accessible online from aaa.org.hk
網上轉載 Documentation of the Symposium Panels
ART THINGS 30 YEARS
三十年前漢雅軒首展於一九八三年十二月。回顧三十年， 既朦朧又清晰，各種機緣與際遇碰撞，才走出這個不斷逛 進多條歧路的藝術生涯。所以回顧三十年應該是一個反顧 來路、重訪舊夢和反省計劃的時機。同時，通過全新的主 觀角度，作為一個參與者，重新審視近代中國藝術迂迴曲 折的道路。這個主觀的角度通過歷年的合作和策展計劃來 展示。「偏好：漢雅一百」遴選出來的一百件「藝術物」 可以說是這三十年經歷的物證，也是「三個藝術世界」學 術論壇的佐證。這些「物」反映了我與藝術史的遭遇，也 呈現了一直保留在身邊的機遇。
The first exhibition at Hanart TZ Gallery was inaugurated in December 1983; the gallery has now been in operation for a full 30 years. Hanart’s special anniversary event, which this booklet in part chronicles, is more than just another art project: it is an effort to take stock of friendships, dreams and endeavours. It also presents an opportunity to review the meandering path of Chinese art as traversed by an enthusiastic champion of its labours, and to attempt a critical review in tandem with scholars and artist friends. The 100 art objects that anchor its narrative are witnesses of personal encounters that for one reason or another have remained with me as key events over the passage of years.
「漢雅一百」刻意地迴避了主流的現代論述，而遊走於幾 種意識形態和多樣歷史風格的藝術生產之間。論述立場與 作品的選擇由我與高士明和中國美術學院的研究生策劃， 圍繞著一個我們名為「三個藝術世界」的架構。這個理論 架構並列了三種藝術生產和藝術機制，包括：中國傳統世 界、中國的社會主義世界和全球資本主義世界。這個框架 的立場首先拒絕了「幾個中國」的說法，而替代以面對「現 代化方案」的幾個不同方式，用以嘗試並置和分析這幾股 左右中國文化想像的最主要勢力。 人民共和六十五年正月
‘Hanart 100: Idiosyncracies’ begins with a selection of artworks made to reflect a view of art that does not privilege the dominant modern trends but ruminates on Chinese art production of the past century, crossing between ideologies and historical styles in the process. The narrative and selection were curated together with Gao Shiming and research students at the China Academy of Art, and are constructed around an idea that we call the ‘3 Parallel Chinese Art Worlds’. This is in essence a comparative framework through which we examine three forms of art production, stemming from China’s premodern world, China’s socialist world and the contemporary global capitalist world. This framework also delineates the major forms of practices that inform the Chinese cultural imagination today. Spring, 65th Year of the People’s Republic
疊加、消蝕、錯亂、損耗、虧空、脫落…… 在這個漫長的世紀，「字」的歷史顯示為一種獨特的遺忘， 一種對名稱的剝奪，一種莫名之熵。
民 我曾一次次面對人群 以各種方式區分他們 他們 一個，就是所有。
此刻 一無所有 前後左右都是人民 一字之差 人和民的遺跡 在無能立言的民間 我看見莊稼腐爛的根部 我看見恐懼在一把泥土裡
身 咫尺身家分去住，霎時心跡判行藏。——黃景仁 這易於腐爛的物品， 是我們失而復得的樂園、自我宣告的陣地、權力爭奪的現場、 力比多滋生的溫床。 靈魂是身體的監獄，身體在藝術及其自身的歷史中被不斷地 轉化為他物。身體被話語擊敗，被意義俘獲。 而此刻，每一具身體都是一篇狂熱的宣言—— 只有身體，反覆地活在世上。
毛 「倘若不有為你所照耀之物，你的幸福何有？」 「想你必已倦於光明」。 ——《查拉斯圖特拉如是說》尼采
家國 那些記憶與過往，當我們回望：諸眾的形象、帝國的倒影、 殖民與去殖民、革命與後革命…… 演繹出百年家／國的抗爭和尋覓、離合與悲歡。
雲屋去來天峔客，一肩明月舊山河。 二十世紀灰飛煙滅的歷史中，國在山河破，每一幅風景都是 文明衝突的廢墟、意義與符號的亂世。
象 世相 亂象 抽象 紛紜的肖像與世相中交織扭結亂象／抽象的衝動和張力，湧 動著此世代中國人各自在歷史上下文中遭遇「現代」的多種 不同狀態或一種共同的焦慮。 （劉畑）
One hundred years of the Chinese nation. Two regimes established. Reversals of fortune, but also beginnings. The People
I’ve faced the Masses so many times, trying every possible means to distinguish between them. But their One, is the same as their all. At this moment, everything is lost but the People are left and right, before and after. The difference contained in a single word: The traces of the human. The traces of the People. When I was among the voiceless People I saw crops rotting at the root; I saw fear in a handful of dust. In the midst of the crowd, this nameless Multitude Living together in mutual anonymity. Mao
‘What would your happiness be had you not those for whom you shine?’ ‘You would have tired of your light….’ --Nietzsche, Thus Spoke Zarathustra
the history of the word is revealed as a peculiar kind of forgetting, an expropriation of names, an ineffable entropy. The Body
This thing so prone to decay is the paradise we once lost and then regained, it is our self-proclaimed battlefront, the scene of our power struggles, the hotbed where our libido proliferates. The body is the prisoner of the soul. The body is relentlessly transformed into an alien form by art and its histories. The body is defeated by language, it is enslaved by meaning. At this moment, each body is a fierce declaration --but only if it repeatedly comes to life in this world. Mountains and Rivers
A hermit arrives at a hut in the clouds Over his shoulder are the bright moon and the mountains and rivers of his homeland. Amid the historical ashes of the 20th century the nation still stands, but the mountains and rivers are broken. leaving each landscape as a ruin, a definition, a symbol, of civilisation’s conflicts.
Those memories and those pasts, and what we see when we look back at them: imagery of the multitudes, the inverted form of an empire, colonisation and decolonisation, revolution and post-revolution…all that can be inferred of the home/land’s century of struggle and of seeking, of separation and reunion, of grief and of joy. The Word
Overlayered, eroded, disordered, consumed, depleted, omitted… in this endless century,
The Net All lethal things are unspeakable.
Forms: Perspectives ‧ Pandemonium ‧ Panopticon The impulses and tensions resulting from the pandemonium/ panopticon of forms and perspectives brings to light the individual and collective anxieties over China’s encounter with ‘modernity’ within the historical context of the past century. (Liu Tian)
3 PARALLEL ART WORLDS AND 100 ART OBJECTS
序 于右任的「標準草書」乃書法史的一項大工程。把草書納入 規範，不失為提升手書效率的好方案，同時也把清季盛行的 金石風再次導回帖學。于公於碑帖兩路皆精，正氣磅礡，無 愧開創時代的民國氣概。 Yu Youren was one of modern China’s most renowned calligraphy masters, with an energetic, majestic style worthy of the vigour and optimism of a new republic. He was also a scholar of great erudition. His book Standard Cursive Script published in 1936 represents a major contribution to the scholarship of Chinese calligraphy in the modern period. Yu’s calligraphic mastery extended also to the archaic bronze and stone scripts championed during the Qing dynasty, effectively bringing these scripts back into the calligrapher’s repertory of copy models.
于右任 Yu Youren [1879 - 1964] 行書五言聯 A Couplet with Five Characters in Running Script 水墨 紙本 Ink on Paper 每幅 each: 227 x 64 cm 1920s
人民英雄紀念碑應該是中華人民共和國最重要的禮器， 一九五八年完成。從前九鼎立於朝廷上，今天紀念碑樹立於 首都的廣場。徵集方案由梁思成和劉開渠主持。這組設計稿 包括各地設計院的方案，基本上不帶個人署名。 As the major national symbol of the inauguration of the People’s Republic in 1949, the Monument to the People’s Heroes (completed in 1958) is probably the most significant piece of public artwork of the era. From a traditional point of view, this monumental obelisk also would be considered the most important ritual object of the state. This collection of drawings represents submissions from various official organisations for the competition of the design. The call for proposals was organised by the famed architectural historian Liang Sicheng and the sculptor and educator Liu Kaiqu. Most of the creators of these drawings, however, are anonymous.
人民英雄紀念碑設計稿 人民英雄紀念碑（設計稿） Monument to the People's Heroes (Design Drawings) 水墨 設色 紙本 Ink and Colour on Paper 56 x 81 cm 1950-1951
雛幸存 棲心尚得所 無家處處家
亂離無一可 歷劫更名叵 巢覆
七〇年代我從美國回香港，希望讀點經書。大學課程沒有我 想像的書塾教育，可是找到體制外的「學海書樓」。於是聽 陳湛銓先生講課，到馮康侯先生處寫字讀文字學。此印章往 日在馮老師案上常見，近年得於坊間。康翁治印私淑黃士陵， 取漢人古樸健穆意趣，民國年間一度供職鑄印局。馮師為人 耿介質樸，治學精嚴，其人如其印。印事須小，於學者大人 處可見其大。
Acceptable Unacceptable Dwelling There is nothing good to be said of chaos and dispersion After all these tribulations I have changed [my abode's] name to Unacceptable The chick is lucky to survive the overturned nest And find a dwelling for his heart For the homeless one, home is everywhere The Universe holds a place for me Carved by Kang-hou to comfort himself
馮康侯 Feng Kanghou [1901 - 1983] 可叵居 Acceptable Unacceptable Dwelling 篆刻 Seal Carving 2.5 x 2.5 x 10.1 cm 1960s
When I returned to Hong Kong from the United States in the 1970s, I wanted to study the Chinese classics, but the kind of traditional classical education I sought was not offered in local universities. Luckily I was able to enroll in a private academy that existed outside of the system. There I attended the lectures of Master Chen Zhanquan, and also pursued the study of calligraphy and philology with Master Feng Kanghou. I used to see this seal-stone on Master Feng’s desk. Many years later I found it on the market and was able to acquire it. Master Feng was a great admirer of the late Qing master seal carver Huang Shiling, and was inspired by the robust simplicity of Han-dynasty artistry. During the Republican era he at one time served in the National Bureau of Seal Engraving. Master Feng lived simply, was rigorous in his scholarship, and was larger than life to those who knew him—all qualities reflected in the seals that he carved. Seals are of necessity small, but they loom large in the hands of a true literatus.
民 THE PEOPLE
早期媒體時代的民眾政治知識全賴出版，魯迅呼籲的新興木 刻運動，關鍵也在於「革命時，版畫之用最廣，雖即匆忙， 頃刻能辦。」新興木刻作用於時代思潮、政治運動的藝術特 性也就被定形。李樺「怒潮」的背景是國共內戰，強調階級 壓迫，誇張好壞愛惡的情緒，立場如版畫般黑白分明。 During the early phase of the age of modern mass media, the dissemination of political knowledge to the masses completely relied on the medium of printing. Lu Xun urgently promoted the New Woodcut Movement because, as he said, ‘In revolutionary times the woodcut is most widely used; when time is short it can be produced in a hurry.’ The function of the New Woodcut in the ideological currents of the time was to set the defining character for the art form as a medium for social activism. Li Hua’s Raging Tide Series, made during the Civil War, emphasises a sense of class oppression and the clear distinction between good and evil: a clarity of contrast echoed in the black and white of the woodcut itself.
李樺 Li Hua [1907 - 1994] 怒潮組畫之三 : 抓丁（局部） Raging Tide Series no. 3: Press Gang of Able-Bodied Men (detail) 木刻版畫 Woodblock Print 19.5 x 27 cm 1947
趙延年雖然不及見魯迅，魯迅謝世時他才十四歲，然而他刻 劃的魯迅像和魯迅小說插圖的確最廣為人知。「阿 Q 正傳」 在文革末期試稿，一九七八年完成，這組版畫呈現的人性醜 惡和心理偏差給當代人極大震撼，有如半世紀前魯迅對文革 世界的預言。「狂人日記」刻劃被迫害妄想狂和對價值的徹 底顛覆或許可以作為趙延年他那個時代的寫照。 Only 14 years old when Lu Xun died, Zhao Yannian became one of Lu’s most important champions. Zhao’s woodcut portrait of Lu Xun was one of the Cultural Revolution’s iconic images, yet his later woodcut series illustrating Lu Xun’s The True Story of Ah Q and Diary of a Madman revealed a dimension of psychological drama and depth to the writer that had never been captured before. The darkness of Ah Q’s world seen in Zhao’s prints seems a prophecy fulfilled by Mao’s Cultural Revolution, just as the madness of the Madman’s diary epitomises the delirium brought on by values being subverted in all directions.
趙延年 Zhao Yannian [b.1924] 阿 Q 正傳 : 六十圖 The True Story of Ah Q: 60 pictures 木刻版畫 Woodblock Print 每幅 each: 37.5 x19 cm ( 一組 60 幅 / Set of 60 ) 1978 (36/50 版次印於 / edition printed in 1994)
香港藝術家曾廣智以表演性攝影的手法 在一九七九年開始以扮演中共官員的形 象在資本社會的標誌建築前留影。曾廣 智以藝術的身體直接介入了冷戰的意識 形態矛盾，以社會主義的身體對質資本 主義的建築實體，凸顯了兩種現代主義 改造世界的不同意念。兩種不同的唯物 主義的拜物，影射了這兩種主義相互膜 拜和對抗性的依賴，同時也影射了兩種 現代性的歷史計劃的共謀。中國政治波 普在曾廣智的作品十年後才大量出現。 Tseng Kwong-Chi’s performative photographs show how this pioneering artist, based in New York City, captured the spirit of the Cold War dynamics well in advance of his mainland or Hong Kong peers. In his East Meets West series of the 1980s, which preceded China’s Political Pop movement by over a decade, Tseng poses as an assured Chinese Communist cadre visiting monuments in the West. The slyly ridiculous meetings of the monuments of the capitalist world and the touring socialist cadre highlight the clash of ideologies of two different systems who both seek to reconstruct the world; and hint at the confluence of the project of modernity claimed by these divergent sides.
曾廣智 Tseng Kwong-Chi [1950 - 1990] 紐約（世界貿易中心） New York(World Trade Towers) 銀鹽照片 Gelatin Silver Print 92 x 92 cm 1979
谷！谷！谷！是谷文達八五年的自畫像。封禁的公告符壓 住狂暴的個性張狂，兩者的抗衡反映了八十年代的前衛革 命風潮。 Sounds of Exclamation When Tied Up - Gu! Gu! Gu! is a kind of ‘self-portrait’ painted by Gu Wenda in 1985. Gu’s deeper subject is the state’s publicly enforced suppression of the wildness and passion of the individual, and reflects the dynamics of the avant-garde rage of the mid-1980s.
谷文達 Gu Wenda [b.1955] 谷！谷！谷！（局部） Sounds of Exclamation When Tied Up - Gu! Gu! Gu! (detail) 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 每幅 each: 163 × 143 cm ( 一組 3 幅 / Set of 3) 1985
這幅是汪建偉從一名軍人畫家轉換到觀念藝術家的最後系 列的油畫。從後來的作品反觀，他關心的社會主題，尤其 是在不同生存狀態之下的精神面貌，大致可見於此畫。油 畫系列結束之後，王建偉的觀念作品立即轉向偽科學實驗， 模擬機器系統和模擬觀念化耕作的社會關係。前後落差反 映出一種從感官和視覺的感知轉換到客觀體制操作的變化， 也反映出當代藝術關心點的轉移，轉趨向社會系統的思考。 Wang Jianwei’s Gate of Ultimate is his last series of paintings, made before he turned his back on image-making to engage in projects that parody social practices, including farming as a metaphor for ideological process. With their schizophrenic split of multiple perspectives, these paintings of rural farm labourers having tea are an attempt to open up space-time within this activity of communal exchange and reflection. Wang followed this series with a video where he made recordings at rural teahouses and attempted to turn analyses of social processes into an analytical narrative of socio-economic production.
汪建偉 Wang Jianwei [b.1958] 極門（II） Gate of the Ultimate, II 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 161 x 141 cm 1990
方力鈞的繪畫是從社會主義走過來的藝術。隨著繽紛的色彩 和輕快愉悅的光線，群眾一起步上集體的命運。明亮的朝陽下， 方力鈞投下的影子是強烈的歷史意識。寓言式的舊派說教手 法帶著社會主義指導思想的影子，影射的是意識形態的宿命 觀，在宿命的天羅地網中尋歡作樂。在宿命的自覺中，膚淺 的快樂是真實的。 Fang Lijun’s artistic practice pays a kind of peculiar homage to the socialist past. He likes to create narrative scenes using simple, almost banal imagery, but in his world, these images take on a sinister cast. Bathed in a vibrant, cheerful light and saturated in brilliant colours, his characters move forward to their collective destiny. This is a life lived under the high-contrast glare of the midday sun, where the pursuit of happiness takes place within the inescapable net of ideological determinism. Under a mask of individual expression lies the frenzied merriment of the masses.
方力鈞 Fang Lijun [b.1963] 第二組之一 Series II, No.1 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 200 x 200 cm 1991-1992
中央美院向來代表官方的經典系統，劉小東跨出了中央美院 八〇年代所代表的西方古典油畫風，著眼於描述當下的時代心 理。他從平凡生活看出異常的精神狀態，一舉而開啟中央美院 的新風氣。 「都市獵人」隱喻了小市民的暴力心理和反英雄主義。 When Liu Xiaodong appeared on the scene in the late 1980s, he was heralded as carrying the torch of Socialist academic art into a contemporary context. His achievement was to have brought socialist realism, which is an idealised vision of the world as it will be, into images of the world as it is, by focussing his attention on the psychological dramas and perversions emerging out of China’s present social reality.
劉小東 Liu Xiaodong [b.1963] 都市獵手 City Hunter 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 175 x 120 cm 1992
「冷處理」不是為了解決革命熱昏頭的方案。「冷處理」恰 恰是要把革命裡的「非人性」提煉出來。文革後中國文化界 一頭栽進人文關懷，那是無法解決社會上結構性的個人疏離。 革命熱情把人性之惡用理想的光芒促使盡情發揮，於此，冷 處理面對理性的光芒，用客觀的手法讓崇高再次落實到人間， 並且迫使我們面對已經淪為正常的病態社會行為形式。 Zhang Peili is one of key exponents of the so-called ‘cool treatment’ (leng chuli) that emerged in China in the late 1980s and early 90s. The cool treatment was intended not as a means of countering the frenzy of revolutionary fever, but rather of extracting and exposing the inhumanity at the heart of revolutionary ideology. Just as revolutionary fervour uses the light of idealism to maximise and manipulate the evil in human nature, the cool treatment turned to the light of rationality, applying an objective methodology to bring idols back down to a human level and to expose the true face of revolutionary idealism in everyday life. Zhang Peili’s works not only unmask absurdity and tyranny, but also force us to confront the social forms and behaviours that came to be accepted as normal.
張培力 Zhang Peili [b.1957] 紅色健美 Red Body Builder 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 200 x 100 cm x 2 pcs 1992
版畫系的宋永紅用插圖的手法， 冷眼觀察日常生活外衣下的慾望 衝動。猥瑣的性幻想、施虐的小 快感、偷窺的俗趣，被宋永紅放 大後安置在社會大圖景之中，居 然刻劃生命的悲涼。
宋永紅 Song Yonghong [b.1966] 臥舖車廂 Sleeping Berth 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 81 x 100 cm 1992
Song Yonghong, like his peers Wang Jinsong, Fang Lijun and Liu Wei, is an oil painter who majored in printmaking during his academic studies. His work appropriates the narrative strength of caricature, at which the woodprint tradition excels, and applies it to expose the psychosomatic manipulation buried in everyday life. The voyeuristic daydreaming Song depicts hints at the everyday ruminations of a young man of that time, and turns the city into sites of furtive sexual acts and instinctual harassment. The slightly sinister undertone of new urban life represented by Song’s imagery has since exploded into an aggressively marketed urban landscape of desire and aggression.
這組照片是陳順築在澎湖小島的親友肖像。這個墓園碑林 式的陳設見證了攝影影像的力量，它將一個緊密的人際社 會關係定形為一個充滿記憶和社會情感的紀念碑。
陳順築 Chen Shun-Chu [b.1963] 集會．家庭遊行 Family Parade 黑白照片 裝置 B/W Photograph, Installation 照片每幅 photo each: 29 x 24 cm, 可變尺寸 Dimensions Variable 1992-1999
Chen Shun-Chu created this architecture of ‘monument’ using portraits of friends and relatives from his native village on Penghu Island. The image provides a layered, contemporary interpretation of the power of photography: it is both a monument to time past and an edifice that reabsorbs us into the fabric of our social and familial memory.
