

Oepeaua

Byxapa n. a. 658,750 116,250 775,000 525,000 625,000

- 300,000

1,171,250 53,750 1,225,000 275,000 1,875,000

0 -323,000 10,000 - 313,000 - 76,000 - 382,000

0.67

0.57

0.82

Cymmapnoe nompe6,7eHue 0 1,820,000 180,000 2,000,000 800,000 2,500,000

CYMMaPHO

0.68 OTHoiueHHe B/IJ 17puw4evaNue: n. a. - 2AaHHBIx He mmeeTcA. Ha#Ta H3 AjiTBI-ApbIKa HzeT B 6noK cMeweHHA

0.61

Ha (PepraHCKOM HH3. XApyrHC HeZTenpOayKTMl B AnTbl-ApblKe cOMnayHAHPYIOTCR "Ha MecTe", HO CyMMapHaq BEIpa6oTKa BKmiOioeHa B BBIpa6OTKY $epraHcxoro HM3.

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2005 r. (B

MeTpM4eCKMX TOHHax)

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O'/1 93

BeH3HH - cyMMapHo PeaKTHBHoe TonnlHBO VAH3eCJTHoe ToniiHBO WAi

300,000 313,000

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0 1,085,000

0

300,000 900,000

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518,000 - 67,000

762,000 1,847,000

0 313,000

354,000 744,000

475,000 1,375,000

76,000

600,000

238,000

585,000 9,000

n. a.

n. a.

n. a.

n. a.

923,000 910,000

n. a.

n. a.

n. a.

n. a.

2,269,000

382,000 0.68

720,000 0.56

1,204,000 0.95

873,000 n. a.

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nynia

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Hn3 AnJ 2005 r. HoKa3ameAu KalleCmea

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pUqOpMUHZOM 80 77 60 130

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2.4

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21

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28

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90

npm4eHeHHe 6oniee,4HcTbIx MOTOPHLbIX

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50

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50

47

45

40

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220,000

90,000

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430,000

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0

0

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370,000

320,000

250,000

31.5

102.2

91.8

54.2

6.3

20.4

18.4

10.8

1.7

3.1

2.5

1.5

0

3.1

4.1

1,800

1,800

1,800

1,800

0.003

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4.71

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HH3,

no CyWeCTBy, COfTOCTaBHMli co Cpe2HHMH 3aTpaTaMH Ha YCOBepIIueHCTBOBaHHe

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npozyKTa, a cjieuoBaTeJlbHO, H yBeHqeHHeM BaJIOBOro

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HCqHCj1eHHH 2005

r. AmlH 6eH3HHoBoro nyna C BbICOKHM

04

HpHBO,4SITCA B Ta6ni.

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92

rlpHMeHeHHe 6ojiee A3RH H

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T/roa

230,000 310,000

PH4OPMHHr H3oMepH3auHA

90,000

3TaHon

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360,000

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CyMMapHO B rOaOBOM

106.2 21.2

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93, TO ero Bbipa6aTbIBaeTcs 354 TbIC. T/roa (Tra6n. 4.40). Ta6ftiua 4.39. OMm3wecKme CBOuCTBa 6eH3NHa OL/M 76 Ha ByxapCKoM Hn3 AnlR 2005 r.

1oKa3ame3u Ka,iecm6a 6eH3uHa 0141

77

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CoAepKaHme 6eH3ona, o6. % CozepwaHHe apoMaTHKHI

Bapualm c u3wMepu3az,ue 80

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93 84 60 < 10 2.7

40

KanHTauoBuo)KeHHS B BapHaHTe C H3OMepH3auHer OrpaHHqHBaiOTCA H3OMepH3aLlHH H MeporipHATHAMH no y.iyqiueHHio 6auaHca BOgOpOaa (Ta6n. 4.41).

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lpHpoCTHaM MOI1HOCT6, T/roa

KanHTanOBnoKceHHs, MflH. ,IolJI.

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156,100 277,600

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279,100 376,600

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Ta6nmLla 4.51. TeXHWIeCKme Tpe6oBaHms EBponeucKoro C0o03a (MaKc4ManbHo AonyCTHMbie npeAenbi)

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2000 z. 0.013 r/n

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0.0 15 Bec. % 1 o6. %

42 o6. %

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0.05 Bec. %

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2005 r. HopmbI no 6eH3oJIy ycTaHOBjieHbE Ha YPOBHe He BblEie 5 o6.

% B

OT

2005 r.

H


rlpHMeHeHHe

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101

2 (Hin 1) o6. % B 2015 r. (Hnu paHee). JDaAaaiEbHeruuero CH)KweHHA coaep>KaHHA 6eH3o.maao 1 cornacHm C HblHCIIIHHMH HOpMaMH EC, B03MO)KHO, noTpe6yeTCsl npH6erHyTb K rHlpHpOBaHIUO 6eH3onIa. flpeaejibHO OnyCTHMma KOHLueHTPpaw cepbI B 6eH3HHe (0,03 Bec. % K 2015 r.) nPH3BaHa o6ecnewHTb 3cxeKTHBHyIO pa6oTy KaTaJIHTH'eCKHX HeHTpaiiH3aTOpOB, KOTOpbie MOrYT H aoJDKHbi 6yjyT yCTaHaBJIHBaTbCA, KOJTb CKOPO CBHHeiL nOJIHOCTbEO Hctie3HeT H3 6eH3HHa. ,ZOIA o6weg apOMaTHKH B 2015 r. OrpaHHtHBaeTCA BeJfHqHHOH 35 o6. % B HH3KOOKTaHOBOM 6eH3HHe H 45 o6. % - B BbIcoKooKTaHoBoM. He BbiUie

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%, B

npOT1)KdHHbEl

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4.92

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UX 4XajibCHWHKaUHH "Ha MeCTaX".

4.93

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102

flpHMeHeHHe 6onee qHCTEXX MOTOpHEIX TOnInHB AnX A3HH H KaBKa3a

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o6ecne'ieHHA

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B03,yXa

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B CTpaHaX CpeAHeg

H B fla6opaTopHwo

Spectra 97

Aim aHanH3a no THnaM yrneBOAopoxo B. O6cneAoBaHHe HeKOTOpbIX H3 3THX Aa6opaTopHH H HX 1 ocHauaeHHs nOKa3anO, ITO npeo6ia,aaioiuas 'aCTb o6opyaoBaHHs H3rOTOBjieHa B cTpaHax BOCTOHHOH EBponbl H ABBIAeTCS ycTapeBLleii. MHorHe HCnEbraTejT1bHbie MeTOgHKH, KOTOpbIe B 3anaRHbIX CTpaHaX B HacToAuiee BpeMA, KaK npaBHRo, yxce He npHMeHAIOTCA (HanpHMep, onpe4enefle XaBJIeHHS napoB no Pefqy ASTM D 323 HAH onpeaej1eHHe coaepcaHHA cepEi faMnofBbIM MmeTo)oM ASTM D 1299-95), B 3TOHi na6opaTopHll ABISAIOTCA OpHiHHapHb1MH. HOBO-BuaKHHCKoM HH3 HMeeTCA He TOJITKO na6opaTopHas 6a3a =An npOBezeHHA OCHOBHbIX HHcneK1IHOHHbIX HCnblTaHHri no THI1y MeTO,4HK ASTM, HO H OieHb KpynHaS Aa6opaTopIi3 C HCnITTaTejibHBIMH ABHraTeJ1AMH. 3gecb ygafaOCb Ha6mno;aT6, KaK pOccHHcKHe BepCHH AZBHraTenel ZAU

Ha

4.94

ASTM-CFR Waukesha, npeHasHa3aeHHEiie =As onpegeneHHA O0/ H O/I/M (ASTM D 2699/2700), pa6oTariH B pe,KHMe onpeaeneHHA OH/M. I4MeeTCA no MeHbIueI Mepe geTOHaUHOHHbIX

HCnbITaHHH

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4.95

JIa6opaTOpHs

Spectra

(DegepaLiHH.

97, KOTOpaA npeAcTaBnIAeT co6OA BbICoKOTexHoAorHmHy1O

HCCReI4OBaTeJfbCKY1O 6a3y, ABJIAeTCA tiaCTHblM npeanpHATHeM. OHa pacnonaraeT ]UenIEIM p31,OM HOBblX

npH6opoB 4HpMbE Perkin Elmer: ra3OBbIM xpoMaTorpa4oM - Macc-cneKTpoMeTpoM (FX-MC), aToMHoa6cop6uHOHHbIM (AA) cneKTpo4OTOMeTpOM B KOMruieKTe C rpawTOBOHi relMbO H ,pyrHM ra3oBbIM XpOMaTOrpa4OM (rx). KpoMe TOro, 3,qecE HMeeTCA npH6op HK-cneKTpOCKOnHH c npeo6pa3OBaHHeM Dypbe IROX FTIR 4HpMbw Grabner ans onpe,eneHHs 6eH3ona H apOMaTHiKH (B CyMMe H pa3ejibHO), a TaloKe OKTaHOBblX tHceJl no aaHHbIM 0 COCTaBe 6eH3HHa. Jla6opaTopHs COBCeM HeaaBHO npHo6peJIa HOBbie npH6opbi Perkin Elmer gnA HMHTaUHH pa3roHKH ra3oBoH xpoMaTorpa#HeA (no MeTOxHKe ASTM D 2887) H =A OnpeaejieHHA apyrHx napaMeTpOB. O6'bM BO3MO)KHOCTeH 3TOH nia6opaTOpHH BbIXO[HT 3a npeAenib

HCnblTaHHA

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,L;nA onpeaenieH1iA OH H yrneBoaopoaHoro COCTaBa aHaIH3aTopbi IROX FTIR (IKcnecKTpOCKOnHs C npeO6pa3oBaHHeM cDypbe) pa6oTakOT B CpeAHeBOJ1HOBOH o6JaCTH HK-cneKTpOB. 3ma MeTOAHKa ABJIAeTCA KOppeJIAUHoHHOr4, a He a6CoMnoTHOH, H KaMeCTBo ee onpeaensieTcA MaTpHUeri, HCnORE3yeMorl XIA KaAH6poBKH. 3Ta MeTOAHKa He npHrOaHa UiA onpeaeAeHHs OH4 6eH3HHoB, co,aepX(auuix KaKHe 6bl TO HH 6bEmo aHTHeTHaUHOHHEie Ao6aBKH. (CnexyeT OTMeTHTb, lTO lnpH YPOBHe KOHueHTpauHH CBHHUa, onpeaendHHoro B npo6ax, OtH MoKeT BbEpaCTH Ha HecKO.TbKO ZlecqTblx AoReil =A 6onee BbICOKHX KOHUeHTPauH4i.) XOTA nyHKTa, HO cTaH,apTHbie KOPPeJ1AUHH npeaHa3HaxeHbi nOJIb3y, HX cnezyeT BOCnPHHHMaTb C HeKOTOpY1O HMelOT H FTIR IROX pe3yJIbTaTbi aHaJIH3OB no MeTOgy

4.96

OCTOpO)KHOCTbIO H He cqHTaTE a6cO.TIOTHbEMH.

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KanHGpoBotIHb6e

onpeAeneeHHs CTaHaBPTbEl ZA JiyIeii), AnA npOBeAeHHA

coAep)KaHHA cepbi MeTOaOM ASTM D 4294 (4niyopecueHLUHA peHTreHOBCKHX

KoToporO HMeeTCR npH6op Oxford Instruments Lab X 3000, HCnOJIb3yIOTCS e)KeAHeBHO, npHt4eM pe3ylEbTaTbI npeacTaBJIAIOT co6og cpe,3Hee H3 AByx HAeHTHHHbIX H3MepeHHA. BbUaBaeMbie rIepHOXRHmecKH npOBO,IHTC. o6MeH npo6aMH xns nepeKpCCTHOH npOBepKH c na6opaTopHeri Caleb Brett B HIMeHHO 3Ta xopowxo OCHaU1eHHaA H XOpOIUO 4yHKUHOHHpYIOuaSA BenHKo6pwTaHHl.


