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THE INFLUENCES OF GLOBALISATION AND ARCHITECTURAL RESISTANCE WITHIN TROPICAL CLIMATE CASE STUDY: MUMBAI, LAGOS, AND RIO DE JANEIRO

WILLIE YOGATAMA A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the regulation for the Degree of Master of Architecture in Design in the University of Nottingham. 2nd September 2011

UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM UNITED KINGDOM


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My sincere thanks for the supervision of Professor Guillermo Guzman Dumont who continuously gave me guidance, inspiration and encouragement in doing this dissertation. His supervision has pushed me to do my best in conducting my research. I also would like to thank tutors in Architecture Department, particularly Phillip Oldfield, David Nicholson Cole, Swinal Samant, and Professor Michael Stacey who have given their contributions during my educational process. I would like to thank all of my friends, particularly from India, Nigeria, and South America in sharing important knowledge about Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro as my case studies. All the information they shared gave me lots of understandings to conduct my dissertation research. My deepest thank to Foreign and Commonwealth Office of United Kingdom for giving me the opportunity to continue my study in the United Kingdom through Chevening Scholarship 2010. This opportunity gives not only better educational knowledge, but also unforgettable life experience. This dissertation is dedicated to them as my contribution in creating a better future. Last but not least, my best thank to my parents in Indonesia and my younger brothers in USA and Indonesia for their tireless support throughout the year and particularly in doing this dissertation. Their supports and prayers have always been an oasis in my life.

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

ABSTRACT The influences of globalisation have been one of the biggest concerns in the developments of architecture. Moreover, the implementation of globalisation in tropical countries has caused a few criticisms that the new developments indicate lack of cultural and social identity. This dissertation was conducted to address the issue of identity loss in architecture by focusing on the influences of globalisation and architectural resistance in mega tropical cities. The first objective of this dissertation was to learn from the past about the influences of globalisation into tropical architecture. The second aim of this dissertation was to understand what determine the architectural resistance of cities in facing globalisation and how detached the current developments from their origin. Lastly, this dissertation extracted some possible improvements for future sustainable developments. The analysis was conducted through chronological comparison and examination of architectural evolution in three tropical cities as case studies, Mumbai in India, Lagos in Nigeria, and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. The analysis of the influences of globalisation came out with two conclusions. Firstly, globalisation resulted in almost the same positive and negative influences in the three case studies. Secondly, the implementation of globalisation in Rio de Janeiro was reacted by the creation of tropical modernism, which has resulted in some positive influences. This was a result of architectural resistance in Rio de Janeiro. The analysis of architectural resistance concluded that architectural resistance depends on neither how rich the traditional and pre-colonial civilisation, nor how strong the vernacular architecture. But it depends on the allowance of acculturation during post-colonisation period as the identity seeking phase. Cities with proper post-colonisation period before globalisation era tend to have higher resistance. The examination of the latest developments of cities indicated that there are some levels of detachment to the cultural and historical values. Mumbai and Lagos are on their efforts to retrieve their architectural resistance, while the architectural resistance in Rio seems to be weaker in the developments prior the year 2000. Last but not least, based on these analyses, there are a few possible future improvements to create long term sustainable buildings by: optimising the positive influences of globalisation and minimising its negative impacts, improving the architectural resistance of particular places, and creating sustainable design which not only focusing on environmental performance, but also historical, social, and cultural values.

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

TABLE OF CONTENT

COVER PAGE ...................................................................................................................... i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................................. iii ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................................ iv TABLE OF CONTENT ...................................................................................................... v LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................... viii LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................. xii INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 1 CHAPTER I : LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORITICAL APPROACH........... 6 1.1 Vernacular Architecture in Tropical Climate ............................................................ 7 1.1.1 Tropical Culture ........................................................................................................ 7 1.1.2 Traditional and Pre-Colonial Architecture ............................................................... 8 1.1.3 Colonial Architecture ................................................................................................ 8 1.2 Post-Colonisation in Tropical Climate ........................................................................ 9 1.3 Globalisation in Architecture ..................................................................................... 10 1.4 Globalisation Influences in Tropical Climate ........................................................... 11 1.5 Critical Regionalism and Architectural Resistance ................................................. 14 1.5.1 Basic Points of Critical Regionalism ...................................................................... 15 1.5.2 Critical Regionalism in Tropical Architecture ........................................................ 17 1.6 Lack of Cultural Values in Sustainable Developments ............................................ 17 CHAPTER II : CASE STUDIES ..................................................................................... 20 v


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

2.1 Mumbai ........................................................................................................................ 22 2.1.1 Introduction to Mumbai .......................................................................................... 22 2.1.2 Architecture Development of Mumbai from Traditional Architecture until the 20th Century............................................................................................................................. 26 2.1.2.1 Traditional and Pre-Colonial Architecture ....................................................... 26 2.1.2.2 Colonial Architecture ....................................................................................... 30 2.1.2.3 Post-Colonial Architecture ............................................................................... 38 2.2 Lagos ............................................................................................................................. 42 2.2.1 Introduction to Lagos .............................................................................................. 44 2.2.2 Architecture Development from Traditional Architecture until the 20th Century Architecture ..................................................................................................................... 48 2.2.2.1 Traditional and Pre-Colonial Architecture ....................................................... 48 2.3.2.2 Colonial Architecture ....................................................................................... 50 2.2.2.3 Post Colonial Architecture ............................................................................... 57 2.3 Rio de Janeiro .............................................................................................................. 64 2.3.1 Introduction to Rio de Janeiro ................................................................................ 64 2.3.2 Architecture Development from Traditional Architecture until the 20th Century Architecture of Rio de Janeiro ......................................................................................... 68 2.3.2.1 Traditional and Pre-Colonial Architecture ....................................................... 68 2.3.2.2 Colonial Architecture ....................................................................................... 69 2.3.2.3 Post Colonial Architecture ............................................................................... 74 CHAPTER III : DISCUSSION ........................................................................................ 84 3.1 Comparison of the Influences of Globalisation in All Case Studies ....................... 84 3.1.1 Mumbai ................................................................................................................... 85 3.1.2 Lagos ....................................................................................................................... 88 3.1.3 Rio de Janeiro ......................................................................................................... 92 3.1.4 Comparison of Case Studies ................................................................................... 96 3.1.4.1 Comparison Analysis ....................................................................................... 96 3.1.4.2 Conclusion of the Influences of Globalisation ................................................. 98 3.2 Comparison of Architectural Resistance in All Case Studies ............................... 102 vi


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

3.2.1 Mumbai ................................................................................................................. 102 3.2.2 Lagos ..................................................................................................................... 104 3.2.3 Rio de Janeiro ....................................................................................................... 106 3.2.4 Comparison of Case Studies ................................................................................. 107 3.2.4.1 Comparison Analysis ..................................................................................... 107 3.2.4.2 Conclusion of Architectural Resistance ......................................................... 115 CHAPTER IV LESSON LEARNT AND FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS ......... 119 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ...................................................................................... 126 APENDIX .......................................................................................................................... xiii BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................... xxiii

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Dissertation Flow Diagram ..................................................................................... 5 Figure 2: World Tropical Climate Zone According to Koppen Classification ................... 20 Figure 3 Bird Eye View of Mumbai .................................................................................... 22 Figure 4 The Reclamation of Bombay Islands .................................................................... 23 Figure 5 The Islands of Bombay ......................................................................................... 23 Figure 6 Location of Mumbai.............................................................................................. 24 Figure 7 Mumbai Area ........................................................................................................ 24 Figure 8 Climate Chart of Mumbai ..................................................................................... 25 Figure 9 Mandapeshwar Caves, Mumbai ............................................................................ 27 Figure 10 Elephanta Caves, Mumbai .................................................................................. 27 Figure 11 Elephanta Caves Plan, Mumbai .......................................................................... 27 Figure 12 Lord Shiva Statue, Mumbai ................................................................................ 28 Figure 13 Maheshmurti Statue, Mumbai ............................................................................. 28 Figure 14 Ambarnath Temple, Mumbai .............................................................................. 28 Figure 15 Walkeshwar Temple and Banganga Tank, Mumbai ........................................... 28 Figure 16 Mumbai Traditional House ................................................................................. 29 Figure 17 Haji Ali Dargah Mosque, Mumbai...................................................................... 29 Figure 18 Mahim Dargah, Mumbai ..................................................................................... 30 Figure 19 Bombay Castle, Mumbai..................................................................................... 31 Figure 20 St. Andrew Church in Bandra, Mumbai.............................................................. 31 Figure 21 Castella de Aguada, Mumbai .............................................................................. 32 Figure 22 Mahim Fort, Mumbai .......................................................................................... 32 Figure 23 Bombay during East India Company .................................................................. 33 Figure 24 Bombay Fort ....................................................................................................... 33 Figure 25 The Grant Medical College, Mumbai ................................................................. 34 Figure 26 Big Ben - The Clock Tower of UK (for comparison purpose) ........................... 34 Figure 27 Rajabai Clock Tower, Mumbai ........................................................................... 34 Figure 28 Bombay Club ...................................................................................................... 35 Figure 29 Victoria Station, Mumbai .................................................................................... 35 Figure 30 London Kings Cross Station (For comparison purpose) ..................................... 35 Figure 31 Bombay Church Gate Railway Station, Mumbai ................................................ 36 viii


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Figure 32 Taj Mahal Palace, Mumbai ................................................................................. 37 Figure 33 The Gateway of India, Mumbai .......................................................................... 37 Figure 34 Prince of Wales Museum, Mumbai..................................................................... 38 Figure 35 Jengahir Art Gallery, Mumbai ............................................................................ 40 Figure 36 MVRDC, Mumbai .............................................................................................. 40 Figure 37 Samudra Mahal, Mumbai .................................................................................... 40 Figure 38 Kanchanjunga Apartments, Mumbai .................................................................. 40 Figure 39 Salvacao Church, Mumbai .................................................................................. 41 Figure 40 Phiroze Jeejeebhoy Towers, Mumbai ................................................................. 41 Figure 41 Tahnee Heights, Mumbai .................................................................................... 41 Figure 42 NNP Housing, Mumbai....................................................................................... 41 Figure 43 Four Season Hotel, Mumbai ............................................................................... 42 Figure 44 Commerz Tower, Mumbai .................................................................................. 42 Figure 45 Imperial Mumbai................................................................................................. 42 Figure 46 Sunshine Tower, Mumbai ................................................................................... 42 Figure 47 Timeline Architectural Evolution of Mumbai..................................................... 42 Figure 48 Photo of Lagos City ............................................................................................ 44 Figure 50 City of Lagos Area .............................................................................................. 45 Figure 49 Location of Lagos in Nigeria .............................................................................. 45 Figure 51 Climate Chart of Lagos ....................................................................................... 47 Figure 52 Art Works of Yoruba People............................................................................... 49 Figure 53 Yoruba Compound House Made from Mud ....................................................... 49 Figure 54 Yoruba Compound House Plan........................................................................... 49 Figure 55 Iga Iduganran, Lagos ........................................................................................... 50 Figure 56 CMS House, Lagos ............................................................................................. 51 Figure 57 Methodist Church Lagos ..................................................................................... 51 Figure 58 Christ Cathedral Lagos ........................................................................................ 52 Figure 59 Holy Cross Cathedral Lagos ............................................................................... 52 Figure 60 Glover Memory Hall, Lagos ............................................................................... 52 Figure 61 The Original Supreme Court, Lagos ................................................................... 53 Figure 62 Bank of British, Lagos ........................................................................................ 53 Figure 63 St George Hall, Lagos ......................................................................................... 53 Figure 64 High Court Building, Lagos ................................................................................ 54 Figure 65 House of Colonial Surveyor, Lagos .................................................................... 54 ix


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Figure 66 House of First Secretary of the Governmnet, Lagos ........................................... 54 Figure 67 Brazilian House in Lagos .................................................................................... 56 Figure 68 Brazilian House Plan ........................................................................................... 56 Figure 69 House on Odunfa Street with Brazilian Architectural Style, Lagos ................... 56 Figure 70 Yoyo Araromi House with Brazilian Architectural Style, Lagos ....................... 57 Figure 71 Independence House, Lagos................................................................................ 58 Figure 72 Western House, Lagos ........................................................................................ 58 Figure 73 CSS Bookshop, Lagos ......................................................................................... 59 Figure 74 Eko Hotel, Lagos ................................................................................................. 59 Figure 75 Lagos University Science at UNILAG, Lagos .................................................... 59 Figure 76 NECOM House, Lagos ....................................................................................... 59 Figure 77 First Bank Headquarter, Lagos ........................................................................... 60 Figure 78 IBM Office, Lagos .............................................................................................. 60 Figure 79 Eagle House, Lagos ............................................................................................. 60 Figure 80 Mobil Building, Lagos ........................................................................................ 60 Figure 81 Wema Bank Headquarter, Lagos ........................................................................ 61 Figure 82 Africa Reinsurance Headquarter, Lagos ............................................................. 61 Figure 83 Union Bank Headquarter, Lagos ......................................................................... 61 Figure 84 Sapetro Tower, Lagos ......................................................................................... 61 Figure 85 Zenith Bank Headquarter, Lagos ........................................................................ 62 Figure 86 Intercontinental Lagos ......................................................................................... 62 Figure 87 Laila Tower, Lagos ............................................................................................. 62 Figure 88 Timeline Architectural Evolution of Lagos ........................................................ 63 Figure 89 Rio de Janeiro ...................................................................................................... 64 Figure 90 The Matriz Tupi .................................................................................................. 65 Figure 91 Location of Rio de Janeiro .................................................................................. 66 Figure 92 Location of Rio de Janeiro .................................................................................. 66 Figure 93 Climate Chart of Rio de Janeiro .......................................................................... 67 Figure 94 Traditional Maxakali Building ............................................................................ 68 Figure 95 Traditional Matriz Tupi Building ........................................................................ 69 Figure 96 Church and Monastery of Sao Bento, Rio de Janeiro ......................................... 71 Figure 98 Church of Bom Jesus, Braga, Portugal (for comparison purpose) ...................... 71 Figure 97 Gloria Church, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.................................................... 71 Figure 99 Old Cathedral of Rio de Janeiro .......................................................................... 72 x


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Figure 100 Fazenda Colubande, Rio de Janeiro .................................................................. 72 Figure 101 Fazenda Vassouras, Rio de Janeiro ................................................................... 72 Figure 102 Fazenda Garcia, Rio de Janeiro......................................................................... 73 Figure 103 Academia Imperial de Belas-Artes by Grandjean de Montigny, Rio de Janeiro ............................................................................................................................................. 73 Figure 104 Itaramati Palace, Rio de Janeiro ........................................................................ 75 Figure 105 Ministry of Education and Health, Rio de Janeiro ............................................ 75 Figure 106 Plan of Ministry of Education and Health ........................................................ 75 Figure 107 Maracana Stadium, Rio de Janeiro.................................................................... 76 Figure 108 Parque Guinle Residential Complex, Rio de Janeiro ........................................ 76 Figure 109 Landscape Development along the Coast of Rio de Janeiro by Burle-Marx .... 77 Figure 110 Mosaic Pattern in Copacabana Beach (Left) and in front of Museum of Modern Art (Right), Rio de Janeiro .................................................................................................. 77 Figure 111 The black and white wavy mosaic pattern in Praca Dom Pedro IV, Lisbon, Portugal (Left) and mosaic pattern in Senado Square in Macau (Right)............................. 78 Figure 112 Metropolitan Cathedral of Rio de Janeiro ......................................................... 78 Figure 113 Centro Candido Mendes, Rio de Janeiro........................................................... 79 Figure 114 105 Lelio Gama St, Rio de Janeiro ................................................................... 79 Figure 115 Niteroi Contemporary Art Museum, Rio de Janeiro ......................................... 80 Figure 116 Manhattan Tower, Rio de Janeiro ..................................................................... 81 Figure 117 Ibiza (Costa del Sol), Rio de Janeiro ................................................................. 81 Figure 118 Barra Office Tower, Rio de Janeiro .................................................................. 81 Figure 119 Transamerica Flat Barra, Rio de Janeiro ........................................................... 81 Figure 120 Torre Almirante, Rio de Janeiro........................................................................ 82 Figure 121 Ventura Towers, Rio de Janeiro ........................................................................ 82 Figure 122 CBD Area in Rio de Janeiro ............................................................................. 82 Figure 123 Timeline Architectural Evolution of Rio de Janeiro ......................................... 83 Figure 124 Comparison of Architectural Evolution Timeline of Three Case Studies ...... 109 Figure 125 Copacabana Beach Landscape Pattern ............................................................ 113 Figure 126 Ceramic Murral in Ministry of Education and Health .................................... 113 Figure 127 Comparison of Three Similar Buildings in Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro ........................................................................................................................................... 113 Figure 128 Noteroi Contemporary Art Museum ............................................................... 114 Figure 129 Interior of Metropolitan Cathedral of Rio de Janeiro...................................... 115 xi


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Figure 130 Sustainable Development Diagram ................................................................. 119 Figure 131 Pattern Diagram of The Evolution of Architecture in Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro ........................................................................................................................... 120

LIST OF TABLES Table 1Mumbai Population Growth Table .......................................................................... 24 Table 2 Lagos Population Growth Table ............................................................................. 46 Table 3 Rio de Janeiro Population Growth Table ............................................................... 66 Table 4 Influences of Globalisation in Mumbai .................................................................. 88 Table 5 Influences of Globalisation in Lagos ..................................................................... 92 Table 6 Influences of Globalisation in Rio de Janeiro ........................................................ 95 Table 7 Comparison of the Influences of Globalisation ...................................................... 97 Table 8 Table of Changes in Architectural Style in Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro 111

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

INTRODUCTION ―Tropical architecture is an indigenous form of expression that grew from the differences between international, western modernism, and local practices in the developing world.‖ Hannah le Roux (2003, p. 337) tried to describe the uniqueness of tropical architecture. It has its own characteristic and identity which are derived from its local tradition, cultural behaviour, experience, history, and climate response. This uniqueness of tropical architecture is a treasure of the cultures around the world. According to Tzonis, Lefaivre, and Stagno (2001), there are three main common factors of the tropics which determine the characteristic of architecture in tropical climate. Firstly, tropical architecture has been designed as a response towards harsh and extreme climate with high temperature and humidity. It has been a process through trial and error by the indigenous people from time to time. Secondly, tropical countries have strong colonial influences in their history, in terms of not only architecture, but also culture, economic, and politic. Therefore, tropical countries had to go through post-colonisation period to separate themselves from the colonial influences. Lastly, tropical countries tend to refer their architecture and urban development to the heritage colonial buildings and urban fabrics. This means that there is a desire to conserve, reuse, and redesign colonial precedence in post-colonial developments. Besides that, local tradition, social, and culture play an important role in determining the characteristics and identity of tropical architecture. These local values make a distinction between tropical architecture in South America, with the one in Asia and Africa. Thus, this diversity enriches the variety of the world culture. However, after the World War II, there were globalisation and modernisation movement which came from Western countries. It was started by the developments of technology which resulted in the creation of advanced information and communication system. As a result, people had easier access to the „outside‟ world and culture. It led us to the creation of the world as single and homogeneous place. This condition is defined by Robertson (1992, p. 8) as ―compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole.‖ Globalisation and modernisation concept significantly influenced the developments of tropical countries in all aspects. In architecture, the creation of “the world as a whole” 1


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

could be felt by the implementation of the International Style. Buildings, with Western Countries characteristics, were constructed in the tropics with minimum adjustments, without any historical, traditional, cultural, and climate considerations. As consequences, local culture has faded away and it has been replaced by the modern way of thinking. This could be seen in several major cities in Africa, Asia, and South America. Instead of enhancing their unique identities, they developed their cities similar and typical to others. People might not be able to identify the picture of CBD (Central Business District) area in Africa, Asia, or South America. This condition is worsened by the replication of Western building typology in tropical countries, whose culture and climate are totally different. Some research has been conducted to address cultural identity issue in globalisation in the last three decades. It resulted in a few theoretical approaches to bridge the gap between local culture and modernisation. However, most of them tend to focus only on theoretical approaches and put historical evident aside. This indicates a missing link between theoretical and practical approaches. As a result, there is only minimum cultural consideration in the new developments of architecture. Just like what Paul Riceour (1961) said that lesson from the past is essential to form a better future. Therefore, this dissertation will address the cultural identity issue through the exploration of historical examples. Cultural identity in the current architecture developments relates strongly to globalisation and architectural resistance. Hence, the dissertation will be conducted to create possible improvements in cultural identity in architecture through: the examinations of the influences of globalisation, the exploration of architectural resistance, and the lessons learnt for future sustainable developments. The dissertation will only focus on tropical climate cities because: they possess rich and unique traditional cultures, they went through colonisation period, they are in a phase of massive developments in all aspects, and they have huge potentials to be influencing cities in the next few decades. In addition to that, this dissertation will only emphasize on the architectural evolution as the representative of culture, socio-economic, environment and place identity. This architectural evolution will be analysed in the perspectives of globalisation and architectural resistance The objective of this dissertation is to learn from the past about influences of globalisation in tropical climate. In addition to that, this dissertation aims to understand what determined 2


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

the architectural resistance of cities in facing globalisation and how detached the current developments from their origin. This will allow us to extract possible improvements to create long term sustainable developments. Therefore, future developments will create architecture which: represents cultural identity, involves in globalisation world, possesses good architectural resistance, and addresses environmental considerations. To achieve that, several research questions will be examined through critical analysis. 1. What are the influences of Globalisation and Modernisation into Tropical Architecture? 2. a. What determined the architectural resistance of cities in facing globalisation? b. How detached are the current architectural developments from their local and vernacular architecture? 3. What should be done to improve the current developments, to optimise globalisation, and to develop architectural resistance of cities? In answering those questions, the dissertation will be conducted through a discussion of a few literature reviews related to the topics. In addition to that, critical analysis of the case studies will be conducted chronologically based on the evolution of architectural styles throughout the history. The influences of globalisation will be analysed through comparison table of the case studies (table 7). On the other hand, the analysis of architectural resistance will be conducted through comparison diagram and chronological relationships of architectural evolution in each case study (figure 124). All of those analyses will focus only on general architectural evolutions in terms city scale as a whole. Therefore the analysis will not focus on one and particular building. Some buildings will be taken only as samples of each case study to represent the general conditions of the city. In the end, the research findings will generate possible improvements for future sustainable developments. The three case studies chosen in this dissertation are Mumbai in India, Lagos in Nigeria, and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. All of them are located in different continents with different cultural backgrounds. On the other hand, all of them have a strong colonisation history. They are cities with rapid developments and massive increments in population. The three of them are categorised under the Urban Agglomerations that are expected to be MegaCities in 2015 according to United Nations. In addition to that, they are sharing the same

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

type of climate zone, which is wet and dry tropical climate or savannah tropical climate according to Koppen Climate classification. The dissertation is started by this introduction, explaining the research backgrounds, the current phenomenon related to the topics, the research questions, the methodology of the dissertation, the outline of the dissertation, and the importance of the research for future developments. It will be followed by literature review in Chapter I. It will discuss different point of views and arguments related to pre-colonial architecture in tropical climate, colonisation and post-colonisation, globalisation in architecture, globalisation influences in tropical climate, critical regionalism and architectural resistance, and lack of cultural values in sustainable developments. Chapter II will analyse the case studies one by one started from Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro. It will be conducted chronologically through exploration of architectural evolution from the traditional and pre-colonial architecture,

colonial

architecture,

and

post-colonial

architecture

until

current

developments. Chapter III will compare the analyses of the three case studies to create evaluations. The study will be conducted through examination of comparison table of the influences of globalisation and comparison diagram of architectural resistance in the three case studies. In Chapter IV, the lesson learnt will be formulated to create some possible improvements for future developments. In the end of this research, Chapter V will conclude all the results based on the analyses to answer the research questions. In the end of the conclusion, it will be described the implications and contributions of this dissertation into architectural developments. The diagram shown in the end of this introduction demonstrates the overall methodology and flow of the dissertation. In overall, this research is expected to be able to give contributions to not only the creation of architectural identity in future developments, but also sustainability as a whole.