中國自清末就一直希望從西方找到曙光。西方啟蒙的曙光 的確無法質疑，但是啟蒙的正午大概不外是畫餅。攝影棚 背景板虛擬的平面現實，只有在照片裡面才成為立體。來 自遠方的曙光有如攝影技術 , 傳達了現實的平面影子，但 那是個進不去的現實。 At the end of the Qing dynasty China looked to the West for the new dawn of Enlightenment. While we may be sure that the Enlightenment did have its dawn, there is no guarantee of its high noon. The ‘dawn’ represented in this painting by Wang Xingwei is no more than a painted backdrop in a photographer’s studio. This work is the first of a series of images involving the autobiographical insertion of the artist into the history of China’s visual culture of the Mao era. Here a young man appears in a stance typical of the revolutionary generation and points towards a glorious future. He seems blissfully unconcerned that the imminent Dawn is merely a painted stage prop. The flatness of the backdrop is only given three-dimensionality through the photograph itself: yet it can do no more than illustrate the illusory depths of a world that one can never enter.
王興偉 Wang Xingwei [b.1969] 曙光（局部） Dawn (detail) 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 239 x 300 cm 1994
嬰孩出世的大恐慌大喜悅可能首先來自發現擁有身體，同時 發現擁有世界。學習協調身體和世界有沮喪有驚喜。成長的 教訓是應付世界設定的各式各樣禁區，於是身體被調教出規 範。有效率的社會人必須要忘記身體與世界的活潑關係，忘 記世界可以不斷被身體重新開發和展現，忘記身體也可以繼 續被改造。身體政治在西方到了一九九〇年代已成顯學，這 固然是何兆基思路的淵源，可是「學步」的意象對於香港別 有意味。一九八四到一九九七年間，「學步」是每個香港人 面對的挑戰，有沮喪有驚喜。一九九六年香港首次參加聖保 羅國際雙年展，推出何兆基，這件是主要展品。
何兆基 Ho Siu-Kee [b.1964] 雙球上步行 Walking on Two Balls 木雕 Wooden Sculpture, Video 雕塑 Sculpture : 直徑 / Diameter 30 cm ( 一組 2 件 / Set of 2 ) , 錄像 Video: 7 mins 1995
It may be that both the terror and the delight a newborn child experiences when emerging into the world comes from the realisation that he has a body, and that it is through this body that he experiences the world. Learning how to harmonise the body with the world is both a dismaying and exciting process, but the education we receive as we grow up, intended as a means of ‘dealing with’ the world, is comprised of countless strictures. In the West, body politics had already become an emerging field of study by the early 1990s, and it clearly had an impact on Ho Siu-Kee’s thinking. Yet the imagery of Walking on Two Balls has another implication. It represents a challenge of harmonising with a changing world that every Hong Kong citizen faced in the period from 1984 to 1997—one that filled us with both dismay and excitement.
鄭國谷強調他的小鎮市民立場，從邊緣的視角觀察時代的 激變。他用模擬和扮演的方式把大環境的改變轉成友朋之 間的遊戲。他們模擬黑幫打鬥、模擬結婚、模擬地產帝國。 這些連環照片模擬了大環境的改變，因而從邊緣小鎮的角 落參與了國家機器滾動的進程。 As an artist from a marginalised rural town, Zheng Guogu makes use of his particular perspective to re-enact the larger picture of a nation in flux through a form of mimetic play. His contact prints chronicling fictional scenes of urban violence and his catalogue of the Life and Fantasies of Youth from Yangjing represent some of the vehicles by which he takes part in the radical social changes of his time.
鄭國谷 Zheng Guogu [b.1970] 陽江青年的生活與夢幻（局部） Life and Fantasies of Youth from Yangjing (detail) 接觸晒印彩色照片 Contact Print, Colour Photograph 61 x 106 cm 1995-1998
梁志和從起居遺物中找尋失落的歷史密碼，搭建成方位的 指南座標。無表情的數字下隱伏了逝去的激情與悲喜。梁 志和與他同代藝術家在八〇、九〇年代的共同焦慮是不知 道如何把香港的此地此時訂定在時空裡，以期與他們的時 代簽署時代的契約。 Leung Chi-Wo’s concerns are symptomatic of his generation, centering around questions of the Hong Kong identity. As a place caught in limbo between a colony and a part of a nation it feared to join, Hong Kong has appeared to local youth as a homeland without political or historical bearing: thus their efforts to anchor it and to re-make it as a real place. In Domestic Amnesia, Leung marks history and collective experience through numbers and alphabets coded with pathos. His conceptual practice creates symbolic coordinates of the world, starting from a particular physical location in Hong Kong, and using techniques of pseudo-prospecting and measuring that are all presented with an objective scientific face.
梁志和 Leung Chi-Wo [b.1968] 家居失憶 Domestic Amnesia 綜合材料 裝置 Mixed Media Installation 197 x 429.5 x 429.5 cm, 可變尺寸 Dimensions Variable 1997
集體照展示了社會上各種小組織的社會認同，這些集體認同 併合為我們的國家。今天看來，集體照似乎離我們已經遙遠， 於是莊輝踏進這些照片悄悄地參與為邊角的最後一員（出現 照片左角）。他同時也代表了我們參與社會上的組織，讓我 們知道所有的社會集體都還是我們身體的一部分。 莊輝 Zhuang Hui [b.1963] 公元一九九七年十月十三日河南省安陽市道路綠化管理站全體職工合影紀念（局部） A Memorial Group Photo of The Entire Crew of The Road Greening Administrative Station in Anyang, Henan Province (detail) 黑白照片 B/W Photograph 8.5 x 111 cm 13th Oct 1997
In these monumental images, Zhang Hui has taken the format of the banquet camera and the tradition of taking group photographs in companies, work units and schools to communicate the powerful sense of solidarity that once came with identification through work and trade. This is a power of social cohesion that we now find foreign, but that continues to be a sentimental memory for many people in China. This ethos of group-identification was particularly strong in the first decades of the Communist rule, but has been fading rapidly from the social fabric. The artist participates in this history by inserting himself into his photographs, stepping into the image at the far-end corner of the picture.
迷惘的新一代的造像，有異於早一輩張曉剛的歷史沉思， 是面向鏡子對質自己存在的凝視。畫面對著觀眾、眼珠對 眼珠的注視其實是畫家對自己的探索。這是沈小彤為同代 人創作的時代造像。後革命的一代在世紀末重新面對嶄新 的全球世界，大概最不認識的就是自己。 Shen Xiaotong’s portraits of a ‘lost generation’ differ from the works of the generation of painters before him, such as Zhang Xiaogang, Fang Lijun and Zeng Fanzhi. Shen’s figures represent a new generation whose members appear to be in a state of self-inquiry, as though seeking for their identity inside the confines of a mirror. Even as the faces are turned towards the viewer, and their eyes meet our eyes, what is really being reflected is the artist’s search for himself. In this series of portraits created at the turn of the millennium, Shen is depicting the state of mind of the post-Revolution generation as they face a changing world and realize that they themselves are the greatest unknown factor.
沈小彤 Shen Xiaotong [b.1968] 肖像 Portrait 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 240 x 150 cm 1999
生活照相意味著對逝去時光的感慨。海波將過去的記憶投向 今天的重聚，所迸發的欷歔正是這段失落了的時日所讓人感 嘆和探索的懸疑。 In light of modern China’s history of radical change, Hai Bo’s strategy of juxtaposing images of people from across the chasm of historical eras has an immediate impact. His works question the accepted expectation of photography as historical documentation. There is an intensely moving quality created when the artist places side by side a historical photograph showing people in a particular landscape, and his own recent photograph of the same scene in which those people are now missing. It is their absence that comes through the image like a wound in history.
海波 Hai Bo [b.1962] 橋 Bridge 彩色照片 Colour Photograph 每幅 each: 41 x 60 cm ( 一組 2 幅 / Set of 2 ) 2002
八〇年代蔣經國的戒嚴開放了台灣的政治氣氛，鼓勵了文 藝界對強權政治的批判，重審日據殖民發展的現代性，而 肯定了異於民國政權的現代經驗。民間道教信仰在現代 生活實踐中也打開了非西方的時空，這是被共產主義洗 禮的大陸早被消滅的。日據經驗加上民間道教因此成為 台 灣 藝 術 的 獨 特 資 源。 在「 永 協 同 心」 這 件 作 品 中， 民 間道廟的神靈劇場踏進當代藝術平台。錄鬼簿陳述照片 裡角色的前生故事，似乎橫奪了攝影作為歷史實證的作 用。此幀圖像跟文本敘述的關係互不重疊，以至圖像所呈 現的只是任何照片都不能達到的前世故事的今生結果， 於此照片不是故事發端的紀錄，而只成為故事的終結。
吳天章 Wu Tien-Chang [b.1956] 永協同心 Companions for Life 彩色照片 Colour Photograph 132 x 179 x 16 cm, 49 x 34 x 20 cm 2002
During the 1980s in Taiwan, then-President Chiang Ching-kuo’s programme of gradual political liberalisation and the empowerment of local Taiwanese understandably encouraged a new generation of artists and writers who not only challenged the status quo, but also sought to revisit the Japanese colonial era that was formative of a modernity that differed significantly from the Mainland Chinese experience. The Daoist religious folk traditions that continued to endure in modern Taiwan life also opened up a non-Western time-space dimension, and the combination of the Japanese colonial experience and Daoist folk tradition constituted a unique source of inspiration for Taiwanese artists. Wu Tien-Chang’s creation of politically targeted imagery by way of satire, debunking and exposing hidden power structures, is characteristic of his generation of Taiwan artists. In their colour scheme and kitsch imagery, his digital photopaintings exude a folk-religious aura, and he often uses the metaphors of karma and reincarnation as satirical tools. In Companions for Life, Wu subverts the position of photography as documentary proof of a real event, reversing it into a ‘chronicle’ of an event in a previous life.
青年時期進入專科學院後，朱興華的繪畫生命與他專業心 理科護士的生涯長年並行。他著眼心理的脆弱點以關心平 民，以是他的人情味沒有市井氣，雖然取材不離香港人熟 悉的片段。他的技巧帶著素人畫的稚氣，但懷著世故的淳 厚。小市民生活之樂在於人情與天倫，這是抵禦商品化時 代的底氣，也是親近世間事物的出發點。 Although deeply interested in painting in his youth, Chu Hing-Wah chose to train as a psychiatric nurse. From this time on, his professional career and his art-making developed side by side. Chu’s style and technique have the innocent quality of the primitive painter, but at its core, his art is infused with a sophisticated understanding. The emotional tenor of his works is free of the sense of crass urbanity even as his imagery is drawn from scenes of urban Hong Kong life. With his keen sensitivity to the fragility of the human psyche, Chu understands that for ordinary people in the city, life’s true pleasure is still found in the bonds of community and family. These are the strengths that enable us to withstand the corrosive quality of this commercialised age. They are the starting points from which we form a bond with our world.
朱興華 Chu Hing-Wah [b.1935] 舞台上的駱克道（局部） Lockhart Road on Stage (detail) 水墨設色紙本 Ink and Colour on Paper 145 x 97 cm 2009
毛 Lin Gang’s Zhao Guilan in A Meeting of Giants is an important work of the early 1950s and displays the aesthetic features of the Xin Nianhua (New Year’s calendar painting) Movement. The movement was part of the Maoist effort to bring folk art forms into the canons of official art, and all artists were required to learn these forms. New Year’s calendar paintings were found in every peasant household: they were created annually and disseminated via woodblock prints. The present painting is a hybrid of the narrative form of nianhua, with its flat surface presentation, blended with the aesthetics of socialist realist art.
林崗 Lin Gang [b.1925] 群英會上的趙桂蘭（局部） Zhao Guilan in a Meeting of Giants (detail) 水粉 紙本 Gouache on Paper 53.3 x 66.7 cm 1951
五〇年代「新年畫」代表作之一。五〇年代 新年畫，以改造民間藝術為政治服務，繼續 一九四二年延安毛澤東文藝講話方針。專家學 習民藝手法與形式，轉而改造民藝，政治內容 同時轉換了民藝原來的傳統內容。革命的民藝 運動企圖改造傳統文化，也企圖利用民藝傳統 達到改造社會的目的。革命的民藝運動的意圖 不在保存民間工藝智慧，這點大異於工業化時 代歐洲的民藝運動，後者以保存民藝的手作精 神為目的。
文革宣傳畫可以說是魯迅木刻版畫運動的最後高峰期。造形 簡單強烈，顏色對比鮮明，情緒激昂，政治訊息明瞭。目的 在於對大眾推出強而有力的圖像傳播。這類鋪天蓋地的圖樣 占領中國人的視覺世界，成為九〇年代政治波普的源頭。對 比「後八九」的波普藝術：波普所針對的是圖像世界裡的意 識形態。物質世界被圖樣化、被消費的意識形態所占據；西 方波普揭露這個消費經濟被轉化為意識形態的事實，同時也 矛盾地弘揚這個事實。社會主義的政治波普同樣面對了世界 被圖樣化、被抽空為政治意識形態。
傅琳 Fu Lin [1941 - 2000] 毛澤東思想是我們的命根子 Mao Zedong's Thought is Our Life Blood 木刻版畫 Woodblock Print 72.6 x 71.4 cm Late 1960s
Cultural Revolution propaganda painting can be considered as representing the ultimate stage of Lu Xun’s New Woodcut movement. With its simple yet powerful imagery, bright contrasting colours, rousing emotional tone and clear political message, it created a forceful and effective method of visual transmission to the masses --- as can be seen in Fu Lin’s image of workers, soldiers and peasants studying Mao’s little red book. This is in contrast to the Political Pop art of the post-1989 period, which had a different purpose: to reveal the ideology embedded in the visual world. Political Pop is grounded in the understanding that the material world has been fetishised and abstracted into visual icons, and it is occupied by a consumerist ideology. While Western Pop art exposed the fact that consumer culture had been transformed into an ideology, it contained an inherent contradiction in that Pop also promoted this ideology. Chinese Political Pop art confronts the material world’s transposition into a visual iconography saturated with political ideology. The ubiquity of this graphic ideological invasion into the visual landscape of Chinese society that characterised the art of the Cultural Revolution became the source material for Political Pop artists of 1990s.
「喚起工農千百萬」是當年的浙江省美術官員作為「古為今 用，洋為中用」的樣板，專程送北京請江青審定。此幅油畫 轉化水墨畫的語言，運用了民族藝術的手法，應該比劉春華 的「毛主席去安源」更符合江青文藝方針的要求，但最後沒 有被江青重視。 Fang Zengxian’s Arouse Millions of Workers and Peasants was one of the shortlisted paintings presented to Jiang Qing for her final selection of the image that was to represent the new China in the Cultural Revolution. The painting which Jiang Qing ultimately selected was Liu Chunhua’s Chairman Mao Goes to Anyuan, became the emblematic image of the Cultural Revolution. Yet Fang Zengxian’s painting is in fact a more faithful realisation of Jiang Qing’s directives on art: in its stylistic echoing of brush painting, it underscores the inheritance of a national artistic style, while at the same time enacting the Cultural Revolution aesthetics of hong, guang, liang (red, bright and shining) in all its requirements.
方增先等 Fang Zengxian [b.1931] and collaborators 喚起工農千百萬（局部） Arouse Millions of Workers and Peasants (detail) 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 230 x 315 cm 1968
「紅光亮，高大全」六字真言。視覺文化的權力 語言，中國以文字的力量呈現，西方以造像為神。 毛主席游泳長江，象徵革命力量的體魄，也為革命 造神。此畫的舞台效果呈現六字真言，是文革的典 型圖像。 Mao Zedong’s regime marked a radical change in China’s visual language of power, with the deification of the leader’s figure reaching an unprecedented level of proliferation. A comparison with other socialist countries would diminish the significance of the radicality of this phenomenon, which can only be understood in relation to premodern China, where iconic images of leaders, whether political or cultural, were practically non-existent in the public sphere. The figure of political power in the public space was exclusively represented by the presence of the writing hand—in other words, the calligraphy of public figures. Mao Zedong was the first leader of the Chinese nation to dominate both of these visual languages of power, with his personal calligraphy and his iconic image both widely disseminated. Tang Xiaohe’s image of Mao just having emerged from his famous swim across the Yangtze River is one such iconic image. First captured in a photograph and immortalised in this painting, the image acts as a demonstration of Mao’s physical powers and the robustness of the revolution.
唐小禾 Tang Xiaohe [b.1941] 在大風大浪中前進（局部） Strive Forward in Wind and Tides (detail) 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 172.5 x 294.5 cm 1971
王子衛 Wang Ziwei [b.1963] 紅旗和老毛（局部） Leader and Flags (detail) 油彩 畫布 Oil on canvas 79.3 x 189.5 cm 1989
這幅大概是最早的輕鬆政治波普畫，作於一九八九年一月， 帶著似乎無知的純情，讓我們想像到革命初年參軍的青年。 The earliest and one of the most cheerful examples of Political Pop painting, this portrait of Mao Zedong was painted by Wang Ziwei in January of 1989. Wang’s painting, rendered in a bright, nostalgic palette, glows with the ingenuous optimism of the innocent, calling to mind the youthful recruits who joined the Communist army in the early phase of the Revolution.
他讓毛澤東穿上花襯衫，把神話迎進 九〇年代。余友涵的毛澤東波普可以 說是自嘲，但肯定不是批判。毛的神 位是扳不動的，只好塗他個花臉，讓 他繼續為新時代服務。九〇年代初的 毛澤東熱跟政治波普一表一裡，結果 都在延續毛的神話。 Yu Youhan made one of the most authentically Chinese Pop images in 1990, with his colourful portrait of Mao culled from the official imagery, but decorated and glamorised in a manner more suitable to the glorification of consumer products than of political iconography. Pop makes the pretence of criticism, while simultaneously presenting a veiled glorification of the subject—an ironic position that cuts both ways. Yu Youhan’s Pop portraits of Mao embed his iconographic image in a fully decorated world of patterns and colours wherein the icon becomes merely a feature rather than the heroic foreground.
余友涵 Yu Youhan [b.1943] 你辦事，我放心 You Handle it, I'm Relieved 丙烯 畫布 Acrylic on Canvas 118 x 165 cm 1991
以玩世不恭的態度嘲諷社會現實的「後八九」畫家很多出 自版畫系，包括方力鈞、劉煒、宋永紅、王勁松等。這可 能因為受惠於新興木刻版畫傳承的的社會批判精神。這幅 平塗的畫面和通俗的色彩帶著舊式風俗圖的趣味，而天安 門留影是每個遊訪京城的國民大概都會做的動作。被塗白 了的角色似乎影射被修改了的政治照片，笑指大家以今天 的新立場篡改歷史。
王勁松 Wang Jinsong [b.1963] 天安門前留個照 Taking a Picture in Front of Tiananmen Square 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 125 x 185 cm 1992
Wang Jinsong’s caricaturist approach is symptomatic of the early 1990s: at a moment when both the loss of idealism and the promise of a radically different social order and reward system were on the horizon. In this painting Wang exposes the silliness of the inevitable group photograph in front of Tiananmen Square, an absolute must for Chinese visitors to the capital. He also embeds a subtle joke on the practice of deleting political undesirables from historical images. It should be noted that Wang, like several other oil painters in the 'China’s New Art, Post-1989' show such as Fang Lijun, Liu Wei and Song Yonghong, originally studied printmaking, which was considered the most progressive discipline in the Chinese art academies at the time due to the modern legacy of woodblock prints as a socially and politically activist art.
王廣義自述說：他把香煙包放在一份舊報紙上，赫然發現了 政治波普圖像。工農兵的革命造像，與商業廣告的商標，是 冷戰兩陣營各自整合社會民眾的意識形態。意識形態改造的 目的是要進入到每人的日常行為，每人的身體。冷戰的兩陣 營不是對立而是互補的，是西方現代性的共謀。王廣義乾淨 俐落地點出這個事實。 According to Wang Guangyi’s own account, the idea for his Great Criticism series came to him in 1990 when he put a packet of cigarettes down on a newspaper and noticed that it lay right next to a woodcut-print image from the Cultural Revolution. In fact Cultural Revolution iconography is the perfect counterpart to the product advertising of the capitalist West, a phenomenon first noticed by Russian pop artists in the 1980s. After 1989, Chinese Political Pop art made this approach relevant to the conditions of that era. This painting of Wang’s Self-Criticism series brings attention to another dimension of ideology: that of bio-politics and the management of the body in its everyday context.