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4.101

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104

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cMoji no rOCT'y npOH3BOAHTCA

TPHBHaBnbHbIi

nepexoa Ha MeTOaHKH ASTM He npeacTaBJIAeTCA B03MO)KHEIM. OnHaKO, nepcoHani na6opaTopHri HMeeT aocTaTo4HO BbICOKyFO KBajiHq)HKaUHio, a nonyqaeml6e pe3yEbTaTbl 3IBJiAIOTCA BsnOnHe yAOBjieTBOpHTenbHbIMH.

Mexna6opaTopHaA pa6oTa no KoppeniSiUHH pe3yJILTaToB, nO-BH4AHMoMy, rpOBOAHTCA B KaK B nonJyeHHOH HHopMaauHH, CorJiacHo o6ieMe. orpaHHmeHHOM oqeHb UeHTpanEHOii HCnblTaTejiEHoHi na6opaTopHH, TaK H B AJIMaTHHCKoH Ea3oBoi He#TsHor HccYezOBaTeAbcKoii JIa6opaTOpHH, pa3 B rOa K HHM nocrynaioT npo6F6l 6eH3HHoB H tIH3eflbHbIX TOnnIHB H3 UeHTpaJIbHOH Jla6opaTopHH roccTaHaapTa. 06e na6opaTopHH HcnEbITblBamOT npo6E[, rpeacTaBJIAIOT pe3yJETaTbl H CHHTaIOT HX HpHeMReMEIMH, ecJIH He nocTynaeT HHKaKHX Bo3pa)KeHHri. TaKHM o6pa3oM, y na6opaTopHii, 4yHKUHOHHpylo.iHx

apyra,

HeT B03MO)KHOCTH HH ocyLieCTBJ1ATb o6paTHyIo CBA3b, B3aHMoo6MeHoB TaKOrO poaa (HHaqe roBops, y acneKToM KOTOPaS ABASeTCS BaKHbiM HHX HeT BO3MOHKHOCTH npOBOXHTb o630p TO0HOCTH aHlaH3OB H pacxo=eHHHl capyrHMH nia6opaTopHAMH-yMacTHHKaMH), HH onpeAeenrTb pa36poc pe3yJIETaTOB HcC.eAOBaHHA, He3aBHCHMO 4pyr OT

norpeLIHOCTH H 4pyrHe CTaTHCTHmecKHe napaMeTpbi.

*

cyiUeCTByeT 4XOpM CTaTHCTHleCKorO KOHTPOJIA HeKOTOPbLM aaHHbIM, B AnMaTHHCKOH Ba3OBOA He4TsHOH HccneaOBaTenibCKO ii a6opaTopHH, HcrElTaHHA ay6iHpyioTcA, H Ha 6a3e aByx B OAHOHi

HH

TOMHOCTH

H3

He

na6opaTopHri

H3MepeHHri, XOTA,

nO

HCnblTaHHH BbIBOaAT cpeAHHr4 pe3yjlbTaT.

*

B

BBa3OBOr

AnMaTHHCKOH

He#TSHOH

Hccjiez(oBaTejibcKoH

na6opaTopHH

6bmH

npe;IcTaBneHbLI HeKOTOPbIe cePT4HKaTbi no oTaenjEbHbIM oTrpy3KaM aBToMo6HJiEHorO 6eH3HHa c pa3njHqHbix H3. CepTH,HKaTbm 6buIH BbEHicaHbl B 1998 r. H, no-BHAHMOMy, OTHOCHJIHCb K npHeMOMHbIM HCITbiTaHHAM rpy30B, ROCTaBJieHHbiX XKeJe3HOZ(OPOKHb6MH UHCTepHaMH.

4.102

EcnH rOBOPHTb

o6

o6feM KoHTpone KameCTBa 6eH3HHa, aH3enbHoro, a B03MO2KHO,

peaKTHBHorO TOHnHBa (no pe3yJIbTaTaM HcnibTaHHH,

H

npoBoaHMbiX TOjibKO B a3ponopTax), TO nocnie

AnMaTHHCKOH ]5a3oBO4 He4YTAHOR HccJiegOBaTenbCKOH .ria6opaTopHHTaKoH KoHTpOjin HH B AnMaTEI HH, cKopee Bcero, HHrge B Ka3axcTaHe He npOBOnHTCA. HCnbITaHHB cpaBHHTenbHO Manioro x4Hcjla npo6 6eH3HHa H aH3enjhHFO TonnHBa BbESBHJH HecKojibKo cYiyIaeB CHjibHorO 3arpA3HeHHA. CoBepieHHo C ZpyrHMH KOMIOHeHTaMH TOnnIHBa H TaKHMH MeTHnJUHKYIorieHTa.zeHHnTpHKap6OHHn mapraHua (MMT) H pa3JTHtlHbIMH PaCTBOPHMbIMH KOMnneKcaMH xene3a (THna, HanpHMep, 4eppoueHa), KoTopbe HMeIOTCS B qTO 3,4ecb

OqeBH,AHO,

rocierHpo,aaBKHbIMH

HMeeT

MecTo cMeLIIHBaHHe

Ao6aBKaMH, KaK

T3C,

CBo6oXHOH npoAaxKe.

4.103

BaxuHoe 3HaqeHHe 3TOrl npo6neMbl

;XH3enjbHOrO

TOnInHBa

AaMaTHHCKOH

no

Ba3OBO9

aBTo3aripaBOtHbIM

HeATMHOH

o6yCJIoBjleHo CHCTeMOH pacnpegeneHHs

CTaHUHAM

HcciieROBaTenbCKOH

B

flO-BH,HHMOMy,

AAMaTBi.

na6opaTopHH

riepeBO3STCA

6eH3HHa H

nPOAYKTbI

B

C

OCHOBHOM

MHoroxHcj1eHHbLIMH He6OJTlEUHMH 6-KonecHbLMH 6bIBUiHMH apMerHCKHMH aBTOUHCTepHaMH eMKOCTEIO OT 2000 OT 4000 ii. Bo Bcex cnymaAx pa3gaTOqHElI pyKaB He HaXOaHTCA B 3aKpbIToH Tpy6e, a HaBHT BOKpyr uHcTePHbI c3aaH. Ha pyKaBax HeT MeTajiiHweCKHX 4)HTHHrOB, C noMoiuETo KOTOPEIX HX MOiKHO 6bmo 6bl ruoTHo nogcoeAHHHTb K 3BaHBHbIM FOPJIOBHHaM nOg3eMHbIX pe3epByapoB. [IOCTaBKa TOnHHB TaKHM TpaHCnOpTOM

He TOJThKO

BnOJIHe

MO)KeT rIPHBeCTH

K CJ¶yqaHHOMy

3arPA3HeHH1O

npOJyKTOB

BOaOH,

rPA3L6O H/HnH )ROpO)KHOi nbMlbfO, HO H CO3f,aaT yao6Hyio CHTyauLHiO AnA CMeLuHBaHHSi C XpyrHMH Ba3OBoH He4TSIHOH HccJIefOBaTejIbCKOH npoAyKTaMH nocie OTnpaBKH TOnnIHBa c AnMaTHHCKOH na6opaTopHH.

4.104 AnMaTbi.

rlociienpogaxcHbie Ao6aBKH OHH HCHOJnb3ylOTCS

K TOrLTIHBaM, nIo-BHAHMOMy,

AJS H3MeHeHHA

KaqeCTBa

6eH3HHa H

hBJIqIOTCA nerKo aOCTynHblIMH B

Z(H3eJlbHOrO

TOrluHBa B UIHpOKHX


HmpHmeHeHHe 6onee qHCTm6X MOTOpHBIX TorIHB z1ixo6ecneqeHHi

'IHCTOThl BO3,ayXa B cTpaHax CpeaHeg

105

A3HH H KaBKa3a

MacuirTa6ax, nOCKOJEKy

nlpOBeaeHHbie

HCnbITaHHA CBHzeTeniELCTBYIOT 0 TOM, TITO OHH nonaxaloT B 6eH3HH

)ao ero nOCTaBKH Ha aBTO3anpaBOTlHbJe CTaHUHH. Co3Aa&TcA BneiaTJIeHHe,

HTO

B HeKOTOpOe KOJIH'eCTBO

qo6aBJIsnoT pa3jiH'4Hbie paCTBOPHMbie OpraHHiTeCKHe KOMrlmeKCEl xceiie3a. B O,AHOii npo6e 6eH3HHa C aBTo3anpaBo4Hor4 CTaHUHH SONAR cotepwafKHHe xceiie3a OKa3anOCB HaCTO.JTKO BbICOKHM, 'ITO HeBO3MO)KHO 6bETO BbEIlOJIHHTb KOJOpHMeTpH'ieCKyiO nQOROTOBKY ;ln onpeaeneeHH 6eH3HHa B Ka3axcTaHe

CO,aeP)KaHHA

CBHHUa.

XOTA

BO

H36e)KaHHe

HCTHpaHHS

H

H3Hoca

CTeHOK

UHHiHHApa

KOMnaHHA,

no npegexioiEMy coaep)KaHKio npoAaioiuaA weie3ocouepwcawHe ao6aBKH, BbiaaeT peKOmeHaauH )Kene3a, HeT HHKaKOH rapaHTHH TOrO, 'TO Ha BCeM nlyTH 6eH3HHa ao 3anpaBKH 3TH peKomemaut.H BbIFOfIHAIOTCS HJH '4TO HX He HapyuiaeT KaKoH-JIH6o nOCTaBBUHK 6eH3HHa, nOJTb3yIO0UHriCA go6aBKaMH npH CMeeiueHHH. HeKoHTponHpyeMoe ipHmeHeHHC 3THX BeiaeCTB He)KeinaTenibHo ;awe B aBToMo6HnAx, He HMeIoWHX KaTaJ]HTH'eCKHX

HerTpanH3aTopoB,

a BO Bcex aBToMo6HRAx,

CHa6)KeHHbIx CHCTeMoH

KaTaniHTHHecKOH HeHTpaIH3auHH, OHO CTaHOBHTCS npOCTO BpegHbuM.

