Issuu on Google+

Karlla boodjah dreaming By Phil Narkle


T

he Artist: Phillip Dempsey Narkle was born at the Moore River Native Settlement in Western Australia. His father’s parents are descendants of the Wilmen Noongyar people an his mother’s people are the Yamigee and Wongatha people from the Murchison North Eastern Goldfields, Central Desert region. Phil lived with his parents in large family groups on Aboriginal reserves at Narrogin, Williams, Moora, York and Perth. He left school at age 13 and then went to work on farms in the Avon Valley. He joined the armed forces as an 18 year old and was stationed with the Third Battalion Royal Australian Regiment in Qld. For the past four decades Phil has worked in Western Australia mainly in welfare, justice and education. During this time Phil has become an accomplished artist and has sold his paintings both within Australia and also on the international market. His work depicts the landscape and native animals from the South West of Western Australia and the Desert Country.

We present this book with the deepest respect and gratitude ........ not wishing to offend ...... etc


Karlla boodjah dreaming By Phil Narkle


Karlla boodjah dreaming By Phil Narkle


Welcome to ‘our’ country

W

elcome, etc etc.

‘Karlla boodjah dreaming’ literally means .... more to come g’ literally means .... more to comeg’ literally means .... more to come ans .... more to comeg’ literally means .... more to come ans .... more to comeg’ literally means .... more to comeans .... mor e to comeg’ literally means .... more to come


Contents Who we are................................................................................................................................................... Aboriginal Groups of the South West of Western Australia................................................................................ The six seasons of Noongar year.....................................................................................................................

Birak............................................................................................................................................................ How our rivers and hills were created ............................................................................................................. Who we are................................................................................................................................................... Aboriginal Groups of the South West of Western Australia................................................................................ The six seasons of Noongar year.....................................................................................................................

Bunuru........................................................................................................................................................ How our rivers and hills were created ............................................................................................................. Who we are................................................................................................................................................... Aboriginal Groups of the South West of Western Australia................................................................................ The six seasons of Noongar year.....................................................................................................................

Makuru........................................................................................................................................................ How our rivers and hills were created .............................................................................................................

7


Who we are................................................................................................................................................... Aboriginal Groups of the South West of Western Australia The six seasons of Noongar year

Djilba How our rivers and hills were created Who we are................................................................................................................................................... Aboriginal Groups of the South West of Western Australia................................................................................ The six seasons of Noongar year.....................................................................................................................

Kambarang Who we are................................................................................................................................................... Aboriginal Groups of the South West of Western Australia................................................................................ The six seasons of Noongar year.....................................................................................................................


Checked and approved by Phil 24/7/13

A bit about us mob!

N

oongar people are the original inhabitants of the South West corner of Western Australia.

Our ‘country’ encompasses a large area from just south of Geraldton, through Southern Cross,and right down to Esperance in the south of Western Australia. Some present day towns such as Margaret River, Moora, Narrogin, Northam and Guildford were traditional Noongar campsites ‘karlla Boodgah’ long before European ‘wadjila’ settlement.

Western Australia

geraldton Morawa

Traditionally Noongars hunted and trapped a variety of game, including kangaroos ‘yongahs’, possums ‘coomals’ and wallabies; we fished using spears and fish traps; and gathered a wide range of plants, including wattle seeds. Nuts of the zamia

Moora

palm were a staple food, though it required extensive treatment

Noongar ‘country’

to remove its toxicity. Guildford

PERTH

nature, country and spiritual realms. During the period before living memory, spirits descended from the sky and rose from the earth to create living beings and land forms, this is called The Dreamtime or ‘Nyitting’. The creator of all life, land ‘Boojar’, and waterways was the Rainbow Serpent or ‘Wagyl’ and we became the custodians of the land.

Merredin

Northam

Spirituality is central to our culture, it is the connection to

KALGOORLIE

Norseman

Mandurah Narrogin BUNBURY Margaret River Augusta

Bridgetown

ESPERANCE Mount Barker ALBANY

Language and stories are an important part of our culture. Noongar language is an oral one and knowledge ‘kaartdijin’ is passed down from our ancestoral connections by the Elders to the younger generation. Dreaming stories were set down to create the lore for social and moral order, and establish cultural patterns and customs.

9


These stories are also an important way to teach the young how to survive in the bush. There are many stories of the seasons and the stars, of how a

Aboriginal Groups of the South West of Western Australia

change in an insects’ routine can tell you what will happen in a week or

Koara

two, or how to find water by watching the birds. The Noongyar people’s oneness with the earth was characterised by a

Widi Amangu

deep understanding of the natural ecosystem, and being a part of it –

CI Juat

In traditional times each tribal group had their own kaleep, or preferred

boats from the west, they called the newcomers Djanga, meaning “white spirits”.

E Kalaakga

Ngadjanmaia

Wardandi

Wudjari Kaneang

Pibelmen

Njunga

Koreng

Minang

Noongar Groups

The neighbourly way!

P

rior to European contact, Noongar population had been variously estimated at between 6000 and in the tens of thousands. (Today approximately 28,000 people consider themselves Noongar). Made up of 14 tribes sharing dialects of the Pama-Nyungan language,

From 1890 to 1958, the lives and lifestyles of Noongyar people were subject

we are one of the largest Aboriginal cultural groups in Australia.

to the 1905 Native Welfare Act. Two state-run camps, Moore River Native

Noongar people traded and socialised between groups, expand more

Settlement and Carrolup (later known as Marribank), became the home

on this expand more on this .expand slightly more on this expand more

of up to one-third of the population. It is estimated that 10 to 25% of

on this .expand more on this expand more on this .expand more on

Noongar children were forcibly “adopted” during these years, in part of what has become known as the ‘Stolen Generations’.

