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РОССИЙСКАЯ ФЕДЕРАЦИЯ

Банковская система в переходный период

Документ Всемирного банка Информационный центр в России

финансы и инвестиции


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Lamdany, Ruben, 1954Russia: the banking system during transition. p. cm. - (A World Bank country study) "This report was prepared by Ruben Lamdany and it is based on the work of two World Bank missions." ISBN 0-8213-2754-2 1. Banks and banking-Russia (Federation) 2. Finance-Russia (Federation) 3. Post-communism-Russia (Federation) I. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. II. Title. III. Series. 1993 HG3130.2.A6L35 332.1'0947-dc2O

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6iiH)KafIWHX HeCKOJThKHX neT rocyxapCTBy, B03MO)KHO, no-rpe)KHeMy npH,geTCS cy6cHIwHpoBaTb pAA npegnpATHui. CnegyeT rIPOBeCTH YeTKOe pa3rpaHHqeHie Memxgy 6aHKOBCKOH CHCTeMOA H ipoTSAKeHHH

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nepexgaqH cy6cHgHft rpeXnpHsATM. Cv6cHiiHH mDeIIHHATHMM .UOJIXCHbI nDejiOCTaBJIATbC3 HaHPIMVIO B dbOpMe 6ionxKeTHbIx AOJIKHMI

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a

He JeiiLeBbIX KyeUHTOB. 9TH cy6cHIH 6bITb HaIIpAMYIO CBA3aHbi C 3agaqaMH, KOTOpbIe ripeAIIOnaraeT

peIIIHTb rocyxgapcTBo. HanpHMep, cy6cHWH g,iM roxgep>KaHsA YPOBHS 3aHMTOCTH cJiegyeT rIPAMO onpeeJIATB KaK 6e3Bo3Me3AHylo nOMOUb HJIH HaIOrOBbIe KpexHThI, HaqHcjlgeMbIe Ha OCHOBaHHH IHcjia pa6oTaioumHx.

rIpexnpHArT, npexCaocTaBffAIouge ycjiyrH, TaKHe KaK o6pa3oBaHHe

onpeAejieHHbie HJIH

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3grpaBOoxpaHeHHe,

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nOnIyqaTb npAMbie AOTagHH4.

3aMemeHHe UeiieBbIX KpeEAHTOB 6iOxeTHbIMH TpaHCqpepTaMH yBeIiHtIHjO 6b1I OTKPLITbIU 6o0xKeTHEMH geWCHIHT, B TO BpeMS KaK 60JbIHHCTBO

nporpamm LAejieBorO KpeXHTOBaHHA (DHHaHCHpyIOTCS HeriocpeACTBeHHO UeHTpajibHbIM 6aHKOM H He HaXOA5T OTpaxKeHH B 6IoAxKeTe. OXHaKO 9TO pa3iiHiHie OTHOCHTCA JIH111 K BOHPOCY 6yxraJITepcKoro yteTa H C TOqKH 3peHH5 9KOHOMHKH He ErpaeT 6o0bmHof POJIH B COBpeMeHH]IX POCCHUICKHX YCJIOBH4IX, nOCKOJIbKY H ge()HIHT, H riporpammbi geHTpaJIe3eBaHHoro yeiieBoro KpegHTOBaHHA (iacTm HbIHeIUIHHX


6

KOTOPbIX Ha3lbIBaeTCX KBa3H4)HCKajbHbiM geJH=ToM) 4HHaHCHPYIOTCS HOHHOrO HaJIora 3 . Korxra 3TH cy 6 cHAH 6yxgyT 3a cieT HHqpR43 IIpeAOCTaBJTbTCSA B 6onee oqeBHAHOf 4)opMe, cTaHeT nierqe coKpaTTrb lx

offeM, IOCKOJIbKy 6yA,eT npowe BbISIBHTh H36bITOqHbIe

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6yxreT nerie xe HpaBHTeJIbCTBy 6yAeT ierme OixeHHTb CBOH iTpHOpHTeTbI Ha OCHOBaHHH 6onee OTKpbITOf HH4IopMauHH. (r)

MaKpO3ICOHoMHqecKasI HecTa6HBbHOCTb. (>HHaHCOBaA CHcTeMa PoccI He CMO)KeT pa3BHBaTLCII H rpaT6 CBOIO POJIh B Mo6HnH3aiHH H pa3MemeHHH pecypCOB, flOKa HMeeT MeCTO MaKPO3KOHOMIqeCKaA HeCTa6HJIbHOCTb. BMICOKaS 4H4JJISH H BLICOKHe 3HaqeHHs OTPHixaTe3IbHbIX peaZJUHbIX npOUeHTHbIX cTaBOK ipPHBeJiH K IHCqe3HOBeHHIO q3HHaHCOBbIX HOCpeAHHKOB H3 py6fleBOfi 9KOHOMHKH (AOJiA M2 B BBl riocTeIIeHHo CHH)KaJIacb B TeqeHHe 1992 r. c 6onee qem 70 npOueHTOB XO MeHee 20 HpoieHTOB B AeKa6pe). rlpogeHTHbIe CTaBKH H ueHLI He B AHBapeg o6ecnesHBaIoT HeTKHX CHrHanoB pbIHKa ripH HbIHeLIHeM BbICOKOM H BeCbMa HiOXBHKHOM YPOBHe HH4jiAMiHH. KpoMe Toro, HLIHeIHSAS MaKPO9KOHOMHqeCKaS CHTyaIMA 3aTpygHieT pa3pa6oTKy nOJIHTHKH ARA 6aHKOBCKoro ceKTopa,

HOCKOJIbKY OHa oqeHb oCnoxU{HseT OileHKY 43HHaHCOBOrO rOiOioeHHA 6aHKOB H HX KnHeHTOB. BaHKH H HpeAnpHrHS[ AReHCTBHTejThHO MOryT 6bIcTpo nepexoAHn H3 COCTOSHHS BLICOROH IIpH6bIJThHoCTH K HerIJIaTexcecnoCo6HOCTH H Hao6opoT. CTa6HJIH3HpOBaTh HeO6XOAHMO CHCTeMbI (HHaHCOBOh pa3BirTHA XIJiAI

a ieHTpanbHbIM a1IeMeHTOM Jmo6oi lriOprpaMMbI H cTa6muIH3agHH AOJIKHO cTaTh coKpaiueHme o6igero o6beMa cy6cHAifi nepepacnpeAeLsiembix c1HHaHCOBbIX peCypCoB (TpaHC4epTOB). pOCCHHCKyIO

3KOHOMHKy,

CyiiTeCTBYIOT H ApyrHe CBI3H Me)KXJy MaKPO0KOHOMHIeCKOhflOIIHTHKOM H IIOJIHTHKOf4 4JHHaHCOBoro CeKTOpa. OIIIT MHOrHX CTpaH llOKa3bIBaeT, qTO KPH3HCbI B 6aHKOBCKOfI CHCTMee 06bIqHO rIpOHCXOAI5T B riePHOEbI BbICOKOII HHcnAUJHH HJIH HerioCpeACTBeHHO nocne ocyiIecTBneHHA o6nacTH B peeieHiA rPHHHMaS CTa6HJIH3aLlHH. rIporpammii pa3pa6aTbIBasI B qacTHocTH, H, HOJIHTHKe MaKpO9KOHOMHqeCKOf4 ilporpaMMy CTa6HJI3almi, IIpaBHTeJIbCTBO AOJUKHO OijeHHT6 B3aHMoCBAI3b MeOAy (IHHaHCOBsIMH KPH3HcaMH H HHCJIUAIHe. C Arpyrofi CTOpOHblI, OTCYTCTBiHe pa3BHTOf4 (IHHaHCOBOH CHCTeMbI 3aTpyHAeT OCyiIeCTBneHHe HeHeXHaA H KpeAHTHaS IOnHTHKa nporpaMMbi cTa6HnH3aUHH, IIOCKOnbKy AOnX(Ha CbirpaTB B HeH CBOIO pOJTb. OnbIT HepBoH HOIOBHHbI nIOKa3bIBaeT,

tITO CnO)KHO npOBOAHTb

xKeCTKyIO

AeHeXHYIO

1992 r.

HOJIHTHKy,

IIOCKOJTbKY 9TO MOxceT rIPHBeCTH K HerpeAHaMepeHHbIM pe3yJTbTaTaM, HarIpHMep, K HaKOnIIeHHIO B3aHMHOf4 3aAojDKeHHOCTH ripeAinpHqTHH. 3TO

HanpEMep, HO CyUleCTByeT HHKaKOA pa3HHIEBI Mexgy MaKpO3KOHOMHqecKHMH HIOCfleICTBAmMH porpaOMM iOelieBOrO KpOeATOBaHHA, 4)HHaHCHpyeMbix npaBHTeJIbCTBOM, KOTOphie OTpaxa1oTCX B 6ioAxeTe, H nporpaMM, CDHHaHCHpyeMBEx LeHTpanBHbIM 6aHKOM. 3.


7 HCKa)KeHHe B MexaHH3Me nepeAaqH o6LSicHAeTcS, riiaBHbIM o6pa3oM, 3a,aTOsHbIM COCTOSHHeM (pHHaHCOBOfk CHCTeMB, a TaKxoe OCo6eHHOCTSxMH crpyKTypBI co6cTBeHHocm npexnpK3tTHKI.

B nOpAAgKe o6o6meHllM MO)KHO CKa3aTb, WTO peC)OPMbI B 6aHKOBCKOM CeKTOpe AOJIXCHbI CTaTb qacTbio o6ige9KoHoMHqeCKof CTpaTerHH B MacuiTa6aX BceH CTpaHBI c uexnbio YCOBepiueHCTBOBaHHA pa3MeiueHm pecypcoB. TaKaA cTpaTerHA AO3xHa BKJIIOqaTb paAHoHajiH3aiWio rocyCapCTBeHHbIX CY6CHAHf H ApyrHX TpaHc4JepTOB, oco6eHHO B ceKTope nIpexnpEisIM. IflomHMo COKpfemHi o6igero o6beMa TpaHc4)epTOB, IIpaBHTeJIBCTBO onxcHo o6ecreqWM HHCTPyMeHT HX nepexatH, KOTOpBI61 He OKa3BIBaji 6b BJHAHHA Ha CHCTMey geH H He CTHpaIi pa3rpaHHteHHA Me,CKy 3aMaMmH H 6e3Bo3Me3xfHoH riOMOUThIO. PeajrH3yeMas B HacToAmee BpeMS rporpamma rIpHBaTH3aUHH, KOTOPa5 riomoraeT teTKO onpeAejiHm rpaBa co6CTBeHHbocTH, AORKHa nocTeneHHO paCUpIHPTbCX C TeM, qTro6bI OXBaTHTb HOBI6e OTpaCJIH, HanpHMep, CeJIbCKOe X03AACTBO H KpyrIHbIe rocygapCTBeHHbie IpernpHTHA. IIpaBHTeJTBCTBO TaK)Kxce ORHO C03XaTb COOTBeTCTBY1OUIHe

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8

OrIHCAHHE POCCHRCKOR BAHKOBCKOfR CHCEMb: COBPEMEHHOE COCTOSAHHE

3.

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6aHKOBCKO4 crcTeM6I OcHoBHoe BHHMaHHe yejmeTcsA ee OCHOBHbIM HHCTHTyTaM, HX opraHH3aIWH H OCHOBHBIM BHAaM Ae3TreRbHOcTx a TaKxe OCHOBHMIM rIpo6eMaM 6aHKOBCKOff cHcTeMU. PacCMaTpHBaeTCAI geHeXcHO-KpeAHTHas nOH'rHKa UeHTpaJmHoro 6aHKa PoccHm5. AaJIee B riaBe paCCMaTpiBeTCSI AesTeJMHOCcTh KOmmepYecKUX 6aHKoB H npexnaraeTCA KnaccH4)HKaimA 4yHKUHOHHpyOWUX B PoccHH 6aHKOB 11o HX 3HaxIMocTH. B 3auniowemue aHaJI3HpyIOTCA cTpyKTypa H AeeSTejHoHct Tpex KpynHe3umHx CiIeixHaHM3HPOBaHHbIX 6aHKoB C6ep6aHKa, PocceJMxo36aHKa H flpoMcTpoA6aHKa. 4.

AeHexHo-Kpe,aHTHas IoJI0THKa UeHTpaJIbHoro 6aHKa Poccin

6aHK nPoBo0HT yqeTHy)o riomnTKy, KoTOPaS TeopeTwiecKH LeHTpajibHM6 IIo3BOnJ1eT 6aHKam 6paTm B3aAMbm CpeACTBa Ha onpegeeHH6EIX yCJIOBH3X. YqeTHas CTaBKa KpeAHToB UeHTpa&rHoro 6aHKa KOmmepYecKmm 6aHKaM B HIOHe 1992 r. 6LTIa nOBbMIeHa c 40 Ao 80 npoijeHToB, a B MapTe 1993 r. Ao 100 npoileHTOB. B yCJIOBsX HH4)JISW, cocrawmoMefi 6onee 1000 nIpoLeHToB, Hemm3S oxcHaTb, 1TO yieTHas cTaBKa B pa3Mepe 80-100 IIpOixeHTOB Mo)KeT IIPHBeCTH K pawioHHpoBaHH1O B HC11H0J3OBaiHH pecypcoB. Ha ilpaKTHIKe y-IeTHas no1JHHKa HCn1JTb3YeTCA riOTH HCKJUoqHTeJTbHO B KaqeCTBe KaHana peaRMarH nlporpaMMbI pacripexejieHAs iAeHTpaMU3OBaHHLIX KpeARToB.

3.2

B 1992 r. 1jeHTpaRLHmrIA 6aHK BbiIaTHj OKOjiO 2,8 TPH3IJ¶HOHa py6nek B BHAe iAeHTpaAH3OBaHHbIx iejieBLIx KpeAHToB, ITO cocTaBno 60Onee 95 npo0LeHTOB o6uwero o6feMa KpegHTOB, ripexocTaBneHHbIx KoMMmepYeCKHM 6aHKaM, H 6onee IIOJIOBHHbI BceH

3.3

B paMKax 9THX ripOrpaMM 3aeMUlHKH UeHTpaJTHHbIM 6aHKoM C nIpaBrTemTrCTBOM, KpeAIHTOBaHHSI o6romapHBanm o6seM H yCJIoBHA H MecTHbIMH BnacTIMm. B iXenoM 6aHKu urpainu HcKJuO'TejbHo rIacCHBHY0 poJM 1POBOAHHKa 4HHaHCoBBIx pecypCoB. Ta6mnxa 3.1 OMKa3bIBaeT, qTo no0IqT Bce 4)HHaHCOBbIe pecypcwI 6bIH npeAocraBneHbI B paMKaX qeTmipex riporpaMM: ceJIbcKoe X03SdUCTB0 (46 (18 npogeHTOB), TonJIHBHo-3HepreTH'ecKCfK 1ipo0LeHTOB), IIpoMb11ljieHHbIe npeAnpHrrHs 6 ceKTop (14 IpoijeHToB) HI TeppHTOPHI KpakHero ceBepa ( 1 nIpogeHToB) . H porpamma AiLA cenBcKoro X03AACTBa 6uIna HanpaBjeHa Ha BHU>I gereJIHOCTH, B CaMOM IHPOKOM CMbICne CBI3aHHbie C CeJThCKHM X03SACTBOM, H BKJIO'lana ieJmlIk Ha6op HHCTpyMeHTOB OT 3aOiMOB, npeXocTaBneHHBIx KpeAHTOB 4)epMepaM H 3arOTOBHTejiBHbIM opramH3aiuM AeHeXKHO

4.

Crossing

MKCnIaHCHH 3a yKa3aHHIA riepRoA.

OIICaHHe 3BOJIIOLWH 6aHK0BCK0A CHCTeMbi c 1987 r. nlpHBOATCI B: Russian Economic Reform: the Threshold of Structural Change, BceMHpHpni 6aHK, 1992 r, cTp. 106, BCTaBKa 7-1.

araKTOpbI, OKa3MIBaioUxHe BJNHSHHe Ha daHKOBCKYIO CHCTeMy, flOAO6HO paCCMOTpeHbI B F X,pyre rnaBe 4. OpraHK3aAKu H CDyHKIHOHHpOBaHKe IOHTpaJmbHOro 6aHKa, OrIHCaHLI B pSAe AOKJaaOB, HeAaBHO BbIflyUqeHHbix MexcAyHapoAHbim BanIOTHbYM C4OHAOM. 5.

6.

AaHHbLi pa3.en OcHoBaH Ha H3AaHHH "Explicit and Implicit Subsidies and Financial Transfers

to Enertprises: a Strategy for Downsizing and Reform", MexyHapoAHbIM BIioTHLiM 4COHAOM B MapTe 1993 r.

BbmlyueHHoM

BceMHpHBIM 6aHKoM H


9

arpapHoW npoMbHnjIeHHocTH H TpaKTOpHbIM 3aBogaM. HIOKBapTanbHoe npegocTasneHHe peCypCOB B PaMKaX 9THX T1pOrpaMM B 1992 r. cocTaBHJIo npH6JI13HTenTHO 100,200, 700 H 1 800 MHjijmapXoB py6neA7 . 3TH }1H pbI CO BCef oqeBHAHOCThio nOKa3bIBaioT, ro lpOrpaMMBI geiieBorO KpeXHTOBaHHA ABJIS3HCB OCHOBHbIM HHCTpyMeHTOM HOMITHKH B 1992 r.

geHexHOA

3.4

ILHHpOKoe HCHOJh3OBaHHIe nporpaMM ieZieBoro KpeXHTOBaHHA 3aMeAJAeT peciopMy 6aHKoBCKoro ceKTOpa,nOCKOJIbKY TaKoe KpeAHTOBaHHe He Tpe6yeTpa3pa6oTKH 4opM 6aHKOBCKHX onepaLHfl, 06MFqH0 CBS3aHHbIX C 6aHKOBCKHM KpeAHToBaHHeM, a HMeHHO, flpHBJIeqeHHSAgenO34TOB H OgeHKH KpeXHTa. 9TH KpegHThI nepepacnpegenunH

CpeACTBa KOHKpeTHLIM npeAnpHAmHm, perHOHaM H IrIOOTpaCJAM 9KOHOMHKH, H HX pacripexenieHHe oTpa)Kanjo cKopee cnoco6HOcTH 3aeMHKoB ,o6HBacm AJIA ce6s

npeHmywecrBa H Hx nomiHTHqeCKoe BJISHHHe, He Y3HT6IBaA 3KOHOMHqeCKOff HJIH 4DHHaHCOBO Igejiecoo6pa3HocTK. B;onee Toro, nporpaMmmi geneBoro geHTpaniHosaHHoro KpeAHTOBaHHS1 B TOM BHAIe, B KaKOM oH0 OCyigeCTBAISOTCS B HaCTOsAIee BpeMs, oCJIa6JIIOT BO3MO)KHOCTH UeHTpaJEbHoro 6aHKa KOHTpOJIHpOBaTb KpeAHTHyO 3KCriaHCIO, 3aTpy=OT nEo6bIe riormrimK cTa6HJIH3HpOBaTb sKOHOMHKY H 3agepXKHBaIOT nepecrpokKy npeAnpHA1HH.

Ta6nrHna 3.1 rIporpaMMII6ieneBoro KpegHToBaHHs, 1992

KpexHmI UIS CeJbCKoe X03SIICTBO TonnrHBHo-9HepreTHmqecKH CeBepHie pafOHbI HpomimiuneHHocm Ilpoqee

KoMconIeKc

rocy,apcTBeHHMe Kpe,HThI 06opoTHIIe cpegcrBa KanTa.noBnoxceHHAs H nporpaMMBI KOHBepcHH

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2800

18,0

1300

8,3

400

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300

1,9

500 300

3,2 2,0

780 600 180

5,0 3,8 1,2

3580

23,0

7.

