MRO Special Industry Guide Vol III

Page 1

FEB FLIP COVER 22.qxp_Layout 1 26/01/2022 15:24 Page 1



I STCs: Understanding the Key to a Successful Upgrade I Tips on Scheduling Engine Overhauls & Inspections


I Engine Overhaul Acronyms: Understanding the Jargon


I How to Enjoy Cabin Electronics Upgrade Success!

I How to Adjust Engine Maintenance Coverage Safely I Flight Deck Upgrade: What Drives Your Options? I Tips for Your Next Aircraft Paint Project


I Ramping up MRO Support: Dassault’s Story

Rolls Royce February.qxp_Layout 1 27/01/2022 11:58 Page 1

E¯| ½ E¯¢¹|tÖ ¢ h x E|ht| ¢ 5 x

¢Ò¬¢¯h¹| h¯|® Enhanced Increased Asset Value, Increased Aircraft Availability, Remote Site Rescue and much ¢¯|nj h ³½¬¬¢Ò¹|x sÉ Ö | Ç¢Ò xǫ³ h¯ |³¹ ¢sh ³|ÒÆ t| |¹Ç¢Ò Ǒ

Rolls Royce February sponsored content.qxp_Layout 1 27/01/2022 12:11 Page 1

Sponsored Column


¢sh ³|¯Æ t| |¹Ç¢¯ Q | t½³¹¢ |¯ǡ ht ³ x| ¢ ¹ ³ ³ H¢ ³ǡH¢Ét|ǫ³ É ¯| h¯x|x ¢¯¬¢¯h¹| h¯| ³|¯Æ t| ¬¯¢x½t¹Ǒ É ¬¯¢¹|t¹ t½³¹¢ |¯³ ¯¢ ½ ¢¯|³|| t¢³¹³ Ǡǯh x ¬¯¢Æ x ¯h¬ x htt|³³ ¹¢ h É ||x|x ¬h¯¹³nj h ÉÇ |¯| ¹ | Ç¢¯ x Ǡ ¹ ¬ hɳ h s ¯¢ | h³³½¯ h ¯t¯h ¹ hÆh hs ¹ÉǑ ǨL t| ¢¯¬¢¯h¹| h¯| h t|xnj ¹ | ½¬ ¯hx|x ³|¯Æ t| ¬ht h | ¹ h¹ | h t|³ ¢½¯ h¯ |¹ǡ |hx ¢¯¬¢¯h¹| h¯| ³|¯Æ t|nj Çh³ h½ t |x ƓƑƒƙnj Ç| hÆ| ³|| Æ|¯É ³¹¯¢ x| h x ¯¢ t½³¹¢ |¯³ Ç ¢ ³|| ¢Ç ½t Æh ½| ¹ | ¬¯¢ ¯h ¬¯¢Æ x|³njǩ ³hɳ xÉǑ

Q | ¬¯¢Æ|x ³|¯Æ t| ¬ht h | | h t|³ ¹ | t¢ ¬¯| | ³ Æ| È|xǡ t¢³¹ h ¹| h t| ¬¯¢ ¯h ¢¯ s½³ |³³ |¹ t½³¹¢ |¯³ sÉ t¢Æ|¯ h Ç x| ¯h | ¢ hxx ¹ ¢ h ³|¯Æ t| ¹| ³nj t ½x ½ ¹|x ¹¯¢½s |³ ¢¢¹ nj ¢s | ¯|¬h ¯ ¹|h nj ht| |nj t¢¯¯¢³ ¢ |¹tǑ ¢ s |x Ç ¹ H¢ ³ǡH¢Ét|ǫ³ |ȹ| ³ Æ| ¢sh ³½¬¬¢¯¹ |¹Ç¢¯ ¢ ƘƘ ½¹ ¢¯ Ì|x L|¯Æ t| | ¹|¯³nj ¢¯¬¢¯h¹| h¯| h t|x ¬¯¢Æ x|³ ƓƕǗƘ ³|¯Æ t| ¯¢ ¹³ ¯t¯h ¹ Æh hs ¹É | ¹|¯ |¯ h Énj | ³½¯ h³¹|¯ ¯|³¬¢ ³| ¹ |³ h x ¯|x½t|x h ¯t¯h ¹ x¢Ç ¹ |nj ¢ h¹¹|¯ Ç |¯| É¢½ h¯| ¹ | Ç¢¯ xǑ _ ¹ ¢Æ|¯ ƙnjƑƑƑ | |³ ¹ | s½³ |³³ hÆ h¹ ¢ ||¹nj H¢ ³ǡH¢Ét| Ç¢¯ ³ Æ|¯É h¯x Ç ¹ |ht t½³¹¢ |¯ ¹¢ x Çhɳ ¹¢ x| Æ|¯ ¹ | |Æ| ¢ ³½¬¬¢¯¹ |Ȭ|t¹|xǑ ǔ_| h¯| ƒƑƑ ¬|¯t| ¹ ¢t½³|x ¢ x| Æ|¯ Ç h¹|Æ|¯ ³¢ ½¹ ¢ ³ Ç| ||x ¹¢ t¢ ¹ ½| ¹¢ s| ¹ | ½ s|¯ǡ¢ | ³|¯Æ t| ¬¯¢Æ x|¯ s½³ |³³ hÆ h¹ ¢ njǔ H¢s ³¢ ³h xǑ

Learn more about Rolls-Royce business aviation and CorporateCare Enhanced at

AVBUYER MAGAZINE Vol 26 Issue 2 2022


Editor Welcome F FEB22.qxp_JMesingerNov06 26/01/2022 12:40 Page 1

Editor’s NOTE

Matt Harris

Matt Harris is commissioning editor for AvBuyer. He is an experienced General and Business Aviation journalist and has edited a variety of titles across the last two decades. These include AvBuyer, BizJet Advisor and GA Buyer Europe. matthew-harris-avbuyer/

Keeping Maintenance on Track During Peak Demand ver the course of the last year, we’ve been hearing about the busyness of MRO shops around the world. As business aircraft flying increased during 2021, surpassing the number of flying hours recorded pre-Covid in 2019, and as the aircraft sales environment continues to move at a blistering pace, pressures have inevitably been mounting on the schedules of maintenance centers. First, there is high demand for pre-purchase inspections, which are an essential procedure prior to buyers accepting delivery of their aircraft. And second, with aircraft flying more frequently, more scheduled events are coming up. “The increased aircraft utilization post-Covid-19 is driving a higher demand for engine inspections, with many service centers running at capacity,” Andy Robinson, SVP Customers and Services – Business Aviation at Rolls-Royce, told AvBuyer. Although much is made of the supply chain problems faced by the industry, the MRO sector enjoys a little more flexibility than the OEMs in managing these, according to Robinson. The “issues affect new engine deliveries [for example] much more than the MRO environment,” he explains. “In the MRO world, it’s possible to make use of serviceable parts, whereas for new engines only new material can be fitted.” According to Robinson, however, OEMs like RollsRoyce can move parts from engines further back in the MRO cycle, “buying them time to continue to deliver while working to get the supply chain back on track”.


Anticipate and Book Early

All the same, with scheduling pressures high across the MRO industry, owners and operators of business jets should be proactive, anticipating and booking their maintenance slots earlier than they might have done a year or two ago. This is especially the case when other upgrade work will be attached to the downtime, and new avionics, cabin electronics, or materials for a cabin make-over need to be chosen and ordered. In relation to anticipating your upcoming maintenance needs, there are some excellent tracking solutions available to help. Rolls-Royce, for example, offers “a robust fleet forecasting and planning process where we can predict and flex as needed,” says Robinson, who reveals the company is ramping-up capacity to meet the demand.

4 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

In this MRO Special Edition…

Within this special MRO edition, AvBuyer presents a wide array of content giving practical insights, tips and advice for planning your next MRO shop visit – whether that’s providing a better understanding of the basics (i.e. how to understand Supplemental Type Certificates and plan an upgrade or modification accordingly; or unpacking some of the common terms and acronyms associated with overhauls), or something more complex. While engine inspections and overhauls are crucial events in the business jet owners’ calendar, Gerrard Cowan asks the experts about the key differences, as well as the common challenges they pose to aircraft owners today. Engine maintenance programs are known to provide predictability to the cost of engine maintenance, but Chris Kjelgaard asks some of the leading program providers whether it is ever feasible to adjust your coverage level, and, if so, how and when this should happen without incurring unforeseen risk? Beyond the engines, you may be considering an upgrade to the cabin electronics, tying in with some upcoming downtime for your aircraft. Brian Wilson highlights why you ought to consider the different functions of your aircraft’s cabin space, and how to ensure everybody will be happy with the outcome. Or perhaps it’s the flight panel that’s due an upgrade: With a dizzying array of avionics solutions on the market, Ken Elliott shares his expertise about the factors that will ultimately shape your project. Finally, for those considering a paint refurbishment, Rebecca Applegarth asks two leading professionals within the industry about some of the important factors to consider, while, as the first Falcon 6X deliveries approach later this year, we discover how Dassault is looking to the future of MRO, while keeping a close eye on the maintenance needs of existing Falcon owners. We trust the content within this special MRO guide will have a practical use. We believe that our MRO editions provide information that will be as useful in a few years’ time as it is today – so even if your next major MRO shop visit isn’t due imminently, this guide is worth reading, then keeping for future reference. Enjoy! Matt Harris Commissioning Editor, AvBuyer

Pratt & Witney February.qxp_Layout 1 25/01/2022 11:24 Page 1




F CONTENTS FEB22.qxp 27/01/2022 10:25 Page 1


MRO Special Industry Guide 4 Editor’s Note: Keeping Maintenance on Track During Peak Demand

8 STCs: Understanding the Key to a Successful Upgrade

14 Tips on Scheduling Engine Overhauls & Inspections

22 Engine Overhaul Acronyms: Understanding the Jargon

28 How to Adjust Engine Maintenance Coverage Safely

38 How to Enjoy Cabin Electronics Upgrade Success!

46 Flight Deck Upgrade: What Drives Your Options?


front section of this issue.

ADVERTISING Steve Champness Publisher Americas +1 770 769 5872 Lise Margin Account Manager +1 703 818 1024 David Olcott Account Manager +1 802 233 6458 Maria Brabec Account Manager EMEA & APAC Aircraft & Services Sales +420 604 224 828 STUDIO/PRODUCTION Helen Cavalli Mark Williams +44 (0) 20 8939 7726 CIRCULATION Sue Brennan +44 (0) 20 8255 4000 Freephone from USA: +1 855 425 7638 AVBUYER.COM Michas Rapf Emma Davey

Tips for Your Next Aircraft Paint Project


USA OFFICE 1210 West 11th Street, Wichita, KS 67203-3517

Don’t forget to content in the

Editorial Contributor (USA Office) Dave Higdon

MANAGING DIRECTOR John Brennan +44 (0) 20 8255 4229

Ramping up MRO Support: Dassault’s Story

read our regular

EDITORIAL Commissioning Editor Matthew Harris +44 (0) 20 8939 7722

Sponsored Content 3 Rolls-Royce Delivering Engine Support at a Global Level 20 Atlas Air Service: Full Service & Support for Modern Avionics in your BizJet

6 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

EUROPEAN OFFICE AvBuyer House, 34A High Street, Thames Ditton, Surrey KT7 0RY, UK +44 (0)20 8255 4000 Freephone from USA: +1 855 425 7638 PRINTED BY Fry Communications, Inc. 800 West Church Road, Mechanicsburg, PA 17055














See us for a FalconEye Combined Vision System upgrade. Upgrade the situational awareness of your Falcon 2000LXS or 900LX with a FalconEye Combined Vision System. It’s available from the worldwide Dassault service center network which now includes ExecutJet and TAG MRO facilities.