10

LIN

Wilman

make up Noongah Boodgah or Noongah lands.

of Europeans as the returning of deceased people. As they approached in

N

Pindjanup

are called Whadjuk. The Whadjuk are one of the 14 tribal groups that

was later established in Perth in 1829. The Noongyar people saw the arrival

IO

Tjeraradjal

Njakinjaki

animals may be in the area. They also migrated within locations to hold

European settlers to Albany,Western Australia then the Swan River Colony

IS

Maduwongo

Whadjuk

they camped depended upon the seasons - what was flowering and which

Our ancient lifestyle was to change drastically in 1826 with the arrival of

MC

Balardong

camping spot where they had particular significance to the area. Where

climatic cycles. The tribal group that are the custodians of the Perth area

Kalamaia

RC U

harvesting, gathering and socialisation.

their ceremonies and large group meetings that were also dependent on

Waljen

Ngurlu

this expand more on this .expand more on this expand more on this .


The six seasons of Noongar year

I

n the south west of Australia, the Nyoongar seasonal calendar includes six different seasons in a yearly cycle.

BER JANUARY M E C DE BIRAK

R

R

APRIL

DJE R A N AUTUM N MA

Y

WINTE R

AU

MAKURU JUNE

BER OCTOBER M E T SEP NO T VE S KAMB U M N A G A R R E AN DJ SPRING

SUMME

G

FE B

H MARC RY UA RU NU BU

R BE

These are Birak, Bunuru, Djeran, Makuru, Djilba and Kambarang. Each of the six seasons represents and explains the seasonal changes we see annually. The flowering of many different plants, the hibernation of reptiles and the moulting of swans are all helpful indicators that the seasons are changing. The Noongar seasons can be long or short and are indicated by what is happening and changing around us rather than by dates on a calendar. This six-season calendar is important to Nyoongar people, as it is a guide to what nature is doing at every stage of the year, as well as understanding respect for the land in relation to plant and animal fertility cycles and land and animal preservation. **Intro from http://www.bom.gov.au/iwk/nyoongar/index.shtml

Birak (December to January)

– hot and easterly winds blow during the day. Noongar people would burn sections of scrubland to force animals into the open to hunt.

Bunuru (February to March)

– hot and dry weather. Noongar people moved to the estuaries to catch fish which formed a large part of their seasonal diet.

Djeran (April to May)

– cooler with winds from the south west. Fishing continued and bulbs and seeds were collected for food.

Makuru (June to July) – Cold fronts move further north, this is usually the wettest part of the year. Noongar people moved inland to hunt once the rains had replenished inland water resources. Djilba (August to September) – often the coldest part of the year, with weather ranging from clear, cold nights and days to warmer, rainy and windy periods. Roots were collected and emus, possums and kangaroos were hunted. Kambarang (October to November)

– warmer weather with longer dry periods and fewer cold fronts crossing the coast. Families moved onto the coastal plains where frogs, tortoise and freshwater crayfish were caught.

11

JULY


Birak December to January

Red symbolises heat, fire and sun.

The first summer. Season of the young. Hot and dry time with easterly winds during the day and cooler south-westernly sea breeze during late

afternoon.

12


P

rior to European settlement, Noongar families based themselves close to the coastline during the hot, dry months of December and January, which we call ‘birak’. We used controlled fires to force kangaroos and western brush wallabies out into

Swan River Bank

the open so they could be speared easily.

How our rivers and hills were created

As the fires burned the bushland, goannas, lizards and small marsupials were clubbed and collected to

N

provide a nutritious meal. This controlled burning assisted regrowth of the bushland as many native plants rely on fire and heat to reproduce. Birak is an excellent time for hunting birds and possums as nectar and gum are being produced by many native plants such as bansksias, Christmas Trees ‘Moodjars’ and eucalypts. During birak Noongar people caught bronzewing pigeons and Common Burshtail Possum ‘Goomal’ for their meat, cooking them over hot coals on the campfire. The fur from possums was spun into strands for belts and bands. During large gartherings ‘Mungitch’ or a honey-sweet beverage was made from steeping the nectar of Banksia flower-spike in water. Balgas were a particularly useful plant, the flowering stems provided nectar, fire sticks and structural support for shelters, the resin from the trunk mixed with charcoal and kangaroo dung was useful as glue for tools. The delicious bardi grub (or witchetty grub) is found in the rotting stems of balgas and under wattle trees. They are a rich source of protein and energy. They like almonds and when cooked the skin becomes crisp like roast chicken while the inside becomes light yellow, like a fried egg.

oongyar people believe that the Darling Ranges of Perth represents the body of the Wagyl, a snake-like being created by The Rainbow Serpent from the ‘Nyitting’ Dreamtime.

The Wagyl’s movement over the land created the curves and contours of the landscape in the Perth and the southwest of Western Australia. The Waugyl rose up from Ga-ra-katta (Mt. Eliza at the foot of Kings Park) and created the Derbarl Yerrigan, the Djarlgarro Beelier (the Swan and Canning rivers). It’s body created the course of the rivers, and where it stopped for a rest it created bays and lakes such as Lake Monger. As it’s scales scraped off they became the bushland. Large piles of rocks are said to be its droppings and therefore these sites are considered sacred. The Wagyl still resides deep beneath springs, consequently when Noongars visit a river or water body, we throw a handful of sand into the water to announce our arrival. Noongar people see the condition of the rivers and waterways as directly related to the wellbeing of the Wagyl. Being custodians, it is part of our caring for country to ensure the Waugal is not disturbed and in that way we ensure that the water can be safely used for drinking, catching fish - gil-git and turtle - yakkan, yakkinn, yagyne.

13


Stars reveal a special treat!

A

story here to represent how Noongyar people were guided - by the star constellations at a particular time of the year - to richer feeding grounds. The Wagyl’s movement over the land created the curves and contours of the landscape in the Perth and the south-west of Western Australia. The Waugyl rose up from Ga-ra-katta (Mt. Eliza at the foot of Kings Park) and

created the Derbarl Yerrigan, the Djarlgarro Beelier (the Swan and Canning rivers). It’s body created the course of the rivers, and where it stopped for a rest it created bays and lakes such as Lake Monger. As it’s scales scraped off they became the bushland. Large piles of rocks are said to be its droppings and therefore these sites are considered sacred. The Wagyl still resides deep beneath springs, consequently when Noongars visit a river or water body, we throw a handful of sand into the water to announce our arrival. Noongar people see the condition of the rivers and waterways as directly related to the wellbeing of the Wagyl. Being custodians, it is part of our caring for country to ensure the Waugal is not disturbed and in that way we ensure that the water can be safely used for drinking, catching fish - gil-git and turtle - yakkan, yakkinn,

ya-gyne.