KpoMe sToro, B 1992 r. 60nIee 800 MjUIHazPAOB py6.neA iXeaieBbix KpeANTOB 6bi6o BbmaHO B paMKaX Tpex [pOrpaMM rocyAapcTBeHHoro KpeANTOBaHH3I, KOTOpmOe 4jiHaHRCHpoBanHC6 N3 6oAxpKeTa. 3m pOprpaMMbI 6wbLI H3aeiiebIL B nepByYo oqepeAb Ha OKa3aHme noMoULH ripOMEnUJIeHHl6M npeAnpHITHIM: oKOjiO 600 mMjiUIaPAOB py6net upeAHa3HamaAOCb Aim "HHAeKCaLiHH o6OPOTHbiX cpeACTB" H 6ixno BbAaHO HenOCpeACTBeHHO npz1ApHATHM. OcTajibHbie 4DHHaHCOBlie peCypCli 6bJJIH BbMezJIeHbE XOHBOeCpcO BOOHHbl

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epe3 6aHKOBCKYIO CHCTeMy.


10

CIIcTeMa KOMMepMiCIcHX 6aHICOB

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pa3MepOB K HIOJIIO 1993 r.

KpynHefxnHe 65 6aHKOB KOHTPOJIHpYIOT OKOJIO 70 ripOileHTOB BCeX aKTHBOB H o6A3aTenbcTB 6aHKOBCKOH CHCTeMbI, IIpH 9TOM Ha AojnEo 5 CaMbIX KpynHbIX npHXOwHTC3 OKOJIO OXHOH TpeTH BCeX PipegOCTaBJIeHHIX 6aHKaMH 3afMOB H BCeX 6aHKOBCKHX aKTHBOB 3.8

Poccen6xo36aHK - 15 npouweHToB, C6ep6aHK - 8 IIpoIXeHTOB. Moc6H3Hec6aHK- 5 ripoLgeHToB, flpoMcTpofi6aHK - 3 rIporieHTa, MOCKOBCKHf rlpOMbIulEZeHHbIf 6aHK - 2 npoIeHTa (CM. Ta6xrHuy 3.3). XOTS HaqHHaA C 1991 r. Ha6nIIoXAanCIA POCT KaIIHTaJIa HaKTHBOB 6aHKoB, TeMnibi pocTa ene riocrieBanH 3a TeMriMaH HHDnsLUHH. I1OBbIiueHHe Tpe6OBaHHA B oTHOTieHHH MHHHManbHOrO pa3mepa yCTaBHOrO KaHHTaiia nlpHBegeT K nOIBjieHH1O 6onee KpyrIHbIx 6aHKoB JH60 B pe3yJITaTe peKaiHHTanK3aH X C nOMOiUbO aKIHOHepOB, nH6o

3.9

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H yxKc OKa3anjocb inoroweHHbIM RH4)j1SLAHeA.


11 3.10

B PocciH

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43 000

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ripMHepHO Ha 3 500 KHTeneu. TeopeTHqecKH TaKa3i

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B MOCKBe H MOCKOBCKOii o6naCTH (CM.

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Ta6nHga 3.2 PacnpegeneHHe 6aHKOB nO o6beMy aKTHBOB Pa3MepbI KaIHTaiia

KOjiHqeCTBO 6aHKOB

01/01/92

01/01/93

MeHee 5 MJIH. py6.

484

36%

318

18%

OT 5 go 25 MiH. py6.

589

43%

714

41%

OT 25 Ao 50 MJIH. py6.

129

9%

263

15%

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106

8%

211

12%

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33

2%

142

8%

CBbILUe 200 MIH. PY6.

19

1%

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3%

HToro

1,360 |_

|

1,713

|


12 Ta6JrHLia 3.3 llBaniaTm KIDVHefIIHX 6aHKOB POCCHH (Ha 1 SHBapS 1993 r., B MHjiflHap,ax py6nieft) ropOg

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1684

17

782

15

10

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900

1

407

1

9

65

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MocKBa

695

13

250

-

2

16

0.4

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MocKBa

451

4

135

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313

8

83

8

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MocKBa

271

57

27

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263

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68

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1

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235

10

27

7

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218

39

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8

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215

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42

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186

74

151

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166

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121

12

54

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119

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114

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105

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6542

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HToro:

(Begyuwe 20) HToro:

_

(neAyu4uelOO)

IHpHM'CaHHA: CUHCOK 6bmI cocTaBnCHNa OCHOBe AaHHBIx, UpecTraBjIcHHLIx 6aHKaMH Ha UOJIYO06pOBO3ThHO1l OCHOBC. HeKoToPaze AaHHbIe MOrYT OKa3aTbCA UpeCB3RTBIMH, a HeKOTopEle 6aHKH MorinH HC BOfITH B CHHCOK.T.K. OHH PCnUIKH He npCAOCTaB&ITB HH4)OpMaUKH o ce6e./ CooTNomeNc

aKTmo. - oTHorHeHHo pa3mepa aKTHBOB Ha 1 XHBapx 1993 r. K aKTHBaM Ha 1

AHBapz 1992 r.

CooTomcec cyA - oTHonleHHlo o6feMa ccyg na 1 ABBapa 1993 r. K CCyAaM Ha 1 sHBapx 1992 r. COOTHomCHHeC CC H aKTHBOB - OTHOIUCHHJO 061CMa CCYA K pa3Mpy aiKTHBOB Ha 1 xHBapx 1993 r.


13

Ta6nnula 3.4 reorpacbH'ecKaA KoHUeHTDauHM 6aHKOBCKof CHcTembI (Ha 1 OKTA6pA 1992 r.)

PermOH

KojuiqecTBo 6aHKOB

KojimqeCTBO oTZeJIeHHfl H 4HiJHanos1B

CeBepHbIuf

58

57

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18

28

CaHKT-fleTep6ypr

31

59

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153

217

MOCKBa

366

1254

72

33

38

81

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126

209

CeBepo-KaBKa3cKHfi

247

209

YpajbcKi

158

283

3anaxHo-CH6HpcKHfl

137

136

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70

99

127

145

24

15

1634

2786

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qepHO3eMHbIH

gajibHeBocToqHbIH KaAHHHHrpaACKaSI o6nacTb IToro rlpHMeqaHHe:

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3.11

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3.12

BaHKH: B03HHKHOBeHNe H npmHaxwe)xsHocTb. fOlTH Bce 6aHKH ABJISIOTCA aKUIHOHepHBIMH o6iieCTBaMH, C03gaHHbIMH B Te eHHe nociexHHX ABYX neT. OKono 700 6aHKoB,

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6bIBUIHX

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14

cneI.HaJIH3HpoBaHHbIx 6aHKoB. OcTajmbHbIe 1 000 6aHKoB 6BI3H CO3MaHEi aKIHOHepaMH "IC HyJIM" nocJIe 1990 r. 9TH 6aHKH Ha3bIBaEOTCS "HyneBbIMH" ; KaK IIpaBHJO, OHH OqeHL ManII. CTPyKType co6CTBeHHOCTH 9TH ABa THIIa 6aHKOB CHJTh6HO pa3nHqaeTcs MexI co6of. KpynHbie 6aHKH iacTo ripHHaXiiexcaT COTHAM H gaxeK TbICSxiaM aKIHOHepOB. ApyrHe opraHH3agHH ocTaeTCs coBmaAemI6ieM rocygapcTBo qepe3 FOCKOMHMyIueCTBO, UB 1H MHorHX KpYnHbIX 6aHKOB, BKRIOxiaI C6ep6aHK H PoccenJxo36aHK. C gpyrofi CTOPOHBI, Kpyr CO6CTBeHHHKOB 6oJIImIHHcTBa "HyjieBLIX" 6aHKOB orpaHHxreH, a HeKOTOPbIe K3 HHX

3.13

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ABJISIOTCA co6CTBeHHoCTEIO Bcero HeCKOnIKHx aKiRHOHepOB. OAHOBpeMeHHO C npHBaTH3anHef1 npe,npsTHH npoHCXcoT nocTerieHHas 3.14. HIPHBaTH3a1EHA KpynHbIX 6aHKOB. lIoHaxLajiy Bce KpyrHBIe 6aHKH npIMO HJIH KOCBeHHO HaXoAHJIiHC B co6CTBeHHOCTH roCygapCTBa. lix aKLHOHepaMH 6bIInH 0owTH HCKnJo0HTeJTHo npeXnpH5THS1 HIiH rocyAapCTBeHHbIe yqpexKgeHHs. 3To noJIoxKeHHe 6biCTpO MeHAeTcA rio mepe TOrO, KaK aKL1HH (cymeCTBy1OuHe HJIH BHOBb BE,InyCKaeMbIe) npOAaiOTCs KOonepaTHBaM, aKiHOHepHbIM o6iijeCTBaM, qaCTHbIM KOMnaHHAM H 'aCTHbIM JiHLaM. B5aHKIG TaKIKe cTaHOBATCS qaCTHbIMH no Mepe TOrO, KaK rocyxapCTBeHHmie npernpHMTHA, MBnAIioIecA HX OCHOBHE6IMH aKLIHOHepaMH, CaMH flpeo6pa3yIOTCS B aKLuOHepHLie o6UJeCTBa H npHBaTH3HpyioTCs.

3.15

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BbiAaBaTB KpeAHTbI He CBX3aHHbIM C HHMH 3aeMLgHKaM. KpejTwOBaHHe Co6CTBeHHibX aKUHOHepoB HMeeT BeCbMa orpaHHqeHHbIe MaCiuTa6bI B pa3BHTbIX CTpaHax, nOCKO3hKY ripaKTHKa Mo)KeT rIPHBeCTH K pa3BHTHIO c6epe)KeHHH goMaIHHX X03XHCTB H, XJUIAM TaKaS

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XO35[IICTB XpaHHTCS B C6ep6aHKe. TeM He MeHee, CO BpeMeHeM 9T Hpo6ieMa ripHo6peTeT 6onbIuylo OcTpOTy, H Heo6XogHMo 6ygeT pa3pa6oTaTh MepbI pa3yMHoro peryjiHpoBaHm.

B Te'eHHe 1992 r. 3&AMbI, BbIgaHHbie KOMMepieCKHKMH 6aHKaMH, BbIPOCJIH AecsTHKpaTHo, C 600 MJIPA. go noqTH 6 TpJIH. py6nefi. OKono nOJIOBHHLI STHX KPe,WTOB 4rnHaHCHPOBaIiHC 6LeHTpaJITHLIM 6aHKoM

3.16

AKTHRBbl, o6SI3aTeJibcTBa H npoueHTHbIe cvramn.

jnO6Me nOnlbITKH CTa6KnH3auwH TaK CUyHJ1OCb B 10roCJiaBmH, IHMeHHO npeAIpHSrTr. nxepecTpoAKy CTPYKTYPHYIO H 3aMeAJIHTb 3KOHOMHKH npriOAOixaJIn npeAocTaBam 6aHKm npeAnpHwTrH; B cO6CTBeHHOcTH OCHOBHOM B HaXOXtHJICb TOxCe 6aHKH rAe

8.

AaHHaA cTpyKTypa CO6CTBeHmoCTH TaKxce MoxeT OCJIOXHHTEh

KpeAHTmi HenjiaTexKecnOCO6HIbM npegApnsPTHXM, xITO TOpM03HO pa3BHTHe KaK CaMHX npeAnrIpXHTUH,

Tax H

6aHKOBCKoro CeKTOpa. CM. World Bank report No. 7869-YU, Yugoslavia - Financial Sector Restructuring: Policies and Priorities, 1989.


15

H rocygapCTBeHHiimH riporpaMMaMH geHTpaRH30BaHHOrO iyenieBoro KpeAHToBaHm.

B

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BOnpOC 0

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3.18

BTopaA nOJIOBHHa 6aHKOBCKHX KpegHToB CDHHaHCHpOBanaCb B OCHOBHOM 3a cxieT

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3.19

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16

fpoileHTHie cTaBKH ro AeriO3HTaM Kojie6JIIOTCA B I1HpOKHX npexejiax B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT KHeHTa, 6aHKa H perHoHa. B TeqeHHe nocneAHero KBapTana 1992 pa3mepaBKJaAa,THnaM r. rpOi.eHTHbIe CTaBKH KOJIe6aJiHCb OT meHee 60 go 6onee 150 npoixeHToB. C6ep6aHc, Ha KOTOpbIN4 npHxofTcx 6oniee 90 IpogeHTOB BceX BKJIaaOB AOMa8HHX Xo3SiNCTB (oKono 570 MJIpA. py6niefi), npeAnOKHJI Ha MexK6aHKoBcKoM PbIHKeOKOJIO 100 MjipA. py6. B KaqecTBe

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npeAenBbHEIe H3Xep)KKH no npIHB3neeHHIO pecypcoB.

B HeKOTOPE IX cnyqaAx 9TO OTpa)xaeT TOT 4DaKT, qTO 3aeMnamK iBJIAeTCA KpyTIHIM aKiHOHepOM AaHHOrO 6aHKa, B ApyrHx cjiyiax, oAHaKo, ixeHa KpeAKTOB BKJTIOqaeT B ce6A,

rIPSMO HJIH KOCBeHHO, KOMneHcaNHOHHbIe 6anaHcoBbLe Tpe6oBaHHJ H npegonnaTy ycWyr. B HbIHeIfUHHX YCJIOBHX 6aHKH AxOJKHbM yCTaHaBJIHBaT]6 mapxcy no npoieHTHbim CTaBKaM Ha ypoBHe He MeHee 40 HpoIgeHToB B roA -rro6bi npocrO He nOHecm y6brrlm xaxKe B cjiyiae OTHOCHTeji6HO Ha)eXKHLIX KpeAHTOB. HanpHMep, AiA KpeAUTa CpOKOM Ha OAHH roA Heo6xoAHMo yCTaHOBHT KaK MHHHMYM 15-npogeHTHylo mapxcy 'To6bi COXpaHHT

peaJnEHy1O CTOHMOCTb KanHTaJTa 6aHKa. 9To BePHO B CnyqaMx, KorAa 1 npoixeHT Kpexffa 4HHaHCHpyeTC31 H3 co6cTBeHHbIX cpeACTB, ecai oxKHaeMaz HH(RSIMA cocTaBnsAeT OKOnO 1500 npogeHToB B Te'eHHe Bcero cpoKa KpeAHTOBaHHA H ecnm npogxeHmi BbIn3IamaHBaIoTCA

O,HOBpeMeHHO C noraueHi4em OCHOBHOu CyMMbI Kpe,HTa. KpoMe 3Toro, 6aHiM AOnicM Tpe6oBaTb BbInnaTbI 6onee teM 25 npOgeHTOB AJI KOMneHCai.H H3RepxKeK B CBI3H C Heo6XoAHMoCTbiO noAepxaHHA pe3epBHbIX Tpe6OBaHH Ha YPOBHe 20 npoIXeHToB, nlpH TOM xITO Ha peepBHbIe cpeACTBa npoieHTbI He HaqHcUOTCS. Mapxa AOnIKHa TaK)Ke KOMIneHCHpOBaTh 6aHKaM onepaguOHHbIe H3AepxKH H KpeA;THIie pHCKH. TaKxm o6pa3OM, mapxca B pa3mepe OKOjIO 50 npolyeHTOB no KpeAHTaM C HH3KHM YPOBHeM pHcKa He TOJTKO

He ABImeTCs,

KaK yTBepXKAaIoT HeKOTOpLIe, xipe3MepHO BbICOKOU, a Hao6opoT, MoxKeT

C'HTaThCS OTHOCHTenbHO HH3KOU.

H13 Ta6lHiXibI 3.3 MOX(HO yBHAeTb, qTO TeMIrhI pOCTa aKTHBOB H CCYA 3HawHTeJTlHO 3.21 pa3flHtiaIHcb no 20 KpynHerLuHM 6aHKaM. AKTHBbI 6aHKOB, 3a HcKmUO'eHHeM ABYX H3 HHX, pocJIH 6bIcTpee tem o6feMbI ccyA, npeAocTaBJiseeMbIx Mm. HHTepecHo OTMeTHm, wrO HaH6oJIee 6MbCTpbIU POCT aKTHBOB Ha6mfoajiCA B TeX 6aHKax, KOTOpbIe HMeIH HH3KMA Ko0cfrjEHimeHT oTHoiueHHH CCyA K aKTHBaM. B 6oJM0MHCTBe ciyqaea 9TOT HH3KHA Koq4)(DHLIeHT CBI3aH C BeAeHHeM

6aHKoM BaJIIoTHLIbx cqeTOB, CTOHMOCTb KOTOpbIX B

py6neeoM BbIpaKeHHH yBeJIH'HjiacCb BCjieACTBHe o6ecgeHHBaHEA py6JIS. 3Ta B3aHMoCBAS3b oco6eHHo oteBHAHa Ha IpiMmepe TOKO6aHKa, KpeAo6aHKa H 14HKoM6aHKa, KOTOpLIe, KaK H3BecTHo, BeAYT KPYnHbIe orIepaLHH C HHOCTpEHHOA BamoToH. HeyAIBWMeJBHo, 'TO CYMMbl

Henorauemwix ccy, pOCJIH ropa3,o 6LIcTpee B TeX 6aHKax, KOTOpme CyIKHjIH KaHanaMH

pacnpeAeneHHA cpeAcTBrno nporpammam rleneBoro KpeAfHTOBaHHA: 9TOT pOCT COCTaBHJI 6onee 7 000 npoUeHTOB B 9neKTpo6aHKe H 6onee 1 000 npoixeHToB B Poccen6xo36aHKe H rIpoMcTpoH6aHKe.


17

3.22

ESOJILMHHCTBO 6aHKOB BJIOXHJIH qaCTb CBOHX aKTHBOB B HeBHxKHMocTb, aKEH

npeAInpHIsHTNN H Aaxce B C03gaHHe BayqepHaix HHBeCTHLWOHHMIX (DOHJOB. MHorHe 6aHKH

HCnJOJT,b3ylT 43HHaHCOBbIH ZieBepaxK AJ HHBecTHIrH, 4DHHaHCHpyZ HX H3 CpegCTB npH IOBepxHoCTHOM B3rnAIe Ha 6aa1aHcoBLIe oTqeTbI MHOriX 6aHKOB MO)KeT C03gaThCM BrieqaTjTeHHe, wTO 06%beMbi 9THX HHBeCTHIHfk riOKa eiixe o'eHb mami H COCTaBJALTOT OKOJIO 1 npoileHTa Bcex aKTHBOB, OAHaKO STH UH4)p6 MOryT OKa3aTbcA o6MaHtqHBBIMH H3-3a o6ujHX 6yXraJITepcKHx IIpo6nieM B 7epHOAM BbICOKONk HHC1RHISH. AenO3HTOB.

3.23

(Di)HaHcHpOBaHHe KaIIHTaJIOBJIoxeHHA H3 cpeArCT AenIO3HTOB AIBJiSeTCA oqeHb

pHCKOBaHHOH

IIpaKTHKOH H, KaK iipaBHJIO, He pa3peiiiaeTCsi

B ApyrHx cTpaHax. B

6ojmmHHcTBe pa3BHThIX CTpaH TaKHe RHBeCTHLM AoJxcHI nOjiHOCTIO 4)HHaHCHpOBaTCSA H3 CO6CTBeHHBIX cpeAcTB. B CBI3H C 9THM B03HHKaeT BOnpOC: AOJDKHa 3m 6aHKOBCKaq

CHICTeMa PoccHH 6bITm CMOAe3iHpOBaHa KaK yHHBepcanibHas, no npHmepy FepMaHH4, HJI ee HyJKHo pa3genNHTb Ha ABe acTH - CHCTeMy KOMMeptieCKHX H CHcTeMy HHBecTHNHoHHbIx 6aHKOB, KaK B COeAHHeHHIIX HTaTaX. rpe3ox)KeHHA no STOMY BOIIpOCy paCCMaTPHBaEOTCA B pa3Aene UIraBbI 5, rOCBsUeHHOM Bonpocam perynHpOBaHHI.