WWW.DASSAULTFALCON.COM I FRANCE: +33 1 49 34 20 86 I USA: +1 201 440 6700

MRO.qxp_Finance 25/01/2022 15:23 Page 1


STCs: Understanding the Key to a Successful Upgrade What should aircraft owners understand about Supplemental Type Certificates when planning to modify or upgrade their jets? How should existing STCs be understood and planned around? Dave Higdon provides insights…


hough complex to understand and highly technical in nature, it’s worth aircraft owners and operators taking the time to fully research Supplemental Type Certificates (STCs) to understand their implications for a planned upgrade. STCs are issued by the US Federal Aviation Authority and come in all kinds of flavors – from those covering airframe modifications, to those allowing reconfiguration within the interior, to those allowing the aircraft to employ different performance limitations (such as an increase in gross operating weight). This can also allow a change of powerplant to achieve a longer Time Between Overhaul (TBO), better range or climb specifications, and/or reduced fuel consumption, etc — so there is a wide variety of STCs available. Decoding the language used to promote the STC can be a challenge, since some of the terms are common to other types of work on the airplane, while others are exclusive to a particular STC. Almost universally, however, aircraft STCs exist to correct a deficiency or improve an aspect 8 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

of the aircraft’s performance and/or function, so it’s in the aircraft owner’s interest to learn their language. Understanding an STC’s language is vital to identifying which one is best for achieving the desired goal, whether that’s improved performance, reduced fuel flow, longer TBO periods, or simply saving money when compared to undergoing an engine overhaul. Currently, Blackhawk Aerospace is an industry leader in developing STC packages for Pratt & Whitney Canada’s PT6A-powered turboprop engines, while STCs also exist for Falcon jet engine upgrades, and Beechjet 400As. Such upgrades (and their related STCs) typically include more than a new engine, however, covering cowling, engine trend-monitoring, and new engine gauges. And, at a time when passenger safety is at the forefront of everybody’s mind in relation to Covid19 transmission, Duncan Aviation, together with Dassault Aviation, recently developed STCs and installation packages for the Aviation Clean Air

MRO.qxp_Finance 25/01/2022 15:24 Page 2

(ACA) ionization system for three pre-owned Dassault Falcon Jet models, including the Falcon 7X, Falcon 2000/2000EX, and Falcon 900/900EX aircraft (including all EASy variants). While there is a multitude of STCs available for most aircraft make/models within Business Aviation, some of the terms accompanying STCs are not always clearly defined, and understanding them is key to making the most appropriate decision when shopping for the one that will provide the desired upgrade to your business airplane.

The Difference Between PMAs and STCs

On the one hand, Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA) “is an approval granted by the FAA to a manufacturer of aircraft parts. The holders of a PMA are permitted to make replacement parts for aircraft, even though they may not have been the original manufacturer of the aircraft”. The part produced under a PMA must comply with the quality-control and performance standards of the original part.

Conversely, as explained by the FAA, an STC is a Type Certificate (TC) issued when an applicant has received FAA approval to modify an aeronautical product from its original design and original type certificate. The STC, which incorporates by reference the related TC, approves not only the modification, but also how that modification affects the original design. The benefits of the avenues provided by PMAs and STCs means aircraft can be upgraded and improved without the involvement of the original manufacturer, perhaps offering a path to alternatives that may cost less. Before the FAA issues an STC allowing some kind of change to an aircraft, however, the applicant must produce documentation showing the effect of the installed STC on an aircraft. The STC applicant has the option (in most cases) of justifying their design by an engineering analysis, or by testing. If engineering analysis is chosen, a factor of 1.3 must be used as a safety buffer. Put another way, if the aircraft requires 9G forward-loading conditions for seats, then the

AVBUYER MAGAZINE Vol 26 Issue 2 2022


MRO.qxp_Finance 25/01/2022 15:27 Page 3


engineering analysis must prove the design to be 1.3 times 9G, or 11.7G. The design is frozen once it has cleared all obstacles and passed the engineering or testing requirements. Once the decision is made to proceed, the design is executed, and a prototype built (sometimes followed by several more iterations).

Selected Additional Terms Relating to STCs

Approved Model List (AML): AMLs are part of some aircraft STCs showing the different aircraft into which the STC can be installed. AMLs are typically developed and added to the STC after the initial approval by the FAA. The FAA reviews, and approves or rejects additions to the original STC. Designated Airworthiness Representative (DAR): The FAA uses DAR as inspectors in lieu of sending FAA employees to inspect individual projects. A Designated Airworthiness Representative is an individual appointed in accordance with 14 CFR § 183.33 who may perform examination, inspection, and testing services necessary to the issuance of certificates. There are two types of DARs, including manufacturing (DAR-F) and maintenance (DAR-T). Designated Engineering Representative (DER): A DER is an individual, appointed in accordance with 14 CFR § 183.29, who holds an engineering DAVE HIGDON is a highly respected aviation journalist who has covered all aspects of civil aviation over the past 36 years. Based in Wichita, he has several thousand flight hours, and has piloted pretty much everything from foot-launched wings to combat jets. Contact him via

10 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

degree or equivalent; possesses technical knowledge and experience; and meets the qualification requirements of Order 8100.8. DARs and DERs are often part of a company team developing STCs, PMAs, and new type certificates for their products.

Onus Remains with the Owner/Pilot

A Supplemental Type Certificate doesn't relieve a pilot or operator of their responsibility to operate the aircraft as approved by the FAA in the original Type Certificate, unless otherwise specified by the STC. For example, if an aircraft is certified to a service ceiling of Flight Level 410, an engine STC giving that aircraft the capability to exceed that altitude doesn’t automatically allow it to use the higher altitude unless the STC specifically says so (that’s an issue involving the airframe and pressurization system). The key to what the STC allows is in the documentation, which should be incorporated into the aircraft and engine logs. We hope, from the preceding paragraphs, that the message rings clear. It’s important to both research and understand the STCs available for your aircraft, and also the terminology contained within. This will be the key to a trouble-free upgrade that delivers the capability and permissions you need. ■


THE STANDARDS YOU TRUST. THE SERVICE YOU DESERVE. No matter where you fly, Stevens’ technical expertise and personal touch is

asdfadfadsfadsfasdfadsfasdf never far away. Across our three MRO locations and our entire network of

AOG teams, you can expect the highest level of care for your aircraft ­— backed by more than 70 years of aircraft service excellence. | 800-513-9164 | 24/7 AOG - 833-4AOGHELP | Greenville SC | Nashville TN | Dayton OH

Data Capture December.qxp_Layout 1 27/01/2022 12:51 Page 1

Leadership A matter of fact

Wider AOG Coverage than our leading competitor Learn the facts at

All claims made are based on the mobile response coverage compared to our leading competitor at June 2021.

Bombardier and Exceptional by design are trademarks of Bombardier Inc. or its subsidiaries. © 2021 Bombardier Inc. All rights reserved.

DDBA0862_CXads2022_ProPilot_V1R2.indd 1

2021-12-07 12:06 PM

ENGINES 1.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:37 Page 1


Tips on Scheduling Engine Overhauls & Inspections Engine inspections and overhauls are crucial events in the calendar for business jet owners, helping ensure the safety and health of the aircraft. Gerrard Cowan asks what are the key differences, and what are the common challenges aircraft owners and operators face today?

he difference between an aircraft overhaul and an inspection is essentially related to scale. An aircraft inspection is usually conducted on-wing and can be done on site with limited maintenance, ensuring the engine is at optimal operational condition, while an overhaul is a larger, much more time-consuming operation. The aircraft engine inspection could involve the use of torches, mirrors and similar, relatively simple equipment to inspect various areas of the engine, such as fan blades or wiring. It is also likely to involve the use of a borescope, a camera on a cable that can be “manoeuvred through various parts of the engine to ensure the core parts are in proper condition”, Stewart D’Leon, Director, Environmental and Technical Operations at the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA), explains. By comparison, an overhaul must take place at


14 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

certain intervals, as determined by the engine manufacturer and outlined in the engine maintenance manual, says Robert Burda, engine product line specialist manager at Jet Support Services, Inc (JSSI), a provider of maintenance support and financial services to Business Aviation. Overhauls are the most detailed inspections that take place on an engine, encompassing the inspection of individual engine components against the allowable criteria set forth by the OEM. The allowable criteria in areas like cracks, burns and missing material are minimal at this inspection. “The reason for this is that the next overhaul inspection interval for this engine model could be thousands of hours into the future,” Burda says. “If these components were not repaired or replaced at the current overhaul, it could cause serviceability issues with the engine during continued operation.” JSSI provides a range of engine maintenance

ENGINES 1.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:38 Page 2

event management services, working with both clients and MRO facilities. Burda notes that the cost and time involved in an overhaul will depend on the engine make and model, and said that material availability and MRO slots need to be planned well in advance to reduce aircraft downtime. “If your operation doesn’t allow for the aircraft to be down, you’ll need to plan for lease engines to be installed to keep the aircraft in service during this maintenance,” he advises. “This could take more than 90 days.” Regardless of whether an aircraft operates on a hard-time engine program or an on-condition maintenance program, “an overhaul-level inspection will not be avoidable forever”, Burda warns. It’s therefore important to understand the costs associated with these inspections; JSSI offers an hourly cost maintenance program (HCMP) with the aim of offering budget stability, he highlights.

Pay Now or Pay Later

Elliott Aviation provides maintenance, avionics, paint, interior, engine and accessory work across its four MRO facilities. In regards to engines, its focus is primarily line maintenance services, and it works with outside vendors to deliver the majority of overhaul and heavier inspections, says Mike Saathoff, the company’s Director of Sales Operations & Engine and Accessory Sales. Saathoff said that at times of economic pressure – as was recently experienced due to Covid-19 – “there’s been a tendency for people to want to complete the minimum to be compliant to keep their aircraft in the air”. He warns that operators should be sure to follow manufacturer recommendations, “because doing the minimum can push upcoming maintenance to be more expensive and cause longer downtimes”. Operators should also be aware that capacity will

AVBUYER MAGAZINE Vol 26 Issue 2 2022


ENGINES 1.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:39 Page 3


be strained due to industry-wide staffing shortages, he adds. “Getting aircraft in [to the maintenance shop close to the event] may be a lot tougher than customers planned for, so expect to see input dates further out than they usually are.”

Be Proactive as Overhaul Approaches – Especially Today

Business jet operators should ensure they work with companies that are “experienced in your engine model and can provide guidance and communication throughout the maintenance event”, says Burda. “Working with the MRO facility to plan material in advance could be a proactive way to reduce aircraft downtime and the need for lease engine installation.” Operators also need to be prepared for possible overhaul-level inspections pending the results of lower-level inspections, Burda says. “This can come at an inopportune time in the aircraft schedule if the potential inspection results are not fully understood and accounted for in advance.” 16 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

The supply chain issues experienced in aerospace and other industries in recent months should also be a focus for business jet operators, says D’Leon, highlighting that a lot of parts manufacturers are having trouble keeping up with demand. This means that operators must order any necessary parts well in advance, potentially affecting the timescale and structure of their inspection and overhaul work. Otherwise, a potential discrepancy or issue could cause downtime for the aircraft, unless it is in a flyable condition. “In many cases, it won’t be,” D’Leon adds. “You need to be aware before you start your inspection that you could end up exceeding the timeframe you had scheduled, ultimately not returning the aircraft to service in the time you had planned.” Stacy Hollis works for Duncan Aviation as an Engine Service Sales Representative. Duncan Aviation is a provider of a range of engine overhaul and repair services for several different OEMs and engine models. Hollis says that business jet owners and operators should be aware that

“This means that operators must order any necessary parts well in advance, potentially affecting the timescale and structure of their inspection and overhaul work.” 