14


What is ‘the Dreamtime’? ‘The Dreaming’ or ‘the Dreamtime’ indicates a psychic state in which or during which contact is made with

Swan Brewery c1980

the ancestral spirits, or the Law, or that special period of the beginning. —Mudrooroo, Aboriginal writer [1]

A history of Kaarta gar-up

Aboriginal spirituality does not consider the ‘Dreamtime’ as a time past, in fact not as a time at all. Time

I

refers to past, present and future but the ‘Dreamtime’ is none of these. The ‘Dreamtime’ “is there with them, it is not a long way away. The Dreamtime is the environment that the Aboriginal lived in, and it still exists today, all around us” [2]. It is important to note that the Dreaming always also comprises the significance of place [3]. Hence, if we try to use an English word, we should avoid the term ‘Dreamtime’ and use the word ‘Dreaming’

n the now Kings Park, the popular tourist lookout of Mount Eliza or ‘Kaarta gar-up’ was a

significant site for Noongar people for over 40,000 years. (‘Kaarta’ means hill and ‘gar-up’ meaning place of water).

instead. It expresses better the timeless concept of moving from ‘dream’ to reality which in itself is an act

Kaarta gar-up was used as a hunting ground - kangaroos

of creation and the basis of many Aboriginal creation myths. None of the hundreds of Aboriginal languages

were herded and driven over the steep edge to provide

contain a word for time [4].

nutritious meat for gathering groups.

We are the oldest and the strongest people, we’re here all of the time, we’re constant through the Dreaming

At the base of Kaarta gar-up, where salt water meets

which is happening now, there’s no such thing as the Dreamtime.

fresh water, on the banks of the Swan River, is a sacred

—Karl Telfer, senior culture-bearer for Kaurna people, Adelaide [5] Note that the Dreaming is not the product of human dreams. The use of the English word ‘dreaming’ is more of a matter of analogy than translation [3].

site where the Wagyl is said to have rested during its journeys. It’s spirit is said to be still there as part of the Dreaming track. This site, known as Goonininup, is also the location of

The Dreaming also explains the creation process. Ancestor beings rose and roamed the initially barren land,

the former Swan Brewery which has been a source of

fought and loved, and created the land’s features as we see them today. After creating the ‘sacred world’

contention between local Noongar groups and developers

the spiritual beings “turned into rocks or trees or a part of the landscape. These became sacred places, to be

who eventually developed the site in 1992.

seen only by initiated men.” [6] The spirits of the ancestor beings are passed on to their descendants, e.g. shark, kangaroo, honey ant, snake

Protesters staged a camp on the site for several years in an unsuccessful bid to protect the sacred site.

and so on and hundreds of others which have become totems within the diverse Indigenous groups across the continent [3]. It is interesting to note that many Aboriginal people also use the term ‘Dreaming’ to refer to their concepts about spirituality. This might be because some of them find ceremonies or songs in a state of dreaming, a state between sleeping and waking [1]. Strictly speaking, dreaming and mythology can be considered as

15


16


Wharlich saves the day! A story to teach the ethics of being kind to each other.

M

any many years ago in the dreamtime when all the kardars

The wharlich then flew high into the sky disappearing into the clouds. After

(goannas) were yellow some of them were out hunting for food

a while the clouds began to appear and the sky became very dark, and a

when they came across nyingarn (porcupine) trying to climb up a

large tree stump. The nyingarn was trying to get to the top of the stump to feast on the many ants that lived there.

silence came over the land. Then the lightning people picked up their lighting spears and began throwing them towards the kardars. The kardars began to run – some of them ran to the safety of the trees and

Each time the nyingarn made it halfway up the stump he would lose his

hid in the hollows of the tree trunks and burrows in the ground, but many of

footing and would role back down.

them were hit by the lightning and were burned, turning them black.

The sight of the porcupine rolling down the stump made the kardars laugh

Today the kardars that were struck with the lighting are called yorntarns and

– they laughed and laughed and they began to tease the nyingarn. The

the yellow ones are still called kardars.

nyingarn became angry and asked them to stop making fun of him. The kardars said that they had never had so much fun and they continued to laugh and make fun of the nyingarn. The nyingarn said if they did not stop then he would tell his friends, the

Today during the winter months the kardars and yorntarns stay underground – still too frightened to come out of their burrows. After the winter has passed and the land becomes warm in the summer months the kardars and yorntarns leave their burrows to search for food.

lightning people, to punish them. The kardars said that they weren’t afraid of the sky people and they continued to tease the nyingarn. The wharlich (eagle) who was flying overhead had noticed what was happening, he then flew down and asked the nyingarn if he could help him. The nyingarn asked the wharlich if he could notify the sky people and tell them what kardars had done.

17


18


Another story for here A story to teach the ethics honesty.

M

any many years ago in the dreamtime when all the Kardars

The Wharlich then flew high into the sky disappearing into the clouds. After

(goannas) were yellow some of them were out hunting for food

a while the clouds begane to appear and sky became very dark, and a

when they came across Nyingarn (porcupine) trying to climb up a large tree stump.

The porcupine was trying to get to the top of the stump to feast on the ants that lived there.

silence came over the land. Then the lightning people picked up their lighting spears and began throwing them towards the Kardars. The Kardars began to run some of them ran to the safety of the trees and

Each time the porcupine made it halfway up the stump he would loose his

hid in the hollows of the tree trunks but many of them hit by the lightning

footing and would role back down.

and were burned turning them black.

The sight of the porcupine rolling down the stump made the Kardar’s laugh

Some of the Kardars were able to make it into their burrows in the ground

they laughed and laughed and they began to tease the Porkpine.

and were safe.

The porcupine became angry and asked them to stop making fun of him.

