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From the Office of the National President


Under the IIEE Spotlight

President’s Report

Chapter and National Activities and News

News 10 Industry DOE Ensures Power Supply for 2013 Election ERC Sets the Universal Charge for NPC’s Stranded Contract Costs

Story 12 Cover Leading the Electrical Practitioner Towards Global Recognition


Technical Feature


Trainings and Seminars

Reliability Assessment of a Microgrid Network with the presence of Distributed Energy Resources by Michael C. Pacis

Trainings and Seminars for the Month of May

About the Cover This issue takes its theme from the outstanding characteristics of Filipino Electrical Engineers who aim to be recognized here and abroad. The cover story features the different international recognizing bodies for engineers, and how the Institute assists members be part of these organizations. 1st QUARTER 2013


First Quarter 2013



Editorial 2013 IIEE BOARD OF GOVERNORS AND OFFICERS National President VP-Internal Affairs VP-External Affairs VP-Technical Affairs National Secretary National Treasurer National Auditor Governor-Northern Luzon Governor-Central Luzon Governor-Metro Manila Governor-Southern Luzon Governor-Bicol Governor-Western Visayas Governor-Eastern/Central Visayas Governor-Northern Mindanao Governor-Southern Mindanao Governor-Western Mindanao Immediate Former President Executive Director

Gregorio R. Cayetano Alex C. Cabugao Ma. Sheila C. Cabaraban Larry C. Cruz Florigo C. Varona Angel V. De Vera, Jr. William J. Juan Freddie O. Orperia Virgilio S. Luzares Eusebio A. Gonzales Amando A. Plata Ariel O. Soriano Noel L. Olea Cleofe T. Caidic Gino B. Macapayag Fritzelou E. Arriate Richard O. Lizardo Jules S. Alcantara Ramon P. Ayaton

IIEE NATIONAL SECRETARIAT DEPARTMENT HEADS Administrative Technical Marketing Membership Finance

Niellisa Joy B. Bandong Ma. Elena U. Liongson Allen M. Pido Marjorie Aguinaldo-Muñoz Florante Q. Andrada

PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE Chairman: Vice Chairman: Members:


Rolito C. Gualvez Ronald Vincent M. Santiago Cyrus V. Canto Marvin H. Caseda Glynn Andy O. Gayman Dr. Allan C. Nerves Roland P. Vasquez Larry C. Cruz

The ELECTRICAL ENGINEER The Electrical Engineer is published quarterly by the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE), with editorial and business offices at #41 Monte de Piedad St., Cubao, Quezon City, Philippines. Tel Nos. (632) 722-7383, 7273552, 412-5772, 414-5626, Fax Nos. (632) 721-6442 & 410-1899. Website:, E-mail: The present circulation of the magazine is 34,600 copies per issue to members and industry stakeholders. The ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS Editorial Board Chairman Editorial-in-Chief Associate Editor: Technical Consultant: Administrative Officer:

Larry C. Cruz Rolito C. Gualvez Ronald Vincent M. Santiago Dr. Allan C. Nerves Ramon P. Ayaton Editorial Staff

Editorial Assistant

Ana Kristina Cezele B. Besa Advertising and Marketing

Account Executive

Joan Q. Delos Santos 727-3552 loc. 101 410-1899

Managing a Competitive Global Image In this era of firmamental modernization, it is but important that we keep up with its accelerated pace. The Philippines is essentially acknowledged for producing highly competent resources in the Electrical Engineering labor force both locally and overseas. The recognition comes after certain skills exemplified by hard work, dedication, and dependability. Briefly, Filipinos never fail any kind of job in terms of capacity. Even so, quality is the factor in sizing up outputs. Foreign employers, especially, prefer Filipinos due to their trainability and incredible enthusiasm to adapt then migrate to changes. It holds true for local-borne electrical practitioners that they work hard to leave good impressions to their employers. Skills upgrade is always on their ‘sought after’ list in every opportunity they get. International accreditors honor certain deserved credits such as ASEAN ENGINEER REGISTER, APEC ENGINEER, and FAPECA in view of the practitioner’s major contributions or accomplishments. Gaining international awards always helps in elevating your status of professional level. To inspire competence upon its constituents, IIEE devised its theme for this year to be: “Leading the Electrical Practitioner towards Global Recognition”. The Institute desires its Engineers to take part on prestigious organizations and get involved with the global society showing off their maximum potential. Only through a chain of skilled resources extending to a global scale shall sustain the integrity of every local practitioner.

- The Electrical Engineer Editorial Board


he views and opinions expressed by the authors of letters, articles and research studies published in The Electrical Engineer DO NOT necessarily reflect the views of the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE). The IIEE trusts the integrity of these authors. The IIEE exercises due review diligence but it is possible that the contents of the articles contributed may not be verified due to time constraints. Articles or visual materials may not be reproduced without written consent from IIEE. The IIEE reserves the right to accept or refuse submitted materials for publication. Articles, reactions and feedback from readers may be sent through e-mail at

From the office of the National President President’s Report Engr. Gregorio R. Cayetano