GE OnPoint October.qxp_Layout 1 23/09/2021 11:39 Page 1

We know your engine better because we designed it OnPoint engine maintenance program SM

GE’s OnPoint program provides the most comprehensive business jet engine coverage, including full risk transfer of your engine maintenance, support and diagnostics. Beginning on day one with 100% coverage,

OnPoint ensures your aircraft retains the highest level of performance and residual value. No matter where you are in the world GE can tailor a solution to best suit your operating needs.

ENGINES 1.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:39 Page 4


“currently in today's market everyone is experiencing manpower shortages, rental engine shortages, engine parts shortages and things of that nature” that are extending in-shop turn times. Where it was once possible to schedule engine and airframe events just a few weeks ahead, it’s now a case of “the more lead time, the better”. For major overhauls, he recommends scheduling several months in advance. “Some airframe events need to be scheduled six months to a year in advance to secure hangar slots.” Partly, this is because business jets are being used more heavily, Hollis suggests, meaning “these events are coming up quicker than they used to”. He has seen a number of situations over the past six months or so where customers “have reached the engine event interval, and they haven’t done any preplanning”.

GERRARD COWAN is a freelance journalist who focuses on aerospace and finance. In addition to his regular features in AvBuyer, Gerrard's work has appeared in the Wall Street Journal and Janes, among others. Gerrard can be found on Twitter: @GerrardCowan

18 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

According to Hollis, this goes beyond financial considerations, impacting the ability to even place an aircraft into a facility and get the work done. The message is clear. “It really comes down to scheduling months and months in advance.” Today, owners and operators facing near-term overhauls and inspections should be anticipating them, understanding the scope of work (both actual and potential), and putting in place as many plans as possible to ensure today’s industry-wide challenges don’t cause problems when their aircraft’s maintenance event comes due. ❚ More information from: Duncan Aviation: Elliott Aviation: Jet Support Services Inc: NBAA:


% 99.99



Maintain your engines. Keep your flight schedule. Enroll with EAP and get where you need to go. Besides our impeccable dispatch reliability record, choose EAP for personalized customer service and savings of as much as $80-$100 per engine per hour while using the same high-quality parts, engine MRO shops and field service technicians as the other programs. An EAP engine maintenance program keeps you in the air, not on the ground. Visit to see the complete list of engines we cover and get a quote, or call 214.350.0877.

Customer focused. High-quality. Trusted resources. Less expensive. *Cumulative dispatches through 09/2021

EAP_AvBuyer_ads_2020.indd 20

12/14/21 11:52 AM

ATLAS MRO.qxp_MARKET INSIGHTS 27/01/2022 10:35 Page 1


Full Service and Support for Modern Avionics in your Business Jet! Atlas Air Service of Bremen, Germany, provides full service for avionics systems of all major aircraft manufacturers. Core competencies in customized avionics modifications and upgrades, strong manufacturer relationships, and well-trained staff have led to an outstanding reputation as one of the leading providers in Europe. “We always set high standards for quality and performance. As an authorized dealer for Collins Aerospace, Garmin, and Honeywell, we know what matters in avionics,” said Serkan Akin, Director CAMO – MRO Commercial. “Before making decisions about avionics installations and other services, it is important to sit down with a reliable and reputable avionics specialist. Based on our decades of experience, expertise and knowhow in avionics, we want to get the most out of your aircraft and find a solution that suits you.”


Why Atlas Air Service AG? As an established provider of state-of-the-art avionics solutions for business aircraft, Atlas Air Service AG, together with its subsidiaries Augsburg Air Service and Altenhrein Aviation, offers customized solutions for Embraer Executive Jets, the Cessna Citation jet family, Beechcraft King Air Series, and Gulfstream G100 and G200 Series.

20 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

ATLAS MRO.qxp_MARKET INSIGHTS 27/01/2022 10:36 Page 2

+49 421 53658 -760

Atlas Air Service Avionic Installations include: ❯

Garmin G5000 for Citation XLS

Garmin G1000 NXi for Phenom 100/300

Collins Pro Line Fusion for Cessna 525 Series

Garmin G600 TXi and GI 275 installations

Garmin GTN 650/750Xi upgrades

Cabin LED lights installation

iPad/tablet holders for cabin and cockpit

DU-875 Installations for Legacy 600/650

FANS over Iridium installations for Legacy 600/650

ADS-B Out upgrades

Honeywell FMS upgrade 6.1 for Legacy 600/650

KA-Band Hi-Speed internet installation

Head-Up Display installation

Enhanced Vision System installation CITATION CJ4 COCKPIT

Atlas Air Service was founded over 50 years ago and has completed thousands of avionics modifications and upgrades to the complete satisfaction of its customers. The company has been a constant in the ever-changing avionics industry and has continually invested in employee training and state-of-the-art tools and procedures. “A key component of our service is our constant drive to improve and evolve,” said Radu Grigore, Deputy Manager – MRO Commercial. “We are continually working to improve ourselves and our customers’ experience of our maintenance operations. We can offer customers a wide range of modifications and upgrades – from our own ADS-B Out solutions to almost any customer request. To achieve this, we are in close contact with the best avionics suppliers in the market.”

AVBUYER MAGAZINE Vol 26 Issue 2 2022


ENGINES 2.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:41 Page 1


Engine Overhaul Acronyms: Understanding the Jargon Engine overhauls are a complex area, further complicated for uninitiated aircraft owners by various acronyms. Dave Higdon dissects what’s implied when your LLCs need changing, or an HSI is necessary – and what the TBO for your powerplants implies anyway!


topic most pilots and operators dread discussing, business airplane overhauls and major inspections loom at set periods in the operating life of every aircraft. They’re an inevitable fact of life. Without an engine maintenance program in place, they can be unpredictably expensive. And even with a program in place, they are time consuming, grounding the jet for a period of weeks. They also need to be understood in order for the owner/operator to keep a handle on planning ahead, and managing the process from their side of the equation. Part of that is to understand exactly what will be involved – which will help explain the high costs and time required. For that, insights into what some of the acronyms stand for is important. 22 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

TBO: Time Between Overhaul

The Time Between Overhaul (TBO) of an engine is set by the engine manufacturer and submitted to the FAA as part of the manufacturer’s typecertificate application. This number usually runs into the thousands-of-hours for mature engines. Operators of turboprop aircraft will find that propellers – especially constant-speed props – also operate with a TBO that is set by the OEM, as do some of the analog flight instruments installed in many a business jet and turboprop panel. In fact, the attraction of longer TBOs is one of the motivations cited by operators who are upgrading their aircraft with digital, glass cockpits. For operators flying well above the average number of annual hours in Business Aviation, the need to overhaul Horizontal Situation Indicators is one incentive cited for moving to digital Primary

ENGINES 2.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:41 Page 2

Flight Displays (PFDs). Some Horizontal Situation Indicators have relatively low TBO cycles that high-time operators can hit more than once annually – giving such operators justification to switch to PFDs, based on the high costs of overhauling their Horizontal Situation Indicators two or three times a year. Operators can predict whether – and if so, when – an Overhaul (or other major inspection) is likely to be invoked during their time of ownership, based on their average annual flying hours. For example, if the TBO is set at 5,000 hours, and 4,000 hours have been flown either since the jet was new, or since the last overhaul, the next overhaul will be due in 1,000 hours. Assuming in this example that the owner has an average annual utilization of 250 flight hours, it becomes clear that an overhaul will be due in four years’ time, with

plenty of time to plan for it. It is helpful to consider the overhaul looming at the end of the TBO as the ultimate recycling plan. Each engine is removed from the airplane, and technicians disassemble them. Components eligible for re-use are measured, and, if they measure up as required, go back into the engine during reassembly. The engine undergoes some testing, before being returned to active service, and the TBO meter starts to tick off the hours until the next overhaul is due.

LLCs: Life-Limited Components

You’ll notice in our outline of the overhaul we mentioned the components that were eligible to be reinstalled in the engine. These do not necessarily include the Life-Limited Components (LLCs), some of which may have reached the end

AVBUYER MAGAZINE Vol 26 Issue 2 2022


ENGINES 2.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:42 Page 3


of their time limits. LLCs come with a set number of hours before they must be replaced, as set by the OEM. Those limits may be measured in hours or cycles (an aircraft take-off and landing represents one cycle). Once the limit is reached, they must be replaced – either by another part manufactured by the original OEM, an approved part manufactured under license by a third-party company, or a previously-used part, operated in another engine, but with ample life remaining in it. Each option has its own cost implication.

HSI: Hot Section Inspection

Turbine engines all sport an intake fan, a compressor section, a combustion chamber, and hot sections (turbines spun by the hightemperature, high-pressure gas exiting from the combustion chamber, in turn driving the compressor). Exposed to extremely high pressures and vast temperature variations, the hot sections require periodic inspections hence the term ‘HSI’. These look for signs of wear, impending failure, and cracks to determine the condition of these components, which include: 24 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

• • • • • • • •

The air compressors, Combustion chambers and liners, Turbine wheels, Power and compressor turbines, Stationary vane rings, Turbine-shroud segments, Temperature sensors and connections, and Compressor inlet.

Traditionally, Hot Section Inspections require engine removal and partial disassembly to access the relevant parts, but for the past few years the industry’s leading engine OEMs have designed their newer engines to enable inspection while they’re still installed on the airplane, with borescopes being the main tool for viewing inside the relevant areas. Components failing the HSI will need to be replaced or repaired, while other items may simply be logged for future attention if they don’t directly impact the integrity of the powerplant. If significant deterioration isn’t found in the engine’s hot section components, the HSI will tend to be a relatively low-cost major maintenance event, and in some cases may only ground the airplane for a few days.

Looking for reliable MRO Services so that you can simply fly? Your Jet – Our Job – Since 1958

Nuremberg & Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany:

Vienna, Austria:

Heavy Maintenance · airframe · engines · avionics · interior · components · modifications · upgrades · structural repairs · paint · AOG support · spare parts · consulting

Line Station · scheduled and unscheduled maintenance · warranty repairs · AOG support · retrofitting · modifications · upgrades · battery and wheel shop

Landsberg / Lech, Germany:

Klagenfurt, Austria:

Component Shop · AOG support · life rafts · CVR/FDR · FMS · ULB · ELT · flight panels · EPS · battery shop

Line Station · scheduled and unscheduled maintenance · warranty repairs · AOG support

Aero-Dienst GmbH · Flughafenstrasse 100 · 90411 Nuremberg · Germany · ·

AERO-Dienst_MRO_AZ_205x270plus3mm.indd 1

13.01.22 12:38

ENGINES 2.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:42 Page 4


“If significant deterioration isn’t found in the engine’s hot section components, the HSI will tend to be a relatively low-cost major maintenance event, and in some cases may only ground the airplane for a few days.” The Onus is on the Operator

Though the TBO and HSI are the two predominant terms when discussing engine overhaul, the inspections and operating limits of engines require deeper knowledge. There is a need for operators to know, understand, and follow engine issues since the powerplants account for about half the value of the aircraft. Failure to maintain the engines in top condition can adversely, and significantly, impact the fair-market value of the jet, as well as its dispatch reliability and fuel efficiency, and increase direct operating costs. It is to give the company’s airplane its maximum potential that more and more operators are turning to hourly maintenance programs to handle their maintenance demands.

DAVE HIGDON is a highly respected aviation journalist who has covered all aspects of civil aviation over the past 36 years. Based in Wichita, he has several thousand flight hours, and has piloted pretty much everything from foot-launched wings to combat jets. Contact him via

26 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

Whether covered by a factory program (like those from GE Engines, Rolls-Royce or Pratt & Whitney Canada), or from a third-party provider (like Engine Assurance Program or JSSI), such programs make maintenance costs predictable, and maintenance more reliable. Remembering that the company plane is a business asset that adds value to its owner by being reliably available at short notice keeps its worth apparent. But getting the maximum value out of this time machine requires keeping it wellmaintained and contributing to the company’s bottom line. A small part of that, of course, is making it your business to familiarize with the mandated overhaul, inspections, and the terminology associated with them. ❚


Designers Bring Aviation Expertise Vital to Every Aircraft Project

Our Designers provide innovative solutions that incorporate current industry and design trends. They understand the lead time and complexity of specific materials, while ensuring consistency with regard to quality and durability. They also provide on-site management to ensure the projects are completed to our standards and delivered on schedule.