Today the Kardars that were struck with the lighting are called Yorntarns and

The Kardars said that they had never had so much fun and they continued to laugh and make fun of the Porcupine. Porcupine said if they did not stop then he would tell his friends the lightning people to punish them. The Kardars said that they weren’t afraid of the sky people and they

the yellow ones are still called Kardars. Today during the winter months the Kardars and Yorntarns stay underdround still to scared to come out of there burrows. After the winter has passed and the land become warm in the summer month the Kardars and Yorntarns leave the burrows to search for food.

continued to tease the porcupine. The Wharlich (eagle) who was flying overhead had noticed what was happening, he then he flew down and asked the Porcupine if he could help him. The Porcupine asked the Wharlich if he could notify the sky people and tell them what Kardars had done.

19


Bunuru FEBRUARY TO MARCH

Orange symbolises dry weather and good fishing.

The second summer. Season of adolescence. Children learn the art of toolmaking. The hottest part of the year, with sparse rainfall throughout the most of the South West. Easterly winds still prevail, but occasionally heat troughs bring humid conditions.

20


D

uring the hot and dry season of Bunuru large sections of the country were abandoned for lack of water. Fish from the sea and estuaries constituted a large proporation of diet for Noongar farmilies. Large assemblies of clans gathered. This is the season for Kardars (Gould’s Monitor Lizard) which were readily caught, treated in a precise ritual and cooked in the fire. Controlled burning continued from previous months to reduce the bushland undergrowth and bring on lush growth of grasses and young plants.

Poolgarla (Bull Banksia) flowers were sucked for nectar and dried fruit cones were used as fire sticks. Trapping fish at the coasts and estuaries provided a plentiful seafood buffet. Collecting kooyal (frogs), marron,

gilgies (freshwater crayfish), tortoises from wetlands ensured a diversity in their diet. They climbed trees for possums and used the fur for belts. Macrozamia fruit was collected and toxin removed. Pounding the horizontal rhizomes of the bulrush[disambiguation needed] (Typha domingensis) into a cake and roasting it. Collecting the bulb of Haemodorum spicatum and roasting for a spice. Collecting wattle and banksia blossoms and various roots. Bark and timber from the tuart trees were used to make containers, shields and temporary shelters. Bark and timber from the tuart trees were used to make containers, shields and temporary shelters. This next bit is from: http://www.bom.gov.au/iwk/nyoongar/bunuru.shtml Bunuru is the hottest time of the year with little to no rain. Hot easterly winds continue with a cooling sea breeze most afternoons if you’re close to the coast. Therefore, traditionally this was, and still is, a great time for living and fishing by the coast, rivers and estuaries. Because of this, freshwater foods and seafood made up major parts of the diet during this time of year.

Yagan’s story

Y

agan (1795 – 11 July 1833) was a Noongar warrior who played a key part in early indigenous Australian resistance to British settlement and rule in the area of Perth, Western Australia.

After he led a series of burglaries and robberies across the countryside, in which white settlers were killed, the government offered a bounty for his capture, dead or alive. A young settler shot and killed him. Yagan’s execution figured in Aboriginal folklore as a symbol of the unjust and sometimes brutal treatment of the indigenous peoples of Australia by colonial settlers. Known throughout Australia, Yagan is considered a hero by the Noongar people.

You may have noticed that many place names in the south west of Western Australia ends in ‘up’, such as

Settlers removed Yagan’s head to claim the bounty. Later an official took it to London, England, where it was exhibited as an “anthropological curiosity”. A museum held the head in storage for more than a century before burying it with other remains in an unmarked grave in Liverpool in 1964.[1] Over the years, the Noongar asked for repatriation of the head, both for religious reasons and because of Yagan’s traditional stature in the culture. In 1993 the burial site was identified. Four years later officials exhumed the head and repatriated it to Australia.

Jerramungup, Ongerup, Manjimup and Nannup. ‘Up’ is from the Noongar language meaning ‘place of’.

Copied from internet - to be rewritten.

Bunuru is also a time of the white flowers with lots of white flowering gums in full bloom, including Jarrah, Marri and Ghost Gums. Another striking flower that is hard to go past is the female Zamia (Macrozamia riedlei). Being much larger than that of its male counterpart, the huge cones emerge from the centre of the plant with masses of a cotton wool like

The meaning of ‘up’ in placenames

21


A constellation for bunuru!

A

story and picture of a seasonal constellation pointing out a Noongar teaching specific to the season.

The Wagyl’s movement over the land created the curves and contours of the landscape in the Perth and the south-west of Western Australia. The Waugyl rose up from Ga-ra-katta (Mt. Eliza at the foot of Kings Park) and created the Derbarl Yerrigan, the Djarlgarro Beelier (the Swan and Canning rivers). It’s body created the course of the rivers, and where it stopped for a rest it created bays and lakes such as Lake Monger. As it’s scales scraped off they became the bushland. Large piles of rocks are said to be its droppings and therefore these sites are considered sacred. The Wagyl still resides deep beneath springs, consequently when Noongars visit a river or water body, we throw a handful of sand into the water to announce our arrival. Noongar people see the condition of the rivers and waterways as directly related to the wellbeing of the Wagyl. Being custodians, it is part of our caring for country to ensure the Waugal is not disturbed and in that way we ensure that the water can be safely used for drinking, catching fish -

gil-git and turtle - yakkan, yakkinn, ya-gyne.

22


Our family kinship system

N

oongar classification refers to the classification system in tribal law by which the Noongar, an indigenous Australian people, enforced restrictions on intermarriage. Need proper pic

The Western Australia an atlas of human endeavour divides Noongar classification systems into four types: “Perth” type - Matrilineal moieties and matrilineal clans. Includes Amangu, Yued, Wadjuk, Pinjareb, Wilmen, Ganeang, and Wardandi. These groups were split between the (White Cockatoo) Manitjmat and (Australian Raven) Wardungmat moieties with the moiety determined by one’s mother. Both groups are exogamous “Bibelmen” type - Patrilineal moieties and patrilineal local descent groups. Includes Bibelmen and Mineng These groups used the same Manitjmat and Wardunmat moieties but descent here was determined patrilineally.