reetings from the office of the National President! As we start this New Year with the new roster of leadership, I am again counting for the support of the members of the Board of Governors, newly appointed Committee Officers and Members, and the general membership. With our theme “Leading the Electrical Practitioner towards Global Recognition”, let us have some review on what we have accomplished for the first quarter of 2013. IIEE GOVERNANCE I have attended the PRC/DOLE Consultation Workshop last January 4 at Bay Leaf Hotel, Intramuros, Manila. The consultation workshop focused in developing and implementing skills Occupational Shortage List for the Philippines. This document will be used by PRC/DOLE as reference for our participation in 2015 when our borders will be opened to our Asian brothers in ASEAN. A meeting with the Engineers Australia for the Accreditation of PTC to the Washington Accord at Club Filipino was held last January 09 and I witnessed / attended the Accreditation of MIT by the PTC to the Washington Accord last January 11. The agreement recognizes that there is substantial equivalency of programs accredited by signatory countries to the Washington Accord. Graduates of accredited programs in any of the signatory countries are recognized by the other signatory countries. The 2013 Board of Governors, committee chairmen and selected secretariat attended the training on Auditing and Managerial Accounting held last January 17 at IIEE National Office. The objective of the training is to help the attendees develop an in-depth understanding of the audit, management control and information systems, and different ways it contribute to competitive advantage and to the wealth and advancement of the Institute. The Institute conducted its 2013 Planning and Officers Orientation last January 18 at the First Pacific Leadership Academy, Antipolo City formerly known as Meralco Management and Leadership Development Center (MMLDC). It was attended by the different Chairmen of Committee and IIEE Department Heads. The heads and committee chairmen did a workshop in crafting the 2013 IIEE Theme as mentioned above, strategic plan and objective of the Institute for this 2013. The committee chairman further consolidated the plans and programs for 2013.

REGULAR EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETING AND REGULAR BOARD MEETING The IIEE Executive Committee (ExCom) composed of the National President, as a presiding Chairman, Vice President for Internal Affairs, Vice President for External Affairs, Vice President for Technical Affairs, National Secretary and National Treasurer, regularly conducts a monthly meeting to discuss different issues concerning the IIEE standing Ad hoc Committee, external linkages, general membership and secretariat and other operational concerns on January 5, 1st Executive Committee Meeting at IIEE National Office, February 9, 2nd Executive Committee Meeting at Tagaytay and March 2, 3rd Executive Committee Meeting at IIEE National Office. The Board of Governors, composed of the members of the Executive Committee, including the National Auditor and ten (10) Regional Governors hold its monthly regular board meeting for the quarter to discuss and approve matters in relation to the objectives of the Institute and other matters in accordance with the Institute’s policies and implementing rules and regulations. January 19, 1st Regular Board Meeting at IIEE National Office, February 23, 2nd Regular Board Meeting and March 16, 3rd Regular Board Meeting at Western Visayas Region. II. REGIONAL CONFERENCE The schedule of the Regional Conference for 2013 is as follows: March 15 - 16

Western Visayas Regional Conference

Grand Regal Hotel

April 12 - 13

Northern Mindanao Region

Cagayan De Oro

April 26 - 27

Northern Luzon Regional Conference

Baguio Country Club, Baguio CIty

May 24 - 25

Southern Luzon Region National Mid-Year Convention (Hosted by Southern Cavite Chapter)

Taal Vista Hotel, Tagaytay City

June 14 - 15

Eastern/Central Visayas Regional Conference

Tacloban City

July 19 - 20

Metro Manila Conference

MERALCO Compound, Pasig City

August 16 -17

Southern Mindanao Regional Conference

Davao City

August 30 - 31

Bicol Regional Conference

Iriga City

September 20 - 21

Cental Luzon Regional Conference

Sison Auditorium, Lingayen, Pangasinan

October 18 - 19

Western Mindanao Regional Conference

Zamboanga City

1st QUARTER 2013



CHAPTER ACTIVITIES The 1st quarter of the year focused on the planning of the programs installed for the year by our chapters. All the activities will be closely monitored by their respective regional governors. The Institute encourages the chapters to formulate and implement activities that are in line with the electrical mission, as the primary thrust of the present administration IIEE COUNCIL OF STUDENT CHAPTERS The IIEE CSC successfully held its 14th National Student Convention (NSCON) a four (4) - day event brimming with various activities specifically designed for Electrical Engineering students and Electrical Technology students pursuing academic excellence last February 18-21 at the Technological Institute of the Philippines, Quezon City. The NSCON included the 10th National PEC Quiz Show, which aims to heighten the standards of electrical engineering education in the country by promoting and organizing a healthy competition among student members nationwide. The 9th Skills Olympics, the activity aims to improve the Electrical Engineering students’ skills and practical application of the electrical engineering technology in the practice of electrical profession in the future. This competition is the start of new trends in competitiveness for the National Student Convention.



Mr. & Ms. IIEE-CSC, this event helps to develop the strong sense of self confidence and camaraderie among all the candidates and electrical engineering students. The PEC Quiz Show brings camaraderie to all IIEE-CSC Affiliated Schools across the Archipelago. Its primary aim is to instill the importance of the Philippine Electrical Code (PEC) in the field of practice of the Electrical Engineering profession in the future to all Electrical Engineering Students. The Mega Seminar is an event where students and professionals interact, in preparation for their future careers through seminars. The series of seminars, given by chosen members of the academe and the industry, will feature not only the latest trends and innovations in the Electrical Engineering profession, but also non-technical topics, like resumé writing and interview tips. This will aid the students in preparation for their job application as they enter the main stream. Attended higher Education Productivity project last January 31 to Feb 01, 2013 this workshop was conducted regarding the Washington Accord. The school are willing to be accredited by PTC , discussion focused on the industry-adviser from their school who are willing to review the school’s curriculum and provide recommendation on what subject to include. Attended Philippine Technological Board Meeting last February 19, 2013 hosted by PSME. Mr. Fred Monsada said that with more than 100 EE schools there is a need for at least 100 program evaluators per APO.

Under the IIEE Spotlight

The 2013 IIEE Pangasinan Chapter Officers, together with the Central Luzon Regional Governor, Engr. Virgilio S. Luzares after the Induction of Chapter Officers held last January 12 at IIEE Bldg., Ivory Coast, Dagupan & 1st Regional Working Bureau Meeting for the 15th Central Luzon Regional Conference.

The participants of Upgrading Seminar on Davao Light Standards held last January 17 at DLPC Conference Room

1st QUARTER 2013



Under the IIEE Spotlight

The Southern Mindanao Region during the conduct of their 1st Chapter President’s Meeting last February 2 at the IIEE Davao Office


The IIEE Negros Occidental Chapter during an outreach program at So. Mambusao, Brgy. Tabu Ilog last January 19


FEDERATION OF UNITED STUDENTS OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (FUSEE) in a course orientation in Ateneo De Davao last February 20.