Pe3yabmambl ucnblmaHuu Apmeuluq

4.105

rIpo6BE 6eH3HHa, B3ATbwe B ApMeHHH no cxeme cjiyxaHHoro oT6opa, aHajiH3HpOBaJIH B

paMKax npOrpaMMBI Jla6opaTopHbix HCIIBITaHHH B BaKy (A3ep6akuxaH). rlpo6Bi 6eH3HHa H3 ApMeHHH 6paJIn Ha nByX pa3HbIX CTaHUHAX TeXo6CJ1yXKHBaHHS, HaXOnAIUHXCA B BaHaA3ope, rOpOAKe C HaceIieHHeM 50 TbIC. )KHTeneH. B npo6e I 6bmUH BbiMBJieHbl c1egETI CBHHua. 06e npo6bl HMenH BbICOKOe coaep)KaHHe o.re4HHoB (B npeaienax 19 - 23%), HTO KOppeiiHpyeT C HX BbICOKOH HyBCTBHTejibHOCTbIO (KOTOpylO onpe,en3uiH MeTO2IOM HK-cneKTpOCKOnHH C npeo6pa3oBaHHeM (Dypbe IROX), a HMeHHO - 6onBEmori pa3HHueH Mexcay OWH H OT3/M. CoXLepAcaHHe 6eH3ona B gaHHOM perHoHe ABJISeTCA Heo6bi'Ho HH3KHM 93. B npo6e 1 couepwanocb 1,5% MTM3, 'ITO, no BceH BHAHMOCTH, =Au 6eH3HHa 0111 CBHweTejibCTByeT 0 peHTa6ejTbHoCTH HcrojTE3OBaHHA OKcHreHaTOB. XapaKTepHcTHKH 3THX npo6 6eH3HHa

2 6Bmo o6HapylKeHo BeCbMa BEbICOKOe coztep)KaHHe cepbl H oJIe4HHOB, ao6aBoK 6eH3HHa KOKCOBaHHS H 6eH3HHa KaTaniHTH'eCKOrO KpeKHHra. B npo6e I BMSIBneHO 6onee HH3Koe coaepxKaHHe 6eH3ona, npHHeM o6e npo6bl HMe1OT HH3Koe cogepwKaHHe aPOMaTHKH anS AaHHOH oKTaHOBOH xapaKrepHCTHKH. B UejioM, Ka'eCTBO 6eH3HHa ABfSAeTCS npHBOAATCH B Ta6n.

4.52. B

npo6e

'ITO CBH.eTeJlbCTByeT 0 HaiiH'HH

XOpOUHM, H BCe npo6Bx yaOBieTBOPAIOT qLegCTBYIOIUHM TeXHHiteCKHM Tpe6oBaHHAM.

Ta6nu4a 4.52. noKa3aTenH Ka4ecTBa 6eH3MHa 01/M 93, onpegeneHHbIe no npo6aM, B3RT61M B ApMeHMH Jlpo6a1 17po6a 2

flowasamemu Katecm6a 6en3uHa

01111 O1 4/M AaBneHHe napOB, Kfa OnOTHOCTb, Kr/M 3 CogepicaHHe CBHHua, r/n

96.2 84.8

93.9 82.0

49.3

50.3

750.6

749.6

0.00112

0.000075

CorepxaHHe CBHHUa, BeC. MJIH

1.5

0.1

CogepKaHHe Cepbl, BeC. MJ1H1 Co,aepiKaHHe 6eH3ona, o6. % CoflepwaHHe apoMaTHKH, o6. % Co,aepxcaHHe oje4¢HHOB, o6. %

300

1,100

1.4 32.8

2.6 34.7

19.0

23.0

TIO, C T50, °C

67.5 109

57 103

T90, °C

169

179

MTB3, o6. %

1.5

0.0


rlpnMeHeHHe

106

6onee qHCTbIX MOTOPHMX TOrITIJB =A o6ecneqeHAs 'qHCTOTb6

B03ayXa B cTpaHax

Cpe4Hei

A3UU H KaBKa3a 6 Pe3ynbTaTbl aHanH3a AH3e11bHoro TorUHBa, F[PHBMAHHbie B Ta6n. 4.53, bm]H flnoJiyqeHbl C nOMOHibO ToqeIrHbIX npo6, KOTOpbie oT6HpaTIH B ApMeHHH; aHaiiH3 3THX npo6 Bbino.)HsLTia CriyiK6a

4.106

npOBeAeHHA HCnblTaHHii <<HIHTepTeK>> - Caleb Brett, HaxO.AlaSACA B BaKy (A3ep6afigmaH). 06e npo6bl ;H3eCEbHOFO TOr.HBa, B3ATbie B ApMeHHH, yaOBJIeTBOPAIOT TeXHH'eCKHM Tpe6oBaHHxM.

Ta6nmt4a 4.53. floMa3aTenM Ka4eCTBa AI3enbHomo TonnuBa, onpeA,ejniHHbie no npo6aM, B3ITbIM B ApMeHMH Hpo6a I H7oKa3amewu Kawecm6a u3e.ibHoeo mon'nusa 3 838.4 rlJIOTHOCTE, Kr/M 48.5 HHJeKC UeTaHOBbEl 1 1200 CogepKaHHe cepEi, Bec. M.JIH 194 T10, 째C 256 T50, 째C

1lpo6a2 826.6 50.2 1400 200 263 339 345

320 346

T90, CC T96, CC A3ep6afi4caH

To6bEi nonbiTaTBCA OXBaTHTb BeCb A3ep6aggwaH, npo6bl 6eH3HHa oT6HpaJIH Ha HeCKOJIbKHX 3anpaBoqHbix CTaHUXHMX B BaKy, B Ky6e/rlawio6e H B rAHAKe. Ky6arITaluo6a HaXOgHTCS npHMepHO B 225 KM K ceBepy OT EaKy, HeaaneKO OT rpaHHiibi c PoccHeH, a FAHDKa - npHMepHO B 500 KM K ceBepo-3anaay OT BaKy, HeaaJieKo OT rpaHHlbl C Fpy3HeiH. HpO6bi oT6upanH B 1 0-nITpoBble

4.107

,lnA Toro

nojiH3TneHOBhie

KoHTeiHepbi

H

repMeTH3HPOBaJH

ImaCTHKoBoH

IAeHKoH

Oro6paHHble npo6bI nepeBO3HJ1H B yCJIOBHAX oKpy)Kaioiieii cpegbi, T.e. npH qTO

HenJE3A

nPH3HaTb HAeanJbHb6M

Ilpo6bi

cnoco6oM.

nepeBo3HTbE Ha 6onbjiEHe paCCTOHHX no yxa6HCTOfiopore

H3 Ky6bEllMauio6bi

cpa3y

nocne

TemriepaType H r1HpKH

B 6araiKHHKe aBToMo6HAI

oT6opa.

OKOjiO 35CC, npUXOAHJOCb

npH 3THX BbICOKHX

TeMnepaTypax oKpy)Kalouleii CpeAibI, TaK 'qTO MOriiH HMeTb6 MeCTO HeKOTOpi6ie noTepH jierKIx 4paKuHA rIpo6bl He XpaHJiH B xoJIoUALHHiKe, TaK KaK ero He 6buio. nlepeg TeM KaK BCKPEITL ,IA

(nieTyyqHx).

npOBeAeHHA HcnbITaHHm, npo6bl oxnawzajiH B MMHXf. XOTA HeXOTOpoe KOjiHmeCTBo ZerKHX paKWHA Tep3nocb, noTepH npH pa3roHKe no ASTM D 86, IpHBeadHHbie B Ta6t. 4.54, nOKa3bIBaioT, wTO nOTepH npH TpaHcnOPTHPOBKe H xpaHeHHH npo6 6bmH COBceM He3HaqHTeabTHbIMH, nOCKOJIbKy noTepH npH pa3roHKe

BeJiHqHHOH

#paKuHAMH

BaKHHCKOrO Spectra

97

1%

HuH HeCKOJIEKO

6onbEue o6bI'qHO

CB13blB8IOT Co CpaBHHTe.iEbHO J1eTyqHMH

6eH3HHa. fIpo6bl 6eH3HHa, KOTOpbie 6bimH HOKa3aBHb6I

HT13,

B na6opaTOpHH uIsHraTeneHi

HOBO-

XpaHHJIHCEv B CTapbiX 6yTmTKax H3-nO,4 CnHPTHbIX HanHTKOB, a B na6opaTopHH

- B CTapEIX BHHHbvEX 6yTmvlxKax, TaK

YTO MOriiH HMeTb MeCTO aOnOjiHHTeiJbHbIe He6ojiin6He

nOTepH B xo=e BTOpH'qHoro oT6opa npo6.

HeCMOTpA Ha 3TH OTKJIOHeHHA OT Hea,ibJHbHbX YCJIOBHH oT6opa, a TaK,oKe xpaHeHHM

4.108

HCnbiTaHHA npo6 6eH3HHa, pe3yJlbTaTbI, KaK npaBHRo, OKa3bIBaBIOTC OHH ABJIAIOTCA BnOnIHe peflpe3eHTaTHBHbIMH

cTa6HJIbHbIMH, H3

Tero

ciieAyeT,

H 'TO

aAA OiLeHKH o6mero KaYCCTBa 6eH3HHa B A3ep6arlawaHe H

qTO caejiaHHbie BbIBOAbI BrIIOHHe IocToBepHbl.

rlo pe3ynbVTaTaM

4.109

aHJanH3a 15

npo6 6eH3HHa, npeacTaBJIeHHbIx B Ta6.n. 4.54 H

4.55,

MO)KHO ceenaTE cneuyioiiHe Bb6IBObl: *

Co6epoicauue c6unyia:

HH

B

ODHoH

npo6e

He 6buo

o6Hapy>ceHo

noz.aJoILeecA

H3MepeHHIO KOjiH'ieCTBO CBHHua.

*

rae npOBOAHROCL6 HcnEiTaHHe Ha cepy, ed coAepKaHe 6buIo BblICOKHM B 6eH3HHax, nofly4eHHbIX CMeUweHHeM npAMOFOHHOrO 6eH3HHa c 6eH3HHoM pH4opMHHra. BblcoKoe coaepwaMe apOMaTHKH, B03MO)KHO, nOBflHSJIO Ha TOYHOCTb Co6epmXcaHue cepbl:

onpe,aeneeHH

TaM,

cepbi TlaMnOBbIM MeTOaOM.


rlpHMeHeHHe

6o0iee qUCTB6X MOTOpHblIX Torulm14 A3HH H KaBKa3a

107

am o6ecneqeHHA qHCTOThI BO3AyXa B CTpaHax CpeaHer4

*

CocepoicaHue 6e,i3oha.: CoaepxcaHHe 6eH3ona HaxoamHocb B npeAienax OT BbICOKOrO go o4eHb BbICOKOrO, oco6eHHo B XOaOBbIX mapKax 01/1 93 (75% pI6HKa) H O4/11 95.

*

Aunau3 yaneeooopoc)oe: 3TOT aHaIH3 o6Hapy>KHBaeT BeCbMa BbICOKOe coiepxKaHHe o6wer apoMaTHKH (6onee 50 o6. % B 6eH3HHe 0/14 95 H4OT 45 go 50 o6. % B 04eH6 pacnpocTpaHeHHOM 6eH3HHe O4/14 93). ALRiA 3THX TOnHHB 0onwKeH Ha6nmogaTbCA 3HaqHTeiibHLIH Bbl6pOC 6eH3oaia H3 BbIXYiorIHOH Tpy6bl aBToMo6HIH H3-3a TepMHqeCKOFO LaeanKHmHpOBaHHA

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apOMaTHKH

B

aBHraTeJie.

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BbICOKOe

coaep>KaHHe ncesBoKyMofla H ii3oziypona (TeTpa3ameMUHHbiH 6eH3on) B COlIeTaHHH c BbICOKHM

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0

TOM,

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Ha

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Hfl3 nocTynaeT Cblpbe C OqeHb iuIHpOKHMH npeaenamH BblIKHnaHHsl, coaepxcaluee cpaBHHTJeibHO TSDKeJIbie 4paKium. IROX FTIR-aHarnH36I yKa3BbIBaIOT Ha npHCyTCTBHe onieHHOB, HO HH3KHe HOaHbIe qHcnia npo6 3acTaBJIAIOT npeanOjiOXKHTb, 1qTO 3TH pH4OpMHHra C HenpepbEBHOrl pereHepauHeH KaTaniH3aTopa

pe3yJTbTaTbI,

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Ha HOBO-BaKHHCKOM

OTCyTCTBHe

qpyrHx HCT04HHKOB

B npoLiecce nepepa6oTKH, KpoMe HH3KOOKTaHOBoro 6eH3KHa KOKCOBaHHA,

ipOMbITOrO Weinomblo,

genaeT TaKyTO HHTepripeTaLXH1O o6oCHOBaHHOH.