How we said ‘I do’!

W

ithin Noongar groups, two main skin name divisions existed, the Manichmat or ‘fair people of the white cockatoo’ and Wordungmat or ‘dark people of the crow’ which were the basis of the marriage.

“Nyakinyaki” type - They had section levels similar to the Western Desert types, both patrilineal local descent

The Manichmat included the Tondarup and Didarruk

groups. Includes Balardong and Nyakinyaki

clans in the south and the Wordungmat included the

These groups used (Bee-eater) Birranga and (Sacred Kingfisher) Djuak as the “skin” groups.

Ballaruk and Nagarnook clans of the north.???

“Wudjari” Type - Like the Nyakinyaki, but they had named patrilineal “totemic” descent units. Includes Goreng and Wudjari

Any marriage between those in the same clan was considered incest and rigorously punished, even

Local descent groups are generally patrilineal in type, in which members are linked by both descent and

though there may be no real blood kinship between

through mythological ties to a named ancestor. Local descent groups are always exogamous, and are

the pair.

associated with specific territories held collectively in trust in perpetuity.

Lawful marriage was cross-cousin - paternal aunts’

totemic descent groups are similar although the mythical significance of the species after whom the descent group is named is much stronger, and figures much more significantly in the myths of the people involved. Members in this case may not be genealogically related, and these groups are almost always exogamous. in patrilineal totemic descent clans: territory is always important

children to the maternal uncles’ children. This needs to be written. This needs to be written. This needs to be written. This needs to be written. This needs to be written. This needs to be written. This

in matrilineal totemic descent groups: territory is less important as women frequently shift from their

needs to be written. This needs to be written. This

matrilieal areas.

needs to be writtbe written. This needs to be written.

“moieties” classify everyone in the world into two mutually exclusive categories, which are always exogamous.

This needs to be written. This needs to be written. This

Moieties may be either patrilineal or matrilineal (determined by the moiety of the father or the mother).

needs to be written. This needs to be written. This

alternate generation levels classify a person in the same generation level with grandparents and

needs to be written. This needs to be written.

grandchildren. Parents and children would also share the same generation level. In alternate generation

written. This needs to be written. This needs to be

levels, marriage is endogamous.

23


24


Another story for here A story to teach the ethics honesty.

M

any many years ago in the dreamtime when all the Kardars

The Wharlich then flew high into the sky disappearing into the clouds. After

(goannas) were yellow some of them were out hunting for food

a while the clouds begane to appear and sky became very dark, and a

when they came across Nyingarn (porcupine) trying to climb up a large tree stump.

The porcupine was trying to get to the top of the stump to feast on the ants that lived there.

silence came over the land. Then the lightning people picked up their lighting spears and began throwing them towards the Kardars. The Kardars began to run some of them ran to the safety of the trees and

Each time the porcupine made it halfway up the stump he would loose his

hid in the hollows of the tree trunks but many of them hit by the lightning

footing and would role back down.

and were burned turning them black.

The sight of the porcupine rolling down the stump made the Kardar’s laugh

Some of the Kardars were able to make it into their burrows in the ground

they laughed and laughed and they began to tease the Porkpine.

and were safe.

The porcupine became angry and asked them to stop making fun of him.

Today the Kardars that were struck with the lighting are called Yorntarns and

The Kardars said that they had never had so much fun and they continued to laugh and make fun of the Porcupine. Porcupine said if they did not stop then he would tell his friends the lightning people to punish them. The Kardars said that they weren’t afraid of the sky people and they

the yellow ones are still called Kardars. Today during the winter months the Kardars and Yorntarns stay underdround still to scared to come out of there burrows. After the winter has passed and the land become warm in the summer month the Kardars and Yorntarns leave the burrows to search for food.

continued to tease the porcupine. The Wharlich (eagle) who was flying overhead had noticed what was happening, he then he flew down and asked the Porcupine if he could help him. The Porcupine asked the Wharlich if he could notify the sky people and tell them what Kardars had done.

25


26


Another story for here A story to teach the ethics honesty.

M

any many years ago in the dreamtime when all the Kardars

The Wharlich then flew high into the sky disappearing into the clouds. After

(goannas) were yellow some of them were out hunting for food

a while the clouds begane to appear and sky became very dark, and a

when they came across Nyingarn (porcupine) trying to climb up a large tree stump.

The porcupine was trying to get to the top of the stump to feast on the ants that lived there.

silence came over the land. Then the lightning people picked up their lighting spears and began throwing them towards the Kardars. The Kardars began to run some of them ran to the safety of the trees and

Each time the porcupine made it halfway up the stump he would loose his

hid in the hollows of the tree trunks but many of them hit by the lightning

footing and would role back down.

and were burned turning them black.

The sight of the porcupine rolling down the stump made the Kardar’s laugh

Some of the Kardars were able to make it into their burrows in the ground

they laughed and laughed and they began to tease the Porkpine.

and were safe.

The porcupine became angry and asked them to stop making fun of him.

Today the Kardars that were struck with the lighting are called Yorntarns and

The Kardars said that they had never had so much fun and they continued to laugh and make fun of the Porcupine. Porcupine said if they did not stop then he would tell his friends the lightning people to punish them. The Kardars said that they weren’t afraid of the sky people and they

the yellow ones are still called Kardars. Today during the winter months the Kardars and Yorntarns stay underdround still to scared to come out of there burrows. After the winter has passed and the land become warm in the summer month the Kardars and Yorntarns leave the burrows to search for food.

continued to tease the porcupine. The Wharlich (eagle) who was flying overhead had noticed what was happening, he then he flew down and asked the Porcupine if he could help him. The Porcupine asked the Wharlich if he could notify the sky people and tell them what Kardars had done.

27


Djeran april to may

Green symbolises cooler weather.

Season of adulthood. Cooler weather with winds coming from the south west.