3.24

IloqeMy xe cTaBKH HO geno3HTaM H KpeAHTaM B peaBjTHOM BbIpaxceHH HMeEOT BbICOKoe oTpHuaTeSIbHoe 3HaqeHHe, ecniH 6aHKH MOryT CBO60AHO HX nOBLbmaTb? HHepIs - HH43JIsOHHMe OxcHAamS, OTCTaEOuHe OT peaBjHLIX TeMnOB mHHJIJ, 'qTO O3HaqaeT, w*o npoieHTHbIe CTaBKH, ycTaHaBnHBaeMbie 3apaHee, IIpH oaRTHeeCKoR Oi.eHKe OKa3]IBaXOTCAI HHxe ypOBHA[ HH43JIIHH -- H AeHeKHexbIe m o3HH (HenpaBHInLHas oUeHKa peaJbHOi CTOHMOCTH AeHer), T.e. ABJIeHHe, KorAa HeKOTOpLIe OixeHHBaEOT HOMHHaJTHY1O CTaBKY KaK oqeHb BBICOKYIO, He COOTHOC5[ ee C YPOBHeM HH4)MIIUIH - IBJEISOTCS YaCTH'1HbIM OTBeTOM Ha 9TOT BOnIpOC. Cyuyec¶ByeT eI.e p51 IIpHNHH, ro KOTOpbIM HH3KHe YIpOIeHTHbIe CTaBKH KaJKYTCM, B KaKOM-TO cMbIcJie, pbIHOtIHbIMH KJIHPHHrOBbImH CTaBKaMH. Bo-nepB6IX, CIpOC Ha KpeAHThI orpaHiqeH TeM, iTO HeMHOrie 3aeMu4KH MOryT rIpeAoCTaBHTb 3aJIoroBoe o6ecrieYeHHe HIiH HbIe rapaHTHH, KOTOpbIX Tpe6yiOT 6aHKN B CBSI3H C Mo6HJTH3aLHef Kpe,HTHbIX CpeACTB Ha pbIHKe, rqTOAeZaeT CHTyaHiuo C geHTpanN30BaHHbIMH KpeAHTaMH H KpeAHTaMH CBOHM aKxNOHepam COBepmeHHo UpOTHBOnOJIO)KHOfi. Bo-BTopbIx, ecnH 6aHKH nOBbIUaJOT npOlyeHTHbIe CTaBKH nO AeHO3HTaM, OHH AOJIHblI OAHOBpeMeHHO H no KpaiNHeii mepe IIPOIIOPLNOHaJHO yBenHmqwn CBOIO MapxKy. 9TO OTnyrHeT Yacm%HX ny'mx KJTeHTOB, OCTaBHB 6o0iee pHCKOBaHHbIe CCyxI>. HaKoHeil, 60oamrmHCTBO KOMnaHHf H 6aHKOB npeAno'ifTaioT HaripaBMLqT CBOH cpegcTBa H 9HeprNHO Ha io66HpoBaHHe IIpaBHTeJIbCTBa H ILeHTpanbHoro 6aHKa B ixeniix riojiy'eHsI AeiiieBbIX ienesBIx KpeAWTOB BMeCTo KOHKypeHUHH Ha OTKpbITOM pbIHKe 3a IIpHBJIe'eHHe 4NHaHCOBbIX KipeAHTHLIX cpeCTB. I1PHHUHU KIIaCCH4)HKaUSA

KommepqecKix 6aHKOB Poccim

3.25

B COOTBeTCTBHH C npeAraraembrm rpHHwrOM, 6aHKH noApas3enJLOTcS no ux OCHOBHbIM BDHIaM nesTejibHocTH. C y'eTOM Apyrx KpHTepHeB, HanpHMep,

CTpyKT"pbI

co6CTBeHHocm H xapaKTepa ynpaBEieHsI. KnaCCH4)HKamS cnyxcH opraHH3awioHHm HHcTpyMeHToM r¶pH aHanI3e AReSTenbHOCTH 6aHKOB H onpeAejieHne4 CTOSyTX nepeA HHMH npo6neM. Ha nparKTiKe MHorHe 6aHKH npoBoA3T onepaixHH, xapaKTepHLie A,A HecKojihKHx


18 onpeAejmeM]IX HHKe KaTerOpHM, H CO BPeMeHeM MOFYT MeHsTb xapaKTep CBOeiK OCHOBHOR HanpHMep, K3 "6aHKa-KaHana" mm "6aHKa-areHTa" 6aHK MOx(eT gesITejTbHOCTi. Mepe TOrO, KaK Iio 6aHK" xOpOmHfi AHBepcH,HIgHpyeTCs3 cocTaB ero aKlWOHepOB H ycjioxceTC xapaicep ero ynpafBeHHL nipeBPamm6CA

3.26

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B

C6ep6aHK.

KaTeropHio.

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OTgenbHy1O B

pa3geJie,

nIOCBAiieHHOM CrieuHaH3HPOBaHHbIM 6aHKaM.

"BaHKHl-KaHanJbi". OCHOBHaS 3a,Aaqa 9THX 6aHKOB COCTOHT B TOM, qTo6bi 3.27 riepegaBaTb 4rHHaHCOBbIe peCYPCbI, BbixenxLeMiIe B paMKaX nIporpamm YeJieBOro UeHTPaUH3OBaHHOrO KpeXHTOBaHSA, OT IUeHTpajmHoro 6aHKa KHiH IpaBHTeAICTBa rOCYgapPCTBeHHLIM npeAnIIpHArTHSM, C KOTOPbIMH ARaHHbIe 6aHKH CB3X3aHU. OHH OCYWeCTBJISIOT 3HaqHTeJI6HYIO AOJIIO o6wero o6feMa KpeAHTOBaHHA, rOCKOJILKy xenesIe KpeAfHTbI COCTaBJIAIOT 6onee IOJIOBHHbI BCeX HeiioraiieHHbIX Ha AaHHbIfi MOMeHT 6aHKOBCKI4X KpeAHTOB. HpOAOnKa1o1gHe AeHCTBOBaTh "6IBume CneIWajT3HpOBaHHLIe"

6aHKH, KpyTIHeKIIHMH

H3 KOTOPbIX ABJIAIOTCS

IIpOMCTpOH6aHK H PocceJmXo36aHK,

6e3yCnoBHo nIpeACTaBIASOT co6oh caMbIe 3HaqHTemJIHbIe "6aHKH-KaHanbi". KaK npaBHJO, rocy apCTBeHHbie rpeAipHSTSA HMeIOT B

9THX 6aHKaX 60J6MfyIO AOfl1O aKNi., qem B

"6aHKax-areHTax".

CO3AaHHBle OAHHM HnH HeCKOjTbKEMH "BaHKH-areHTbl". 9TO 6aHKH, 3.28 IIperIIpHATHi AIAK TOrO, TO6mI yrIpaBxn IIOTOKaMH CBOHX AeHe3KHi6IX cpeAcTa a TaK)Ke OCyMeCTBJLSAT OT HX HMeHH iiiiaTexK H rIPOBOAHT pacqeTHmie onepamiW. B HacTosAiee BpeMS TaKHe ycjiyrH 6o0iee 434eKTHBHO H HaAeKXHO OCyIeCTBJIOTCS 6aHKamH,-areHTamH,

qeM APYrHMH 6aHKaMH. B CTpaHax C pbIHOqHOfI 9KOHOMHKON (DHHaHCOBbIe OTAeJTh THNi OCyIgeCTBJIAIOT MHOrHe H3 ycjiyr, KOTOpbIe B HaCTOAIIXee BpeMA B PoccHH HpeAnpJII 3aKpeHJLIiOTCS 3a 6aHKaMH-areHTaMH. Hx aKuKOHepmI, BKna3AHKH H 3aeMMHKH--3aYaCTyMO OAHH H Te )Ke IiHia, WTO B MeHbLiei mepe xapaKTepHO AIn 6aHKOB ApyrHx THNIOB. KpoMe Toro, ileJiH ynpaBJIAIOIIHX H aKUHOHepOB B 6aHKax 9TOrO THna TeCHO B3aHMOCBI3aHbI. B HaCTOAXIiee BpeMX 60JILbIHHCTBO pOCCHKCKHX 6aHKOB BbirOMIASOT tacTHqHo pojm 6aHKoB-

areHTOB, XOT51 6aHKH, BbIIOjiHAiouHe HCKnIOqirTeJThHO pOnib areHTOB, KaK rIpaBHJO, OqeHL MaIibI no pa3Mepy.

"3apo=aiowUecs "XOPOIffHe" 6amH". B POCCmH yxce cefWac cyIeCTByeT rpyrma 3.29 20-30 BeAyIUIHX KOMMepqeCKHX 6aHKOB, pa3BHBaiOIAHXCA B "IIpaBHJTbHOM" HaIIpaBjieHHH H, iio BceH BH=HMOCTH, npeBpaWaIoIHxCs B HaCTOSiie 6aHKOBCKIFe ytpeXAeHHs. TI4HCIO TaKHx 6aHKOB pacTeT no mepe TOrO, KaK peOpraHH3yIOTCA 6aHKH, OTHOCAuHeCSA K ApyrHm

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B Hee BXOA.1T HeKOTOPbIe

KpynHefIiIHe He3aBHcHMbIe 6aHKK. KpHTepeK x3yEOUWX 3TH 6aHKI B KaqecrBe paCIIIpeHHe COCTaBa aKgHOHepOB, gTO HO3BOJLSeT nO-BHAHMOMY, XOPOIIHX", ABJsieTCA,

3.30

OAHHM H3 OCHOBHbIX

PYKOBOACTBY rpOBOHT6 IOJIHTHIKy, He

riOBTOpSHIYO

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KHTepeCL aKgHOHepoB.

KpoMe Toro, CIOAa Ke OTHOCS3TCS 6aHKH, pa6OTHHKH KOTOPbIX nOytq=OT HJIiH

OKynaioT


19

aKIUHH; TaKIHe 6aHKIH, KaK ipaBHJIO, pa3BHBaEOTCS 6bIcTpee. Euye OAHHM 4aKTopoM. CTHMyJIHpytOiuHM pa3BHTHe "xopoiniero" 6aHKa, IBJIAIOTCA CBSI3H C 3apy6excHBIMH 6aHKaMH wepe3 BHeIIHeTOproBbIe onIepanHH, ynpaBneHHe CqeTaMH B HHOCTpaHHOfI BamoTe mm Iepe3 rPSiMbIe HHBecTHiHH. 9TOT ripoLecc HAeT 6bICTpbIMH TeMfiaMH B pgge 6aHKOB MOCKBbI H CaHKT-rleTep6ypra. 3.31

PYKOBOAJCTBO 6aHKOB 3TOH rpyniibi OTHOCHTeJbHO He3aBHCHMO OT npeinpHArTHaKUHOHepoB, H, KaK npasBHjo, o6iaXAaeT 6o0iee BbICOKOH KBaH4HKagHeA, qem PYKOBOAHTeJiH 6aHKoB-KaHanoB. YKa3aHHLIe 6aHKH rpeAoCTaBJIAIOT KpeHI CBOHM KJiHeHTaM H aK[HOHepaM, TOJIbKO 6y,gytH yBepeHHbIMH B HX ioraIIIeHMH; CPOKH 3aHMOB, KaK npaBHjio, B MeHbIIIei CTeneHHH eM B gApyrHx 6aHKaX 3aBHCqT OT TOrO, SBJISeTCS 3aeMTEIHK JIH aKuHOHepOM 6aHKa. iOJIbIIIHHCTBO 3aHMoBB, rpeAOCTaBJIAeMbIX 3THMH 6aHKaMH, o6ecne'{HBaIoTcS 3anoraMH, rapaHTHeH TpeTbHX JiHI HJIH cTpaxyeTCs. 3HaqHTeJIbHaA xTaCTb KpegHTOB HanpaBJIgeTCA qaCTHMIM KOMMepqeCKHM CTpyKTypaM H aKuHOHepHbIM KOMnaHHAM, KOTOpbIe fuH6o y)Ke SABJIOTCA 'aCTHbiMH npeAripHATHKMH, JIH60 HaXO,ITCAI B npoiecce ITpHBaTH3auHH.

3.32

Pg "XOpOIIHX" 6aHKOB OCyigeCTBJISeT onepaIL1HH C KpeAHTHbIMH KapToqKamH H HMeeT AOCTyII K BaJI1OTHbIM onepauHAm qepe3 ceTb CBWDT. BOJIbmHHCTBO H3 HHX HMeEOT KOppeCIOHAeHTcKHe OTHOLCeHHA C HpeCTHKHbIMH 3apy6eXCHE IMR 6aHKaMH. HeKoTopbie yMCe ABJIBSOTCS IIapTHepaMH 3apy6exKHbIX 6aHKOB, a eule 6ombinee 'mcno 6aHKOB CTpeMHTCA1 K 9TOMy. MHorHe 6aHKH CO3AanH accoImayum, B KOTOpbIe BXOAST HeCKOJIbKO yqpexKIeHH1I, COBMeCTHO BLICTyIIEOTNHX B HX onepaiHsx. Co BpeMeHeM H fpH

YCJIOBHH HaJIHAHS npOAyMaHHbrX CTHMYJIOB B TaKHX accoiyzagMAx MOryT HMeTb CJIHASH4A, qTO rIpeBpaTIT HX B enye 6onee KpYIIHbIe 6aHKH.

MecTo

TpH KpynHeIiiix cneUWanH3HPOBsaHHbIx 6aHKca 3.33

TpemsI KpyflHefIIHMH ciiegHanH36pOBaHHbIMH 6aHKaMH ABJIAIOTCA C6ep6aHK (c6eperaTenbHbhI 6aHK), PocceirbXO36aHK (CeJIm6CKOXO3A4CTBeHHbii 6aHK) H

*IPOMCTpOH6aHK (npoMbTiuIneHHo-CTpOHTenbHbIi 6aHK). B HX Ha3BaHHAX OTpaxKeHa HX cneUJHaJIH3aIUHAs B YCJIOBHIX 6bIBIIero COBeTCKOrO CTpOA. B HacToAruee BpeMS 9TH TPH 6aHKa

ABJIAHOTCA

aKUHOHepHbIMH o6meCTBaMH H, corJiaCHO HX yCTaBy, pa60TaioT KaK

yHBepcanbHbie6aHKH. OAHaKO, HX AeATen HOCTh no-npex HeMyqeTKO criegHaLj

3HpOBaHa

B CHJIY HX CpaBHHTeJIbHHMIX 11peHMyIeCTB B iinaHe KBaJiH4N KaixHH H HHCIpaCTpyKTypbI, a TaKX(e BcJIegCTBHe Toro, qTO OHH npogojDKaiOT BbICTyIaTb KaK HHCTpymeHTbI rOCyAapCTBeHHOH IIOJIHTHKH B COOTBeTCTBYIOIUHX OTpaCJIAX H BHaaX AeMTeJIBHOCTH.

3.34

Hcxe paccMaTpHBalOTCs CTPYKTypa H OCHOBHbIe BHAgb1 AeSiTeJIbHOCTH KaxcAoro H3 9THX 6aHKoB; OHH TaK)Ke OTpa8eHbI B o6iueM BHAe B Ta6JrnHie 3.5. PeKOMeHgaiNHH AoKiiaAa B OTHOiiieHHH C6ep6aHKa H flpOMCTpof6aHKa H3JIO)KeHbI B L'naBe 4, a B OTHOLIeHHH PocceJnbXO36aHKa -- B pa3gene rJIaBI 6, IIOCBAigeHHOM KpeAHTOBaHHIO ceJThcKoro XO3AIfiCTBa.


20 C6ep6aHK. C6ep6aHK ABJIAeTCM HaH6oJIee AHHaMHtqHbIM H3 3THX Tpex 6aHRoB. TpaAHTEHOHHOe OTJIHgHe C6ep6aHKa OT BCeX OCTa8.bHbIX 6aHKOBCuX yqpexpAeHlHA KOTOPLIe COCTOAJIO B TOM, qTO OH rIPHBjieKaJI BKJaIbI AOMaIIHHX XO3XACTB (HaceieHms),

3.35

aBToMaTHIqeCKH

HCnOJIb3OBaJICb

ARA

npaBHTenjbCTBOM

Ae4mHTa

43HHaHCHpOBaHH

eTa. B nocjiexuHHe ABa rogra npaBHTeJ3hCTBo nIpeXocTaBHJO rocyXrapCTBeHHoro 6iox0 rlpaBneHHIO C6ep6aHKa 60obIIIyEO He3aBHCHMOCTb H pa3penmJIo emy pa3BHBaTL CBOIO B rqpyrHx o6nacTqx. C6ep6aHK 6EIcTpo paCIuIHMpeT TaKHe HOBmIe RA ce6s

AeATenbHOCTb a TaKxce BHAbI e3rreJmbHOCTH, KaK KpeXHTOBaHHe npegripHqTHH H XOMaIIHHX XO3AfICTB, nIpHBneqeHHe ,genO3HTOB nPeXnPHATHH. OH COgeHCTBOBaJI CO3gaHH1O MeXC6aHKOBCKOrO PbIHKa, Ha KOTOPOM BbICTyIaeT cefqac B KaqecrBe OCHOBHOrO KPe=TOPa. C6ep6aHR ero HacsHTbIBaeT 6onee 100 TbIC. aKUi4OHePOB, B OCHOBHOM CBOHX COTPYXRHHKOB, O,HaKO aKiUOHepOM aKuHH elue He HMCeOT XOxgeHRA Ha Pb6HKe UeHHbIx 6yMar. KpynHeflunim KOTOpOrO C6ep6aHKa SiBnDeTCA UeHTpajTbHblIi 6aHK, npegcegaTemeb npaBjieHHA OAHOBpeMeHHO ABJisMeTCS npegcexaTeeiem npaBjieHH C6ep6aHKa. C6ep6aHK nPaKTHieCKKH OCTaeTCA MOHOHOiJICTOM B iipHBjieqeHHH py66eBLIX BKJI8aOB XOMamIHHX XO3XACTB, Ha ero cqeTax xpaHHTCA 6onee 90 npoqeHToBc6epexceHKif, BCe 6aHKH HMeIOT npaBo COCTaBjiAuoiMHX 570 Mjipg. py6. XOTX B HaCTOSLAee BPeMq nIO3WSH OTKPbIBaTb cqeTa c6epexceHHf XOMaIlIHHX XO3XHCTB, C6ep6aHK coxpaHUI CBOH

3.36

no CneJyiOLuHM npHqHHaM: *

Ero ceTb, HactHTbIBaioigaA

6onee

40 TbIC. CHjHiHaJIOB

H

oTeJIeHHfl,

90 rIpOUeHTOB 6aHKOBCKEHX yqpexc)eHHfl B POCCHE, B Pe3YnbTaTe qerO Ha 6OJbiUIeh YaCTH TePPHTOpHH CTPaHbI H B ropOxOB C6ep6aHK IBSieTcS KpynHbIX pafUOHOB 60JIbILUHHCTBe COCTaBjiMeT 6oiee

e1HHCTBeHHbIM 6aHKOM.

*

OH

ABiLqeTCq

egHHCTBeHHbIM

6aHKOM,

rge

BKflagI

nonHocT6io

rapaHTpYIOTCA rOCyAapCTBOM.

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C6ep6aHK npewnaraeT iejbIh pixg ycnyr, KOTOpbIe He npeAocTaBwsnocsA gpyrHMH 6aHKaMH, BKmIO'aA nepeBog ninaTexcef 3a KOMMyHajTHbIe ycnyrH, ynIiaTY HanorOB H BbInnIiaTy neHCHf4. paBHTemJTbCTBO KOMI8eHCHpyeT IIIHpOKO pacnpOCTpaHeHO MHeHHe, 'TO BKnagq'HKaM C6ep6aHKa HX o6eCileHeHHbIe B pe3yjibTaTe RHH4JM1mH BKJIagbI, nOCKOJITKy nOAo6HOe meponpwxme yxKe HMe3iO MeCTO B npo0n1oM.