IIEE Capiz Chapter officials together with IIEE Region IV Regional Governor and the newly elected IIEE-CSC officers.

1st QUARTER 2013



Under the IIEE Spotlight

Participants, Guests and Speakers of National Building Code, R.A. 7920 & EPIRA LAW SEMINAR last February 22

IIEECapiz-IIEE CSC CAPSU Student Chapter “HOUSEWIRING INSTALLATION Sitio Ilaya, Agustin Navarra, Ivisan, Capiz, March 13

IIEE-Central Region Chapter, Saudi Arabia conducts 2nd monthly regular BOD meeting last February 22



IIEE Davao Chapter Officers Meeting last January 11

Charging and Induction of officers and board of directors of the IIEE Western Visayas Regional Governor last January 5

1st QUARTER 2013



Under the IIEE Spotlight

The IIEE Antique Chapter Officer and the participants of a technical seminar on Electrical Sketch Plan for Indigenous Residential Building and PEC 1 ( Code Requirements for GFCI Protection for Personnel, Service Drop Clearance & ANTECO Requirements for Drawing on Electrical Plan Vicinity Map) held last February 15.

Visitation & Inspection of IIEE Socsargen’s lot last January 26



IIEE Davao Chapter on Public Consultation on the Proposed Amendments to the Implementing Rules and Regulations of RA 4566 last February 5

IIEE Aklan Chapter joins Kalibo ATI-ATIHAN FESTIVAL 2013 last January 20

1st QUARTER 2013



Under the IIEE Spotlight

IIEE-SQC 2013 Plans and Program Meeting held last January 25, 2013 PISQ Doha, State of Qatar

IIEE-SQC 1st BOD Regular Meeting held last January 18, 2013 at FCC Restaurant Matar Qadeem, Doha - State of Qatar

IIEE-SQC PEE Workshop- Power System Calculation held last January 25, 2013 in PISQ attended by 2013 PEE aspirants.

IIEE-ERCSA First Technical Seminar on Industrial Motor Controller & Servicing Techniques conducted last February 8 at the International Philippine School in Al-Khobar (IPSA) Al-Khobar KSA.



“A Walk for a Fire-Safe and Fire-Free Nation” The Bureau of Fire, in line with the Observance of the Fire Prevention month had launched its kick off program last March 1 – Unity walk - participated by different Local Government Unit, Safety and Protection advocates, Schools. The IIEE team comprises of the National President, Engr. Gregorio R. Cayetano, National Auditor, Engr. William J. Juan, Electrical Safety Committee Chairman, Engr. Jesus Malana, Electrical Safety Enforcement and Awareness Committee (ESEA) Chairman, Engr. Hipolito A. Leoncio, Member Engr. Marvin H. Caseda, Engr. Rick Baysic, Engr. Mark Soriano, Engr. Jay Martin Rubiano and IIEE Staff.

1st QUARTER 2013



Industry News DOE Ensures Power Supply for 2013 Election January 3

(Taguig City) In support of the government’s aim of holding a successful election, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a circular creating the Power Task Force Election 2013. This also aims to ensure provision of stable and continuous supply of power before, during, and after the 2013 national and local elections through adoption of specific measures. As stated in the DOE Department Circular No. DC 2012-120011, the Task Force’s Core Group will be headed by the DOE and will have the National Power Corporation (NPC), National Transmission Corporation (TransCo), National Electrification Administration (NEA), Power Sector Assets & Liabilities Management Corporation (PSALM), Philippine Electricity Market Corporation (PEMC), National Grid Corporation of the Philippines (NGCP) and Manila Electric Company (MERALCO) as members. The Independent Power Producers Association (PIPPA), Philippine Rural Electric Cooperatives Association (PHILRECA), Private Electric Power Operators Association, Inc. (PEPOA),

and other associations of distribution utilities not explicitly mentioned in the Circular, meanwhile, will serve as supporting members. “Our task now is to identify the areas that will need extra effort from the Task Force in terms of power supply and these are the isolated areas, or areas not connected to the grid and some areas in Mindanao,” Energy Secretary Carlos Jericho Petilla said. He added that the DOE will coordinate with COMELEC and ask stakeholders that outages and maintenance should not be scheduled during the election period, among others. The issuance of such Circular is a standard operating procedure for the DOE in line with its mandate to provide a mechanism for the integration, rationalization, and coordination of the various activities to carry out the energy policy of the State. DOE previously issued a Circular creating a Power Task Force for the 2010 national and local elections. source:

ERC Sets the Universal Charge for NPC’s Stranded Contract Costs February 19

In a decision promulgated on February 19, 2013, the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) set the Universal Charge (UC) for the recovery of National Power Corporation’s (NPC) Stranded Contract Costs (SCC) at PhP0.1938/kWh, more than 17 centavos or 47% lower than the PhP0.3666/kWh proposal of the Power Sector Assets and Liabilities Management Corporation’s (PSALM), which is tasked under EPIRA to calculate the amount of stranded contract costs of NPC and to liquidate the same. In its petition docketed as ERC Case No. 2011-091 RC, PSALM calculated NPC’s stranded contract costs incurred for the period from 2007-2010 at PhP74.298 billion. After a judicious review, the ERC approved only the amount of PhP53.581 billion for recovery from the UC. The ERC rejected PSALM’s calculation of NPC’s stranded contract costs insofar as it failed to take into account the additional revenues to be realized by PSALM from the eligible contracts of NPC with the Independent Power Producers (IPPs) under PSALM’s pending applications for adjustment in its generation rates pursuant to the Generation Rate Adjustment and Incremental Currency Exchange Rate Adjustment (GRAM and ICERA) mechanisms. The ERC also excluded revenue deductions made by PSALM, which effectively increased the stranded contract costs, by reason of its implementation of supply arrangements and discount programs like the Default Wholesale Supply (DWS), One Day Power Sales (ODPS) and Prompt Payment Discount (PPD).