王廣義 Wang Guangyi [b.1957] 自我批判：水果 Self-Criticism: Fruits 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 100 x 100 cm 1992
毛澤東年代是劉大鴻的春秋經，是歷史和神話的藍圖。革命 理想必須成為神話才足夠力量牽動社會，策使全盤自我推翻。 祭壇明白地指出隱藏在共產主義背後的世界圖景其實是耶穌 教。Jan van Eyck 的三聯畫敷陳了這個世界的統治權力結構， 劉大鴻從文革的神話建構中找到對應三聯畫的角色位置，找 到意識形態的信仰機制，發現「農民」革命只是穿上中裝的 西洋宗教洗腦。 Since the early 1990s, the Cultural Revolution has essentially been Liu Dahong’s methodology: he thinks through the world from the perspective of this era. Liu Dahong’s Sacrificial Altar bases its formal elements on the Ghent Altarpiece—Adoration of The Mystic Lamb by the van Eyck brothers—to provide the cosmic diagram of Communist ideology in a manner that exposes the symbolic link between European religion and its modern incarnation of ideology. Liu’s triptych displays the hierarchy of power and the structure of the communist historical project, while finding a position in this construct for its heroes and martyrs. This symbolic construction takes the contingencies of the historical accidents of the Cultural Revolution beyond the exigency of history, and elevates it to a symbolic system: and in the process makes the discovery that the ‘peasant revolution’ was just a kind of Western-style religious brainwashing in a Chinese guise.
劉大鴻 Liu Dahong [b.1962] 祭壇（局部） Sacrificial Altar (detail) 油彩 畫布 裝置 Oil on Canvas, Installation 250 x 400 cm 2001
文 Lui Shou-kwan was brought up in a cultured literati household, and as such the world of traditional painting and calligraphy should have been his natural milieu. In this light, his commitment to follow the path of New Ink Painting can be seen clearly as the willingness to struggle across a great cultural divide, and as such holds a lesson for us all. After settling in Hong Kong in 1948, Lui devoted himself to experimentations with modern guohua (ink-and-brush ‘national’ painting), and recognized that the expressive, gestural use of the brush promoted by Western avant-garde shared a certain commonality with Chinese tradition. In this sense, Lui Shou-kwan’s work can be said to have a truly international perspective. His special achievement lies in his having taken the Republican-era guohua painting as his starting point, and to have created a new language for ink painting that was still grounded in its intrinsic principles. In this way, the scope of Lui’s thinking about the universality of guohua was not restricted to the East-West dialogue. The ‘abbreviated brushstroke’ landscapes and Zen lotuses of his later period are expressive of, and addressed to, the inner spirit. At the same time they show how Lui looked toward the modern world as the new abode of painting and calligraphy.
呂壽琨 Lui Shou-Kwan [1919 - 1975] 故國山河多禍劫，繪畫世界要由自我開出來（局部） Motherland Is Beset with Misfortunes, The World of Painting Needs To Be Created from The Self (detail) 水墨 紙本 Ink on Paper 66 x 135 cm 1967
呂先生成長於文人世家， 傳統書畫本該是他的世 界，因此他的新水墨歷程 是一段跨越文化鴻渠的 奮鬥，特別具有借鑑的意 義。一九四八年遷居香港 後致力於現代國畫的試 驗，參考西方新藝術思想 以為國畫打開現代途徑。 適時西方新潮推崇個性 發揮的筆趣，其道路與中 國傳統有所相通，故此呂 先生的工作更有了國際 的立場。他的成就是從民 國時代的民族繪畫觀念 出走，重新由水墨的內在 規律開創語言，思考國畫 的普世意義而不囿於中 西對話的局限。他晚期的 簡筆山水和禪蓮系列所 指向的精神狀態是把人 心作為作畫的對象，以 現代人的世界為書畫的 依歸。
發 明 獨 立 的 圖 像 世 界， 開闢宇宙大荒的世界藍 圖， 只 有 開 通 了 民 間 的 神 鬼 資 源 才 能 做 到。 台 灣島極南端的南鯤鯓村， 一九七〇年代才開通車 路， 唯 一 文 化 機 構 是 南 鯤 鯓 代 天 府 道 廟， 在 此 洪通少時曾當道廟乩童。 他的畫有如靈界所見的 萬 物， 每 幅 皆 是 透 視 世 界 的 鳥 瞰 圖， 著 眼 處 盡 是萬物生生不息的繁衍 變 易。 他 的 大 藍 圖 與 小 圖案很多都出自類似文 字 的 結 構。 於 洪 通 這 文 字 盲 的 畫 家， 他 感 受 到 文字的力量肯定來自道 廟 的 符 籙 文。 在 道 廟 天 地 裡， 畫 圖 與 寫 字 是 開 闢 世 界 的 工 具， 同 樣 能 夠 調 動 宇 宙 的 力 量。 文 字 的 力 量， 透 過 洪 通 的 手 開 闢 了 天 地， 迸 出 了 人間。
Located at the extreme southern tip of Taiwan island is the remote village of Nankunshen. The village was completely unreachable by road until the 1970s, and for years the sole cultural institution was the Nankunshen Daoist Temple of the Heavenly Province (Daitianfu daomiao). During his childhood, Hung Tung served at this temple as a spirit medium. Although he was illiterate, Hung Tung’s art is inspired and informed by the structure of Chinese logographic words. The ability of this illiterate painter to sense the power of the word derives from his experience at the Daoist temple, where as a medium he would have worked constantly with incantations, illustrated magic symbols, and painted talismans. Within the realm of the temple, images and words are tools used to open up paths into the deepest heart of the world, and at the same time have the power to rearrange the universe. Each one of Hung Tung’s paintings is like a bird’s-eye view piercing through the layers of the world, seeking out the endless variety of changes and transformations taking place within. For Hung Tung, there is no difference between the organic and the inorganic: animal and airplane, mountain and motorcar— all are equal in his eyes, all are equal in his eyes, as each possesses transformative power.
洪通 Hung Tung [1920 - 1987] 宇宙圖（局部） Cosmic Diagram (detail) 水墨 設色 紙本 Ink and Colour on Paper 147 x 41.8 cm 1970s
從八〇年代過來的文化人幾乎無人背不出北島的詩句。 八〇年代的新文化風潮最先由文學團體開啟，以《今天》 詩刊代表了時代的先鋒。這頁北島的詩稿可以說是當年思 想的肉體。 Almost any young Chinese who lived through the 1980s and was moved by the spirit of the time, would also have been captivated by the poetry of Bei Dao. Today Bei Dao’s work still encapsulates the memory of the era. This journal featuring his notes penned during that time serves as its material embodiment.
北島 Bei Dao [b.1949] 《今天》文學雙月刊 ( 創刊號 ) Today (Jintian) - First issue Printed Book 25.5 x 18 cm 1979
「今天下午停水」、「物權」、「完美括弧」一系列眩目的 思想火花讓人難以從中取捨。從西歐現代性的淵源找到當下 轉化的生機，從「人文」歷史核心凝視人文的破綻，從現實 政治看到思想體系的荒誕，在生活的慌亂中不忘平視他人， 而且，吳不說教不猥瑣不外求。吳是藝術家的典範。 Today No Water, Things Rights, Perfect Bracket: these series of works by Wu Shanzhuan are infused with such conceptual brilliance that makes it hard to choose among them. Prospecting in the soil of Western modernism, Wu Shanzhuan discovered a new energy source to transform it. Rummaging through cultural history, he gazed through the holes in the fabric of human culture. Mapping the politics of the real world, he pinpointed the absurdity of ideological systems. From within the chaos of everyday life, he has kept a steady and unrelenting eye on human antics. Wu doesn’t preach. He doesn’t pose. He is completely self-sufficient. Wu is for me the model artist.
吴山專 Wu Shanzhuan [b.1960] 无無說八道 Wu Shuo Ba Dao 水墨 設色 紙本 Ink and Colour on Paper 135 x 134cm 1985
海外傳媒上， 「八五新潮」當年傳得最火的圖畫大概是谷文達。 谷文達面對書畫歷史的傳承，進入文化深層顛覆犯禁。傳統 社會的秩序基於分寸和規範，而歷代堅守的文字正統恰恰就 是思想的造形，文明的底線。谷文達於此發現「錯別字」的 現代意義，以錯別字攻犯傳統禁忌，打開了犯禁所迸發的迷 狂力量，並以新的表達形式發揮了座碑式體量的大體量暴力。 Gu Wenda’s paintings were among the most controversial works to come out of China's '85 New Wave. With his aesthetic foundation in ink-and-brush painting, Gu was able to commit an act of subversion on a very deep level of culture. The traditional social order is founded on propriety and regulation, and the orthodoxy of the written word as preserved through history is the baseline of civilisation. It is within this context that Gu Wenda discovered the modern significance of the ‘error-word’as the key to unleashing the power of an untamable force. Through this new expressive form, Gu made manifest the violence of monumentality. Implicit within the mission of‘modernising painting and calligraphy’is the hidden priority of forging a pathway into the modern exhibition hall. Infusing the written word with the power of the monument, Gu also fuelled its invasion into the exhibition space. 谷文達 Gu Wenda [b.1955] 遺失的王朝：以偽字、漏字、倒字、反字、 印刷體、正楷、草體混合書寫的杜牧詩（局部） Mythos of lost dynasties: fake words, missing words, miswritten words… of poetry by Du Mu (detail) 水墨 紙本 Ink on Paper 274.5 x 180 cm 1986
文字和書法，作為文化顛覆和觀念藝術的素材，在八〇年 代新藝術中占重要的位置。一九八三年谷文達關於錯別字 的分析，一九八四年吳山專的大字報世界和假文字的「字象」 等，已經深入這個觀念領域。一九八八年底在北京首展的「天 書」是八〇年代文字作品殿軍之作。這是一本終極的線裝書， 是拒絕被閱讀的書，是把文字送返天地鬼神的書。徐冰的 假文字比吳山專的「字象」更讓人產生錯覺，因為木版印 刷字帶著規範性的權威。整套線裝書製造之精工又帶著材 質的魅力，因此是向一個文明封棺告別之作。作為版畫家， 徐冰刻每一個活版字模，就是一幅終極的木刻版畫。
徐冰 Xu Bing [b.1955] 天書（局部） A Book From The Sky (detail) 綜合材料 裝置 Mixed Media, Installation 書每本 each book: 46 x 30 x 2 cm, 可變尺寸 Dimension Variable 1987-1991
Xu Bing was trained in printmaking at Beijing’s Central Academy of Fine Arts. In his seminal work, A Book from The Sky (Tianshu, 1988), he pushed the limits not only of traditional practice, but also of the very concept of the printed book. Xu spent three years carving pseudo-words into classical wood type, and subsequently produced a set of books so properly and beautifully crafted that readers were seduced into thinking that they must be legible, thus rendering the literate reader illiterate. This strategy to confound legibility differs from that of artist Wu Shanzhuan, whose earlier Word Form (Zixiang, 1984) returns to the root of ideographic word-making, when visible form preceded meaning. Not only is Xu Bing’s A Book from the Sky the ultimate volume that marks the end of the traditional book, but each wood type is in itself a liminal woodcut print.
他的名作「第二狀態」是黑灰色的，作於八〇年代。一九八九年 後，其他藝術家的狂笑大臉被西方流傳為中國的代表面相，可是 大笑臉最先在耿建翌筆下出現時，狂笑不但沒有理由，沒有顏色， 也沒有情景細節，沒有感情層次。重複重疊的表述加強了表述的 力量，可是抵銷了表述的內容。「沒有表述內容的表情」就是「書 （錯印的書）」這組被疊印的書的時代表情，那是由重複而被營 造起來的力量，它沒有可閱讀的內容，但作為整體卻呈現一個清 晰有力的表情。在革命後的時代，我們發現意識形態與商品推銷 在這一點上達到共識：表情效果是目的，內容沒人細讀。
耿建翌 Geng Jianyi [b.1962] 書（錯印的書） Misprinted Books 綜合材料 裝置 Mixed Media Installation 書每本 each book: 27 x 19.5 x 2 cm, 可變尺寸 Dimensions Variable 1992
After 1989, paintings by various Chinese contemporary artists depicting large, vapidly laughing faces were singled out by Western audiences as iconic images of modern China. But this icon in fact dates back to Geng Jianyi’s work The Second Condition, a pair of portraits showing the same laughing face, executed in grey and black. The laughter of The Second Condition is meaningless, colourless, contextless, emotionless. The replication of the image reinforces its expressive power, but at the same time diminishes its expressive content. ‘Expression without expressive content’ is also the message of Geng’s Misprinted Books. The visual impact of this assemblage of over-printed texts comes from its carefully constructed repetition—a phenomenon that speaks to the zeitgeist of the age. A product with no intelligible content, but with a clearly expressive power—this is where ideology and marketing meet.
規範式的行為可以是教育，可以是管治，也可以是修煉。個 性在這種修煉中找到自我，也可能在這樣的規範之下被調教 為無名的眾生。傳統視覺文化裡，書法表現了每人的自我面 目，可是這個面目恰恰是要從正統傳承裡提煉出來。王羲之 的〈蘭亭集序〉被唐太宗欽點後，成了一千多年來每個讀書 人修煉個性的必經渠道。邱志傑臨摹〈蘭亭集序〉一千遍， 把這篇書法模範還原到無名的玄黑。 Disciplined behaviour can be a form of education, a form of governance, or a form of inner cultivation. Through disciplined behaviour it is possible to discover the true self, yet it is equally possible to be disciplined to the point where one loses all individuality and becomes one of the nameless masses. In traditional visual culture, it is calligraphy that expresses the true voice of the individual, but this voice is developed and trained within the framework of a continuous orthodox tradition. When the Taizong Emperor praised Wang Xizhi’s Preface to Orchid Pavilion, this piece of calligraphy became the necessary channel by which the literate person disciplined his individual voice for over a millennium. Qiu Zhijie’s Copying 'Preface to Orchid Pavilion' One Thousand Times brings this model of calligraphy back to the anonymous state of pure ink.
邱志傑 Qiu Zhijie [b.1969] 「蘭亭集序」之千遍複寫 Copying 'Preface to Orchid Pavilion' One Thousand Times 水墨 紙本 Ink on Paper 69 x 160 cm 1992
通過吳山專，Inga Svala Thórsdóttir [b.1966] 與中國藝術接 結上姻緣，並介入了中國的主流藝術思潮。一九九一年之後， 吳山專好些最重要的作品都與 Inga 合作。冰島最突出的現 代藝術傳統在觀念藝術，Inga 的絕對、沉著、嚴謹，得力於 本國累積的底氣。兩人合作的「物權」這件不動聲色的觀念 作品直踩啟蒙的痛腳。啟蒙的人本主義解放了西方的生產力， 顛倒了人與自然的關係，同時也顛覆了整個非西方世界。在 大談環保的時代質疑人本主義，核心正在於人與物質世界的 不對等關係。「物權」舉重若輕，板起臉幽默，嚴謹地解析 現代法制觀念裡的人本偏見，為非人類世界講三十句重分量 的話。 Since 1993, Inga Svala Thórsdóttir [b.1966] has participated in most of Wu Shanzhuan’s major art projects. Inga’s individual practice reflects the strong legacy of conceptualism that marks the modern art history of her native Iceland. Her approach is uncompromising, grounded and disciplined. Wu and Inga’s collaboration on Thing’s Right(s) has produced a conceptual work that calmly and collectedly steps on the toes of the Enlightenment. The humanism promoted by Enlightenment thought served to liberate the forces of production in the West, and in the process both subverted the relationship between man and nature and undermined the entire non-Western world. Thing’s Right(s) employs humour with a straight face as it relentlessly analyses the human bias in the modern legal system, by presenting 30 arguments in support of the nonhuman world.
Wu Shanzhuan and Inga Svala Thórsdóttir
物權（原稿） Thing's Right(s) (Manuscript) 綜合材料 紙本 Mixed Media on Paper 21 x 29.7 cm 1992-1994
馮明秋從篆刻轉入書法，把篆刻的各種形式實驗轉換到宣紙 水墨。他將毛筆書寫的時間性和文字筆劃的次序理性地分解， 把書寫過程的痕跡展開為可供欣賞的新層面。他這種分解書法 成形過程的工作，除了開發出新的表達手法，重要的意義在於 推進了書法在形式層面的理性化，也就是在西方現代主義意義 上的現代化。 Fung Ming Chip came to calligraphy through seal carving. The sense of writing a personal presence through a technique other than brush and ink inspired him to experiment with new ways of playing with the relationship between paper, ink and word-form. Fung’s artistic process is based on a rationalisation of the elements of time and sequential movement in calligraphic writing, and also a calculation of the process by which ink emerges from the absorbent ground of the Chinese xuan paper. This pair of 'Heart Sutra' texts captures the sense of time and motion, and the magic of apparition and disappearance, which are recurring themes in Fung’s work.The process by which Fung creates his deconstructed calligraphy not only opens up a new expressive modality, but even more importantly it completely realises the rationalisation of the calligraphic form. In other words, it is a contemporisation of calligraphy predicated on the conceptual precedents of Western Modernism.
馮明秋 Fung Ming Chip [b.1951] 光字心經斗方 + 透字心經斗方 Calligraphy 98P16-5 + 98P11-5 水墨 紙本 Ink on Paper 69 x 69 cm (set of 2) 1998
九龍皇帝應該是最早的中國塗鴉藝術家，可是他並不知道。 從六〇年代開始他不停在香港街頭的公共設施：燈箱、柱子、 護土牆上書寫他的世系表。他把香港不同的地域冊封給他的 家族，以書寫來頒布他的領土權。九龍皇帝的塗鴉遙映了漢 代的摩崖石刻和歷代御書碑，準確地發揮了文字作為權力在 場的工具。 Tsang Tsou-Choi, the self-proclaimed 'King of Kowloon', was the first graffitist in Chinese contemporary art—albeit unwittingly so, since he did not consider himself an artist. Tsang’s work captures a critical dimension of China’s history of visual culture, transposing the role of the stelae into daily life by inscribing his calligraphy onto urban structures such as lamp posts and light boxes and in public spaces like bridges and cemented mountainsides. Primarily territorial claims and assertions of official titles, his graffiti brings into contemporary memory Han dynasty memorial calligraphy, which served a similar purpose.
曾灶財 Tsang Tsou-Choi [1921 - 2007] 花縣曾蓮塘邨長 Calligraphy of Imaginary Family Genealogy 書寫電力變壓箱 Calligraphy on Electric Box 154 x 76 x 41 cm 1999
家國 Zhang Xiaogang’s Private Notes series is a compelling psychological chronicle of the artist’s personal sense of despair in the post-1989 period. The darker mood of these works signals a major departure from the lyricism of Zhang’s paintings of the 1980s.
張曉剛 Zhang Xiaogang [b.1958] 手記四號（1-7） Private Notes: Four No.1-7 油彩 紙本 Oil on Paper 39 x 52 cm x 7pcs 1991
張曉剛的「手記四號」傳神地紀錄了畫家在一九八九年以後 的絕望心理。畫家這種沈重心態的風格在這時期的作品成立， 告別了他在八十年代的抒情手法。
「大家庭」為中國人的造像找到一個典型。 除了發揮民國時代那種特徵不明顯、表情曖 昧不確的審美，張曉剛所描繪的那張面對照 相機的臉也是面對未來的。這張臉既面對未 來，同時也把自己留給永恆。畫中人默默的 告訴觀者他們共同帶著時代的秘密，守在 時代的密室裡。「大家庭」精闢地刻劃了 一個大時代的造形。這幅畫是一九九四年參 加聖保羅雙年展的四幅畫中最精彩的，是 張曉剛掌握這系列剛成功後的第一組畫。 Zhang Xiaogang’s popular success in the 1990s was rooted in his ability to capture the Chinese face in a way that resonated with both the Chinese and the international imagination. His approach to portraiture was inspired by the early 1920s, when photographic portraits were touched up and transformed into an aesthetic that reflected a more indigenous taste. Through implying that his subjects are posing in a studio, Zhang hints at their conscious effort to leave an image for posterity. Yet, even while they put their best face forward, there is a powerful sense that these people all share some unspeakable secret.