21 Ta6nuuia 3.5 KPvnHef4iuIHe cieuHajIH3HpOBaHHbie 6aHKH

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B 1992 r. C6ep6aHK Ha'aJI BbigaBanT KpeAHTI AoMaumHM X03A1CTBaM (B AHBape 3.39 1993 r. o6igasAcyMMasBbiaHHBIxKPipeAHTOBcocTaBHJIa 25 mnipA. py6.), npeAnpH{ITHM (130 MjTpg. py6.),a TaK)Ke pa3meiuaTh 4HHaHCOBbIe pecypcbI Ha MexK6aHKOBCKOM puixKe (100 MjipA. py6.). K SHBapio 1993 r. AonA rocySapCTBeHH,ix aKTHBOB B ero nopTcbene coKpaTHnaci Ao MeHee 'eM nOIOBHHbIo6uxHx aKTHBoB. B anpenie 1993 r. npaBHTejmcTBo BbInIiaTHJo CBOIA oonr, cocTaBJIsABImHI 2 85 Mnp. py6., rTO xano C6ep6aHKy BO3MOXCHOCTb 3aBHCST OT Toro, lpogeHTii no KpeAlHTaM PaCUJHPHTh CBOH Kpeg=THEIe onepauuH. AsIAeTCx JIH 3aeMIHK aKuHOHepoM 6aHKa; no Mex6aHKoBcKHM KpeAHTaM npogeHmaA cTaBKa cocTaAsieT cooTBeTcTBeHHO 130 H 140, Bcnyqae KpeAHTOBBaHH npegIpHsTHAI -135 H 145. ropa3Ao 6o0nee HH3KHfi npogeHT ycTaHaBJIHBaeTcAi no KpeAHTaM, npeAocraBnemibrm AOMaIUHHM xo3AIHcTBaM. B COOTBeTCTBHH c ycTaHoBneHHLIMH UeHTpaJHbIM

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3.43

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3.45

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3.47

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26

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4.2

UIeneBbie [eHTpaIH3oBaHHbIe KpeMTI He BJISOTCA9342eKTHBHbiM CpeACTBOM pemueHHA H OHH AonxcmHI 6bWm OTMeHeHbI. nepBoA HJIH BTOPON 3agaqil,

4.3

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4.4

KOTOpELe OKa3uBaIOT npIMOe B AaiHOM pa3Aene H3yqatOTCA TOJIbKO Te acneKTmi nojiHTHKH 9P, 10. KOMMepwCcKHX 6aHKOB. MeTOE, HCIIOJTh3MyeMbLe AJI o6ecneemeHi BjxHAHme Ha KpeAHTHble onepayuiy

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"POCCHBCKaA

DeAepaEmi:

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aHIai3

KpeAuTHo-AeHexHoA nonITHKH H AeATeJMHoCTU


27

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B

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4.5

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4.6

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Bce-TaKH Heo6xoXgHMo cgeniaT6. HaqanJ6HOMy 3Tany cTa6HnH3auHH o6LIrHo HPHCYUH BbICOKHII YPOBeHb peaJIbHbIX pOileHTHbIX CTaBOK H 3aHMbI npeArpHuTHf, HaxoI.xnxcs B TAUKenOM OJIo)KeHHH, qTO 'qaCTO BegeT K KPH3HCY 6aHKOBCKOA CHCTeMbI. TaKofU xog Co6bIHTU MOmxeT OKa3aTbCA BepOSTHMIM B POCCHH, rge pa3Mep rpoiyeHTHix cTaBOK pe3KO KOJIe6JIeTCs OT nojIOxcHTeJIbHbIX X0 OTpH1aTeJIbHbIX 3HaIeHHf. 9TO 9OJIKHO yqHTIBaTbcA UeHTpaJbHuIM 6aHKOM ripH pa3pa6oTKe H peajiH3aIHH CTa6HJI3auHoHHofi nporpaMMLI.

4.7

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28

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4.8

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4.9

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1993 r.


29

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4.10

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4.12

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B

3HatHTeJREHoR CTeIIeHH, A06pOBOJITHbIZflIOAXOXA K 6aHKOBCKOi pedlopMe, o6ecnetrHBaIoWefj CTHMYJIHPOBaHHe 3aHHTepeCOBaHHOCTH 6aHKOB B rIOBErIIeHHH 3c1(4eKTHBHOCTH HX HOPMaTHBOB H nepexogy Ha 6oJIee )KecTKHe HOPME,I Hag3opa. 9To CTHMYJ¶HpOBaHHe ARORKHO npHBeCTH K nOCTOrHHOMY pOCTy Hcjia 6o0iee BbICOKOKaqecTBeHHbix 6aHKOB H HX ycjiyr. HeCMOTpAl Ha TO, qTO XAaHHbIfI noAXxoA nO3BOJIHT CHH3HTh6 AO MHHHMyMa CPLIBbI B 3KOHOMHKe, OH TOJILKO nocTeneHHO rIPHBegeT K O3XgOpoBJIeHHlo 6aH]KOBCKOfl CHCTeMtI H nOBbIIiieHHlO ee sc4pJeKTHBHOCTH B pa3MeUeHHH pecypCOB. Bo BCAIKOM cJIylae, HeKoTopylo noCTeneHHOCT]6 Hen163A H36exKaTn, HOCKOJIE6KY AOJIH Ha pLIHKe 6aHKoBcKHx

CHCTeMe B 6aHKOBCKOi CAMBHm 3KOHOMHKH npeo6pa3OBaHHeM H BO3MOXCHOCTmb nocTeneHHO.' 2

npOHCXOAHTB iXeJIOM, KOTOpOe

MOryT B

Lejiecoo6pa3HOCTb

TOJIbKO

MO)KeT

HPOBeAeHHS

OAHOBpeMeHHO npOXOHT]6

C

JIHH11b

anji1TePHaTHBHOf

TaKxce npHAepXcMBa.jiCb nOWTarIHorO nOAXOAa npu nPOBeAeOHHH 6aHKOBCKOA petPOpMbI, KOTOPbE , TeM He MeHee, OTJIH'ajCSA OT POCCHACKOrO BapmaHTa, ITO CBS3aHO C rjiY6oKHMH pa3jH'qIHMH B CTPYKTYPO 6aHKOBCKorO CeKTopa. B Io mme Bce KPYnHble

12.

BOJIUIHHCTBO cTpaH BOCTO4HOA EBpOnII,

KOMMepqeCKHe 6aHKH nPHHajiexKaT HeriOCPeACTBeHHO npaBHTeJIhCTBY, KOTOPOe npOBOJRUT HX nOCTeneHHYEO nepecTpoiKy H npHmBaTH3aqHiO (CM. "Enterprise Reform in Eastern Europe", S.Van Wijnbergen, The World Bank, WPS 1068, January 1993). B BeHrpmH nOA KOHTpOneM rocyAapcTBa HaXOASTCi Bce KpynHbIe

6aHKH, XOTA CyLueCTBYIOT H aK1uKOHepHbIe 6aHKM, npmUeM B HeKOTOpEIX H3 HMX rocyAlapCTBo He pacnojliaraeT KOHTpOflbHbIM naKeTOM aKLHMi. nlepeCTpOiKa AeSTe3BHOCTH 6aHKOB npOBOAMTCS nO3TanHO, U npaBMTeJILCTBO npeArnonaraeT Co BpMeeHeM COKPaTHTb cBoe y'acTTe B HMX (CM. Competition and Efficiency in Hungarian

Banking, D.Vittas and C. Neal, The World Bank, WPS 1010, October 1992).


31 "o6BaJMHOH" MoXePHH3aLlHH 6aHKOBCKoro ceKTopa KpaTKO paCCMaTpHBaEOTCA B KOHLIe HacTosI11gef rJiaBbI.

4.15

HIporpamma "BaNK Me*JyHapOlHbIX cTaHAapTOB". UeHTpajbHbIM 3BeHOM peKOMeH,yeMoH CTpaTerHH 1i O3AOPOBjieHHIO H rnOBuIIneHHMO 344eKTHBHOCTh CHCTeMbI KOMMepqeCKHX 6aHKOB ABJISeTCA riporpamma "BaHK MexKyHapoIHbix cTaHAapTOB" (BMC).1 3 KoHiXemi BMC npeWycMaTpHBaeT CO3AaHHEe oTAemIHoro YPOBHA 6aHKoB, KOTOpbIe 6yXyT 6oJiee BBICOKO KariHTaJIH3HpoBaHbI, 6y;wT npHAePXKHBaTbCA 6o0iee nIpaBHJIHOM 6aHKOBCKOl nIpaKTHKH H CTaHyT o6beKToM 6onee npHCTaJbHOrO BHHMaHHSA no CpaBHeHHIO C gpyrHMH 6aHKaMH. ByXeT riOO1pAThCA Ao6pOBO3IbHLIf4 nepexoA B cHcTeMy BMC nyTeM npeAocTaBjneHHA HM psAa jibrOT B oTjiH'He OT 6aHKOB, He HMe0OmX cTaTyca BMC. HacToAiee HcCieAOBaHHe He paccMaTpHBaeT BOnpOCE6I, oTHoCAHIIHeCA K BHegpeHHIO cTraHgapTOB BMC BO Bcex pOCCHfICKHX 6aHKaX. H XOTSA paHO HuI no3AHo IeHTpajThHbIui 6aHK 6ygeT B6IHyxKAeH nepeESTH K HnOX6HOf4 ripaKT4Ke, 9TOT nepexog BPAU JIH HpOH430oAeT B TeqeHHe 6IHxKafiiiHx IATH iieT H, cfielOBaTeaJbHo ero peajin3auHM BbIXOHT 3a BpeMeHHLIe paMKH HacToAiuero HccieAOBaHHAl.

4.16

flporpaMMa BMC cTaBHT riepeg co6off *

Co03,aHHe ceTH 6aHKOB, OTBeqa0o1Hx Tpe6oBaHHSM BMC, KoTopbIe rIpHMeHSIOT JIyq'lylO

*

cieAyiouyse B3aHMoCBs3aHHbie 3aAaqH:

ripaKTHKY 10 CpaBHeHHIO C

ApyrHHMH 6aHKaMH.

IlocTerieHHoe 030OPOBleHHEe 6aHKOBCKOfl CHCTeMbi POCCHH, KOTOpOe

6y,AeT

ripo0C0xoAHn mepe

pocTa tHcna EMC H yBeJIHueHHA Hx AOJIH B

6aHKOBCKO04 geATeJIhHOCTE4.

*

HIOBbIeHHe 94lx1eKTHBHOCTH 6aHKOBCKOU CHCTeMbI B pa3MeLLeHHH pecypCOB riyTeM yBejiHqeHEKA AoJm KpeAHTOB, npeAOCTaBnAeMEbIX 6aHKaMH Ha KoMMepqeCKO4 OCHOBe no CpaBHeHH1 C IOnYqHBIUHM B HacTo5fnUee BpeMX LIHPOKOe pacipoCTpaHeHHe KpeAHTOBaHHeM aKIHOHepOB 6aHKa H CBS3aHHBIX C HHM npegripHASTHi.

*

O6ecneqeHHe BO3MO)KHOCTh

HH4¢opMaiwH onpexAejisTb

AJIA

6aHKH,

HaceIeHHA

qTro6ui

COOTBeTCTBYIOUWHe

ARaTm

HM

C

KOHKpeTHbIM

11OTpe6HOCTAM KnHeHTOB.

BMC Mor0m 6bI cTaTb OCHOBO0l AXR HHTerpatwir 6aHKOBCKOff CHCTeMbI PoccHH B mexAyHapoAHEiie j3HHaHCOBE6Ie pbIHKH. CTaTyC BMC o6nerqHJ 6BI HHOCTpaHHLIM KoMTamAHM H 6aHKaM BbI6op jIyIiuHX 6aHKOB AJIM ocyigecTBEieHHA o0iepaIgHf1 B POCCHH.

13.

B TeOeHHe npoiulioro ro,a B paMKax riporpaMMbI TeXHH'eCKoro coTpyJHmqecTBa BCeMMpHbLi 6aHK 3aHHMajicx pa3pa6oTKok nporpaMMEI BMC COBMOCTHO C UcHTpaAbHbM 6aHKOM H oco6CHHo ero MOCKOBCKHM oTAejieHHeM.


32

B cnexywoax pa3gxenax rpsHBO,HTCA nHDmetD unama nporpammw i IBMC, cocTosiierO H3 Tpex OCHOBHbIX KOMnOHeHTOB: Ha6opa HOpMaTHBHbIX Tpe6oBaHHiI, KOTOPbIM 1OJTxKeH COOTBeTCTBOBaTb BMC, KOMIImeKCa npeHmyulecTB, KOTOpbie MOmrf 6b1I npHBne,q 6aHKI K BCTyrICeHHMO B CHCTeMy EMC, H KOMInieKca aAmHHHcrpaTHBHbIX Mep, KOTOPbIe cneiyeT npeAnpHHsAm rsi nPOBeAeHHS npOrpaMM]l. 4.17

HopMaTHBHbie Tpe6oBaHHS nporpaMMbl. HpexrnaraeMbIe cTaH,japTmi MoyT 6b1m

4.18

aimxx nAmBBegeHbI HeMeAJIeHHO J1160 OCyu1eCTBjieHbI IocrenIeHHO B TeqeHHe 6nft B mo6oM cjiyqae HOpMaTHBHbHe Tpe6oBaHHA AonaKHi 6bm o6xs[BJIeHbI C i gecsT neT. MOMeHTa BHeApeHHA ripOrpaMMbI, C TeM wo6bI 6aHKH 3HamI, KaK HM HeO6XOXUMO BCTryIIeHHA B CHCTeMy EMC. HanpHmep, B HaqaJIe BHeXpeHHA nepeCTpoHnCAi ARA151 nporpammhi cTaH,aPT lMC BoTHouieHHH nOKa3aTejiS COOTHOIIIeHSA yCTaBHOrO KanHTaiJa cTerIIeHH PHCKa Mor 6bi 6bm yCTaHOBJIeH Ha YPOBHe 8 K aKTHBaM HIO B3BeuieHHo npogeHToB. B anJTepHaTHBHOM BapHaHTe 3HaIeHHe [raHHoro Ko94)4)HieHTa AOJTKHO 6im TaK)Ke 06¶b[BjieHO C MOMeHTa BHeApeHHA ripOrpaMMbI, H 6aHKH, KOTOpbIe XOTXT 6Mm

I1PH3HaHHbIMH

EiMC, AOJUKHbI

nOAHAT

KO34"HgHeHT oTHomeHHfI KanHTanIa K aKTHBaM

Ao 4, 6 H 8 npOIeHTOB K 1994, 1997 H 2000 nporpaMMbI B 1993 r.).

rT, COOTBeTCTBeHHO

(npH YCJIOBH

Haqaiia

4.19

XOTSA noITaHHoe peOpOPMHpoBaHHe BbInAA1HT 6onee noAxoA=HM ARA ycnoBHfl KOMnpoMHccHHiA 6aHKy noTpe6yeTCS H3yqHTI BO3MOXCHbr UleHTpajihHoMy PoccHi, BapHaHT Mex1y 9THMH AByMA1 nOAXOgaMH. npH "paHKaJbHOM" noAxoge npegnonaraeTCA, rTo 6aHKH ynyquaT 3cI4eKTHBHOCTB cBoefI

AeATenJhHOCTH

HeMeA1ieHHO, oAHaKo mnIm

HeMHOrRe 6aHKH B TeqeHie AuHTeJbHorO BpeMeHH CMOryT noAAepXCHBaTm ypoBeHL, ygOBieTBOpAIOU.Hi

Tpe6oBaHmSM EMC. B

[pyrofI CTOpOHbI, B pamKax nporpaMMbI

noWTanmHo pedpopmbI nosBmieHHe s(bq)eKTHBHOcTH Ae3rreJILHocTH o EMC MOXCHO 6yAeT cKa3aTm,

wro

9TO JIyqIlHe 6aHKH H WrO 9T0

0603HaqaeT

HX 6onee

sq44eKTHBHyio

peopraHH3agrno no cpaBHeHHio c ApyrHMH 6aHKamH. rIpeHMyU.eCTBo no9TamHoro noARxoxga 3aKmo'IaeTCs B TOM, wro

roTpe6yeTcs

MeHbIIffl

o6feM

jTbrOT wTo6bI 3aHHTepeCOBaTh

B KaTeropHIO EMC. HeKOTopas 11O3TaIHOCTm O6A3aTenLHo 6yxAeT npHCyTCTBOBaTm B J1O6OM cnytae, HOCKOJIbKY yyKecToeHHe KOHTpOAS 3a AeATeJ3THOCTblO riOCTeIieHHO, no mepe paClUHpeHHS1 BO3MOxcHOcTe IIpOHCXOAHTb BMC IleHTpaJbHoro 6aHKa. 6aHKui

nepefmTH

6yAeT

4.20

B 9TOf CBS3H BO3HHKaeT Boiipoc: rioqemy 6bI He BHeApIHT cTaHAapTmI EMC OAHOBpeMeHHO ARA Bcex 6aHKOB? TaKOil mar He npeAcTawBieTCS HH

rIO9TaIrHO, HO

rlpexAe Bcero, ripH BHe,gpeHHH 6onee wecTKHx HH XenaTenbHbIM. CTaHAaPTOB 6omIIIasA qacT 6aHKOB He cMo)KeT COOTBeTCTBOBaTh HOBbIM HOpMaTHBHbIM Tpe6OBaHHSM. I1 6bIJ0 6bI HeBePHO nOJIHTH,eCKH H OqeHb He6narOripHATHO ,n o6iixefk CHTYaIHH IIOrbITaTbCS JIHIIIHTb JIHleH3HH BCe 6aHKH. BO-BTOPbIX, UIeHTpaJThHMi 6aHK He pacrioJIaraeT B03MO)KHOCTSMH KOHTpOLA H npOBepKH COOTBeTCTBHA BBOAHMbIM Tpe6OBaHSiAM He TOJThKO TbICWA, HO xaaxe H COTeH AeiCTByIOiouX 6aHKOB. C Apyroii cropoHibi, ripegcTaB AeTCA enecoo6pa3HbIM 6e3oTnaraTenbHo BBOIHTh HODMaTHBbI no OTHOIUeHHIO KO BCeM BHOBb OTKDbIBaeMbiM 6aHKaM. ro mepe pa3BePThIBaHHIA B03MO)KHMIM,

IBMC


33 nporpammbx BMC IUeHTpaimHbif 6aHK gOi)KeH BbUiaBaTh JIUHieH3HH TOJTbKO TeM 6aHKaM, KOTOpBIe COOTBeTCTBYIOT HopMaTHBaM BMC.

4.21 CnexywowuHe IIxBTh cTaHaaDToB MoryT 6brm npHHsATI AnI peocTaBneHH cTaTyca BMC. KaK rOBOPHJIOCb BbIIme, HeKOTOpbIe H3 9THX CTaHXaPTOB MOr3IH 6b1 6bItm BBegeHbl HeMeAJIeHHO H B nIOnHOM o6ieMe, iipeXWCMOTpeHHOM B ojiroCpo'HHOfH OIITHMaJHOH riepcrieKTHBe, HfiH MOryT BBOHTCSA IIO9TarIHo. B mo6oM cnyqae, Bce 6aHKH gOJKxHbI 6yxWT ripegnpHHASTm 3HaRTeJIbHbIe YCHJIM no geACTByiOUyHe COBepiUeHCTBOBaHHIO CBOeH geArTen6HOCTm C TeM, qTO6bI COOTBeTCTBOBaTh HOpMpTHBHMm Tpe6OBaHHAM BMC.

4.22

IlepBbIe TPH cTaHxapTa MOryT 6bITb nO9TaHHO BBegeH6I B TeqeHHe yKa3aHHOrO B CKo6Kax CpOKa

* BMC gojiJeH cooTBeTcTBoBaTb HOMpaTHBaM pa3mepa KaIHTaAa, IIPpeYCMOTpeHHE,IM Ba3enb6cKHM cornameHH4eM Him cTaHAapTamH EC, To eCT6 CooTHOIuIeHHe yCTaBHOrO KaIHITaha K B3BeiueHHBIM no cTeneHH PHCKa aKTHBaM AOJIXCHO 6L1m He meHee 8 flpOUeHTOB nrpH HalHIHH AOrOiJlHHTrejTHiX OrpaHHqeHHiE B OTHOmeHHH CTpyKTypbI KarUTaIia. (nSIA-AeCS neT). * BMC He XrojDKeH npegocTaBjisTm OXHOMY 3aeMUHKY 3aH4Ma, npeBbimaioilero 25 npoLieHToB cBoero KanHTana Bonee Toro, o6MaA cyMMa KpegrHTOB, H3 HHX noJiyqaeT npegocTaBjiAembix OXHOMY 3aeMnHKy, rIpH YCJIOBHH, qTO Kax)bIt 14 KpeAHT, paBHbIfi 10 H 6ojiee npoieHTaM KanurTana 6aHKa, He Mo)KeT npeBmiuaTh 6onee

em

B BOceMb pa3 pa3Mep KanHTana 6aHKa. (TpH roAa).