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Figure 1 Dissertation Flow Diagram

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

CHAPTER I : LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORITICAL APPROACH

As mentioned before, tropical architecture has unique characteristics which differentiate them from others, especially Western Architecture. It has a strong relation towards its local traditions, cultures, histories, and climate. This point of view was stated by Hannah le Roux (2003) when she defined tropical architecture as ―[architecture] …outside the West” This is admitted by Tay Keng Soon that tropical architecture should be designed specifically for tropical climate. It should emphasize the need to react to hot climate by providing sun shading, deep overhangs, louvers, and transitional spaces. It has to optimise the natural ventilation for passive cooling system by using porous walls and pilotis building. He called this language as ―line, edge, and shade‖ which is different with the ―volume, place and light” in western and modern countries (Hwee Chang, J, 2010). Looking at the history and the current world developments, Tzonis, Lefaivre, and Stagno (2001) pointed out that there have been two big challenges towards the developments of tropical architecture since the end of World War II. Firstly, post-colonialism was a huge challenge towards the tropical countries. Almost all of tropical countries around the world have passed the period of colonisation, most of which got their independence at the end of World War II. During this period, tropical countries dealt with their effort to find their true identity after colonisation for more than 200 years. Secondly, globalisation is the most recent challenge which still affected tropical architecture until now. According to Eldemery (2009), all cities around the world are facing difficult challenges to respond towards globalisation. It is something inevitable and unstoppable in the current world. Both of them are inseparable challenges because, for most of tropical countries, they had to deal with both in the same time. To understand the globalisation influences in local tropical climate, the literature review will be divided into a few sub chapter: the exploration of vernacular architecture in tropical climate, the post-colonial period in tropical climate, the definition of globalisation in architecture, the discussion of globalisation influences in architecture (both positive and negative), the emergence of critical regionalism as a bridge between globalisation and local architecture, and the lack of cultural values in sustainable developments.

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

1.1 Vernacular Architecture in Tropical Climate ―The tropics are a festival of the senses, a carnival of feelings. Sometimes this excess of sensation produces, in an outside observer, an overwhelming confusion and bewilderment.‖ Stagno (2001, p. 79) described how complex, diverse, and different the tropical cultures compared to the western ones. According to Pruncal-Agunsote (2001), vernacular architecture derived from its traditional/pre-colonial architecture and colonial architecture. On the other hand, Osasona (2006) stated that vernacular architecture is a complex mixture, historical blend, and acculturation of traditional architecture with the force of external influences. Therefore, to understand about vernacular architecture in tropical climate, the sub chapter will be divided into the discussion about cultural values in tropical country, followed by both precolonial and colonial architecture. 1.1.1 Tropical Culture Stagno (2001) gave his point of view about the local culture in tropical country based on his experience. For him, tropical culture is different with Western point of view where philosophical thinking is based on the finding of the essence of being, while, in tropical country, humanity blends itself into the disparate sensation. He added that there is a contrast in between them; the Western countries tend to have ―pessimism and the metaphysical depression”, while tropical countries tend to generate ―optimism which …leads to anguish‖. For him, this innocence of tropical culture is better to be experienced then described and understood because of the rich and sensational relationships between human and nature. He quoted Glissant‟s argument that in tropical countries, ―man exists in proportion to his integration with a place (I am here, therefore I am)‖. This point of view is contradictive with the Western thinking, ―I am thinking therefore I am‖ The strong connection between human and nature is very evident in tropical countries. Their products reflect their religions and beliefs which emphasize nature as “mother” of life. In addition that, their rich biodiversities are a reflection of their wealth, possibilities, and complexities of their cultures which blend smoothly with nature. This diverse and rich culture is expressed through its practices, inclusive architecture. (Stagno, 2001)

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

1.1.2 Traditional and Pre-Colonial Architecture According to Awotona (1986) the nature of the place relates strongly to its climate, environment, geographical location, and geological condition. On the other hand, the culture of the society relates to their way of living with others. These two driving forces determine the traditional architecture of tropical climate. Therefore, the role of traditional and pre-colonial architecture in tropical climate is essential as the reflection of its climate and environment, as well as, culture and social conditions. On the other hand, according to Osasona (2006) traditional architecture in tropical country is a spontaneous building process by using spontaneous design and construction techniques with local materials. It was passed from one generation to another, went through a process of trial and error, and selective borrowing. Following the time, some features, dispositions, and ornamentations became subtle and part of their civilisation, while others were rejected. Through this slow process, traditional architecture made itself as the representative of every culture. Therefore, in tropical country, this process linked strongly to the nature of place and the culture of the society. 1.1.3 Colonial Architecture Colonisation has strong influences to the creation of vernacular architecture in tropical countries. The traditional architecture changed and evolved significantly when the colony came and conquered their area. There are a few definitions referring to colonial architecture. According to Wright (1991), there was a tendency for the colony to imitate their original design in their conquered areas. However, there were some responses from colonised countries to adapt this colonial style into their local culture. This adoption and acculturation process was determined by their architectural resistance. This resistance level might be different one from another based on their affection to their local past and history. This could be seen through the hybrid between the local architectural with the colonial architecture which created vernacular architecture of particular places. Bhabha (1994, p. 269) claimed that tropical colonised architecture is: ―[the] invention of historicity, mastery, mimesis or as the ‗other scene‘ of Entsellung, displacement, fantasy, psychic defence, and an ‗open‘ textuality.‖ 8


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

According to Bernad M. M. (1998), colonisation is always: ―[a duality] between its appearance as original and authoritative and its articulation as repetition and difference…[on the other words] two disproportionate sites of colonial discourse and power‖ This is admitted by Stagno (2001) on his comment on colonised tropical architecture. The imported way of thinking only affected and transformed the existing culture partially, resulted in the acculturation process. This affected the local elites who adopted the Western architecture and applied them to their local architecture. 1.2 Post-Colonisation in Tropical Climate According to Bernad M. M. (1998), during post-colonisation, architecture and urbanism played a significant role which had a vice versa enforcement to political status. PostColonial architecture faced a huge dilemma to discover the national identity of the newly independence countries and moved away from the Western dominations, but in the same time, they had to represent their economic development and national progress in the framework of globalisation. Therefore, the architecture had to deal with these two contradictive purposes, identity seeking and globalisation. The similar point of view came from Tay Keng Soon that during post colonisation every country experienced a transition from colony to independent nations. It could be seen in the dualism of their architectural thinking. On one hand, the countries were still under “Eurocentric cultural hegemony,” which means under the colonial dominance. Therefore, the influences of the colonisation, which had been part of the nations for a few centuries, were still very dominant. On the other hand, there was a willing to be free from it. This contradictive condition resulted in the wrong interpretation towards political independence. The anti-colonisation saw independence as a rejection in all Eurocentric way of thinking. Thus, they promoted fanatic nationalism and traditionalism to retreat to the root of the nations. However, Tay Keng Soon argued that independence should be seen as selective and critical process of adopting and embracing any dimension of modernity. He added that, independence was an opportunity to give contribution towards modernisation and get an equal recognition with the cosmopolitan nations. (Hwee Chang, J, 2010)

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

However, colonisation did not directly stop after the independence. Tay Keng Soon commented that the social-economics post-independence was still under the shade of their colonial origins. Therefore, this affected the architectural design in post-colonial period as he said, ―Tropical design continues to be compromised by the ghost of Northern box aesthetics‖ (Hwee Chang, J, 2010 p. 156). This was triggered by the economics condition in tropical countries, which strongly related and depended on developed western countries. In addition to that, Tay Keng Soon pointed out that designing architecture in tropical climate during post colonisation, should deal not only with solving the climatic technical problems, but also facing complex and difficult socio cultural problems as a result of colonisations. (Hwee Chang, J, 2010) On the other hand, Tay Keng Soon added that there was tropical modern movement happened in a few parts of the world promoted by modern avant-gardis architects like Le Corbusier, Maxwell Fry, and Otto Koenigsberger. This architectural style, which promoted the ideology of tropical architecture as an extension of modern architecture in western countries, affected the developments of architecture in the middle of twentieth century. However, in the end of the twentieth century, the modern tropical architecture seemed to be replaced by fully glazed International Style. (Hwee Chang, J, 2010). After their independence, there was a difficult task in tropical countries to find their identity. While, in the same time; there was a massive globalisation movement which affected their process. This was admitted by Bernad M. M. (1998), that there was another phase of syncretisation in design besides colonisation. This phase is known as modernisation and globalisation which affected the architectural style in the middle of 20th century after the World War II. 1.3 Globalisation in Architecture To describe about globalisation in architecture, it is important to understand the meaning of globalisation. There are a few definitions about globalisation, but in general they refer to the process of making the world into one. A specific definition came from Robertson (1992), that globalisation is an „organisation‟ to create a world as a whole, single and homogeneity place to live. It relates to an effort to create a perception of a „smaller‟ world and „one‟ world. It is caused by advanced information and media communication system which have enabled quick and fast inter-connection between nations in terms of economics, information, technology, knowledge, and even culture. According to Giddens, 10


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

globalisation is “the intensification of worldwide social relations that link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa‖ (Eldemery, 2009, p. 334). On the other hand, The Encyclopaedia of Britannica defines globalisation as a process of standardisation of everyday life around the world (Adam, 2008). In architecture, globalisation was marked by the birth of International Style as a reflection of industrialisation and modernisation. According to the Encyclopaedia of Britannica, International style was developed during 1920s and 1930s in Europe and the United States. It crossed regional boundaries throughout the world after World War II because of the support of advanced technology and massive economic developments. Typically, international style has rectangular volume, expresses the lightness of buildings, avoids complicated decorations to make it simple, prioritizes free open plan, and uses mainly glass, steel, and concrete materials. It is replicated throughout the world, and has changed the skyline of cities regardless of their culture, climate, and social life (Eldemery, I. M. 2009). According to Eldemery (2009), there are 2 sources that made globalisation is inevitable and unstoppable, what he called as ―the culture of commerce‖ and ―the culture of design‖. 1. The culture of commerce pointed on the commercial forces which are driven by changing in market and business expectations. This factor emphasizes the need to participate in global economic through globalisation. This manifests through different products of modernisation in architecture such as skyscrapers, iconic buildings, standardisation of hotels, franchise business, shopping centres by carrying commercial brands. 2. The culture of design pointed on the tendency to mimic Western modern architectural style as references in designing. This could be seen through the implementation of international style around the world without any contextual consideration. This is characterised by the usage of modern and industrial materials such as glass, aluminium, stainless steel, copper, titanium in architectural design in the 20th century. 1.4 Globalisation Influences in Tropical Climate There are both sceptical and positive reactions to the influeces of globalisation in architecture in tropical and developing countries. The “pro-global” tends to promote the 11


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

invention of new technologies, systems, and materials. In addition to that, it addresses the changes in demands which allow better flexibility and efficiency in architecture. It is admitted by Lewis, R. (2002) through his written in Washington Post that globalisation and modernisation allow better ―…systemization, flexibility, and interchangeability.‖ It is undeniable that modernisation in the 20th century has resulted in the inventions of advance technology and science. This new technology has changed the nature of architecture and a new global culture has been created. As a result, there have been massive changes in urban fabric by the creation of mega cities around the world. In addition to that, Lewis, Rogers (2002) gave his point of view in the positive impact of globalisation in his unpublished paper “Architecture and the Global City”: ―This [Globalisation] has created a subculture of high-style design advocated by architects ... Many stylish products and materials—glass, aluminum, stainless steel, copper, titanium, countless varieties of natural stone—used to clad and finish buildings are readily available throughout the world. If they are not available locally, they can be ordered and imported, …‖ (Lewis, Rogers, 2002) Therefore, third world countries with less advanced technology could import new materials from Western Countries. Moreover, he also emphasized that because of the new technologies, such as structure and electricity; and materials, like metal, concrete, glass, insulation, etc; architects were able to move from the old masonry bearing wall system to a more variety of structural solutions. Globalisation and modernisation in architecture, with its industrial products and techniques, have helped architects to design in a wide variety of flexibilities with advanced construction methods. However, according to Frampton (1983), more people tend to have sceptical perception about globalisation in architecture. The “anti-global” put their concern on architectural identities, localism, and tradition, which seem to fade away because of globalisation. Paul Ricouer (1961) described the international style developments in tropical countries as destruction to traditional culture. There is a historical model of creation which emphasizes on ―[taking] lesson of the past [to] inform future moves.‖ However, the modern developments of the world seem to abandon the whole cultural past to be part of modern civilisation. The same point of view came from Kenneth Frampton (1983) who commented about globalisation as destruction towards not only traditional culture but also social life. He described globalisation as ―[a culture] everywhere throughout the world, one finds the 12


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

same bad movie, the same slot machines, the same plastic or aluminium atrocities, the same twisting of language by propaganda, etc.‖ According to Spyros Amourgis, (1989, p. VIII) ―The post Second World War generation of architects, having failed to produce meaningful and convincing contemporary prototypical architecture, allowed the search to turn to the past, resulting in the historicism of the 1980s‖. He criticized the development of „meaningless‟ architecture as a result of modernism. In addition to that, he suggested not to return to the past, but to evaluate and filter the values of the past for future developments. In tropical climate, the same sceptical point of view came from Tzonis, Lefaivre, and Stagno (2001). They commented on the implementation of international style in tropical countries as ―…the rape of the environment, the dissolution of traditional roots, and the end of history.‖ The lack of climate response in International Style has caused energy crisis and climate changes problems in the world. On the other words, modernisation and globalisation in architecture has resulted, not only environmental problems, but also poor cultural and historical values. It is admitted by Hannah le Roux (2003, p.338) that ―…well glazed facades of modernism that, although useful in winters of Western Europe, performed as green houses in warmer condition.‖ However, since 1950s, due the extensive forces of globalisation and the changes in economic and technology, the developments of international style in tropical countries have been inevitable. As a result, fully glazed facade buildings which were developed in the US and Europe were constructed in tropical cities without any climate consideration. Eldemery (2009), through his essay on globalisation, pointed out that international style, as a product of globalisation, is an in tolerate standardisations in built environment which has deprived human culture and regional identity. He blamed globalisation for the loss of identity, while in the same time, he emphasized the importance of identity by stating ―identity plays a significant role for the continuity of man‘s culture; otherwise, he will be cut off from the past.‖(Eldemery, 2009, p. 346) He used the term of ―place identity‖ to describe the relationship between personal identities with physical environment. Psychologically, every human and its society relate strongly to the place where they belong 13


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

based on their experiences, cognitions, and feelings. It is admitted by Prohansky, H. (1978) ―there is no physical setting that is not also a social, cultural and psychological setting.‖ In addition to that, Mthethwa (2002) showed his point of view that the creation of identity in the current world should involve traditional and cultural approaches to enrich the modernity values. Every place has their unique characteristics defined by its natural condition. Therefore, designing new buildings in this contemporary world needs to incorporate local values which could be taken from every vernacular aspect such as site, forms, materials, or symbolism. The word regionalist architecture was first introduced by Mumford to criticize post-war modernism. He pointed out that modern architecture development was out of context, out of history, and out of place as he sceptically described it as ―…a scrappy building, upon the monotonous streets, and the mean houses‖ (Tzonis and Lefaivre, 1981, p. 14) These two arguments about the influences of globalisation in architecture are still in debate until now. However, both points have their own strengths and weaknesses. Thus, it is important to mitigate these 2 opportunities in a balance framework. It is admitted by Eldemery (2009) through his conclusion that globalisation is something to deal with, not to be avoided. Therefore, the adoption of modern technologies is a direct consequence in the development of architecture. However, it is important to preserve the definition of place as something referring not only to physical location where it stands, but also to memory and experience left to its inhabitants. Eldermery (2009) used the statement from Minnette Da Silva that it is crucial for tropical architecture to absorb and filter what they need from the modern West. In the same time ―…[it has] to learn to keep the best of our own traditional form.‖ Kenneth Frampton, Alexander Tzonis, and Liane Lefaivre called this balance as Critical Regionalism 1.5 Critical Regionalism and Architectural Resistance According to Tzonis and Lefaivre (1981), Critical Regionalism is a beholding and polemic response. It is not only a critic to the loss of identity in the modern world, but also a scheme and guidelines to evaluate contemporary developments. It is a tool to create architecture of resistance. They refer to the creation of „defamiliarization‟ as stated below. ―The ‗defamiliarization‘ acts as ―agents of contract and community, place defining elements, and incorporates them ―strangely,‖ rather than familiarly, it makes them 14


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

appear strange, distant, difficult, even disturbing.” (Tzonis and Lefaivre, 1981, p. 4). Tzonis and Lefaivre referred to the re-establishment of traditional “meaning” in addition to “feeling”. For them, Critical Regionalism is the same with the creation of buildings as ―meta-memory machines” In addition to that, Frampton (1983) stated that there is a paradox in the current world. On one hand, culture and tradition have been part of the place history and deeply rooted into the society. However, on the other hand, the involvement of modern culture with its advanced science, technical, and economical system is inevitable. Therefore, people are questioning just like what Ricoeur, P (1961) asked ―…, how to revive an old, dormant civilization and take part in universal civilization… how to become modern and return to sources” According to Frampton (1983), this paradox has been crucial in current architectural world where high-technology, modernisation, and globalisation have been essential in built environment developments, but on the same time, local spirit needs to be addressed to create a more meaningful architecture. Frampton, K (1983) used the term arriere-garde to describe a condition in architecture where regionalism and global culture are equally balanced. He claimed that to create arriere-garde, one should implement critical regionalism as a fundamental strategy. Critical Regionalism could appropriately implement global culture without sacrificing the local and traditional values. He argued that to implement Critical Regionalism; designers have to reconstruct and analyse critically the whole global culture by re-establishing the values of local culture and optimising the technological improvements. As the world could not escape from both forces, architects have to take appreciation towards their interaction. 1.5.1 Basic Points of Critical Regionalism According to Frampton (1983), to achieve critical regionalism and architectural resistance, there are a few basic points. Firstly, the development of the buildings should follow the development of technology in a smart way. The restriction should be taken from the context where it stands. On the other words, there should be a selection process what to be taken and what to be left. Secondly, the mediation between universal civilisation and the particularities of place, what he called as arriere garde, could be achieved through the generation of ‖a resistant [of] identity giving culture,‖ while at the same time, it has to 15


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

have ―discreet recourse to universal technique.‖ Thirdly, there should be a set of criteria to achieve arriere garde from large scale such as social urbanism to the small scale such as details in built environment creation. Started from the large view of social urbanism, the architectural resistance could be achieved through a creation of meaningful presence; to avoid what Peterson (1995) said as ―placelessness.‖ This means to create a meaningful architecture, there should be an emphasizing on the importance of boundaries. This boundaries is defined not as physical separations, but it is “a space of human appearance… living together‖ (Peterson, 1995) Therefore, arriere garde could be achieved through social interaction between people and architecture. The next criterion of meaningful architecture is the consideration towards the site which includes its topography, context, climate, light, and tectonic form. It refers to the creation of buildings as part of the site context. This is similar to Mario Botta statements of ―building the site‖ which covers not only physical aspects, but also cultural, historical, traditional, and vernacular aspects. There should be an implementation of cultural and regional aspects into the realisation of architecture. This could trigger some significant opportunities to re-connect the new building with its history and traditions. (Peterson, 1995) The last criterion has strong relationship with human senses and materiality. Frampton explained the tactility and visualisation as not only something related to the tectonic and visual experience, but also related to the experience of smell and hears. For him, tactile, which is defined as “the capacity of the body to read the environment‖ has a potential to resist universal technology because of its specific perception towards one environment. Critical Regionalism defines the tactile perception through human experience which involves: ―the experience of lightness and darkness, heat and cold, the feeling of humidity, the aroma of material, the almost papable presence of masonry…, the momentum of an induced gate, and the relative inertia of the body as it transfer the gloor, the echoing resonance of [sounds] ―(Frampton, 1983, p. 28)

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

1.5.2 Critical Regionalism in Tropical Architecture Tzonis, Lefaivre, and Stagno (2001) wrote that Critical Regionalism in tropical countries is not a contradictory towards the global and universal elements and technologies, but it is a complementary to answer the global problem where the local culture, climate, and environment were neglected. They added that tropical architecture is not only about the creation of sun shading and environmental responses, but also ―an extension of the mind, a cognitive tool, that expresses the values of a particular people and time.‖ On the other words, there are two big criteria to be considered carefully in designing architecture in tropical countries, they are climate and culture. These points of view emphasize the importance of cultural, social, and historical values in tropical architecture. For Sri Lanka‟s architect Minnette da Silva, architecture within tropical climate should not only respond towards microclimatic control, but also have strong connection to regionalism and identity. This is admitted by Nigerian architect, Oluwole Olumuyiwa, that designing architecture in tropical countries is more complicated than just climate response, it should deal with complex elements of community such as socio-culture. 1.6 Lack of Cultural Values in Sustainable Developments The current world is moving in terms of culture and technology towards sustainability in every aspect. In terms of architecture, sustainability has been the major concern in the current century as a response to the climate changes and the “failure” of modernity. This part of literature review will discuss the qualitative part of sustainability which relates to cultural identity. Guy, Simon, and Farmer (2000) argued that sustainability assessments should be seen as qualitative perspective instead of quantitative approach. They called these values as symbolic logic which they described ―… emphasises a fundamental re-orientation of values to engage with both environmental and cultural concerns.‖ Guy, Simon, and Farmer (2000) added that : ―.. inspiration from indigenous and vernacular building strategies which are seen as indicative of ways in which culture adapts to the limitation of a particular environment… [based on] the holistic nature of traditional building in which

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

physical, spiritual, and environmental needs were integrated within the greater context of social groups‖ (Guy, Simon, and Farmer, 2000, p. 81) Therefore, it could be said that to be sustainable, architectural design should have both environmental performances and cultural values. This is admitted by McMinn, J and Polo, M (2005) who pointed out that sustainable architecture should cover not only technology and energy performance, but also cultural values. It has a role to connect both practical performances (pragmatic side) and symbolical values (transcendent side). Therefore, they argued that it is important to analyse the relationship between practical, technical, and technological part of sustainability with their local architectural values and traditions. They refer to Kenneth Frampton (1983) whose arguments described the simultaneously interaction between local culture and contemporary global culture in architecture. He pointed out that the more responsive architectural design to its context and local culture, the better sustainability values could be achieved in terms of energy and material efficiencies. This leads to not only a better energy performance of sustainable developments, but also a more meaningful sustainable design which could be a representative of their place identity. However, the current developments seem to seek sustainability only in the pragmatic sides which are measurable and related to scientific and technical part. This could be seen through the arguments from Kumar, S. et. al. (2002) which criticized LEED assessment in determining the sustainability values. He gave his opinions sceptically that there has not been enough consideration towards the implementation of local and regional values in sustainability assessments. As a result, some current sustainable developments often fail to engage with these issues. This failure might lead to what McMinn and Polo (2005) said as “premature obsolescence and invite major modification or outright demolition and replacement.― They repeated their arguments that to create a long term sustainable building, the design should be made based on not only technical, programmatic, and typological approach, but also cultural, aesthetic, and material manifestations to create identity. It is undeniable that every quantitative performance of sustainability is related to its context such as local climate, microclimatic, and geological. This could be seen in the consideration of orientation, geographical condition, and energy generations (wind direction, solar collection, ground source heating). However, McMinn and Polo (2005) 18


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

argued that to create sustainable design, a deeper understanding of local culture should be applied. Therefore, despite the theoretical approach of Critical Regionalism from Kenneth Frampton, Tzonis, Lefaivre, and Stagno; the current sustainable developments of architecture seem to ignore the social, cultural, and historical values in their design. When the current period moves towards sustainability with an excellent environmental performance, the developments of architecture still lack cultural identity which might lead into the ―premature obsolescence‖.