張曉剛 Zhang Xiaogang [b.1958] 血緣系列：全家福 Bloodline: Family Portrait 油彩 畫布 Oil on canvas 150 x 180 cm x 7 1994
在一九九二年香港人的共同隱憂是人民共和政府。從一個邊 緣的貿易港轉換身份成為一個民族國家的角落；從一個商業 掛帥的殖民地回歸到極權的祖國；這兩種新身份誕生的陣痛 無法抽象地想像，「地區性事務」把這些陣痛落實為物件。 The anxiety common to every Hong Kong citizen in 1992 when this work was made was the political destiny of the colony. From an independent trading port, Hong Kong was destined to change into a city of a nation-state. From a commercially obsessed colonial outpost, it was to reincarnate into a member of a totalitarian state. Regional Affairs, the work that Xiao Lu and Tang Song presented at the 'China’s New Art, Post-1989' exhibition made visceral the birth pangs that were already in sight.
蕭魯與唐宋 Xiao Lu and Tang Song [b.1962 / b.1960] 地區性事務（局部） Regional Affairs (detail) 綜合材料 裝置 Mixed Media Installation 可變尺寸 Dimensions Variable 1992-1993
馮夢波對革命運動的兒時記憶是戲劇化的熱鬧。通過戲劇形 式，革命文藝的造神任務滲入到現代的電腦遊戲世界，燃活 了神話的火花。長征乃共產黨的創世神話，馮夢波的電子遊 戲「長征：重啟」（1994-2013）在遊戲機的來回操作中， 證明勝利總歸屬於解放軍，儘管他用的武器是美國的可口可 樂炸彈。一九九七年德國的文獻展首次介紹中國藝術家，馮 夢波被邀請以「私人照相簿」參展。他把兒童記憶與革命年 代的文化活動轉化為互動電腦裝置。私人歷史融入國家歷史， 看來這是幾代中國人都繞不過的現實。 As soon as early electronic games such as Nintendo’s Fantastic Mario Brothers made their way into China, Feng Mengbo developed an immediate fascination with them, becoming one of the first artists to explore electronic gaming as a subject for art. His iconic early work Long March took the creation of the Communist Party as its subject, enhancing its mythic status by creating a narrative of ‘mass education’ in a form relevant for today’s generation. But Feng’s games always give a new twist to the tribulations and even the historic inevitability of the revolutionary journey.
馮夢波 Feng Mengbo [b.1966] 私人照相簿 My Private Album 互動程式 CD-ROM Interactive CD-ROM 個人電腦尺寸 PC computer size 1996
In My Private Album, Feng creates a very personal interactive video that conjures the different kinds of games he played as a child growing up in the Cultural Revolution. That one’s personal history is deeply enmeshed with the nation’s history has been an inescapable reality for generations of Chinese people. My Private Album was the first work by a Chinese artist to be included in the ‘Documenta’ exhibition in Kassel, Germany (‘Documenta X’, 1997).
宋永平人生一個大旅程，用了七年時間陪伴父母走完生命最 後一段路。這對盡忠職守的小公務員，雖然被歷史大潮遺忘， 但他們病殘至歿之際，又得到一個盡忠職守的兒子的反饋， 家事與國事並得兩全，此生可謂無愧。 This set of photographs by Song Yongping chronicles a span of several years when the artist returned to his hometown to look after his elderly parents, who were both in declining health. Song stayed by their side until their deaths, and his work depicts the last, tragic journey of this pair of party cadres who led responsible, blameless lives. By accompanying his parents on this journey, Song bears witness to a generation whose passing closed a chapter in Chinese history. At the same time, his act helps to alleviate the trauma of an era, demonstrating the continuity of life and of the familial bond under even the most extreme circumstances.
宋永平 Song Yongping [b.1961] 我的父母 My Parents 黑白照片 B/W Photograph 每幅 each: 51 x 40 cm ( 一組 8 幅 / Set of 8 ) 1998-2001
在後革命的年代，邵逸農和慕辰的肖像族譜重新打開了對 宗族的思考。這個工作一方面對新中國集體主義的集體結 構的破產提出了「舊」的方案；另一方面，通過尋訪這些 散落的家族讓藝術家在不同的地理角落找到新的親情。到 了今日「臉書」的年代，血緣宗族社會的組織在社會中大 概只能成為眾多社會網絡層其中的一層而已。 邵逸農和慕辰 Shao Yinong and Mu Chen [b.1960 / b.1970] 家族圖譜（局部）Family Register (detail) 彩色照片 Colour Photograph, 6 卷各 60cm高 6 scrolls, each: 60 cm 1998-2001
Shao Yinong and Mu Chen’s project of family genealogy uses photography to contemporise a historical practice that lies at the heart of the lineage consciousness of Chinese culture. The act of making this work in the late 1990s represents a reversal counter-revolutionary position visa-vis the new historical view of Communist China, and its concerted efforts to cut ties with traditional history. Through the creation of a monumental genealogical document, the artists reaffirm the traditional structure of the social order based on blood relations as a resistance against the new social organisation imposed by the state.
尹秀珍的皮包城市可 以把世界帶著走。這 種用舊衣服縫製的城 市並不全然是女性主 義的表現，在中國近 二十年的急速城市改 建中，幾乎每個人都 會覺得彷徨失措。尹 秀珍的作品把城市重 新家庭化、手作化， 以致把新世界純化為 有人氣的、可以容忍 的世界。
尹秀珍 Yin Xiuzhen [b.1963] 可携帶的城市 The Portable Cities 綜合材料 裝置 Mixed Media, Installation 可變動尺寸 Dimension Variable 2004
Yin Xiuzhen’s assemblage of cloth-sewn skyscrapers that can be locked inside a suitcase speaks of mobility and transportability, but also of the desire to encapsulate and take possession of a world. This work is a response to the bewilderment affecting Chinese society between the mid1990s and early 2000s, when virtually every major Chinese city was given a makeover. Symbolically, Yin seeks to redomesticate a wildly shifting environment.
寶藏山是個歷時三年多的工作計劃。葉偉立認為攝影不純是一 幀影像，而是一項工程。寶藏山在台北市中心，布滿了殘破的 小民房，被市政府劃進保育計劃而安排遷徙。葉偉立要求進駐 這個只剩下十數住戶的山頭，在此他以廢棄的民居材料遺物， 開辦了一個寶藏山的考古展覽廳、攝影工作室和廢墟改建的花 園。他的攝影工作跟寶藏山重建同步。葉偉立少年移民出國， 成年後回歸。重建寶藏山的工作是給地方歷史重構新生命，也 為他本人重新把自己的歷史寫進台灣這塊土地，重新在廢墟的 記憶中建構屬於這個地方的身分。 Rather than a passive chronicle, Yeh Wei-Li’s photographic practice is the encapsulation of a full experience. This work represents a three-year project in which Yeh inhabited the abandoned site of Treasure Hill, a small shantytown in downtown Taipei. Using found materials to construct everything from a photo studio to a museum of archaeology to a garden, Yeh then opened up the site to public activities. By reinventing and resituating Treasure Hill into a new cultural position within the modern world, Yeh also re-inscribes his identity back into Taiwan society after years living as an expatriate abroad.
葉偉立 Yeh Wei-Li [b.1971] 寶藏巖泡茶照相館計畫 The THTP Project 綜合材料 裝置 Mixed Media Installation 可變尺寸 Dimensions Variable 2006-2008
「方 ·穀雨」把滄海桑田的世變歸位於循環復始的宇宙 生息，這種回歸，對於沉醉於政治和意識形態的中國當 代藝術是個新氣象。攝影技術作為工業社會的「方」術， 截斷不息的生命鏈而定格為恆定的記憶圖片，是營造逝 亡的碑記。作品以一座老照相館的建築來象徵攝影黑箱 的內鐺，以掀開屋頂瓦面採光的方法，在館內拍攝一場 穀雨時節插秧的演繹，反映了在館外四周田野進行的農 事。錄像由兩萬幀照片整合而成，像無數零碎記憶被重 新組合的故事，在時序的循環生命週期裡見證了照相館 一整個甲子的時代滄桑。 Qiu Shiming and Luo Haiming’s video Fang · Grain Rain records a performance in the attic of an abandoned 1940s photography studio situated in an old farming village. The video is collated from more than 20,000 photographs of a symbolic enactment of the planting of the new season and the generation of new vegetal life. The artists lit the various scenes by removing tiles from or adding them to the attic roof, depending on the light conditions outside, metaphorically turning the studio into a black box camera. Fang · Grain Rain is one of the rare works by Chinese contemporary artists to return to the consideration of civilisational China in the context of agrarian society and its relation to the land and its seasons without taking a nostalgic, sentimental view.
裘世明／駱海銘 Qiu Shiming and Luo Haiming [b.1977 / b.1978] 方 · 穀雨 Fang · Grain Rain 錄像裝置 Video Installation 2006-2008
具區攬勝圖（局部） Landscape of Taihu Lake (detail) 水墨 設色 紙本 Ink & Colour on Paper 4.8 x 115.8 cm 1946
讀此極小卷，隨賓虹先生的老友黃居素跋語開眼，極目 乾坤，所見不外情義。寸幅太湖，百里波光，信筆點染， 水天淼瀚，乃知意參造化之際，隨興開闢天地，虛空粉碎。 When I first viewed this small scroll, my eyes were opened by the short commentary inscribed by Binhong’s old friend and disciple, Huang Jusu: it is a testament to pure friendship. Then my gaze moved on to the painting: a tiny sliver of Lake Tai, followed by what felt like hundreds of miles of waves shimmering in the sunlight. Freestyle dots and dashes danced over the surface, water and sky joined to create an ocean of vastness. I suddenly felt what it was like to be in the midst of Creation—swept along as the world opens up and the void shatters.
MOUNTAINS AND RIVERS
黃賓虹 Huang Binhong [1865 - 1955]
在郎靜山手中，攝影這種技術被山水想像吸收，轉化出現實 世界的幻象。 郎靜山無視工業世界，無視塵世生活，他掌握 「再現」實景的科技而不忽略追求境界，為攝影留下一條貫 穿山水的道路。於是也給我們留下疑問：山水攝影面臨的困 境，是否同樣也是山水畫面對的困境？ Born at the end of the nineteenth century, Lang Jingshan was one of the early Chinese photographers who consciously attempted to capture traditional landscape aesthetics through the use of photographic montage. Lang left China with the nationalist Kuomintang (Guomindang) government after 1949, but continued to work with images from the early montages he took in China. The type of aestheticised landscape that Lang celebrated makes a stark contrast to the work of photographers from the Left of the same era—many of them war journalists for the Communist party— for whom photography was an integral instrument of political motivation and propaganda.
郎靜山 Lang Jingshan [1892 - 1995] 仙山樓閣 Pavilion In Fairyland 銀鹽照片 Gelatin Silver Print 34 x 26 cm 民國時代創作，此版製於 1985 Photograph created before 1949, this print made in 1985
劉國松除了改革傳統繪畫手法，也在新的國際視野下推開山 水的地域藩籬。神山靈水經過核爆與環境污染的侵犯不再神 祕超然，山水畫作為地理的世外想像，也因此被冒瀆而不再 生效。劉國松的藝術突破，重要的應該不在於他提出的「革 筆墨的命」，而在於為「山水想像」找到新的地理領域。美 國一九六八年首次公開發表從外太空拍的地球全景後，地平 線外的神祕想像頓即被一掃而空。劉國松的太空系列也就成 了山水主題的終極依歸，最後的世外絕域。最近十多年的新 主題，西藏系列與九寨溝，所著目的意境同樣都是謝絕人跡 的地理極限，於此保存了山水的世外超然意境。 Liu Guosong not only was a primary force in initiating reforms in traditional ink painting methodology: more significantly, he also broke down imaginary barriers, opening up Chinese landscape painting to new territories. In the modern age, the sanctity and mystery of nature’s lofty mountains and rivers was blown apart by the invention of the atomic bomb and tarnished by environmental pollution. In this light, Liu Guosong’s main artistic breakthrough lies not so much in his concept of revolutionising ink painting, but rather in his discovery of new geographic territories for the ‘imaginary of landscape’. His art has taken the realm of landscape to outer space and to liminal sites including the snow peaks of Tibet and the physically inaccessible reflections of the Jiuzaigou lakes.
劉國松 Liu Guosong [b.1932] 升向白茫茫的未知 Rising Toward Mysterious Whiteness 水墨設色 紙本 Ink and Colour on Paper 94 x 58 cm 1963
社會主義新國畫與山水 這裡的山川沒有神靈，有的是資源。在新社會裡，大自然是 等待被提取資源的資源庫。在這裡，人民也是資源的一部分。 所以這種新國畫有一種統一的美；天人合一的新方案是人與 天都被「工具化」。人與自然都不神祕，沒有深隱看不見的 內涵，人與物都清晰地服務於其功能。世界是透明的，因此 沒有黑暗面，沒有神祕面；勞動人民的快樂來自一種新的「安 於天命」的鬥爭哲學。 Socialist ‘New National Painting’ and Landscape Landscape is not invested with a soul; it is invested with resources. In the new society, Nature is simply a storehouse whose resources await extraction. Here, human beings also are resources. And so these paintings have a kind of unifying beauty. They show us how the ‘oneness of Man and Nature’ has entered a new project: Man and Nature are now unified in their equal state of ‘instrumentalisation’. There is no mystery in either the human or the natural world, no hidden depths; both humans and things serve their functions clearly. The world is transparent; there is no dark side, no mystery. The workers’ happiness derives from a new kind of ‘contentment with destiny’, courtesy of the philosophy of struggle.
曾連山 Zeng Lianshen 无青肥待運 Delivery of Green Fertiliser 彩墨紙本 Ink and Colour on Paper 135 x 69cm 1964
社會主義新國畫 社會主義的主題創作與現代主義那種要求創新、要求藝術家 自己發明主題的藝術看來好像完全相反。但社會主義作為革 命先鋒的藝術前身應該是文化的先鋒派，到進入社會主義就 被共產黨的金剛圈給套牢了。在資本主義社會，先鋒派對社 會和文化的顛覆也沒走得太遠，現代主義把它的顛覆精神引 導到安全的「藝術自律」追求和形式進化論上。港台的「新 水墨」與大陸的「社會主義新國畫」的共通點在於同樣放棄 了藝術先鋒的革命能量。冷戰的左右兩方的工作都在為各自 的社會描繪它的社會圖景。 Socialist ‘New National Painting’ (Guohua) Movement The Socialist demand for thematically driven art and the Modernist demand for artistic innovation and thematic autonomy at first glance would seem to be diametrically opposed positions. However, there is an area of commonality in terms of their stance towards the radical/revolutionary capacity of the avant-garde. In the pre-Socialist republican state, the radical/revolutionary position was occupied by the cultural avant-garde; but under Communist policies, the cultural avant-garde was suppressed. In capitalist societies, the avant-gardist attempts at social and cultural subversion only went so far, and Modernism soon guided the avantgarde’s subversive spirit toward a safer quest for ‘artistic autonomy’ and formalist evolution. The New Ink Painting movement in Taiwan and Hong Kong and the Socialist New National Painting movement in mainland China both discarded the revolutionary capacity of avant-garde art. The main task on both sides was the portrayal of particular views of their respective societies.
無名作者 Anonymous 无大幹社會主義 Huge Practice on Socialism 彩墨 紙本 Ink and Colour on Paper 135 x 68cm Late 1960s
這是一幅全方位填滿的視覺世界：圖樣、口號、警句不僅占 據了畫面，更延蔓至整個裱邊。文革時代被意識形態全方位 佔領的世界，在石魯的精神錯亂狀態下被轉化為超凡入聖的 領域。視覺信息靈閃奇異，畫境自成天地，或許被開天闢地 的革命所感染，也或許受啟發於異域記憶。石魯一九五五年 出訪印度，一九五六年出訪埃及；舊稿加畫的作品都作於文 革期間精神病時，作於一九七二年，主要加畫於五〇年代的 國外寫生稿上。 Shi Lu may well have remained a typical official painter of his era had he not experienced a severe mental breakdown in 1967, at the beginning of the Cultural Revolution. It caused him to see visions and inspired a radically new manner of painting. Shi Lu turned the entire picture into a decorative surface, adding pictorial elements extraneous to the composition. The effect was as though these paintings of scenery and figures had been invaded by visionary worlds that had settled in numerous layers onto the picture surface. At the same time he developed an anxious, jerking brushstroke that later became his trademark. This work, finished in 1972, is an embellishment of a previous painting by Shi Lu of the Ajanta Cave in India, which he visited when on an artistic exchange in 1955.
石魯 Shi Lu [1919 - 1982] 真聖經（局部） True Sacred Book (detail) 水墨 紙本 Ink on Paper 59 x 44 cm 1955 初稿 study / 1972 加改 embellished
One weekend in early 1979, Mak YeeFun called to tell me that I must not miss a painting exhibition that was ending that very day. I hurried over to see it, and this became my first encounter with Luis Chan’s work. It was also my first real encounter with the fantastical side of Hong Kong hidden beneath the veneer of its commercialised reality. Uncle Luis began painting Hong Kong in the late 1920s, using techniques of English landscape watercolour painting. His style evolved as the city went through half a century of dramatic change. By the 1960s, his paintings had become dreamscapes using a psychedelic vocabulary to portray the subconscious life of the city and the psyche of the post-war generation. Among those artists born in the twilight of the Qing dynasty, such as Lin Fengmian and Xu Beihong who also pursued Western style art, no one resonated more intimately with our time and place in history than Luis Chan.
一九七九年初某週末麥綺芬來電催我必定要看一場當天結束的 畫展。那是我頭一回看陳先生的畫，也是首次看到潛伏在現實 的鏡面背後的香港。想不到這塊被商業文化統領，現實生活逼 人的向隅之地居然可以蹦出這等奇思幻想。福伯在一九二〇年 代末開始以英國風景水彩的技法描畫香港景色，畫風的轉變陪 伴著半個世紀的都市文化劇變。一九六〇年代創作的迷幻世態 畫把他帶進了社會的潛意識，也讓他踏進了戰後一代人的心裡 天地。清末出生的第一代「西畫」畫人，如同輩的林風眠、徐 悲鴻等，沒有比陳福善更接近我們這個時代的觸覺。
陳福善 Luis Chan [1905 - 1995] 給上天一個 音訊（局部） A Message to Heaven (detail) 水墨 設色 紙本 Ink and Colour on Paper 83 x 150 cm 1977
解放初期的陸儼少作品跟一九七九年到美院復職後的作品在 性情上有巨大的轉變，當中相隔的是政治掛帥的社會主義新 國畫時期。他晚期的三峽圖風雲譎變、山川動盪，與解放初 期的山遠地偏、歲月靜好，前後截然不同。自然界的超然深 遠已經被開墾天地的鬥爭哲學捲進人寰的紛擾中。 There is an intense difference between the paintings Lu Yanshao created in the early days of Liberation and those he completed after he was reinstated in the art academy in 1979. In the intervening years the Socialist New National Ink Painting style being promoted was a form of highly politicized art. Lu’s Restless Yangtze River, painted during his later period, is an unsettling landscape of churning clouds and restless water, marking a strong contrast to the tranquil mountain vistas he painted until the early years of Communist Liberation. The profound, transcendent quietude of nature has been swept aside by the philosophy of struggle and reconstruction; and nature itself becomes marred by the turmoil of the human world.
陸儼少 Lu Yanshao [1909 - 1993] 大江變幻（局部） The Restless Yangtze River (detail) 水墨設色 紙本 Ink and Colour on Paper 176.7 x 88.4 cm 1978
現 代 雕 塑 回 頭 向 傳 統 尋 找 資 源， 於 是 朱 銘 得 時 而 出， 一 九 七 六 年 於 台 北 歷 史 博 物 館 的 首 展 一 下 轟 動 藝 壇。 一九八〇年我去台北拜訪朱銘，翌年在香港藝術中心主辦他 在香港的第二次展覽，想不到之後二十多年他的國際展覽全 都由我包辦策劃。朱銘成功是首先被文人美術史家接受，認 為他的木刻刀法帶出大寫意的趣味。更重要的是「太極」、 「人間」兩系列把「造神」與「人世」，屬於廟宇雕塑的兩 大主題，了無痕跡地帶入當下的現代情景。「太極」表現的 是超越個性的大自然力量，於此更呼應了園林奇石的趣味。
朱銘 Ju Ming [b.1938] 掰開太極 Split Taichi 木雕 Wooden Sculpture 91.5 x 55 x 55 cm 1982
When Ju Ming’s first solo exhibition opened at Taipei’s Museum of Natural History in 1976, his sculptures’ seamless interface between modernity and tradition caused a sensation in the art world. One of the most unique aspects of Ju Ming’s early success is the immediate acceptance of his art by traditional art historians, who considered his sculptural approach to embody the fundamental literati concept of xieyi—spontaneous, freestyle strokes that express the spirit and vitality of the artist. The significance of Ju Ming’s art is to have carried the voice of traditional Chinese sculptural art into the modern era, represented by his two main series, Taichi and The Living World. These two series should be viewed as modern responses to temple sculpture, where images of the supernatural and of human stories exist under the same roof. Ju Ming’s Taichi figures manifest the power of nature that transcends the frame of the individual personality, and in form recall the uncannily shaped rock formations (qishi) that are an important presence in traditional Chinese gardens.