*

BMC He Mo)KeT npeAocTasjuim

npeAnpHATHo-axiLHoHepy KpeAHThI B CyMMe 6onee 10 npOi.eHTOB Ka&ITaJTa 6aHKa, a o6wgfi TaKHX KpeAHToB He MO)KeT npeBbIIliaTm 20 npOgxeHTOB KanmTaJIa C npeAnpHArTHMH-aKtcHoHepaMH Bce KpeAHTHMie onepagHiu

6aHKa

o6fbeM 6aHKa.

6aHKa AOJDKHbI rpOBOXIHThCA TOJThKO Ha KOMMepteCKOfl OCHOBe (nsTb neT). OcTanbHbie cTaHAapTbI, KOTOpbie AOJIKHbI 6bIT 4.23 nocne Haqana nporpaMMbI:

BBeAeHbI HerocpeACTBeHHO

*

Pa3Mep KanHTajia BMC AOjiueH 6brlT

*

BMC xonxJeH npeAocraWIATB KBaPTaTHbIbe oTeTmI o60 BCeX 3aeMIugKax, KOTOpbIM npeAocTaBnieHo 6oJiee 10 npogeHTOB KanHTaJTa 6aHKa, HJIH

He MeHee oAHoro MH3inHaPAa py6nefi, MHHHManbhHwIH YPOBeHb6 KanrTana AOjDKeH KOppeKTHpOBaTfCSI exKero,iHo c yqeTOM YpOBH1I HH43JIAIIHH.

6o0iee 5 iTpoLIeHToB, eCJIH 3aeMUWK SIB3iSeTcS aKuOHepoM 6aHKa.


34

*

IBMC

AojiJeH

pacnojiaraTm

pe3epBHbIM

4)OH,gOM

Ha

IIOKpbITHe

nOTeHgHaJIbHLIX y66IITKOB HO ccyAaM, no KOTOPbIM He ynnaxmBaeTcs CCYXHbIH npoiReHT.

*

EBMC ,ojiKeH HcIIonM3OBaTh IpHHSThIe MeTo,ri yteTa H oT'eTHocTrH H peAOCTTaBjiATb oTqeTbI B OTXeZJ Ha,3Opa IeHTpaJIbHoro OTCjeI)KHBaHHA CBoero 4)HHaHCOBOrO COCTOHHSH.

*

EMC xojixeH aygHTopCKOH

6aHKa AJI

noxiBsepraTmcA exceroxrmof ayXiiTopCKOk ripoBepKe BHeIHeii 4)HpMOf H3 qHcfla peKOMeHXOBaHHbIX

UeHTpajThHBIM 6aHKoM.

*

4.24

EMC ,oniKeH npHg"epflHBaTbcA "npaBHJI rIpoBeAeHHA", pa3pa6OTaHHbIX UeHTpaJbHLIM 6aHKOM AJIs peryjmpoBaHI OTHOmeHHfi 6aHKa c KJIHeHTaMH H rapaHTHH YeCTHbIX H CIpaBe,nIHBbIX OTHOmeHHf.

BMC B paMKiax npOrpaMMbJ. fIaKeT nbrOT XOjDKeH npecJxexosaTm ijenm CO3XAaTb KPHTHqeCKYIO Maccy EMC, T.e. 'lHCJIO, AOCTaTOqHOe qTro66i C(DOpMHpOBaTm AXpO 6aHKOBCKOH CHCTeMbI, HO He HaCTOJIbKO MHOrO, oftO6bI IeHTpajmHbIH 6aHK He MOr 6bI OCyigeCTBJLTb ROJDKHOrO Ha,3Opa 3a HX esATenbHocTMbo. rlpHiiaraeMbiH HIeK nepeqeHb npH4BOXHT nDHMeDbI JibrOT, KOTOpbIe MOrJH 6bi 6BITb ripeAocTaBJIeHbI JIbroTbi, npelocTamseMbie

EMC.

IIpaBo nojiyHTB cTaTyc EMC.

rIoxo6Hbif4 3HageHHe xiiA 6aHKa, IIOCKOflbKY AaBan 6b MeHbuIHe npoxeHTbI no BKJIaxgam.

cTaTyC HMeJI

6bi 6onbImoe

eMy B03MOXKHOCTh

IlflaTHTh

*Bonee AeiiieBbie KpeAi4TbI IleHTpanbHoro 6aHKa. riony'eHHLIe JTm6o no 6onee HH3KHM yqeTHbiM cTaBKam, 3IH60 3a cieT pa3peimieHms 6onee AeIIIeBoro 3anorosoro o6ecrieqeHHA. 9To MOXKHO onpaBxaTm qHCTO KoMMep t qecKH: Kpe,HTOBaHHe BMC 6bino 6bI CBS3aHO c MeHbuiHM P4CKOM.

rlpexocTaBjieHHe

jTbrOT B OTHOUieHHH CTpaXOBaHIA BK1IaAOB XOMaUIHHX

X03Af4CTB. OxHa cTpyKTypa 9TOi imroTbI npexnonaraeT BHeceHHe BMC 6onee HH3KIIX CTpaXOBbIX B3HOCOB npH CTpaXOBaH4HH 9THX BKna,OB. CyIeCTByeT H xrpyrof, 6onee 93c1xeKTHBHBIlf nyT6: HCnO3Th3OBaHHe AOCTyria K CTpaXOBaHHIO BK3iaXOB KaK CTHMYJI ARA 6aHKa BOATH B CHCTeMy BMC. EMC flOJIyIHJI 6BI AOCTyrl K CTpaXOBaHHIO BKJInaOB AOMaifiHHX X03AftCTB H HMeJi 6BI BO3MOXHOCTb HCnOJIb3OBaTh 9TH BKjia,bI X4A OCyigeCTBJIeHHIA KpeAHTHbIX onepaLgHH, npHpepXHBaAi6 npH 9TOM JIHIU6 O6bIqHbIX pe3epBHLIX Tpe6oBaHHf4 B OTHOuieHHH aHHbIX geno3HTOB. C Apyrou CTOpOHbI, MOJCHO 6bIJI0 6bI BBeCTH nojio)KeHHe, B COOTBeTCTBHH C KOTOPbIM 6aHKH, He BXOAa1IUMe B CHCTeMy BMC, AOjLKHbI 6bIJIH 6LI nOnHOCTbIO nepeBOxHTh BKnaI]bI AOMamHHX XO3XACTB Ha CHneiHaJbHHiH


35

cseT HOA

HH3KHH npOileHT B UeHTpanJ6HOM 6aHKe AIA co6rnoAeHHA ripaBHJI CTpaXOBaHHA gaHHbIX BKnaAOB. TaKas npaKTiUKa rapaHTpoBana 6bI IIOHTH HCKJIIOtIHTeJIbHoe BHeCeHHe BKjiaAOB AOMa8UHHX X03AACTB B BMC HJH B C6ep6aHK. rIOMHMO 3Ha8HTeJIT6HOrO rlOBbI6iiHIeHI 3aHHTepeCOBaHHOCTH 6aHKOB BOUITU B qHCJIO BMC, 9TO TaK)Ke 1I03BOIIUO 6bI Cep)KxaTB pa3BHTHe CHCTeMHbIX rIpO6JieM B 6aHKOBCKOf4 cHcTeMe POCCHH." 4

CHHpKeHHe

"Beca"

Toro

1HJIH HHoro

PHCKa,

HCIOJh3yemoro IIPH

oTpeAeneHHH aCeKBaTHOCTH KaiiHTaJa 6aHKa,rro npHBeAeT c cHHX(eHHiO CTOHMOCTH 3ae MH6IX cpegTcB Ha me)6aHKOBCKOM HUeHTpam6H16uA pbI6HKe.

6aHK TaIKxe mor 6ibi orpa.HHqHT]b KpeAHTHY10 AeATeMT~HOCTb C6ep6aHKa, pa.3peLUHB emy nPexAocTawLqTis 38.eMHMi cpeACTBa Ha mex6aHKOBCKOM PbIHKe TOJIhKo 6aHKaM BMC. *

pJO6ierTIeHHe pa.3peifLuHHS

paCIlHpeHHA

ceTH

68aHKa.

rryTem

aBomaTH eCK

Ha CO3Aa8HHe HOBBIX oTAenieHHfi 6aHKa H iTeOTajeR

ripeHMyBgecTBeHHoro *6 3aHCYMIorHTeJMHoe

inpaBa Ha rIOKYBnKY IHKBH6HpyeM6ix 6aHKOB.

p B

B pamKax 6yAuyigefi II.HHLHfa a3eulHHA p8.3

H Ha KaqeCTBe nHTB r a K8.oTCTb 6aHKa-ylIa.cTHHKa flporpammbl Ka.CKaAxHoro (HJIH rnHpamHAHoro) KpeAHTOB (THna ArIEKC) npH iMpOBCeAeHHH

onepalHfl ca YICTHem meKAXyHa.pBOXAHbIX

(CHHa.HCOBbIXopraHH3alIHH4.

N llpNBOolepxNKa l4HHa.HCHpOBaHHH nlpH

KOHTpa.KTOB Ha

yripa8BJ1eHHe

KOHCYJI]bTauHOHHLIX

yCjiyr,

H A~PyrHx noAo6Horo poga corniaieHHfl 0

CTNCyAHHqeCTBe C HHOcTpaMHH16MH 6aHKamH.

4.25

YnpanBneHHie nIporpammo EMC. AM KOOPAXHHaiHH rIporpambMM, B]6iAaqH flHI Mi H COBmeCTHoro c KoHTPOJI"HbIM YnpaBJIeHHem pueHTpaJibHoro 68.HK HaA3opa 3a AeAITejhH0onmo BMC UeHTpaJA6HLIA 6 AOjiKeH aHK CO3A TO cneLuHajHoe YcIpaBneHHe BMC. YnpaBneHHe MOrJIO 661 6MI CT 3XC08.HO Ha OCHOBe MOCKOBcKoro oTAejTeHHAl UlelrpaAb6Horo r6aHKa, K0T0poe B HaCToAsiTee BpeMA1 pa3pa6aTIBaeT niporpammy BMC. 4.26 BaHIKH, HeceATeH

x(eJiaioIHe

no3yHTb

cTaTyc

B Aa.HHoee ypaBIeHHee H npe

BMC,

morHiH

6b

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36

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4.28

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37

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39

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40

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npeAnpHuAsT, noAo6Ho mo6oMy ApyroMy 6aHKy, 3a TeM HcKiiOqeHHeM, 'TO O6A3aTejTiCrBa rOcyzApCTBoM. HpeAocTaBneHHe KpeARTOB C6eperaTeJnHoro 6aHKa 6y,WT rapaTmpoBaTbcro C6eperaTeumHimM 6aHKoM ycHiuHo 6bI KOHKypeHWHIO Ha pbIHKe KpeAHTOB, OAHaKO BLI3BajiO 6bI AoriojiHHTejbHHbi PHCK AiHA rapaHTHpyeMbix rOCyAapCTBOM BKna,OB AROMauiHHX X03SANCTB. IlpH BbI6ope AaHHOro BapHaHTa LjeHTpaiEHmi6 6aHK AOjDKeH 6yAeT HanpaBHTh 6oumuxyio qacTm CBOHX yCHvHN no HaA3Opy Ha xAesreumHocTb C6eperaTeumHoro 6aHKa, npmHHMaA Bo BHNMaHHe o6feM oriepatHiy 6aHKa H TO, 'To C6eperaTeummIft 6aHK cTan 6m eNHHCTBeHHbIM 6aHKoM, rAe CyHleCTByeT PHCK rIO BKjia,aM AOOMaIIIHHX Xo3AICTB. B03MOKHOCTE pa3yKpynHeHHA UeHTpaJHOMy 6aHKy TaKxce CJiegyeT H3y'ITh C6eperaTeumHoro 6aHxa, qTO CrIOC06CTBOBanO 6U IlOBLIIfieHHiO 93"eKTHBHOCTH

ynpaBuieHNs 9THM 6aHKOM. 9Ta mepa MOxceT 6bITb ocytecTBieHa co'eTaHHeM pa3AeneHHs 6aHKa Ha HeCKOJIbKO camocTosTeJmHbix 6aHKOB HflH IHJ¶HaJIoB H ripOAaxcH OTTAeJIeHHf,

paCriojio)KeHHbIX B KpymIHLIX ropoAax, 6aHKaM meyHapoAHbix cTaHAaPTOB (EMC). 4.40

B cooTBeTcTBHH co BTOPbIM BapHaHTOM, C6eperaTem6HEIai 6aHK cocpeAOqNwTCA Ha IIpHBJIe'eHHH BKJIaAOB AOMauHUX X03XINCTB, BLMOJIHAIS pOJIb, CXOXCyIO C pOMIO CyLIeCTBybOuLHx BO MHOrHX CTpaHaX IIOqTOBLIX 6aHKoB. B AraHHOM BapHaHTe C6eperaTenLHOMy 6aHKy 6wbIo 6M 3anipeI1eHO npeAOCTaB 36KpeTHnI npeInpH5rrHM, H OH 6EIm 6b OrpaHH'IeH B pa3mepe ccyA, npeAocTaAemIe x gOMamHHM X03ANfcTBaM, H o6¶beMax KpegHTOB, npeAnaraeM]ix Ha MexC6aHKOBCKOM pbIHKe. HaripHmep, C6eperaTeumHOMy 6aHKy MO)CHO 6bIJx0 6bI pa3peIlUTbT npeAocTaBen KxpeAHThI Ha Mex(6aHKOBCKOM pLIHKe B o6'beMe, He npeBEbiiaioIEIem 10 IipOpeHTOB OT BKTaAOB, a ripH Kpe,HTOBBHHH HaCeCeHHS -- go 15 npOtXeHTOB, HO He 6ouiee 5 MHNTJOHOB py6neft


41

KaX(AOMY 3aeMUIlHKy, T.e. B npegenIax

THrOBOrO

KpeXWTa Ha

roKyHKy

aBToMo6HJIA.

HHoTeqHoe KpeHTOBaHHe TaKxKe MoxKeT 6bITL paCCMOTpeHO KaK OAHH H3 B03MOCKHIX BapHaHTOB Kpe,HTOBaHS goOMaXHHx X03SI4CTB. Ha HaiaJMHOM sTane TaKaA 4)opMa KpegHTOB AOJDKHa 6BIT pa3pemueHa TOJT6KO B He6oJIbIuoM 06obeMe OT o6U[Xero HopT4eRA KpeHTOB, HOCKOJIBKyn epeg C6eperaTenbHBM6 6aHKOM CTOHT 3agawa Ho pa3BHTHIO HaBMIKOB

o4)OpMJIeHHS BBI6gaqH H o6cJyIXBaHnsI Kpe,HTOB. OcTaJIBHbIe BKJia,bI MorIH 6BI 6Bim HCIIOJIb3OBaHLI ANA nOKYrKH He o6pauaioUXHxcsA Ha PBIHKe rOcyXapCTBeHHbIx ueHHbix 6yMar c nepeMeHHoi npOLeHTHOI CTaBKOfl Ha HeCKOJTbKO nYHKTOB HHJKe yqeTHOI CTaBKH

UeHTpaJmHoro 6aHKa, BHIinymeHHIX CHeiHaNjbHO

4.41

B cJIytae BbI6opa

AJIA

9TO1f UeJIH.

xaHHoro BapHaHTa C6eperaTeJIbHbI6i 6aHKc o6ecnemJI 616 BceM

AoMaiHHM XO3sIHCTBaM B POCCHH B03MOXHOCTB HaAe)KHoro HOMeiIeHHA c6epexeHmf, AocTyna K paCqeTHON CHCTeMe H IBAJISCS 6bI HCTOtHHKOM KpemHTOB. C6eperaTeJmHbINk 6aHK TaKxKe npoAonDKa

6bI BbICTyHrTa

B KaqeCTBe mHcTpyMeHTa nojiHTmc UeHTpaAbHoro 6aHKa npH onpegeneHI- 6a3oBof npOUeHTHOH CTaBKH. TaKOu BapHaHT npeXCTaBJAeTCA rpeXUoqTHTeIbHbIM, HO KpaHeHI Mepe, Xo Tex nop, HOKa He HIOABHTCSA AOCTaTOqHOe KOJIHNeCTBO KOMmepqecKmx 6aHKOB, cnoco6HbIX BbInoONHITh 9TH 4)yHKIXHH, H AO Tex nop, noKa UeHTpajibHLI6i 6aHK He 6yAeT cnoco6eH oCyIeCTBRAT]6 9c2eKTHBHLIf HaA30p 3a AesTeJIbHOCTIO

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4.42

rIepexo, K pbIHOqHOfi 3KOHOMHKe ynpa3HHfl OCHOBHbIe 4 NyHKWH rlpoMcTpof6aHKa. C yqeTOM BHyTpeHHefI WHHaMHKH 6aHKa MO)KHO npeHojIOxcHmT6, qTo IIpOMCTpof6aHK Mor 6bi cTaTm riperLATCTBHeM npH npOBeAeHHH npOrpaMMbI pe4)OpM. ro mepe OTKa3a OT rOCyxapCTBeHHorO KpeAHTOBaHHA, o6seM oHepagidHl IpOMcTpOf6aHKa pe3KO COKpaTHTCS. BbIcoKaA XOJiS KxpeAHTOB, nO KOTOpbIM He nOCTyHaTOT niIaTexuH CTaBOK, H npo,onxaioWaACA TeHAeHI,H o6oco6neHHu OTXejieHHfi rlpoMcTpofi6aHKa TaKwe oKaeKeT BJIHAHHe Ha coKpaugeHHe o6fteMa onepaIHfi 6aHKa.

npOgeHTHbIX

4.43 aKTHBHOA

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6aHK H npaBHTeJH)CTBO AOJDKHbI paccmoTpeTm BO3MO)KHOCTb nOCTeneHHOrO H opraHH3OBaHHorO pa3yKpyHIHeHHM

flpOMCTpoN6aHKa, HCnOJIb3y)l cJIeARyiowe MepbI:

H UeHTpaJbHbIif 6aHK AOJDKHMI HOTpe6oBaTm OT npoMcTpof6aHKa HpOpoaTb CBOH aKIHH B 12 perHOHan]HbIX 4HnHaanax 6aHKa, B KOTOpbIX 6aHK BnageeT KOHTpOJThHbIM HaKeTOM. BioJIHe B03MOXCHO, qTO HeKOTOpbme H3 9THX 1)HjiHajiOB npeBpaTITCA BcjieA 3a ApyrHMH 6bBIIHMH OTTRejieHHAMH rlpOMCTpOf6aHKa B OTHOCHTejTbHO npaBHTenbCTBO

AIHHaMHtqHbIe 6aHKIH.

OT rIpOMCTpOf46aHKa TaKxce MO)KHO HOTpe6OBaTb paCCTaTbcA CO BCeMH aKTHBaMH (BKJIIOqaA HeABHwK4MOCTb), He BXOXRIWHMH B cdpepy ero OCHOBHON4 gesTenbHOCTH. BbIpy'Ka, rOjiyqeHHaS OT 3THX npOAaJK, He


42

AoJHa HCrIO3h3OBaThbCA Ha nrpeAocTaBjieHHe HOBBIX KpeAHTOB, a AoJDKHa 6bITb HarIpaBjieHa Ha riOKpbITHe AOjIrOB flpoMcTpoA6aHKa IInpaBHTeCTBY H IjeHTpam6HoMy 6aHKy Hnx ,ReIIOHHpOBaHa B KaKoM-31H60 ApyrOM 4,HHaHCOBOM yqpexceHHH KaK rapaHTmI *UeHTpajbHbIli

6aHm

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flpoMcTpOA6aHKy

3aeMibIe

Ha Mex6aHKoBCKOM pbIHKe, wTo6ii H36exKaTh KocBeHHoro

onepa1HH (PHHaHCHPOBaHHA PHCKOBaHHMiX KpeATOB IIpOMCTpOi6aHKa H3 CPeACTB BKJIaAOB AOMaUHHX X03AfICTB.