Besides creativity and artistry, the Design staff at Duncan Aviation is knowledgeable on aviation burn test requirements, OEM make/model restrictions for exterior paint, and modifications that meet engineering guidelines. They know FAA regulations and ensure placard and safety regulations as required in the cabin.

World AvBuyer Ad 1_19_22.indd 2

1/18/2022 10:18:41 AM

ENGINES 3.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:45 Page 1


How to Adjust Engine Maintenance Coverage Safely When is it feasible to adjust your engine maintenance program coverage level, and how should you achieve this without unnecessary risk? Chris Kjelgaard asks the industry’s experts…

ngine maintenance program coverage can offer various options, for a variety of monthly payment rates — but not always. The options provided by the coverage available for your engines, usually priced and predicated on a per-flight-hour basis, can depend on the engine type powering your aircraft; the company which made the engines; and the company providing the coverage. Two of the largest Business Aviation engine manufacturers, GE Aviation and Rolls-Royce, have decided for their respective OnPoint and CorporateCare maintenance plans to offer only comprehensive programs, covering all scheduled maintenance requirements; all airworthiness directive compliance work; line maintenance; and most unscheduled maintenance events — particularly those which require an engine to be removed from the aircraft for repair. In cases of ingested foreign object debris (FOD) damage to engines (for which the repair costs above a set deductible amount are covered by the aircraft’s hull and


28 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

liability insurance policy), OnPoint and CorporateCare will also support aircraft owners by leasing them replacement engines and providing engine removal, transport, logistics and installation services. Indeed, Rolls-Royce subsequently introduced CorporateCare Enhanced in 2018, an even more comprehensive level of maintenance coverage, for its BR710, BR725, and brand-new Pearl 15 BizAv turbofan engines. Another large Business Aviation engine manufacturer, Pratt & Whitney Canada, has historically offered four levels of coverage in its Eagle Service Plan (ESP), but is evolving towards two levels for a given engine model - a move that it says is driven by declining interest in the less inclusive plans. By focusing on the two higher level plans, P&WC aims to simplify and streamline the offering and customer experience for its more-than 75 different engine models across the turboprop, turboshaft, and turbofan market segments.

ENGINES 3.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:45 Page 2

For similar reasons Honeywell, a fourth large manufacturer of BizAv turbine engines and auxiliary power units, also offers three levels of its Maintenance Service Plan (MSP) hourly coverage — MSP, MSP Gold and MSP Gold NRL. Based in North America two non-OEM maintenance coverage providers, Jet Support Services, Inc (JSSI) and Engine Assurance Program (EAP), also offer plans for various Business Aviation engine types. EAP specializes in covering several widely-used, slightly older turbofan engine types, providing comprehensive coverage for those. JSSI covers an extensive range of Business Aviation engines, and offers a wide variety of coverage options to suit the needs – and pockets – of its many customers worldwide. For a variety of reasons aircraft owners may have occasion to consider amending, either by augmenting or cutting back, the levels of coverage their engine hourly maintenance plans provide. But, as you might expect, this is never a decision that you should take lightly, or on the spur

of the moment. The implications of changing coverage levels can severely impact the resale value and the marketability of an aircraft, as well as the ability of the aircraft to perform required missions, according to four experts interviewed for this article.

When is Best to Adjust Coverage?

Sean Lynch, Program Coordinator for EAP, says the best time to consider and shop for the options owners want from their engine coverage is before they buy the aircraft whose engines will be covered. This generally refers to owners looking to buy used aircraft either offered for sale with no engine coverage, or with a level of coverage that the would-be owner wishes to change. (New-production aircraft usually are sold with comprehensive engine maintenance warranty already in place, but owners usually elect to have them fully covered as well.) According to Lynch, owners will typically want to change

AVBUYER MAGAZINE Vol 26 Issue 2 2022


ENGINES 3.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:46 Page 3


coverage levels — and/or entire plans — for one (or a combination) of three reasons: 1. The level of customer service the plan provider offers; 2. Plan pricing; and/or 3. The level of aircraft dispatch reliability a change in coverage will offer. During the pre-buy engine coverage decision process, the wouldbe owner of the aircraft must evaluate a series of important factors in determining the level of coverage they want for the engines; particularly whether the level of any existing plan covering them should be changed. Overhaul Status: One factor is the status of the engines in terms of time elapsed between overhauls, or until the next mid-point inspection, says Lynch. If the engines only have, say, 200 flight hours remaining before the next overhaul is due, any newly commissioned plan provider will require the new owner to provide a 30 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

buy-in to cover the cost of the engine operating time elapsed since the previous overhaul. Unscheduled Maintenance: Another vital consideration for the new owner is to carefully evaluate the potential costs of unscheduled maintenance events — particularly catastrophic damage — before deciding if the maintenanceplan coverage required needs to include coverage for unscheduled maintenance. Maintenance performed during scheduled shop visits such as midpoint inspections, hot section inspections and overhauls probably only accounts for less than 60% of the total maintenance costs associated with an engine, according to Lynch. The other 40%, “the real cost, is the stuff that breaks between those events”. He cites the example of one owner who experienced an engine oil pump failure during the first flight of the aircraft after purchase, requiring a $28,000 repair. Two trips later, one of the engines had an N1 (low pressure

turbine speed sensor) monopole issue that cost $27,000 to repair. Just 30 flight hours after that, an engine’s number 4 carbon seal began leaking and required replacing, at a cost of $180,000 overall.

Understand the 100% Coverage Benchmark…

People need to understand the ‘benchmark’ of what 100% coverage provides, and the considerable potential financial risks of declining it, before deciding whether or not to contract for a comprehensive plan, says Lynch. “It includes rental engines, at $40k a month. It includes shipping, which is $12-17k internationally, and $3-7k inside the US, depending on how fast you need the engine,” he elaborates. “It covers LLPs [the replacement of which could cost well over $1m per engine] and on condition parts. It even includes engine removal and replacement, anywhere from $19-39k each. “Don’t assume you have 100% coverage,” just because you have an

Augsburg Air Service February.qxp 27/01/2022 10:47 Page 1

ENGINES 3.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:46 Page 4



hourly engine maintenance plan contract, he warns. Do not assume you are saving money by taking the engine off the program. “You are losing value in the asset if you do,” Lynch stresses. “If the aircraft is financed, you could be ruining bank covenants by unenrolling the engines. Banks mandate that engines should be on a program — otherwise they have no collateral,” he explains. “Without engine coverage, the aircraft the banks are financing have little resale value.” Ultimately, engine programs are good for the entire industry, Lynch asserts. “A lot of aircraft scrapping is occurring because a lot of engines are not covered”.

Optional and Comprehensive Coverage

When a provider offers different engine maintenance program coverage levels as options, some plans may offer “cycle only” coverage, which covers the costs of replacing lifelimited parts (LLPs) and other parts only when they are replaced during scheduled maintenance events, says Steve McManus, one of two Senior Sales Directors for the OnPoint program in GE Aviation’s Business Aviation division. Such plans leave the costs of 32 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

replacing those parts during unscheduled maintenance to the owner. In today’s overheated used-aircraft market, “owners are over-paying for aircraft, so now the dumbest thing to do is to put it on a cheap engine program,” Greg Ryan, Senior Sales Director in GE Aviation’s Business Aviation Division says, adding this can be a real “Gotcha”. Comprehensive coverage has particularly important and positive repercussions for aircraft resale values, Ryan says, adding “if you have light coverage, it makes a big difference in resale value.” It is even more important if the owner is relying on a bank loan or lease to pay for the acquisition of the aircraft. “Ninety percent of financed aircraft are required to have a program, and the financier would want to have more complete coverage,” says Ryan. “We are seeing banks require an assessment on the [engine] program, and to have it assigned to them. They want to understand what is covered in the program.”

The Importance of LLP Coverage

Similarly, notes P&WC’s Delray Dobbins, “buyers need to exercise due diligence” when deciding whether to buy a plan that covers the cost of LLP

(Life Limited Parts) replacement during unscheduled or scheduled maintenance, or one that does not. For example, if an owner is buying an aircraft with engines that have LLPs requiring replacement at 13,000 hours, but the LLPs in the engines have several thousand hours’ operating life left before then (in other words, many years of operating life for a typical privately operated business jet), then the owner might decide it is worth chancing not having LLP replacement costs covered. However, warns Dobbins, “one significant ‘Gotcha’ I’m seeing occur over and over right now is when exfractional [ownership] aircraft enter the used market, usually in the $1-2m range. The Gotcha is the LLPs in the engine.” Such aircraft are often offered with engines containing LLPs which have accumulated as many as 11,000 cycles and 12,000 hours, so if the aircraft is to be operated at a utilization rate anything higher than 200-300 hours annually, it is quickly going to need a major overhaul, so the LLPs can be replaced.. If the new owner hasn’t paid to include coverage of LLP replacement in the hourly maintenance program, Dobbins estimates it will cost $1.5m per engine to replace them when they run out. The owner either has to cough up $3 million for replacement LLPs on a pair of engines, or scrap what had been an aircraft investment of up to $2m not long before. Taking seriously the idea of LLP replacement coverage is all the more important because “the biggest variability in engine programs is LLPs,” says Dobbins. In many pre-purchase inspections, “even appraisers tick a box and don’t go into details” on

ENGINES 3.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:46 Page 5

checking remaining LLP life. “Those details are going to bite you hard,” if they aren’t taken into account.

Replacement Parts Versus New Parts

While it should be the goal of every plan provider to keep each covered engine on wing as long as possible, for reasons both of cost (in this case of paying for unscheduled maintenance) and also of market reputation, sometimes oversight by a plan provider might falter. McManus cites an example known to GE of a business jet owner whose CF34-3B1 engine plan had catastrophic coverage, which was invoked because a part failed. In this case the plan provider, which wasn’t GE, had a used serviceable replacement part installed in the business jet engine, but didn’t notice that the replacement part had come from a CF34-3B1 engine which had been on a regional jet. That engine had been operating on an 18,000-cycle airline-operations cycle, but the replacement part was now installed in an engine operating under a 3,000-cycle private-operations cycle. The owner had no idea this had happened until he contacted GE about coverage and found that the value of his aircraft had fallen by $2m as a result of an unsuitable replacement part being installed in one of its engines. McManus says that in 90 percent of the cases where GE Aviation has to install a replacement part in an engine, it will install a new part. The only exceptions are when aircraft are grounded in parts of the world where it would take days for a new replacement part to arrive. In such cases GE will always install a business jet-cycle used


serviceable part of the latest operational specification and configuration. “We know how a new part will perform, but not a used part,” says Ryan. “Time on wing is everything — it is really a focus of ours.”

Evidence of Engine Condition

Just because an owner wants to change the maintenance-plan coverage level for the aircraft’s engines doesn’t mean that it can be accomplished automatically. In some cases it can’t be accomplished at all. This is because the chosen plan provider “will want to see some basic engine parameters” before deciding whether or not it is prepared to offer maintenance coverage on the engines, notes Lynch. During the pre-purchase inspection conducted on the aircraft, the plan provider will require physical evidence of the condition of the engines — such as performing a spectral oil analysis, checking all of the aircraft’s logbook entries for reports of engine issues and condition, and conducting a borescope inspection of each engine to look for potential FOD damage. McManus says GE requires even more evidence of the aircraft’s past and likely future operating history before it decides whether or not it is able to

offer OnPoint coverage for the engines. The first step for GE is to determine whether the engines were previously ever covered under an hourly maintenance plan. GE then requires borescope inspections of all three engine modules (fan, compressor and hot section); no current engine-unserviceability findings in the aircraft’s maintenance records; a ground power run of the engines; an inter-stage turbine temperature margin of at least 18°C between the highpressure turbine stages and the low-pressure turbine stages; data on the engines’ past performance trends; details of where – and in what climatic environments – the engines were previously operated; and where and how the aircraft is expected to be operated in the future. Evaluating all this information, if GE then finds the engines suitable for OnPoint coverage, it will offer an individually priced plan.