*

fIemyttecmb: Bb6cOKaA TemnepaTypa HaQana KHneHHH CBHaeTe.iThCTByeT O TOM, 'TO 6eH3HHHbI HMe1OT HH3Koe gaBjIeHHe napoB. B HeCKOJIEKHX npo6ax 6eH3HHa ABHO fIpHCYTCTByeT TSDKejiaJl ripHMecb. BepOATHee Bcero, 3TO - KepOCHH, TaK KaK MeCTHaA MapKa aBHaUHOHHorO Typ6HHHoro TonIiHBa TS-1 HMeeT orpaHmmernie no TeMnepaType KOHUla KHneHHA (250°C). AH3enTiHOe TOrTHBO npH KOHueHTpaUHH B 6eH3HHe B npegeiiax Bcero 1 - 2% nO4HHMaeT TemnepaTypy KOHUa KHneHHA 6onee qeM Ha 100°C.

*

OKmauo6ble

xapaKmepucmuKu:

flonytHTE,

pe3yJbTaTbI

onpeqeneHHA

O4/H

,jBHraTeRAX Ha HoBo-BaKHHCKOM HF3 He 6bEo B03MO)KHOCTH, HO COTPY4HHKH

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no #paKUHIM

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B EBpone ,tIA

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pacnpeaeneHHA

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npocToro 6eH3HHa pH4OpMHHra, noJnyeHHorO Ha HI13, B cxeme TOJIbKO

aTMOC4¢epHaAi neperoHKa

H

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onpexaeneHHoe Ha HCfbITaTeJIIbHbIX IBHraTeJIAx, XOpOIuo cornacyeTcs C pe3yjibTaTaMH FTIR-aHanH3a 1A2 MapOK O4/H 95 i O/H 93, HO Ha 5 - 7 HyHKTOB HHXKe, qeM aaeT FTIR-aHanH3 asA 6eH3HHa O41M 76, qTO MOiKHO o6ASCHHTb MajibiM co;epKaHHem apoMaTHKH B TaKHX TOIJIHBax. *

Cma6UwbnoCmb u npo3paltHOCmb monnuea: CpaBHHTeJThHO

BEiCOKOe coAepxKaHHe CMOJI,

ocaxic,aeMbix renTaHOM, ABJ]AeTCA Heo6blHbIM =nA 6eH3HHOB, nOjy'eHHbLIX CMeLueHHeM

lIpAMOrOHHoro 6eH3HHa H 6eH3HHa p4opMHHra, oco6eHHO Korga rIpAMOrOHHbIri 6eH3HH Bbipa6oTaH H3 MaJIoCepHHCTOi He4TH. TaKOH pe3y.JThTaT aHBaH3a MOXCHO 6blIno 6bl o6TbAHCHHTb TeM, WTO BO BCe MapKH 6eH3HHoB KaKHM-TO o6pa3oM nonaaao He6oJibuHe KOjiH'IeCTBa 6eH3HHa KOKCOBaHUH,

npOMbITOrO leIInO'IbiO.


108

rlpHMeHeHHe 6o0iee wHCThIX MOTOpHMIX TOInHB ui o6ecneTeHHA HHCTOT16 BO3X/Xa B cTpaHax CpeaHerl A3HH H KaBKa3a

Ta6J]HIa 4.54.

Pe3y.BTaTmi aHaJIH3a 6eH3HHoB A3ep6aiRawaHa

OcmamoK,

Hlomepu,

%

%

206

1.2

1.8

200

200

1.5

1.5

168

209

209

1.5

1.5

116

169

208

208

1.4

1.6

76

115

166

205

205

1.4

1.6

50

77

117

166

207

207

1.5

1.5

0.7738

54

81

118

163

205

205

1.8

1.2

0.7525

47

75

113

160

190

190

1.3

1.7

0.7660

60

85

133

204

250

250

3.0

1.0

0.7573

49

79

116

161

203

203

1.5

1.5

0.7515

49

76

117

172

213

213

2.0

1.0

0.7735

45

74

115

168

206

206

2.0

1.0

0.7695

57

89

137

207

234

234

3.5

1.0

0.7705

51

85

130

197

236

236

2.0

1.5

0.7700

48

85

135

200

239

239

2.5

1.0

17HOmnoCmb

Ng

npu 20 C,

n/n

uca npo6e HpAbw

KZ/A

1

A-95 TaneTEaKy 17.08.99 A-95 JlyKorin

2

Pa3ornKa, 째C 50% 90% 97%

H. K.

10%

0.7865

55

82

119

169

206

0.7885

53

82

120

167

0.7758

50

77

116

0.7738

52

78

0.7718

51

0.7770

K

K.

BaKy

3 4

5

6

17.08.99 A-93 TaneTEaKy 17.08.99 A-93 JIyKoiIJI BaKy 17.08.99 A-93 A3nerpon Ky6a 15.08.99 A-93 A3neTpon EaKy

7 8

17.08.99 A-93 HanIo6aAA3 neTp. 15.08.99 A-76 JIyKoflai BaKy

12

17.08.99 A-76 flanlo6aAsl3 neTp. 15.08.99 A-76 A3neTpon Ky6a 15.08.99 A-76 TaneT EaKy 17.08.99 A-93 BeH3HH

13

XaHniap 17.08.99 A-76 BeH3HH

9 10

11

rAH,AKa p-H

IRHxgxKa p-H

14 15

XaHiap 17.08.99 A-93 A3neTpon FrHApKa 17.08.99 A-76 A3nerpon rAHzpKa 17.08.99

1lpuMextaHue: Kr/il - KHnorpammOB Ha iiHTp;

H.

K. - TemnepaTypa Ha'laja KHneHHA; K. K. - TeMnepaTypa KOHIja KHnleHHI.


rIpHMeHeHHe 6onee qHCTEIX

MOTOpHMIX TonnIHB An

o6ecneqeHHA YHCTOTbI

BO3,ayxa B crpaHax

109

CpeZHeH

A3HH H KaBKa3a

Ta6nmuua 4.55. Pe3ynbTaT6i a ranM3a 6eH3HHoB A3ep6aiA)icaHa (npo9onxKeHNe) N

Co6epoic.

0LIIH

OIIM

IROX

OI/M

cepbl, eec. %

IROX

D2700

Cooepwc c6uruza,

Co6epmcanue, 6ec. % ApoMamuKa O0etpuHbi

EeU30o3

n/n

7ipJblK Ha npo6e

1

A-95 TaneTBaKy 17.08.99 A-95 JIyKOan I aKy 17.08.99

H/O

97.5

84.1

85.0

0.000

4.8

58.1

5.1

HUo

97.9

84.4

84.0

0.000

5.1

59.0

4.6

A-93 TaneT EaKy 17.08.99 A-93 IyKofl EaKy 17.08.99

0.106

96.0

83.8

82.5

0.000

4.1

53.8

3.3

0.092

95.8

83.6

85.0

0.000

3.8

52.4

3.1

A-93 A3neTpon Ky6a 15.08.99 A-93 A3neTpon EaKy 17.08.99

0.048

95.9

82.9

82.0

0.000

4.2

54.3

3.1

0.057

95.6

83.0

84.5

0.000

4.0

51.2

4.6

A-93 rIamo6a An3

HVO

94.9

82.5

79.0

0.000

3.9

51.0

3.2

HIVo

90.2

79.5

75.0

0.000

3.0

34.4

7.3

0.107

88.3

77.5

67.0

0.000

2.4

31.2

3.6

HIo

90.6

80.4

75.0

0.000

2.6

37.3

8.5

HWo

88.4

78.5

71.5

0.000

2.5

30.7

8.3

FVo

96.0

83.2

ND

0.000

4.4

52.8

4.8

FPO

88.6

77.5

ND

0.000

2.5

32.7

4.4

0.082

90.2

70.0

77.3

0.000

2.8

37.4

5.0

0.100

89.1

78.5

73.2

0.000

2.3

33.8

6.3

2 3 4

5 6 7

8 9

neTp. 15.08.99 A-76 JlyKOHJ EaKy 17.08.99 A-76 rlamo6a As3

z

neTp. 15.08.99

10

A-76 A3neTpon

Ky6a 11 12

15.08.99 A-76 TaneTEaKy 17.08.99 A-93 EeH3HH rFHxAKa p-H XaHn.ap

13

17.08.99 A-76 BeH3HH rfsHima p-H XaHnap

17.08.99 14 15

A-93 A3nerponi FKHXVKa 17.08.99 A-76 A3neTpon flIH3Va 17.08.99

HIo - He onpeaeniSnH.

93 oT A3neTpon, BaKy, zpyroiH na6opaTopHH ("HHTepTeK", Caleb Brett). AHaniH3 noKa3aji coziep)KaHHe cepbi MeHee 0,01 Bec. %. KpoMe Toro, B Jia6opaTopHm "MiHrepTeK", Caleb Brett 6Eiin TaloKe BmnOmnHeH alanH3 Ha cepy HOBI6IX ripo6 04-/M 76 H O4/H 95 OT A3neTpoji, EaKy, KOTOpblH BbLqBHnl coaepiKaHHe cepbi 0,04 Bec. % B 6eH3HHe O4/M 76 H MeHee 0,01 Bec. % B 6eH3HHe Oq/H 95. 3TH HOBLie npo6bi, oTo6paHHEje rlO3)xe, He HMelOT HHKaKoro oTHoiueHHM K npo6aM 1, 2, 8 H 11, 3a HCKflioqeHHeM Toro, qTo MapKH 6eH3HHa HMecTa OT60pa (aBmo3anpaBoxHmle cTaHLIHH) 6bmIH HAeHTHqHLIMH. Hpuwe,iawuR:

rlopor

o6Hapy)KeHHA CBHHiia cocTaBsne-r 0,001 rMn. HOBYKO npo6y 6eH3HHa O/H

aHanJH3HPOBanH Ha cepy

29 Hoq6pA 1999

r., HO TOJIEKO B


110

o6ecneqeHim

HpHMeHeHHe 6o0iee qHCThIX MOTOpHUIX TOnInHB wia A3HH H KaBKa3a

B

4.110

C Ka'eCTBOM

BpeMA CHTyaLxHA

HacToALuee

qHCTOThI BO3,yxa B crpaHax CpegHe}

TOnnHBa

RH3eJThHorO

SBjiAeTcA BniOJIHe

HOpMaJEbHOii. CygA no aHanIH3y npo6 J13eniE.HOFO TorLTIHBa (pe3yibTaTbl KOTOpOrO npeacCTaBfeHEl B Ta6i. 4.56), MO)KHO cgenaTb cnezyioUXHe BbIBOUbl:

*

Kavecmeo oopeHw?. Bce fH3ejiHbHe ToruTHBa HMenuH BbicoKoe iLeTaHoBoe 'Hcjo npH onpeIe.jeHHH ero qepe3 ueTaHOBbEHi HHaeKC no MeTOaHKe ASTM D 976-80. XOTA HOBOEaKIHCKHU HrI3 pacnonaraeTr no MeHbElUem mepe lXBYMA ;XBHraTeJSiMH pOCCHHiCKOrO

xnA

npOH3BOACTBa

*

He H3BecTHO, r1POB09ATCS1 JIH TaM qHCJIO, KaK npaBHIO, CyuxeCTBeHHO npeeBBWaeT HOPMHpyeMy1o

onpegeneiHHA UeTaHOBbIX 'uiceni,

UeTaHOBOe BeiiHqHHY (45 rTYHKTOB). HCnbiTaHHS.