.4.44

BO3MO)KHO, wTO nocnie npOBexAeHHsI pa3yKpyuHeHH

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rIpoMcTpofi6aHK cMo)KeT

43HHaHCOBOfk CTpyKTypOf4. EcJIH We STorO He

npeAnaraemsie MepbI o6ecneqaT nocTeneHHoe coKpameHHe oriepaWdl

nPpoH3otAeT, AaHHoro 6AHKa, He BLI3LIBaS 3HaqHTeJIBHbIX He6JIaroIpHITHbIX HapymeHHH BO BCeII 6aHKOBCKOA

cHCTeMbI.


43

5.

PA3BHThE bHHAHCOBOR HH4PACTPYKTYPbI

5.1

B HacTosAulei rniaBe paccMaTpHBaIOTCS HaH6onee BaxKHbIe pe4)opMbI cDHHaHCOBOf4 iaHHppacTpyKTypbI POCCH1H, Heo6xogHMbIe xIA Toro qTO6bI noxAepX(aTh pa3BHTHe npoqHofh H 934X4eKTHBHOf1 pbIHOqHOfi 4¢IHaHCOBOfl cHcTeMbI. DHHaHCOBaA HH4paCTpyKTypa BKJIIO,aeT B ce6s IIpaBOBbIe OCHOBbI, peryjJHPOBaHHe H yqeT, rocygapCTBeHHbIe HHCTHTyTbI, npogeCCcI H CHCTeMbI, B KOTOPbIX geHCTBYIOT (DHHaHCOBLIe yqpexKgeHHA. B gaHHofi rnaBe paCCMaTpHBalOTCA1 cie,gyioiiHe acneKTbI 4(HHaHCOBOH HH(bpaCTPYKTYPbI POCCHH: flpaBOBbIe OCHOBU6, pm3BHTHe 6yXra=TepCKorO yqeTa H aygHTa, o6ecneqeHHe 6aHKOBCKoro peryIHpoBaHHA H Ha,3opa 3a AeSTeJIbHOCTbIO 6aHKOB,

nOArOTOBKa

pedpopMa ininaTeXKHOA CHCTeMLT H BBegelHHe CHcTeMbI CTpaXOBBaHHA

6aHKOBCKHX KagpOB, enO3HTOB

17

TpaBoBbie OCHOBbI

5.2

rIpaBOBbIe OCHOBbI cyigeCTBOBaBIneH paHee 1ieHTpajiH3OBaHHOH nnjaHOBOA 3KOHOMHKH HCXOXHJIH, B OCHOBHOM, H3 agMHHHCTpaTHBHbIx, a He AoroBOPHLIX OTHOUleHHI4 H 3HaqHTenJbHO orpaHH1HBaJIH npaBo HMeTb qaCTHyIO C06CTBeHHOCTH H npaBo pacnopAxaTbcs ejo. EaHKOBCKaS H (DHHaHCOBaq CHCTeMa paccMaTPHBsaRaCb KaK HeoTbeM3ieMaS IaCTb rIIaHOBO1l 9KOHOMHKH H eCfCTBOBmaa IIOqTH xeJIHKOM Ha OCHOBe Heny6jiHKyeMbIx 3aKOHoAaTeTJIbHbIx aKTOB. HlOHSATHA pbIHOxHOHl 9KOHOMHKH 0 cBo6oxe

3aKJiio0eHHA KOHTpaKTa H o6MenpHHsTbIx nP1HHuHnax ripaBoBoro rocyxapcTBa 31H60 6bIJIH HeH3BecTHbI, jH6o OTBepraJInHcb.

5.3

3a nocjiexAHHe nojiTopa roxga nojioxKeHHe Haqanio MeHAThcA. BbInH cgenaHbi

rIOIrKH rIpOBeCTH B )KH3Hb 3aKoHbI, KoTopmIe (a) CpaBHHTeJThHO SCHbI H HcnojiHHMEI; (6) coAep.KaT OCHOBHbIe noioxKeHHJ AorOBOpHoro npaBa Ha 4pOHe Cepbe3HbIe

(cyugeCTBOBaHnA)

iTpaB CO6CTBeHHOCTH, BKjiOoqaSq HHTe3iJieKTyaJILHyIO C06CTBeHHOCTb, H 3aKOHOB, peryniHpyioL=ax ApyrHe 06x3aHHoCTH; (B) onpegeJIAIOT HOPAXOK paCCMOTpeHHS

HapymIeHHl

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C

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He3aMeARHTejibHo, 6e3 H3JIHIIIHHX 3aTpaT H 6e3 ipHMeHeHHA nojiHTHieCKoro H HHoro AaBJneHHAI, a TaKxe ANA Toro, oTO6bI cxo)KHe MeCKAy Co6of Agejia paccMaTpHBanHcb oxHHaKoBo; (r) npH3Ha1OT 3aKOHW gpyrHx rOCyXapCTB H B To )KeBpeMIcoAepxcaTnpaBHjia pa3pemeieHH

5.4

KOHc3JIHKTOB, cBA3aHHbIX C rpOTHBOpeqHSIMH B 3aKOHoAaTejTbCTBax.

B peKOPAHO

KOPOTKHeCPOKH3aKOHOAaTeJIbHbIMHaKTaMH BePXOBHbIM COBeTOM H npe3HAeHTCKHMH yKa3aMH 6bIn npHHAT pXA 3aKOHOB: "3aKOH O 6aHKpOTCTBe" (geficTByeT

c 1 MapTa 1992 roxa), "3aKoH 0 BajiTOTHOM peryJIHpOBaHH4" (c 4 HOA6pA 1992 r), CyD.eCTBeHHbIe riOripaBKH B TPYXOBOM KogeKce (25 ceHTM6pM 1992 r.), a TaKKe 6onibloe yKa3OB H iIOCTaHOBjieHHfI nO pa3JIHqHbIM acTeKTaM, KaCa1OIHIHMCA

KOJIHtqeCTBO

17. HaH6onee BaxKHbIM 3JIeMeHToM 4rnHaHCOB091 HH4paCTPyKTyPbI SBjiAeTCA L]eHTpambhbiA 6aHK, C KBaaJIH4luIpOBaHHbIM nePCOHaJIOM H CpeACTBaMH, IIO3BOJIA1oU£MmH eMy 4)OpMyjiHpOBaTb C)HHaHCOByIO H perylixpyioUiy HOjINTHKy. OAHaKO 3TOT BOllPOC He paCCMaTPHBaeTCI B HaCTOXAgeM AOKjiaAe. EMY yejIZCeTCA BHMmaHHe B AoKxcaje "PoccHAcKax <DeAepawuX: yKpeniIieIHeH aHlaHJ3 MOHeTapHbIX onepaiwA ILeHTpaJIHOrO 6amnca. MB4, oipi6pb 1992 r.


44 HHTenJIJeKTyambHOI Co6CTBeHHOCTH, TpaCTOB, 3anoroBoro o6ecneqeHHA, aKiwoHePHbIX o6ieCTB, pa3JIHqHoro poga ToBapHiecTB, peryj1HpoBaHHA PbIHKa IXeHHbIx 6yMar, BOIIpOCOB He(¢TMHOH H ra3OBOH rpoMbITiJIeHHOCTH, 6yxranrepcKoro yqeTa, H 3eMeJhHOft pe4opMbi. no mepe KOHCTHTy1HOHHOI pe4OpMbI, HHOCTpaHHbIX HHBeCTH>Hi pa3BHTHS pbIHOqHOfI 9KOHOMHKIH MHOme H3 9THX 3aKOHOAaTenJbHbIX aKTOB noTpe6yIOT KOppeKTHpoBKH. ARA ocyUeCTBneHHM o6UHX npHHUHIOB, 3aJIO)KeHHbIX B pa3JIH4HUIX 3aKOHOgaTenjbHbIX aKTax, nOTpe6YIOTcs TaKxKe AonoJIHHTeJbHMie pernameHTHpyioii e 3aKOHOAaTeJIbHbIX BTOpOrO IIOKOJIeHH HOpMbI H npoiAeAypbI. rIOHago66HTCq C03gafHHl aKToB, BKJIIO'qaS npHHATHe Mmep no ciiegyioloHM BOnpocaM: rpHBaTH3aIIHH,

HenjiaTeicecnoco6HOCTb. 3aKOH B 3TOii o6JIaCTH y)Kxe cyieCTByeT, HO AR ero sqc1beKTHBHoro 4)yHK9HoHHPOBaHKs Heo6xogiHMo npIHHST iLenbifk Heo6xoAHMa pa3pa6oTKa PAA nO)A3aKOHHbIx aKTOB. B 'acTHocTH, nonO)KeHHH OTHOCHTenJbHO KPHTepHeB I1pH3HaHHIA rOCygapCTBeHHMIX HerJIaTexcecnOCo6HbIMH, pa3XjefleHHS OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, npeAnpAxT1HTH B3BeLueHHOrO 4HppM, rOCygapCTBeHHbIX y6bITKOB 4HHaHCOBbIX peryjiHpOBaHHs, HanpasneHHoro Ha o3,OPOBeHHS HenJiaTexKecnocO6HbIx npe,gnpHwTH,

H KpTepHHeB 6aHKPOTCTBa.

3aaiorax O 3aKOH CyIImeCTByIoIlHfI o6ecneqeHHe. 3anoroBoe o noIro)KeHHA qeTKHe OTCYTCTBYIOT HeM B MajiOc12eKTHBeH, nOCKOJIbKy IIpHOPHTeTHOCTH KpeAlHTOpOB. KpoMe TOrO, OH He npeXyCMaTpHBaeT geHTpann30saHHoro MexaHH3Ma perHCTpaiAHH 3anorOB a TaK)Ke npaBHJI B3bICKaHKS 3anora. *

3aKOHbI O Co6CTBeHHOCTH. OnpegaeneHHe npaBa C06CTBeHHOCTH Ha TOBapbI H HeMaTepHaJIbHbIe UeHHOCTH B iLejiOM yXOBfleTBOpHTejIbHO, HO HeO6XOXU4MO BHeCTH yTO'IHeHHe B 3aKOHOgaTeJIbCTBO 0 BjiageHHH 3eMjiefi. Be3 3HaqHTeJIbHbIX H3MeHeHHft B 9TOH o6naCTH 3aKOH 0 3aJIOrOBOM o6ecneqeHHH He MoKceT 6bITb ac141eKTHBHbIM, a 9TO nperI1MTCTByeT np4BjieteHHIO HHOCTpaHHbIX 14HBecTHL]Hf.

*

3aKOH o nipeHinSHTHI4X. PaCCMaTpHBaeTCq HOBbIU 3aKOH o6 aKyHOHepHbIX o6uieCTBax. OH XOJIKeH peLIHTb TaKHe BOIIPOCbI, KaK CO3AaHHe KOMMep,eCKHX npegrnpHsTHHt, onpegeiieHHe cTaTyca orpaHHFeHHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, rpOUpeAyPbI BXOKgeHHA Ha PbIHOK H BbIXOXa C pbIHKa, CeHe)KHbie 3aMMbl, rIOKyrKa B paCCpOrKY H apeHAa. 3aKOH 0 pacqeTax H CHCTeMax pacqeTa. CpO'qHO Heo6xogHMa pecjopMa CHCTeMblI pacqeTOB, rIOBbIUIIeHHA C LtenbIO YCOBepuIfeHCTBOBaHHA 6e3OnaCHoCTH H HCHIOJIb3OBaHHA HOBOfI TeXHOJIOrHH. npHOpHTeTHOM 3agavefi 3geCb BJIASeTCS pa3pa6OTKa KOHiLeriLHH KOMMYHHKagHfi H OpraHH3aUHOHHOfl CTpyKTypbI. COBepiUeHCTBOBaHRe TexHoJIorH HMmeeT npAMOe OTHOuieHHe K 3aKOHY 0 9OKa3aTeJTbCTBeHHOM ripaBe, KOHTPaKTaX H ArPyrHx npaBax co6CTBeHHocTH. HOBaS TexHojiorHq nOTpe6yeT TaKxce


45 HPOBegReHHA ApyrHx Mep, HanpHMep, perJiaMeHTHpoBaHsA 3JIeKTpOHHOu CHCTeMbI riepeBOOB geHeXHblIX cpeXCTB. 3aKOHogaTeImCTBO 0 ueHHbIX 6vmarax. Heo6xoAHMa pa3pa6oTKa iioJIo)KeHHH, peryJIHpyIOUWX pbIHOK BbIiiyCKa H onepagHfZ c i4eHHbIMH 6yMaraMH, BKJIIOqaq yripaBJIeHHe HHBeCTHLIHOHHbIMH oriepaunmm. TaKoe 3aKOHOgaTeJIbCTBO yxce HaXOXAHTCS B CTa,XHH pa3pa6oTKH. OHO XROXKHO o6ecneqHT]6 nPaBOBYIO OCHOBY AJSI Co3)aHHS ynpaBJreHHA no TOproBJe ieHHbIMH 6yMaraMH, cIOHXOBbIX 6HPiK, (pIHpM, CHeIIHaJ1H3HPYIOIIHXCA Ha onepausAx C LieHHbIMH 6yMaraMH, HHBeCTHIHOHHbIX 4)OH,OB, COBMeCTHbIX 4)OHROB H gpyrHx (1HHaHCOBbIX yqpexKgeHHH. *OHROBbIe 6HPH. flporpamma npHBaTH3anH 3HatHTeNjbHO fpOXBxHeTCA Briepe;j, ecJii 6yXgeT YCOBepIeHCTBOBaHa CHCTeMa TOprOBjiH leHHbIMH 6yMaraMH. IlpoeKT 3aKOHa rio CO3XaHHIO H peryn pOBaHX41 AeATeJIbHOCTH q)OHXOBbIX 6Hpx yxe CyigeCTByeT, HO 3aKOH r1OKa He nPHHST. *

CTpaXOBaHHe. 3aKOHOgaTejmbHas 6a3a B o6JIaCTH CTpaXOBaHHS1 nOjrHOCThIO OTCyTCTByeT. Heo6xoxgHMo Co3gaaHHe peryJn4pypoiero opraHa H pa3pa6OTKa COOTBeTCTBy1OIIHX flOA3aKOHHbIX aKTOB HO CO3AaHmO qaCTHbIX CTpaXOBbIX 4HPM, "6JIaropa3yMHOMy" (npygeHga.]bHOMy) peryjTHpOBaHHIO, yx1aCTHIO HHOCTpaHHLIX CTpaXOBLIX KOMnaHHf H nepeCTpOfIKa CHCTeMbI COIHzambHoro o6ecneqeHHA.

5.5

COBepIIIeHCTBOBaHHe B BbIiueyKa3aHHbIX o6nIacTAx nOMOxceT C03gaTb lLHpOKylO pa3BHTHA pbIHOqHOH 6aHKOBCKOf CHcTeMbI. Heo6xoxmmi TaKxCe 6onee KOHKpeTHbIe nOJIO)KeHHA B o6JIaCTH 6aHKOBCKOrO H 4)HHaHCOBOrO HpaBa. rpeACTOHT pelUHTh P31) CTPYKTYPHbIX BOIlPOCOB, B 1aCTHOCTH, BOrIpOC O po0H H nOjmHOMoqHAX IleHTpaJThHOrO 6aHKa H ero B3aHMOOTHoIIeHHxx c rapJIaMeHToM, MHHHcTepCTBOM dFHHaHCOB H ,gpyrHMHOTpaCJIeBbIMH MHHHCTepCTBaMH H TaKHM o6pa3oM OnpegeZJHTb HX MeCTO H O6A3aHHOCTH B CHCTeMe Hag3opa 3a 6aHKOBCKOH gesrTejTbHOCTbIo, o6mme HanpasB3eHHA B pa3BHTHH 6aHKOBCKOH CHCTeMbI H, B qaCTHOCTH, onpegeneHHH xaparrepa H MaCIUTa6OB nOflHOMOqHfI H o6A3aHHocTef 6aHKOB.

3aKOHOgaTeJIbHY1O 6a3y AJx

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3aKOHogaTeJIbCTBa, TaKX(e TOPM03HT H rio0IHoieHHO 4YHKUH0HHPyio0Uefi

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cyAe6HLIx pemeHHRf, TLeHTpanbHbIH opraH no perHcTpaiHH 3aJIoroB, a TaKxKe yqpexKAeHHA no iopHxIeC HCrIOJIHeHHIO 3ajioroB, c60py HajorOB H BbInoJIHeHHIO gpyrHx noAo6HbIx 4yiHKuH.

Heo6xoxHMo TaK)Ce CO3,AaHHe yqpeK;XeHHAs no npegoCTaBJIeHHIO KOHKpeTHLix


46 6aHKoBcKHx ycjiyr, HaripHMep, aHaJI3a cTaTHcTHIecKHx rioKa3aTeJieH AeMTeJMHoCTH ripeAipH4ATHf, CHCTeMbi XpaHeHSA AROKyMeHTaIJH rnpeIpH=slH, yqeTa HeiTorameHHbix HJH qeKOB, OgHOpa30BbIX iiIiaTexceH, ounH6oK B nIIaTexax, a TaycKe yTepSHHbIx rIOxHuleHHBIX qeKOB. ByxraJITepcKnil yMeT H ayAHTopcicas npoBepica BaHKH H ApyrHe (pHHaHCOBbie y"pexAeHH B POCCHH B HaCTo=ee BpemA H ayAi4a gefCTByI0T B YCJIOBHXX OTcyTCTBHs HagnexaLgeR CHCTeMLI 6yxranTepcKoro yteTa

5.7 H

HHCTPyMeHTOB

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H

ueJlecoo6pa3Horo

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CHCTeMa

6yxrajTepCKoro yteTa B POCCHH HCTOpHgeCKH 6LijIa OpHeHTHpOBaHa Ha o6ecneReHHe IleHTPaJIH3OBaHHOrO KOHTPOJIS CO CTOpOHLI rocygapCTBa 3a HCIIOJTh3OBaHHeM peCypCoB ByxranTepcKHe KagpBI B OCHOBHOM 3aHHManIHCB CqeTOBOACTBOM, cjierio npeAnpHATrii. co6JnowaH MHoroqHcjieHHBIe HHCTPyKMHH H yXenSI Manjo BHHMaHHS npHHWnaM 6yxrajiTepcKoro yieTa. ByxranTepcKi4fi yteT Ha YPOBHe npenpHsrrHs

H 6aHKa Manjo

OTjIHaJICSA OT ytIeTa, OCyiueCTBjiSeMOrO B rOCygapCTBeHHbIX BegoMCTBax, H npeACTraBJ o3Haqana c060A Ha6op LieneBbIx q)OHAOB. 3KOHOMHYeCKaS H303SIgH POCCHH no cyn4ecTBy HHOCTpaHHofi OTCYTCTBHe HeO6XO9JHMOCTH 3aHHMaTBCSA fpo6JIeMaMH, CBI3aHHE IMH C HeHyX(HbIM. 6bIn1 yqeT ee BaJioTOfi. rIOCKOJITKY HH4fRAUM CtHTaJiacb HeCyaxeCTBy1OLgefi,

He 6hmlo qeTKO HaIiaJKeHHOH CHCTeMi6I nPOBepKH cqeTOB 6aHKOB H nPpe,rnpHATHH. BMecTo pa3 3TOrO ripeACTaBHTeJIH HaJIOrOBOf CJIy)K6bI IIpOBOXHJIH HHCIIeKLHOHHbIe peBH3HH OAHH B gBa roAga, KOHTpOJIHpYA JIHIfIb Co63loAeHHe npaBHJI H HHCTpyKtHM.