28


D

jeran season at last sees a break in the really hot weather. A key indicator of the change of season is the cool nights that once again bring a dewy presence for us to discover in the early mornings. The winds have also changed, especially in their intensity, with light breezes being the go and generally swinging from southerly directions (i.e. south east to south west). Many flying ants can be seen cruising around in the light winds. Djeran is a time of red flowers especially from the Red Flowering Gum (Corimbia ficifolia), as well as the smaller and more petite flowers of the Summer Flame (Beaufortia aestiva). As you travel around the Perth area, you may also notice the red ‘rust’ and seed cones forming on the male and female Sheoaks

Colours of the Noongar seasons

N

oongar people associated different colours with the six seasons.

(Allocasuarina fraseriana). Banksias start to display their flowers, ensuring that there are nectar food sources

This helped the younger people to learn the seasons

for the many small mammals and birds that rely upon them.

from their elders and it taught them to respect their

Traditionally, foods at this time of year included the seeds that had been collected and stored for treatment from the Zamia last season along with the root bulbs of the Yanget (Bullrushes), fresh water fish, frogs and turtles. As the season progresses, the nights will become cooler and damper along with some cool and rainy days which also means that traditionally mia mias (houses or shelters) were now repaired and updated to make sure they were waterproofed and facing in the right direction in readiness for the deep wintery months to come.lly, foods at this time of year included the seeds that had been collected and stored for treatment from the Zamia last season along with the root bulbs of the Yanget (Bullrushes), fresh water fish, frogs and turtles. As the season progresses, the nights will become cooler and damper along with some cool and rainy days which also means that traditionally mia mias (houses or shelters) were now repaired and updated to make sure they were waterproofed and facing in the right direction in readiness for the deep wintery months to come. - this prior section was copied from http://www.bom.gov.au/iwk/nyoongar/djeran.shtml

land, harvesting and hunting only what they needed for their families, at the correct time of the year.

Birak (December to January) - Red symbolises heat, sun and fire. Bunuru (February to March) - Orange symbolises dry weather and good fishing.

Djeran (April to May) – Light green symbolises cooler weather and Eucalyptus trees. Makuru (June to July) – Dark blue symbolises rain and colder weather. Djilba (August to September) – Pink or purple symbolises growth of wildflowers. Kambarang (October to November) – Yellow or gold symbolises return of warmer weather.

29


Stars reveal a special treat!

A

story here to represent how Noongyar people were guided - by the star constellations at a particular time of the year - to richer feeding grounds. The Wagyl’s movement over the land created the curves and contours of the landscape in the Perth and the south-west of Western Australia. The Waugyl rose up from Ga-ra-katta (Mt. Eliza at the foot of Kings Park)

and created the Derbarl Yerrigan, the Djarlgarro Beelier (the Swan and Canning rivers). It’s body created the course of the rivers, and where it stopped for a rest it created bays and lakes such as Lake Monger. As it’s scales scraped off they became the bushland. Large piles of rocks are said to be its droppings and therefore these sites are considered sacred. The Wagyl still resides deep beneath springs, consequently when Noongars visit a river or water body, we throw a handful of sand into the water to announce our arrival. Noongar people see the condition of the rivers and waterways as directly related to the wellbeing of the Wagyl. Being custodians, it is part of our caring for country to ensure the Waugal is not disturbed and in that way we ensure that the water can be safely used for drinking, catching fish -

gil-git and turtle - yakkan, yakkinn, ya-gyne.

30


The story of the Moora Mission Moore River Native Settlement: (1918-1951) A Native Mission established by the government as an alternative camp for Noongar people when they forced them from towns. It later became Mogumber Native Mission Swan Brewery c1980

operated by the Methodist Church from 1958 to 1968 and since 1972 has been known as Mogumber farm, Aboriginal Reserve 16833.

Corroboree: The term was first used by Europeans to describe Aboriginal ceremonies of song and dance. The Aboriginal word is ‘caribberie’ and the ceremonies pass on stories of the Dreaming or Dreamtime. The Noongar word for dance is ke-ning and there are different dances by different people from different places. The use of ochre and designs indicate the type of ceremony and which language group is performing.

A personal story about living at Moora Mission “Corroboree: The term was first used by Europeans to describe Aboriginal ceremonies of song and dance. The Aboriginal word is ‘caribberie’ and the ceremonies pass on stories of the Dreaming or Dreamtime. The Noongar word for dance is ke-ning and there are different dances by different people from different places. The use of ochre and designs indicate the type of ceremony and which language group is performing.”

31


32


Wharlich saves the day! A story to teach the ethics of being kind to each other.

M

any many years ago in the dreamtime when all the Kardars (goannas) were yellow some of them were out hunting for food

when they came across Nyingarn (porcupine) trying to climb up a large tree stump.

The porcupine was trying to get to the top of the stump to feast on the ants that lived there. Each time the porcupine made it halfway up the stump he would loose his footing and would role back down. The sight of the porcupine rolling down the stump made the Kardar’s laugh they laughed and laughed and they began to tease the Porkpine.

them what Kardars had done. The Wharlich then flew high into the sky disappearing into the clouds. After a while the clouds begane to appear and sky became very dark, and a silence came over the land. Then the lightning people picked up their lighting spears and began throwing them towards the Kardars. The Kardars began to run some of them ran to the safety of the trees and hid in the hollows of the tree trunks but many of them hit by the lightning and were burned turning them black. Some of the Kardars were able to make it into their burrows in the ground

The porcupine became angry and asked them to stop making fun of him.

and were safe.

The Kardars said that they had never had so much fun and they continued

Today the Kardars that were struck with the lighting are called Yorntarns and

to laugh and make fun of the Porcupine.

the yellow ones are still called Kardars.

Porcupine said if they did not stop then he would tell his friends the

Today during the winter months the Kardars and Yorntarns stay underdround

lightning people to punish them.

still to scared to come out of there burrows.

The Kardars said that they weren’t afraid of the sky people and they

After the winter has passed and the land become warm in the summer

continued to tease the porcupine.

month the Kardars and Yorntarns leave the burrows to search for food.