CooepocaHue cepbl. CoaepKaHHe cepbi

500 ro 600 Bec.

npo6neMbl o6eccepMeaHHvi

4HCTHmAITa

am3enbHoe TOnInHBO He CTaHeT

OT

0,05 xo 0,06 Bec. % (HInH OT

Ha HoBo-EaKHHcKOM

noCTynaTb

KaTaIHTH4ecKoro KpeKHHra HAM MeCTOpo=eHHA "14M. 28 anpeJuA".

*

6bEJo HH3KHM -

1 MnIH ). rIO-BHAHMOMY, HeT HHKaKoH Heo6xoaHMocTH

B o6cy=eHHH

HrI3, go Tex nop noKa B

KaKas-HH6yaEb BblICOKOCepHHCTaB 4paKUXi

C

riOKa He 6yzaeT 3aMeHeHa MajiOCepHHCTaS1 He4Tb C

TeMnepamypa 6CnblUbKU. ,;aHHEie no TemnepaType BCrbiIUIKH CBHAeTeiibCTBYIOT 0 TOM, 'ITO B CeTH pacnpegenieHHvA TOnJIHB B AH3ejibHoe TOniiHBO MO)CeT nonaaaTb He6onbmuoe HII3,

HOBo-BaKHHCKHi

6eH3HHa.

KOJIHqeCTBO

BCnbiiuKH Buine 70°C. Y ABYX

"MeCTHbIX"

BCnbiuIIKH HaXOaHmaCb B npe,aeiax

OT 60 uo

KaK

ripaBHnO,

RaaT

TeMenepaTypy

6

npo AH3eflbHoro TonnjiHBa TemnepaTypa 62°C. COTPYAHHKH4 cnyxc6bi "HHTepTeK"

KaK npaBHO, TemnepaTypa BCnbIlUKH npeBbiinaeT 700C. 06e npo6bE C HH3KOH TeMnepaTypoi BCnbllllKH miiH oxieHHl Bb1COKyIO L.BeTHOCTb no ASTM D 1500 (2.0), B TO BpeMA KaK y apyrHx npo6 noKa3aTe.3Eh uBeTHOCTm 6bmI HU3KHM (0.5). 3TO OTMeTHJIH,

EITO,

MOWKHO 06'FvACHHTb nonazaHHeM He6onbiuorO KOJ7H,eCTBa He4¢TH H3 XKeIie3HOaOpO)KHO4 UHcTepHbI, B

*

KOTOpOrU nepeBO3HJH XW3ejibHOe TOrJHBO.

Thzom70MoCmb / BX3KOCmb. 4TO

RoncHo

3TH4noKa3aTenjH ABiIAIOTCS BBICOKI MH (HO He aHOMaJIbHbIMH),

crnoco6cTBoBaTE

OqeHE,

HH3KOMY

ygeiEbHOMY

anHTejEbHOMy CpOKy ciy)K6bl TOnrHBHOrO Hacoca H 4opCyHOK,

pacxoAy

TOnnIHBa

H

pa6oTaioLuHx Ha TOniHBe

CO cTojib cpaBHHTenJbHO B61COKO4 BA3KOCTbEO.

rpy3Ul 4.111

H O'I 93 peanH3yWOTCS Ha BceH TeppHTopHH rpy3HH. seH3HH OH/LI 95 HMeeTCS H peaJiH3yeTCS rjiaBHbIM o6pa3oM B paHiOHe T6HjiHcH. Ilpo6bl 6eH3HHa, KOTOpbie 6pariH B T6HJIHCH no cxeme cj1yMaiHoro oT6opa, aHanH3HpOBanH B paMKax nporpaMMbI na6opaTopHblx

CopTa

6eH3HHa

OI/M

76

HCn]blTaHHH B BaKy (A3ep6airltKaH). XapaKTepHcTHKH 6eH3HHa npHMeHHTeji6HO CHCTeMaTH3HPOBaHbE B Ta6n. 4.57. [lpo6bi 6eH3HHa XN1 H 2 6parn Ha aByx cTaHUHAX Texo6cJIy)KHBaHHm pacno11o)KeHHbIX Ha yni. Mapulana rejiOBaHH. B Tpex U3 ieTm6peX npo6, B3A6TbIX B T6HHcH, 6buH o6HapywKemm cneaOBbie KOHLueHTpaLIHH CBHHIa. CoxepAKaHHe cepii 6buio OqeHb HU3KHM, qTO rOBOPHT 0 nOqTH nlOjnHOM

OTCyTCTBHH KpeKHHr-npOAyKTOB. BbIsBneHo BbECOKoe

coaepwKaHHe 6eH3ona H o6iueg apOMaTHKH.


npHMeHeHHe 6o0iee

4HCTbIX MOTOpHblIX TorLTIHB If

o6ecneLeHH1 4HCTOTbl BO3xYxa B cTpaHax CpeaHeri

111

A3HH H KaBKa3a

Ta6ni4a 4.56. Pe3ynbTaT6i aaran[43a g43en6HorO TOnnMBa A3ep6agAxwaHa

N? nln

ffp3bIK

Ha

npo6e TaneT EaKy 17.08.99 JIyKOHI EaKy 17.08.99 A3neTpoJ1

1

2 3

Th7om-

Co)ep-

HOCmb

o3caHue

Uema-

Pa3eoHKa no ASTMD86,

npu 20 °C

cepbl,

HO6blU

6ec. %

uHdeKc

0.8414

0.06

50.3

218

268

0.8434

0.06

50.0

224

0.8438

0.05

49.5

220

T-pa

K

OmMo0Ho 360'C,

K.

%

C

MM-/c

334

367

96

60

4.47

270

330

365

97

68

4.64

268

320

353

98

72

4.68

260

330

365

97

62

4.25

268

320

354

98

72

4.68

268

324

357

98

70

4.82

268

325

356

98

72

4.88

°C 50% 90%

10%

6CnblZSKU,

BA3Kocmb npu 20°C

BaKy

17.08.99 Hio6a As13 0.8393 0.05 49.2 206 rieTp. 15.08.99 5 A3neTpoJi 0.8440 0.06 49.4 222 Ky6a 15.08.99 49.9 220 0.8427 0.05 6 FaHzma p-H XaHnap 17.08.99 0.06 49.4 220 7 A3neTpori 0.8441 rAHawKa 17.08.99 17pumeaiaHw: K. F. - TeMfiepaTypa KOHUa KHneHHA; MM2/c 4

-

KBapaTHlX MH.JIHMeTpOB B ceKyHAy.

Ta6nmLwa 4.57. Pe3ynbTaTbi aHlanM3a npo6 6eH3IlHa, B3SITbIX B rpy3MI IYoKa3ameAu Kaxiecm6a 6eH3uua

0H/H OTL/M gaBneHHe

napOB, Kda

LroTHocTE, Kr/M3 Cogep,iKaHHe CBHHia, r/ni

Co,aepxaH4e CBHHua, Bec. MJIH 1 CogepicaHHe cepmi, Bec. MInH'

o6. % CogepwaHHe apoMaTHKH, o6. % Co,aepxcaHHe OnIH(¢HHOB, o6. % Co,aepxcaHHe 6eH3ona,

TIO (°C) T50 (°C) T90 (°C) lpuMe4aHue: Kr/M3

H7po6a Ng 1 6eH3uia

17po6a Ng 2 6eH3uHa

Hpo6a NQ 1 6en3uHa

IIpo6aNg 2

OYI/M 76

OLI/M 76

0EI/H93

OLIIH93

89.0 77.9

93.1 79.6

97.7 84.7

95.7 81.7

54.8 727.9 0.0008 1.1 500 2.9 25.0 9.7

48.4 763.7 0.000 0.0 200 3.5 39.9 6.5

51.4 776.8 0.00039 0.5 < 100 4.6 49.9 7.1

769.7 0.00054 0.7 100 4.1 45.4 5.6

57 96 171

76 116 164

78 115 159

75 114 165

6eH3una

47.5

- KHJOrpaMMOB Ha Ky6HmecKHiH MeTp.

Pe3yJbTaTbi aHaiH3a npo6 4H3eiiHoro TormHBa, npHBmeeHHbie B Ta6n. 4.58, 6bmIH rioJIyqeHb6 C floMomEo ToqeqHbix npo6, KoTopbie oT6HpajuI4 B T6H&HcH; aHanH3 npo6 BEmaojHmJa CnyAK6a ripOBeaeHHM HcnElraHHi <<IIHTepTeK>> - Caleb Brett, HaxoaSi1aACS B Baicy (A3ep6aiRAKaH). 06e

4.112

npo6bi .aM3eibHoro TOnIIHBa YAOBjieTBOpAEOT TeXHHMeCKHM Tpe6oBaHKIM. UeTaHoBBIrl H4HaeKC y o6eHx MH3efbHoro npo6 cocTaBJIAeT 6onee 51, qTo cBHZ4eTenJbCTByeT o6 HCKJUOtIHTeiEbHO BbICOKOM KamecTBe TonJIHBa.


112

lIplMeHeHHe 6onee qHCT6IX MOTOpHb6X TorTHBnxm

o6ecneqeHHn

qHCTOThl BO3RyXa B cTpaHax CpexHerI

A3HH H KaBKa3a

Ta6nmL4a 4.58. Pe3ynbTaTbl alani3a npo6

u43enbHorO TOnnusa,

B3RTbIX B rpy3.r

17po6a I 833.0 53.2 800 192 268 321 334

HoKamameAu Kaxiecmea ou3enbHOOo monnusa [JOTHOCTh, Kr/M IleTaHo0bE1 HHaeKC

Co,qepcaHHe cepbi, Bec. MnH-4 T1O, °C T50, °C T90, °C T96, °C

I7po6a 2 826.6 51A4 600 149 251 344 360

7puwewaiue: Kr/ml - KHjOIrpaMMOB Ha Ky6HmecKHHi MeTp.

Ka3axcman B 3 HnA 4 HCCne2IOBaHH6IX npo6ax 6eH3HHa 6buio o6HapyxceHo no=aioweecA 3amepy coAepxcaHHe CBHHLIa, a B OaHO4 npo6e 6eH3HHa (N2 3, A91 Sonar), oKpaUJeHHOii B TeMHO-sHTapHbElr 4.113

UBeT, 6bUJo wKene3a.

6eH3HHa

npHCYTCTBHe paCTBOpeHHOHi oKTaHonOBbEiuaioiueA go6aBmH Ha OCHOBe napoB 6buIo HopMaJIbHbLIM, C TOHi, OAHaKo, orOBOpKOH, tiTO B 6onxEIHHcTBe npo6

3a,H4KCCHpOBaHo

,liAaBneHHe

B 3THX MeCTaX

npHCYTCTBOBanH

CpaBHHTejThHO

BblCOKOKHlnSuHe

4paKuLHH,

XBOCTOBbIe

nOgaiOT 2OBOnTbHO TA)iefloe Cblpbe, BT61KHnaKoLuee B IIIHPOKHX npeeRenax. 1 aOBOJThHO BblCOKHM H cocTaBjiA21o OKOflo 600 Bec. MJIH . 3To He cormacyercsA c

nOCKOJIhKY Ha pH4OpMHHr

CogepwaHHe cepmi oxa4gaeMbiM

6Euio

BirnyCKaeMblx

6eH3HHoB,

KaqecTBoM

B

BO3MO)KHO,

Ka3axcTaHe.