The SCC refers to the excess of the contracted cost of electricity under the eligible contracts of NPC with IPPs over the actual selling price of the contracted energy output of such contracts in the market. The EPIRA mandates the ERC to determine and fix the UC for the payment of NPC’s SCC based on PSALM’s calculation thereof. Pursuant to this mandate, the ERC earlier issued its Amended Rules for the recovery of NPC Stranded Contract Costs and Stranded Debts Portion of the Universal Charge, which incorporate the methodology to be used for calculating NPC’s SCC. The approved UC-SCC of PhP0.1938/kWh is effective starting the March 2013 billing period. All electricity consumers are liable to pay this charge to their respective distribution utilities or to the grid operator for the directly-connected customers, which in turn shall remit all their collections to PSALM, as administrator of the UC fund. For typical residential consumers with monthly electricity consumption of 200 kWh, this translates to an additional PhP 38.76 in their electricity bill. The UC-SCC of PhP0.1938/kWh will be imposed until a new UC-SCC is determined by the ERC following the annual trueup application, which PSALM shall file on or before the 15th day of March each year for any excess or deficiency in the UC collections for settling NPC’s stranded contract costs. source:


1st QUARTER 2013



Cover Story

Leading the Electrical Practitioner F

Engineer: Agricultural Engineering, Civil/Structural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Communications Engineering, Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Geodetic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, Mining Engineering, and Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering.

According to the Philippine Overseas Employment Agency (POEA), electrical practitioners are one of the highest in-demand workers in Saudi Arabia. In 2011 (latest data from POEA), data shows that about 41,835 Professional, Medical, Technical and Related Workers including electrical practitioners (if under the category Wiremen and Electrical workers – there are 9,826 workers) are working among different foreign countries.

ASEAN ENGINEER REGISTER was formed on November 23, 1998 during the meeting of ASEAN Federation of Engineering Organizations (AFEO) in Manila. The register leads the mobility of its members within ASEAN. The objectives of the Register are as follows: a. To promote recognition of ASEAN engineers within and outside ASEAN; b. To safeguard and promote the professional interests of engineers; c. To foster high standards of formation and professional practice and regularly review them; d. To promote cultural and professional links among members of the engineering profession within ASEAN; e. To enhance the wealth of ASEAN countries; f. To provide sufficient data regarding the formation of an individual engineer for the benefit of prospective employers; g. To encourage a continuous updating of the quality of engineers by setting, monitoring and reviewing standards.

ilipinos are known for their diligence, commitment to their work and responsibilities, and skills globally. Filipino electrical practitioners are known for their talents and skills that are recognized, not only locally, but also, in foreign countries.

Under the list of in-demand occupations presented using the International Standard Classifications of Occupations (ISCO) 1968 vis-à-vis in the Analysis of In-Demand Skills and Hard-toFill Positions for Overseas Employment prepared by POEA in the year 2009-2011, Electrical Engineers are one of the topranking occupations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates. With a global requirement to continuously be updated on the latest trend and information in the industry, Filipino electrical practitioners continue to enhance their knowledge and skills towards professional development through the different continuing education programs such as trainings, workshops, hands-on orientations and research. Different International Recognizing Bodies for Engineers Recognition is defined as being acknowledged formally. Practitioners all around the globe ought to be recognized internationally to further expand their network and to be informed of the best practices in the different foreign countries. Global recognition is also a venue to better understand the needs for improvement of the current situation of the country’s electrical industry. In line with this, there are a number of recognizing bodies that would help practitioners to pursue a higher level of competence. These recognitions will provide them what they need to be acknowledged globally. APEC ENGINEER allows members to take part in overseas projects. Practitioners who are part of it need not take supplementary exams and interviews and, they may also carry out their profession in APEC Engineer economies. These are the eleven general areas of practice for registration as an APEC


FEDERATION OF ASIAN PACIFIC ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION (FAPECA) was founded in 1986 to “promote the ideas of organizing a Body of uniting the Electrical Contracting Industry in the Asian and the Pacific Region with a common goal”. Their objectives are: • To promote the sound development of the electrical construction industry through mutual cooperation, understanding and benefit among its members in this Region. • To promote meeting for the purpose of providing its members an effective organization to express their collective voice. • To provide for a forum whereby each member may voice their ideas and concerns that are of mutual concern to all members in this Region. • To distribute among the members, and assist them in the use of, the latest information obtainable in regard to all matters affecting the electrical construction industry. • To promote all possible expansion in the field of business opportunity open to electrical contractors in this Region based on mutual understanding, cooperation and benefit. • To promote both public and government acceptance of the need to improve the standards of the electrical construction industry which will benefit the public and government in this Region. • To establish and maintain friendly relations in this Region


Towards Global Recognition

between its members and all other branches of the electrical construction industry.

ASEAN FEDERATION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING CONTRACTORS was formed by five Asean electrical industry associations from Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, and was founded on August 5, 1979. Its objectives are: • To secure and obtain a cohesive organisation of the electrical engineering contracting industry in the Asean Region, which will manage a viable segment in the national and regional economy relevant to the integrated economic development plan of the Asean Region. • To engage in joint approaches, schemes, endeavors and actions with the united objective of accelerating the progress and the growth of the electrical engineering contracting industry in the Asean Region. • To promote and recommend rules and standards that will govern the regional operations of electrical engineering contracting industry in order to ensure and foster fair and healthy competition among the members, in an atmosphere of constructive cooperation and mutual understanding. • To support researches and studies that will improve and maximize benefits of electrical contractors in the developing economy of the Asean Region. • To formally affiliate with the pertinent Asean authority or group by promoting close cooperation and relationship with Asean manufacturers of electrical products, components and parts, with the end in view of actively participating in the Asean Complementation Program and preferential trade arrangement scheme, to foster and develop interest and support to the program’s objective and concern. • To generate and maintain mutually beneficial relationship and cooperation with regional and international organisations with similar goals and objectives. • To encourage interchange of ideas and technology and to promote dialogues with other related professional groups engaged in the electrical industry. IIEE in Enhancing Electrical Practitioners’ Competencies The Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE) lives up to its mission: “To deliver highquality products and services in order to instill excellence in the Electrical Practitioner, and to enhance the technical profession to enable it to make positive contributions to national development”. The Institute provides different programs to continuously upgrade the practice and education of electrical engineering.