When Does Adjusting Coverage Make Sense? Most of the time, customers who contract for an OEM such as Pratt & Whitney Canada to provide hourly engine maintenance plan coverage maintain the same coverage throughout the entire time they continue to own the aircraft.

AVBUYER MAGAZINE Vol 26 Issue 2 2022


ENGINES 3.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:47 Page 6


catastrophic support? It’s an end-of-life question, and the answer is different for every owner.”

Advice for Owners


“We don’t really see customers changing levels, because our coverage is so comprehensive,” says Dobbins. “Over 20 years, programs have become more and more comprehensive. “Coverage stays the same, for the most part, through the life of the aircraft” — particularly when an hourly plan can be passed on when the aircraft is sold to a new owner, though in some cases this might require the new owner to pay a program buy-in amount up front. However, there are a couple of important exceptions to this rule of thumb. “Really the only midstream tweak” that P&WC sees, is for customers to make their coverage more comprehensive (upgrading to ESP Platinum coverage, for instance) to provide maintenance coverage for any corrosion found in their engines, and to cover the costs of line maintenance. “Everybody wants AOG, freight, engine removal and corrosion coverage,” says Dobbins. However, in some cases — particularly where owners have more than one aircraft they can use to fulfill a required mission — some customers choose to dispense with ESP coverage for “alternate lift”, otherwise known as “supplemental lift”. This coverage comes into effect 34 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

when a customer needs to lease an engine for a short term from P&WC in order to replace an engine which has been removed for repair, allowing the aircraft to keep operating. But if P&WC doesn’t have a spare engine available to lease, it will provide a reimbursement to the customer, allowing the customer to charter a suitable alternate aircraft. More generally, according to all four experts interviewed, there is one common situation in which reducing coverage levels, or dropping coverage entirely can make sense. This is when an aircraft and its engines are approaching the ends of their operating lives and a new (or an existing) owner recognizes that he or she is almost certainly going to be the aircraft’s last owner. Dobbins cites the hypothetical example of a 70-year-old owner whose aircraft is 25 years old, and the engines have always been on an OEM’s hourly maintenance plan. If the engines are, say, 4,000 hours away from their next overhaul, but the owner is only flying the aircraft for an average of 100 hours per year, Dobbins asks, “does it make sense to put 300 hours [of coverage] a year into it? “You might make a change then. Marketability is not really an issue. Would it make sense for AOG-only

McManus sees things similarly to Dobbins. “The only time you want to think hard about a program is when your engine gets very old,” he says. “The whole aircraft is worth maybe $1m, and you’re probably the last owner. “That end of life is when programs start to be worth thinking a little harder about. You can’t get cycle parts or LLPs any more. That’s about the only time we’ll turn people away [as potential customers].” “It comes back to that reputational thing,” says Ryan. “We’d rather have that heart-to-heart talk with the owner of the airplane than mislead the owner into thinking it is worth paying for several hundred hours of comprehensive engine maintenance coverage a year.” One other way in which OEMs are prepared to adjust coverage on engines installed on a used aircraft bought by a new owner is when the aircraft’s operating circumstances and mission profile are likely to change materially. For instance, says Ryan, GE is quite happy to adjust coverage for an aircraft’s engines when under its new owner it is moving from operating, say, 400 hours a year on five-hour average segments in North America to operating 150 hours a year on segments averaging 90 minutes in the Middle East. “Then you don’t need the 400 hour minimum, and we’ll adjust the hours per year down and make the associated rate adjustment. We’ll go down to 100 hours and below.”

Elliott Jets February.qxp_Layout 1 25/01/2022 11:36 Page 1

Searching for the right aircraft? Our team has been helping people find the right aircraft for 85 years. We are so confident we can find the aircraft you are looking for that we are offering a risk-free, money-back guarantee of our acquisition fee!

Contact us today - you have nothing to lose!


380+ G1000/G1000 NXi Installations More than ALL dealers in the world COMBINED 130+ Legacy G1000 to G1000 NXi Upgrades

13 Years of Installations - 50+ Skilled Technicians

CONTACT US FOR A QUOTE TODAY (309) 799-3183 | |

ENGINES 3.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:48 Page 7


“We don’t really see customers changing levels, because our coverage is so comprehensive...” Delray Dobbins, P&WC

than the price of its 150-hour minimum plan, “So you might as well go to 150 hours,” Ryan adds. “Any time you are shaving off coverage, you are just cutting corners,” Lynch says. “Don’t give away engine rentals and shipping unless you are in the same city as the MRO shop. And pay attention to yearly minimums. “There is no need for a high yearly minimum [of covered operating hours] with engines that aren’t on calendar overhaul. You’ll get a bill if you don’t meet the minimum engine hours covered under the plan,” he concludes. ■ PHOTO COURTESY OF P&WC

However, because the variable unscheduled maintenance cost risks associated with such low plan levels far outweigh the plans’ fixed costs of scheduled maintenance and continuing airworthiness compliance, GE can’t charge less

More information from: • Engine Assurance Program: • GE Aviation: • Pratt & Whitney Canada: • Rolls-Royce: products-and-services/civil-aerospace/ aftermarket-services/business-aviation.aspx

CHRIS KJELGAARD has been an aviation journalist for 40 years, with a particular expertise on aircraft maintenance. He has served as editor of ten print and online titles and written extensively on many aspects of aviation. He also copy-edits most major documents published by a global aviation industry trade association.

36 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE




Your first class MRO specialist & EASA / FAA Authorized Service Center Rheinland Air Service GmbH | Flughafenstrasse 31 | 41066 Mönchengladbach | Germany Contact for more information: |

CABIN ELECTRONICS.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:50 Page 1


How to Enjoy Cabin Electronics Upgrade Success! From including the right people in the planning, to considering the different functions of your aircraft cabin, there are ways to ensure your next cabin electronics upgrade meets, and exceeds, the expectations of your passengers. Brian Wilson shares tips…


hose fortunate enough to have worked with an architect to design a custom home will understand the advantage of proper space and functionality planning. For example, you don’t place the master bedroom next to the kids’ playroom! Taking the same approach when you are planning your next major retrofit for your aircraft – and particularly the cabin electronics – can save a lot of second-guessing, and clashing of activities among your passengers. Business jets today act as an extension of the main office. But it’s important not to forget that comfort and relaxation are just as essential aboard the aircraft. When planning a major cabin electronic retrofit, it’s very important to break the cabin down into zones, or areas. While in most cases you won’t be able to close a door, or walk down the hallway to avoid noise or lighting, it is possible to design a layout to satisfy both business and pleasure needs simultaneously. 38 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

Where to Begin the Planning…

The best place to start, is by having both electronic and paper copies of the interior layout prepared. Unlike a home where you can buy new furniture, or move items around to fit your needs, certification costs will mostly prohibit moving seats, divans and other monuments within an aircraft cabin. In most cases, you will be working around an existing interior layout, and considering how to optimize the way the cabin’s electronics work within that arrangement. The next step is to focus on the systems that will facilitate the needs of your passengers. These include: •

In-Flight Connectivity

In-Flight Entertainment (IFE)

Cabin Management System (CMS)



CABIN ELECTRONICS.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:50 Page 2

In relation to these, be sure to define the profile and mission required of the aircraft, including: • • • • •

What are the specific passenger expectations (business and pleasure)? Will the airplane fly mostly domestic trips, or internationally? What is the average number of passengers flying on these trips? What is the normal/average flight duration? Will the aircraft be utilized for charter, too?

Seek input from multiple different people when planning a cabin electronics retrofit. The discussion should include the crew, maintenance and other flight department personnel, and the passengers. If the aircraft is primarily used for business, it’s imperative to have the CEO, CFO and any other key personnel involved in the decision-making.

Major cabin retrofits are expensive, meaning that meeting both the passengers’ expectations and staying within budget can be an arduous task.

Galley Electronic Considerations

The main galley is usually located just aft of the cockpit, and is the first zone you encounter when you walk up the airstairs. A forward galley configuration allows the flight attendant to easily support both the crew and passengers. Aft galleys are cumbersome because the flight attendant must regularly pass through the cabin, which can disturb passengers who may be trying to work or rest. Galleys can also be noisy due to expresso machines, cooking and meal preparation. For this reason, most galleys are isolated from the main cabin by a bulkhead and pocket door. When it comes to upgrading the electronics in the cabin, focus on proper lighting in both the headliner and cabinets of the galley so the flight

AVBUYER MAGAZINE Vol 26 Issue 2 2022


CABIN ELECTRONICS.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:54 Page 3


attendant can be as efficient and quiet as possible with their activities. The main galley switch panel should also be configured to control all the cabin lighting and environmental systems.

Forward Cabin Electronic Considerations

Aft of the galley is the forward cabin, which is normally the work zone and the area in which the CEO or other VIP sits. Typically, the VIP seat is the first forward-facing seat on the right-hand side. At one time, the VIP control panel was a colossal array of switches, but today new touchscreen technology has replaced buttons and switches. It’s very important to ensure the CEO/VIP has the master control for both environmental, audio, and video within this zone, and today’s connectivity systems can be configured to make sure the CEO/VIP is given priority bandwidth allocation. Since this is the cabin zone for conducting business, focus your cabin electronics refit on creating a complete business suite, including: • USB and wireless charging stations • Power for laptops • HD monitor • Wireless printer • HDMI and Ethernet ports. Ensure the Wi-Fi router is properly placed in the aircraft. Pocket doors and close-out panels can impact the strength of the signal, creating problems if this is not well planned.

Aft Cabin Electronic Considerations

Next, of course, is the aft cabin. Many times, there is a couch and divan in this zone which is used 40 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

more for entertainment and relaxation. On larger jets there is usually a pocket door separating the forward and aft cabin. Regardless, proper planning must be undertaken to reduce interference between the two zones. The couch doubles as a belted seat configuration for three passengers, and is also a place to relax and spread your legs out. Here, it will be important to position the monitor and speakers so they transmit noise away from the forward cabin. If possible, have a monitor that pops out of the divan and can swivel fore and aft. And have a few high-end wireless headsets available in the divan, or install a Bluetooth device so passengers can listen to audio through their ear buds. The standard chargers and interface units listed in the forward cabin should be conveniently located in this zone too. Moreover, the two zones should have separate lighting and controllers. Since the aft cabin tends to be focused more on relaxation, consider installing lower intensity lighting, or even mood lights. The divan and end tables at the couch can incorporate small, focused reading lights. Rounding out the cabin will depend on the size of the aircraft: The Large Cabin/Ultra-Long-Range Jet and Businessliner class might have another room designed specifically for rest and relaxation. This could include either a small bed, another couch, or two large, facing chairs that reconfigure into a fully-flat bed. For the rest of the fleet, the very rear of the accessible cabin area is usually an aft galley,

Satcom Direct February.qxp_Layout 1 25/01/2022 11:42 Page 1




• •

First network integrated terminal designed exclusively for business aviation Dedicated capacity for business aviation Enhanced troubleshooting and support capabilities

• • •

Only 2 Line Replaceable Units (LRUs) Minimally invasive installation Non-pressurized install capability

• • •

Open architecture Advanced antenna technology 6HDPOHVV FRVW H΍HFWLYH WUDQVLWLRQ SDWK DV VDWHOOLWH technology advances


FUTURE PROOF | +1 321.777.3000

CABIN ELECTRONICS.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:55 Page 4


lavatory, closet, and storage area. The larger aircraft can even support a stand-up shower. The focus in this zone should be proper lighting, temperature control, and comfort.