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

CHAPTER II : CASE STUDIES According to Tzonis and Lavaifre (2001, p. 2), globalism refers to ―universal values and norms‖ while regionalism refers to ―local and the specific to a region, that is to a unique, distinct geographical area occupied homogeneously by similar objects or objects having common characteristics.‖ Therefore, for this dissertation, the case studies will be conducted by analysing 3 different cities in different regions, with unique cultures, within the same climate zone. The three case studies are Mumbai in India, Lagos in Nigeria, and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil with some similarities and differences: 1. They have the same climate characteristics, wet and dry tropical climate or savannah tropical climate (Av), according to Koppen Climate Classification. 2. The three of them are under the category of „Urban Agglomerations that Are Expected to be Mega-Cities in 2015‟ by United Nations. 3. They went through long colonisation period. 4. They have their own vernacular architectures which were generated from their traditional culture, colonial architecture, and religious intervention.

Figure 2: World Tropical Climate Zone According to Koppen Classification Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Koppen_World_Map_Af_Am_Aw.png

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

In terms of climate, the main characteristic of savannah tropical climate is its interchanging between dry season and rainy season. In addition to that, savannah tropical climate has less rainfall than tropical monsoon climate with the precipitation of the driest month less than 60 mm. In average, the temperature is quite high with the average above 18째C every month per year. According to United Nations study, Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro are expected to be Mega Cities by 2015. This is caused by their huge population which is predicted to be more than 10 million people. The main cause of this huge increment is urbanisation which has made more than half of the world population move to urban areas. The analysis of the case studies will be conducted chronologically based on the architectural evolution, which compromises of: 1. The analysis of traditional pre-colonial architecture, 2. The evolution of architectural style because of colonisation, 3. The post-colonial architecture with the influences of globalisation until the current developments. These analyses will be done in relation to population and economic growth. The aim of this chapter is to analyse each case studies for the deeper analysis and comparison in Chapter III.

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

2.1 Mumbai 2.1.1 Introduction to Mumbai Mumbai, formerly known as Bombay, is one of the most populous cities in India, even in the world. Its development has grown up rapidly and made Mumbai as a cosmopolitan city, major port, and the centre of Indiaâ€&#x;s economic. At the beginning, Mumbai were 7 islands with swamps separating them. They were known as Bombay Island, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli, and Old Woman's Island. Kolis People, the original fishers-fold inhabitants who lived there, named these islands as Mumba, taken from Mumbadehi, a Hindu Deity. In the 3rd century, they were part of the Buddhist Emperor Ashoka. Soon after the emperorâ€&#x;s death, their power in Mumbai declined and Mumbai was under a few Hindu Empires, such as Satavahanas, Western Kshatrapas,

Abhiras,

Vakatakas, Kalachuris, Konkan Mauryas,

Chalukyas

and

Rashtrakutas. In 1343, Muzaffarids, under Sultan of Gujarat, took over the islands. Started from this time, Islamic culture went to Mumbai. This could be seen by the development of Mosques, one of which could still be seen in Mahim.

Figure 3 Bird Eye View of Mumbai Source: http://mumbaiindia.jimdo.com/vernacular-and-transnational-urbanism/

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

The Portuguese was the first European country to put their mark in India. Since 1538, after ruling out Sultan of Gujarat, Mumbai was under the colonisation of Portuguese until 1661. They built a few churches in Mumbai and ports in Sion, Mahim, Bandra, and Bassien. Most of Portuguese architectures have been demolished; the only Portuguese Church could be seen completely right now is St. Andrew‟s Church in Bandra. In 1661 King John IV gave these islands as part of a gift to his new son in-law, King Charles II of England who married Catherine of Braganza. However, in 1668 King Charles let East India Company to rent for only 10 pounds of gold a year, which was considered very little at that time. In 1687, East India Company shifted their Headquarter from Surat to Bombay until 1857 when they were accused for mismanagement. Since that time, Bombay was under the British Crown. In the end of 18th century until 1845, the seven islands were connected to each other by land filling. In 1845, the new Bombay was created, it was no longer 7 islands, but it was connected to be one huge island. In 1853, the East India Company started to create railway to connect Bombay with the other parts of India. Right now, Mumbai is part of the main island, located on the west part of India facing the Arabian Sea, 18°58′30″N 72°49′33″E.

Figure 5 The Islands of Bombay

Figure 4 The Reclamation of Bombay Islands

Source: Bobhate, et. al. 2010 Architectural Research Method: University of Nottingham

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

MUMBAI

Figure 7 Mumbai Area

Figure 6 Location of Mumbai

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mumbaicitydistricts.png

Mumbai became independence on 15 August 1947 when the British were forced to leave the town and country after conquering India for 282 years. Since then, the development of modernisation in Mumbai grew faster. As a result, the inevitable international style replaced the existing architecture of Mumbai. Mumbai is a city with rapid population growth. It is one of the highest density cities in the world with density rate around 20,694 people/km2 (PopulationIndia.com, 2011). In the last 50 years, the population of Mumbai has grown for 300 %. The huge increment of population in Mumbai is caused by high birth rate and urbanisation. Mumbai has been one of the most popular destination cities for urbanisation in India. In addition to that, according to United Nations study, „the Evolution of the Population of the 21 Urban Agglomerations that Are Expected to be Mega-Cities in 2015 and Average Annual Growth Rates‟ conducted in 2001, Mumbai is predicted to be one of Mega Cities in 2015.The table below shows the population growth of Mumbai Metropolitan Area, which indirectly affected the architectural development in Mumbai. Mumbai Metropolitan Area

Population

Population Growth Rate

1950

981,000

3.6

1975

7,347,000

3.1

2000

16,086,000

2.3

2015

22,577,000

-

Table 1Mumbai Population Growth Table Source: The Evolution of the Population of the 21 Urban Agglomerations that Are Expected to be MegaCities in 2015 and Average Annual Growth Rates‟ conducted in 2001

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

This growth move parallel with its economic conditions. Based on “World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 Revision Population Database by United Nations Population Division, Retrieved on 10 January 2011� (Wikipedia, List of Cities by GDP, modified 31 July 2011), Mumbai has a GDP of $209 in International Dollar Billion. This is ranked as the highest in South Asia and the 29th in the world. However, the difference between rich and poor is quite significant resulted in an unbalance social life. This could be seen through the social and economic condition in Mumbai. One site of the city is full of high rises with luxury apartments inside. In contrast, the other part of Mumbai is slum area with high level of criminal, poverty, poor public health, and low education standard, like in Dharavi.

Figure 8 Climate Chart of Mumbai Source: http://www.climate-charts.com/Locations/i/IN43057.php

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

In terms of Climate, Mumbai is classified under tropical wet and dry or savannah climate (Aw) (Koppen Climate classification). In overall, the climate has a high temperature with high precipitation. From June to end of September is considered as south-west monsoon season, on the other hand, between October and November is considered as the postmonsoon season. Histories of Mumbai started from its pre-colonisation and gave significant influences in determining of the evolution of architecture in Mumbai. The purpose of this chapter is to elaborate, explore, and analysis the chronological development of architecture in Mumbai. It focuses on the transformation of Mumbai vernacular, traditional, and colonial architecture to the current and modern Mumbai. 2.1.2 Architecture Development of Mumbai from Traditional Architecture until the 20th Century 2.1.2.1 Traditional and Pre-Colonial Architecture Pre-colonial architecture of Mumbai consisted of strong culture of their civilisation. They had existed since the Stone Age and their civilisation were strongly related to their religion and beliefs. This was a result of their indigenous Empires who were mostly Buddhist or Hindu, and the invasion of Sultan of Gujarat. This could be seen through their architectures which still exist today. Below are the pre-colonial architecture of Mumbai which compromises of Hindu Temples, Muslim Mosques, and their traditional houses. Hindu Temples Traditional architecture in Mumbai related strongly to their traditional religions which was Hindu. Most of the ancient buildings at around 400-600 AD were dedicated as Hindu worship places with the technology of Cave and Stone buildings. These could be seen through the building such as The Jogeswari Caves, The Mandapehwar Caves, and The Elepanta Caves. These indicated their rich civilisation and high stone technology at that time. (The detail information of some buildings shown in this chapter could be found in appendix)

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

The Jogeshwari Caves (550)

Figure 8 Interior of Jogeshwari Caves, Mumbai

Figure 9 Jagoshwari Caves, Mumbai

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jogeshwari_Caves_inside.jpg Source: http://travelogueunlimited.blogspot.com/2010/11/hindu-cave-temples-of-mumbai-jogeshwari.html

The Mandapeshwar Caves (600)

Figure 9 Mandapeshwar Caves, Mumbai Source: http://travelogueunlimited.blogspot.com/2010/11/hindu-cave-temples-of-mumbai-jogeshwari.html

The Elephanta Caves

Figure 10 Elephanta Caves, Mumbai

Figure 11 Elephanta Caves Plan, Mumbai

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephanta_Caves Source: http://travelogueunlimited.blogspot.com/2010/11/hindu-cave-temples-of-mumbai-jogeshwari.html

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Figure 12 Lord Shiva Statue, Mumbai

Figure 13 Maheshmurti Statue, Mumbai

Source: http://travelogueunlimited.blogspot.com/2010/11/hindu-cave-temples-of-mumbai-jogeshwari.html

The Ambarnath Temple

Figure 14 Ambarnath Temple, Mumbai Source: http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/03/bombaymumbai-taxi-1850-to-2001-also.html

Walkeshwar Temple and Banganga Tank (1172)

Figure 15 Walkeshwar Temple and Banganga Tank, Mumbai Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Banganga_Tank_and_Walkeshwar_Temple,_Bombay,_c._1855.jpg

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Indigenous Traditional House Kolis were the indigenous people who stayed in these islands. They used the materials from nature, such as hays, dry grass or leaves, and woods, to create shelters for themselves. Their settlement could still be found in some places in Bombay such as Mahim, Bandra, Khar, Bassien and Madh Island which were the Backbay reclamation until the 19th century.

Figure 16 Mumbai Traditional House Source: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/13116/13116-h/13116-h.htm

Muslim Mosques When the Gujarat People invaded the islands, Islamic architecture arrived. This Islamic architecture was a result of acculturation process when the Islam came to India for the first time. The intervention of Islamic architecture was indicated by the presence of Mosque and Darqah. Haji Ali Dargah Mosque (1431)

Figure 17 Haji Ali Dargah Mosque, Mumbai Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haji_Ali_Dargah Source: http://www.mumbailocal.net/haji-ali-tomb-or-haji-ali-dargah-mumbai/haji-ali-tomb-or-haji-ali-dargah-mumbai

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Mahim Dargah (1500)

Figure 18 Mahim Dargah, Mumbai Source: http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/03/bombaymumbai-taxi-1850-to-2001-also.html

These pre-colonial architectures in Mumbai indicated their strong relationship with culture and religions. This is parallel with Stagno (2001) point of view that traditional architecture represented its culture and civilization. In addition to that, the strong connection between architecture and nature could be seen through the response of traditional houses to climatic condition. The indigenous people used the local materials, such as stones and caves for the temples and hays, leaves, grass, and woods for their traditional houses. 2.1.2.2 Colonial Architecture Mumbai was under colonisation of Portuguese and British, from 1538 until 1947. During those times, architecture developments in Mumbai were deeply affected by European style which was articulated into the local culture. Most of the colonial architectures were institutional buildings belonged to the conqueror. Some of them could still be seen today as important landmarks of Mumbai. The explanation of Mumbai Colonial Architecture will be elaborated chronologically from Portuguese period (1538 - 1661) to British period (1661 - 1947). Potuguese Colonisation (1538 – 1661) Portuguese brought a new architecture style to Mumbai together with it colonisation. Its architectures, mostly built in Baroque architectural style, were institutional buildings such as churches, castle, ports, etc. However, most of Portuguese colonial buildings have been 30


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

demolished. Some of Portuguese buildings still exist today could be seen through these images. (The detail information of some buildings shown in this chapter could be found in appendix)

Bombay Castle

Figure 19 Bombay Castle, Mumbai Source: http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/03/bombaymumbai-taxi-1850-to-2001-also.html

St Andrew Church in Bandra, Mumbai

Figure 20 St. Andrew Church in Bandra, Mumbai Source: http://thatandthisinmumbai.wordpress.com/2011/01/03/st-andrews-church-bandra/

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Castella de Aguada, Bandra, Mumbai

Figure 21 Castella de Aguada, Mumbai Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Castella_de_Aguada_7.jpg Source:http://www.geolocation.ws/v/W/4cbea4341d41c87eea001da9/castella-de-aguada-a-portuguese-fortin/en

Mahim Fort

Figure 22 Mahim Fort, Mumbai Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahim_Fort

British Colonisation (1661 – 1947) After the British took over Mumbai, the Portuguese influences in Mumbai faded away and it was replaced by British colonial architecture. Since then, British ruled India for around 282 years and left significant colonial architectures, which have been part of urban 32


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

landmarks since colonisation era. They were designed in Gothic and Baroque European style. During this period, there were massive influences of British architecture in India. This could be seen in their architecture whose types, styles, and functions were similar to what were built in the UK. The pictures below show the architectural style of colonial buildings and its comparison with British architecture. Bombay during East India Company

Figure 23 Bombay during East India Company Source: http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/03/bombaymumbai-taxi-1850-to-2001-also.html

Bombaja Fort (1700)

Figure 24 Bombay Fort Source: http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/03/bombaymumbai-taxi-1850-to-2001-also.html Panorama of Bombay Fort by Photographer Dayal Deen (1844-1905).

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

The Grant Medical College (1838)

Figure 25 The Grant Medical College, Mumbai Source: http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/03/bombaymumbai-taxi-1850-to-2001-also.html

Rajabai Clock Tower (1878) The architectural style of Rajabai Clock Tower is similar to the style of the Parliament House Clock Tower in London. Both of them were designed by the same architect, G. G. Scott, in a Venetian Gothic Style with stained glass windows. The main material used for the Rajabai Clock tower is buff coloured Kurla stone which is a local Indian stone.

Figure 26 Big Ben - The Clock Tower of UK (for comparison purpose) Source: http://picasaweb.google.com/denis.lagutin/Mumbai Figure 27 Rajabai Clock Tower, Mumbai

Source: Willie Yogatama photography.

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Bombay Club (1880)

Figure 28 Bombay Club Source: http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/03/bombaymumbai-taxi-1850-to-2001-also.html

Victoria Station (1887) The station was designed in Victorian Gothic Style, similar to European architecture at that time. This could be seen through the design of St. Pancras Railway Station in London, which was opened in 1868, and Berlin Parliaments Building, which was designed by G.G. Scott.

Figure 29 Victoria Station, Mumbai Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Victoria_Terminus,_Mumbai.jpg

Figure 30 London Kings Cross Station (For comparison purpose) Source: http://www.urban75.org/london/st_pancras1.html

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Bombay Church Gate Railway Station (1910)

Figure 31 Bombay Church Gate Railway Station, Mumbai Source: http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/03/bombaymumbai-taxi-1850-to-2001-also.html

After more than 200 years of colonisation period in India, there was acculturation process between colonial architecture with local traditions. This created Indo Saracenic architectural style as the vernacular architecture of Mumbai and India. This was a result of adaptation process between British colonial architecture with India Hindu and Islamic Architecture. This acculturation could be seen not only in architectural style and details, but also in materials usage. This indicated the level of architectural resistance in Mumbai. This process needed not only deep understanding of local climate and culture, but also cultural acceptance from both colony and local culture. On the other hand, this acculturation process was a process of „stabilisationâ€&#x; in terms of culture and climate. The creation of vernacular architecture was a process of adaptation which was different with what had happened during pre-colonisation. The adaptation process of native and traditional architecture was based on survival forces, but the adaptation process of colonial architecture was based on cultural acceptance. The figures below indicate some Indo Saracenic architectural style built in Mumbai.

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Taj Mahal Palace (1903)

Figure 32 Taj Mahal Palace, Mumbai Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Taj_Mahal_Palace_Hotel.jpg

The Gateway of India (1911)

Figure 33 The Gateway of India, Mumbai Source: http://mumbaiindia.jimdo.com/vernacular-and-transnational-urbanism/

Prince of Wales Museum of Western India (1914) The Prince of Wales Museum architectural style was a mixture between Hindu architecture and Western culture, which was famous to be called as Indo-Saracenic architectural style. It was admitted by the architect, George Wittet, ―The Museum of Western India Composition. The real reason why it is so, is because it was instructed that the design should be Indian in character…‖ (Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Sastu Shangrahalay, 2008) 37


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Figure 34 Prince of Wales Museum, Mumbai Source: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=638698&page=87

The colonisation period in Mumbai was very crucial in determining its vernacular architecture. Dynamic interaction between local and colonial architecture created a hybrid and new typology which is specific to India. This Indo-Saracenic architectural style indicated the architectural resistance of Mumbai. The Indo-Saracenic architectural style possessed a strong relationship with the place they stand. Although the colonial presence was still visible, it was well adapted to the tropical climate and local culture. They used the local material, such as local stones, as their main finishes. More importantly, they represented the historical and cultural values of Mumbai and India as their identity. 2.1.2.3 Post-Colonial Architecture After the independence of India in 1947, there were two challenges in architectural development of India. This is similar with what has been discussed by Tay Keng Soon in the literature review. The first challenge was the influences of colonisation which was still significant. The “Eurocentric cultural hegemonyâ€? could be seen in the Jengahir Art Gallery which was built in 1960s. The other challenge was the identity seeking process to free from colonisation. In the same time, globalisation influenced the growth of architecture in Mumbai. Mumbaiâ€&#x;s population grew faster and followed by its economic development. This has made Mumbai as one of the most important cities not only in India, but also in the world. 38


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Consequently, the need to grow vertically and the massive development of International Style have been inevitable as a response to high density population and economic forces. However, this tall building typology has been imported without any cultural and climate consideration. As a result, buildings without identity and poor environmental performances have been duplicated all over Mumbai. The characteristics of international style in Mumbai: 1. Emphasise the parapet wall with concrete expression. Since the end of 20h century until now, the fully glazed high rise buildings have started to appear in Mumbai. 2. Appear in not only office and commercial buildings, but also residential due to the huge amount of population and the increment of land values. 3. Have a poor environmental and climate considerations. 4. Indicate lack of cultural and historical representations which led to loss of identity. Two avant gardis architects, Le Corbusier and Louis Kahn, ever put their influences in India. As a result, there have been a few architects in India who were inspired by them to adapt International Style and modernisation in local context. This could be seen in the work of Charles Correa, Kanchanjunga Apartment, which tried to mitigate the socio culture values of Mumbai in tall buildings. Apart from how successful the apartment in implementing Mumbai culture, Charles Correaâ€&#x;s intention indicates that Mumbai is still on its way to retrieve its architectural resistance. However, due to globalisation forces, economic demands, and the fast developments, the current Mumbai developments are still baldly influenced by International Style. The post colonial Mumbai architecture will be described in 2 categories, before and after United Nation conference on climate changes. Through these examples, the design responses towards climate and environment could be analysed.

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Examples of Post-Colonial Architecture from 1947 to 1992 Jengahir Art Gallery (1952)

MVRDC (1970)

Figure 35 Jengahir Art Gallery, Mumbai

Figure 36 MVRDC, Mumbai

Source: Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jahangir_art_galler

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tallest_buildings_i n_Mumbai

y_ent.jpg

Samudra Mahal (1970)

Kanchanjunga Apartments (1974)

Figure 37 Samudra Mahal, Mumbai Source:

Figure 38 Kanchanjunga Apartments, Mumbai Source: http://dome.mit.edu/handle/1721.3/58062

http://www.indiasummary.com/2010/04/06/samudramahal-flat-in-mumbai-sold-for-rs-33-cr-or-rs-90600per-sq-ft/

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Salvacao Church (1977)

Phiroze Jeejeebhoy Towers (1980)

Figure 39 Salvacao Church, Mumbai Source: http://www.charlescorrea.net/

Figure 40 Phiroze Jeejeebhoy Towers, Mumbai Source: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombay

Examples of Post-Colonial Architecture from 1992 until now (2011) This application of inappropriate building type with air conditioning has resulted in energy crisis all over the world. The United Nations climate change conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 was the starting point of human efforts to tackle and be responsible on this condition. The need to mitigate sustainable design by emphasising on the environmental performances, called as green movement, has affected architectural development around the world. In Mumbai, the green movement got only small amount of intentions in terms of architectural design. This could be seen through the development of buildings after the year of 1992. Tahnee Heights (1995)

Figure 41 Tahnee Heights, Mumbai

NNP Housing (1998)

Figure 42 NNP Housing, Mumbai Source:

http://www.flickr.com/photos/85296574@N00/1908

http://www.spacpl.com/sftp/projpage.php?catID=

82164/

6&pageID=6

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Four Season Hotel (2008)

Commerz Tower (2010)

Figure 43 Four Season Hotel, Mumbai

Figure 44 Commerz Tower, Mumbai

Source:

Source:

http://www.flickr.com/photos/humayunnapeerzaada/

http://www.flickr.com/photos/85296574@N00/23

1141685224/

71099501/

Imperial Mumbai (2010)

Sunshine Tower (2011)

Figure 46 Sunshine Tower, Mumbai

Figure 45 Imperial Mumbai Source:

Source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ImperialMumbai.JP

http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t

G

=1166495&page=4

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

2.2 Lagos 2.2.1 Introduction to Lagos "Lagos is not catching up with us. Rather, we may be catching up with Lagos . . ." Rem Koolhaas (2002). Rem Koolhaas statement shows the rapid developments in Lagos that transformed the city in a few years. The city of Lagos has started since the ancient time. It was a place of native African people, Awori, a tribe of Yoruba people, who came from Isheri near Ogun River, Yorubaland. During its pre-colonial history, under Oba Ado, this area was famous to be called Eko, which means war camp, because it was a place of ethnic war. This area was under the indigenous empire, Kingdom of Benin, when the Portuguese explorer, Rui de Sequeira, came in 1472. He named the city as Lago de Curamo which means lakes. During this period, Lagos was a home of slave trades. Only after 1857, Lagos could be free from slavery when the British took over the city. Started from 1861, Lagos was officially under the colony of British who took over all the trades in Lagos.