IIEE provides Continuing Professional Education (CPE) to its members. R.A. 7920, the “New Electrical Engineering Law” states that CPE should abide by the requirements, rules and regulations. The objectives of the CPE are the following: 1) To provide and ensure the continuous education of EEs and RMEs with the latest trends in the electrical engineering profession brought about by modernization and scientific and technological advancements; 2) To raise and maintain the PEEs, REEs, and RMEs capability for delivering professional services; 3) To attain and maintain the highest standards and quality in the practice of electrical engineering; 4) To make Filipino PEEs, REEs, and RMEs globally competitive; 5) To promote the general welfare of the public. The Institute also conducts several activities such as in-house trainings, monthly regional conferences and the Annual National Convention to continuously enhance the skills and knowledge of its members. There are nine (9) foreign chapters which are composed of electrical practitioners abroad. These are: 1) Bahrain, 2) Brunei, 3) Central Region – Saudi Arabia, 4) Eastern Region – Saudi Arabia, 5) Southern Region Chapter – Saudi Arabia, 6) State of Qatar, 7) United Arab Emirates, 8) Singapore, and 9) Western Region Chapter – Saudi Arabia. IIEE remains true to its mission, to its vision, and to its objectives for the Filipino practitioners here and abroad. Towards Global Recognition IIEE is in partnership with the Philippine Technological Council (PTC) that spearheaded the accreditation of APEC and ASEAN Engineering. PTC plays a vital role in the recognition of Filipino Electrical Engineers in the ASEAN Engineering Register. It was appointed to be the permanent chairman in standardizing the required level of competence in achieving the status as professional engineer with regards to the regulation of each ASEAN countries. Also, PTC has taken the role as an instrument of assessment of the engineers for the APEC ENGINEER in the country, being incharge of continuously developing the standards of competence of professionals. In all this, IIEE provides assistance to its members who are interested to be a member of these prestigious international accrediting bodies.

1st QUARTER 2013



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Technical Feature

Reliability Assessment of a Microgrid Network with the presence of Distributed Energy Resources Michael C. Pacis School of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering Mapua Institute of Technology Abstract— Climate change concerns due to the rising amounts of the carbon gas in the atmosphere have in the last decade or so initiated a fast pace in technological advances in the renewable energy industry. The Microgrid concept is a solution proposed to control the impact of Distributed Generation (DG) and make conventional grids more suitable for large scale deployments of DG. Perhaps its most compelling feature is the ability to separate and isolate itself – known as ‘‘islanding’’ – from the utility’s distribution system during brownouts or blackouts. The purpose of this paper is to assess the reliability indices of an IEEE RBTS Bus 4 with the inclusion of DG’s and energy storage systems using a proposed reliability evaluation algorithm. The basic parameters for the system are given in reference [9]. The reliability models for DG’s such as Solar PV, Wind System and Distributed Energy Resources (DER) will be evaluated first and then test cases using Monte Carlo Simulation can be analyzed to verify the performance of the modified system. The introduction of these energy storage systems such as water heaters, space heaters, battery banks and pool pumps integrated with the DG’s will play an important role on the stability of power supply in Microgrids. The literature results show a more reliable system because of the additional supply but will have a huge effect on the operation of protective devices in the distribution system. Keywords— Distributed Energy Reliability Evaluation Algorithm


illustrated measurable improvements in reliability, whereby the size and location of the DER relative to the load points have the greatest influence on the final results. Figure 1 illustrates the basic Microgrid architecture. The electrical system is assumed to be radial with three feeders – A, B, and C – and a collection of loads. The microsources are either microturbines or fuel cells interfaced to the system through power electronics [10]. The Point of Common Coupling (PCC) is on the primary side of the transformer and defines the separation between the grid and the Microgrid. The Microgrid can operate connected to the grid as well as smooth transition to and from the island mode is another important function. In Figure 1 there are two feeders with microsources and one without any generation to illustrate a wide range of options. During disturbances on the bulk power system Feeders A & B can island using the separation device (Static switch) to minimize disturbance to the sensitive loads. Of course islanding does not make sense if there is not enough local generation to meet the demands of the sensitive loads. The traditional loads on Feeder C are left to ride through the disturbance.


I. INTRODUCTION Microgrids are emerging as an integral feature of the future power systems shaped by the various smart-grid initiatives. A microgrid is formed by integrating loads, distributed generators (DG) and energy storage devices. Microgrids can operate in parallel with the grid, as an autonomous power island or in transition between grid-connected mode and islanded mode of operation. Perhaps the most compelling feature of a microgrid is the ability to separate and isolate itself – known as ‘‘islanding’’ – from the utility’s distribution system during brownouts or blackouts [1,2,6].