5.8

HeAocTaTKH CyigeCTByionef1 CHCTeMLI 6aHKOBcKoro yqeTa, y3KOe nIOHHMaHHe

OTCyTCTBHe CYTH 4)HHaHCOBLIX OTqeTOB, IIpHMHTHBHbIe MeTOIbI 6yxraJiTepCKoro yYeTa, 3HaqHTeJImHyio COOTBeTCTBYOI1efl CCTrMemI OTqeTHOCTH H KOHTPOJA nipeACTraB3SOT

OnaCHOCTb ARAX 43HHaHCOBOl CHCTeMmI. OCHOBHmIe HeAOCTaTKH cyMeCTByioIIef CHCTeMEI CBX3aHbI C TeM, YTO c1l4HaHCOBbIe oTYeTbI He AaEOT BKjiaAqHKaM, aKgHOHePaM TPeTbHM nm4iaM TORHOR KapTHHLI Ae1iTeJIbHOCTH 6aHKa, ero rIiaTe)Kecnoco6HocTH, UpH6bITMHoCTM 6aHKOB H JIHKBHXHOCTH H He MOryT CJIY)KHTh HaAeKXHbIM 9OKa3aTej3bCTBOM COOTBeTCTBHA

KPHTepHAM 6naropa3yMHoro Be,reHHM Aen. 5.9

rlPaBHTeJTbCTBO

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(MeCTHmix) 6yxraJITepcKoro yYeTa H ayAHTa AxII HHOCTpaHHMIX H HaIMIOHaji6HIX BHyTpeHHeIk HHBeCTOPOB, KpeXHTHbIX yqpe)KXeHHfi, rOCyAapCTBeHHbIX BeAOMCTB H BCefl

yqeTa 4jHHaHCOBOH CHCTeMbI. IlepBbIM iiarom B HanpaBneHHH pe43OpMbI 6yxraJTepcKoro 6binio nplHTHe B geKa6pe 1991 r. HOBOrO rIojIO)KceHHA 0 npHHHnaX H CHCTeMaX 6yxraJiTepCKoro yqeTa, COOTBeTCTByiOlTTerO riiaHy CqeTOB. BBe,AeHHe HOBOfi CHCTeMbI 6yxranTePCKoro yqeTa B 6aHKax OCYlueCTBJLeTCA B qeTbIpe 9Taria: CyUeCTBYIOUlaA CHCTeMa IIPHBOXITCA B COOTBeTCTBHe C Meex1yHapo,iHof

IIpaKTHKOf4 C TOYKH 3peHHI o6i1Hx

pIHHUHrioB H oTpax(eHHA.


47 *

Pa3ocnaH6I HHCTpyKItHH, paTxcHmioawe nepBoHaqaimHLie niarH c tenfb1o IIpHBe,geHHA 4)HHaHCOBBIX OTqeTOB B COOTBeTCTBHe C HOBbIMH HOpMaMH K 31 eieKa6ps 1992.

*

Pa3pa6oTaH rpOeKT HOBOro nIIaHa CqeTOB H n1OgrOTOBneHMI ro[po6iHmIe meTOxH,>ecKHe yKa3aHsA, KOTOpEbIe nO3BOJRIT BBeCTH HOBOe Ino)oeHHe B CHJIY He nlO3,gHee 1 AHBapA 1994 r.

*

B TeqeHHe nocneiyiuoHx xByx--Tpex neT 6yAeT

InpoBegeHa KopeHHaA pe4popMa cHCTeMbI 6yxrajrTepcKoro yqeTa. 3aTparHuBa1OI1Was BOnPOCL 4)HHaHCOBOH oTqeTHoCTH, HpaBOBOH oTqeTHoCTH H CTaTHCTHqeCKoH oTqeTHOCTH.

5.10

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6yxranTepcKoro

y'eTa H ayxgwra, BKRnoqas noHATHA "06IIIentHArTx nHIIp HTIOB vqeTa" H "o6ienDHHAT]hIX HODM aVLIHTODCKON1 nDOBeDKH", KOTOpbIe COOTBeTCTBOBaJIH 6bI MHPOBbIM cTaH,gapTaM. 3To o3HaqaeT, qTO cqeTa 6yxWT oTpaxaTm 6vxranTepcKoro

HCTHHHYIO H CrpaBegJTHBYIO oixeHKy CTOHMOCTH 6anaHCOBMIx aKTHBOB H OTBeqaTm Mexg)yHapOgUHbIM Tpe6oBaHHAM noC3iegOBaTe3bHOCTH, OCTOpOKHOCTH (B3BeMeHHocM) H nhIaTe)Kecnoco6HoCTM. rIpegnonaraeMbIx 3aKOH 6yxeT TaKxce HaIeJieH Ha TO, qTo6ibr * *

CO3AaTm CHbHbIHe peryxBHEIe H KOHCyjThTaTHBHMIe opraHH3aIjH. CO3AaTb

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POCCHNCKHi COBeT no 6yxraJITepcKHM CTaHAapTaM, oTBeqaEoiulHt 3a JInaHHPOBaHHe H ocyulecTB3ieHHe npeo6pa3OBaHHH, H nepHogHieciKu nepeCMaTpHBaTab CTpyKTypy 9THX opraHoB B CooTBeTCTBHH C MeH3IIOTIMHCSA YCJIOBHIMH.

5.11

rlpo4eccAs ayAHTopa B PoccHH geenaeT nepBmIe inar1 B CBoeM pa3BHTHH. IlenLIA pAA aygHTopcKHx 4)yHK=HA BHacrosAgee BpeMS OCyi1eCTBJAeTCA pAgOM YHO3THOMOqeHHLIX pOCCHHCKHX 4bHpM a TaKiKe HeKOTOPbIMH HaH6onee nPH3HaHHLIMH meyHapo,HbMH 6yxrajrTepcKHMH bHpMaMH. 06beM H KaqeCTBO BbffoiHAeMofI HMH pa6omI HeOArHHaKOBbI H, B LxefOM, 3HaqHTeRBHO HHCe Mex<AyHapoxHbIx Tpe6oBaHHfi, npeAYBIAmeMLIX K 6YXraITePCKOMY yU'eTy H oTqeTHocT. B HacTosAiiee BpeMS HepeaibHo 6Imo 6b oxaTL npOBeeAeHiA ayxHTOPCKHX r1POBePOK B nOJTHOM COOTBeTCTBHH C meyHapogHbIMH HOPMaMH, nOCKOJThKY BHeUIHHH ay,ffT npeACTaBnMeT CO6o0 HOBOe AieHHe ARAM POCCNNH ,JAero BHegpeHIA He XBaTaeT nOXrOTOBjieHHbIX KagpOB.

5.12

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goDRHa BKnloqaTb:

*

flePenoARrOTOBKY H IIOBbImIeHHe KBaTHcjHKa8IXHH pa6OTaEOtWX B HacToAuee BPeMS 6yxranTepOB H 6yxranTepcKRx 4MpM Ha OCHOBe


48 HoBOro niiaHa CqeTOB, COOTBeTCTBYJOiuero MexKyHapORHbIM HOPMaM 6yxraJrrepcKoro yqeTa H aygHTa. *

Pa3pa6oTKy KPHTepHeB cepTH4KaH MOjiOIX CneiwajCTOB KOMIIeTeHTHLIM COBeTOM rno 6yxrajiTepcKoMy yIeTy m ayAHTOpCKHM nlpOBepKaM; pa3pa6oTKa yqe6Horo Kypca no 6yxrajrTepcKOMY yteTy AIii CpeAHHX ilKOn, HHCTHTYTOB H YHHBepCHTeTOB.

*

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B MOCKBe H perHOH8JmHbIX

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*

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5.13

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34 eKTHBHOCTL o6ecnelqHBaoIoIHMH (DeAepagHH o 6aHKaX H 6aHKOBCKOH UeHTpajiLH6i

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OTHOIueHHH 6aHKOB, KOTOpbIe He Co6jiIOAaIOT upaBHn perynmpoBaHm yrpo3y HHTepecaM CBOHx Ae6HTOPOB H KpeXAHTOpOB. 5.14

B

1991

r.

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nIpHHyAHTemjiHLix Mep BeCbMa orpaHHqeHLI. PacmHpeHHe B03MOxKHOCTek UeHTpamHoro

6aHKa B o6naCTH HaA3opa -- npoiyecc mAJiTejibHbia, rocKoJThKy OH CBX3aH c nocreneHHebim nIpHO6peTeHHeM cneiHajIHbIX HaBbIKOB H OnibITa, npaKTHqeCKH He CyuxeCTByIOiwHX B

pOCCHAICKOA 3KOHOMHKe. Heo6xoAHMo II03TOMY paccTaBHTb IpHOpHTeTbI, onpegenaH B KOTOPbIX MoxCeT H AnxOneH 6rrm AOcTHrHyT 6icTpbIi r nporpecc H HanpaBneHHsI, HaIIpaBHB B HmX BesMma orpaHHxeHHbie pecypcbi OTAe3Ta ynpaBjieHHA 6aHKaMH

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49 pacripocTpaHeHHe He3AOPOBbIX MeTOAOB 6aHKOBCKOfl AeATejbHoCTH; (6) lloz Tpe6oBaHHH K pa3mepy MHHHMarbHoro KaIIHTaJIa H HHAeKCHpOBaTb ero Ha ypOBeHb HH4pJ1S1ZHH; (B) 1IOB1BICHTb Tpe6OBaHHA B OTHOiiieHHH onrITa, YPOBHA KOMrIeTeHTHoCTH, H AO6pOCOBecTHocTH nlOTeHiwHaJRbHbIX aKIHOHepOB H ynpaiumouHx; (r) BBeCTH 06A3aTejILHibif 1OipSgOK oXo6peHisl IeHTpanbHbIM 6aHKOM nO6bIx CyigeCTBeHHbIX H3MeHeHlHI B CTpyKType KaIiHTaJIa 6aHKOB.

5.16

B Ta6ft1e 5.1 IIPIHBOAHTCS KpaTKoe orHcaHHe

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I pHCKa, HCIOJb3yeMbie B otXeHKe aKTHBOB, B geLJOM HHIKe, em 9TO HripeYCMOTpeHo Ba3eJThCKofi KOHBeHIZHef. HanpHmep, nio iipaBHjam UeHTpaamHoro 6aHKa KO4 )H1i4eHT no ccyAam nIpeArpHrrHsM KoJie6JIeTCs OT 20 Ao 50 n1poIeHTOB; KO39R4H[eHT rio BK.IaAaM B HeXBHMHMOCTb HJH aKLMOHepHbie o6igecrBa HaXO,HTCSA B rpeARenax OT 25 Ao 80 HpOi.eHTOB B TO BpeMs, KaK B COOTBeTCTBHH C BIa3eJbcKOfk

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5.17 CneAyeT H3MeHHTb HeKoTopbIe rIpaBHjia, KacaIgecA Bcefk 6aHKoBcKof cHcTeMbI, BKJ1O'qaA H 6am , He AiBjmIoHecS BMC. UeHTpanmHbi 6aHK AoJIKeH

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5.18 Ilocne iIpHHSTHA peiueHHs o6 ocyrIecTBwieHHH IporpaMMbI BMC IUeHTpanbHbIH 6aHK AonaxeH 6yxeT pa3pa6OTaTh H BbIryCTHTH "iiDaBHjTa 6garoDawvMAr" AJJ TaKHX 6aHKoB (CM. rniaBy 3). genecoo6pa3Ho ripegycmoTpeTb nocTeneHHoe IOBbIiueHHe ypOBHA

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B KpaTKoCpowHot H cpexAHecpoqHo4

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50

Ta6nIHlga 5.1 HODMaTHBblMIR POCCHiACKHX 6aHKOB

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0.04

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0.05 1/15

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0.20

0.30

1.50

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0.75 0.50

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5.20

nIpOBOMThCA CTpaTerEHH aBTOMaTH3aLiHH aeHTpaJTHoro 6aHKa, Ha6juOmeHHe XOJKHO OmqeTOB. nOCiieAOBaTefbHOCTH CBOeBpeMeHHO H BKJIIOqaTh TUTeabHHyiO npOBepKy rIporpaMMa 6ygeT rioIn3HOf H B nOArOTOBKe npOBePKH Ha MeCTaX, nOCKOJILKY aaCr


51 BO3MO)KHOCTh UeHTpaAbHOMY 6aHKy BbLSBHTB

riOm3mTJMH

6aHKH C yXyAuiaOiWHMHCM

pa6oTbi.

5.21 PaClnIHpeHHie B03MO)KHOCTeHi UeHTpajibHOrO 6aHKa B npOBeAeHHH HpOBeDOK Ha MecTax npeAcTaBjiseT co60ou caMyIo BaJKHyIo H TPY,JHYIO 3aAaty, cTosryilo riepeA OTAeenoM pery HpOBaH3 AeATeAjbHOCTH 6aHKoB. PeineHHe 3TOH gojiroCpOqHOH 3aga'm AOJIX(HO TiI1aTeJIbHO

rIJIaHHPOBaThCA

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pa3BHTHeM

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CHCTeMMI

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5.22

)JIA CKOpefIInero pemUeHHA 3THX 3aAa' UeHTpaJThHbIH 6aHK gOnDKeH nopymTb HX BbIlOjiHeHHe CHeIJHaJIH3HPOBaHHbIM 4)HpMaM, TaKOH rpaKTHKOfXAO CHX fop flOJIb3yIOTCs HeKOTOpbIe 6aHKH B 3anagHou EBpone. B TeteHe 6iHKa HX Tpex--ILM neT IleHTpaJbHOMY 6aHKy cJiexyeT TaKxKe paCCMOTpeT6 B03MOXHOCT6 COBMeCTHOfi pa6oTmi

peBH30pOB HHOCTpaHHbIX 6aHKOB H cBoero C06CTBeHHorO KOHTpOJIbHOrO ainnapaTa. 9To

6yxreT cnoco6CTBOBaTb 6onee 9S4eKTHBHOMy Ha,30py H o6ecneqHT o6yqeHi4A POCCHfCKoro nepcoHaiia Ha pa6oIeM MecTe. CTpaHbI 03CP,

B03MOXKHOCTh nlO-BHAHMOMy,

CMOryT npeAOcTaBIfTf 6aHKOBCKHx aygHTOpOB B paMKaX nporpamM TeXHHqeCKO1 IIOMOIgH. 9TH coBMeCTHbIe KOMaHAbI AOJITKHMI pa6OTaTb no OCyiixeCTBJIeHHIO HaX3opa HaA BMC, KPynHbIMH 6aHKaMH, He AB1SIAIO MHCS BIMC, H no6bimH 6aHKavmH, He OCTmuIHMH YPOBHS BIMC, KOTOpbIe npOxO3DKaJOT 6bIcTpo pacTH nocnie BHeApeHHA nporpaOMMMi BMC.

5.23

3A 3c1("eKTHBHoro ocywecTBjieHHA (pyHKzHH peryJIHpoBaHs

H Ha,30pa HeO6XOAHM ilembif pAA nOJIHOMO'qHl, CBA3aHHbIX C peAoCTaBneHHem HHOpMaHH, HaJIoKeHHeM CaHKIaHH, HaqHHaA C npeAynpexcxeHHf4 H nTPpadpOB H KOHqaA 3aMeHOfk pyKOBOACTBa, OT3bIBOM JIHueH3Hfl H IIPAMLIM BMeii1aTeJThCTBOM CO CTOPOHbI ueHTpaJmHoro

6aHKa. PenyTatuHA OTgeJIa peryJIHpOBaHHA geATeC3bHOCTH 6aHKOB 6ygeT B 6o0bimei CTeIIeHH 3aBHCeTb OT Ka.eCTBa H npo(peCCHOHa3IH3Ma ero peKOMeH,gaiHAi, qeM OT ero CnOCO6HOCTH

BbI6iOnJHAIOTCS

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)KeCTKHe CaHKINHH. KaK nOKa3bIBaeT OnbIT, qeM jiytime pery3iHpyioigHe H HaA3OPHLIe 4pyHKUHH, TeM 60JIM6IHM XOBepHeM

IIOJh3yIOTCSI peKOMeHga.NHH UeHTpajbHoro 6aHKa H TeM MeHbife Heo6XOAHMOCTh BBeAeHHS KeCTKHx CaHKgHf!.

roAroroBKa 6aHICOBCIKX KaAPOB

AJ"SI nogrOTOBKH POCCNNCKHX 6aHKOB K geMTeJIbHOCTH B PbIHO'IHbIX YCJIOBHIX Tpe6yIOTCS COBepIfleHHO HHbIe MeTOgbI, 'eM Te, YlTO HCnOJIL3OBaJIHCb B 6GIBmefl COBeTCKOA 6aHKOBCKO1 cHcTeMe. nxIi yKpenIieHHS KagpOB 6aHKOBCKHX pa6OTHHKOB B POCCHH 5.24


52 H rIOXrOTOBKH npOrpaMMbI LuHpoKoMaCInTa6HhIe OpraHH3OBaTb nepeIoArOTOBKH B o6JIaCTH 6aHKOBCKOrO ynpaBneHHs, MapKeTHHra H npeAoCTaBJIeHH 6aHKOBCKHX ycjiyr, yripaBJIeHHq piCKOM, o6ecneqeHHR (bHHaHCOBOH cra6HJIbHOCTH

Heo6xogHMo

34)c¢eKTHBHOCTH 6aHKOB H OCyiIeCTBJIeHHA OCHOBHbIX 6aHKOBCKHX onepaguHf.

5.25

HHCTHTYUHOHajibHaS,

ripaBOBaA H peryji5THBHax 6a3a, Ha OCHOBe KOTOPOil

npe,cToHT AefCTBOBaTb 4¢HHaHCOBOf cHcTeMe POCCHH, HaXOAHTCA TOJTbKO B rnpoixecce , B TOM CMbiCJIe, To KnaCCiacqecKag cTaHoBJIeHHAA. Co3Aanacb 6ecnperieAeHTHas CHTyagL MO,ejfb rIO)rOTOBKH KaApOB XIA cyigecTByIoieH CHCTeMblI He ripHMeHHMa. HanpHmep,

pa3pa6OTKa AoroBopa 0 3aHme HJiH KpeAHTe OCcyieCTBS1eTCS B onpeAeZeHHom iopHgHCecKoM KoHTeKcTe. B PoccHH KopnopaTHBHoe npaBo eige HeaocraToTHo qeTKo C¢OpMyJImpOBaHO, B CBSI3H C 9THM nOArOTOBKY CIIneuHaHICTOB B o6JlacTH KpeAHTOBaHfSA HiPHXOXHTCSA npOBOAHTb C yqeTOM TOrO, qTO CaMx KOHTpaKT]I TOJIbKO pa3BHBaIOTCA.