The Wharlich (eagle) who was flying overhead had noticed what was happening, he then he flew down and asked the Porcupine if he could help him. The Porcupine asked the Wharlich if he could notify the sky people and tell

33


34


Another story for here A story to teach the ethics honesty.

M

any many years ago in the dreamtime when all the Kardars

The Wharlich then flew high into the sky disappearing into the clouds. After

(goannas) were yellow some of them were out hunting for food

a while the clouds begane to appear and sky became very dark, and a

when they came across Nyingarn (porcupine) trying to climb up a large tree stump.

The porcupine was trying to get to the top of the stump to feast on the ants that lived there.

silence came over the land. Then the lightning people picked up their lighting spears and began throwing them towards the Kardars. The Kardars began to run some of them ran to the safety of the trees and

Each time the porcupine made it halfway up the stump he would loose his

hid in the hollows of the tree trunks but many of them hit by the lightning

footing and would role back down.

and were burned turning them black.

The sight of the porcupine rolling down the stump made the Kardar’s laugh

Some of the Kardars were able to make it into their burrows in the ground

they laughed and laughed and they began to tease the Porkpine.

and were safe.

The porcupine became angry and asked them to stop making fun of him.

Today the Kardars that were struck with the lighting are called Yorntarns and

The Kardars said that they had never had so much fun and they continued to laugh and make fun of the Porcupine. Porcupine said if they did not stop then he would tell his friends the lightning people to punish them. The Kardars said that they weren’t afraid of the sky people and they

the yellow ones are still called Kardars. Today during the winter months the Kardars and Yorntarns stay underdround still to scared to come out of there burrows. After the winter has passed and the land become warm in the summer month the Kardars and Yorntarns leave the burrows to search for food.

continued to tease the porcupine. The Wharlich (eagle) who was flying overhead had noticed what was happening, he then he flew down and asked the Porcupine if he could help him. The Porcupine asked the Wharlich if he could notify the sky people and tell them what Kardars had done.

35


Makuru JUNE TO JULY

Dark blue symbolises rain and colder weather.

Cold fronts move further north, this is usually the wettest part of the year.

36


M

akuru sees the coldest and wettest time of the year come into full swing, winter is defiantly here. Traditionally, this was a good time

of the year move back inland from the coast as the winds turned to the west and south bringing the cold, rains and occasional snow on the peaks of the Stirling and Porongurup Ranges.

http://www.ecu.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/249293/Our-Place-Newsletter_Makuru-11-Edition_WEB.pdf As the waterways and catchments started to fill, people were able to move about their country with ease and thus their food sources changed from the sea, estuarine and lake foods to those of the lands, in particular the grazing animals such as the kangaroo. It was also a good time to be able to use everything that the animals that were hunted for food could provide you. For example, kangaroos not only provide meat but also ‘bookas’ or animal skin cloaks that were a must, especially as the nights become colder. Nothing was left to go to waste, even the bones and sinews were used in the manufacturing of ‘bookas’ as well as hunting tools such as spears and spear throwers. Makuru is also a time for a lot of animals to be pairing up in preparation for breeding in the coming season. If you look carefully, you might now see pairs of Ravens or ‘Wardongs’ flying together. You also notice these pairs

Birinjee: Special Wind

T

he Nyeeting (Cold Time) story related to how the spirits came out of the dark and into the light to Care for Everything. Birinjee, a special wind, took the spirits of all the plants and animals that had passed away and raced out into the sea. During Makaru is the time when the Brinijee returns to

not making the usual ‘ark ark ark arrrrrrk’ that these birds a well known for when

the land. As they come spinning across the water, they

flying solo.

reach the land as mini tornadoes smashing the trees and

Upon the lakes and rivers of the south west, you’ll also start to see a large influx

provide lots of broken wood for the fires of the people.

of the Black Swan or ‘Mali’ as they too prepare to nest and breed. A good sign that swans have breed is that they lose their flight feathers and thus are ground bound

This year’s fires are made with the wood from last year’s

for a large portion of the season until the eggs

Birinjees.

start to hatch. This meant that if numbers were plentiful then they were also included in the traditional diet for the season as they are easy to catch at this stage of their life cycle. On the plant front there is a load of new growth that plants will start to show with some even preparing their flowers now for a couple of seasons

(AS TOLD BY NOEL NANNUP) http://www.ecu.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_ file/0011/249293/Our-Place-Newsletter_Makuru-11Edition_WEB.pdf

time! Around the Kurongkurl Katitjin building, you’ll see a continuation of the beautiful flowers of the Silver Princess

37


Makuru constellation story for here

A

story here to represent how Noongyar people were guided - by the star constellations at a particular time of the year - to richer feeding grounds. The Wagyl’s movement over the land created the curves and contours of the landscape in the Perth and the south-west of Western Australia. The Waugyl rose up from Ga-ra-katta (Mt. Eliza at the foot of Kings Park)

and created the Derbarl Yerrigan, the Djarlgarro Beelier (the Swan and Canning rivers). It’s body created the course of the rivers, and where it stopped for a rest it created bays and lakes such as Lake Monger. As it’s scales scraped off they became the bushland. Large piles of rocks are said to be its droppings and therefore these sites are considered sacred. The Wagyl still resides deep beneath springs, consequently when Noongars visit a river or water body, we throw a handful of sand into the water to announce our arrival. Noongar people see the condition of the rivers and waterways as directly related to the wellbeing of the Wagyl. Being custodians, it is part of our caring for country to ensure the Waugal is not disturbed and in that way we ensure that the water can be safely used for drinking, catching fish -

gil-git and turtle - yakkan, yakkinn, ya-gyne.

38


The story of the Moora Mission Moore River Native Settlement: (1918-1951) A Native Mission established by the government as an alternative camp for Noongar people when they forced them from towns. It later became Mogumber Native Mission Swan Brewery c1980

operated by the Methodist Church from 1958 to 1968 and since 1972 has been known as Mogumber farm, Aboriginal Reserve 16833.

What is ‘welcome to country’ about? It has always been traditional Indigenous practice to welcome visitors to their country.