黃銳家的院子在一九七〇年代是各式文 藝人走動的沙龍，他自然成為了召集 人。詩文圈與畫畫戲劇等不同種類的 創作在七〇年代分不大清楚界線，所以 與其說星星是畫會，其實是通過畫的形 式（或畫的藉口）把當年一股追求另 類、非官方學術的無名衝動和表達慾整 合起來。黃銳說他沒考上美院，到了 一九八七年畫這幅畫時，黃銳把形式的 神祕魅力表達得很精妙，星星隊伍中他 的繪畫能力還是比較高明的。
黃銳和「星星畫會」 Huang Rui [b.1952] and Stars Art Group 眺望明陵 Ming Tombs 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 73 x 91 cm 1987
During the 1970s, Huang Rui’s courtyard was a like a salon where a cross-section of the literary and art worlds gathered, and he was a natural host for these lively meetings. This was a time when the borders between literature, painting, theatre, and other art practices were extremely porous and all sorts of creative crossover was taking place. So although the Stars Art Group, of whom Huang Rui was a founding member, were identified primarily as painters, in fact they were using the form of painting (or the excuse of painting) as a means of consolidating the nameless urge artists were feeling to seek for vital new modes of personal expression outside of the official academic language. Huang Rui says he was never admitted to an art academy, but by the time he painted this work in 1987, he had achieved a subtly expressive ability to capture the mysterious charm of the form. Huang Rui can be counted as one of the Stars’ most accomplished painters.
香港的「新水墨」與台灣源出兩路，但殊途同歸，都在冷戰 的資本主義陣營裡找到代表「中國現代」的空間。香港的早 期「新水墨」畫籠統來說很多都偏向陰霾，圖景少見天日。 王先生的山景構圖明顯是自然山水的碎片，他似乎刻意繞過 礙眼的滿山樓宇，精挑建築夾縫間的樹石，以設計圖案拼組 成不見市樓的畫面。他的繪畫猶如補修乾坤，重拼大自然。 陰霾的山河反映了明顯的內觀與避世意願，在殖民地的天空 下，養精蓄銳可能是最積極的選擇。 The mission for Hong Kong artists to create a New Ink Painting language that would infuse a strong Chinese aesthetic into post-war internationalism did not come to fruition until Wucius Wong’s introduction of graphic design into the ink painting language. The result was a kind of encoding of landscape within a conceptual framework of graphic design. Wong’s compositions are comprised of fragments or slices of the natural landscape: it is as though he has purposefully skirted around the man-made constructions dominating the landscape and sought out the trees and rocks hidden in the gaps in between. He then creates a composition that is essentially a collage of these fragments of nature, free of architectural intrusions. Essentially, Wong is reassembling nature, stitching up the rents in the universe. This enterprise hints at a political evasiveness, but in the situation of a colony, perhaps this was the most effective strategy for cultural renovation.
王無邪 Wucius Wong [b.1936] 抒懷之十 Comtemplation #10 水墨設色 紙本 Ink and Colour on Paper 125.5 x 62.5cm 1988
我和黃仲方看到《雄獅美術》雜誌介紹余承堯的首次個展， 一起到台北跟李賢文先生談下了一九八七年在香港的個展， 在香港大會堂舉行。余先生當年八十八歲，詩書畫造詣俱精。 山水雄奇險怪，所異於一般故作怪態者，直如天下真有此等 兇險地。余先生進山與文士遊山不同，他職任國軍少將，帶 兵行軍，山水步步是險境；他著眼地形也不在於堪輿的吉凶 穴位，而是敵我對壘，步步變機。他的山形有輿地誌的宏觀， 往往帶有殺機。石態像從內部刻鏤結構，而且皴法自己發明， 所以氣勢之雄健旁若無人。
余承堯 Yu Chengyao [1898 - 1993] 重疊相秀（局部） Rolling Mountains (detail) 水墨 紙本 Ink on Paper 97 x 180 cm 1988
In 1986 Harold Wong and I read an article about Yu Chengyao’s first solo exhibition in Taiwan, and we immediately set out for Taipei to discuss plans with Mr Li Xianwen to mount a solo show for the artist at Hong Kong’s City Hall in 1987. At the time, Yu Chengyao was 88 years old and a master of poetry, calligraphy and painting. Yu’s landscapes are uncannily fierce and imposing, truly evoking nature’s treacherous terrains. The way Yu strides forth into the mountains is very different from the literati painter’s gentle roaming. Having been a lieutenant-general in the Nationalist army, responsible for leading the troops, to him traversing the mountains was always a precarious undertaking. His sharp, jagged peaks, cliffs and crevasses resemble battlefields with danger lurking in every corner. The rocks seem to be carved from within, etched in texture strokes of Yu’s own invention. The total effect is of an inimitable, heroic fierceness.
台灣七〇年代中期的鄉土文化運動間接呼應了歐洲的新表現 主義繪畫，鄭在東等新畫家同時開始使用表現主義和超現實 的手法面對台灣民間的生活現實。他試圖以閒逛的知識分子 角色給民間生活和所在地賦予新的文化意義。通過延續傳統 文人趣味以及回顧日據時期的台灣民間審美，鄭在東建立了 一種當代的文人情趣。鄭在東的閒情是智慧。就因為他有閒 情，以故不礙於歷史時空。遊玩與做事他同樣不著痕跡地切 實，古玩與時事都在當下審視，過後不把包袱帶在身上。他 是我八〇年代初最早交往的台灣畫家。 Cheng Tsai-Tung is one of an important group of Taiwan artists who first made their mark during the late 70s and early 80s by contemporising literati aesthetics via a unique mode of Expressionism, blended with subtly surrealist imagery. Cheng creates compositions of Taiwan quotidian life into which he inserts a version of himself as the loitering intellectual—a personal statement of engagement with his own time. He also has a strong grasp of two elements that most contemporary artists interested in the literati mode have neglected: an authentic use of colour and an understanding of the aesthetics of you, an interior/exterior quality of dimness and quietude. Cheng’s spirit of literati leisure is a form of wisdom, because an easy heart is not restricted by historical space-time. Whether at work or play, he treads lightly and leaves no traces. He partakes equally of the pleasures of antiquity and the engagements of contemporary life, but he carries no baggage with him. He is the first Taiwan painter with whom I associated in the 1980s.
鄭在東 Cheng Tsai-Tung [b.1954] 內雙溪觀瀑 By the Waterfall of Nei Shuangxi, Taipei 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 130 x 97 cm 1990
這件作品有修殘補闕的意象，被整治的對象是自然界的山 石，也帶著集體被約制整治的意味。就因為被約制，群體 凝聚了強大的張力，形成了一觸即發的氣勢。一九九三 年的「後八九」展覽時原本考慮歸類於「施虐與受虐」 部分，由於藝術家反對，因此移置「形式主義」類。隋 建國歷年對雕塑的思考都著意於意識形態和生命政治的 主題，可是一直曲折地以形式思考和雕塑語言來表達。
隋建國 Sui Jianguo [b.1956] 結構 Bound Structure 花崗岩 鋼筋 Granite, Iron each approx. 每件約 40 x 76 x 46 cm 1991-1992
Sui Jianguo’s sculptures of mended natural stones carry a strong metaphor of healing and making whole, but there is also the implication of bondage and a concentrated power that comes from a repetitive accumulation of this bonded state. Sui’s sculptural language in this work comes from the traditional craft of mending broken ceramics: but the metal staples which hold the rocks together also seem to be constraining an intense inner force that seeks to burst the stone apart once again. It is interesting to note that when Hanart was creating the thematic categories for the works in the ‘China’s New Art, Post-1989’ show, Sui was adamant that his works should not be included under the category of works manifesting sado-masochistic tendencies, and instead be placed under the category of ‘formalism’. Sui Jianguo’s sculptural language continues to evince the artist’s interest in themes of ideology and bio-politics.
周春芽的油畫帶著水墨思維，混沌的布面湧出混沌的墨漬， 再幻化成造形。馬系列和石頭系列同出於當年文革後的西 藏熱潮。八〇年代以來，西藏的前現代世界被浪漫潮流的 神祕想像所共同嚮往。 Zhou Chunya’s paintings exhibit the pleasure of the painterly touch. He excels at working in murky washes that form the background from which an image emerges, like a figure appearing through the fog or a dream image emerging from an opium haze. His paintings of horses and rocks form an integral part of his Tibetan series of the 1980s, a period when Tibet represented for the Chinese artistic imagination a realm of the spiritual beyond.
周春芽 Zhou Chunya [b.1955] 與石頭相聯繫的肖像 A Portrait Tied to an Outcropping of Rocks 油彩畫布 Oil on Canvas 150 x 120 cm 1992
蔣進對「逸品」的定義素有別解，他認為那是指「畫品」以外、 完全不受「畫品」的「品」分類所規範的作品。因為這樣才 真正「逸」逃高下之分、「神」「能」之別。對這種作畫狀 態蔣進自己也有真實體驗：就是作畫至入神之深，至於不知 所之的狀態。入神以至人神合一之際，有如假手神靈，畫家 目擊天地在手下打開，但不為意志指揮，亦不能預知所畫全 豹。作品宛自天開，不由人作。 這樣的畫，因為不純由人作，所以「非畫之本法」 （ 朱景玄語） ， 逸出於「品格」判斷以外。如此說來，「逸品」不單是「前 所未有之法」（朱景玄語） ，甚至可以說是「不可能有」之法。 民間曾見扶乩作畫以答客問，不過論畫實在不堪一看，不成 筆墨，所以知道即使意通神靈，畫家本身藝術修養還是關鍵。 看蔣進的畫，才知放逸的曠放，必須真得澄懷靜觀的虛靜。
蔣進 Jiang Jin [1958 - 2005] 心潮（局部） Tide of the Heart (detail) 水墨 紙本 Ink on Paper 每幅 each: 90 x 180 cm ( 一組 5 幅 / Set of 5 ) 1997
In traditional Chinese aesthetics, yipin refers to paintings that achieve the highest level of artistry. As with many Chinese words, the first character, yi, has multiple meanings: it can be read as ‘outstanding’, but it also can be read as ‘to go beyond’. Jiang Jin’s reading of yipin adopted the second meaning, so that for him a truly superior painting was one that transcended traditional categorisations of style or quality. For Jiang, the yipin emerged when he became so deeply immersed in the painting process that he forgot himself and merged with a power greater than his own. At that moment, he became a witness rather than a creator. Guided by a force outside his artistic control, he entered into a universe not of his own making. His brushstrokes became infused with an extraordinary energy and spirit, moving with an independent will and with a rapidity that was beyond his own capacity. But this is not a case of possession or mere channelling: the inner cultivation of the artist was still always the determining factor in guiding and shaping the work, and to render it artistically brilliant.
中國人的色彩感只保留在民間工藝，書畫在不自覺間放棄了色 彩學，這是文人的雅淡審美所始料不及的。袁旃是真用顏色思 維的書畫家。她的色彩學得自金北樓一脈，參以數十年浸淫台 北故宮的紡織和器物的煉歷。唐人「鋪殿花」不只華麗典雅， 並且在重彩裝潢的幻麗中打開思維的瑰麗神怪。袁旃近年作品 的神奇怪誕，讓人聯想到西方的超現實畫派，其實她所編的夢 源自唐朝。 In Chinese modern art, the study of colour theory has developed completely under the influence of Western art. Yet the aesthetic sensibility of most Chinese oil painters still tends towards the monochromatic scale, and there is only a weak manifestation of a three-dimensional colour sense. Yuan Jai’s unique approach to colour theory has been moulded by diverse influences from China’s artistic tradition. She spent more than 30 years working at the National Palace Museum
in Taipei, where she immersed herself in the study of the decorative arts, and was most inspired by the Tangperiod aesthetic of richly ornamented surfaces decorated in mineral pigments. In her paintings, this colour aesthetic became translated into images of polychromatic exoticism. Although the phantasmagoric strangeness of Yuan Jai’s recent works evokes associations with Western surrealism, it is in fact in the Tang dynasty that she most finds inspiration for her dream-like imagery.
袁旃 Yuan Jai [b.1941] 風雲際會 Earthly Powers 水墨設色 絹本 Ink & Colour on Silk 99.4 x 184.3 cm 1998
社會主義畫院系統的代表 是歷史畫。問題是：在歷 史任務結束後，革命成功 或失敗後，歷史畫應該如 何繼續？許江的歷史畫， 是未來願景最終成為現實 或追憶的意象。歷史任務 終結後，或許繪畫的任務 是把原來的動力和激情挽 留在圖面上，作為今天和 明天的激勵。又或許，繪 畫在歷史終結後的任務是 要防止歷史重新啓動。因 為所謂“終結”，是指社 會在經歷某個歷史關頭後 頓然看透人性道德善惡的 裝置，洞悉人性虛空。但 那是要經過無明的極端暴 力，付出無比代價才得來 的澈悟，才得到的平凡人 世。戰爭廢墟的寂靜空靈 很快會被繁囂湮沒，澈悟 的平凡心又再盪漾，歷史 的 機 器 又 會 再 被 啓 動。 上海一度是帝國博弈的賭 局，畫家以此作為歷史廢 墟的想像，上海也就成為 東西對壘的歷史終極象 徵，歷史進程的結束想像。
近十多年來許江一直以向日葵為畫題，他從歷史的宏大敘 述返回到對人民的關懷，刻劃人民被改造的歷程。在紅太 陽的召喚下，集體向陽的意志互相激勵，從民間走向國家， 從宗族融為集體，由於革命的命運而化為無名的群眾。許 江的向日葵系列描畫了革命後的國民集體造像。
Xu Jiang’s historically-themed paintings reflect the particular importance given to historical paintings in the art academies of socialist China, where they were viewed as an art invested with the mission to delineate the mythology of nation-building and the progress of history. When the historical mission has come to an end, then perhaps it is the mission of painting to capture the original power and passion on the painting surface, to act as an inspiration for today and tomorrow. In his recent works, Xu Jiang has predominantly focused on the theme of the sunflower, a symbolic plant referring to the Mao era. Xu depicts sunflower fields in different physical states: in full bloom, as harvested fields laid bare, or as wilted and desiccated. Xu’s sunflower paintings create a visual narrative of the remaking of the people: from traditionally identified by their professions, to members of an emerging nation-state, and finally to Mao’s anonymous masses consolidated in their will to turn toward the idealistic light of the sun.
許江 Xu Jiang [b.1955] 大上海．老外灘 Great Shanghai: Old Bund 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 180 x 200 cm 2000
「野蠻聖境」把台灣刻劃為一個史前的蠻荒世界，其實攝影 場址是生產遊樂園模型的工廠。姚瑞中從意識形態和社會體 制的角度關注台灣的怪現象，創作一連串幽默的「社會介入」 藝術作品。「野蠻聖境」將台灣這個沒落的產業經濟社會重 新營造為新的異域神話。
Yao Jui-Chung’s photographic installation creates the strange impression that Taiwan has receded back to the Paleolithic era, but the sites are actually export factories that manufacture plastic sculptures for amusement parks. The work highlights Yao’s activist practice of exposing the underbelly of Taiwan society through revealing the political-ideological energy that drives it and the mythologies that feed it. In this case Yao cites a visual experience originally propelled by an export manufacture economy.
姚瑞中 Yao Jui-Chung [b.1969] 野蠻聖境 Savage Paradise 黑白照片 雕塑 裝置 B/W Photograph, Sculpture, Installation 照片每幅 Photo each: 116 x 166 cm, 尺寸可變 Dimensions variable 2000
場域的個性往往是被人群埋沒的，場域的訊 息往往被附加的傳說和喧嘩所淹蓋。西門町 這個二十四小時繁華的樞紐基本上無法被看 見。而這對集了三個月拍攝之工的西門町， 在數百幀照片之後還要依賴數碼新科技才把 無人的小塊拼成整圖。作為我們的第三隻眼 的攝影機，在數碼的支援下，讓我們抽離自 己來看包裹我們的場域軀殼。
Yuan Goang-Ming uses the augmented perspectival tool of technology to expose the hidden psychological drama/trauma in daily life. For this work, Yuan photographed Taipei’s crowded Ximending Square from the same angle over three months, then used a computer to edit out any areas that had human figures on the ground. The effect is as though the artist has called forth the spirit of the site, allowing it to speak its own story. Yuan’s image brings an intense awareness of how the urban site itself shapes our consciousness.The camera becomes our ‘third eye’ and its digital distancing allows us to step away and observe the body of the city that envelops us.
袁廣鳴 Yuan Goang-Ming [b.1965] 城市失格：西門白日（局部） City Disqualified: Ximen by Day (detail) 彩色照片 Colour Photograph 120 x 150 cm 2002
邱世華 Qiu Shihua [b.1940] 風景（局部） Landscape (detail) 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 130 x 240 cm 2003
在視覺的邊緣開出境界，可見繪畫境界高妙處不在透視 技術。邱世華立足於西洋寫實的風景透視，可是他把刻 劃形象的色彩對比、形貌對比都消減到眼目差不可辨的 極限。形象不能隨便瞄見，觀畫者遂必須平靜放鬆，景 象才逐漸浮現。於是靜觀成為觀看的先決要求，觀看乃 被提升成為修煉。邱畫佳作屢得氣韻靈動之妙，可是他 不用宣紙不涉筆墨，可見有清一代以「筆墨」界定書畫 精神之偏頗。西洋畫法進關四百年，傳授透視法、油彩 材料，強調描繪實景，被邱世華吸收後，直接推至視覺 的邊緣，西法遂轉歸復書畫神韻。
By pushing the contrast of form and colour to an absolute minimum, even to the point where it can hardly be differentiated, Qiu Shihua has changed the act of viewing from an active solicitation to an alert envisioning. Qiu Shihua’s strong formal training in Western realist landscape technique is reflected in his ability to capture scenery in accurate perspective and subtle chiaroscuro. Yet, because his faintly painted landscapes cannot be discerned at a glance, it is necessary first to relax the mind before the image in the painting slowly floats into view: in this way a meditative state becomes the prerequisite condition for viewing the work. In many of Qiu’s paintings the qualities of breath-rhythm (qiyun) and inner vitality (lingdong) are palpable. Fundamentally, Qiu is enacting a gesture of aesthetic transformation: taking the Western painting techniques that had been imported into China for over four centuries and pushing them out to the edge of visibility, where they become absorbed into the spiritual rhythms of shuhua (calligraphy and painting).
求學時期的水墨訓練到了四十歲在遊歷美國返歸台灣後才重 新開發。許雨仁曾長期繪畫密不透風的油畫，細胞形的造形 填滿了風景的天地和空氣。水墨畫的空靈山水的虛空也充滿 了意念的實體，只是似乎帶著晶體的透明。題畫詩是畫家自製， 這種新的詩畫創作以現代人的感知和情趣把書畫重新發明， 既有新安派的空靈冷峻，也帶著現代樓居的空間感受。 Hsu Yu-Jen abandoned the practice of ink painting for oil painting while still at art school, only to return to it many years later after returning to Taiwan from a long sojourn in the United States. His works bring alive an integral dimension of literati art, in that the poetic voice and the writing hand come together to create the visual imagination. Hsu is also the author of the poetry inscribed on his paintings. The artist has invented a very personal brush language to capture a sense of crystalline transparency in the structure of spatial objects. Depicting places in Taiwan familiar to the artist, the images embody a luminosity and architectural spatial structure that reflects the sensibility of a city dweller amid glass towers.
許雨仁 Hsu Yu-Jen [b.1951] 最後的雲頂着最微的枝（局部） The Last Cloud Supporting the Smallest Branch (detail) 水墨 絹本 Ink on Silk 177 x 71 cm 2006
「新山海經」將現代世界推拒為遠古歷史，從遙遠的未來回 頭看。那時，當機械文明的工具再次被靈化為神獸，啟蒙的 歷史任務亦將終於告結。被意識形態神化的政治經濟體制亦 將會還原為神話。邱黯雄這個從未來向今天回觀的圖景，把 我們重新定性為原始人。 Qiu Anxiong’s Xin Shanhaijing (Book of Mountains and Seas) is created as a modern allegory in which the contemporary cultural-political world is viewed as an archaeological past. Bringing the fantastical creatures described in the ancient classic Shanhaijing out of the text and into his ink-and-brush paintings, Qiu invests modern representations of power and political-economic drive with beastly bodies driven by the ethos of their inner natures. Qiu’s eerie map of the world also allows us to look at our present predicament with an eye that telescopes back from the future.