Figure 1. Basic Microgrid Architecture

A positive impact on reliability requires that the microgrid be able to isolate itself and eventually reconnect in the event of a fault on the upstream system. A number of studies have examined the impacts of DER on distribution level reliability. These include evaluations of fixed or dispatchable DER within conventional distribution systems [3,4], and in islanded microgrids [5]. With assumptions of fixed or dispatchable DER, these studies have

But there is a little study on DG and storage energy system reliability model. As to the algorithm, analytical method and simulative method are two main techniques on microgrid reliability evaluation. A new methodology for assessing local generation adequacy for an islanded microgrid with limited stochastic resources with solar PV as the DG [7]. Reference [8] presents a procedure of power supply reliability evaluation

1st QUARTER 2013



Technical Feature for micro grids including wind power and photovoltaic also by Monte Carlo Simulation, but the influence of storage systems on microgrid reliability is not involved. In paper [11], the authors evaluated the reliability indices of a distribution system with microgrids, and concluded that distribution networks with microgrids are better than without microgrids. It also uses the Monte Carlo Simulation but the algorithm is not discussed in full detail and the inclusion of the interruption cost for both consumer and supply is not investigated. A paper in [12] tackles on the optimal location and size using Particle Swarm Optimization and Evolutionary Algorithms but did not discuss on detail the DG’s models and the supply and load reliability indices. This paper presents a proposed Monte Carlo Simulation to evaluate the reliability for microgrids including renewable energy DG’s and storage systems. Stochastic characteristic of photovoltaic and wind power DG’s is firstly studied, and then a reliability model for the combined DG’s and storage energy system is established. The addition of the interruption cost and balanced costs on both demand and the supply side is important for the evaluation of its reliability worth and future expansions. Case studies can be done on the modified IEEE RBTS Bus 4 system containing two microgrids to verify the validity of the proposed technique. Results from the literature, proved that microgrids are capable to improve the power supply reliability for their customers.


(2) Define the fundamental intensity Id(t) to be the average value of sunlight at time t in a statistical time range (usually a year). Neglecting the influence of seasons change on the sunrise and sunset time, Id(t) can considered to be a quadratic function, which is represented by Equation (3) below,

(3) where t is time in a day, whose unit is hour; Imax is the maximum sunlight intensity in a day, which is at the time 12 in the midday, that is Imax =I(12). Equation (4) states that attenuation amount ∆I(t) mainly depends on the states of the clouds. Since it is difficult to obtain the transition probability of different states of the clouds, here we treat ∆I(t) in a simplified way, considering that ∆I(t) obeys normal distribution [8]. Probability density function of normal distribution can be represented by the following function and is shown on Figure 2:



Stochastic model for photovoltaic system output Solar panel is the core element of photovoltaic system; its output depends on several factors, among which the most dominant one is the sunlight intensity received by the panel. Let S be the panel area, and I(t) be the sunlight intensity received at time t, then the output of the solar panel PPV is shown in Equation (1) below

(1) where ƞc is the conversion efficiency, and Kc is a threshold, when the received intensity is less than Kc, PPV has a second order with I(t); when the received intensity is greater than Kc, PPV has linear relation with I(t). Sunlight intensity mainly depends on the solar altitude angle and the attenuation effect of clouds occlusion. The solar altitude angle variation with time in a day can be determined by a definitive function; while the clouds occlusion is random as weather changes. It can be regarded that the received sunlight intensity I(t) is equal to a fundamental intensity Id(t) determined by the solar altitude angle plus a random attenuation amount ∆I(t), from equation (2) that is,


Figure 2. Typical variation of sunlight intensity received by solar panel in a day

An alternative method for estimating solar PV output is getting a five minute averaged solar irradiation data over the course of one year. An average conversion efficiency of 15% was assumed with the panels installed in a flat orientation. In order to scale the power output from a single to multiple installations, a smoothing procedure for multiple correlated stochastic generators was deployed. For this procedure, only the output from a single site and the correlation of output among all sites need to be specified. Let G1(t) be the time varying output from the single reference site where data was obtained. An expression for the aggregate output over all sites, Gtot(t), can be written as in equation (5),



where ρij is the correlation coefficient between the PV output at sites i and j, Gprof(t) is the mean daily profile for the outputat the single reference site, and NPV is the number of sites with PV generators. The mean daily profile repeats each day, whereas G1(t) and Gtot(t) vary over the full time horizon. With a perfect correlation between the output of all PV generators, Equation (5) would reduce to NPV G1(t) and the generation would scale linearly with the number of available feeders, whereas it would scale sub linearly for correlations less than one. The correlation coefficients can be expressed as a function of the distance between any two sites with the following expression in Equation (6) below,

Figure 4. Output characteristic curve of wind turbine

(6) where di,j is the distance between sites i and j; and Lc is a scaling parameter related to the wind speed and the typical cloud length. Since the value for Lc will vary according to weather conditions, a sensitivity analysis can be performed to assess the impact of this parameter on the final results. It can be shown that if Lc is similar in magnitude or smaller than the distance between two neighboring PV generators, then the aggregate output from the PV generator is similar to what would be calculated by assuming complete independence of all PV generators. The estimated power output for a 6.4 MW of installed PV capacity on a single distribution feeder for all of 2007 and a typical week in mid-July are shown in Figure 3 [7]. The annual series illustrates that the average daily peak output during the summer is almost twice that of the winter months. The daily profiles show a distinct difference between clear and cloudy days; as in the 3rd and 7th day, respectively. The solar PV data are plotted on top of the estimated load for the feeder.


where Pt and Vt represents the output of the wind turbine and the wind velocity, respectively, at the time of t; Vci > Vr and Vco represent the cut-in wind velocity, rated wind velocity and cut-off wind velocity respectively; Pr represents the rated power of the wind turbine. A, B, C are parameters, which can be calculated by equations 8, 9 and 10. Although wind is random and intermittent, distribution of wind velocity in most districts still follow some rules, and certain distributions can be adopted to represent the probability distribution of wind velocity.

(8) (9) (10)

Figure 3. Estimated PV output from 6.4MW of distributed solar using data from 2007 (gray); and the simultaneous estimated load on a single distribution feeder with mean load of 3.2 MW (black).

Weibull distribution is considered to be a simple function suitable to de script the wind. It's a single-peak and twoparameter function, whose distribution function and probability density function can be expressed in equations 11 and 12


Stochastic model for wind power system output The output of wind turbines varies with wind velocity. The relation curve of wind turbine output and wind velocity is called the output characteristic curve of wind turbine, which is shown in Figure 4 [10]. Its mathematical expression can be represented by a piecewise function shown in Equation 7.