Figure 48 Photo of Lagos City Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lagos_Island.jpg

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

In 1917, Lagos was declared as a capital of the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. The population in Lagos increased significantly, most of them came as migrants from other parts of Nigeria. In addition to that, there was additional population caused by the returning slaves from Freetown, Sierra Leone, Brazil, and West Indies. These people, who were called Creoles, were the one who had important parts in the development of Nigeria during British colonisation because they were highly educated during their slavery. Their knowledge in Portuguese architecture and modernisation affected the movement of Lagos architecture. When Nigeria became independent in 1960, Lagos was selected to be the Capital city until 1991 when it was replaced by Abuja. Lagos is located in the south west of Nigeria, near the borderline with Benin. It is located in the coordinate of 6°27′11″N 3°23′45″E, nearby the Lagos Lagoon. Basically, Lagos is a city consisting with: main island, 2 islands just beside Lagos Lagoon, and Lagos Harbour facing Atlantic Ocean.

Lagos

Figure 50 Location of Lagos in Nigeria

Figure 49 City of Lagos Area

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagos

In terms of population, Lagos has a potential to be one of the most populous cities in the world. Referring to National Bureau of Statistics of Nigeria (2007), its density achieves the number of 7,941 people/km2. According to the study from United Nations about „the Evolution of the Population of the 21 Urban Agglomerations that Are Expected to be Mega-Cities in 2015 and Average Annual Growth Rates‟ conducted in 2001, Lagos is one of cities with a high population growth rate. The table below indicates the prediction data of Lagos population growth:

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Lagos

Population

Population Growth Rate

1950

288,000

7.5

1975

1,890,000

6.1

2000

8,665,000

4.1

2015

15,966,000

-

Table 2 Lagos Population Growth Table Source: The Evolution of the Population of the 21 Urban Agglomerations that Are Expected to be MegaCities in 2015 and Average Annual Growth Rates‟ conducted in 2001

Lagos is one of the best potential economic growths in Africa. Although it is no longer the capital city, the economic activity of Nigeria is still concentrated here. For Africa and Nigeria, Lagos is one of the highest living standards due to its success in port activity and oil export. However, despite its rich economic potential, the people in Lagos suffer from poverty. This could be seen through its GDP rate based on “World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 Revision Population Database by United Nations Population Division, Retrieved on 10 January 2011” (Wikipedia, List of Cities by GDP, modified 31 July 2011) Lagos has a GDP of $35 in International Dollar Billion. This low GDP has made Lagos outside of 100 rank of GDP based on the abovementioned database from United Nations Population Division. However, besides its low GDP, Lagos has huge economic potentials. Just like what Rem Koolhaas said in his interview with Van de Haak: “Lagos is a mystery that is intensifying: because of its oil, it is a very rich place, but everybody is very poor. Since the 1960s, the average income has decreased systematically. I don't think you can be in Lagos without becoming aware of its potency; when Lagos gets itself organized it will be extremely powerful; and already – without organization – it is very powerful.‖ The social and urban condition of Lagos is not as promising as its economic potential. According to the preliminary study of Rem Koolhaas about the city, Lagos has poor urban conditions. It suffers from not only mass poverty, but also dysfunctional infrastructures and public services, uncontrolled population growth, and safety problems. In terms of climate, Lagos is located in the wet and dry tropical climate or savannah climate based on Koppen Climate Clasification. Basically, there are 2 rainy seasons (April 46


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

to July and October to November) with 2 dry seasons in between. Below is the climate chart of Lagos.

Figure 51 Climate Chart of Lagos Source: http://www.climate-charts.com/Locations/n/NI65201.php

Since pre-colonisation, architecture developments in Lagos have passed a few stages in history. This chapter will elaborate Lagos architecture from its traditional native African buildings until its current developments.

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

2.2.2 Architecture Development from Traditional Architecture until the 20th Century Architecture 2.2.2.1 Traditional and Pre-Colonial Architecture During pre-colonial, Awori People in Lagos had lived together, made a colony of social groupings. (Ferguson, 1970) They were people with high artistic ability, especially in bronze casting, terracotta, and wood sculpture. (Osasona, 2006) These two characteristics could be seen through their traditional architecture. Yoruba agbo‘le was a compound of individual units created a cohesive whole with an appropriate social space for interaction. This was manifested through the creation of courtyard as an important environmental element and socio cultural events. Every unit was identical with around 10 feet in terms of length and wide dimension. (Osasona, 2006) Traditional architecture of Awori People, one tribe of Yoruba People, was the reflection of their live, culture, and art as the representative of nature. This could be seen through their traditional buildings. There are a few characteristics of their traditional house which shows their technologies, social life, culture, and relationship with nature: 1. The compound houses of Yoruba people indicated their communal living habit. They knew the meaning of community and living together. More interestingly, they had certain point of entrance(s) to the area before going to their individual rooms. This was a very simple community design which protected each other. Even according to Bascom (1955), they lived in a community like a city with around 50,000 residents. 2. The compound houses had a courtyard in the middle as the heart of the communal living spaces. This was the place of their cultural ceremonies, celebration of victoruies, or just for interaction spaces. 3. Awori People constructed their settlements by using local materials such as mud and clay, with monolithic structure. The technology of using mud to create buildings was a skill that was passed from generation to generation. 4. They had a high appreciation towards art, especially bronze, terracotta, or wood. The ability to create art products was implemented in their architecture by having a few decoration and artistic expression. Therefore, the traditional architecture of Lagos was the representation of their culture. 48


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

In overall, the products of Yoruba people indicated their high ability of technology, social living community, and high values towards arts. Their works could be seen through these images.

Figure 52 Art Works of Yoruba People Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoruba_people

Figure 53 Yoruba Compound House Made from Mud

Figure 54 Yoruba Compound House Plan Source: Mr. Shaibu Bala Garba Source: http://www.kmtspace.com/

This housing was constructed monolithically with cob structure and high pitched hipped or hip and gable. Most of the walls were made from mud, while the roofs were constructed from gbodogi leaves. (Osasona, 2006) Through the plan image above, it could be seen that Yoruba people lived together as a colony. They created communal living spaces with rooms surrounding the courtyard. (Prucnal-Ogunsote, 2001)

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

2.3.2.2 Colonial Architecture During Colonisation era Lagos architecture changed significantly due to Yoruba Civil Wars, European explorations and missionaries, and successful trading including slavery trades. (Prucnal Ogunsote, 2001) When the Portuguese came, they used Lagos as a trading place for slavery to support the other Portuguese colonisation in Europe and America. For example, in the year 1800, thousands of people were „exportedâ€&#x; to Brazil as slaves. Therefore, the development of Portuguese colonial architecture in Lagos was not so significant. Right now, there are only a small amount of Portuguese buildings still exist. The picture below is the Portuguese Colonial architecture which could be seen today. (The detail information of some buildings shown in this chapter could be found in appendix)

Iga Iduganran (18th Century)

Figure 55 Iga Iduganran, Lagos Source: http://www.nigeriavillagesquare.com/j4/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=13161:lagos-ahistory-in-pictures&catid=200:akintokunbo-a-adejumo&Itemid=46

The significant developments of colonial architecture were constructed during British colonisation after they took over Lagos from Portuguese in 1861. During this time, Lagos developments grew fast and significantly. In the same time, British closed all the slavery trading resulted in the return of all slaves from North America, Brazil, and Europe. Most of the colonial developments built during this time were institutional buildings and supportive infrastructures, such as banks, schools, churches, hospitals, warehouses, rails, roads, water pipe systems, etc. (Osasona, 2006). In addition to that, there were a few high-class 50


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

residential for British people constructed in colonial architecture, such as House of Colonial Surveyor and House of the First Secretary of the Government. This architectural style was different from what had been developed during precolonisation. European style was very imminent in the colonial development. Instead of using clay or mud, they used timbers and masonry structures such as fired brick or stones. Moreover, they imported some of the materials such as cements, tiles, metals, paints, etc. In addition to that, they trained unskilled labour to do the construction works. The figures below show the colonial buildings built during British colonisation in Lagos. (The detail information of some buildings shown in this chapter could be found in appendix)

CMS House (1852)

Figure 56 CMS House, Lagos Source: http://www.nigeriavillagesquare.com/j4/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=13161:lagos-ahistory-in-pictures&catid=200:akintokunbo-a-adejumo&Itemid=46

Methodist Church (1865)

Figure 57 Methodist Church Lagos Source: http://www.nigeriavillagesquare.com/j4/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=13161:lagos-ahistory-in-pictures&catid=200:akintokunbo-a-adejumo&Itemid=46

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Christ Cathedral Lagos (1867)

Figure 58 Christ Cathedral Lagos Source: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=896536 Source: http://lagoscityphotos.blogspot.com/2011/03/cathedral-church-of-christ.html

Holy Cross Cathedral (1878)

Figure 59 Holy Cross Cathedral Lagos Source: http://lagoscityphotos.blogspot.com/2011/04/holy-cross-cathedral.html

Glover Memorial Hall (1887)

Figure 60 Glover Memory Hall, Lagos Source: http://www.nigeriavillagesquare.com/j4/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=13161:lagos-ahistory-in-pictures&catid=200:akintokunbo-a-adejumo&Itemid=46

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

The Original Supreme Court (1887)

Figure 61 The Original Supreme Court, Lagos Source: http://www.nigeriavillagesquare.com/j4/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=13161:lagos-ahistory-in-pictures&catid=200:akintokunbo-a-adejumo&Itemid=46

Bank of British, Lagos (1890)

Figure 62 Bank of British, Lagos Source: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=896536

St George’s Hall (1907)

Figure 63 St George Hall, Lagos Source: http://happylagosian.blogspot.com/2009/10/st-georges-hall-on-broad-street-lagos.html Source: http://www.detomosabroad.com/?attachment_id=1228

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

High Court Building (1950)

Figure 64 High Court Building, Lagos Source: http://www.nigeriavillagesquare.com/j4/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=13161:lagos-ahistory-in-pictures&catid=200:akintokunbo-a-adejumo&Itemid=46 http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=896536

House of Colonial Surveyor

Figure 65 House of Colonial Surveyor, Lagos Source: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=896536

House of the First Secretary of the Government

Figure 66 House of First Secretary of the Governmnet, Lagos Source: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=896536

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

During colonisation, there were no significant contributions of Yoruba traditional houses in the development of colonial architecture. This condition was caused by: 1. The dominance of the colony in Lagos. Because of their domination, there werenâ€&#x;t native African people could give an influence in social life, inclusive architecture. 2. The discrimination towards native African. The apartheid pulled apart the original and traditional culture away. This discrimination made the native African people difficult to express themselves. 3. The slavery trading. With most of native African people in productive age were sold to other countries, there were no one could contribute towards the development of architecture during colonisation. However, apart from direct colonial influences, there was another type of architectural style which was developed during British Colonial time. It was known as the Brazilian Style, brought in by the slaves from Brazil along with their craftsmanship skills. The Brazilian Style had their own identity and characteristics which had been adapted to the climate and cultural condition. Although it was different from their traditional and colonial style, the Brazilian Style integrated the cultural and social values of a compound house. In addition to that, the Brazilian Style was characterized by its cement finishing with heavy ornamental pillars and balustrades. (Pruncal-Ogunsote, 2001) Instead of using materials like clay and mud for traditional houses, the materials used were very different as it was influenced by the new technologies that came to Lagos. A few researchers believe that Brazilian Style is the vernacular architecture of Nigeria. Just like what John Michael Vlach (1984) said that there is always an acculturation process in every culture to response to their way of living and history. Although it was different from the traditional compound house, but the spirit of it was expressed in the Brazilian housings. The planning and the expression of the house indicated the communal living space with high detail of crafting.

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Below are a few examples of Brazilian Style which was built during the British Colonisation:

Figure 68 Brazilian House Plan

Figure 67 Brazilian House in Lagos Source : Osasuna, 2006 Source : Vlach, 1984, edited by Willie Yogatama

House on Odunfa Street (1913)

Figure 69 House on Odunfa Street with Brazilian Architectural Style, Lagos http://www.nigeriavillagesquare.com/j4/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=13161:lagos-ahistory-in-pictures&catid=200:akintokunbo-a-adejumo&Itemid=46

56


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham (The detail information of some buildings shown in this chapter could be found in appendix)

Yoyo Araromi House (1913)

Figure 70 Yoyo Araromi House with Brazilian Architectural Style, Lagos Source: http://www.nigeriavillagesquare.com/j4/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=13161:lagos-ahistory-in-pictures&catid=200:akintokunbo-a-adejumo&Itemid=46

2.2.2.3 Post Colonial Architecture Nigeria got their independence around one and a half decade after World War II. This affected their development in architecture and construction. Started from this era, the modernisation of Lagos has grown very fast, especially in terms of architectural developments. This was marked by the development of International Style all over the cities. This new wave of modernisation and globalisation hindered their identity seeking process. As a result, there have been a lot of international style developments in Lagos without considering climate and culture. The spirit of Yoruba architecture and Brazilian housing disappeared, replaced by the imported style from western countries. After independence, the influence of colonial architecture was less significant because of globalisation forces. Therefore, most of the new developments have been dominated by the creation of International Style. There were only a few developments tried to adopt modernism into local context. This could be seen through the works a few architects who tried to create architecture which suitable for tropical countries in Nigeria. Among them are Akinsemoyin, Godwin and Hopwood, James Cubitt, Kultermann, etc. They promoted New West African style which tried to develop modernisation in the context of Nigeria. Some buildings that were designed in this style are Lagos University Science at UNILAG (1978) by Godwin and Hopwood, Mobil Building (1991) by James Cubitt. However, their implication in changing the „faceâ€&#x; of Lagos was not so significant. The imported 57


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

international style with glass facades and air-conditioning system are still dominant in the post-colonial development of Lagos. This is admitted by Pruncal-Ogunsote (2001) that International Style dominated modern Nigeria architecture. The International Style developments in Lagos indicate lack of cultural and historical values. Below are some of the causes: 1. Short post-colonisation period has made Lagos needs to deal with identity seeking period and globalisation in the same time. 2. The ambition to prove to the world as important city has resulted in the „Westernisation‟ without appropriate adaptation process. 3. The advanced technology has enabled Lagos to „import‟ the Western architectural styles baldly. 4. The economic demands have forced Lagos to build fast, so that Lagos does not have enough time to „breathe and think‟ about their developments. These figures below indicate the modern and post-colonial architectures in Lagos. The exploration of post-colonial buildings and the implementation of International Style will be separated into pre and post United Nations conference on climate changes. Examples of Post-Colonial Architecture from 1960 to 1992 (The detail information of some buildings shown in this chapter could be found in appendix)

Independence House (1960)

Western House (1960)

Figure 71 Independence House, Lagos

Figure 72 Western House, Lagos

Source: Pruncal Ogunsote, 2002

Source: Pruncal Ogunsote, 2002

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CSS Bookshop (1965)

Eko Hotel (Eko Holiday Inn) (1977)

It was designed by Godwin Hopwood.

Located in Victoria Island Lagos. It was designed

by

Oluwole

Olumuyiwa

and

Associates.

Figure 74 Eko Hotel, Lagos Figure 73 CSS Bookshop, Lagos

Source: http://www.destination360.com/africa/nigeria/lagos/e

Source: Pruncal Ogunsote, 2002

ko-hotels-suites/hotel

Lagos University Science at UNILAG NECOM House (1979) NECOM House is one of the tallest building

(1978)

in Lagos

Figure 76 NECOM House, Lagos

Figure 75 Lagos University Science at UNILAG, Lagos

Source:

Source:

http://www.nigerianbestforum.com/generaltopics/?p=

http://nigerianuniversity.blogspot.com/2008_02_01_ar

97930

chive.html

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IMB (International Merchant Bank) (1985)

First Bank Headquarters (1982)

Located in Marina, Lagos. This Headquarter Located in Victoria Island, Lagos. The IBM was designed by Ronald Ward & Associates.

Office was designed by Inchscape Architects.

Figure 77 First Bank Headquarter, Lagos

Figure 78 IBM Office, Lagos

Source:

Source: http://www.inchscapeki.com/FI.html

http://www.business-travel-nigeria.com/pictures-oflagos-nigeria-2.html

National Oil and Chemical Marketing Mobil Building (1991) Company Building (Eagle House) (1985)

Figure 80 Mobil Building, Lagos

Source: http://www.dtz.com/South_Africa/Who_we_are/Case Figure 79 Eagle House, Lagos

_Studies/Real+estate+market+survey+for+ExxonMo

Source: Pruncal Ogunsote, 2002

bil,+Nigeria

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Examples of Post-Colonial Architecture from 1992 until now (2011) (The detail information of some buildings shown in this chapter could be found in appendix)

Wema Bank Headquarter in Lagos (1997)

Africa Reinsurance Headquarters (2000)

Figure 82 Africa Reinsurance Headquarter, Lagos http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=4 Figure 81 Wema Bank Headquarter, Lagos

70739

Source: http://nationalmirroronline.net/news/9814.html

Union Bank (2000)

Sapetro Tower (2006)

Figure 83 Union Bank Headquarter, Lagos

Figure 84 Sapetro Tower, Lagos

Source:

Source:

http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=126

http://www.photography-

7213

discussions.info/en/vi8443w

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Zenith Bank Headquarter (2006)

Intercontinental Lagos (2011)

Figure 85 Zenith Bank Headquarter, Lagos

Figure 86 Intercontinental Lagos

Source: http://www.relbanks.com/africa/nigeria/zenith-

Source: http://media.photobucket.com/image/InterContinenta

bank

l%20Lagos%202011/cunchor/IMG_0978.jpg

Laila Tower (Under Construction)

Figure 87 Laila Tower, Lagos Source: http://newrayzarchitects.com/CurrentProjects.html

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Figure 88 Timeline Architectural Evolution of Lagos

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2.3 Rio de Janeiro 2.3.1 Introduction to Rio de Janeiro On 1st January 1502, Portuguese expeditors discovered a bay which was thought a part of huge river. This was the beginning of Rio de Janeiro (River in January), a name taken from the inaccurate impression. They were impressed by the beauty of the place, comfortable climate, and variety of plantings. Started from 1555, Rio de Janeiro became a settlement when France, under Villegaigno, established a colony along Guanabara Bay. In 1567, Portuguese forced French to leave the bay and they built their own settlement which became Rio de Janeiro city.

Figure 89 Rio de Janeiro Source: http://www.orangesmile.com/car-rentals/rio-de-janeiro/carhire-in-rio-de-janeiro.htm

Since then, Rio de Janeiro, famous to be called as Rio, has always been one of the major cities in South America. Its role in Brazil became more important since the Portuguese put Rio as a capital city in 1763. When Napoleon invaded Portugal, King Don Joao together with his people moved to Rio de Janeiro. For the period of 6 years since 1815, Rio de 64


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Janeiro was selected to be the capital of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarves. This has made Rio de Janeiro has a strong Portuguese culture. In 1822, they found their independence and they started to be a Republic in 1889 with Rio as the capital city. In 1960 the capital city of Brazil was moved to Brasilia. However, Rio de Janeiro has always been the most important city in Brazil. Before the Portuguese colonisation, Rio de Janeiro was a place where native Indians, which comprised of Tupi, Buri, Botocudo and Maxacali peoples, lived. Most of them came from the Amazon rainforest before moving out to the South, near the Atlantic Coast. When the Portuguese found them, they were impressed by the way of living of these Indian people who blended very well with the nature. They lived traditionally by living seminomadically, farming, hunting, fishing for their food, and even cannibalizing. They had all the necessary knowledge to survive. These indigenous people still live in certain part of Brazil as minority.

Figure 90 The Matriz Tupi Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pwQyYRGUS4c

Rio as a city is famous to be called “A Cidade Maravilhosa� or the Marvellous City due to its beauty. The city stretches along the west side of Guanabara Bay and makes a beautiful integration with the urban settlement. Mountains and Hill make a perfect background to capture the city space. Behind, it is covered with huge tropical forests with its mystery and beauty. Rio de Janeiro is the only metropolis in the world which integrates forests, mountains, beach, and lagoon in one urban settlement. 65


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Figure 91 Location of Rio de Janeiro Source: http://www.topnews.in/regions/rio-de-janeiro

Figure 92 Location of Rio de Janeiro Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/RiodeJaneiro_Municip_RiodeJaneiro.svg

In terms of population, Rio de Janeiro is one of the cities which are expected to be mega cities in 2015 according to the research by United Nations conducted in 2001. Its density rate indicates there are 4,871 people/km2 (IGBE, 2008). The table below shows the prediction of population growth in Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro

Population

Population Growth Rate

1950

2,965,000

4

1975

7,963,000

1.2

2000

10,652,000

0.5

2015

11,543,000

-

Table 3 Rio de Janeiro Population Growth Table Source: The Evolution of the Population of the 21 Urban Agglomerations that Are Expected to be MegaCities in 2015 and Average Annual Growth Ratesâ€&#x; conducted in 2001

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The population growth rate of Rio de Janeiro decreased to the number below one after the year 2000. However, the number of population in Rio is still above 10 Million, and this huge number of population is parallel with its economic growth. The GDP rate of Rio is $201 in International Dollar Billion, according to World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 Revision Population Database by United Nations Population Division, retrieved on 10 January 2011 (Wikipedia, List of Cities by GDP, modified 31 July 2011). This rate is the 3rd highest in South America after Sao Paolo and Buenos Aires and it is the 30th in the world rank.