邱黯雄 Qiu Anxiong [b.1972] 《新山海經 1》動畫 New Book of Mountain and Sea I (Animation) 動畫 Animation 30 mins 15 sec 2006
被市樓占據的當代山水該如何來畫？山水畫技如何跟我們這 個時代的「視覺性」融合？乍看梁巨廷近作，生機盎然，韻 趣雋永，書畫神髓完全，但毫無仿古舊味。可知山水革新不 在改造情趣，而在不減氣韻趣味的前提下進入新時代。梁巨 廷的革新在於以現代人的視覺性改造山水畫的基因。今天的 信息時代，山水的地理視覺已被全球定位儀的螢幕視覺所改 造，梁巨廷乃取螢幕常見的分界斷文線入畫，進一步更以螢 幕的斷文線條作為更新山石皴法的基礎。皴法改造是對山水 畫的基因改造，從現代的視覺性出發重新構造山水。在不經 不覺之間，貌似傳統的山水被替換上現代人的視覺性，傳統 審美的韻味重現於今天山水。
Leung Kui-Ting’s paintings constitute his answer to challenges faced by traditional landscape art in an era when nature is violated by massive human intervention and pollution. Leung uses contemporary technological visuality as a tool to reengineer certain landscape painting genes, without diminishing landscape’s fundamental qualities of spirit-resonance (qiyun) and integral grace (quwei). Leung’s recent works speak to the fact that the geographical perspective of landscape art has already been modified through the imposed perspective of the ubiquitous monitor screens of global positioning. He brings the geometrical lines of scientific survey and of monitor screens into his paintings, and incorporates the grid-line as the basis of his cunfa (texture strokes). Cunfa is the technical foundation of traditional landscape, the gene of its mountains and rockery. A renovation of cunfa is nothing short of a radical remake of Chinese landscape art.
梁巨廷 Leung Kui-Ting [b.1945] 游觀 + 數碼 05-2011（局部） ROAMING VISION + DIGITAL 05-2011 (detail) 水墨設色 絹本 lnk & Colour on Silk 96 x 137 cm 2011 游觀 + 數碼 03-2011（局部） ROAMING VISION + DIGITAL 03-2011 (detail) 水墨設色 絹本 Ink & Colour on Silk 98 x 140 cm 2011
漆畫所別於水墨油彩在其「幽」的意境。幽靜深邃是亮麗而 不陰沉的。陰翳之美不見於傳統書畫，也被屏於現代審美以 外，被遺忘的感知正是華夏傳統中「幽」的意境。華麗矜貴 亦是漆材的德性。「貴氣」之別於庸俗在於內蘊與矜持，喬 先生所以能夠遊刃於華貴與幽深的境界，而不墮於庸俗或刻 板，在於掌握了「美之中正」，深切了解漆材本身所能達至 的境界，而以平生的功力涵養其趣味。 Lacquer’s material nature and aesthetic quality are characterised by a quiet reserve and layered depth. The Chinese word that best embodies this sensibility is you (aesthetics of ‘dimness’), a kind of primordial stillness or quiescence, like the stillness in the interior of a temple. You lies at the heart of the Chinese ritual sensibility, yet it is almost absent from the aesthetics of modern painting. Qiao Shiguang’s understanding of the sensibility of you informs his mastery in creating lacquer paintings of quiet magnificence and deep refinement. As lacquer is made with many coatings, with considerable drying time in between, it is impossible for a painter to rush the creation of a composition—a similar situation to the cultivation of character and wisdom.
喬十光 Qiao Shiguang [b.1937] 混沌之二 Cosmos 2 漆、蛋殼、貝母 Natural lacquer, Eggshell, Mother of Pearl 120 x120 cm 2013
身 THE BODY
高劍父一九〇六年東赴日本學畫， 同年加入中國同盟會，一九〇八年 歸國在廣東舉辦「折衷東西」的「新 國畫」展。一九一〇年在香港組織 支那暗殺團任副團長，旨在刺殺清 廷大員。從高劍父的青年經歷看， 嶺南「新國畫」從一開始就與腥風 血雨的行動革命捆綁在一起。藝術 革命與政治革命在他的身上都帶 著戰鬥行動的氣息，因此高劍父在 一九二〇年逐漸淡出政壇之後， 「新 國畫」的推動和藝術發展一直帶著 為新時代鬥爭的任務感，與民國的 開創風氣並進。晚期才從中西融合 的方法逐漸回歸到更貼近東方感性 的現代中國畫。這條回歸的路途經 印度受到壁畫的影響，這幅晚年的 「舍利子」可以看作是畫家落葉歸 根的寫照。
In 1906 Gao Jianfu travelled to Japan to study painting, and that same year he joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance (Tongmenhui) founded by Sun Yat-sen in 1905, while he was in exile in Tokyo. In 1908, Gao returned to Guangdong and organized the ‘New National Painting’ exhibition (‘Xinguohua zhan’), showing works that explored the concept of ‘synthesising East and West’. In 1910 he went to Hong Kong and helped to establish the political resistance group the China Assassination Corps (Zhina ansha tuan), of which he was second in command. The Corps’ aim was the assassination of major officials of the Qing dynasty court. From Gao’s activities in this period, it is clear that from the beginning the New National Painting movement
was closely linked to extremist revolutionary activities. For Gao Jianfu, an art revolution and a political revolution were both a form of combat. Consequently, after Gao gradually withdrew from the political arena after 1920, his promotion of New National Painting and the development of his art both advanced in step with the committed struggle of the new era and the cultural mission of the young Republic. In Gao’s later period his focus on the East-West synthesis shifted to the development of a modern Chinese painting mode more rooted in an Eastern sensibility. During this time he was particularly inspired by Indian mural paintings that he saw in his travels. Sarira is a painting of this later period and portrays the artist’s return to his aesthetic roots, and to a reflection on his own mortality.
高劍父 Gao Jianfu [1879-1951] 舍利子（局部） Sarira (detail) 水墨 紙本 Ink on Paper 33.7 x 44.7 cm 1940
以血的犧牲造神。社會主義革命畫應該劃進西方一神教的宗 教畫範疇。作品的現代視覺感染力：反映了電影人物特寫與 直奔觀眾的動感。主角的奔動帶動了觀者，共同奔向犧牲， 奔向死亡的永恆。此畫長期出現中國小學教科書，是每個國 人都認識的圖樣。 Zhang Hongzan’s portrait of Huang Jiguang depicts one of the martyrs glorified by the Communist Party, part of the propaganda of heroes who sacrificed themselves for the revolution. Icons like Huang Jiguang served the same function as the images of martyred saints in the Christian religion, glorifying the heroic path of ideology through the blood of its saints. This image has been one of the most widely circulated in China, as it continued to be reproduced in school textbooks long after the end of the Cultural Revolution period.
張洪贊 Zhang Hongzan [b.1944] 黃繼光 Huang Jiguang 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 147.5 x 108 cm 1976
周綠雲的藝術是「新水墨」的純陰。因為純陰，所以逃過了 支離破碎的意識形態世界，脫離了王無邪與劉國松的道路， 打開另外的宇宙。周綠雲的宇宙是衍生繁殖的太空，是自然 界的生命力量。她體驗山水是從身體的意象進入的，早年的 作品長期以身體意象呈現山水。更曾以抽象山水手法繪子宮 圖，藉以進入身體的內太空。純陰的內太空裡繁星閃耀，銀 河燦爛，是生命之源。 周綠雲 Irene Chou [1924 - 2011] 創世紀 Genesis 水墨設色 紙本 Ink and Colour on Paper 92 x 177 cm 1980s
In the realm of New Ink Painting, Irene Chou’s art represents the feminine (chun yin) principle that has no commerce with the ideology of destruction. Chou breaks away from the paths followed by Wucius Wong and Liu Guosong to open up an entirely new universe. Although, like Liu, she deals with cosmic themes, Chou’s gaze reveals a cosmos of conception, birth and reproduction: the life-energy of nature. She experiences landscape as beginning in the physical body, and uses the imagery of the interior body to manifest the landscape form. From early on, she had evoked the ovarian channel, into which small cell-like pellets appear to transform into stellar bodies. Chou uses bold, sweeping brushstrokes to delineate her universe, which she then develops into constellations and evolving galaxies.
潘德海在八五新潮中是西南「生命之流」（用高名潞的說法） 的一個代表畫家。八九後他一直不斷推進他那象徵無名的繁 殖力的「苞米人」。「苞米人」是畫家用以象徵所有生命體 繁衍的基礎，是衍生集體造形的核心元素。這系列水彩畫是 畫家早期發揮「苞米人」這個意象的原始圖譜，代表了他的 靈感源頭，陳示多種形式的試驗和推演來繁殖「苞米人」的 藝術潛力。 潘德海 Pan Dehai [b.1956] 苞米系列（局部） The Corn Series (detail) 水彩 紙本 Watercolour on Paper 38 x 54 cm 1987-1990
In the 1980s, Pan Dehai began to use the metaphor of the ubiquitous corn of southwest China to depict an anonymous proliferating energy grounded in the geography. In his Corn Series, the artist developed these cellular figures into a language that takes on a psychological depth, suggesting the raw energy of regeneration and proliferation. These watercolour paintings represent the early stages of Pan Dehai’s development of his iconic ‘people of the corn’, a personal iconography which he has been continuing to develop since 1989 through continuous experimentations with form and symbolic language. There is also a strong fetishist dimension to these images, which emanate a sense of mysterious darkness from the power that creates this generative life force.
夏小萬的浪漫精神洋溢於畫面，無窮的夢幻星空、自然狀態 的人類和神明世界。追求美好世界的理想的敏銳心靈尤其易 受創傷；這種浪漫代表了八〇年代的某一種特徵，而浪漫的 破滅正好相對了九〇年代的暴力的實質建設。 Xia Xiaowan’s art represents the dreamy, romantic hero whose romanticism comes from the vulnerability of an innocence that wounds him. Yet both the wounding and the vulnerability open him up to a greater, dream-like cosmos. Xia’s works often depict strange life-forms who recall Gothic monsters: grotesque but also sensitive—the classical ambiguity of the romantic.This kind of romantic sensibility so representative of the 1980s was effectively shattered against the realities of the rabid development that characterised the 1990s in China.
夏小萬 Xia Xiaowan [b.1959] 空想天穹 Dreaming of Heaven 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 200 x 180 cm 1991
這組圓明園時期的照片捕捉了在九〇年代初期藝術家面對一 個全新的感性世界的時刻。馬六明的裸體以脆弱的感性面對 這個急劇轉變的社會，他的脆弱感有一種朦朧的天真和慾望， 浮移在照片的曖昧性別身分之間。這種朦朧的慾望正是那個 年代的感覺。 Ma Liuming was among the key members of the influential group of performance artists living and practicing near Beijing's Yuanmingyuan in the early1990s. This series of photographs captures the moment in the early 1990s when artists confronted a completely new perceptual world. For Ma, the fragility of the naked body was soon to become the medium through which he contests and critiques the social world. The androgynous, bisexual body is Ma's particular costume for his role of provocateur of body politics, sexual politics and social mores.
馬六明 Ma Liuming [b.1969] 芬 . 馬六明 III Fen - Ma Liu Ming III 黑白照片 B/W Photograph 57 x 38 cm 1993
曾梵志的震撼在於毫無預警地向人展示他那無法癒合的傷 口。戴上面具，穿上西裝革履，只會讓傷口看來更鮮亮。這 是曾梵志一九九四年「面具」系列開創的新意象。二〇〇〇 年後，曾梵志為了打破自己既成的規範（風格的、造形的、 社會的），開始一手抓幾根筆畫畫。隨機的亂筆重新鬆解了 都市新裝的約束，而筆下所展開的視野竟然是城鄉之間的荒 野，是那種既不是文明也不是自然的無名廢地。或許曾梵志 在這裡才找到傷口的原創。 What most characterises Zeng Fanzhi’s work of the 1990s, and to some degree still remains true, is his depiction of the unhealable wound. The present painting, completed in 1994, is one the earliest examples of Zeng’s iconic Mask series. When Zeng put urban city suits on raw bodies, it appeared as an act of containment and regulation, when in fact this contrast served only to highlight the untameable raw passion of the figures and the corresponding wound. This particular work was created by Zeng as a self-portrait. After 2000, Zeng sought to break out of the stylistic, formal and social contexts with which he was associated, and began to paint holding several brushes at the same time. The random chaos of his brushstrokes seem to newly release the bonds of urban life, and the vistas that emerge are actually the wilderness that exists in the space between the city and the countryside: a nameless wasteland that is neither wholly urban nor rural. Perhaps it is here that Zeng Fanzhi has discovered the source of the original wound.
曾梵志 Zeng Fanzhi [b.1964] 內傷 Self-Portrait with Pitbull 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 200 x 180 cm 1994
西方人體畫在清朝傳進中國，要到最近一百年才成為中國 積極學習的對象。歐洲學院畫的古典身體以至到社會主義 的勞動身體，在現代化的運動中成為參照對象，在中國的 美院系統一直被看作新經典。劉煒的創作歷程反映了這種 西來的身體如何被瓦解。九〇年代繪畫界反映政治和精神 創傷的主要象徵是繃帶，或被捆綁的人。但繃帶的傷口往 往是硬傷，暗喻是可以療癒的。八〇年代末劉煒以變形人 像為嬉戲，扭曲標準身體造形。一九九五年開始畫身體潰 爛的意象，像愛滋病，從內部開始發爛。最後，在劉煒 的筆下從西方進口的標準身體不能再被治癒，經典的現 代人到此重歸於腐土。此畫最早出現肉塊潰爛意象，於 一九九五年參加威尼斯雙年展的百年回顧主題展，當年我 協助雙年展藝術總監作為中國部分的策劃。劉煒與張曉剛 都參加了這個展覽，他們是中國最早進入威尼斯主展館的 藝術家。
劉煒 Liu Wei [b.1965] 你喜歡肉？ You Like Pork? 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 200 x 150 cm 1995
Liu Wei’s approach to figure painting is completely visceral, and his sense of irreverence more acute than that of most of his contemporaries. In his earlier works, the sense of disillusionment with political ideology lies very much on the surface, as can be seen in the portraits of his family. After 1989, a profound change occurs in his work, whereby he brings the surface cynicism and irreverence to a more visceral level of abandonment in carnal pleasure and, eventually, to the physical dissolution of the body. In You Like Pork? Liu begins to show hints of the body corrupting from inside. In later works he pushes the idea of wounding as seen in 1980s art to a new level: the wound is now no longer exterior but constitutes a dissolution of the figure from within, so that eventually the body implodes into an irrevocable state of damage. This might also be read as the final destiny of the rational Enlightenment body first embraced by Chinese figure painters a century ago. This painting is one of Liu’s first works to depict his imagery of the body’s physical dissolution. This painting was shown at the 1995 Venice Biennale, when I was invited by the director to curate the China section of the exhibition. Liu Wei and Zhang Xiaogang both participated that year and were the first Chinese artists to ever show at Venice.
全女班的場面呈現亂世的肉。秩序的亂，導致肉與物的錯置。 無度即狂，無序的亂釋放肉慾的狂，然而肉慾亦因此無所措 置。是故魏東的色慾界沒有滿足，沒有高潮。肉已迷失在物 亂的邊緣。 The one word that best captures the spirit of Wei Dong’s painting is chaos (luan): a collision of things belonging to different categories, hierarchies and functions. Wei Dong depicts the carnal, erotic exhilaration of a universe in which things both of the material world and of the flesh have been released from their prescribed functions, liberated and decontextualised. The most positive relation one can now have with them is an essential engagement of the flesh with the materiality of their physical presence in a totally liberated space. In this sense Wei Dong’s painting graphically illustrates the essential idea of eroticism.
魏東 Wei Dong [b.1962] 戰爭和消閒 War & Relaxation 水墨 設色 紙本 Ink and Colour on Paper 27 x 27 cm 1995
文字的神祕力量在中國社會中一直被道家的符籙傳統維持 著。黃致陽的巨幅魔魘猶如文字與鬼靈的結合體，是他嘗 試為心魔造像的書寫。黃致陽關注原始生命體，關注體制 外的力量，在台灣八○年代開始的本土風潮下，這些巨幅 於是也反映了這一代台灣畫家的心理狀態。 The magical power of calligraphy as the embodiment of a presence is preserved today in Daoist oracle writing that is still undertaken at local temples. In this set of works, Huang Chih-Yang extrapolates on the oracular power of the brush to create imaginary supernatural presences of power hidden by the civilised form of the written word, turning this implicit tradition into an explication of the psychological state of his generation.
黃致陽 Huang Chih-Yang [b.1965] 「 」形系列 Zoon Series 水墨 紙本 Ink on Paper 514 x 152 cm 每幅 each 1996
在九〇年代的潑皮犬儒時代，榮榮 和映里代表了最執著的浪漫精神。 他們以赤裸的肉慾和愛情挑戰終極 的場域——工業廢墟或峻嶺雪山， 把絕域點活為世外的烏托邦。 Rong Rong and Inri are part of the seminal group of performance artists who lived and worked in the Yuanmingyuan area of Beijing in the early 1990s. The erotic, romantic images of the couple in embrace are often taken in liminal settings such as abandoned factory sites, historical ruins and isolated areas of nature. Through their romantic bond and the intensity of their physical practice, they create a new way of reading these sites, transforming them into temporary utopias.
榮榮和映里 Rong Rong and Inri [b.1968 / b.1973]
榮榮和映里在富士山 Rong Rong and Inri in Fujisan, Japan 銀鹽照片 Gelatin Silver Print 每幅 each: 50 x 60 cm ( 一組 16 幅 / Set of 16 ) 2001
象 The history of Chinese modern art encompasses the work of artists in Singapore and Malaysia as well as in the Greater China region. Chen Wen-Hsi was one of the most venerated figures in the scholarly and artistic circles there. Born in the Chaoshan region of southern China, in 1920 he left to study painting at the Shanghai Art Academy. In 1948 he settled in Singapore following an exhibition of his paintings there that same year. Although Chen is considered a painter of the modernist school, his artistic sensibility draws inspiration from the natural charm of guohua ink-and-brush painting, and most of his works depict birds, animals and landscape. Chen’s artistic exploration focused on Modernist experimentation with form and visual effects, but he had little interest in the psychological experimentations of the Modernist school. It is interesting to compare Chen with his Hong Kong contemporary, Luis Chan: both were expatriate artists who travelled a non-leftist path—yet their journeys took them in two very different directions.
陳文希 Chen Wen-Hsi [1906 - 1992] 抽象鴨群（局部） Ducks (detail) 水墨 設色 紙本 Ink & Colour on Paper 138 x 69 cm 1980s
華人社會的中國現代藝術除了兩岸四地還有星馬，星馬的前輩 泰斗非陳文希莫屬。他一九二〇年代從潮汕到上海美術專科學 校學畫，一九四八年到新加坡展覽，就此滯留定居。雖說陳文 希屬於現代派畫家，他的藝術精神還是受惠於國畫的自然天趣， 平生作品亦以鳥獸山水為主。現代派的形式試驗、視覺的畫面 效果是他關心的藝術問題；至於現代派另一路的心理分析、夢 幻變形、激情與內省都不是他探索的題目。相比同年的陳福善， 兩人同樣旅居國外，分別走出兩條非左翼的現代藝術道路。
陳餘生所畫的不是抽象畫。他的圖像抽取自日常所見事物， 製成都市中飄揚的經幡。陳餘生的造形魅力建立在繪畫魅力 的基礎上。他以平塗手法、多層累積得來的若隱若現，和信 手繪來造形的悠然呼吸，帶動了隱藏在日常造形裡的啟示， 打開心靈的門窗。 Gaylord Chan does not paint abstract art. Rather, his images are derived from the shape of things we encounter everyday. The charm of Chan’s work lies in the tactile painter’s touch. The artist applies flat planes of colour layered one over the other so that they create a rhythm of appearance and disappearance: a kind of slow, quiescent breathing that makes us aware of the life-force contained in even the humblest form. Through giving us this awareness, Chan’s paintings open up a new window in our hearts.