About the Ballardong Region WAVE ROCK from noongarculture.com

Protocols for welcoming visitors to country have been a part of Aboriginal culture for thousands of years. The many Aboriginal groups that made up Australia had clear

Ballardong refers to the Noongar language or dialectal group north-east of Perth (The Noongar language

boundaries defining their part of Australian country from

group in the Perth area is called Whadjuk). Towards the eastern boundary of the Ballardong region is the

that of other groups. Crossing into another group’s country

Njaki Njaki dialectal group. The Ballardong region includes the towns of Northam, York, Beverley, Goomalling,

required a request for permission to enter.

Cadoux, Koorda, Wyalkatchem, Goomalling and Cunderdin. The towns of Kellerberrin and Merredin are further east. To the south-east are the towns Bruce Rock, Narembeen, Hyden, Kondinin, Kulin, Dumbleyung, Kukerin, Lake Grace and Varley. The approximate size of the Ballardong region is 114,488.161 sq km.

Aboriginal culture and indeed all cultures are rich and enduring and it is important to build a greater understanding and awareness of all cultures and the

There are a number of significant sites in Ballardong boodja. These include caves, some of which are the

value they add to our Australian community.

homes of mythological beings, ceremonial sites, rock art, paintings and artefacts.

Here is an example of the Official Welcome to Country.

Katter Kich or Wave Rock, near Hyden in the south-east is significant to Noongar people because it is a

Good morning /afternoon to all those present here today,

Noongar keniny (dancing) ground and a little way from there would have been a camping place, there are

my name is Phillip Narkle

gnamma holes – water holes and it was part also part of a Noongar trade route. Trade was a very important

I am a Wilmen Elder, from one of the tribal groups

part of Noongar lifestyle. It was essential for maintaining the economical, cultural and social aspects of

within Noongah country, it’s a privilege and an honour

Noongar culture. The rock is a granite cliff, 15 metres high and 110 metres long. Its wave-like shape has been

to officially welcome you all here today on behalf of the

caused by weathering and water erosion made over 60,000,000 years ago, which has undercut the base and

Mulka’s (Bates Cave) left aCave rounded overhang. Water running down the rock during the wetter months dissolved the minerals, Mulka wastoa the mythological adding coloring of the wave. In 1960, some crystals from Katter Kich were dated as being 2,700 million giantyears believed to have been old, amongst the oldest in Australia. While Noongar people were the first to inhabit the area, it is 10ft tall. He was known as a believed that they gave the district a wide berth during the past century and a half for fear of the spirit of moort worra (bad relation). The Noongar people believe Mulka lived in the

39


40


Wharlich saves the day! A story to teach the ethics of being kind to each other.

M

any many years ago in the dreamtime when all the Kardars (goannas) were yellow some of them were out hunting for food

when they came across Nyingarn (porcupine) trying to climb up a large tree stump.

The porcupine was trying to get to the top of the stump to feast on the ants that lived there. Each time the porcupine made it halfway up the stump he would loose his footing and would role back down. The sight of the porcupine rolling down the stump made the Kardar’s laugh they laughed and laughed and they began to tease the Porkpine.

them what Kardars had done. The Wharlich then flew high into the sky disappearing into the clouds. After a while the clouds begane to appear and sky became very dark, and a silence came over the land. Then the lightning people picked up their lighting spears and began throwing them towards the Kardars. The Kardars began to run some of them ran to the safety of the trees and hid in the hollows of the tree trunks but many of them hit by the lightning and were burned turning them black. Some of the Kardars were able to make it into their burrows in the ground

The porcupine became angry and asked them to stop making fun of him.

and were safe.

The Kardars said that they had never had so much fun and they continued

Today the Kardars that were struck with the lighting are called Yorntarns and

to laugh and make fun of the Porcupine.

the yellow ones are still called Kardars.

Porcupine said if they did not stop then he would tell his friends the

Today during the winter months the Kardars and Yorntarns stay underdround

lightning people to punish them.

still to scared to come out of there burrows.

The Kardars said that they weren’t afraid of the sky people and they

After the winter has passed and the land become warm in the summer

continued to tease the porcupine.

month the Kardars and Yorntarns leave the burrows to search for food.

The Wharlich (eagle) who was flying overhead had noticed what was happening, he then he flew down and asked the Porcupine if he could help him. The Porcupine asked the Wharlich if he could notify the sky people and tell

41


42


Another story for here A story to teach the ethics honesty.

M

any many years ago in the dreamtime when all the Kardars

The Wharlich then flew high into the sky disappearing into the clouds. After

(goannas) were yellow some of them were out hunting for food

a while the clouds begane to appear and sky became very dark, and a

when they came across Nyingarn (porcupine) trying to climb up a large tree stump.

The porcupine was trying to get to the top of the stump to feast on the ants that lived there.

silence came over the land. Then the lightning people picked up their lighting spears and began throwing them towards the Kardars. The Kardars began to run some of them ran to the safety of the trees and

Each time the porcupine made it halfway up the stump he would loose his

hid in the hollows of the tree trunks but many of them hit by the lightning

footing and would role back down.

and were burned turning them black.

The sight of the porcupine rolling down the stump made the Kardar’s laugh

Some of the Kardars were able to make it into their burrows in the ground

they laughed and laughed and they began to tease the Porkpine.

and were safe.

The porcupine became angry and asked them to stop making fun of him.

Today the Kardars that were struck with the lighting are called Yorntarns and

The Kardars said that they had never had so much fun and they continued to laugh and make fun of the Porcupine. Porcupine said if they did not stop then he would tell his friends the lightning people to punish them. The Kardars said that they weren’t afraid of the sky people and they

the yellow ones are still called Kardars. Today during the winter months the Kardars and Yorntarns stay underdround still to scared to come out of there burrows. After the winter has passed and the land become warm in the summer month the Kardars and Yorntarns leave the burrows to search for food.

continued to tease the porcupine. The Wharlich (eagle) who was flying overhead had noticed what was happening, he then he flew down and asked the Porcupine if he could help him. The Porcupine asked the Wharlich if he could notify the sky people and tell them what Kardars had done.

43


Noongyar book prototype2