Meeting Passenger Expectations

Personal Electronic Devices (PEDs) are part of our everyday lives. Many of your passengers will have a smartphone, a tablet, and a laptop. As far as they are concerned, the aircraft is no different than their homes and place of work: They will expect chargers, mounts, and video and audio interface capabilities. No doubt the passengers will want to interface the content they have stored on their devices with the InFlight Entertainment and CMS systems. Trying to interface new off-the-shelf technologies with older onboard electronics can require a new or partial upgrade, however – or at least a software revision. Both require weeks, if not months, to design and execute. One great place to start when trying to meet your passengers’ expectations is to ask them! While it may sound like a no-brainer, in my career I’ve found myself in many meetings with a lot of smart people trying to determine what their passengers need and want. Though CEOs and VIPs are very busy people, they

will be the first to let you know if something doesn’t meet their expectations. Major OEMs and MROs have the technology to create a virtual walk-through of the cabin and its features. If one positive thing has arisen since the pandemic, it’s the explosion of video calls and meetings. Whether it’s a CEO or a wealthy individual, surely, they can find the time to ensure their needs will be met aboard the company airplane. A cabin electronics retrofit will cost a lot of money, and require substantial downtime for the aircraft. Planning should ultimately commence at least a year before the scheduled downtime, which is usually associated with a major maintenance inspection or overhaul. Budgets need to be prepared, and quotes should be solicited. MRO selection will take a minimum of 2-3 months, while lead times for equipment and software modifications can take 3-6 months. Cabin retrofits usually occur every 6-7 years, or when an aircraft changes hands. To avoid a stressful outcome when the time comes around for yours: i) invite everyone to the party; ii) plan your strategy thoroughly; iii) execute the plan. It’s the only way for your next cabin electronics upgrade to truly meet your passengers’ expectations. ■

BRIAN WILSON is the Director, Key Accounts at Gogo Business Aviation, an industry-leading provider of in-flight connectivity and entertainment solutions. Prior to Gogo, he sat on numerous Dealer Advisory Boards along with being a member of the AEA Board of Directors.

42 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE


Video January.qxp_Layout 1 27/01/2022 13:01 Page 1


AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE Services available from London Biggin Hill Airport. Aircraft maintenance. UK CAA & EASA approved scheduled maintenance checks, line and AOG support, off-site support, gas & fluid replenishment, parts supply and Pilatus warranty processing. Aircraft records management. Support with aircraft maintenance programs, log book records and maintenance tracking. Aircraft detailing. All levels of aircraft detailing controlled under the company 145 approval. Aircraft parking. Ramp and hangar parking.

Contact Oriens Aviation, the Pilatus Authorised Service Centre for the British Isles.

Aircraft Maintenance:

AOG / 24hr support:

+ 44 (0) 7501 510 271

44 (0) 7553 868 089 Oriens Aviation Maintenance Limited, 526 Churchill Way, London Biggin Hill Airport, TN16 3BN

AVIONICS FLIP.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 13:58 Page 1


Flight Deck Upgrade: What Drives Your Options? Are you considering a flight panel upgrade during an upcoming MRO shop visit? You’ll need to know your options, and the factors shaping your ultimate upgrade. Ken Elliott explores these, providing different options and considerations to help your planning process…


ny major business aircraft cockpit upgrade or retrofit is a big deal, and for many owners who are used to their legacy avionics, it can be an overwhelming experience. To that end we begin this article with a true story… Back in the 1990s, the Ohio-based avionics shop I worked at welcomed a Citation II/SP jet into our hangar all the way from the Philippines for a significant flight deck upgrade. The pilot had saved up all his avionics faults over a period of several years, and arrived with one operational Nav & Comm system. In fact, he strapped a Garmin GPS to the glareshield of this eight-passenger corporate jet, and that was how he navigated his way to Columbus Ohio International Airport, via 21 hours of flying time which had required lots of oceanic flying en route from Manila. After several weeks, a complete flight deck Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) upgrade, and $100,000 worth of repairs to the existing avionics, the aircraft was towed onto the ramp and underwent several flight tests. The pilot had ample training on the new flight deck (which included a new flight management system (FMS)), and demonstrated proficiency. 46 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

Very late on the Friday evening, the aircraft was fueled and prepared for the first leg of its long return flight to the Far East. The pilot emerged to board the aircraft with three bags. The first was his personal luggage, the second his flight bag, and the third was a mystery. “Sir, is there anything else you need from us, and would you like us to review the flight deck one more time before you depart,” we asked. “Oh no – that will not be necessary,” he replied, unzipping the mystery bag. Pulling out his trusted Garmin GPS, he proceeded to strap it back on the glareshield. As we stood flabbergasted, he lightly tapped the GPS as if it were his favorite pet. “This GPS got me here, and this GPS will take me home,” he proudly proclaimed. “This, I can trust.” Apart from avoiding potential sticker shock, flight departments and owners can be wary of major flight deck changes, favoring ‘the familiar’. MROs, OEMs, and avionic shops should spend time ensuring buyers that they will support new products, providing adequate familiarity training. They should

AVIONICS FLIP.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 14:00 Page 2

spend extra time up-front, showing intuitive features, allowing for more ‘out the window’ flying.

Key Reasons for a Flight Panel Upgrade

The most important reason for any cockpit upgrade is safety. Many flight departments have justified the business case for an avionics upgrade or retrofit using valid safety-related aspects. The second most significant reason is a change in the operation of the aircraft, followed by obsolescence, and then mandates. Taking each governing reason outlined in Figure 1 (right), we will explore how each influences the flight panel upgrade decision process and include some important considerations.

FIGURE 1: Governing Reasons of Flight Deck Upgrade Options 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

Safety Operational change(s) Obsolescence Mandates Reducing operating costs Resale Connectivity Modernization

Many cockpit features are designed or installed with safety in mind. Here are just three of them…

Upgrading standby instruments is a common and wise move. Having digital altitude, airspeed, turn and bank, attitude, heading, vertical speed and navigation data in one instrument saves on power and panel space.

Standby Instruments: Designed to back up primary information, crucially standby instruments are totally independent of standard equipment, including their power source.

Redundancy: Achieved by duplication (and for some aircraft triplication) of primary systems, such as communication, navigation and surveillance (CNS) systems. Triplication occurs with flight management and reference gyros.

1) Safety

AVBUYER MAGAZINE Vol 26 Issue 2 2022


AVIONICS FLIP.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 14:01 Page 3


2) Operational Changes FIGURE 2: Some avionic upgrades are specifically safety related, for example: • • • •

406 MHz Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT). Flight Tracking System – for global flight tracking of real-time aircraft position. Digital Standby Instruments – to replace mechanical 3-6 pack of analog devices. Quick Access Recording (with real-time downloads) – for engine and other system performance monitoring.

* Certain features of other systems mentioned in this article will have distinct safety advantages

In Large Jets, it is common to upgrade with a third Flight Management System (FMS) that’s independently referenced and used as a third position source for each of the two primary systems. Power Management: Often overlooked on pre-owned aircraft upgrades, both pilots should have equal control, and be able to access the different busses of electrical distribution, from their seats. Especially, there should be an ability to isolate the cabin from power. While aircraft are engineered with bus priority and pilot control in mind, issues may occur with aftermarket upgrades. Ask your avionics facility to check the functionality of power bussing, with safety in mind. This extends to bus loading and electrical load analysis, where each aircraft should have a current document that reflects all removed and installed equipment over the aircraft’s life. It is not uncommon for the electrical loads of an upgrade to be amending an out-of-date load analysis.

48 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

Operational changes refer to moving the operation of an aircraft from one region to another, as often occurs after the transfer of ownership. Especially in today’s tight market aircraft buyers may need to compromise on a purchase and then equip to meet their individual needs, rather than wait to find the ideal aircraft. Moreover, the buyer of a pre-owned jet may have different standards of comfort, and while the equipage of an aircraft may suit one owner, it may be insufficient for another. While the aircraft meets the new owner’s minimum equipage requirements, they may feel more comfortable, and have the budget, to upgrade to newer systems. These upgrades do not include ‘required equipage’ (covered later under ‘Mandates’). Perhaps the aircraft’s new owner plans to change the jet’s operations from domestic US flying, to European domestic operations. There is a wealth of information for equipage requirements for different regions available to NBAA members at Meanwhile EASA published a December 2021 version of the 2,000-plus page ‘Easy Access Rules for Air Operations’ – Regulation (EU) No 965/2012, which can be referenced for compliance if your aircraft is based in Europe. Moreover, owners/operators can expect to have incountry requirements, even down to placards, which must be visible in the cockpit or cabin. Requirements are always changing, especially in Europe. Compliance dates often move, or apply differently across the region. Do not forget that even though you may be basing an aircraft in Europe, having purchased it from a US-based owner, and plan to operate domestically, you still need to get the airplane there, and certain oceanic requirements must be met.

TAE Aerospace February.qxp_Layout 1 26/01/2022 15:17 Page 1

Engage the power of TAE Aerospace For over 30 years, TAE Aerospace has been supporting TPE331 engine operators worldwide with first-class maintenance, repair and overhaul services. Commercial and military operators have come to rely on TAE Aerospace to maximise the performance of their TPE331 engines and minimise the impact on aircraft availability during routine and unplanned maintenance events. With Honeywell Authorized Service Centres across the globe, we are one of the world’s largest TPE331 engine service providers covering engines, LRU components, fuel controls and engine component repairs. With multiple Airworthiness Approvals from around the world, OEM correlated dynamometer test cells and prop stands for pre- and post-maintenance testing, vibration analysis and performance runs, we make sure you get the best from your TPE331. We deliver customer value by offering a high-quality service at a price that will reduce your maintenance cost. Contact one of our experienced team today. North America John M +1 (602) 881 1600 Mario

M +1 (706) 993 0898


P +1 (208) 229 8340


M +1 (480) 376 4550

South America George M +1 (954) 673 6492 Europe and Africa Tomas P +420 725 908 515

Benefits of using an Authorized Honeywell Service Centre • Access to 100% guaranteed OEM certified parts • Reduced downtime due to parts availability and guaranteed stock levels • Access to OEM support and warranties • TAE Aerospace technicians have access to the latest Honeywell technical documentation and training • Unparalleled global experience • Cost efficiencies through access to approved dealer discounts

AVIONICS FLIP.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 15:50 Page 4

AVIONICS FIGURE 3: Examples for Improved Operation Equipage •

Flight Deck Displays: Enabling intuitive and user-friendly operations.

Full Avionic Suites: Enabling a host of features to improve operations.

Advanced Radar: Providing more than weather protection, such as turbulence and lightning.

Sirius XM: Virtual real-time digital weather.

Synthetic Vision System (SVS): For improved situational awareness.

Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS): For low vision operations.

Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs): For digital flight support of maps, charts and more. The same EFB features may be available, as an option, within some cockpit display upgrades.

Satcom (or added Satcom) Features: Necessary for some operation mandates, but a general advantage because of their global reach and digital capabilities.

FIGURE 4: Mandates Come in Two Flavors… 1. Equipage required to operate in regions that affect most flyers. Business aircraft examples include… • • • • • •

Emergency Locator Transmitters with 406 MHz capability (406 ELT) Traffic Avoidance & Warning System (TAWS) Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) VHF 8.33KHz Communications Traffic Awareness System/Traffic Collision Avoidance Systems (TAS/TCAS) Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) Out, including upgraded transponder systems

Note - with ADS-B Out there are 2 versions, v1 and v2. While v2 is good anywhere, if you still have v1 and are relocating the aircraft, you may well need to upgrade.