(12) where v represents wind velocity, k and c are two parameters of Weibull distribution; k is called the shape parameter and c is called the scaling parameter, both of them can be calculated from the average wind velocity µ and the standard deviation σ shown on equations 13 and 14:

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(13) (14) An example of the wind turbine output based on Weibull distribution is shown in Figure 5 [8].

Figure 5. An example of wind turbine output.

Reliability index of wind power Application of the Weibull distribution to model wind speed applications, where c gets 8.03, k takes 2.02, characteristic equation of wind turbine power using equations 11-12, the rated power of each turbine 1.2MW, impeller high 60m, cut-in wind speed, cut-out wind speed, rated wind speed take 3m/s, 25m/s and 12 m/s, respectively, wind speed is simulated and wind turbine power output calculated in 8760h. The results can be verified by Figures 6 and 7 [10].

Figure 6. Weibull distribution simulation curve in 8760 hours

Output model for the combined DG’s and storage energy system Storage device is usually configured with intermittent generations like wind power and photovoltaic in order to smooth the fluctuation of these DGs' output so that power quality and power supply reliability in microgrid can be improved. In islanded mode, when DGs' output is greater than load, residual energy is stored in storage device; when DGs' output is less than the load, the stored energy is released to supply customers. Assume that the combined DG’s and storage energy system is autonomous and controllable, neglecting the influence of the time constant of power regulation, it can be considered that output of the combined DG’s and storage energy system and load can reach equilibrium all the time. When DGs' output is insufficient, which is caused by the insufficiency of wind or sunlight, or is zero, which may caused by DG outage, or no sunlight in the night, or no wind, the released energy by storage device is greater than the stored energy, then the operation time of storage system in micro grid islanded mode is constrained by its storage capacity. The operation time of the combined DG’s and storage energy system in islanded mode Tbatt can be solved from the following equations 15-17:

(15) (16) (17)

Figure 7. Wind farm electrical output curve in 8760 hours

According to the statistics of wind turbine power output simulation, the probability distribution of wind turbine power output is shown in Table 1.


where PL(t) represents the load at time t; PDGk(t) represents the kth DG's output at time t; Qremain represents the residual energy in storage device in the beginning when microgrid switches to islanded mode, which can be considered to be the full charged capacity of storage device since the distribution grid can charge the storage device in interconnection mode; Qcharge represents the energy stored in the storage device in islanded mode; Qdischarge represents the energy released


Technical Feature from the storage device in islanded mode; Qmin represents the minimum permissible residual capacity of storage device. It's necessary to notice that the discharge power Pcharge is constrained by the maximum discharge power Pmax of the storage device, that is from equation (18),


Equation (18) is an implicit integration equation, which is difficult to be solved by analytical method, but can be solved by simulating DGs' output and load in every hour in islanded mode.

failure rate of all facilities. If some kind of equipment failure occurred, check if there is a system contingency that would occur using load flow analysis [12]. When system contingency occurred, solve the problem by emergency operation. If cannot be solved, find the area of supply interruption and the quantity of lost supply. Repeat the failure simulation until the required accuracy is obtained, then calculate the system reliability indices as annual average according to load point indices. The load data and generation data include a stochastic deviation of the DER’s based on the normal distribution added to an annual load curve of every one hour.

Reliability model for the combined DG’s and storage energy system In the interconnection model, whether DG’s generate power does not influence the power supply to customers because of the support from the distribution grid. While in islanded mode, the states of DG’s and storage devices will directly influence the power supply for customers within microgrid. According to the analytic requirements, DG states are divided into failure state and non-failure state, and the storage states are divided into failure state, non-failure but exhausted state and non-failure with residual energy state. The states of microgrid can be determined by analyzing the states of DGs and storage, and the energy stored in storage device. Analysis and results are shown in Table 2 [11].

Figure 8. Flow chart of supply reliability evaluation for microgrids.

Some of the basic assumptions are employed: I. All the components are repairable; II. All components' fault are permanent fault, that is, after a component breaks down, it can be put in operation over again only after it's repaired; III. Neglect protective devices mis-operation and mis-trip; IV. Smooth switch between interconnection mode and islanded mode of microgrid has a certain probability of failure. Under the condition of storage failure or energy exhausted, no matter whether intermittent DG’s generate power or not, output of combined DG’s and storage energy system will become unstable. so these DG’s and the corresponding load should be shed. If there are no other stable DG’s within microgrid, thus, microgrid service will be interrupted.

III. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION The use of Monte Carlo Simulation for the proposed algorithm is essential to calculate the system reliability indices. Figure 8 shows the flow chart of the reliability evaluation algorithm using Monte Carlo Simulation [8]. The procedure of reliability analysis is, at first supply reliability analysis initialize the state of system. Next, some sample fault conditions that reflect the

Unit of Cost Interruption (IUC) and Demand and Supply Balance Costs (DSBC) The unit cost of interruption needs to be investigated for each consumer. It is known that the unit cost of interruption rises as the power outage sustains, but it can be treated as constant in this paper. Also, the damage caused by blackout is substantially different between household consumers and commercial consumers. In addition, among commercial consumers, there are consumers who require high reliability, and the unit cost of interruption will be high for such consumers. The calculation of interruption costs for the reliability index on the consumer side can be evaluated using equation (19),

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Technical Feature (19) where IUC is the unit cost of interruption at consumer m. The IUC here is the same as IEAR (Interrupted Energy Assessment Rate), EENS as LOEE and the IC(Interruption Cost) is the same as ECOST[13], which is important in reliability worth. As mentioned above, the microgrid is assumed to run as a selfsustained operation. However, in the case of imbalance of the demand and supply by the influence of renewable energy sources, and the sudden change of power generation output and/or of load such as at a time of accident, there is a need to buy and sell the power from the external system. In such cases, it can calculate the amount of cost that operator of microgrids will pay to the utility company for the deficiency or surplus.