陳餘生 Gaylord Chan [b.1925] 邊緣 Edge 丙烯畫布 Acrylic on Canvas 122x122 cm 1988
王川一九八〇年的「再見吧，小路」是傷痕文化的一幅代表 作，之後王川急速轉向探討哲理的抽象畫，從油畫又改轍專 攻水墨。三十年的非具象繪畫陪伴王川走過生命幾個大關節， 包括遷徙異地、克服癌病、探索宗教。王川的抽象畫可以說 是他體驗生命、修煉肉體的工具。 Wang Chuan was one of the first artists to work with nonrepresentational painting in the early 1980s. Previously an adherent of the Wounded Art movement, Wang radically changed direction as he sought to develop an abstract language infused with philosophical, spiritual, conceptual and religious elements. Over the past thirty years, Wang has been one of the few abstract artists of his generation to have persisted in his path, and his abstract language has continued to evolve. Wang’s spiritual and energetic link with his art was manifested more deeply as he called on his art practice to help him survive a deadly form of cancer.
王川 Wang Chuan [b.1953] 永恆的實在（局部） Substantiability of Eternity (detail) 水墨 紙本 Ink on Paper 169 x 96 cm 1989
「一百層墨」出自八〇年代實驗藝術的風潮， 顛覆與繼承的辯證關係是前衛藝術面對歷史 的情結，而顛覆往往站於主位。這又呼應了 中共政治運動推動歷史的情結。楊詰蒼以水 墨這個斯文的媒材面對現代藝術的歷史分 量，採取了里程碑式的手法對應歐俄前衛的 終極抽象畫。此作品呼應了中國文字碑的物 理體積，隱喻了多層歷史以及文化權力的無 名分量，以此成就一個代表時代的作品。 Yang Jiechang’s 100 Layers of Ink reflects the experimental spirit of the 1980s Chinese avant-garde. This was a time when the dialectic of subversion/continuation created a psychological dilemma for avant-garde artists in their confrontation with history-with subversion usually holding the dominant position. This same dilemma also has affected the Communist Party’s own historical line. Yang Jiechang has chosen to use the refined medium of brush and ink to confront the historical burden of contemporary art. In particular, his 100 Layers of Ink captures an important aspect of the monumental in ink painting. Yang reacts to the monumentality of the stelae, the layering of history, and the density and opaqueness of the monument of power. His works are also resonant articulations of the presence and power of the word in Chinese history.
楊詰蒼 Yang Jiechang [b.1956] 百層墨（局部） 100 Layers of Ink (detail) 水墨 紙本 Ink on Paper 177 x 236 cm 1989-1991
丁乙的繪畫是一種把製作程式轉化為 鍛鍊身心的操作。這種冷酷的製作拒 絕了情緒的波動，也質疑幻想的意境。 丁乙這落實於製作程序的繪畫堅持了 視覺性，如果有精神超越的話應該也 是幻視的境界。丁乙一九九二年後的 作品帶有手繪痕跡，多少流露了個性， 而這幅早期油畫完全使用工具製作， 立場更為絕對。 Ding Yi’s approach to art is fundamentally analytical, producing an abstract art of the visually hallucinatory rather than of the expressive and emotional. Yet the intensely mechanistic process of his production, with its rhythmic, repetitive manual motion, in itself becomes a soothing, healing and, perhaps, spiritual experience for the artist.
丁乙 Ding Yi [b.1962] 十示 91-2 Manifestation of Crosses, 91-2 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 80 x 100 cm 1991
藝術界一直延續著關於「原創」的思維，這來自浪漫主義。 其實藝術工作所牽涉的過程很大程度上與其他行業是相同的， 包括：重複前人經驗、分析工作的程序、工作步驟的安排。 新刻度小組把藝術工作還原為程式。 The New Analysts Group, comprised of Gu Dexin, Chen Shaoping and Wang Luyan, acted on the belief that art is a practice that makes autonomous knowledge possible. The artists worked as a unit to create conditions for art-making and knowledge production based on rules and objective analyses, to transcend personal expression and individuality in art. Underlying this approach is a view of art as an avantgardist position on the material basis of human nature, and the adoption of modern scientific attitudes regarding society and human relations.
新刻度小組 New Analysts Group 陳少平 Chen Shaoping [b.1947] 王魯炎 Wang Luyan [b.1956] 顧德新 Gu Dexin [b.1962] 解析 II（局部） Analysis II (detail) 綜合材料 Mixed Media 21 x 30 cm x78 1992
剪刀是毛旭輝從他在「後八九」期的坐椅家長的權力意象轉 化而來：被權力位置濃縮為尖角利器的家長，一變成為剪刀 法器。法器造形鋒險攝魄，足以闢邪鎮魔。這是世紀末最有 圖騰力量的圖像之一。 Mao Xuhui first depicted a pair of scissors as a figure sitting on a throne: a surrealistic representation of paternal power. As his iconography developed, the image of the scissors was released from its throne to become a surreal presence making rude intrusions into domestic interiors and urban landscapes. During the 1990s the scissors gradually became a completely distilled figure, purified of its background: it emerged as one of the most convincing iconic images to have evolved from the pictorial work of this era. In this singular iconic form is concentrated the innuendos of power, worship and exorcism.
毛旭輝 Mao Xuhui [b.1956] 倒立的藍色剪刀 Blue Scissors, Inverted 油彩 畫布 Oil on Canvas 180 x 130 cm 1997
曾佑和少女時隨溥佺學畫，畫山水全用中鋒，她解釋是王 府子弟學文藝都強調規矩，求「正」。關鍵是學習收斂， 不讓子弟心野。她在一九四八年隨美術專家的夫婿古斯塔 夫·艾克（Gustav Ecke）遠赴歐洲後，一下子拋開筆墨 用裱畫法開發「掇畫」，把紙張的透視深度以掇加碎紙來 改變，形式和方法的試驗當時走在所有中國藝術家之前。 移民夏威夷後教學作畫，數十年不在亞洲現身。一九九一 年重新出山，把上海美術館、台北市立美術館、中國美術館、 香港藝術中心、新加坡國家美術館一口氣跑遍，是漢雅軒 策劃的展覽。 曾佑和 Tseng Yuho [b.1925] 梅花三弄（局部） Three Variants of the Plum Blossom (detail) 綜合材料 Mixed Media 90 x 92 cm 1997
Born into a respected literati-official family, Tseng Yuho studied painting in Beijing with Pu Quan, a cousin of the last emperor, Pu Yi. By the age of 18 was an accomplished painter in the traditional manner; yet she later became one of the first ink painters to radically experiment with both its medium and its processes. After moving to Europe in 1948, Tseng played with deconstructing the materials of traditional scroll mounting and bringing them on to the painting surface. She later developed the unique process she termed ‘dsui , using collage paper and other non-brush hua’（掇畫） techniques to create textured images of great refinement and luminosity. Eventually Tseng settled in Hawaii and was distanced from the Chinese art world for decades. In 1990 she returned to Asia and Hanart TZ Gallery presented her first comeback show at the Museum of History in Taipei and the National Gallery in Beijing.
麥綺芬在一九八〇年策劃了香港（甚至可以說亞洲）歷年來最 經典的英國現代陶藝大師展 'Contemporary British Pottery'， 一九八五年創辦樂天陶社，在中產的民間燃活了器皿精神。 麥綺芬的器皿好在帶有器識的「器」，溯源唐宋，既古典同 時活活潑潑。美術史談立體造形史，習慣把西歐的人體雕塑 傳統作為標準，若參照華夏文明史的立體造形，對等的應該 是器皿造形，因為禮器才是中國立體造形的重器，所以要從 三代吉金起講。宋朝陶瓷上承了歷代的造形正統，以故不朽。
麥綺芬 Mak Yee-Fun [b.1949] 陶瓷 Ceramic: ‘雪’ 天青碗 ‘Snow’ Deep Bowl H12.7 cm 天青瓶 Azure Vase H25.5 cm 天青盤 Azure Plate D24.5 cm 2013
附記：張元顥 談藝術一般總是向高向遠，對我來說，親近和日用是了 解人與物熔融的切入處。美術史對於每個人都應該從近 處起講，所以我把我日用的、犬兒做的兩個陶杯放在我 的美術史內。元顥十歲開始每週末在樂天陶社玩陶，這 麥綺芬 Mak Yee-Fun ‘雪’‘Snow’ H12.7cm 2013
In 1980 Mak Yee-Fun curated Contemporary British Pottery, the most distinguished exhibition of British pottery and ceramics yet held in Hong Kong (and possibly Asia). In 1985 she founded the Pottery Workshop, stimulating wide community interest in ceramic art. In Chinese tradition, ceramic wares, in particular ritual wares, were considered the epitome of Chinese three-dimensional art, a very different situation to that of the Western European sculptural tradition, where the art historical focus is on figurative sculpture. The vital elegance of Mak’s work is a tribute in particular to the classical tradition of Song ritual wares, which set the standard for Chinese ceramics a millennium ago.
兩個杯是十五歲時做的，自然渾成，卻恰到好處。天趣 大概即是童真。 Addendum: Chang Yuen-Hao
Art is often spoken of as something lofty and remote. But for me, the understanding of both art and artist begins with the intimacy of objects found in daily life. Art history should always begin from something that is close to us. And in my personal art history I have included two ceramic cups made by my son, which I use daily. He made them when he was 15. I find them completely natural, and just right. The highest criterion for natural beauty is surely 'innocence'.
末代變法康有為位居樞紐，差可乾坤扭轉。入民國復又反對 共和，尊孔復辟。治學歸公羊，治政主孔子改制，為學為政 皆宏圖激進，逆流而上。書法宗漢魏，有如摩崖長對日月， 雄邁不羈。寫此「陰符經」下筆縱橫捭闔，「經」言御世之術、 兵家之理，亦暗合南海先生平生志趣。中土百年改革，輾轉 迷路於西夷之意識形態網罟，今也泥足深陷。回顧南海先生 之政見，雖因反覆於維新與革命而不容於時，而今乃知前賢 徘徊於歧路，實寓難言之洞見焉。
康有為 Kang Youwei [1858 - 1927] 陰符經（局部） The Book of Yinfu (detail) 水墨 紙本 Ink on Paper 20.4 x 143.7 cm 1917
At the end of the nineteenth century, Kang Youwei was at the nucleus of late Qing-dynasty reform. Both ambitious and progressive, he very nearly succeeded in bringing about the radical changes sought by his reformist party. After the establishment of the Republic in 1911, however, Kang once again found himself in the opposition. Rather than supporting the policies proposed by Sun Yat-Sen, Kang sought the establishment of a Confucian-inspired political system based on the reformist ideals put forth in the Gongyang Commentary, an influential Confucian text of the Han period. As a calligrapher, Kang was keenly interested in Han and Wei period scripts, and in the unrestrained, heroic quality of the ancient moya (cliff surface) calligraphy carvings inscribed on natural rock surfaces throughout China. In this calligraphy scroll, Kang’s rendering of the Yinfujing—a text on military strategy from around the eighth century—is both fluid and controlled. The text discusses the political and military skills needed to rule effectively, and reflects Kang Youwei’s lifelong concerns. Today, after a century of modernisation and decades of futile struggle with Western ideologies, it is easier to sympathise with Kang’s much-criticised shifting loyalties between royalist reform and radical revolution. He may have foreseen how deep the trap of ideological conversion could become, well in advance of his times.
從大躍進的一九六〇年到文革中期的一九六九年，河南林縣人 用人力開鑿出了太行山上的「天河」，解決自己從明朝以來的 乾旱。革命的（也是階級的）身體在山河面前蛻變成絕對的、 甚至決絕的集體主義主體，迸發出驚人的改造意志和超級能量。 在意識形態意志的鼓舞之下，現實世界的現實邊界變得模糊， 肉體被催化到超人的迷狂，籍以完成了革命的超人事業。可是 從歷史的遠鏡頭看，只見到不切實際的勞動目的，與不可以常 態理喻的迷狂。而在這部官方紀錄片中，懸吊在懸崖的半空中 的農民，跳舞般地捶打著堅實的山體，其和諧的美感彷彿暗示 危險和驚悚已讓渡於一種無法克制的節奏和韻味──人在開天 闢地的同時，又被天地收編。（文：陳韻）
紅旗渠 Red Flag Canal (Hongqi Qu)  紅旗渠 Red Flag Canal (Hongqi Qu) 16 毫米膠片 16 mm film 40 mins 16 secs 1970
For a period of over nine years, starting in 1960 at the end of the Great Leap Forward and continuing through to the third year of the Cultural Revolution in 1969, the peasants of Lin county in the extreme north of Henan province slowly dug out a canal from the sides of the Taihang Mountains, using only the labour of their hands. Called the ‘heavenly river’ by the people, the canal’s purpose was to alleviate the devastating droughts that had affected the area since the Ming dynasty. Facing the mountains and rivers, the revolutionary (and class) body underwent an unconditional transformation into the ultimate manifestation of the collectivist body, invested with an astonishing will and almost superhuman capacity to reconstruct the world. In this official documentary, the working peasants are shown suspended in mid-air along the cliff face. As they beat against the solid body of the mountain, they look as though they are engaged in a dance, achieving a kind of harmonious beauty that seems to hint that the danger and fearsomeness of their task have been subsumed into an irresistible rhythm and pulse. While the people carve their way into heaven and earth, heaven and earth also enfold them. Spurred on by ideology, the borders of real world become blurred, as the body is whipped into a kind of superhuman frenzy that is the ultimate goal of the revolutionary cause. But looking back through the lens of history, all we see is the workers’ impossible mission, and the abnormal state of frenzy under which they pursue their goal. (Text: Chen Yun)
價值觀與道德標準徹底被顛覆，四維崩解，文明與無明並行 於世。 天地之大信不立，日月與心燈並滅。狂人的迷狂，是 文明的迷狂。先是魯迅執筆時德先生與賽先生的迷狂，後是 趙延年操刀時兩種意識形態的迷狂，今日是迷狂被正常化的 迷狂。 When all values and moral standards are jettisoned, the ‘four pillars’ of humanity crumble, and civilisation and chaos become equal norms in the world. The madness of Lu Xun’s Madman is the madness of civilisation when the light of the mind dims and the world goes dark. When Lu Xun wrote his story in 1918 he had already encountered the delirious passion of young Chinese intellectuals toward what Chen Duxiu termed ‘Mr. Democracy’ (De xiansheng) and ‘Mr Science’ (Sai xiansheng). In the post-Mao years, when Zhao Yannian created these woodblock prints illustrating Lu Xun’s story, the artist was confronting the madness of two competing ideologies. There is a lesson here for our times as well, as we face the delirium that comes from the increasing normalisation of madness.
趙延年 Zhao Yannian [b.1924] 狂人日記：三十八圖 A Madman's Diary: 38 pictures 木刻版畫 Woodblock Print 每幅 each: 29 x 19 cm ( 一組 38 幅 / Set of 38 ) 1985 ( 版次 / edition 18/50)
雲遊的道長法師也有人世任務。為時代消災解厄的丹方要掛 在今天的診斷室內，藝術館就是時代的診斷室。帶病的觀眾 走進展覽廳，發現黃永砅的解藥只發給願意被破解的人。
黃永砅 Huang Yongping [b.1954] 太公釣魚，願者上鉤 Taigong Fishing for Those Willingly to be Hooked 綜合材料 裝置 Mixed Media Installation 可變尺寸 Dimensions Variable 2000
Huang Yongping was one of the first artists of his generation to question the role of art in the education system and to view ideological critique and cultural politics as integral to contemporary art practice. In 1989 Huang was invited to France to show in the 'Magiciens de la terre' exhibition. He stayed on and eventually became a French citizen, even representing France in the Venice Biennale in 1999. This assemblage undertakes a literal interpretation of a traditional aphorism and applies it as a metaphor for a critique of the ideology of imperialist/capitalist politics.
對於個人，政治發生在個人行為的塑造，於是體罰可能 是最赤裸的政治干預。行使慾望政治的消費資本主義到 了極致也發展到讓慾望與肉體迷狂。陳界仁的早期攝影 到「凌遲考」的錄影為一總結。被凌遲的犯人被摒棄到 人間法與天地法以外，被放逐於生死界之間。鴉片的麻 醉延長了犯人流連在這種時空以外的時刻，我們不知道 那是狂喜還是狂哀，只知道那是人世以外的迷狂。現代 政治制度的「惡」，自有近代史的淵源，那來自西方和 自己的歷史的結合，而具體發生在我們每人身邊。在被 設想為正常的政治經濟社會裡，持續不斷產生被邊緣化、 非法化的各種族群與行業。被驅逐於正常治理現象邊界 之外的族群與行業不斷更變，因為合法化的邊界隨政治 經濟的轉換不斷地被改動和重新劃分。 陳界仁 Chen Jieh-Jen [b.1960] 凌遲考 Lingchi - Echoes of a Historical Photograph 錄像 Video 21' 04" 2002
The malignancies of our contemporary political systems are traceable to the early history of modern China and derive from the ills of both Western and Chinese history. Yet, essentially, these malignancies continue to exist right beside us. Chen Jieh-Jen’s video series Ling Chi - Echoes of a Historical Photograph can be described as the evolutionary conclusion of his early photographic work. The prisoners subjected to the torture of the ‘thousand cuts’ exist outside of both human and universal law, and exiles in a no-man’s land between life and death. The confounding of the senses brought about by opium causes the prisoners to linger in a dimension outside of time itself. We do not know whether this is ecstasy or pain, only that it is a kind of otherworldly delirium. Chen reveals that what modern society designates as the realms of the forbidden and the boundaries of the illegitimate have, in fact, always had a hidden existence within the body of ‘normal society’ itself. In this and other works such as Military Court and Prison and Happiness Building, Chen slips beyond the secret borders of quotidian society and infiltrates the groups existing beyond the pale. In doing so, he reveals the motivations of the contemporary politico-economic-social state.
星星十年（香港和台北，1989） Stars Ten Years (Hong Kong and Taipei, 1989) 《新山海經》將現代世界推拒為遠古歷史，那時，當機械文 明的工具再次被 靈化為神獸，啟蒙的歷史任務亦將終於告結。 被意識形態神化的政治經濟體制亦將會還原為神話。邱黯雄 這個從未來向今天回觀的圖景也把我們重新定性為原始人。 《新山海經》將現代世界推拒為遠古歷史，那時，當機械文 明的工具再次被 靈化為神獸，啟蒙的歷史任務亦將終於告結。 被意識形態神化的政治經濟體制亦將會還原為神話。邱黯雄 這個從未來向今天回觀的圖景也把我們重新定性為原始人。 《新山海經》將現代世界推拒為遠古歷史，那時，當機械文 明的工具再次被 靈化為神獸，啟蒙的歷史任務亦將終於告結。 被意識形態神化的政治經濟體制亦將會還原為神話。邱黯雄 這個從未來向今天回觀的圖景也把我們重新定性為原始人。 亦將會還原為神話。邱黯雄這個從未來向今天回觀的圖景也 把我們重新定性為原始人。
1989 年《星星十年》香港漢雅軒展覽現場，左起： 薄雲、馬德升、毛栗子、曲 磊磊、王克平 Members of the Stars Art Group at Hanart 2 Gallery Hong Kong, in front of Wang Keping's sculpture Idol. From left: Bo Yun, Ma Desheng, Mao Lizi, Qu Leilei, Wang Keping. 'Stars Ten Years', January 1989.
Stars Ten Years’ celebrated China’s pioneering Stars Art Group by staging two retrospective exhibitions in Hong Kong and Taipei, in January and March 1989 respectively. The exhibitions included artworks by Stars members from both the early and the late 80s, and also featured live performances and poetry readings. The project marked the first time that the core founding members of the Stars had come together since their seminal exhibitions in Beijing in 1979 and 1980, in the aftermath of which the group had effectively dispersed. When ‘Stars Ten Years’ was launched in January 1989 in Hong Kong, it soon became the most widely covered art event of that time, a phenomenon repeated when it later opened in Taipei. ‘Stars Ten Years’ was organised with Michael Chen, former art director of the Hong Kong Arts Centre. A noteworthy historical coincidence was the near-concurrent launch in Beijing of the seminal ‘China/Avant-Garde’ exhibition at the National Art Gallery in February 1989. These two events together constitute a poignant summary of China’s new art of the1980s.
1989 年 3 月，王克平話劇《重審魏京生》在台灣公演 Theatre performance in Taipei, Taiwan of the play 'The Retrial of Wei Jingsheng' by Wang Keping, March 1989.