Figure 93 Climate Chart of Rio de Janeiro Source: http://www.climate-charts.com/Locations/b/BZ83743.php

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Its pleasant climate comes from the nature of tropical. According to Koppen Climate Classification, Rio de Janeiro has tropical wet and dry or savannah climate (Aw) as it is located in the south east of Brazil (22°54′30″S 43°11′47″W). Monthly average temperature in Rio is higher than 18° C and its monthly precipitation is less than 60 mm during the driest season and less than 100 m per year. Figure 92 shows the average temperature, precipitation, and daylight time of Rio de Janeiro. Every part of Rio history has significant influences towards its architectural development. The purpose of this chapter is to elaborate, explore, and analyse the development of architecture in Rio de Janeiro. It focuses on the transformation of Rio vernacular, traditional, colonial, and post-colonial architecture until the current developments. 2.3.2 Architecture Development from Traditional Architecture until the 20th Century Architecture of Rio de Janeiro 2.3.2.1 Traditional and Pre-Colonial Architecture Traditional architecture of Rio de Janeiro was developed by the native Indian people who compromised of Tupi, Buri, Botocudo and Maxakali peoples. Their traditional house in Rio de Janeiro blended harmoniously with nature. The native Indian people might not have a rich architectural typology as happened in India and Nigeria, but they possessed important natural knowledge to survive. Therefore, building a settlement was just one of the surviving actions. In addition to that, their semi-nomadic living style urged them to build settlements temporarily with woods and leaves/grass as their main materials. They used palm leaves to fill the frame structure made from branches, anchored in the ground.

.

Figure 94 Traditional Maxakali Building Source: http://br.olhares.com/casa_maxakali_aldeia_pradinho_foto2978641.html

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Figure 95 Traditional Matriz Tupi Building Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aIx_9J4Jv5U&NR=1

This traditional Indian architecture did not have a huge impact in shaping the architecture of Brazil. After 1567, when the Portuguese managed to put their territory along the Guanabara Bay, the settlement of Rio de Janeiro started. Their architecture was very similar to what the Portuguese did in their own country. This is admitted by Gilberto Freyre : ―Within four years the first house of stone and mortar was built in Rio de Janeiro. In less than a century some villages had become towns of hundreds of houses, built as much as possible in the Portuguese way.‖ (Mindlin, E. H., 1956, p. 1) 2.3.2.2 Colonial Architecture In a short time, Portuguese colonial architecture was built in all the areas of Rio with churches, monasteries, fortresses, and government buildings dominated the developments. Not only architectural style that was imported, materials such as stone and tiles were brought to Rio as their main materials to build settlements. This happened because the Portuguese possessed limited tropical architectural knowledge. Therefore, they used their original knowledge in Europe to build their developments, which was very contrast with what the Native Indian did by using wood and leaves. In other words, when the Portuguese, came and built their settlement, there was no significant acculturation with the

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local culture and traditions. The adaptation towards Rio de Janeiro was only on climatic issue with no consideration of the native Indian culture. Basically, restating Goodwin‟s (1943) point of view, there were three major factors, besides land and climate, which influenced the development of colonial architecture in Brazil, especially in Rio de Janeiro. They were: 1. Churches, which related to Roman Catholic religion of Portuguese. The influence of Roman Catholic Religion in Brazil-Portuguese architecture was significant. This happened because spreading religion among Portuguese colonization was one of the most important missions during their invasion throughout the world. Churches, which were located at the highest level, were the centre of the settlement in old Rio de Janeiro. In general, Baroque architectural style dominated the architectural design of churches in Brazil, particularly in Rio de Janeiro. 2. Gold mines, which were located in Minas Gerais near Rio de Janeiro. Gold mines in Minas Gerais were their source of money to build settlements, besides woods export and other agriculture commodity. 3. African slaves who were imported from various part of Africa. African slaves who came to Brazil might not give significant contributions to determine the architectural style. However, their role was quite important, because they were the main builders and workers who built all Portuguese architecture. According to Robert Smith, Portuguese colonial architecture which compromised of ―…thick masonry walls, the high ceilings, the living quarters on raised foundations, and the stone floors and wainscots‖ could be implemented in Brazil without any significant difficulties (Goodwin, 1943, p. 20). This could happen due to similar characteristics of coastal climate, apart from heat and humidity. In addition to that, the unsettled civilisation of native Indian people enabled Portuguese architecture to be imitated, adopted, and implemented without any major reaction from traditional culture. A few significant and important Colonial Architecture buildings in Rio de Janeiro will be elaborated systematically based on their main functions. They are: churches, fazendas, and residential. (The detail information of some buildings shown in this chapter could be found in appendix)

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Churches As stated before, the Roman Catholic churches were the most important elements in the settlement of Portuguese colonisation. In Rio de Janeiro, their style was strongly related to Portuguese Baroque architecture (Mindlin, E. H, 1956). This architectural style was implemented during the 18th century, when European Baroque was very popular in Europe. However, according to the study by Goodwin (1943) the plan of Brazilian churches are simpler with less ornament on the outside compared to the original Portuguese churches. Church and Monastery of Sao Bento / Monastery of St Benedict, Rio de Janeiro (1652)

Figure 96 Church and Monastery of Sao Bento, Rio de Janeiro Source: http://www.worldtoptop.com/mosteiro-sao-bento-rio-de-janeiro/

Gloria Church, Rio de Janeiro (1722) The pictures below show a comparison between church in Rio and church in Portugal. It could be seen that church in Rio is simpler with less ornaments than church in Portugal.

Figure 98 Gloria Church, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro

Figure 97 Church of Bom Jesus, Braga, Portugal (for comparison purpose)

Source: http://www.flickr.com/search/show/?q=Outeiro%2Bda%2BGl%C3%B3ria Source: http://www.planetware.com/picture/braga-bom-jesus-do-monte-p-por375.htm

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Old Cathedral of Rio de Janeiro (1761)

Figure 99 Old Cathedral of Rio de Janeiro Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Cathedral_of_Rio_de_Janeiro

Fazenda Fazenda Colubande (1620)

Figure 100 Fazenda Colubande, Rio de Janeiro Source: http://irmaosemsaogoncalo.com.br/fotos_sg.html Source: http://mundogoncalense.blogspot.com/2008/09/fazenda-coluband.html

Fazenda Vassouras (1703)

Figure 101 Fazenda Vassouras, Rio de Janeiro Source: http://www.portalsaofrancisco.com.br/alfa/ciclo-do-cafe/fazenda-do-secretario.php Source: http://www.visitevassouras.com.br/fazendashistoricas/1555

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Fazenda Garcia (1724)

Figure 102 Fazenda Garcia, Rio de Janeiro Source: http://fazendasamambaia.blogspot.com/2008/09/fazenda-samambaia.html

In addition to that, some French artists, like architect Grandjean de Montigny and painters Antoun Tounay and J. B. Deber who lived and worked in Rio, gave their influences in Rioâ€&#x;s development of art. Academia Imperial de Belas-Artes (1816-1826) The academia was designed by French architect Grandjean de Montigny.

Figure 103 Academia Imperial de Belas-Artes by Grandjean de Montigny, Rio de Janeiro Source: http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grandjean_de_Montigny

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2.3.2.3 Post Colonial Architecture Brazil got their independence in 1822, and started from this time, Rio de Janeiro was apart from Portugal. However, due to the strong influences of Portuguese architecture during colonisation, the new developments in Brazil after independence were very similar to the colonial architecture. For instance, Itaramati Palace was built in a strong colonial style in 1851. Therefore, it is undeniable that Post-colonial architecture in Rio de Janeiro was the extension of Portuguese Architecture. During their identity seeking period, the impacts of colonisation in Rio de Janeiro developments were more significant than their effort to free from it. Started from 1930, the developments of architecture in Rio de Janeiro and Brazil rapidly changed because of modernisation and globalisation. It was marked by the construction of Ministry of Education and Health in Rio de Janeiro with Le Corbusier as a mentor. Lucio Costa pointed out that after the year of 1930, ―never before has architecture passed through such a transformation in such a short period of time‖ He added that the shifting of architectural style in Brazil as a whole was a result of the changes in history ―[from] the epic of the colonization of Portuguese America to the heights of Empire and to the new republic on its way to becoming a great industrial civilization.‖ (Mindlin, E. H, 1956, p. 1) Since then, the new and modern architectural style in Rio de Janeiro was greatly influenced by tropical modernism. This could be seen through a few designs from Oscar Niemeyer, Lucio Costa, Burle Marx, etc. who played an important role in determining modern architecture in Rio de Janeiro and Brazil as a whole. The implementation of modernisation in Brazil was well responded by these Brazilian architects. They adapted the International Style into the tropical climate, which was classified as Tropical Modernism. The very clear indication was the addition of braisesoleil into the façade to protect the interior from direct sun. The creation of tropical modernism during 1930s – 1990s indicated the architectural resistance of Rio de Janeiro to modernisation and globalisation. The post-colonisation architecture in Rio, which consisted of Portuguese architecture and tropical modernism, will be shown in 2 categories, before and after the United Nations conference on climate changes in 1992.

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Examples of Post-Colonial Architecture from 1822 to 1992 (The detail information of some buildings shown in this chapter could be found in appendix)

Itaramati Palace, Rio de Janeiro (1851)

Figure 104 Itaramati Palace, Rio de Janeiro Source: http://www.panoramio.com/photo/12449165

Ministry of Education and Health (1930)

Figure 105 Ministry of Education and Health, Rio de Janeiro Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MESP4.jpg

Figure 106 Plan of Ministry of Education and Health Source: Mindlin, E. H, 1956

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Maracana Stadium (1947)

Figure 107 Maracana Stadium, Rio de Janeiro Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Maracan%C3%A3_Stadium_in_Rio_de_Janeiro.jpg

Parque Guinle Residential Complex (1950)

Figure 108 Parque Guinle Residential Complex, Rio de Janeiro Source: http://www.facartes.unal.edu.co/portal/unidades/esarq/premios_america_PC/costa.html

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Landscape Development along the Coast of Rio (1962)

Figure 109 Landscape Development along the Coast of Rio de Janeiro by Burle-Marx

Source: http://www.greekarchitects.gr/site_parts/articles/print.php?article=4198&language=en Source: Hamerman, C., 1991

Copacabana Beach Front Mosaic and the Landscape of Museum of Modern Art (1972)

Figure 110 Mosaic Pattern in Copacabana Beach (Left) and in front of Museum of Modern Art (Right), Rio de Janeiro Source: http://www.greekarchitects.gr/site_parts/articles/print.php?article=4198&language=en

The curvilinear landscape pattern of Copacabana Beach, relates strongly to Portuguese landscape design. This could be seen through similar design in front of Praca Dom Pedro 77


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

IV, Lisbon, Portugal. It uses the same pattern and the same material (mosaic details) just like what it is shown in figure 111. Not only in Brazil and Portugal, the same pattern could also be found in Macau, a place with a strong Portuguese colonial influence.

Figure 111 The black and white wavy mosaic pattern in Praca Dom Pedro IV, Lisbon, Portugal (Left) and mosaic pattern in Senado Square in Macau (Right) Source: http://doverkohl.blogspot.com/2011/04/lisboa-lisbon.html Source: http://www.passporttoadventure.com/travel/china-central-asia/macau-culture.shtml

Metropolitan Cathedral of Rio (1976)

Figure 112 Metropolitan Cathedral of Rio de Janeiro Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rio_de_Janeiro_Cathedral

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Centro Candido Mendes (1978)

105 Lélio Gama St (1980)

Figure 113 Centro Candido Mendes, Rio de Janeiro

Figure 114 105 Lelio Gama St, Rio de Janeiro

Source: http://diariodorio.com/qual-o-mais-alto-

Source:

prdio-do-rio/

http://grimm.shotsharing.com/file/467720100/Seenfrom-Mosteiro-de-Santo-Ant%C3%B4nio,LelioGama-105,-Rio-de-Janeiro

Started from the end of 1970s, the typical high rises international style with fully glazed facade was popular in Rio de Janeiro. This could be seen through a few developments shown in this sub-chapter, such as: Centro Candido Mendes, Manhattan Tower, Torre Almirante, etc. However, not all developments were influenced by the „glass box‟ international style, a few projects, designed by the tropical modernist architects like Oscar Niemeyer and Lucio Costa, indicated some considerations towards the contextual site. Therefore, the modern movement in Brazil was indicated by: 1. The development of tropical modernism architecture The tropical modernism was the extension of International Style to fit with tropical climate and the contextual of the site. Some examples of tropical modernism architecture are Ministry of Education and Health Building, Niteroi Contemporary Art Museum, Landscape Development along Coast of Rio, etc.

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2. The development of glass box high rise This design uses fully glazed faรงade with air conditioning without considering the climate and historical values of Rio de Janeiro. Most of these buildings were designed in the end of 20th century, for instance, Manhattan Tower, Torre Almirante, etc. As a response to climate changes and global warming, there was United Nations first conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. In architecture, this was responded by the creation of designs which tried to focus on environmental performance. As a result, there were a few developments in Rio de Janeiro were awarded LEED certificate, a sustainable rating measurement tool. However, most of them tend to ignore the cultural and historical values. For example, Ventura Corporate Towers by KPF, which was built in 2008, was awarded LEED gold certificate. The towers use high quality glass on the faรงade to reduce the energy usage, but the design did not incorporate cultural and historical values. Examples of Post-Colonial Architecture from 1992 until now (2011) (The detail information of some buildings shown in this chapter could be found in appendix)

Niterรณi Contemporary Art Museum (1996)

Figure 115 Niteroi Contemporary Art Museum, Rio de Janeiro Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Niter%C3%B3i_Contemporary_Art_Museum.jpg

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Manhattan Tower (2000)

Ibiza (Costa del Sol) (2000)

Figure 116 Manhattan Tower, Rio de Janeiro Source:

Figure 117 Ibiza (Costa del Sol), Rio de Janeiro Source: http://www.emporis.com/application/?nav=building &id=ibiza-riodejaneiro-brazil&lng=

http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/5326846.jpg

Barra Office Tower (2002)

Transamerica Flat Barra (2003)

Figure 118 Barra Office Tower, Rio de Janeiro

Figure 119 Transamerica Flat Barra, Rio de Janeiro

Source: http://www.rcahydrotech.com/enus/localizacao-map.asp

Source: http://travel.aol.com/travel-guide/centraland-south-america/brazil/rio-dejaneiro/transamerica-flat-barra-hotel-photos-t28261/

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Torre Almirante (2004)

Ventura Corporate Towers (2008)

Figure 120 Torre Almirante, Rio de Janeiro

Figure 121 Ventura Towers, Rio de Janeiro

Source: http://www.arcoweb.com.br/especiais/balancodecada-2000-11-02-2011.html

Source: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1096699

The image below shows the view of CBD area in Rio de Janeiro which indicates International Style developments. This resulted in the lack of identity.

Figure 122 CBD Area in Rio de Janeiro Source: http://maps.google.co.uk/maps?q=rio+de+janeiro

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Figure 123 Timeline Architectural Evolution of Rio de Janeiro

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

CHAPTER III : DISCUSSION This chapter will analyse, discuss, and compare the three case studies observed in Chapter 2. The analysis and comparison will be based on the influences of globalisation and architectural resistance as a response to globalisation. The analysis of the influences of globalisation and architectural resistance in these three cities will be conducted based on the analysis of cities as general, not focusing on particular buildings. This is done because of the focus of this research is to get the overall lesson of the architectural evolution of the city as a whole. The objection of this examination is to answer the research questions about the influences of globalisation into tropical architecture. In addition to that, the analysis will provide descriptions on how far the current architectural developments detach from their local and vernacular culture through diagrams. Moreover, the analysis will come out with different reaction of architectural resistance of each city. 3.1 Comparison of the Influences of Globalisation in All Case Studies According to the analysis of the three case studies, there are four forces of globalisation affecting the urban developments: 1. Urban Sprawl and High Density Cities In the case studies, all the cities face high density population problems. All of them are cities which are predicted to be mega cities in 2015 by United Nations. Therefore, the need to go vertically is crucial and the implementation of International Style is inevitable. 2. Increment in the land values and demands There has been a huge increment in land values and demands in the three case studies since independence. This triggered the development of International Style which based on efficiency and modularity. 3. The business and economic forces The case studies indicate that economic purpose during post-colonisation influenced the development of architecture. This is parallel with the culture of commerce from Eldemery (2009) stated in the literature review that architecture

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has been the tools of economics to gain profits. Therefore, architecture has lost its essence as space creation for community to live and interact. 4. False perception towards westernisation People‟s perception towards westernisation accelerates the implication of modernisation in architecture. People tend to refer architectural developments to what happened in Western countries. This is parallel with the culture of designs from Eldemery (2009). All of these factors gave some impacts on the development of architecture. This sub chapter will study and compare the influences of globalisation in the three case studies. The comparison will be conducted through the analysis of positive and negative influences of globalisation. This is done as a respond to the discussion in literature review between the „pro-global‟ and the „anti-global‟. The „pro-global‟ emphasizes the positive impacts of globalisation in terms of economic, technology, science, materials, construction methods, and the creation of high rises to solve urban problems. On the other hand, the „anti-global‟ tends to argue that globalisation gives negative impacts on cultural and historical values, social life, prototypical architecture, westernisation thinking, environment, and local identity. Therefore, to understand the positive and negative impacts of globalisation, the analysis will be conducted through the examination of those points. They will be separated between direct and indirect influences on architecture in each case study. The indirect influences will analyse the globalisation impacts on: population growth and urbanisation, economic development, international and social recognition. While the direct influences will examine the globalisation impacts on: the changes in architectural style, technology and material used in architecture, cultural and social values in architecture, construction method, and environmental implications. 3.1.1 Mumbai According to case studies, during colonisation in Mumbai, the creation of Indo Saracenic architectural style was a successful and good example of acculturation process. This created the identity of India and Mumbai which involved the colonial influences, local values and religions.

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

However, the globalisation in Mumbai has swept this architectural style away, replaced by new and imported typology of International Style. This implementation has given both positive and negative influences to the development of architecture in Mumbai. Below is the table analysis of the positive and negative influences of globalisation in Mumbai. Positive Influences

Mumbai

Negative Influences

Indirect Influences on Architecture Population

growth International

and urbanisation

Style

has

given Globalisation has been one of the

possible solution to high density pulling factors of urbanisation in cities

like

Mumbai.

The Mumbai

because

of

implementation of new architecture development,

massive advanced

like tall buildings in Mumbai has technology,

higher

living

been successful to cater the huge standard, and modern living style population.

offered by globalisation.

Economic

Globalisation has resulted in the Economic

forces

have

made

development

massive economic developments of architecture as an indirect tool of Mumbai. Globalisation has enabled economic and business purposes. Mumbai to compete as one of This has led to the creation of major cities in the world.

International

meaningless architecture.

and Modern developments have been Globalisation

Social Recognition

has

resulted

in

successful to make Mumbai get westernised perception in Mumbai international recognition as one of since post-colonisation. People the fastest development cities.

believe that

architecture with

„westernâ€&#x; look alike tend to be considered better than local and regional buildings. Direct

Influences

on Architecture Architectural Style

The

new

prototypical

International Style introduced to Mumbai has resulted in the creation

of

meaningless

architecture. It did not consider 86


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

the climate, culture, and history of Mumbai. As a result, the new developments

lack

cultural

identity Technology used in The architecture

technology

brought

by

modernisation

globalisation flexibility

improvements The over reliance on technology

have

in

given

architecture.

and in architecture has given negative more implications For instance

to

the

Mumbai, usage

for

of

Air

instance, the usage of pre-cast and Conditioning in tropical climate pre-stressed concrete, the usage of leads

to

the

destruction

of

steel and cable structure, the usage environment. of double glazing, etc. Material

used

in Because

architecture

of

globalisation,

new The new materials used might not

materials imported from outside, be available locally, therefore such

as

aluminium

cladding, Mumbai imported some of the

advance glazing systems, Solar materials resulted in high cost Panel, Solar Evacuated Tube, etc, constructions and high embodied have improved the quality of energy. Some of these materials architectural designs in terms of could flexibility

and

be

replaced

by

local

material materials. For example: the usage

performances.

of imported stones which could be replaced by local stones without reducing its quality.

Social

Values

of

International Style developments

Architecture

in Mumbai have ignored the role of architecture as social living spaces.

This

could

lead

to

individualistic character in its people. Cultural Values of

The

new

developments

of

Architecture

modernisation and globalisation have abandoned the historical and cultural values of Mumbai by the

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

creation

of

„everywhere

and

anywhere‟ architecture.. Construction Method New construction methods, based on

modular

system,

and

have

prefabrication increased

the

efficiency of construction process. As a result, faster developments in Mumbai could be achieved by the help of technology. Environmental

The International style, especially

Performance

the usage of fully glazed façade with air conditioning system, has been

a

destructive

to

the

environment. In tropical countries, this design typology needs high cooling energy. As a result, this typology gives negative impact to environment

such

as

global

warming and climate change. Table 4 Influences of Globalisation in Mumbai

3.1.2 Lagos According to case studies, the development of Brazilian architecture developed in Nigeria has created the vernacular architecture of Lagos. It was a result of acculturation process between traditional culture and colonial architecture. This typology was brought by the slaves from South America as an indirect cause of colonisation. However, after Nigeria became independence, modernisation and globalisation changed Lagos architectural type. Since then, architectural developments in Lagos have been dominated by International Style. This resulted in positive and negative influences of globalisation in architectural developments in Lagos. The table below examines the positive and negative influences of globalisation in Lagos.

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Positive Influences

Lagos

Negative Influences

Indirect Influences on Architecture Population

growth Lagos is one of the fastest growing Globalisation has been the pulling

and urbanisation

cities in the world. Modernisation factor for urbanisation in Lagos and its International Style have because of massive development, given possible solution to high advanced

technology,

higher

density cities like Lagos by the living standard, and modern living creation of tall building, a new style offered by globalisation. typology

which

offers

vertical This

urban arrangement.

in

urban

and

environmental problems.

Economic

It

development

implementations of modernisation architecture as a tool of economic in

is

resulted

undeniable

Lagos

have

that

boosted

the Economic

forces

have

made

its and business purposes. Therefore

economics to be one of the architecture has lost its function as economic centres in Africa. In a representative of culture and addition to that, globalisation and social life. modernisation opportunity

have to

given

Lagos

to

international.

the On one hand, modernisation and go globalisation have improved the economics of Lagos, but on the other hand, its GDP rate is considered low for major cities in the world with only $35 in International Dollar Billion. This indicates

the

huge

difference

between the rich and the poor, which resulted in unbalanced urban economics. International

and The

Social Recognition

implementations

of Globalisation

resulted

in

International Style in Lagos have westernisation thinking which has made

Lagos

got

a

reputable affected Lagos in many aspects,

regional recognitions as one of the inclusive 89

architecture.