3T0

o6'bAcHAeTcs

HCr[OAb3OBaHHeM cTaporo namnoBoro cnoco6a onpeaeiieH4sA cepm., BHocsAuero CHCTeMaTHMeCKyio H3 ,pyrHX HCTO'HHKOB. YpoBeHb COaepKaHHSA CBHHua oLuH6Ky, H rOCTaBKaMH 6eH3HHa B 3TOT nepHoA4 HanHHHe 3arpA3HeHHS

3aCTaBMSeT npeanoJo.cHT

He6ojTiEujHx

KojiH'ecTB

3THJIHPOBaHHOrO

B CHCTeMe

npoZyKTa,

c6EITa, a

HHOr,a

B AAMaTbI

nOCKOAbKy

H nOjmMemUHBaHHA

pa3peuleH

TORbEO

He3THAHpOBaHHbEii 6eH3HH.

n/n 1 2 3 4 5

Ta6nu4a 4.59. Pe3yJlbTaT6i aHanM3a npo6 6eH3HHa, Pa3eoHKa no cmane)apmy ASTM Co6epvcaHue ilpAbK Ha D86, °C cepbl, npo6e A95 Integrate A91 Chevron A91 Sonar A80 Chevron A80 Sonar

B3SITblX B AlMaTbi

OKmaHo6oe 'ICuro OtlI/M OxLI/I 85.5 96.5

6ec. % 0.065

H. K. 35

10% 57

50% 105

90% 171

K K. 197

0.060

38

58

103

178

204

93.0

85.0

0.009

0.067 0.052

35 40

57 63

114 98

180 163

205 198

92.6 83.0

84.5 77.8

0.019

0.140

34

5

110

172

195

82.7

77.5

RpuMetiaHuR: H.K. - TemnepaTypa HalaJia KHIIeHHA (pa3rOHKH); K.K. - TemnepaTypa KOHUa KHneHHA (pa3roHKu);

HMeeTcA; OU4 onpeaeJMuI no ASTM D2699,

4.114

Cocep. c6uwnia z/7 0.000

0.006 -

AaHHBIX He

Oxl/M onpeaenmmi no ASTM D2700.

Bbuio oTo6paHo TOJhKO ABe npo6El 4H3enAEHoro TonniHBa, pe3y.rIBTaTEI aHaiH3a KOTOpTIX OKa3aJIHCb pa3HRbMH: OAHH - yOBAeTBOpHTeJImHbIH, BTOpOH - HeylOBAeTBopHTejibH,IH. OaHaKo, KaK npaBHJIO, B Ka3axcTaHe BEIlnYCKaiOT aH3elnbHoe TOrlXHBO xopowUero KaxieCTBa c ueTaHOBbiMH 'iHcjiaMH

BEflie 45.


rIpHMeHeHHe 6oniee qHCThIX MOTOHM61X TorLTIHB

SI o6ecneleHHS

qHCTOTbI B03xyxa B cTpaHax CpeAHei

113

A3HH H KaBKa3a

Ta6n14a 4.60. Pe3ynbTaTbi aHanM3a npo6 JVN° n/n

p.7blK

Ha

7l0omHocmb

Co0ep. cepbl,

IjemaHOSbIU

npu

6ec. %

uHneKc

npo6e

TonnMBa, B3.1TbIX B AnMaTbi

AH3enbHoro

Pa32oHKa no cmaH,)apmyASTM D86

20 °C

'C npu omeoue

T-pa ecnbzUUKU

6ec. %

50S ec.

96 6ec. %

360 °C

Ku, °C

BA3KOCmb npu 20°C, MM2c

I

Chevron

0.8357

0.19

36.7

214

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123


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1

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125

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6.11

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6.12

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6.13

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6.28

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6.33

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CnHcoK t4cnOJ1b30BaHHOM n14TepaTypbi Beaton, S. P., G. A. Bishop, Y. Zhang, L. L. Ashbaugh, D. R. Lawson, and D. H. Stedman. 1995. "OnRoad Vehicle Emissions: Regulations, Costs, and Benefits." Science 268, 991-93. Cadle, S. H., R. A. Gorse Jr., T. C. Belian, and D. R. Lawson. 1999. "Real-World Vehicle Emissions: A Summary of the Eighth Coordinating Research Council on Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop." Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 49, 242-55. CCME (CoBeT MHHHCTPOB oxpaHbi oKpyuwaloueii cpeabi KaHaabi). 1998. Environmental Code of Practicefor Light Duty Motor Vehicle Emission Inspection and Maintenance Programs. 2d ed. Ottawa: Environment Canada.

Chang, Thi. 2001. "Journally Speaking: Encoded Fuels." Oil and Gas Journal, 99(17), 15, April 23. Cohen, Mark A. 1998. "Monitoring and Enforcement of Environmental Policy." Draft paper. Nashville, Tennessee: Vanderbilt University. Coninx, P. 1998. Vehicle Emissions Testing: AirCare and Drive Clean, and the Potential of Inspection and Maintenance Programsin Canada. Vancouver, B.C., Canada: Fraser Institute. CONCAWE (CoxpaHeHHe 'HcTOrO Bo3ayxa H B0,R6I B EBpone). 1997. Motor Vehicle Emission Regulations and Fuel Specifications. Part 1: Summary and Annual 1996 Update. Part2: Detailed Information and HistoricReview (1970-1996). Brussels: Special Interest Publications. Dahl, Carol. 1995. "Demand for Transportation Fuels: A Survey of Demand Elasticities and Their Components." Journalof Energy Literature 1(2), 3-27. Faiz, Asif, Christopher S. Weaver, and Michael Walsh. 1996. Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Standardsand Technologiesfor ControllingEmissions. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Guenther, P. L., G. A. Bishop, J. E. Peterson, and D. H. Stedman. 1994. "Emissions from 200,000 Vehicles: A Remote Sensing Study." The Science of the Total Environment 146/147, 297-302. Heyes, Anthony. 1998. "Making Things Stick: Enforcement and Compliance." Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 14(4), 50-63. Hughes, Gordon, and Magda Lovei. 1999. Economic Reform and Environmental Performance in

Transition Economies. World Bank Technical Paper 446. Washington, D.C. McClintock, P. M. 1998. "The Colorado Enhanced I/M Program 0.5% Sample Annual Report." Prepared for the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. Tucson, Ariz.: Remote Sensing Technologies Inc. NESCAUM. 1997. "Northeast Diesel Smoke Testing Pilot Program, Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management." Document MS-13. May. Boston, Mass. NMA (HaUHOHajiHaS accoLtHaijHA aBToMo6HJ1HcToB). <www.motorists.org/issues/emissions/Remote-Sensing.htrnl>.

155


156

IlpHMeHeHHe 6oiee qHCTbIX MOTOPHBIX TOLTiHB WiS o6ecnexeHHA '{HCTOTbI B03Zyxa B cTpaHax CpeAHeri A3HH H KaBiKa3a

Petherick, D. S. E. 1996. Ontario's Indoor, Controlled-Mode Remote Sensing I/M Prescreen Concept. ASME Paper 961699. [BulllleB 3. 1999 r. JHXIHbIe KoHTaKTli; OTBeTb6 Ha <<MoTopHbie TOnIVHBa nOBblluIeHHO14 MHCTOTbD> B

BO[pOCEb

no o6cnenoBaHHIo MHpoBoro 6aHKa

Y36eKHcTaHe.

Ca6HpoB (D. 1999 r. JLHqHbIe KoHTaicrTb; OTBeThI Ha BOnPOCbI no o6cneaoBaHHto MHpoBoro 6aHKa O<MoTopHEie TOnHiHBa nOBbiUIeHHOH 'qHCTOTEI>) B Y36eKHcTaHe.

USTDA (YnpaBneHHe TOprOBJIH H pa3BHTHS CIIA). 1997. "Technical, Economic, and Environmental Impact Study of Converting Uzbekistan Transportation Fleets to Natural Gas Operation." Prepared by Radian International LLC. Y3aBToTpaHc, 1999 r. 14HHopMaixHs o npo6neMax, CBS3aHHbIX c npoeKToM <JlpHMeHeHHe 6onee xHCTBIX MOTOPHblIX TOIIHB AnsI o6ecnetieHHs xHCTOTbE BO3,aXa B crpaHax CpezwHer A3HH H KaBKa3a>>: lepeBoa C OTBeTm Ha Bonpocbi MHHHcTePCTBa oxpaHbi oKpy)Ra1joieH cpeAEi KaHaabl. pyccKoro. MHHHcTepcTBo TpaHcnOpTa Y36eKHcTaHa.

WEEM (Wielka Intemetowa Encyklopedia Multimedialna). 1998. <www.encyklopedia.pLVwiem>. Zhang, Y., D. H. Stedman, G. A. Bishop, S. P. Beaton, and P. L. Guenther. 1996. "On-Road Evaluation of Inspection/Maintenance Effectiveness." EnvironmentalScience and Technology 30, 1445-50.


Joint UNDP/World Bank ENERGY SECTOR MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME (ESMAP) LIST OF REPORTS ON COMPLETED ACTIVITIES Region/Country

Date

Number

Anglophone Africa Household Energy Workshop (English) Regional Power Seminar on Reducing Electric Power System Losses in Africa (English) Institutional Evaluation of EGL (English) Biomass Mapping Regional Workshops (English) Francophone Household Energy Workshop (French) Interafrican Electrical Engineering College: Proposals for Shortand Long-Term Development (English) Biomass Assessment and Mapping (English) Symposium on Power Sector Reform and Efficiency Improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa (English) Comrercialization of Marginal Gas Fields (English) Commercilizing Natural Gas: Lessons from the Seminar in Nairobi for Sub-Saharan Africa and Beyond Africa Gas Initiative - Main Report: Volume I Energy Assessment (English and Portuguese) Power Rehabilitation and Technical Assistance (English) Africa Gas Initiative - Angola: Volume II Energy Assessment (English and French) Energy Assessment (English) Pump Electrification Prefeasibility Study (English) Review of Electricity Service Connection Policy (English) Tuli Block Farms Electrification Study (English) Household Energy Issues Study (English) Urban Household Energy Strategy Study (English) Energy Assessment (English and French) Technical Assistance Program (English) Urban Household Energy Strategy Study (English and French) Energy Assessment (English) Petroleum Supply Management (English) Status Report (English and French) Presentation of Energy Projects for the Fourth Five-Year Plan (1983-1987) (English and French) Improved Charcoal Cookstove Strategy (English and French) Peat Utilization Project (English) Energy Assessment (English and French) Africa Gas Initiative - Cameroon: Volume III Energy Assessment (English and Portuguese) Household Energy Strategy Study (English)

07/88

085/88

08/88 02/89 05/89 08/89

087/88 098/89 ---

03/90 03/90

112/90 --

06/96 12/97

182/96 201/97

01/00 02/01 05/89 10/91 02/01 06/85 09/84 01/86 07/87 07/87 02/88 05/91 01/86 03/86 06/91 06/82 01/84 02/84

225/00 240/01 4708-ANG 142/91 240/01 5222-BEN 4998-BT 047/86 071/87 072/87 -132/91 5730-BUR 052/86 134/91 3778-BU 012/84 011/84

05/85 09/85 11/85 01/92 02/01 08/84 02/90

036/85 042/85 046/85 9215-BU 240/01 5073-CV 110/90

Energy Assessement (French) Elements of Strategy for Urban Household Energy The Case of N'djamena (French) Energy Assessment (English and French) In Search of Better Ways to Develop Solar Markets: The Case of Comoros Energy Assessment (English)

08/92

9898-CAR

12/93 01/88

160/94 7104-COM

05/00 01/88

230/00 6420-COB

Activity/Report Title SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA (AFR)