He rOTOBMI K fIocKoJIbKy KaXpBI 6aHKOBCKOH CHCTeMbI nIpaKTHqeCKH 5.26 CpOqHO OCyLigeCTBJIeHHIO 6aHKOBCKOH AeRTeJIbHOCTH B HOBbIX YCJIOBHAX, HeO6XOAHMO OpraHIH3OBaTh 6a3oBoe o6yqeHHe. rIoWrOTOBKa CneimaiHCTOB B paMKaX CHCTeM6I,

npeTepneBaioLgef

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nOTpe6yeT OT BCeX yqaCTHHKOB yYe6Horo

rOTOBHOCTH COTpyXHHqaTh H lpOMBJI3fTh 3HaqHTlTehHyiO rH6KOCTB. MOXHO BBeCTH B XfeHCTBHe npOrpaMMy, paCCqHTaHHYIO Ha o6yqeHHe 6aHKOBCKHX pa6OTHHKOB OCHOBHbIM

npoiyecca

HaBbIKaM 6aHKoBcKoro Aejia, KOTOpaA nO3BOJIHT HM 3cIeKTHBHO yqaCTBOBaTb BMeCTe c

H 6aHKOB p3BHr B HHCTHTYUHOHan1bHOM CneLHaJIHCTaMH HHOCTPaHHbIMH COBepIuIeHCTBOBaHHH CqIHHaHCOBbIX pbIHKOB. OnpegeJIHB OCHOBHOA flOAXOg K ynpaBneHHHO 6onee MO)KHO 6ygeT npHCTYIIHTb K BEIIIOJIHeHHIO 4jYHKI1HMMH, 6aHKOBCKHMH OpHeHTHPOBaHHbIX Ha HY)KAbI 6aHKOB, ueiieBbix nporpaMM nOArOTOBKH cneiHaJicToB. rlpaBHTeJIbCTBa H HHCTHTYTbI 3anf6HbIX CTpaH HpOBOXIST B POCCHH pa3JIHqHbIe 5.27 KypcEbI, nporpaMMbI o6yqeHHs ARA 6aHKOBCKHX KaApOB. B OCHOBHOM 9TO KpaTKocpotIHbIe HO He KOTOpLIe 3HaKoMAT cjiyTaTeJIef c AoceJie HeH3BeCTHOH HM 6aHKOBCKOH KYJIbTypOH, npeXyCMaTpHBaEOT HHTeHCHBHOrO o6yqeHHA. OAHaKO, OCTPOTa npo6JieMbI nOXrOTOBKi 6onee ropa3Ao npOBeAeHHA B XMH3Hb 6aHKOBCKHX CriemHInHCTOB Tpe6yeT IIIHpOKOA H 9KOHOMH'HOf nocieAOHaTe bHO4 Hrny6OKOf nporpaMMbI. niiA o6ecneqeHHSI Bcef4 nOArOTOBKH KaApOB, AocTynHOH BceM 6aHKaM POCCHH, Heo6xoAHMo CO3IaTh no H POCCHHCKOH (DeXepaLuHH ceTb 6aHKOBCKHX IIKOJI, KaK 9TO 6bInO cxexraHO B rIIoEibue npH BeHrPHH. B 3TOM OTHOuJeHHH y)Ke npeXnPHHATbI nepBbie luarH. B qacTHocTH, EC coAeHcTBHH EBponeflcKoA cHcTeMbI o6yteHHs 6aHKOBCKOMY xejiy H KOMHCCHH

B CO3,aHa MOCKOBCKaA 6aHKOBCKaSi iuKonia. B psAAe pOCCHiHCKHX ropoAoB nPHHHMaEOTCA MacElTa6e H ApyrRe KOHKpeTHbIe Mepbi. H pacnpocTpaHHTb nO BCefi CTpaHe.

onpexeneHHoM

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OnIIT cjieiyeT

nOCKOIbKy KpeXHTOBaHHe COCTaBnAeT OCHOBY 6aHKOBCKOH geiSTeRLHOCTH H 5.28 no ABJIAeTCA o6JIaCTblO camorO BbICOKOro pHCKa, pa3pa6oTKa y'ie6HbIx nporpaMM

KpeAHTOBaHHIO AOJDKHa nOJIYtHTb nPHOPHTeTHoe HanpaBjieHHe. Ha AaHHOA cThwH 6aHKaM TaKxKe cjiexyeT yHThCA cTpaTerHH, TaKTHKe H MeTOAMa

4)HHaHCOBorO nniaHHPOBaHHA MM

opHeHTa4H H nepeopHeHTa UH cBoero ynpaBjieHHi. 14 HaKOHeL, yqe6HbIrinJIaH AojnKeH


53 6BIT6 JOCTaTOqHO U1HPOK4M H BKJIlOqaTb TaKHe AHCUHMIMHHbI, KaK geHbrH H 6aHKOBCKOe 6aHKOBcKHe orepamHH, (RHaHCHpOBaHKe TOproBJIH, o6ame npHHUHfnbI ynpaBjieHHS, MapKeTHHr H "po3HHIHoe" o6cnyMcHBaHHe

geJIo, PbIHKH KarIHTaOB, me)KgyHapOgHbie KiHeHTOB.

5.29

Eiie OAHOA 4)OpMOH OpraHH3MaHH o6ygeHH5 6aHKOBCKHX pa6oTHmKOB a

TaKwKe

yKpen.eHIGH CTpYKTYPbI pOCCHHICKHX 6aHKOB MoXCT ABHTbC31 nporpamma yCTaHOBjieHHA IapTHepCKiHX OTHOIueHHII MeXCXy POCCHHCKHMH H BeXYIUHMH 3apy6eXHHbIMH 6aHKaM4. B COOTBeTCTBHH C 9TOEI rpOrpaMMofl, npegCTaBHTeJIH 3apy6exKHbIx 6aHKOB 6yAyT KOHCYJThTHpOBaTb CBOHX POCC1HCKHX raPTHepOB HO BOnpOCaM cTpaTerHqecKoro IIaHHPOBaHHM H OpraHM3aduH pa6oTbI. rpH 9TOM OHH 6yAyT ytaCTBOBaTb B riOBCeaHeBHOH ynpaBjieHxieCKOHf AeSTeJIbHOCTH pOCCHHCKHX 6aHKOB C TeM, qTO6bI pOCCHHCKHe KoJIJTerH MorJiH nepeHHMaTb HX oriTIT. B nopAgKe KOMieHcaWHH 3a 9TH yCJIyrH HHOCTpaHHbie 6aHKH MOriiH 6bi flOJIyqaT6 .H60 onpegeieHHoe B03HarpaxKceHHe, 11H60 xOjIo B KarIHTaIie pOCCHAICKOrO 6aHKa-napTHepa. TaKaA nporpamma OCy-lmeCTBJiAeTCA B flonnme C nOMOaTbEO KpeAX4Ta BCeMHPHOrO 6aHKa. PacqeTHaM CHcTeMa

5.30

PactieTHaq CHCTeMa npegCTaBJi5eT co6ofi MexaHH3M, c rOMomo

Io KOTOporo

o6A3aTenbCTBa, B03HHKaIOiuAme B pe3yJIbTaTe 3KOHOMHqeCKOf4 reATeJIbHOCTH, nOraInaxOTCA nyTeM nepeBoxAa AeHe)KHbIX cpeACTB. HaCTOAIIUHfI pa3gxen BbIAeSjieT Ty o6nacTb pacieTHoH CHCTeMbI, KOTOpa5 CBA3aHa c HCnOJnb3OBaHHeM 6aHKOBCKHX greno3HToB. PaceTHasA CHCTeMa 944eKTHBHa B cnyiae, Korga KJIHPHHr, npouecc nepeAatiw ninaTeXHHoR RHH4opMaamH,

OCyI1teCTBJIAeTCS 6bICTpO H HageXHO. 14 Korxa OKOHqaTeJIbHbIlf paCqeT, T.e. ()aKTHqeCKHfl nepeBOA UeHHOCTeH, OCyWeCTBj1SeTCI B qeTKO yCTaHOBJIeHHbIe CpOKH, B HY)KHOM o6fteMe H nO Ha3HaqeHHIO.

5.31

CyigeCTByioiUaA B POCCHH4 CHCTeMa paCqeTOB npHCHOCo6JIeHa K HyxcAaM ileHTpanIH3OBaHHOfi rIiaHOBOH 9KOHOMHKH. OHa He MOxceT YXOBjJeTBOpHTeJIbHO peiiHTb npO6JieMy teTKOCTH4 Hi 6bICTpOTbI COBepiueHHA pacqeTOB, qTO ipe3BbIxiaHO Ba)KHO B

YCJIOBHMX pbIHOqHOfi 3KOHOMH4KI4. jaHHaM CHCTeMa TaK)Ke He B COCTOSHHH CnpaBHTbCA C pe3KHM yBeJIHteHHCM o6ibeMa A,eHeXKHbIX onepaHi4l, xapaKTepH , UM nepexo;xHoro nep4o;xoa. BOJIbIlaSI qaCTb nJIaTeKeH OCYIyiieCTBnIeTCSAepe3 UeHTpaJibHbIfI 6aHK, KOTOPblA HMeeT CeT16 H3 1400 pacqeTHO-KaccoBbIx LeHTPOB (PK1I). KaxcAbIfl 4HJIHaJi KOMMept1eCKOrO 6aHKa HMeeT CqeT B MeCTHOM PKU. OriepalHH c nOTpe6HTeJIsMH H npegripHATHSMH pO3HHqHOft TOprOBJIll 06b'qHO OCyIteCTBJI5AOTCX c HCnOJTb3OBaHHeM HanjHqHbIX AeHer, B TO BpeMA, KaK paCqeTbi ripegnpHATHf H rocygapCTBa B OCHOBHOM OCyLUeCTBJ1IlOTCM

C nOMOLbiO

nHiaTe)KHblx

nOPYteHEHI

TIiaTe)KHbIe HOpyqeHtI5H

H

njiaTe)KHbIX

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gaIOTCq B nHCbMeHHOH (OpMe H o6pa6aTbIBaIoTCx BpyqHyiO. EcnH cqeT nJITnbIUHKa Ae6eTyeTCA cpa3y xce nocne BBegeHHA nopyxieHTA B CHCTeMy, CqeT noj¶ytaTeni nniaTe>Ka Kpe,HTyeTCM TOJIbKo nocnie TOro, KaK niaTe>KHbIH AOKyMeHT nOCTyiHIi B ero 6aHK. IJOCKOJIbKy npoiuecc nriaTexca MoJKeT 3aHHMaTb XLo Tpex HeAeJI6, 9TO

OTPHiUaTeJbHO CKa3bIBaeTCM Ha JIHKBHgHOCTH npegrHpHATHA.


54 cyigecTBy1ouiefi 6aHK irpaeT BaXCHYIO pOJIB B peopraHM3auiH IleHTpanBHbIH KjIHpHHrOBOfi cHcTeMbI. BBeAeHa HOBaS copMa teKOB H OTMeHeHa CHCTeMa rniaTexHbIx Tpe6OBaHHf. CHCTeMa PaCteTOB B paMKax oxHoro ropoAa yJiyqIHHJIacB, OcO6eHHO B cJIywasx KPYflHbIX pacqeTOB rIo MOCKBe. TeM He MeHee, OCyjgeCTBJIeHHe pacqeTOB MerK 3aAepXKKoH. BBeAeHa HOBaS ropoAaMH rio-npeXKHeMy ocylgecTBJimeTCs C 60JIBUIII cTaHAapTHas c1opMa nnaTe)KHoro riopyIeHHA H nepecMaTPHBaeTCS 3aKOH O HniaTe)Kax.

5.32

5.33

OAHOfIH3 KiiiOqeBbIX npo6neM B pa3BHTHH CHCTeMBI niaTexKef MBimeTCA

HecorJiacoBaHHocTb ieneizi H 3aAati. UeHTpaBJbHOMy 6aHKy HPHXOWTCS peIiaTm ChIO)KHYIO 3a,gaqy cTaHAapTH3aIHH IIJIaTexKHbiX CpeACTB, npoiLeAyp H npaBHJI. XJIs Toro, 9Tro6BI 3(cI(eKTHBHO YAOBfleTBOPATb pacqeTHbie riOTPe6HOCTH POCCHfICKOM 9KOHOMHKH, pac'qeTHaS CHCTeMa gOJDKHa OXBaTbIBaTB BCIO CTpaHy. KpoMe TOrO, riOCKOJIhKY AaHHOR CmCTrMe npHAeTCSA IIOAKJIOqHTCA K MexAyHapOHbIM paCqeTHbIM CHCTeMaM, pOCCHftCKIe cTaHAapTbI AOJDKHI B MaKCHMaBbHOfI CTeHeHH IpH6JIH3HTBCSA K MemKgyHapOAHMIM.

OAHaKo, CTOJIKHYBLUHCb c rlpo6neMaMH CerOXHSlHerO AHS, HeKOTOpBIe 6aHKH peIIIH nepefiT K C03AaH4IO CBoef co6CTBeHHOf4 BHyTpH6aHKOBCKOf CHCTrMBI pacqeTOB,

5.34

paCqeTHiM iLeHTpaM, H He 3aBHceTh OT UIeHTpanbHoro 6aHKa. HeKoTophle ropoAa nbITalOTCA IIOCTpOHTb CBOH Co6cTBeHHbie HpHBA3aHHOfI

K MeCTHbIM H perHOHaBjbHBIM

CHCTeMbI H fIOPXAOK pacqeTOB, qTO 3Ha'HTeJIbHO 3aTPYHHT npoIXecc Co3AaHMIAHHLIX H YBs3aHHbIX MexKAY Co60o B MaCLuTa6aX Bcef4 CTpaHbI CTaHgapTOB ripOBeAeHA paCqeTOB. B TO xce BpeMS, OrIbIT APyrHx CTpaH rOBopHT, 'qTO CTpeMjieHHe [leHTpaUbHoro 6aHKa HaBs3aTb npoilecc CBepXy H ocyigeCTBsTb ero "no nuiaHy" MOKeT TOJIBKO IIPHHeCTH BpeX, HOCKOJnbKY UIeHTpanJbHbIH 6aHK qacTo OKa3BIBaeTCX He B COCTOSHHH YAROBJeTBOPHT rpOTHBopeqaIHe Agpyr ARpyry HHTepeCbI CTOPOH H TeM CaMbIM MO)KeT rIOAOPBaTb KOHCTPYKTHBHbIe HaqHHaHH5I, npoHcxoriHe 3a npeAeJIamH o)HXl4aJIbHOfi cHcTeMBI.

5.35

nYTH

YCTpaHeHHJ

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nPOTHBOPeHS[

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B CO3XAaHHH

HaiHOHaJI]HOrO bopyMa, cnoco6Horo Pa3PeLUHTb KOH(DJIHKT Me.JKAY Pa3JIH'HbIMH HHTepecaMH H yfeJlIMH. B anpeJIe 1993 r. UeHTpaJIbHbIf 6aHK plHHAJI penieHHe o6 yqpexKXAeHHHro

pyKOBOAsiigerO KOMmTTa AiiA OCyIeCTBjieHHA Ha30pa 14

KOOPAHHaHUHH Pa3BHTHA CHCTeMbI paCqeTOB H pa3pa6OTKH CTaHAaPTOB. B COCTaB FPK BO4AyT 25--30 qeJIOBeK, H3 KOTOPIX 10 6yAyT nPeAJCTaBJIATb OTAeJIfbI [UeHTpajnHoro 6aHKa, a OcTaJIbHbie -- KOMMepiecKHe 6aHKH, accolHaL4HH KOMMepteCKHX 6aHKOB, B HerO TaKxce BOMYT rHHOCTpaHHbIe 9KCnePTBI H3 MBD, BceMHpHoro 6aHKa, ,UpyrHX meyHapOgHbIX opraHH3agH4 H ueHTpanJbHbIX 6aHKOB 3arTa,HbIX CTpaH. IUeHTpaJbHbIH 6aHK onpexAemjir ILueCTb BOrpOCOB, KOTOpbIe HeO6XOMmO peUHTb ARA C03AaHHA pac'ieTHoH cHCTeMbI: B3aHMHbIH 3ateT Tpe6oBaHHId, CHCTeMa nepeBoAoB KpyrHH6X CYMM, HOBI6e nLJaTeT)KHLIe HHcTpyMeHTbI, BHYTpH6aHKOBCKHe pacqeTbI, pa3BHTHe HH4CHpCmaiHOHHOft cHCTeMbI H npeACTOwT rIOXArOTOBKa KaAPOB. )IjM BLInOJIHeHHS Kax<KOH H3 YKa3aHH]IX 3aAaq

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5.36

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rPK XoOJI)eH pa3pa6OTaTb MOxejT CHCTeMbI paCqeTOB. OH

iOJDKeH OnpeAeJIHTeH:

nniaTe)KHbIe HHCTpyMeHTbI (xAe6eT/KpeqHT/o6e onepaTAHH); rpac1HK pacqeTa (B TOT xe cjiexAyiollo4 XeHb/B 6onee AJIHTeNJbHbIe CPOKH C yKa3aHHeM rpacpHKa); AreHb/Ha


55 y1 pexgeHHe, ocyigecTBAnIoayee nnaTexc (IeHTpaMbHbIf 6aHK/qaCTHbIIV MeCTHbIH HaiuOHaJIbHmif 6aHK); 4lOpMy paCqeTOB (6e3 BblqeTOB/C B6I1eTaMH); Ha3HaqeHHe nmaTexa H

rpHOpHTeTblI pa3BHTHA5 (OnTOBbIl/pO3HHrHbIfi/Mex6aHKOBCKHci); pOpMy OHnIaTbi (6yMaXCHas1/9neKTpoHHaA, naKeTHa/B peXHMe peanimoro BpeMeHH); KOMMyHHKiUHOHHMie

H c1OpMaTHbie CTaHJaPTbI H rpOTOKOJIb C OueHKOH HMeiOugHXCA nepegaioWiHx MOUIHOCTeH; ripaBHjia H HOpMaTHBbI, BKIOtaSa rIPHHYXHTeJlbHbIe MepbI; KOHTpOJIb yrpaBjieHHA PHCKaMH H CpeXCTBa HaA3opa; CTaHXapTbI XOKyMeHTOB; H AOCTYnHOCTb CpeACTB(paCqeTHbie geHTpB/yHOnJIHOMOqeHHbIe

5.37

6aHKIHHbIe KOMMep{CcKHe npegnpH4THA).

K rlpo6neMaM POCCHNECKOII KJIHPHHrOBOII CHCTeMbI Heo6XOXMHMo rOiXOXHTh C

Tpex CTOpOH: rIpouexypbI

*

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5.38

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5.39

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5.40

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5.41

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5.42

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5.44

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5.45

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5.46

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5.47

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5.49

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59

6.

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6.2

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6.3

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19. floApo6Has xapaKTepHCTKa ceJILcKOXO3sAfcTBeHHbD( OTpaciret xaeTcq B: "Food and Agricultural Policy Reforms in the Former USSR - Agenda for the Transition", Studies of Economies in Transition, BceMHpHbJk 6aHK (1992).


68

6.22

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69

Ha IeieBbIe KpexHTbI, pacnpegeJiLeMbIe qepe3 PoccenbXo36aHK B KaqeCTBe HCTOqHHKa o6opOTHbIX CpeACTB; KanHTaJOBJIO)KeHAS XAeIaIOTCA JIHUIUb B MHHHMaJIbHbIX MaCLuTa6ax.

6.26

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B 1991

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BbICOKOrO YPOBHA 1IpOH3BOAHTeJIbHOCTH, qeM COBX03bI H KOJIX0361B.3OjTEHHHCTBO cIepMepoB C*TaiH qjieHaMH AKKOP - opraH43alHH4, o6,beHn,iiowefe 'acTHbIx (4epMepOB H ceJIbCKOX03AIfCTBeHHbIe KOOriepaTHBbl POCCHH. oepmepbI HY>KgalOTCA B 3Ha'IHTeJIbHbIX * HHaHCOBbIX pecypcax nJIA HaqajbHbIX KaH4TanOBJIoXKeHlH4 H ripHo6peTeHHs ceJIbCKOX03AIHCTBeHHOrO CbIpbM, OXHaKO, HX BO3MOXHOCTH4 nOJI'qHITb KpegHTbI orpaHH'qeHbI, *1OCKOJIbKY OHH He MOryT KCrIOJIb3OBaTb CBOIO 3eMJIUO B KaqeCTBe 3anora. KaK HpaBHJIo, PocceIbXo36aHK H KOMMepqeCKHe 6aHKH 11pegOCTaBJIMIOT KpegHThI HOBbIM qaCTHBIM xo3AeBaM nop, rapaHwrm AKKOP, o6ecrieqeHHbIe CpeACTBaMHi cjoHAa, co3AaHHoro B 1992 r. H3 6ioA)KeTHbIx aCCHrHOBaHHH B o6feMe 6,5 MjipA. py6. HegocTynHocTm xpeAwToB ABjITeTCA peaJThHbIM IInpeSTCTBHeM Ha iiyTH pacLlHpeHHEI qaCTHOro CeKTOpa B CejTbCKOM XO3AHCTBe.

6.27 TpYAHOCT14 Ha IIYTU pa3BHTHS KPieaHTHbIX PBIHKOB Ha cenie. JIIO6bie IlOflbITKH COKPaTHTb pa3MepbI rocygapcTBeHHorO y'aCTH1 B cIHHaHCHPOBaHHH cejibcKoro xo3IficTBa CTaJIKHBaIOTCS C *

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*

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6.28

PeKOMeHaII1UH. B 6nihxafniieM 6yn;yieM nporpaMMbI iyeJieBoro KpeXHTOBaHHS

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npOLUJIOM, a TaKwKe HeOHipe,geXeHHOCTb HX HojJIoxKeHHA) Kor,a-nH6o 6yxyT Kpe,HToBaThcA KOMMeptIeCKHMH 6aHKaMH, HaIejieHHBIMMH Ha nonyIeHHe npH6bIfIH.

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6.30

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71

6.31

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6.33

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74

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75

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Банковская система в переходный период  

Документ Всемирного банка (1993)

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