It

has


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

modern cities in Africa.

become the measurement of social standards and social status. In addition to that, globalisation and modernisation have not yet been considered successful to bridge Lagos to get international recognition. Just like what Rem Koolhaas said ―At that point, of all the big cities in the world, Lagos was the least known ... The fact that there could still be an unknown situation at the beginning of the 21st century – within globalization – was challenging

but

risky;..‖(Koolhaas, R. and van der Haark, B., 2002) Direct

Influences

on Architecture Changes

in

International Style has buried

Architectural Style

Lagos traditional architecture and Brazilian architecture. Lagos new developments have resulted in the creation

of

placelesness

and

meaningless architecture. Therefore,

the

developments

in

current Lagos

lack

cultural identity. Technology used in Technology improvements, because The over reliance on technology architecture

of globalisation and modernisation, in architecture has given negative have enabled Lagos to create an implications in Lagos. People tend advanced architectural system such to ignore the cultural and climate as the bridge connecting the island considerations, for instance the

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

and the mainland.

usage of Air Conditioning in tropical

climate

has

led

to

environmental degradation. Material

used

in New

architecture

materials

imported

from The new materials used might not

outside have given a new variety be available locally; therefore and

possibility in

architectural Lagos needs to import some of the

designs in Lagos, for instance the materials. This has resulted in usage of steel, aluminium, glass, high cost constructions and high etc.

embodied energy. Some of these materials could be replaced by local materials such as the optimisation of mud and clay.

Social

Values

of

The

Architecture

implementations

of

International Style, which have been

developed

without

any

considerations to Lagos social life, have led to individualistic social condition. This is very contradictive development

with of

the

compound

traditional houses and Brazilian architecture, characteristic

whose was

main

communal

living. Cultural Values of

The new developments, most of

Architecture

which have been designed in International

Style,

have

abandoned cultural and historical values. Construction Method New construction methods, based on

modular

system,

and

have

prefabrication increased

91

the


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

efficiency of construction process. As a result, faster developments in Lagos could be achieved by the help of technology. Environmental

The International style especially

Performance

the usage of fully glazed façade with air conditioning system has been

a

destructive

to

the

environment. As a result, this typology

has

given

negative

impacts to environment such as global

warming

and

climate

change. Table 5 Influences of Globalisation in Lagos

3.1.3 Rio de Janeiro According to case studies, the vernacular architecture of Brazil is similar to the architecture built during colonial period, which was Portuguese Colonial Style. The acculturation process was different with what happened in Mumbai and Lagos. Colonial influences in Rio tended to be stronger in shaping Brazil vernacular architecture. When globalisation arrived, Rio de Janeiro showed a different response with Mumbai and Lagos. There was a reaction to adapt International Style to the tropical climate in Rio. This could be seen through the development of tropical modern architecture in 1930s – 1990s. However, by the time moved and the force of globalisation was getting stronger, the fully glazed International Style buildings were applied in the new developments. Therefore, there were 2 types of architectural style after the implementations of modernisation in Rio de Janeiro, tropical modernism which mostly built in 1930 until the end of 20th century and fully glazed buildings which mostly built after the year 2000. In overall, globalisation has given not only negative influences, but also positive contributions towards Rio de Janeiro architecture. This table below will discuss the positive and negative influences of globalisation in Rio de Janeiro.

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Positive Influences

Rio de Janeiro

Negative Influences

Indirect Influences on Architecture Population

growth Modernisation and its International Modernisation has been one of the

and urbanisation

Style have given a solution to the pulling factors of urbanisation in increment of population in Rio de Rio. Although the shifting of the Janeiro. The implementation of tall capital city to Brasilia has helped buildings has helped Rio in facing to reduce the population growth in high density urban problem.

Rio, but Rio is still one of the destination points for urbanisation in Brazil.

Economic

Globalisation has increased the Economic

forces

have

made

development

economic developments in Rio. architecture as a tool of economic This could be seen through the and business purposes. This could GDP rate of Rio which reaches be seen through the developments $201

in

International

Dollar of CBD area in Rio which are

Billion.

dominated

by

fully

glazed

International Style buildings. International

and Rio has been one of the most Globalisation

Social Recognition

has

resulted

in

important cities in South America westernisation thinking in Rio. due to its essential role since The new developments tend to Portuguese colonisation. Moreover, create

Western

„look

alike‟

the globalisation has helped Rio to buildings for commercial purposes get International recognition. Direct

and social recognitions.

Influences

on Architecture Changes Architectural Style

in The creation of tropical modernism Globalisation forces have caused a architectural style has changed the shifting from tropical modernism „face‟ of Rio from Portuguese architecture to the more „global‟ architecture to the new tropical and International Style architecture modernism. This new style has in the 21st century. As a result, the given

new

identity 93

to

the latest architectural developments


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

architecture of Rio. Technology used in The architecture

in Rio lack cultural identity.

technology

brought

by

improvement Globalisation has resulted in over

modernisation

and reliance

on

globalisation have given a new and architecture. fresh

possibilities

in

technology This

has

in given

the negative implications in Rio de

architectural designs. For Instance, Janeiro. As a result, people tend to the usage of structural technology ignore the cultural and climate in

Niter贸i

Museum.

Contemporary The

successfully

building optimised

Art considerations. For instance the has usage the tropical

of

air climate

improvement of technology without environmental neglecting the potential of the site.

conditioning has

led

degradation;

in to the

usage of new glass technology in Ventura Towers has enabled them to achieve a good environmental performance, but lack cultural and historical values.

Material

used

architecture

in New

materials

imported

from The new materials might not be

outside have improved the quality available locally; therefore Rio of architectural designs in terms of needs to import some of the variety and material performances. materials from outside. This has For instance, the usage of special resulted in high cost constructions glass

in

Ventura

improved

Towers

their

has and high embodied energy. These

environmental materials could be replaced by

performances.

local materials without reducing its quality.

Social

Values

Architecture

of The

developments

modernisation

of

have

tropical The

shown

International

Style

the developments in Rio in the 21st

importance of social life in the built century have abandoned the role of environment.

For

instance,

the architecture as social living spaces.

development of Landscape along This could lead to individualistic Copacabana designed

as

Beach a

has

place

for

been in its inhabitants. art

exhibitions, culture events, and

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

social interactions. Cultural Values of The Architecture

development

modernism

has

of

tropical Because of globalisation forces,

created

new the new developments in 21st

architectural identity in Rio as the century seem to ignore the cultural reflection of modernisation, tropical identity values. This could be seen climate,

cultural

values,

and through some examples in the case

historical inspirations. For instance, studies that the new developments the design from Burle Marx in the in Rio could achieve a good landscape along Copacabana Beach environmental performance, but it indicates

a

strong

historical lacks cultural and historical values.

connections; the usage of blue and white ceramic pattern in Ministry of Education and Health by artist Candido

Portinari

inspired

by

historical Portuguese elements. Construction

New construction methods, based

Method

on

modular

system,

and

have

prefabrication increased

the

efficiency of construction process. This has enabled quick and fast developments in Rio de Janeiro. Environmental

The inappropriate implementations

Performance

of globalisation have resulted in excessive instance,

energy air

resulted degradations,

usage.

For

conditioning

has

in

environmental such

as

climate

changes and global warming. Table 6 Influences of Globalisation in Rio de Janeiro

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

According to the table, the influences of globalisation in Rio could be concluded: 1. The period between 1930 to the end of 20th century with tropical modernism architecture. During this period, modernisation and globalisation were reacted by the creation of new architectural style which was a combination between modern technologies and contextual site. This has resulted in some positive influences in Rio, such as the changes in architectural style, the creation of new identity in architecture, the usage of technology in a smart way, the creation of architecture as social representation, and the creation of new cultural identity in architecture. 2. The period after the year 2000 until now. During this period, modernisation and globalisation were implemented by the creation of International Style with its fully glazed facades. Although some of them could achieve good environmental performance by using advanced technology and materials, but they lack of cultural and historical identity. The creation of this architecture has caused some negative influences in Rio. 3.1.4 Comparison of Case Studies 3.1.4.1 Comparison Analysis This sub-chapter will compare and contrast the influences of globalisation in the three case studies. The table below indicates the comparison of the influences of globalisation in Mumbai, Lagos and Rio de Janeiro.

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Table 7 Comparison of the Influences of Globalisation

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

3.1.4.2 Conclusion of the Influences of Globalisation According to the analysis and table of comparison, it could be concluded that there are 2 main categories in the influences of globalisation in the three case studies. Firstly, the influences of globalisation which affected the three case studies in almost similar ways. Secondly, the influences of globalisation which only affected Rio de Janeiro. The Influences of Globalisation Which Affected the Three Case Studies in Similar Ways According to the table of comparison, globalisation has given almost similar influences on a few discussion points in the three case studies. This was caused by a few similarities in the backgrounds of the three cities: 1. Similarity in climate characteristics. They are located in wet and dry tropical climate zone with high temperature and humidity. In addition to that, all of them are located in coastal area with almost the same coastal climate. The implementation of fully glazed façade buildings is unsuitable for this climate. This resulted in some of negative influences of globalisation. 2. Huge number of population. High density population affected the architectural developments in the three case studies. This condition forced Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro to go vertically. As a result, the implementation of International Style with its high rises is inevitable. 3. Economic forces to compete with Western Countries. The economic demands and the willing to be involved in international competitions urged Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro to build fast with „modernisation and Westernisation‟ images. As a result, International Style is replicated in the three case studies with almost the same implications to all of them. 4. The colonisation by European Countries for a long time. The long colonisation period in to Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro changed their architectural style, resulted in the creation of vernacular architecture. Therefore, the implementation of modernisation and globalisation in these cities

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

could be said as the 2nd colonisation which is a replication of what happened before. In overall, positive influences of globalisation in architecture in the three case studies are: 1. In terms of population growth and urbanisation The implementation of new imported tall buildings typology has helped the high density cities to solve population problems. 2. In terms of economic developments Globalisation has generated the economics in three case studies. 3. In terms of international and social recognition International Style developments in the three case studies have boosted their status in regional and international as one of important cities in the world. The developments of International Style symbolised their successful in achieving modernism. 4. In terms of technology used in architecture The new technologies as a result of globalisation and modernisation have enabled the creation of complex infrastructure and advanced architectural design. 5. In terms of material used in architecture The new innovations of materials have enabled architects not only to create a variety of designs, but also to achieve better environmental performance. 6. In terms of construction method The improvements in construction technology have eased the construction process to create faster and more precise developments. On the other hand, the negatives influences of globalisation referring to the 3 case studies are: 1. In terms of population growth and urbanisation Modernisation and globalisation have been the pulling factors of urbanisation in developing countries. People tend to migrate from suburban areas to big cities, like Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio, because of their modern developments offered by globalisation. 2. In terms of economic developments

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Economic forces have made architecture as a tool of economic and business purposes. As a result, architecture has lost its function as a representative of culture and social life. 3. In terms of international and social recognition Globalisation has resulted in westernisation point of view which tends to argue that western „look alike‟ buildings are better than regional architecture. This has dragged architectural developments to forget their original, vernacular and environmental condition. 4. In terms of changes in architectural style The implementations of international style have caused lack of identity. This was marked by the creation of buildings „anywhere and everywhere‟. 5. In terms of technology used in architecture The over reliance on technology in architecture has made people ignore the cultural and climate considerations. For instance, the usage of air conditioning in tropical climate has led to environmental degradation. 6. In terms of materials used in architecture The new materials imported from other countries resulted in high building cost and high embodied energy. While on the other hand, these materials could be replaced by local materials. 7. In terms of social values in architecture International Style developments have ignored the role of architecture as social living spaces. This could lead to individualistic character in its people. 8. In terms of cultural values in architecture Most of the new modern developments have abandoned the historical and cultural values by the creation of placelesness architecture. 9. In terms of environmental performances. The inappropriate international style design resulted in poor environmental performance. This has caused environmental degradation, climate changes, and global warming. Through those positive and negative influences of globalisation, it is obvious that optimisation of positive influences is essential in this global world. However, avoiding and minimizing the negative influences is even more important, unless the development of

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

architecture in the future will lose its power as social, cultural, and historical representative. Just like what Eldemery (2009) said that globalisation is inevitable in the current world. Therefore, the adoption of modernisation is a direct consequence in architecture. However, it is important to preserve the definition of place as something referring not only to physical location, but also to memory and experience left to its inhabitants. The Influences of Globalisation Which only Affected Rio de Janeiro Besides all those similarities in the three case studies which have resulted in the creation of similar buildings, there were some differences which only affected Rio de Janeiro. This could be seen through the table of comparison shown before. Rio de Janeiro tends to have more positive influences in a few points: 1. In terms of architectural style, The creation of tropical modernism architecture has changed the face of Rio from Portuguese Colonial architecture to the tropical modernism. This has resulted in new architectural identity in Rio. 2. Social values in architecture, The development of Rio during the tropical modernisation indicated the importance of social life in its architecture, for instance, the Landscape design along Copacabana Beach, the design of Ministry of Education and Health with its roof garden. 3. Cultural values in architecture. The development of tropical modernism in Rio indicated the consideration of cultural and historical values, for instance the design of Copacabana Beach Landscape, the mural designs in Ministry of Education and Heath, etc. These positive points are a result of tropical modernism developments built in 1930s – 1990s by several architects and designers such as Oscar Niemeyer, Lucio Costa, Burle Marx, etc. This architectural style indicated a reaction towards the implementation of modernisation in Rio. This tropical modernism was defined as a new identity of architecture in Brazil, it was derived from its contextual site such as climate and social condition, and it tried to address cultural and historical values.

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

This comparison indicates that there was a better reaction towards globalisation in Rio de Janeiro compared with Mumbai and Lagos. This reaction was a result of architectural resistance of Rio. Therefore, Rio did not bluntly replicate the imported International Style. The analysis of architectural resistance is important to balance, filter, and adopt the influences of globalisation. Therefore, Chapter 3.2 will analyse the factors determine the architectural resistance of cities in facing globalisation. 3.2 Comparison of Architectural Resistance in All Case Studies This sub chapter will analyse the architectural resistance in facing globalisation for all the case studies. Each architectural resistance of the case studies will be examined by looking at historical factors described in chapter II. They are: the characteristics of pre-colonial architecture, the period of colonisation, the adaptation to create vernacular architecture, the period of post-colonisation as identity seeking phase, the impact of modernisation, and environmental considerations. The last part of this analysis will compare all of the evolutions of architecture as the indication of architectural resistance. 3.2.1 Mumbai The latest developments of Mumbai indicate the implementation of International Style buildings with glass faรงade and concrete exposed. This style is very different with what existed before. The evolution of architectural style from its original and vernacular architecture passed through a few stages related to Mumbai history: 1. The characteristics of pre-colonial architecture The pre-colonial architecture of Mumbai had a well-developed technology with an advanced skill especially in stones. The caves and temples indicated the maturity of their civilization. In addition to that, the Islamic colonisation gave variation to their pre-colonial architecture through the development of Mosque and Darqah. 2. The period of colonisation Mumbai was under colonisation for 409 years with the last 286 years was under British colonisation. This long period of colonisation replaced the architecture in Mumbai with the European Baroque Colonial Style. 3. The adaptation to create vernacular architecture The development of Indo Saracenic architecture in Mumbai indicated the acculturation process as a reaction towards colonial architecture. This Indo 102


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Saracenic architecture, which was unique only for India, was a result of architectural resistance. 4. The period of post-colonisation as identity seeking phase India became independent in 1947 and in the same time, modernisation and globalisation came to India. Therefore, Mumbai had to deal with both globalisation and the effort to free from colonisation as the identity seeking phase in the same time. 5. The impact of modernisation The international style in Mumbai was implemented without any chance for acculturation and adaptation process. Although some architects, who were influenced by Le Corbusier and Louis Kahn, have tried to implement cultural context in modernisation, their impacts on urban scale are still considered minimum. As a result, most of the current developments in Mumbai relate strongly to International Style with minimal cultural and historical considerations. 6. Environmental considerations Although most of the buildings are still designed in International Style with minimum environmental consideration, but there have been a few buildings awarded LEED certificates. Moreover, the creation of India Green Building Council with established status indicates Indiaâ€&#x;s serious intention in creating environmental friendly developments. Through this analysis, it is clearly seen that globalisation swept all the history away. This was caused by the short identity seeking period during post-colonisation. This could be seen through the some new developments in the 21st century, which seem to be separated from the original Mumbai. However, through some architects who were influenced by of Le Corbusier and Louis Kahn, Mumbai have been trying to develop its architectural resistance. There have been some buildings which were designed by looking at the contextual site. In addition to that, prior to United Nations conference regarding climate changes in 1992, there have been some efforts in architecture to consider the environmental condition. To sum up, although Mumbai had a rich pre-colonial civilization and the creation of Indo Saracenic architecture was thought to be a successful acculturation in creating vernacular architecture, the latest developments of Mumbai are dominated by International Style. 103


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

However, there are some developments indicate Mumbai‟s effort to retrieve its identity and respect environmental consideration. Therefore, Mumbai is on its way to develop its architectural resistance, to create architecture which could represent Mumbai culture and history with a good environmental performance. 3.2.2 Lagos The current and new developments of Lagos are still under the shade of modernisation with its international style. Lagos, as a city, is still in the middle of its effort to „show‟ the world its status as one of modern cities. Therefore, its architectural developments are still based on the westernisation point of view. This could be seen through the latest developments in Lagos, which are very detached from its original identity. The spirit of Yoruba compound house and Brazilian architecture in Lagos has faded away because of modernisation. The analysis below will describe the evolution of architecture in Lagos to understand its architectural resistance: 1. The characteristics of pre colonial architecture Lagos was a place of Awori people, part of Yoruba tribe, whose technology was quite advanced, especially in mud and bronze. Their traditional house was designed as „compound house‟, focusing on communal and social living space. This architecture indicated its rich civilization in terms of building techniques, art developments, cultural values, and social living. 2. The period of colonisation The Portuguese invaded the city for 389 years before it fell down to British Colony for almost 100 years. These long colonisations seemed to erase the pre-colonial architecture spirit and it was replaced by European Colonial architecture style 3. The adaptation to create vernacular architecture The development of Brazilian architecture in Lagos was the reaction of local people towards the creation of colonial architecture. Brazilian architecture, as Lagos vernacular architecture, was a combination of slavery influences and the spirits of Yoruba compound house. 4. The period of Post-Colonisation Nigeria got its independence in 1960 when globalisation and modernisation was on their peak period. As a result, Lagos did not have adequate post-colonial period as identity seeking phase. 104


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

5. The impact of modernisation The impact of modernisation in Lagos could be felt directly after the independence through the creation of international style throughout the city. The new born country wanted to show their status to the world by implementing modernisation in their developments. It resulted in poor environmental and cultural values. Although, there has been an effort to consider cultural values in architectural developments, the manifestation this New West African style is very minimum to give contributions in urban scale. 6. Environmental considerations The new developments in Lagos indicate small amount of consideration to environmental condition. However, the establishment of Nigeria Green Building Council indicates the motivation of Lagos and Nigeria to create sustainable design in the future, even though the status of the council is still under prospective category. This study proves that the rich culture of Awori people with advanced mud technology and social living style did not give any contribution to the implementation of Lagos modernisation. Neither did the Brazilian Architecture. Currently, they are just part of heritage buildings to be preserved. Therefore, the latest developments in Lagos indicate certain detachment from its origin. There is no consideration towards historical, social, and cultural values. While the world moves to create sustainable design as a response to climate changes, the developments of architecture in Lagos still focus on international style. However, the intention to develop New West African Style shows some potential in the creation of architectural resistance in Lagos and Nigeria. This could be the starting point of Lagos to develop its architectural resistance. As a conclusion, although Lagos had a rich culture during pre-colonisation and went through a proper acculturation process to create vernacular architecture, Lagos has poor architectural resistance towards globalisation. In addition to that, Lagos is still on its starting point to build its architectural resistance, to create architecture with good environmental performance and rich cultural values. In the same time, Lagos is still on its effort to show its values to the international world.

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

3.2.3 Rio de Janeiro The new developments in Rio de Janeiro indicate the implementation of international style with fully glazed facades. However, there has been a reaction from local culture to the inevitable globalisation and modernisation in Rio de Janeiro. The creation of tropical modernism architecture has been a good example to show architectural resistance in responding to globalisation and modernisation. The chronological analysis below will elaborate the architectural resistance in Brazil, particularly in Rio. 1. The characteristics of pre-colonial architecture Pre-colonial architecture in Rio was very primitive with-semi nomadic living style. Tupi people as part of native Indian people strongly depended on nature to survive. This could be seen through their settlements which were made from branches and leaves without any particular artistic decoration. 2. The period of colonisation The Portuguese conquered the city for around 320 years resulted in dramatic changes in Rio de Janeiro architectural style. As a result, European Baroque style was developed throughout the city. This period was very crucial in determining the architecture of Rio. 3. The adaptation to create vernacular architecture The vernacular architecture of Brazil and Rio was taken from its colonial architecture brought by the Portuguese. This could happen because the Portuguese Colonial architecture nicely fit to Rio de Janeiro coastal climate, apart from humidity and temperature. (Goodwin, 1943) 4. The period of Post-Colonisation Brazil got its independence in 1822. Since then the post-colonisation period of Brazil took place. During this time Brazil settled as a nation without depending on other countries. In architecture, Rio continued the European Baroque architecture as their identity. This happened until 1930 when modernisation first introduced to Rio. 5. The impact of modernisation The impact of modernisation in Rio did not directly affect architectural developments without any adaptations. There was a time when tropical modernism architecture was developed as a reaction to International Style. This reaction was a

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

result of architectural resistance in Brazil and Rio. However, the fully glazed faรงade buildings dominate the recent developments and replace the spirit of tropical modernism. 6. Environmental considerations Most of the new developments in Rio de Janeiro consider the importance of environmental performance. This could be seen through a few projects with LEED certificate. In addition to that, Brazil Green Building Council is one of the 21 countries with established status. This indicates that Brazil and Rio underline the significance of environmental consideration in architectural design. This chronological study indicates that Rio had low technology during their traditional civilisation. In addition to that, the vernacular architecture in Rio was almost the same with Portuguese Colonial architecture without complex acculturation process. However, Rio has a certain level of architectural resistance as a response towards globalisation. This architectural resistance could be seen through the development of tropical modernism. Despite their strong resistance towards globalization, the new developments are highly influenced by International Style, as shown in the chronological diagram of Rio de Janeiro (Figure. 123). However, there have been some considerations towards environmental conditions in the new developments. This could be seen through some new developments which were designed to be able to get LEED certificate. To sum up, in spite of having low technology in pre-colonial civilisation and less complex acculturation process in vernacular architecture, Rio de Janeiro has a certain level of Architectural Resistance. However, this Architectural Resistance is declining and getting weaker in the new developments. Although the new developments in Rio de Janeiro have considered the environmental performance to tackle climate changes, but they lack social, cultural, and historical identity. 3.2.4 Comparison of Case Studies 3.2.4.1 Comparison Analysis This sub-chapter will analyse and compare the architectural resistance of the three case studies through 3 examinations. All of these analyses will formulate conclusion in architectural resistance. These examinations are:

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1.

The overlaying of the architectural timeline to compare the three case studies in terms of time difference and phasing in architectural evolution.