2. Equipage required by only those who need to operate on specific routes or fly specific procedures where, in most cases, other less efficient options are available. Examples being. • • • • • •

Performance Based Navigation (PBN) as RNP, RNP-AR, B-RNAV, RNAV-1, RNAV-2, LP, LPV, APV, GBAS and others TCAS Version 7.1 CPDLC – DCL CPDLC – VDL Mode 2 CPDLC- FANS 1/A (+) Data recording (Updated voice recorder)

General mandates have thinned in most regions recently, and remaining ADS-B Out region-specific due dates will also expire soon. Nevertheless, some future potential mandates that could involve cockpit software and/or hardware upgrades include: • Domestic Enroute Data Comm • ADS-B In (aircraft are currently required to have ADS-B Out) • Advanced PBN, using RNP • Trajectory Based Operations, including evolution to Dynamic • Low Visibility Operations with: o Combined Vision (EVS and SVS) o Synthetic Vision Guidance o Surface Movement • Advanced DME (as a backup for GPS shut down) • Space-Based ADS-B for Oceanic and Remote FANS • Technological improvements to support environmental performance • Active Surveillance Collision Avoidance for 3nm en route separation, and for parallel runways operations. • Technologies and improvements to support Supersonic, eVTOL and UAS requirements.

3) Obsolescence

Recently, the most significant obsolescence issue has centered on cockpit displays, in which Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)-based monitors can no longer be supported. An example is the Honeywell DU 875/885 replacement for the DU 870. Some third-parties are offering support for the DU870/880 and other derivatives through 2025 – but either way, aircraft that are still equipped with any CRT-based equipment should be replacing them with available ‘plug n play’, flat panel, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) or newer, technology. For obsolescence in general, aircraft operators should remain current with aircraft and equipment manufacturer notices, alerts and bulletins. These are the mechanisms for communicating support issues, including an inability to supply replacement parts and sub-assemblies. Typically, sufficient advance notice is provided, as with the Honeywell displays that have been a future obsolescence notice for many years now.

4) Mandates

At times, mandated requirements have been the more significant reason for cockpit upgrades, and as with any upgrade, it is sometimes necessary to change major components or even systems to access and enable necessary features. Also check options available during an upgrade. In some cases, it is the option that provides the feature(s) that meets the mandate.

5) Reducing Operating Costs

Many cockpit upgrades are promoted as providing a reduction in operating costs. Depending upon how you use the product, that may indeed be the case. For longer transcontinental flights fuel-saving routes are a cost benefit, resulting in immense popularity for upgrades enabling these. Any equipage that supports the trajectory of an aircraft in favored high-altitude transcontinental/Oceanic routes, including FANS 1/A (+), ADS-C, Dual HF, Ku/Ka-band Satcom, and Data Recording, represents a saving in operating costs. Depending upon where and how you operate, low-visibility solutions can significantly save operating costs, too. If adequate Runway Visual Range (RVR) is a constant issue for your take-off and landing, upgrading with EFVS should be a bonanza. Just make sure you consider the flight department, aircraft and airport runway approvals, as well as equipage, for any low-vision operations.

6) Resale

For resale, most aircraft are tidied up and checked for mandate compliance. The tidying is usually a focus on the cabin appearance and exterior paint, and it is most likely that the mandate compliance


50 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

AVIONICS FLIP.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 14:02 Page 5

will be current. In some cases, however, the buyer may request an upgrade as a condition of sale, but with a tight market over the next few years there may not be so much of a bargaining opportunity. Savvy sellers will ensure their aircraft for sale has differentiators, helping to sway an undecided buyer toward their aircraft. If an aircraft is compliant (but not state-of-the-art) in its equipage, the seller may lose out to an aircraft that is, even though the better-equipped aircraft’s price may be higher. Of course, not all aircraft are placed on the resale market. Some are traded against new, or for a different pre-owned model. The better-equipped aircraft garners the higher tradein value. From the brokers’ perspective, apart from the popularity value of different models, based on demand, it is much easier to sell a trade-in aircraft that’s likely to accumulate a sizable sum of flight hours before the next significant upgrade becomes necessary. It should be noted that when undergoing a prepurchase inspection, there will be repairs and routine inspections that may reveal further requirements. These could involve significant software or hardware changes. With mandates or factory-recommended modifications it’s common to have nuances that only apply to specific serial numbers or models of aircraft. These arise from service bulletins, STCs, or other procedural documents that call out applicability by part number. Make sure all your equipment part numbers have been verified as current and applicable to any work requirements that result from inspections. The ‘inspection’ may be a logbook review verifying the aircraft and its equipment is up to date. There have been occurrences where aircraft have delivered as non-complaint because of an oversight, or, worse, an incorrect assumption of part number, modification status, or SW level for different equipment. This, in turn, can lead to an expensive post-delivery effort in terms of access, wiring, factory upgrade of equipment, and certification.

7) Connectivity

Both voice and data communications are forms of connectivity. Internet is another. All three have uses in the cockpit, as well as in the cabin. As cockpits move away from voice and obtain clearances digitally, upgrades such as digital departure clearance and, in the future, digital en route clearance, will become popular with business aviation. The two other significant upgrades that provide the most connectivity benefits are Satcom and Broadband Internet. Many aircraft already have some form of L-band, Ku-, or Ka-band. For them, the upgrades of interest will offer greater bandwidth and more features, while operating at higher speeds. GoGo and Smartsky are now offering incentives to install, or upgrade their versions of Air-to-Ground (ATG) internet services, especially for equipment that is 5Gready.

FIGURE 5: Examples of Cockpit-Related Upgrades Associated with Resale •

TCAS 7.1, where aircraft previously did not need 7.1 to operate, but buyers require it.

LCD displays – buyers do not want the burden of dealing with obsolescence or support issues.

Any of the mandate equipage required for different operations. (Could be anything from WAAS-LPV to CPDLC, VDL or FANS.)

Cockpit DC power, USB and other ports, requested by the buyer subject to a completed pre-purchase inspection.

FIGURE 6: Important Upgrade Considerations Over-and-Above the Eight Governing Reasons Within this Article •

Reduction of Workload

Redundancy of Displayed Data

Cost of Repairing Legacy Equipment vs. New

Improved Aircraft Access

An Extension of the Life of a Legacy Aircraft

Reflection of the Update in both VREF and Aircraft Bluebook

Greater Situational Awareness

More Intuitive Human Factors in the Cockpit

“The most important reason for any cockpit upgrade is safety...” A feature of CPDLC FANS connectivity that should not be overlooked in pricing, is the requirement to record the digital ‘conversations’ when operating under FANS, and where a voice recorder is required. Traditional voice recorders are not capable of recording digital data, and will need to be modified or replaced, eventually.

8) Modernization

A catch-all for many upgrades, ‘modernization’ refers to a general approach, in this instance, to bring the aircraft upto-date. To capture the most benefits of modernization during an MRO or avionics shop visit, consider the factory or third-party upgrade of the primary avionic suite, such as Collins Aerospace’s ProLine IV to ProLine 21; ProLine 21 to ProLine Fusion; or aircraft type-specific Honeywell Primus Elite offerings. Integrated Flight Deck upgrades are also available from Garmin with its G3000 and G5000, and Universal Avionics with its Insight. Major manufacturers have partnered with MROs and avionics shops to develop aircraft specific STCs that permit an upgrade of major avionic systems to legacy

AVBUYER MAGAZINE Vol 26 Issue 2 2022


AVIONICS FLIP.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 14:02 Page 6


platforms. In some cases, there are multiple options and in others only one. When considering modernization, take advantage of the recent advancements in Head-Up Displays (HUDs) and Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS), where developments have led to smaller HUDs and lower-cost multispectral cameras. Garmin, Collins Aerospace and Universal Avionics (Elbit) are all offering aftermarket and new aircraft solutions. Also, Honeywell offers interesting Synthetic Vision Guidance System (SVGS) and runway awareness solutions.

In Summary…

For each aircraft operator there is an individual set of considerations and reasons to upgrade their cockpit. Apart from minor changes, it is sensible to consult with others regarding improvements to avionic systems. If you are not dealing directly with the aircraft manufacturer, it makes sense to work with a consultant aircraft specialist who understands the aircraft you need to upgrade. This will be in addition to the MRO or avionics shop who will price, and complete the work. Taking a business perspective for an upgrade is also sensible. The relationship between upgrade cost and

aircraft value is of importance, as well as ROI over time. Other factors, such as personal value to the operator, preparing an aircraft for resale, and avoiding potential obsolescence, are hard to quantify but relevant. Here, we have reviewed eight reasons that govern flight deck upgrades, and there may be others. The best strategy is to stand back, consult with experts, and complete your own flight department due diligence. Always obtain a second opinion or proposal, and do not be swayed by appearances. Consider product support and look for issues, such as FAA Airworthiness Directives, Service Bulletins and other data that may indicate product difficulties in the field. Safety mostly governs an upgrade, and this area cannot be compromised. Beyond safety, however, look at the broader values of the upgrade to your flight department. It may be a very different set of values than for another operator with the same aircraft model, flying to the same places as you. Ensure you set out your reasons, budget, company vision, and specific operation requirements to reach the value points necessary for smart flight deck upgrade decisions. ■

KEN ELLIOTT has 52 years of aviation experience focused on avionics, in General and Business Aviation.

Having a broad understanding after working in several countries on many aircraft types and avionics systems, he has contributed to several work groups and committees, including for NextGen, Airport Lighting, Human Factors, Unmanned Aircraft and Low Vision Technology. In retirement, he is striving to give back the knowledge gained with an eye on aviation’s future direction.

52 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE


P053.qxp 27/01/2022 10:39 Page 1





• • • •

Aviation Consumer - TOP PICK Industry leading performance Easy drop-in replacement installation Can be left on in all phases of flight Draws 40% less power • Shock and vibration resistant • 30,000+ hour MTBF • FAA-PMA-STC approval

208.850.3294 AVBUYER MAGAZINE R Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 R


REFURBISHMENT.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 15:44 Page 1



Tips for Your Next Aircraft Paint Project When your next aircraft paint refurbishment is approaching, what are some of the important factors to consider? Rebecca Applegarth asks Flying Colours Corp’s Kevin Kliethermes, and Duncan Aviation’s Jeff Beaudette.

54 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

REFURBISHMENT.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 14:04 Page 2


effects to be realized. “The more complex a design, the longer the application will take, and the longer the masking times, painting times, and drying times will be,” he explains. Thus, for those with the budget for specialist and/or complex paint schemes, additional downtime should be planned into the project. “We’ve had clients with very intricate logos, or they’ve wanted their signature on the aircraft,” Kliethermes highlights. “All of this is incorporated in the design process, but will add time and, ultimately, cost.” And on the subject of price, it’s important to establish ahead of time exactly what is included in your paint refurbishment, or not. This can vary, according to Beaudette. “Duncan Aviation includes everything from the noseboot being replaced, to painting the gear, the nose wheel, the inside of the baggage door frames, the MED entry door openings, as well as replacing the step tread,” he explains. But it is worth clarifying this with the paint shop before the project begins, ensuring there will be no nasty surprises at the end of the project, when you thought you were paying for something that wasn’t included in the package.