The average wind velocity is 14.6 km/h, and the standard deviation of wind is 9.75. The cut-in wind velocity Vci, the rated wind velocity Vr, and the cut-off wind velocity Vco are 9, 38 and 80km/h, respectively. The solar panel conversion efficiency ƞc is 0.10, and kc is 200 M/W2. The average received largest daylight intensity in every month is shown in Table 4.

(20) where BP: amount of energy bought; BC: price of energy bought; SP: amount of energy sold; SC: price of energy sold. For the electric energy in deficiency or surplus, it can accumulate the power flow of tie line between the microgrid and the external system.


Based from the results of [11], the calculation of the reliability indices with and without microgrids is shown on Figures 10 and 11. From the results of both Figures 10 and 11, the system reliability indices can be computed from its load point indices and it is presented on table 5.

A test model will be simulated using a modified distribution system of IEEE RBTS Bus 4 system. The system is composed of three substations and 38 load points. The basic parameters for the test system are given in reference [9]. The modified system has 5 DG’s including 2 photovoltaic, 2 small wind plants and 1 gas turbine, forming 2 microgrids, which is shown in Figure 9. All photovoltaic and wind plants are configured with storage devices, whose failure rates are 0.3 f/yr. Probability of successful switch between interconnection mode and islanded mode of micro grids is 0.85. The parameters of DG’s and other storage devices are shown in Table 3.

Figure 10. Comparison of load points' failure rate in two conditions

Figure 9. Modified IEEE DRTS Bus 4 System

Figure 11. Comparison of load points' annual average interruption duration in two conditions



It is clear from these results that the addition of PV, Wind and Gas Turbines with energy storage systems will have a great impact on the consumer and supply reliability indices. The failure rate and the interruption duration was decreased greatly due to the fact that the Distributed Generation and the storage systems energize the microgrid during outage conditions. Based from Table 5, the SAIDI, SAIFI, ASAI and EENS of the IEEE DRTS Bus 4 was improved if DG’s are present. Thus, it is proven that microgrids can effectively recover the reliability of distribution system. Interruption Costs and Supply Balance Costs can be also be analyzed if the proposed evaluation algorithm can be implemented in the IEEE DRTS Bus 4 in the near future. It is expected to have a lower value of IUC and DSBC because of the additional supply from DG’s. Thus, it can help in future expansions of microgrids.

V. CONCLUSIONS This paper proposes a reliability evaluation algorithm for microgrids which can help the distribution network in the expansion of DG’s with energy storage systems. The addition of a more detailed reliability model of DG’s like PV and Wind integrated with energy storage systems will have a great advantage to the algorithm proposed [11]. Also, the addition of the Unit of Cost Interruption and Demand and Supply Balance Costs in the proposed algorithm will help the decision maker in future modifications of the distribution network especially for reliability and protection. The impacts of DER in the literature are huge due to the fact that the failure rate, and interruption duration was decreased but the indices of loads external to microgrids have no changes. Indices of distribution system show that microgrids can effectively improve the reliability of distribution system. However, Interruption Costs and Supply Balance Costs can also be analyzed if the proposed evaluation algorithm can be implemented in the near future. It is expected to have a lower value because of the improved EENS and the additional supply with energy storage systems. Future work includes the study of protective devices in the network with DER especially on the coordination aspect. Also, another future work is the optimal placement and sizing of the DER’s which is vital for the reliability improvement of microgrids.


72-82. [2] Taha Selim Ustun, Cagil Ozansoy, Aladin Zayegh. Recent developments in microgrids and example cases around the world—A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) page 4030– 4041 [3] A. A. Chowdhury, S. K. Agarwal, and D. O. Koval, "Reliability modeling of distributed generation in conventional distribution systems planning and analysis," Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 39, pp. 1493-1498, 2003 [4] I. S. Bae and J. O. Kim, "Reliability Evaluation of Distributed Generation Based on Operation Mode," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 22, pp. 785-790, 2007. [5] P. M. Costa and M. A. Matos, "Reliability of distribution networks with microgrids," in Power Tech, 2005 IEEE Russia, 2005, pp. 1-7. [6] Xian Liu, Bin Siu, Microgrids an Integration of Renewable Energy Technologies (2008) Technical Session 3 Protection, Control, Communication and Automation of Distribution Network. [7] S. Kennedy Reliability Evaluation of Islanded Microgrids with Stochastic Distributed Generation , IEEE Transactions [8] R. Yokohama Modeling and Evaluation of Supply Reliability of Microgrids including PV and Wind Power, IEEE 2008. [9] R. N. Allan, R. Billinton, T. Sjariet: L. Goel, and K. S. So A reliability test system for educational purposes-Basic distribution system data and results. IEEE Trans. Power System., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 813-820, May 1991. [10] Huang Wei, He Zijun, Fengli. Reliability Evaluation of Microgrid with PV-WG IEEE Transactions 2011 [11] LIANG Huishi, SU Jian, LIU Sige. Reliability Evaluation of Distribution System Containing MicroGrid, 2010 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution [12] A.K. Basu. Reliability study of a micro grid system with optimal sizing and Placement of DER, CIRED Seminar 2008: SmartGrids for Distribution [13] Billinton and Allan, Reliability Evaluation of Power Systems, 2nd Edition, 1996.

About the Author MICHAEL C. PACIS

is a Registered Electrical Engineer with a BSEE and Master of Engineering-Electrical Engineering (M.Eng’g-EE) Major in Power Systems degree from MAPÚA Institute of Technology. At present, he is a full time EE Faculty member and is taking up his PhD EE (Power Systems) at the University of the Philippines-Diliman. His research interest includes Power System Protection, Renewable Sources of Energy, Distributed Generation, Microcontroller Based Projects and Smart Grids.

[1] Peter Asmus. Microgrids, Virtual Power Plants and Our Distributed Energy Future, The Electricity Journal (2010) page 1st QUARTER 2013



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