2.

The table of comparison in architectural evolution to compare the changes in architectural style for each period.

3.

The basic points of Critical Regionalism from Kenneth Frampton to understand each reaction towards globalisation.

Comparison of Architectural Timeline This comparison will focus on the phasing of architectural evolution. Figure 124 compares the architectural evolution timeline in the three case studies. There are a few similarities and differences in terms of phasing in architectural evolution. The similarities are: 1.

All of them went through pre-colonial, colonial, globalisation, and green movement period in their architectural evolution in almost the same order.

2.

All of them went through colonisation period for a long time. This long period replaced the pre-colonial architecture with colonial architecture.

3.

In the end of colonisation period, there was acculturation process to create vernacular architecture, Mumbai with its Indo Saracenic Style, Lagos with Brazilian Style, while Rio with its Portuguese Baroque Style.

On the other hand, the differences are: 1.

There is a time when Mumbai was under Islamic colonisation before European Colonisation. This local colonisation influenced the creation of vernacular architecture in Mumbai.

2.

Mumbaiâ€&#x;s independence was almost in the same time with the end of World War II. Therefore, Mumbai had to deal with both globalisation and identity seeking phase in the same time. This affected the implementation of International Style in Mumbai.

3.

Lagosâ€&#x; independence was a few years after World War II. During this time, globalisation was on its peak period. Therefore, there was a force for Lagos to develop fast and compete with other countries through the implementation of modernisation.

4.

Rio de Janeiroâ€&#x;s independence was long before globalisation. This indicated that Rio had a proper post-colonial period as the identity seeking phase. Therefore, Rio had adequate time to settle down as a city with its own identity. This influenced the architectural resistance of Rio de Janeiro. 108


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Figure 124 Comparison of Architectural Evolution Timeline of Three Case Studies

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Comparison of Architectural Evolution The comparison of architectural evolution will focus on changes in architectural style. The analysis will be conducted based on table 8. It describes the evolution of architectural style in different period in the three case studies. Through table 8, it could be concluded that: 1.

Mumbai and Lagos had richer and more advanced pre-colonial architecture. Not only in terms of building technology, but also in terms of materials, ornaments, arts, and even social life. While pre-colonial architecture in Rio was temporary semi nomadic settlements.

2.

Mumbai developed Islamic Architecture during Islamic colonisation.

3.

Mumbai and Lagos went through complex acculturation process in creating their vernacular architectures which were a combination between colonial architecture and their traditional cultures. While vernacular architecture in Rio was the adoption of Portuguese Colonial architecture.

4.

Rio de Janeiro went through a proper post-colonial period. As explained before, during this period Rio developed Portuguese Colonial style as its architectural identity.

5.

During globalisation, Rio developed tropical modernism as the reaction to the implementation of International Style. While Mumbai and Lagos tended to replicate International Style baldly. This phenomenon indicates that Rio has a higher architectural resistance towards globalisation.

6.

Since the Green Movement, the developments of architecture in the three case studies indicate the loss of identity. This could be seen through the similar buildings in Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro.

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Table 8 Table of Changes in Architectural Style in Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro

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The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

Comparison Based on Basic Points of Critical Regionalism from Kenneth Frampton According to Frampton (1983), basic points of Critical Regionalism, discussed in literature review, could not only create architectural identity, but also improve architectural resistance of cities and countries. Therefore these points will be used to analyse and compare the three case studies in terms of architectural resistance. 1. The implementation of technology in a smart way While Frampton emphasized on the contextual site as the restriction of the usage of technology, the developments in the three case studies indicate different level of contextual consideration in the implementation of technology. The contextual consideration of Mumbai and Lagos could be considered minimum. Their post-colonial developments were dominated by imported International Style without proper adaptation. However, in Rio, there was an adaptation process in the implementation of technology to create tropical modernism architecture. For instance, the usage of braise soleil into their design was a response to tropical climate; the usage of structural technology in Niteroi Contemporary Art Museum emphasized the contextual site, etc. However, the usage of technology in the latest developments in Rio only focused on environmental performances and ignored cultural and historical values. 2. The generation of resistant of identity giving culture The latest developments in the three case studies indicated minimum efforts on resisting their identity culture. In Mumbai and Lagos some architects have tried to consider cultural values in this globalisation era, but their consideration are considered minimum in terms of city scale In Rio de Janeiro, Tropical Modernism developments indicate the generation of identity giving culture. For instance: a. The work of Burle Marx in Copacabana Beach landscape was inspired by Portuguese landscape pattern, b. The mural blue and white pattern in Ministry of Education and Health by artist Candido Portinari used historical materials in a contemporary way.

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Figure 125 Copacabana Beach Landscape Pattern

Figure 126 Ceramic Murral in Ministry of Education and Health

Source: http://www.greekarchitects.gr/site_parts/articles/print.php?article=4198&language=en Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/24151047@N05/2878201311/

3. The consideration of social urbanism Urbanistically, the term placelessness that Peterson used could be seen in the developments of architecture in the 21st century. Ironically, similar buildings could be seen in the three case studies whose culture and social life are different. For Instance, Sunshine Tower in Mumbai, Union Bank in Lagos, and Ventura Tower in Rio have almost the same architectural expression. This condition indicates the loss of identity in the current developments.

Sunshine Tower

Union Bank

Ventura Tower

Mumbai

Lagos

Rio de Janeiro

Figure 127 Comparison of Three Similar Buildings in Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro Source: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1166495&page=4 Source: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1267213 Source: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1096699

4. The consideration of the site condition Kenneth Frampton (1983) stated his point of view regarding the importance of topography, context, climate, light, and tectonic form in the design. Most of the

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new developments have poor relationship with these factors. The developments in the 21st century in Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro have minimum consideration to its context and site condition. However, tropical modernism developments in Rio indicated excellent site considerations. They successfully embraced the site constraints, such as Niteroi Contemporary Art Museum by Oscar Niemeyer. It is located in the rocky cliff and its appearance enriches the contextual site.

Figure 128 Noteroi Contemporary Art Museum Source: http://mimoa.eu/projects/Brazil/Niter%F3i/Niter%F3i%20Contemporary%20Art%20Museum

5. The visual and the tactile Kenneth Frampton (1983) argued that “the capacity of the body to read the environment� has a potential to resist universal technology because of its specific perception towards one environment. The new developments in Mumbai, Lagos and Rio tend to ignore the human experiences because architectures are seen as economic tools. However, the developments of tropical modernism indicate the consideration towards human senses. They put some visual and tactile quality in their appearances, for instance, the Landscape Development along the Coast of Rio by Burle-Marx with its landscape pattern has a quality to trigger human senses, the interior of Metropolitan Cathedral of Rio plays with light and mosaic glass to create quality in its visual and tactile.

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Figure 129 Interior of Metropolitan Cathedral of Rio de Janeiro Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rio_de_Janeiro_Cathedral

3.2.4.2 Conclusion of Architectural Resistance Through those three analyses, a few points could be concluded as the answer of the research question about the architectural resistance and the current developments in Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro. In terms of architectural resistance 1. Every phase in history determined the evolution of the architectural style from time to time. This suggested that architectural style keeps changing following the changes in cities, countries, and the world. 2. Every evolution in architectural style will involve acculturation process. This indicates the reaction of each cities and countries in adopting any outside influences. However, the level of adaptation are varies from one place to another depends on their architectural resistance. 3. The period between independence and modernisation played an important role in creating architectural resistance. This could be seen in the comparison of architectural timeline. Rio went through a long post-colonisation period as the identity seeking phase. During this period Rio developed Portuguese Baroque style as its architectural identity. This enabled Rio and Brazil to „settle downâ€&#x; as a city and a country before facing modernisation. Therefore, there was a counter reaction in the implementation of modernisation and globalisation in Rio by the creation of tropical modernism. While Mumbai and Lagos had to deal with both identity seeking period and globalisation in the same time. As a result they tend to replicate the International Style baldly and their reactions towards globalisation just happen recently after a few years of failure. 115


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

4. The level of architectural resistance in facing globalisation does not depend on the advanced civilisation during pre-colonisation. This could be seen through the analysis above. Mumbai and Lagos had an advanced pre-colonial civilisation with stone and mud architecture. In addition to that, their living styles have indicated the high level of social living. However, their architectural resistances in facing globalisation were not as strong as Rio de Janeiro whose pre-colonial civilisation was semi-nomadic with temporary settlements. 5. The level of acculturation process in creating vernacular architecture during colonisation does not guarantee a high level of architectural resistance towards globalisation. This could be seen through the developments of vernacular architecture in Mumbai and Lagos. They went through a complex acculturation process between colonial architecture and traditional architecture. On the other hand, in Rio de Janeiro, the vernacular architecture was adopted from Portuguese colonial architecture. However, during modernisation, Rio indicated better architectural resistance towards globalisation through the creation of tropical modernism. 6. The study of architectural resistance by using basic points of Critical Regionalism indicates that Rio de Janeiro has a higher resistance towards globalisation and modernisation compared to Mumbai and Lagos. However, this resistance were still just a reaction instead of acculturation. This could be seen through some new developments in Rio which indicate lack of identity. 7. In terms of climate changes, the developments of architecture in the three case studies indicate different efforts to give their contribution to environment. Brazil and India indicate their serious concern in responding climate changes through the creation of Green Building Council. Both of them are among the only 21 countries with Establish GBC status in the world. On the other hand, Nigeria is just starting its attempt to respond towards climate changes. This could be seen through the creation Nigeria Green Building Council. Although it is still under Prospective GBC status, this motivation indicates the Nigeria potential to contribute towards climate changes through architecture. It could be said that architectural resistance neither depends on how rich the ancient civilisation was, nor how sophisticated the vernacular architecture was. However, it depends on the post-colonial period as identity seeking. Countries with a proper time to 116


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

settle themselves, to create and understand their own identity have better resistance towards influences from outside. This identity seeking period was a phase to settle down, to free from colonisation influences, and to form their cultural identity. This affected not only architectural developments, but also social and economic condition. Because of this identity seeking phase, cities and countries had a chance for acculturation process between local culture and globalisation. As a result, besides the Critical Regionalism discussed in Literature Review, the identity seeking period determined the development of architectural resistance in each city. Therefore, in the current world, the allowance of acculturation process between modernisation and local values is important to not only create architectural identity, but also improve the architectural resistance of cities. In terms of the current developments in the three case studies 1. In Mumbai, The latest developments in Mumbai are dominated by International Style. This indicates certain detachment with their original culture. However, there have been some efforts from some architects, like Charles Correa, to create architecture which derived from their local climate, culture, social, and historical. This indicates Mumbaiâ€&#x;s effort to retrieve its identity. In addition to that, there have been certain attempts to environmental consideration. This could be seen through some developments with LEED certificates. In overall, Mumbai is on its way to develop its architectural resistance, to create architecture which could represent Mumbaiâ€&#x;s culture and history with a good environmental performance. 2. In Lagos, The latest developments in Lagos are highly influenced by International Style. The tendency to boost its economic and international status forced them to duplicate International Style baldly. As a result, there is a huge detachment in the current Lagos with their original culture. However, some architects have been trying to create architecture based on the local context and climate through the creation of New West African Style. Although their implications are still consider very minimum in terms of urban scale, but this intention indicates the potential of Lagos developments. To sum up, Lagos is still on its starting point to build its

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architectural

resistance,

to

create architecture with

good environmental

performance and rich cultural values. 3. In Rio de Janeiro, The latest developments in Rio de Janeiro are indicating certain awareness towards environmental condition. This could be seen through some buildings with LEED certificate. However, most of these designs indicate lack of cultural and historical values. As a conclusion, the Architectural Resistance in Rio is declining and getting weaker in the new developments. Although the new developments in Rio de Janeiro have considered the environmental performance to tackle climate changes, but they lack social, cultural, and historical identity. Therefore, there is a need to retrieve its architectural resistance to create architecture with cultural and historical identity. All of these conditions indicate the need of improvements in architectural resistance, not only in Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro, but also in other cities around the world. Therefore, through these studies, the lessons for future developments will be extracted. The future recommendations will not only address the influences of globalisation, but also enhance architectural resistance of each city.

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CHAPTER IV LESSON LEARNT AND FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS The objective of this chapter is to answer the research question regarding the possible improvements to mitigate the globalisation and to improve the quality of architectural resistance. All of these analyses will be extracted to generate long term sustainable future designs. This chapter is also a response to the discussion in the literature review that the current sustainable approach tends to ignore the cultural values. As what McMinn and Polo (2005) argued that to create future sustainable buildings; the design should be made based on not only technical, programmatic, and typological approach, but also cultural, aesthetic and material manifestations to create identity. This is admitted by Ritter (2011) that ―sustainable architecture requires architectural culture to understand and contribute to the harmonization of ecology and technology.‖ He used the diagram below to indicate the importance of culture along with technology and ecology in sustainable developments.

Figure 130 Sustainable Development Diagram Source: Ritter, 2011

To extract some future recommendations, it is important to understand the creation of architectural identity in architectural history. Therefore, the diagram illustrated below indicates the evolution of architectural style in relation to the history in each case study. Through this diagram, the creation of architectural identity, the reaction of architectural resistance, and the influences of modernisation and globalisation could be understood.

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Figure 131 Pattern Diagram of The Evolution of Architecture in Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro

The diagram above shows a few similarities as a pattern in the creation of architectural identity. The three cities developed their traditional architecture based on the knowledge they possessed during pre-colonisation. Because of colonisation, the changes in architectural style were quite significant. In the implementation of colonial architecture, there was adaptation and acculturation process which resulted in vernacular architecture as new identity. The implementation of International Style was a replication of what had happened during colonisation. It was imported from outside and it was implemented in tropical countries. Thus, modernisation could be said as the 2nd colonisation. Looking at this cycle, the creation of future sustainable developments could be a replication of what happened during the creation of vernacular architecture. It will go through selection, adaptation, and acculturation processes towards local climate, social and cultural condition. It will create new identity for each place as a balance between globalisation and local culture. In addition to that, due to climate changes considerations, future sustainable developments should incorporate environmental concerns in their design.

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Through all of the analyses in this dissertation, some possible improvements could be extracted to determine what should be done for future sustainable developments to optimise globalisation and improve architectural resistance of cities. They are: 1. In terms of globalisation. Optimise the positive influences of globalisation. Globalisation has brought a few positive points in not only architecture, but also economics, urban, social, etc. Therefore, keeping involved in the current contemporary world is important without neglecting cultural and environmental considerations. To achieve this, architects should: 

Optimise the new typology of high rises as possible solutions to urban problems in a sustainable way. Besides its capacity to go vertically to manage high density urban population, there are a few benefits of being tall and high which should be optimised by respecting the climate condition and creating a balance between economics and socio culture.

Optimise the power of globalisation in economics to improve the cities and countries developments.

Optimise the usage of technology, not to create alienation in architecture, but to enhance: the vernacular positive impacts, the contextual site, the cultural values, and the better environmental performance.

Optimise carefully the usage of imported materials as a complementary to improve the performance of the local materials without compromising the quality.

Optimise the new technology in construction as a way to create a better working conditions, low emission developments, and better final products.

Minimize the negative influences of globalisation As analysed before, globalisation has given more negative implications in architecture. However, architects should not leave globalisation behind and be separated from the world. Architects should minimize and counter the negative influences to create a better sustainable future. To achieve this, architects should: 

Avoid centralised development on particular places or cities to balance the urbanisation process. In addition to that, local authorities should introduce 121


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

modernisation to a few satellite cities and suburban areas without destroying their originality. Therefore, the improvements of living standard without urbanisation could be achieved. However, urbanisation is a complex urban problem which involves economics, politics, socio-cultures, educations, etc. The improvements in other aspects are also essential to control the number of urbanisation. 

Avoid treating architecture as economic tools only. It is important to bring architecture back to its path as cultural and social representation without losing its economic power.

Avoid scepticism towards regionalism by balancing the modernisation with regional and local values.

Avoid the creation of placelesness and meaningless architecture. The new developments have to be able to create architecture, which is specific to its site, and consider the climate, culture, social, historical, and urban condition.

Avoid over dependence on technology without considering its implication towards environment and socio culture. Hence, it is important to use advanced technology to improve vernacular values in tropical countries and achieve better environmental performances.

Minimise the usage of imported materials; on the other hand architects should promote local materials.

Avoid the creation of architecture without considering social condition. Thus, architecture not only provides shelter and function, but also accommodates social living spaces. As what Peterson (1995) said that in every development, there should be an interaction between people and architecture.

Avoid the creation of architecture without respecting historical and cultural values. Architecture is the artefact of civilisation; there should be a connection between architecture and history, culture, traditions. Thus, cultural value in architecture is essential as identity representation.

Avoid environmental degradation because of the usage of technology in architecture. New developments of architecture have to maximize

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technology to achieve good environmental performance, low carbon emission, and even a contribution to natural developments.

2. In terms of architectural resistance, As stated in the literature review that Critical Regionalism, which has been developed theoretically since 1980s, could improve the architectural resistance. This theoretical approach will create a design which specific to the site context and could not be placed anywhere in the world. Therefore, the application of Critical Regionalism points will be important to create architectural resistance. Some of them are: 

The implementation of technology should be based on the contextual site. It should be selectively implemented based on: site potentials and constraints; the need of the place; socio, cultural, and historical values; and environmental condition

Every place has their identity giving culture as a resistance. Therefore every architectural product should generate this resistance without avoiding modernisation. Architecture has to generate the resistant of identity giving culture by embracing its meaning, symbolic values, history, or socio cultural aspects into new developments.

Architecture is located not only on the site, but in urban situation which is part of certain boundaries of cities and cultures. Therefore, the creation of architecture has to respect this „boundaries‟ not by physical appearances, but by the creation of architectural style as cultural identity. This could be achieved through the consideration of urban context, the integration with socio cultural, and the enhancement of uniqueness of the place.

Architecture has to respect the site conditions which covers topography, context, climate, light, tectonic, etc, as something that should be enhanced rather than neglected. This means that there should be a dialogue between architectural products with its physical environments.

Architecture as part of human life should allow the interaction with human senses. The five senses of human body have the ability to read and feel particular environments. Therefore, every creation of architecture should enhance and trigger the human senses as the capability to improve 123


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

architectural resistance. To achieve this, Kenneth Frampton (1983, p.28) emphasized on : ―… the intensity of light and darkness, heat and cold, the feeling of humidity, the aroma or material, the almost palpable presence of masonry..., the momentum of an induce gait, and the relative inertia of the body as it traverses the floor, the echoing resonance …‖ However, apart from those Critical Regionalism points, the creation of architectural resistance relates strongly with the „allowance of time and space in identity seeking period for acculturation processes. This research indicates that cities and countries with proper post-colonisation period tend to have a stronger architectural resistance towards globalisation. Although, not all countries and cities have the proper postcolonial period before globalisation, every country and city has the ability to improve their architectural resistance by: 

Creating an opportunity for acculturation between modernisation and local culture in architecture. This acculturation process is essential to not only create developments which suit the cultural and climate condition, but also improve architectural identity.

Considering socio cultural values in every architectural process. This consideration is important to preserve the definition of place by emphasizing architecture as meta-memory machine. This term is used by Tzonis and Lefaivre (1981) as a definition of architecture to embrace the memory and experience of the users.

Generating two ways mutualism between globalisation and local values. This could be done by optimising modernisation to enrich local values, and embracing local values to enhance globalisation opportunities.

Supporting modern regionalist architects who try to adapt modernisation in the local context through selective filtering. This effort could generate the creation of cultural identity in particular places.

Designing long term sustainable buildings. This means that the design should have good environmental performance; in the same time it has to emphasize cultural, aesthetic, and material manifestations to create identity.

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3. In terms of sustainability, Discussing about the influences of globalisation and architectural resistance cannot be separated from sustainability in architecture. Sustainability in architecture covers not only environmental performance and energy consumption, but also cultural identity. The possible improvements in sustainability are listed below. 

An effort to create architecture of identity is not an effort to go back to the past, but it is an effort to go forward for future developments. Therefore, mimicking or replicating the past will just create a failure in architectural developments. Thus, the adoption of vernacular architecture should incorporate its „meaning‟ instead of its „appearances‟

Although it is an effort to go forward for future developments, historical and vernacular values should be considered. Just like what Guy, Simon, and Farmer (2000, p. 81) stated that taking the inspiration from vernacular architecture could create a better future. Therefore, architects should see cultural and historical values not as contradictory towards globalisation, but as

complementary

of

modernisation

and

inspiration

for

future

developments. 

Environmental considerations should be implemented carefully to achieve better environmental performance with minimum energy consumption, low embodied energy, and low carbon emission. Therefore, there will be a harmonious relationship between architecture and nature in future developments. However, it is important not to ignore cultural and social values. Just like what McMinn and Polo (2005) suggested, to create a long term sustainable buildings, architecture has to deal with not only technical approach, but also cultural, aesthetic, and material manifestations.

In overall, the future sustainable designs should: respect the environmental conditions, improve environmental building performances, add values to urban context, embrace communal social life, enrich cultural values, and represent cultural identity.

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CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION This dissertation was conducted to address the cultural identity criticism in the current developments through the exploration of globalisation and architectural resistance. Since the past few decades, globalisation and modernisation have greatly influenced the developments of architecture in tropical countries. As consequences, local culture has faded away and it has been replaced by new concept of modernisation. There has been some research focusing on this issue, but the previous research seemed to focus only on theoretical approaches and put historical evident aside. Therefore, this dissertation was carried out to fill the missing link between theoretical approaches and historical practices through exploration of real examples. The focus of this research was only limited to wet and dry tropical climate or savannah tropical climate in Koppen climate classification. This study also focused on cities which are predicted to be Mega Cities in 2015, according to the study from United Nations. In addition to that, the analysis of this dissertation only emphasized on the architectural evolution as the representative of culture, socio-economic, environment and place identity. This architectural evolution was examined in relations to globalisation and architectural resistance. The aims of this dissertation were: to learn from the past about influences of globalisation in tropical climate, to understand factors determined the architectural resistance of cities in facing globalisation, and to create possible improvements for future sustainable developments. To achieve this aim, a few research questions were addressed: 1. What are the influences of Globalisation and Modernisation into Tropical Architecture? 2. a. What determined the architectural resistance of cities in facing globalisation? b. How detached are the current architectural developments from their local and vernacular architecture? 3. What should be done to improve the current developments, to optimise globalisation, and to develop architectural resistance of cities? In answering these questions, the dissertation has been conducted by: discussing a few theoretical approaches in literature review, exploring three case studies (Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro) based on the evolution of architectural style, examining the influences 126


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

of globalisation through comparison table, analysing the architectural resistance through comparison

diagram

of

architectural

timeline,

and

extracting

possible

future

improvements. All of the analyses in this dissertation have been conducted in terms of city scale as a whole. Therefore the analyses did not focus on one and particular building. Some buildings were taken only as samples of each case study to represent the general conditions of the city. Besides that, the dissertation was taken in 2011. Therefore, the research samples and the case studies condition were examined based on the architectural evolution until the time when the dissertation was conducted. To answer the three research questions, the conclusion will be separated into three parts following the order of the research questions. The influences of globalisation and modernisation into tropical architecture This part of Chapter V will summarise the conclusion of the influences of globalisation which has been conducted in Chapter 3.1.4.2. The research on the influences of globalisation and modernisation into tropical architecture resulted in two conclusions. 1.