Africa Regional

Angola

Benin Botswana

Burkina Faso

Burundi

Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros

Congo


-2 Region/Country Congo C6te d'Ivoire

Ethiopia

Gabon The Gambia

Ghana

Guinea Guinea-Bissau

Kenya

Lesotho Liberia

Madagascar

Malawi

Activity/Report Title Power Development Plan (English and French) Africa Gas Initiative - Congo: Volume IV Energy Assessment (English and French) Improved Biomass Utilization (English and French) Power System Efficiency Study (English) Power Sector Efficiency Study (French) Project of Energy Efficiency in Buildings (English) Africa Gas Initiative - C6te d'Ivoire: Volume V Energy Assessment (English) Power System Efficiency Study (English) Agricultural Residue Briquetting Pilot Project (English) Bagasse Study (English) Cooking Efficiency Project (English) Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English) Africa Gas Initiative - Gabon: Volume VI Energy Assessment (English) Solar Water Heating Retrofit Project (English) Solar Photovoltaic Applications (English) Petroleum Supply Management Assistance (English) Energy Assessment (English) Energy Rationalization in the Industrial Sector (English) Sawmill Residues Utilization Study (English) Industrial Energy Efficiency (English) Energy Assessment (English) Household Energy Strategy (English and French) Energy Assessment (English and Portuguese) Recommended Technical Assistance Projects (English & Portuguese) Management Options for the Electric Power and Water Supply Subsectors (English) Power and Water Institutional Restructuring (French) Energy Assessment (English) Power System Efficiency Study (English) Status Report (English) Coal Conversion Action Plan (English) Solar Water Heating Study (English) Peri-Urban Woodfuel Development (English) Power Master Plan (English) Power Loss Reduction Study (English) Implementation Manual: Financing Mechanisms for Solar Electric Equipment Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English) Recommended Technical Assistance Projects (English) Power System Efficiency Study (English) Energy Assessment (English) Power System Efficiency Study (English and French) Environmental Impact of Woodfuels (French) Energy Assessment (English) Technical Assistance to Improve the Efficiency of Fuelwood Use in the Tobacco Industry (English)

Date

Number

03/90 02/01 04/85 04/87 12/87 02/92 09/95 02/01 07/84 10/85 12/86 12/86 12/87 02/96 07/88 02/01 11/83 02/85 03/85 04/85 11/86 06/88 11/88 11/92 11/86 01/94 08/84

106/90 240/01 5250-IVC 069/87 -140/91 175/95 240/01 4741-ET 045/85 062/86 063/86 -179/96 6915-GA 240/01 4743-GM 030/85 032/85 035/85 6234-GH 084/88 074/87 148/92 6137-GUI 163/94 5083-GUB

04/85

033/85

02/90 04/91 05/82 03/84 05/84 02/87 02/87 10/87 11/87 09/96

100/90 118/91 3800-KE 014/84 016/84 -066/87 076/87

07/00 01/84 12/84 06/85 12/87 01/87 12/87 10/95 08/82

231/00 4676-LSO 5279-LBR 038/85 081/87 5700-MAG 075/87 176/95 3903-MAL

11/83

009/83

--

186/96


Region/Country Malawi Mali

Activity/Report Title Status Report (English) Energy Assessment (English and French) Household Energy Strategy (English and French)

Islamic Republic Energy Assessment (English and French) of Mauritania Household Energy Strategy Study (English and French) Mauritius Energy Assessment (English) Status Report (English) Power System Efficiency Audit (English) Bagasse Power Potential (English) Energy Sector Review (English) Mozambique Energy Assessment (English) Household Electricity Utilization Study (English) Electricity Tariffs Study (English) Sample Survey of Low Voltage Electricity Customers Namibia Energy Assessment (English) Niger Energy Assessment (French) Status Report (English and French) Improved Stoves Project (English and French) Household Energy Conservation and Substitution (English and French) Nigeria Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English) Rwanda Status Report (English and French) Improved Charcoal Cookstove Strategy (English and French) Improved Charcoal Production Techniques (English and French) Energy Assessment (English and French) Commercialization of Improved Charcoal Stoves and Carbonization Techniques Mid-Term Progress Report (English and French) SADC SADC Regional Power Interconnection Study, Vols. I-IV (English) SADCC SADCC Regional Sector: Regional Capacity-Building Program for Energy Surveys and Policy Analysis (English) Sao Tome Energy Assessment (English) and Principe Energy Assessment (English) Senegal Status Report (English and French) Industrial Energy Conservation Study (English) Preparatory Assistance for Donor Meeting (English and French) Urban Household Energy Strategy (English) Industrial Energy Conservation Program (English) Energy Assessment (English) Seychelles Electric Power System Efficiency Study (English) Energy Assessment (English) Sierra Leone Somalia Energy Assessment (English) Republic of Options for the Structure and Regulation of Natural South Africa Gas Industry.(English) Management Assistance to the Ministry of Energy and Mining Sudan Energy Assessment (English) Power System Efficiency Study (English) Status Report (English)

Date

Number

01/84 11/91 03/92

013/84 8423-MLI 147/92

04/85 07/90 12/81 10/83 05/87 10/87 12/94 01/87 03/90 06/96 06/97 03/93 05/84 02/86 12/87

5224-MAU 123/90 3510-MAS 008/83 070/87 077/87 3643-MAS 6128-MOZ 113/90 181/96 195/97 11320-NAM 4642-NIR 051/86 080/87

01/88 08/83 07/93 06/82 05/84 08/86 02/87 07/91

082/88 4440-UNI 11672-UNI 3779-RW 017/84 059/86 065/87 8017-RW

12/91 12/93

141/91 --

11/91 10/85 07/83 10/84 05/85 04/86 02/89 05/94 01/84 08/84 10/87 12/85

5803-STP 4182-SE 025/84 037/85 056/86 096/89 165/94 4693-SEY 021/84 6597-SL 5796-SO

05/95 05/83 07/83 06/84 11/84

172/95 003/83 4511-SU 018/84 026/84


-4 Region/Country Sudan Swaziland Tanzania

Togo

Uganda

Zaire Zambia

Zimbabwe

Activity/Report Title Wood Energy/Forestry Feasibility (English) Energy Assessment (English) Household Energy Strategy Study Energy Assessment (English) Peri-Urban Woodfuels Feasibility Study (English) Tobacco Curing Efficiency Study (English) Remote Sensing and Mapping of Woodlands (English) Industrial Energy Efficiency Technical Assistance (English) Power Loss Reduction Volume 1: Transmnission and Distribution SystemTechnical Loss Reduction and Network Development (English) Power Loss Reduction Volume 2: Reduction of Non-Technical Losses (English) Energy Assessment (English) Wood Recovery in the Nangbeto Lake (English and French) Power Efficiency Imnprovement (English and French) Energy Assessment (English) Status Report (English) Institutional Review of the Energy Sector (English) Energy Efficiency in Tobacco Curing Industry (English) Fuelwood/Forestry Feasibility Study (English) Power System Efficiency Study (English) Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Brick and Tile Industry (English) Tobacco Curing Pilot Project (English) Energy Assessment (English) Rural Electrification Strategy Study Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English) Status Report (English) Energy Sector Institutional Review (English) Power Subsector Efficiency Study (English) Energy Strategy Study (English) Urban Household Energy Strategy Study (English) Energy Assessment (English) Power System Efficiency Study (English) Status Report (English) Power Sector Management Assistance Project (English) Power Sector Management Institution Building (English) Petroleum Management Assistance (English) Charcoal Utilization Prefeasibility Study (English) Integrated Energy Strategy Evaluation (English) Energy Efficiency Technical Assistance Project: Strategic Framework for a National Energy Efficiency Improvement Program (English) Capacity Building for the National Energy Efficiency Improvement Programme (NEEIP) (English) Rural Electrification Study

Date

Number

07/87 02/87 10/97 11/84 08/88 05/89 06/90 08/90

073/87 6262-SW 198/97 4969-TA 086/88 102/89 -122/90

06/98

204A/98

06/98 06/85 04/86 12/87 07/83 08/84 01/85 02/86 03/86 12/88

204B/98 5221-TO 055/86 078/87 4453-UG 020/84 029/85 049/86 053/86 092/88

02/89 03/89

097/89 UNDP Terminal Report 193/96 221/99 5837-ZR 4110-ZA 039/85 060/86 093/88 094/88 121/90 3765-ZIM 005/83 019/84 034/85

12/96 09/99 05/86 01/83 08/85 11/86 02/89 02/89 08/90 06/82 06/83 08/84 04/85 09/89 12/89 06/90 01/92

--

109/89 119/90 8768-ZIM

04/94

--

12/94 03/00

228/00


-5 Region/Country

Activity/Report Title

Date

Number

EAST ASIA AND PACIFIC (EAP)

Asia Regional China

Fiji Indonesia

Lao PDR Malaysia Myanrnar Papua New Guinea

Pacific Household and Rural Energy Seminar (English) County-Level Rural Energy Assessments (English) Fuelwood Forestry Preinvestment Study (English) Strategic Options for Power Sector Reform in China (English) Energy Efficiency and Pollution Control in Township and Village Enterprises (TVE) Industry (English) Energy for Rural Development in China: An Assessment Based on a Joint Chinese/ESMAP Study in Six Counties (English) Improving the Technical Efficiency of Decentralized Power Companies Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English) Status Report (English) Power Generation Efficiency Study (English) Energy Efficiency in the Brick, Tile and Lime Industries (English) Diesel Generating Plant Efficiency Study (English) Urban Household Energy Strategy Study (English) Biomass Gasifier Preinvestment Study Vols. I & II (English) Prospects for Biomass Power Generation with Emphasis on Palm Oil, Sugar, Rubberwood and Plywood Residues (English) Urban Electricity Demand Assessment Study (English) Institutional Development for Off-Grid Electrification Sabah Power System Efficiency Study (English) Gas Utilization Study (English) Energy Assessment (English)

Energy Assessment (English) Status Report (English) Energy Strategy Paper (English) Institutional Review in the Energy Sector (English) Power Tariff Study (English) Commercial Potential for Power Production from Philippines Agricultural Residues (English) Energy Conservation Study (English) Solomon Islands Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English) Petroleum Transport in the South Pacific (English) South Pacific Energy Assessment (English) Thailand Rural Energy Issues and Options (English) Accelerated Dissemination of Improved Stoves and Charcoal Kilns (English) Northeast Region Village Forestry and Woodfuels Preinvestment Study (English) Impact of Lower Oil Prices (English) Coal Development and Utilization Study (English) Energy Assessment (English) Tonga Energy Assessment (English) Vanuatu Rural and Household Energy-Issues and Options (English) Vietnam

11/90 05/89 12/89 07/93

--

11/94

168/94

06/96

183/96

09/99 06/83 11/81 09/84 02/86

222/999 4462-FIJ 3543-IND 022/84 050/86

04/87 12/88 02/90 12/90

067/87 095/88 107/90 124/90

11/94 03/93 06/99 03/87 09/91 06/85

167/94 154/93 215/99 068/87 9645-MA 5416-BA

06/82 07/83

3882-PNG 006/83

10/84 10/84

023/84 024/84

12/93 08/94 06/83 01/92 05/86 09/85 09/85

157/93 -4404-SOL 979-SOL -5793-TH 044/85

09/87

079/87

02/88 08/88 10/89 06/85 06/85 01/94

083/88 --5498-TON 5577-VA 161/94

101/89 105/89 156/93


-6 Region/Country Vietnam

Western Samoa

Activity/Report Title Power Sector Reform and Restructuring in Vietnam: Final Report to the Steering Committee (English and Vietnamese) Household Energy Technical Assistance: Improved Coal Briquetting and Commercialized Dissemination of Higher Efficiency Biomass and Coal Stoves (English) Petroleum Fiscal Issues and Policies for Fluctuating Oil Prices In Vietnam Energy Assessment (English)