Forward-Planning For Your Paint Refurb The time it takes to complete an aircraft repaint will generally depend on the type of


ust like any element of aircraft Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO), a paint refurbishment will need some detailed planning, with several specific considerations for the aircraft owner to make. For example, when it comes to your budget, Kevin Kliethermes, Director of Sales for Flying Colours Corp., says the type of paint, the complexity of the pattern, and the age of the fuselage (specifically, what lies beneath the existing paint) will affect the cost. “When a pre-owned aircraft is stripped, that’s when any potential wear and tear, or corrosion, will become apparent,” he notes. To ensure a flawless application of the fresh paint, this will need treating before the new paint is applied. Duncan Aviation customers often ask for paint schemes to match their business, family crest, or logo colors, according to Jeff Beaudette, Senior Completions & Modifications Sales Rep. “As long as the customer is able to offer a sample color, it can be matched.” Nevertheless, design will have an impact on price, notes Kliethermes, who says external paintwork designs are normally provided by specialists in the field; specialists who understand the complexities and visual aspects needed for stripes, swirls or paint

AVBUYER MAGAZINE Vol 26 Issue 2 2022


REFURBISHMENT.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 14:05 Page 3


aircraft, the complexity of the paint work design and the types of paint being used. All aircraft will need to be properly prepared for paint application, and then the paint application itself requires several coats. Kleithermes estimates the time for a paint application will normally be around two weeks for a Light Jet, whereas a Large Jet (such as a Bombardier Global model) could take up to four weeks. Beaudette agrees, adding that the largest Ultra-Long-Range business jets would take an estimated five-to-six weeks, in the case of the more extravagant paint schemes. In addition to the timeframe of the project itself, it’s advisable to book a slot early. “Things have changed,” Beaudette says. “At Duncan Aviation, it used to be a month or two ahead that you could schedule a repaint – now you’re looking at around three or four months. “With fewer available openings, customers are needing to plan further in advance,” he warns, adding that Duncan Aviation manages around 250 paint refurbishments per year, across its three painting facilities.

Understanding Paints and Processes

along with special effect paints that includes mica, pearl, or other minerals. “Flying Colours offers clients a number of paint brands, but some clients do specify the brand of paint,” Kleithermes notes. “I would estimate that 30% prefer a certain brand.” Chromalusion paint – paint that changes colour, depending on your viewing point – is becoming popular, either for the whole aircraft or for the stripes and patterns, and Kliethermes sees a rise in requests for darker base colours – some with, and some without, stripes. “Integrated patterns on certain parts of the aircraft, like engine nacelles and vertical stabilizers, are also on the rise as clients look to stamp an identity on the aircraft whether the jet is being used for personal or corporate use,” he says. “It is an extension of the trend we see in the cabin designs for owners to include their personality in the design. The use of metallic paint is always a trend, and is in-demand constantly for base and accent colours. It can look striking, when done well.” Duncan Aviation uses conventional and high solids paints and primers, since these seem to adhere the best, and hold longevity for the aircraft. “We measure mil thickness, and try to work within the perameters of the manufacturer’s recommended advisories within


Along with the standard white paint often used on aircraft fuselages, there are many special effects available to owners who turn to Flying Colours Corp. for their paint refurbishment, and the full spectrum of colours can be used,

56 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

Castle Air - MRO section February.qxp_Layout 1 27/01/2022 09:37 Page 1

REFURBISHMENT.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 14:05 Page 4

PAINT REFURBISHMENT REBECCA APPLEGARTH has been brought up around Aviation for as long as she can remember. She aspires to develop her passion for writing and flying as an Aviation Journalist.

the maintenance manuals,” Beaudette explains. Some rudders can only be certain mil thicknesses, “so we do measure those precisely,” Beaudette assures, adding that the company also takes its paint down to the original composites, aluminum, and primers, building the aircraft back up. “We do this for quality and durability reassurance, because if the paint layer is too thick, the chances of the paint cracking are higher,” he explains.

In Summary

It appears the options for exterior paint on today’s business jets are almost as dizzying as the interior refurbishment choices available. Those choices are likely to be limited only by budget, and potentially charter use (for owners who are contemplating making their aircraft available for hire when not flying them. Nevertheless, a familiar message is coming across loud-and-clear. This area of the industry sees paint shops increasingly busy – just like so many other wings of the MRO centers, with lead times growing before a slot can be scheduled. Be sure to factor the extra time into your paint refurbishment planning.

“...the time for a paint application will normally be around two weeks for a Light Jet, whereas a Large Jet (such as a Bombardier Global model) could take up to four weeks.”


More information from and ■

58 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

P059.qxp 27/01/2022 10:53 Page 1


Wood veneer Stone countertops Tile or wood flooring Metal Plating Complete Paint Jobs Cabin Modifications

Leatherr seating Fabric div divans Deco panels Headliner Carpeting




State of the Art Audio & Video Avionics Upgrades: Cabin Management Systems (CMS) Next Generation Complian ance (CMS) LED Lighting ADS-B, FANS-1//A Wi-Fi Integration Flight Management System The Latest Compliance

Your Aircraft Reimagined As you embark on your transformation journey, we help guide you through the selection process; pulling from our vast catalog of brand-name luxury materials; our expertise will indisputably help increase the value of your jet. So no matter what we do for you, from the smallest aesthetic improvement or a complete turn-key solution, VIP Completions is unmatched in value and scope when it comes to our range of services. Find out exactly what we can do for you by getting in touch today.

+1 (954) 772-1364 • •


Multi Point Testing Throughout the Manufacturing Process for Proven Reliability and Superior Starting Power


ISO 9001 + AS9100

AVBUYER MAGAZINE R Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 R


DASSAULT.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 14:08 Page 1


Ramping up MRO Support: Dassault’s Story As Dassault Aviation prepares to deliver its latest business jet, the Falcon 6X, the manufacturer is looking to the future of MRO, with a range of efforts underway in maintenance, training, spare parts provision and beyond. Gerrard Cowan spoke with Dassault’s Geoff Chick to find out more…

60 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

DASSAULT.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 14:08 Page 2


assault Aviation is aiming for certification of the ultra-widebody jet by the end of this year, and three pre-production aircraft are currently flying, with the flight test organization having completed more than 150 flights comprising about 500 hours. Moves are also in progress to prepare for the MRO support of this new jet. The aircraft recently operated for several days from Le Bourget to evaluate performance under typical user conditions; this was conducted by flight crews from Dassault’s Operational Pilot Group, which supports flight departments and other customers. In Q1 2022, the fourth 6X aircraft – equipped with a full interior – will make an around-the-world tour, aimed at evaluating the platform in real operations and providing access to MRO facilities in the Dassault global network.


“We have been preparing for years for service entry, and these are the final steps,” says Geoff Chick, Dassault’s Senior Vice President, Worldwide Service Network. The French airframer is focusing its preparations on different levels. It has been developing technical training, Chick says, embedding its technicians with the Falcon 6X flight team in Istres, France. It has also serviced the 6X at Dassault Falcon Service (DFS) facilities at Le Bourget “just as any certified aircraft,” he said, including fuelling it with sustainable aviation fuel. Dassault has coordinated the tooling and ground support requirements for the aircraft, Chick adds, while it is defining support requirements in areas such as Aircraft on Ground (AOG) services and line and base maintenance, with a focus on meeting requirements by region.

AVBUYER MAGAZINE Vol 26 Issue 2 2022


DASSAULT.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 14:09 Page 3


“We’re also already distributing spare parts around our network to support the 6X,” Chick highlights. Service technicians from TAG Maintenance Services and Dassault Falcon Service have now worked with the new aircraft in the Istres flight test center, with the aim of communicating the lessons learned with their own MRO centers, and beyond.

Existing Aircraft Support

While the Falcon 6X will be the latest entrant to a successful line of business jets, Dassault is also looking to further optimize the support it provides to its existing aircraft, with more than 2,000 Falcon jets in use around the world. “You should expect to look to Dassault Aviation for upgrades that keep your aircraft up to date and able to operate in a modern air traffic control system,” Chick explains. This means providing flight deck upgrades along with new capabilities for existing cabins, such as satellite communications (satcom) and in-flight entertainment systems. “We constantly take fleet age into consideration as we develop programs to keep each model in optimal

62 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

condition,” Chick says. “That’s very important when you consider that older Falcons – such as early Falcon 900s, first delivered in 1984 – still represent incredible efficiency and capability within their segments.”

MRO Network Development

Dassault’s main focus is to “respond to the specific needs of our growing and increasingly globalized fleet”, Chick says. In 2019, it took a number of steps to expand its service capacity, aiming to “stay ahead of fleet growth and to fill in the map with factory service locations”. This expansion included acquiring ExecuJet MRO Services, TAG Maintenance Services and the Business Aviation operations of RUAG in Switzerland. These acquisitions mean now has 40 factory service locations and more than 60 service center locations when authorized facilities are included, Chick notes. “We’re sharing Falcon expertise across this network, allowing us, for example, to start offering major Ccheck inspections in Kuala Lumpur, Perth, Sydney and Dubai for the first time,” he highlights. “Customers are

“...expansion included acquiring ExecuJet MRO Services, TAG Maintenance Services and the Business Aviation operations of RUAG in Switzerland.”


C&L Aviation February.qxp_Layout 1 27/01/2022 09:42 Page 1

DASSAULT.qxp_Finance 26/01/2022 14:09 Page 4


delighted to have this level of service within their regions.” The focus is now on organic growth, “investing in the service network we have to build modern new facilities and upgrade capabilities”. For example, Dassault is building a new and larger replacement facility in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to provide more capacity and expertise for current and new aircraft. This includes the Falcon 6X and the under-development Falcon 10X. Beyond this, it is building a new facility in Dubai and expanding its operation in Reno, Nevada in the US. According to Chick, customers appreciate the company’s new, centralized sales and planning team for facilities in Europe, the Middle East and Asia. “This ‘single front door’ approach to scheduling service makes life easier and more efficient for our customers,” Chick adds. This is part of a second phase of Dassault’s MRO expansion, following the acquisitions. The aim is to make its global network more integrated, with heavy maintenance expertise shared around the

GERRARD COWAN is a freelance journalist who focuses on aerospace and finance. In addition to his regular features in AvBuyer, Gerrard's work has appeared in the Wall Street Journal and Janes, among others. Gerrard can be found on Twitter: @GerrardCowan

64 Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 AVBUYER MAGAZINE

world. The company’s MRO ‘GoTeams’ are available in more places, providing a higher level of service and more flexibility. For example, ExecuJet MRO Services Malaysia conducted its first Falcon Ccheck inspection – for a Falcon 2000LXS – in the first half of 2021. This effort involved experts from DFS in France, while TAG Maintenance Services in Geneva sent two technicians to assist. A DFS structural engineer in India also provided advice for the effort. As it looks to the future of MRO, Dassault will continue to support operators of its older aircraft, Chick stresses. He points to the Falcon 7X, early versions of which are now 15 years old. The company is “preparing options for their operators as they start thinking about their major 2C-check which will start to become due in 2023”, he concludes. “We stay ahead of the planning curve, so we are ready to support Falcons new and old.” More information from ■


P065.qxp 27/01/2022 11:45 Page 1

EXTEND PT6A ENGINE TBO TO 8000 HOURS Visit Us during NBAA - Booth #N2629 +1 775-782-3346 MORE_POSTCARD_4-1/4x6.indd 1

4/10/13 12:21 PM

Simplify Your Pilot Hiring

Save Time and Access the Largest Network o= -ѴbC;7 oll;u1b-Ѵ bѴo|v ŋ ou u;;ĺ

-bm =u;; -11;vv |o - 7b ;uv; rooѴ o= t -ѴbC;7 rbѴo| -rrѴb1-m|vĺ

ø Unlimited Free Job Postings

ø Hundreds of Pilots — from Low Time to High Time ø Save Time with Filtering and Screening

ø Easy Application Review and Management

v|ol $-bѴou;7 "oѴ ঞomv ); 1-m 7;Ѵb ;u t -ѴbC;7 ru;Ŋv1u;;m;7 rbѴo|vķ b|_ 1 v|olŊ|-bѴou;7 ru;Ŋ_bu; f;| |u-mvbঞom -m7 " |u-bmbm] =ou o u -bu1u-[ĺ -ѴѴ ƖƏƓŊƔƖƔŊƕƖѶƖ |o Ѵ;-um lou;ĺ

Post Your Job for Free at

2:19 PM

AVBUYER MAGAZINE R Vol 26 Issue 2 2022 R