The Influences of Globalisation Which Affected the Three Case Studies in Similar Ways The analysis indicates that globalisation resulted in some positive and negative influences in the three case studies in almost similar way. This is caused by a few similarities in their backgrounds, in terms of: climate characteristics, huge number of populations, economic forces to compete with other countries, long period of colonisation by European Countries. In general, the positive influences of globalisation have resulted in: possible solutions towards high density urban problems because of the implementation of tall building typology, economic developments, regional and international recognitions, advanced technology to create flexibility in architectural design, new materials to improve environmental performance, and faster and more precise new construction methods. On the other hand, the negative influences of globalisation have caused: the increment in number of urbanisation because of the pulling factors of globalisation, the usage of architecture as economic and business purposes, westernisation thinking in 127


The Influences of Globalisation and Architectural Resistance within Tropical Climate by: Willie Yogatama, University of Nottingham

architecture, lack of identity, over reliance on technology in architecture, high building costs and high embodied energy due to imported materials, lack of social and cultural values, and environmental degradation which leads to climate changes and global warming. In overall, the majority of the negative influences are caused by lack of adaptation in the implementation of modernisation. Therefore, in the developments of International Style, it is important to optimize the positive influences of globalisation, minimize its negative influences, and adapt them into the local context such as social, cultural, and historical values of the cities. 2. The Influences of Globalisation Which only Affected Rio de Janeiro The analysis indicates that the implementation of globalisation in Rio de Janeiro was reacted by the creation of tropical modernism architecture. Therefore, Rio has more positive influences of globalisation in terms of social, cultural, and architectural style. This tropical modernism was defined as a new identity of architecture in Brazil, it was derived from its contextual site such as climate and social condition, and it tried to address cultural and historical values. This indicates that Rio de Janeiro and Brazil have a certain level of architectural resistance in facing globalisation. Factors determined the architectural resistance and its relation to the current developments This part of Chapter V will summarise the conclusion of architectural resistance which has been conducted in Chapter 3.2.4.2. The analysis indicates that Mumbai and Lagos had advanced pre-colonization histories. In addition to that Mumbai and Lagos went through complex acculturation processes in the creation of their vernacular architectures. However, Mumbai and Lagos did not have a proper post-colonisation period between their independence and the implementation of globalisation. Therefore, they had to deal with both identity seeking period and globalisation in the same time. Because of this limitation, they tend to be influenced by globalisation with minimal adaptation to their social, cultural, and historical condition. On the other hand, Rio de Janeiro had less advanced civilization during its pre-colonial architecture. In addition to that, Rio adopted Portuguese Colonial architecture as their vernacular architecture. However, Rio de Janeiro passed through a proper post-colonisation 128


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period as the identity seeking phase between independence and globalisation. As a result, the research shows that Rio has better architectural resistance towards globalisation compared to Mumbai and Lagos. Therefore, a few points determined the architectural resistance are extracted below. 1. Architectural style in each city and country keeps evolving following the changes in cities, countries, and the world condition. 2. Every change in architectural evolution involves acculturation process to adapt outside influences. 3. The period between independence and modernisation played an important role in creating architectural resistance towards globalisation. 4. Architectural resistance towards globalisation depends on neither how rich the traditional and pre-colonial civilisation, nor how strong the vernacular architecture. However, it depends on the identity seeking phase in the post-colonisation period. Cities with proper post-colonisation period tend to have higher resistance towards globalisation. 5. This identity seeking phase allowed cities and countries to have a chance for acculturation process between local culture and globalisation. Therefore the allowance of acculturation process between modernisation and local values is important to not only improve the architectural resistance of cities, but also create architectural identity. The analysis to the current developments of Mumbai, Lagos, and Rio de Janeiro indicates that they are relatively detached from their origin in a different way. 1. The current developments of Mumbai indicate the influences of International Style. However, Mumbai is on its way to retrieve its architectural resistance through the creation of some developments inspired by culture and history. Although their impact is still minimum, but this indicates the potential of Mumbai. Therefore Mumbai is progressing to create architecture which could represent Mumbai culture and history with good environmental performances. 2. The latest developments in Lagos still bluntly replicate the International Style buildings. Therefore, Lagos is just on its starting point to build its architectural resistance up. This could be felt recently through some intentions from a few

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architects to create architecture with good environmental performances and rich cultural values. 3. The latest developments in Rio indicate the declination of its architectural resistance. The architectural resistance showed during 1930s – 1990s through the creation of tropical modernism seemed to fade away due to globalisation forces. The current developments seem to seek only environmental performances and economic demands, but ignore cultural and historical values. Lesson Learnt and Future Recommendations to Improve the Current Developments This part of Chapter V will summarise the possible improvements for future developments which have been conducted in Chapter IV. The lesson learnt from the analyses resulted in some possible improvements to create better sustainable future. In overall, these recommendations are divided into three categories according to the analyses. 1. In terms of globalisation. The new architectural developments have to optimise the positive influences of globalisations. However, more importantly, the future developments should minimise the negative influences of globalisation. This could be done by selective filtering in implementing modernisation based on the contextual site. 2. In terms of architectural resistance. The new developments have to integrate the spirit of Critical Regionalism. This theoretical approach could not only improve architectural resistance, but also enhance architectural identity. In addition to that, it is essential to understand the importance of identity seeking period. Although, not all countries and cities went through proper post-colonial period before globalisation, every country and city has the ability to improve their architectural resistance by: creating an opportunity for acculturation between modernisation and local culture in architecture, considering socio cultural values in every architectural process, enriching local values by optimising modernisation, and supporting modern regionalist architects. 3. In term of sustainability. The future developments should not replicate the past, but it should be inspired by the history and traditions. It means that future developments should adopt the „meaning‟ of local and vernacular architecture instead of mimicking its „appearance‟. Moreover, the new developments should aim to create long term 130


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sustainable buildings which not only possess good environmental performance, but also manifest cultural and social identity. Through those analyses, it is expected that future developments will create architectures which: represent cultural identity, involve in globalisation world, possess good architectural resistance, and address environmental considerations. Just like what Paul Riceour (1961) said that taking lesson from the past is essential to create a better future. This dissertation was conducted by looking at the past and history, to learn from it, so that we could avoid repeating the same mistakes. In addition to that, this dissertation resulted in some possible improvements which could help architects to create long term sustainable designs in tropical cities, especially in the three case studies. Moreover, this dissertation could also contribute to the other research focusing on architectural identity, globalisation, architectural resistance, and sustainability. This dissertation was conducted by analysing, comparing and contrasting the architectural evolution in three case studies based on the perspective of city as a whole. Future research might look into more depth on each city by referring to this dissertation as the basic literature review and the starting point. Every city in the case studies is on their own phase to retrieve and develop their architectural resistance. In addition to that, they are facing different future challenges. According to Government of Maharashtra (2004), Mumbai has an ambition to be World-Class City. On the other hand, Rem Koolhaas has mentioned through his research that Lagos has the potential to be the city of the future (Koolhaas, R. and van der Haark, B, 2002). Furthermore, Rio de Janeiro is planning its massive developments in facing World Cup 2014 and Olympic 2016 which will change the „faceâ€&#x; of Rio. Therefore, deeper research focusing on one of the case studies could enrich this dissertation to create more specific future recommendations. In addition to that, this dissertation could give some contributions to improve the current sustainable assessments, such as BREEAM and LEED. This dissertation proves that sustainable assessments tend to focus only on environmental performance of sustainability, and ignore cultural and historical values. It is hoped that through this criticism, some future research on sustainable assessments could be conducted. Therefore, they will consider not only quantitative and technical aspects of environmental performance, but also qualitative sides such as cultural and social values. Without these considerations, the future

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developments will face the same problems as the current architecture which lacks cultural identity, historical values, and social aspects.

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APENDIX The appendix gives the detail information of buildings discussed and used in the case studies of this dissertation. MUMBAI Traditional and Pre-Colonial Architecture The Jogeshwari Caves The Jogeshwari Caves is one of the earliest Hindu temples in Mumbai. It was built in the year of 520-550 AD when Mumbai was under the Kalachuri dynasty. Mainly there are 3 temples with the main temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva, while the 2 others are dedicated to Lord Ganesha and Godess Jodeshwari in Hindu Religion. The Mandapeshwar Caves Mandapeshwar Caves is another Hindu temple in Mumbai that is dedicated to Lord Shiva. It was built 1500 years ago The Elephanta Caves The Elephanta Caves is the most famous among the oldest Hindu caves in Mumbai. Just like the 2 others, it was built as a dedication to Lord Shiva of Hindu which could be seen through the statues inside. It is still unclear about the builder of this caves, but the evident shows that the cave was under a regime of a few indigenous empires, such as Konkan Mauryas, the Kalachuris, the Chalukyas, the Silharas and the Rashtrakutas. Walkeshwar Temple and Banganga Tank The Shiva Temple situated in Walkeshwar, Malabar Hill, Mumbai with its Banganga Tank, a water tank. The temple, which was known as Baan Ganga Temple, was built in 1172 by Lakhsman Prabu. However, during the colonisation of Portuguese, it was destroyed until 1715 when Rama Kamath, a businessman and philanthropist rebuilt the temple with his own resources.

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The Ambarnath Temple The Ambarnath Temple was built in 1060, the reign of Silhara Dynasty, and it was dedicated to Lord Shiva of Hindu. The Ambarnath, whose name means “Lord of the Sky�, is located nearby Mumbai, in the Thane District. It is made out of stone, beautifully carved in Hemad style construction. Haji Ali Dargah Mosque Haji Ali Dargah Mosque was the oldest mosque still exists right now. It was built in 1431, under the empire of Sultan Ahmed Shah of Gujarat. It is located on the coast of Worli in Mahim, the burial site of Makhtum Fakir Ali Paru, a Sufi priest. Mahim Dargah Mahim Dargah is a dargah for Makhdoom Ali Mahimi, a Sufi saint in Islamic Religion. It is the olders dargah in Mumbai which was built in around 1500s. It is the only dargah in Mumbai whose dome is more than one, even it has 5 domes. Inside the dargah, there is a tomb for his mother, tombs, of his maid servant, and hit pet goat. Colonial Architecture St Andrew Church in Bandra, Mumbai St Andrew Church was built in 1575 by the Portuguese Jesuits and the only Portuguese Church still fully stands today. The influence of European style is very visible in its architecture style, showing a contrast of what traditional architecture exists before, such as Hindu Temples and Islamic Mosques. Castella de Aguada, Bandra, Mumbai Castella de Aguada (Fort of the Waterpoint) or Bandra Fort is one of the Portuguese architecture that still could be seen until now. Although it is just part of the ruins of the Portuguese fort, Castella de Aguada is one of the heritages building in Mumbai. Architecturally, this fort was built by the stones existed near the area. Mahim Fort The beginning of Mahim Fort is unclear with no one knows about it. The first history of Mahim Fort until now is when Dom Joao de Monoy, the Portuguese commander, took over xiv


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the fort. Since then the fort became a skirmishes between the Islamic Sultan of Gujarat with the Portuguese. Bombay Castle Bombay Castle was built by Garcia de Orta, Portuguese nobleman, as the first defensive structure built in Mumbai. It was built of local India stones which were blue Kurla and red Laterite from the Konkan region. Rajabai Clock Tower The Clock Tower was designed by famous English Architect George Gilbert Scott who designed Big Ben in London. The construction finished in 1878 by the support of the money of Premchand Roychand, prosperous broker at that time. The name of Rajabai came from Roychandâ€&#x;s mother who was blind, and the evening bell of the clock helped her to know the time for her Jain Religious schedule. Victoria Station Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly known as Mumbai Victoria Terminus (abbreviated as VT) was built in 1887. It was designed by a British consultant, Fredric William Stevens. Its Victorian Gothic Style is clearly seen from its flying buttresses, engraved stone friezes, and stained glass windows. The Gateway of India The Gateway of India was built in 1911 to celebrate the visit of King George V and Queen Mary. It was designed with the influence of Muslim and Hindu Architecture. The acculturation of European architecture with local and traditional architecture is clearly seen from the usage of Muslim arch shape and Hindu decoration details. The gateway was made from yellow basalt and reinforced concrete, which was the technology from Europe at that time. Taj Mahal Palace Taj Mahal Palace is a 5 stars hotel containing 565 rooms, designed by Indian architects, Sitaram Khanderao Vaidya, Ashok kumar and D. N. Mirza, during the colonisation period.

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Prince of Wales Museum of Western India The development of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Sastu Shangrahalay, formerly known as Prince of Wales Museum of Western India, was started in 1905 and finished in 1914. It is designed by Architect George Wittet as a memorial to the visit of King George V which had been Prince of Wales at that time. Post-Colonial Architecture Kanchanjunga Apartments One architecturally notable example is Charles Correa's Kanchanjunga Apartments, which applies the indigenous protective verandah typology to the modern high-rise. LAGOS Colonial Architecture Iga Iduganran Iga Iduganran was built by the Portuguese at the end of 18th century. It was designed in a totally different style with what existed there before. Right now it is the official residence of the Oba of Lagos. CMS House CMS House was built in 1852 when Lagos was not officially under the British. However, its components were prefabricated in the UK and brought to Lagos by the British from Badagry by the Rev Gollner. The typology was new at that time; it was the first 2 storey height of housing. It was named as “Ile Alapako� or the House of Planks by the native African. Christ Cathedral Lagos Christ Cathedral of Lagos, designed by Benjamin Bagadogi, is always one of the most important churches in Lagos until now. It was built in 1867 as the first Anglican Church by the British Colonial. Architecturally, it was designed in European Norman Gothic Style which was new for Lagos Architecture.

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Holy Cross Cathedral Holy Cross Cathedral was built in 1878 as Catholic Cathedral in Lagos. The Catholic repatriates came back from forced exiled in 1838, formed a community which called themselves as Brazilian community. During their slavery time, they learn Brazil culture, language, and even religion. Therefore, they continued their Catholic practices they got in Brazil and formed a Catholic Community as the beginning of the Catholic Church in Lagos. Architecturally, it was designed with a huge influence of Portuguese architecture in Brazil. Glover Memorial hall Glover Memorial Hall was built in 1887 on the land donated by Madam Tinubu. It was a memorial to Glover because of his achievement in extending the Marina, constructing Broad Stree, and creating settlements for Egba refugees. It was demolished to be rebuilt in 1963 by Watkins Grey. The Original Supreme Court The Supreme Court was built in 1887, located in Tinubu Square as one of the major building during British Colonisation. It was designed in a typical colonial architecture. Methodist Church Methodist Church built in Tinubu Square in 1865 as. At the beginning, the tower was not included in the original designed to be added later. High Court Building High Court Building was designed in Watkins and Partner in 1950. The building represent a strong Colonial Style, which was common in public and administrative buildings at that time. The European Style could be seen through its carved walls detail which strongly relates to the classical order. Bank of British, Lagos Bank of British of West Africa building was built in 1890s as a British Overseas Bank for countries under UK colonisation in West Africa. This bank was the first modern bank introduced to Nigeria and the other West Africa countries.

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St George’s Hall St George‟s Hall is a Masonic Hall building built in 1907 designed by architect Bro. J.L.Wilde under the supervision of building operator Bro.C.W.Browne. W.Bro.Gibson wrote about St George‟s Hall in 1920 as “the best Masonic Hall on the coast is St. George‟s Lagos.” He added that “It is admirably suited for Masonic business by reason of its upper story. It is lit entirely by electricity and properly ventilated with electric fans. It is practically now used by all the Lodges in Lagos on a rental basis and its architectural beauty adds such a touch of grandeur to the magnificence of Broad Street with its pompous buildings as bespeaks a rising city.” (St George Lodge, 2011) St George‟s Hall has been playing an important role in the English Freemasonry in Nigeria. Although it was built in the 20th century, the architectural designed was very influenced by the colonial European style. House on Odunfa Street This Brazilian House in Lagos was built in 1913 with a very talented craftsmanship on the façade. Yoyo Araromi House This house which belongs to Yoyo Araromi was built as a fine piece of Brazilian Architectural Style in Lagos. It is located at the junction of Tokunbo and Oshodi Street. However, there was not concrete data about the year it was built. It is believed that it was built in the beginning of 20th century. RIO DE JANEIRO Colonial Architecture Gloria Church, Rio de Janeiro Gloria Church in Rio de Janeiro, which was built in Baroque architectural style, was designed by Julio Frederico Koeller and Philippe Garcon Riviere in 1842. This is one of the most important elements as a landmark of Rio urban settlement. The church was built in a similar style, with less complexity on the façade, compared to Baroque churches in Portugal. This could be seen from the comparison with Church of Bom Jesus which is built in Baroque Style in 1722 in Braga, Portugal. Nowadays, the church is restored as protected xviii


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heritage building in Rio de Janeiro by SPHAN (Secretaria do Patrimonio Histórico e Artístico Nacional) as a conservation body. Church and Monastery of Sao Bento / Monastery of St Benedict, Rio de Janeiro The monastery was firstly design by Portuguese engineer, Francisco Frias de Mesquita, but the design was modified by architect Frei Bernardo de São Bento Correia de Souza. It is built on the Hill of St Benedict and it took 38 years from 1633-1671 to build the monastery. The church itself was designed by engineer José Fernandes Pinto Alpoim and it was completed in 1755. From outside the church looks simple, but inside it is rich of details from Portuguese Baroque and Rococo ornaments. Old Cathedral of Rio de Janeiro The Olde Cathedral was called as Igreja de Nossa Senhora do Monte do Carmo da antiga Sé during the Portuguese colonisation. It was the cathedray of Rio de Janeiro from 1808 until 1976 when the new cathedral was built. The cathedral is designed by Manuel Alves Setubal in 1761 and until present time, the cathedral is part of the most important historical buildings in Rio. The cathedral is famous of its interior decoration which was designed by master Inácio Ferreira Pinto, one of the best sculptors in Rio de Janeiro at that time. Architecturally, it was designed in Baroque European Style with Rococo decoration inside in gilded woodwork. Fazenda Colubande Built in the rural area of Rio de Janeiro in the 1620, the complex is compromises of sheds, main house, worker‟s place, and chapel. The strong tropical characteristic and old Brazilian architecture could be felt from the plan with a veranda facing a small courtyard. Right now, one of the olderst building in its area becomes Battalion Police Forestry and Environment of the State Military Police of Rio de Janeiro. Fazenda Vassouras It is built 1703 with a simple, but yet surprising design in the interior. The outside signifies a strong and massive design, but inside, it shows Victorian style interior with their carved jacaranda wood. It is located in the terracing site in the suburban area of Rio de Janeiro.

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Fazenda Garcia Located near Petropolis, in the mountain of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the fazenda stands in a typical design with low tile roof, high basement, and veranda with a good view. As a fazenda, the gardening is made not to encourage harvesting, but to reduce its exuberance. Therefore, the surrounding garden around the fazenda is made to be a forrest. It is built in 1724. Post-Colonial Architecture Itaramati Palace, Rio de Janeiro Designed as residential in 1851 by Jose Maria Jacinto Rebelo, Itamarati transformed itself to be one of the most important government buildings in history. It was the first seat of new republican government in 1889 and right now it is the place for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. It was designed in neo-classical Italian style with the combination of pink stucco and white marble. The building was renovated during the period 1928 to 1930. Ministry of Education and Health The design shows the fresh and careful study of modern design to be applied in tropical climate. The most visible reaction towards the tropical climate is the design of braise soleil to cover the glass faรงade. This was the innovation of the design which influenced the other tropical modernist in Rio de Janeiro. It was by Lucio Costa, Oscar Niemeyer, Alfonso Reidy, Carlos Leao, Jorge Moreira, and Ernani Vasconcelos under the supervision of Le Corbusier in 1937. Although it was designed to fit in tropical climate, but the international style expression in still strongly visible through its clear box design, lifted from the ground as the trade mark of Le Corbusier design. In addition to that, some Portuguese historical values was made through the design of mural walls made from tiles by Candido Portinari. Maracana Stadium As the biggest stadium in the world, Maracana became a landmark for Rio de Janeiro. It was designed in 1950 by a few architects: Pedro Paulo Bastos, Rafael Galvao, Antonio Dias Carneiro, and Orlando Azevedo.

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Associação Comercial e Empresarial Cidade Nova This apartment was designed by Lucio Costa in 1950 as a series of apartment which is called „Nova Cintra‟, „Bristol‟, and „Caledonia‟. The design respect the tropical climate by creating the braise soleil on the façade as the sun shading. It was designed by taking inspiration from the local pattern. These three apartments are identical with slightly different treatment on the façade. Copacabana Beach Front Mosaic and the Landscape of Museum of Modern Art Copacabana promenade pavement landscape was designed by Roberto Burle Marx in 1972. It stretches along Avenida Atlântica for 4 km long with. The designed was inspired from Portuguese pavement with mosaic nice details as part of Brazilians History. This curvilinear pattern could also be found on the lawn of Museum of Modern Art which was designed by Roberto Burle Marx as well in 1963. The Museum is located at Attero do Flamengo, Rio de Janeiro, and the grass pattern was made from different colour of Stenotaphrum secundatum grass. Landscape Development along the Coast of Rio The project was made as an extension of urban landscape designed by Roberto BurleMarx. It was built in 1962 to create a clear traffic circulation, open spaces, and green areas in contrast with the high population of Rio de Janeiro. The program that Governor made was to create parks within the city as the place of cultural institutions, playgrounds, and sports fields. The program of physical outline was managed by Alfonso Reidy. Burle Marx, who is also an artist, had a job to design the park. The design shows the interlocking abstract patterns with the traditional plantings along the coastal region. He had an intention to create a strong relationship with Rio de Janeiro nature and history as the colonisation of Portuguese. In addition to that, it considers the urban and social context of Rio. Architecturally, this project gave a strong identity towards Rio de Janeiro. Metropolitan Cathedral of Rio The new Cathedral of Rio de Janeiro was built from 1964 until 1979 to replace the old churches which had been the cathedral since 1676. The new cathedral is dedicated to Saint Sebastian as the patron saint of Rio de Janeiro. Architecturally, it has an iconic conical form with 96 meters diameter and 75 meters height.

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Niter贸i Contemporary Art Museum The art Museum was designed by Oscar Niemeyer in 1996 and since then, it has been the landmark of Rio de Janeiro. It was designed over Boa Viagem, huge reflecting pool that surrounds the cylindrical creating the look of a flower. Architecturally, it was designed in a modernist structure with new and modern shape. However, due to its success in embracing the context of the site, the designed was considered as a beautiful piece of art in Rio de Janeiro.

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