Date

Number

09/95

174/95

01/96

178/96

02/01 06/85

236/01 5497-WSO

10/82 05/83 04/84 02/85 12/88

3873-BD 002/83 015/84 031/85 --

11/88 07/90

091/88 120/90

07/91 12/92 04/94 06/98

139/91 150/92 166/94 205/98

06/99

213/99

06/99

214/99

02/01 08/83 01/85 06/93 05/88

237/01 4474-NEP 028/84 158/93 --

10/89

103/89

03/94 10/94

--

SOUTH ASIA (SAS) Bangladesh

India

Nepal

Pakistan

Sri Lanka

Energy Assessment (English) Priority Investment Program (English) Status Report (English) Power System Efficiency Study (English) Small Scale Uses of Gas Prefeasibility Study (English) Opportunities for Commercialization of Nonconventional Energy Systems (English) Maharashtra Bagasse Energy Efficiency Project (English) Mini-Hydro Development on Irrigation Dams and Canal Drops Vols. I, II and III (English) WindFarm Pre-Investment Study (English) Power Sector Reform Seminar (English) Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (English) Environmental Issues in the Power Sector: Manual for Environmental Decision Making (English) Household Energy Strategies for Urban India: The Case of Hyderabad Greenhouse Gas Mitigation In the Power Sector: Case Studies From India Energy Assessment (English) Status Report (English) Energy Efficiency & Fuel Substitution in Industries (English) Household Energy Assessment (English) Assessment of Photovoltaic Programs, Applications, and Markets (English) National Household Energy Survey and Strategy Formulation Study: Project Terminal Report (English) Managing the Energy Transition (English) Lighting Efficiency Improvement Program Phase 1: Commercial Buildings Five Year Plan (English) Energy Assessment (English) Power System Loss Reduction Study (English) Status Report (English) Industrial Energy Conservation Study (English)

10/94 05/82 07/83 01/84 03/86

3792-CE 007/83 010/84 054/86

10/96

188/96

EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA (ECA)

Bulgaria

Natural Gas Policies and Issues (English)


-7 Region/Country

Activity/Report Title

Central Asia and Cleaner Transport Fuels for Cleaner Air in Central Asia and The Caucasus the Caucasus (English and Russian) Central and Eastern Europe Power Sector Reform in Selected Countries Increasing the Efficiency of Heating Systems in Central and Eastem Europe and the Former Soviet Union The Future of Natural Gas in Eastern Europe (English) Natural Gas Investment Study, Volumes 1, 2 & 3 Kazakhstan Kazakhstan & Opportunities for Renewable Energy Development Kyrgyzstan Poland Energy Sector Restructuring Program Vols. I-V (English) Natural Gas Upstream Policy (English and Polish) Energy Sector Restructuring Program: Establishing the Energy Regulation Authority Energy Assessment (English) Portugal Natural Gas Development Strategy (English) Romania Workshop on Private Participation in the Power Sector (English) Slovenia Energy Assessment (English) Turkey Energy and the Environment: Issues and Options Paper

Date

Number

08/01

242/01

07/97

196/97

08/00 08/92 12/97

234/00 149/92 199/97

11/97 01/93 08/98

16855-KAZ 153/93 206/98

10/98 04/84 12/96 02/99 03/83 04/00

208/98 4824-PO 192/96 211/99 3877-TU 229/00

10/96 03/84 01/86 07/95 10/98 02/99 05/86 09/88 04/89 06/90 03/90 02/92

189/96 4157-MOR 048/86 173/95 209/98 210/99 5822-SYR 089/88 099/89 115/90 -136/91

04/92 11/96 11/96 12/84 02/87 03/91

146/92 190A/96 190B/96 4892-YAR 6376-YAR 126/91

07/89

--

04/97

194/97

MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA (MNA)

Arab Republic of Egypt

Morocco

Syria

Tunisia

Yemen

Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (English and French) Status Report (English and French) Energy Sector Institutional Development Study (English and French) Natural Gas Pricing Study (French) Gas Development Plan Phase II (French) Energy Assessment (English) Electric Power Efficiency Study (English) Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Cement Sector (English) Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Fertilizer Sector (English) Fuel Substitution (English and French) Power Efficiency Study (English and French) Energy Management Strategy in the Residential and Tertiary Sectors (English) Renewable Energy Strategy Study, Volume I (French) Renewable Energy Strategy Study, Volume II (French) Energy Assessment (English) Energy Investment Priorities (English) Household Energy Strategy Study Phase I (English)

LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (LAC)

LAC Regional

Regional Seminar on Electric Power System Loss Reduction in the Caribbean (English) Elimination of Lead in Gasoline in Latin America and the Caribbean (English and Spanish)


-8Region/Country LAC Regional

Bolivia

Brazil

Chile Colombia

Costa Rica

Dominican Republic Ecuador

Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica

Activity/Report Title Elimination of Lead in Gasoline in Latin America and the Caribbean - Status Report (English and Spanish) Harmonization of Fuels Specifications in Latin America and the Caribbean (English and Spanish) Energy Assessment (English) National Energy Plan (English) La Paz Private Power Technical Assistance (English) Prefeasibility Evaluation Rural Electrification and Demand Assessment (English and Spanish) National Energy Plan (Spanish) Private Power Generation and Transmission (English) Natural Gas Distribution: Economics and Regulation (English) Natural Gas Sector Policies and Issues (English and Spanish) Household Rural Energy Strategy (English and Spanish) Preparation of Capitalization of the Hydrocarbon Sector Introducing Competition into the Electricity Supply Industry in Developing Countries: Lessons from Bolivia Final Report on Operational Activities Rural Energy and Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency & Conservation: Strategic Partnership for Energy Efficiency in Brazil (English) Hydro and Thermal Power Sector Study Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy Systems in the Northeast: A Preinvestment Study Energy Sector Review (English) Energy Strategy Paper (English) Power Sector Restructuring (English) Energy Efficiency Report for the Commercial and Public Sector (English) Energy Assessment (English and Spanish) Recommended Technical Assistance Projects (English) Forest Residues Utilization Study (English and Spanish) Energy Assessment (English) Energy Assessment (Spanish) Energy Strategy Phase I (Spanish) Energy Strategy (English) Private Minihydropower Development Study (English) Energy Pricing Subsidies and Interfuel Substitution (English) Energy Pricing, Poverty and Social Mitigation (English) Issues and Options in the Energy Sector (English) Energy Assessment (English and French) Status Report (English and French) Household Energy Strategy (English and French) Energy Assessment (English) Petroleum Supply Management (English) Energy Assessment (English) Petroleum Procurement, Refining, and Distribution Study (English) Energy Efficiency Building Code Phase I (English) Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels Phase I (English) Management Information System Phase I (English)

Date

Number

12/97

200/97

06/98 04/83 12/87 11/90

203/98 4213-BO -111/90

04/91 08/91 01/92 03/92 12/93 01/94 12/96

129/91 131/91 137/91 125/92 164/93 162/94 191/96

08/00

233/00

08/00

235/00

01/95 09/97

170/95 197/97

07/00 08/88 12/86 11/94

232/00 7129-CH -169/94

06/96 01/84 11/84 02/90

184/96 4655-CR 027/84 108/90

05/91 12/85 07/88 04/91 11/92 08/94 08/94 09/93 06/82 08/85 12i91 08/87 03/91 04/85

8234-DO 5865-EC

11/86 03/88 03/88 03/88

061/86 --

----

11798-EC 12831 -EC 12160-GU 3672-HA 041/85 143/91 6476-HO 128/91 5466-JM

---


-9Region/Country Jamaica

Mexico

Panama Paraguay

Peru

Saint Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Sub Andean

Trinidad and Tobago

Activity/Report Title Charcoal Production Project (English) FIDCO Sawmill Residues Utilization Study (English) Energy Sector Strategy and Investment Planning Study (English) Improved Charcoal Production Within Forest Management for the State of Veracruz (English and Spanish) Energy Efficiency Management Technical Assistance to the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (English) Energy Environment Review Power System Efficiency Study (English) Energy Assessment (English) Recommended Technical Assistance Projects (English) Status Report (English and Spanish) Energy Assessment (English) Status Report (English) Proposal for a Stove Dissemination Program in the Sierra (English and Spanish) Energy Strategy (English and Spanish) Study of Energy Taxation and Liberalization of the Hydrocarbons Sector (English and Spanish) Reform and Privatization in the Hydrocarbon Sector (English and Spanish) Rural Electrification Energy Assessment (English)

Date

Number

09/88 09/88 07/92

090/88 088/88 135/92

08/91

138/91

04/96 05/01 06/83 10/84 09/85 09/85 01/84 08/85

180/96 241/01 004/83 5145-PA 043/85 4677-PE 040/85

02/87 12/90

064/87 --

120/93

159/93

07/99 02/01 09/84

216/99 238/01 5111 -SLU

--

Energy Assessment (English) Environmental and Social Regulation of Oil and Gas Operations in Sensitive Areas of the Sub-Andean Basin (English and Spanish)

09/84

5103-STV

07/99

217/99

Energy Assessment (English)

12/85

5930-TR

11/89

--

04/90

--

07/91

--

10/91 02/93

152/93

GLOBAL Energy End Use Efficiency: Research and Strategy (English) Women and Energy--A Resource Guide The International Network: Policies and Experience (English) Guidelines for Utility Customer Management and Metering (English and Spanish) Assessment of Personal Computer Models for Energy Planning in Developing Countries (English) Long-Term Gas Contracts Principles and Applications (English) Comparative Behavior of Firms Under Public and Private Ownership (English) Development of Regional Electric Power Networks (English) Roundtable on Energy Efficiency (English) Assessing Pollution Abatement Policies with a Case Study of Ankara (English) A Synopsis of the Third Annual Roundtable on Independent Power Projects: Rhetoric and Reality (English) Rural Energy and Development Roundtable (English)

155/93

05/93 10/94 02/95

--

11/95

177/95

08/96 05/98

187/96 202/98

171/95


-10Region/Country Global

8/8/01

Activity/Report Title A Synopsis of the Second Roundtable on Energy Efficiency: Institutional and Financial Delivery Mechanisms (English) The Effect of a Shadow Price on Carbon Emission in the Energy Portfolio of the World Bank: A Carbon Backcasting Exercise (English) Increasing the Efficiency of Gas Distribution Phase 1: Case Studies and Thematic Data Sheets Global Energy Sector Reform in Developing Countries: A Scorecard Global Lighting Services for the Poor Phase II: Text Marketing of Small "Solar" Batteries for Rural Electrification Purposes A Review of the Renewable Energy Activities of the UNDP/ World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme 1993 to 1998 Energy, Transportation and Environment: Policy Options for Environmental Improvement Privatization, Competition and Regulation in the British Electricity Industry, With Implications for Developing Countries Reducing the Cost of Grid Extension for Rural Electrification Undeveloped Oil and Gas Fields in the Industrializing World

Date

Number

09/98

207/98

02/99

212/99

07/99

218/99

07/99

219/99

08/99

220/99

11/99

223/99

12/99

224/99

02/00 02/00 02/01

226/00 227/00 239/01


KESMAu^D The World Bank 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 USA Tel.: 1.202.458.2321

Fax.: 1.202.522.3018

Internet: www.esmap.org Email: esmap@worldbank.org

-

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A joint UNDP/World Bank Programme

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Использование более чистых видов моторного топлива  

Использование более чистых видов моторного топлива для обеспечения чистоты воздуха в странах Центральной Азии и Кавказа (2001)

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