毛栗子 MAO Lizi 《新生 》Vie Nouvelle 油彩 木板 Oil on board 79.5x 75cm 1976
上圖 Top 馬德升 MA Desheng 《海 》Sea 油墨 紙本 Oil based ink on paper 52 x 23 cm 1980 年代 1980s
下圖 Bottom 楊益平 YANG Yiping 《長城 》Great Wall 油彩 木板 Oil on board 53 x 38 cm 1979
後八九 : 中國新藝術（香港和悉尼 1993； 北美巡展 1995-98） China’s New Art, Post-1989 (Hong Kong and Sydney 1993; North America tour 1995–98) 一九八九年二月我在北京的「中國現代藝術展」展場跟策展 團表示有意把此展移師香港。然而，六四事件中斷了這個計 劃。一年後， 毛澤東熱回潮與經濟體制改革，同時文化界也 出現嶄新的感知和觸覺，於是我提出「後八九中國新藝術」 計劃的概念，並榮幸邀得栗憲庭為聯合策展人。 「後八九中國新藝術」的想法是企圖通過藝術洞悉大時代的 精神，分析方法是對比一九八九前後，在比較中推敲中國 九十年代新出現的特徵。八十年代的魅力在於無所顧忌，繼 承了毛時代的翻山倒海所遺留一片等待重新開發的世界。 一九八九前後劃分了中國的意識型態轉型，從冷戰一邊陣營 轉移到另一邊，藝術也從冷戰的陣線轉向。八十年代藝術界 以思潮運動互相勉勵的橫空理想，一九八九年後皆表現了空 想幻滅，重新以個人的感知專業探討現實，反映了大環境的 政治經濟改變。 這個展覽首展與香港藝術中心總監何慶基合作，於一九九三 年一月底開幕，是香港藝術節的主要藝術項目。當年三月移 展悉尼當代藝術中心，易名「波普的毛澤東」。一九九四年 由美國藝術聯盟（American Federation of Arts）接辦巡展美 加。這個展覽一共展出九場，至一九九八年結束。 After visiting the groundbreaking ‘China/Avant-Garde’ exhibition in Beijing in February 1989, I spoke with the curators about the possibility of bringing the show to Hong Kong as a historical retrospective. The June Fourth incident, however, brought our discussions to a temporary halt. A year later, I initiated the concept of the ‘China’s New Art, Post-1989’ project, and was honoured by Li Xianting’s
agreement to be co-curator. The conceptual framework of ‘China’s New Art, Post-1989’ was to use art as a vehicle to understand the changing spirit of an era, by contrasting the art/historical conditions of the pre-1989 period with those of China post-1989. In cultural terms, the special cachet of the1980s lay in its fearlessness, a continuation of the Maoist era’s legacy of rebellion and reform, as well as its faith in the dawning of a new era. In the years between 1989 and 1991, Chinese society was marked by new contradictions, with a resurgence of Maoist fever on the one hand and major economic reforms on the other. In the cultural world, new perceptions and sensibilities were being formed. The now well-known terms ‘Political Pop’ and ‘Cynical Realism coined at the time by Li Xianting gave expression to a new phase marked by disillusionment and the exploding of idols. In Hong Kong, the exhibition was organized in collaboration with Oscar Ho Hing-Kay, then director of the Hong Kong Arts Centre. Opening in late January 1993, it was one of the major events of the 1993 Hong Kong International Arts Festival. In March of that year a special curated selection of the show, entitled ‘Mao Goes Pop’, was presented at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Sydney, Australia. In 1994 the American Federation of Art organised an international tour of ‘China’s New Art, Post-1989’, and the show subsequently travelled to another seven public museums and galleries.
1993 年在香港舉辦的《後八九中國新藝術》，香港大會堂低座展覽廳現場。 左起：張頌仁、何慶基、栗憲庭 Curators Chang Tsong-Zung, and Li Xianting with associate curator Oscar Ho Hing-kay at the 'China's New Art, Post-1989' exhibition, Hong Kong City Hall venue, January 1993.
蘇立文教授在香港大會堂低座舉辦《 「後八九中國新藝術」講座》 Art historian Michael Sullivan giving an informal talk at the 'China's New Art, Post-1989' exhibition, Hong Kong City Hall, 1993
《後八九中國新藝術》香港藝術中心展覽現場 Views of artworks installation at‘China’ s New Art: Post-1989’exhibition, Hong Kong Arts Centre, January 1993
1993 年 1 月，《後八九中國新藝術》香港大會堂低座展覽現場， 谷文達及張曉剛作品 Exhibition view at Hong Kong City Hall, January 1993
「文字的力量」( 一九九九年至二 00 二年 ) Power of the Word (1999 to 2002) 「文字的力量」的思考為了回答幾個問題： 一． 什麼視覺指標最能直觀地反映中國百年現代化的進程？ 二． 「藝術」這個現代詞語所意指的作品從傳統書畫的「雅」 文化觀點看來很多是不及格，甚至惡劣的，那麼今天援用文 字為內容的的現代藝術跟傳統書法有沒有互通款曲之處？ 三． 作為「藝術」的精英書法，如王羲之鄭虔寫的字，跟村 校老師寫的字的關係何在？帝王書法如康熙、毛澤東的字， 應該如何定位？ 在傳統中國，權力的視覺呈現形式是書寫。碑石牌匾對聯 等公共陳列的書法都是權力在公共空間展示的形式。對現 代人來說，最容易表述這個觀念是與西歐比較。西歐文化 以人像陳示權勢，市鎮廣場的戶外雕像所展示的就是政治 與文化的權力。但在前現代中國沒有公共雕像這回事。與 歐洲相對的展示個人權力的公共空間，在中國基本陳列了 名人書法 。因此，名人雕像在公共空間的逐漸興盛，反映 了中國西化（或說現代化）的傾向。文革的年代，毛澤東 的雕像鋪天蓋地，但同時毛澤東的書法，也通過複製和臨 摹遍蓋神州。可以說文革年代是傳統與現代兩種權力語言 併行的年代。之後書法的勢力逐漸衰落，西歐的權力文化 席捲中國。 「文字的力量」由紐約 Independent Curators International ( 獨立策展人國際協會 ) 統籌巡展，張頌仁策展。一九九九 年在台中省立美術館首展，二 000 到二 00 二年在美國多個 美術館巡展。
Power of the Word is a research and exhibition project anchored by several queries: 1. Is there a visual marker that indicates the degree of modernisation of Chinese culture? 2. By the traditional literati standard of ya (refinement), the modern Chinese art that is embraced by the Western term ‘art’ (yishu) is often seen to be vulgar and obscene. Is there common ground between literati calligraphy and modern artists who use the written word? 3. What is the relationship between a village schoolteacher’s calligraphy and that of a paradigmatic master? What about the ‘imperial’ calligraphy of figures like Emperor Kangxi and Mao Zedong? In pre-modern China, the visual language of power is calligraphy. It manifests itself on stelae in public squares, on openly displayed plaques and couplets on buildings. When compared with Europe, the difference is radical. In Europe the visual language of power is the human figure, which accounts for its public statues of political leader and cultural figures. Public statues for celebrities did not exist in premodern China, therefore the modern proliferation of statues, indicates China’s degree of Westernisation, in other words, modernisation.
1999 年在台灣省立美術館舉辦的《文字的力量》谷文達作品《細說新語》 ‘Power of the Word’ exhibition opening at the Taiwan Museum of Fine Art, April 1999, with Gu Wenda installation in background.
葉放 YE Fang 《南石皮記：當代宅居中的造園》 Nan Shi Pi Ji: Chinese Garden for a Contemporary Residence 2002-2005
香港城市大學創意媒體學院在王冬齡的身體及毛筆上安裝拍攝鏡頭，捕捉藝 術家在進行巨幅現場書寫時的運動 Video by City University of Hong Kong’s School of Creative Media made by strapping a camera to artist Wang Dongling's brush as he does his calligraphy performance, to record his gestural rhythm.
黃盒子（台北 2004；上海 2006） Yellow Box (Taipei 2004 ; Shanghai 2006) 「黃盒子」是對西方現代的「白立方」展覽空間的回應，亦 是對中國文人傳統鑑賞文化的審視。這一研究計劃考察書畫 介入「白立方空間」的方法，尤其是在展示方式上輔助中國 文人藝術物的自我表達。中西觀賞實踐上的差異源於文化歷 史前提的不同， 「白立方」正是世俗化的歐美耶穌教崇拜空間。 由於觀賞場域直接影響創作品的生產，「黃盒子」展覽強調 理想的文人觀賞模式，以期打開當代藝術的可能性。「黃盒 子」一詞來自《易經》中的「天玄地黃」。這一計劃由張頌仁、 高士明和邱志傑於 2004 年發起，並在台北市立美術館展出。 ‘Yellow Box’ is both a reflection on the modern exhibition site of the white cube, and an examination of the literati culture of connoisseurship. The research project investigates ways of making interventions within the white cube, particularly in modes of display, to assist the Chinese literati art object to express itself. The discrepancy between the connoisseurship practice of the white cube and that of the literati highlights the underlying cultural-historical presumptions of the white cube, which is the secular heir of the European religious site. In China, the ideal literati site of display would have been in nature—in the scholar’s garden or some particularly beautiful corner of the wilderness. Sites of display directly affect art production, and it is hoped that the special mode of connoisseurship of the literati as highlighted in the Yellow Box shows will open up new potentials for contemporary art. The choice of the word ‘yellow’ was inspired by a saying in the Book of Changes: heaven is black and earth is yellow. The concept was first conceived by Chang Tsong-Zung, Gao Shiming and Qiu Zhijie in 2004 for the exhibition ‘The Yellow Box’ at the Taipei Museum of Fine Art.
于彭為「黃盒子」展覽製作明窗山水畫 , 2004 年 12 月於台北市立美術館。 Yu Peng creating a 'window painting' (top) and view of his installation for the 'Yellow Box' exhibition (bottom), Taipei Museum of Fine Art, December 2004.
趙汝賢 Caroline CHIU 《白石山》White Rock 2005 拍立得照片 Polaroid 61 x 51 cm 原石為清朝舊石，約 11cm Original stone circa 18th century, height 11 cm
展望 ZHAN Wang 《假山石 #45》 Artificial Garden Rock #45 2001 不鏽鋼 Stainless Steel 183 x 90 x 71 cm
鄉土計劃 （2004 年始） Homestead (Since 2004) 與歐洲不同，傳統中國的鄉鎮代表著社會、政治和文化權力 的中心。家鄉祠堂中供奉先賢來紀念傑出族人，而衣錦還鄉 的觀念使出外經商和離鄉遠宦的成就最終都集歸到家鄉。今 天發生的情況卻截然相反：村民背井離鄉來到城市從事卑微 的工作。城鄉之間的新關係正在形成。 金澤工藝社是夢周文教基金會支持的計劃，社址位於江南水 鄉。除了紡織和漆器等傳統工藝製作，並參與傳統節慶和風 俗禮儀復興，因其融合物質文化的前工業關係。 鄉土學院隸屬中國美術學院當代藝術與社會思想研究所，以 研究現代鄉土與城鄉主題為宗旨，通過重訪鄉村來尋找重新 連接土地及其現代困境的對話和聯結方法。該計劃邀請不同 領域的專家參與研究。 In traditional China, unlike in Europe, villages and smaller towns represented centres of social, political and cultural power. This phenomenon is a result of the Chinese clan system, which honoured people in their hometowns through the local ancestral temples. Great politicians,
在立春時節舉行的傳統迎春儀式「打春牛」。 Spring festival parade, Jinze
people of culture and business people always returned with their learning and their wealth to their hometowns and villages. Today, the reverse is happening: villagers are abandoning their homesteads in the countryside for the cities, usually in exchange for menial work. A new relation between ‘town and country’ is emerging.
Jinze Craft Center is a project sponsored by the Moonchu Foundation. Situated in a traditional canal village, its projects include experiments with traditional customs relating to agrarian practices and communal seasonal celebrations. Traditional craft such as textile weaving and lacquerware production also is part of Jinze Craft Center’s concerns as involving a pre-industrial relation with material culture.
The Homestead Institute was established under the aegis of the Institute of Contemporary Art and Social Thought, China Academy of Art. Its intention is to revisit the countryside to try to find ways of dialogue and connection between the traditional relation to the land and its modern predicament. The activities of the Institute entail multidisciplinary research involving expertise from diverse fields.
「物事研究室」設在香港的器物研究工作室，由趙廣超和張頌仁主持 Thing-ing Lab Project : A research laboratory on 'things', based in Hong Kong, founded by Chiu Kwong-Chiu and Chang Tsong-Zung
金澤工藝社水鄉建設由張頌仁、胡項城、張頌義、梅冰巧啓動，張 西美主持紡織工坊與紡織物收藏館，目前有傳統節慶、風俗禮儀、 學術討論會、工藝研習班數項計劃。The Jinze Craft Centre project supporting traditional building craft, village culture, and artisan technology, located near Suzhou, was initiated by Chang TsongZung, Hu Xiangcheng, Zhang Songyi and Mui Binghow. Edith Cheung is currently operating a textile workshop and residency, and planning a textile research museum. 漆藝項計 : 此項計劃由我發起，與皮道堅和陳勤群共同執行， 2009 年在湖北省藝 術館展覽。由於民眾反響熱烈，湖北省藝術館隨後申報國際漆藝三年展項目，主旨 強調天然大漆制作，2013 年舉辦第二屆三年展。Lacquer Project: 'Spiritual Space: A Dimension in Lacquer', shown at the Hubei Museum of Art (2009) curated by Chang Tsong-Zung, Pi Daojian and Chen. The museum has since launched a major international lacquer triennial, based on the success of this exhibition.
嘉禮堂（2011 年始） Jia Li Hall (since 2011) 中國禮教是離開現代最遠，讓現代人最聽不懂，卻跟中華文 明核心又最貼近的世間秩序。前現代的中國社會，無論是官 民關係還是鄉土情誼，識字還是文盲，自覺的禮教秩序每個 人都懂。禮是讓中國人行走天下的教養。 嘉禮堂於 2011 年嘉禮堂最早由我和舍弟頌義創辦，承鳴社同 人參與，得饒宗頤、單周堯和彭林等諸位教授支持，於 2012 年嘉禮堂與清華大學和香港大學聯合創辦首屆「禮學國際學 術研討會」於清華大學，賢哲咸集，羅致論文五十多篇。第 二屆「禮學國際學術研討會」在中國美術學院舉辦。 2013 年，嘉禮堂聯同「清華大學禮學研究中心」和香港城市 大學創意媒體學院合作拍攝《儀禮》 「士冠禮」儀式和名物復原。 《嘉禮堂儀禮復原數碼平台：士冠禮篇》並啓發了對中國「現 代身體」的研究， 2014 年在中國美術學院的當代藝術與社會 思想研究所啓動。
首屆禮學國際學術研討會在 2012 年 6 月於北京清華大學舉行
Panel discussion at the ‘First International Symposium of Ritual Studies’, Tsing Hua University, Beijing, June 2012.
In modern Chinese society, the traditional system of knowledge known as li, usually translated as ‘Confucian rites’, is to most people one of the most remote and unintelligible traditions of China’s cultural past. Yet it lies at the heart of China’s civilisational order. In premodern Chinese society, not only were relations at all social levels, from the highest court official to the humblest villager, were informed by the understanding of the ethics and proprieties of li, the social order and legal code, as well as attitude to the material world, were informed by the order of li. In fact, the system of li can be said to have fostered the social and personal cultivation that allowed the Chinese person to negotiate the world. Jia Li Hall was conceived and initiated by myself and my brother Zhang Songyi in 2011. With the support of friends of Ming-She Poetry Society, experts Prof. Jao Tsung-I, Prof. Sin Chow-Yiu and Prof. Peng Lin, the project was guided towards philological research of the classics. In 2012 Jia Li Hall collaborated with the Tsinghua University Research Center of Chinese Rites and Hong Kong University to organize the first International Symposium on Ritual Studies. The second International Symposium on Ritual Studies was held at and in conjunction with the China Academy of Art in Hangzhou. In 2013, Jia Li Hall also entered into collaboration with Tsing Hua University Research Center of Chinese Rites and the City University of Hong Kong’s School of Creative Media to create a digital film demonstrating the traditional ‘capping ceremony’ from the ancient Book of Rites. This undertaking has inspired a research initiative into the Chinese ‘modern body’, a project which has been launched at the China Academy of Art’s Institute of Contemporary Art and Social Thought.
首屆禮學國際學術研討會在 2012 年 6 月於北京清 華大學舉行 English
西天中土（2010 年始） West Heavens (since 2010) 「西天中土」是一個綜合性的文化交流方案，從學術思想和 當代藝術兩個角度去親近印度，進行視覺文化和亞洲現代性 的文化比較。「西天」是漢唐以來對印度、天竺的美稱。佛 學成為中國崇尚的參照，在唐朝之全面影響可比今天西歐之 於現代中國。「西天中土」重訪中國與印度近鄰這段歷史以 為今天借鑑。 帝國主義和資本主義的挑戰，在過去一個多世紀中迫使印度 和中國發展出將兩個社會深刻轉型的政治策略。對印中來說， 分享這一經驗尤為寶貴。現代中國與印度相遇，感官上最受 刺激的疑惑是：現代與歷史（而且是多層面的歷史）到底如 何並存？再訪天竺可以提醒中國自我改造的歷史記憶，并提 醒我們在想像世紀版圖的「西方」時，尚有一個離感官更遠 而腳程更近的「西天」。 「西天中土」是由中國美術學院展示文化研究中心和香港漢 雅軒發起，夢周文教基金會資助研究的綜合文化交流方案。 The aim of the West Heavens project is to foster a deeper Chinese understanding of India through contemporary art and scholarship and to develop cross-cultural dialogues based on visual culture and notions of Asian modernity. The name ‘West Heavens’ comes from the period of Buddhist transmission from India to China two millennia ago. China looked to India for inspiration at that time. This project returns to that paradigm. For more than a century, challenges of imperialism and capitalism have forced India and China to develop political strategies that have profoundly transformed both societies. To share this experience is valuable for Indian and Chinese alike. In the modern encounter of two ancient civilisations, an urgent issue is being raised for China: how do modernity and history, history with multilayered complexity, co-exist? It is critical to remind ourselves that in our imagination of the
2010「時·地·戲」展覽的策展人，右起 Chaitanya Sambrani, Partha Chatterjee, 張頌仁， 在 Nilima Sheikh 作品下致詞 Curators of the 'Place.Time.Play' exhibition standing under painting installation by Nilima Sheikh. From right: Chaitanya Sambrani, Partha Chatterjee, Chang Tsong-Zung, Shanghai, 2010
world, there is not just the West, but also the West Heavens. The West Heavens initiative for cultural exchange in academic endeavours and the arts was developed jointly by the Institute of Visual Culture of the China Academy of Art and Hanart TZ Gallery, and supported by the Moonchu Foundation.
2012 年 12 月於上海《時·地·戲：印中當代藝術》的參展藝術家吉吉·史卡利亞、圖沙·佐 治與阿杜·巴拉 Gigi Scaria, Tushar Joag and Atul Bhala, participating artists at the‘Place. Time.Play’ exhibition, Shanghai, December 2012.
《西天中土》 的出版物 Publications by the West Heavens project
2010 年第八屆上海雙年展“巡迴排演”第五幕《從西天到中土：印中社會思想對話》 ‘West Heavens: India-China Summit on Social Thought’at the 8th Shanghai Biennale Rehearsal Act V, 2010.
亞際書院 Inter-Asia School (since 2012) 在最近一個世紀以來，亞洲現代思想呈現為各國分別獨立面 對西方卻彼此區隔的對話。由於西方的學術話語權代表現代 世界的主導力量，所以亞洲思想進入國際往往只能通過西方 的渠道。脫離與西方發生關係的學術，即成為非西方的文化 實踐，在這種形勢之下，只能屬於國際話語權的外部。 亞際書院的基礎是陳光興發起的《Inter-Asia Journal》，一 本在西方出版的亞洲思想期刊。2012 年上海雙年展的學術 論壇首先通過陳光興的策劃，將七個重要亞洲思想家（來自 韓國、日本、沖繩、馬來西亞和印度）邀請到上海雙年展， 作為雙年展的主題學術活動。由於這次活動普遍受到學界的 支持，陳光興和張頌義商議創辦亞際書院，將亞洲活躍的社 會思想機構通過年會和出版的形式串聯起來。 目前進行中的項目包括： 1. 每年選擇一位主要亞洲思想者作為研究對象； 2. 年度亞際思想學術會議； 3. 不定期出版，並籌備建立一個能讓亞洲學者用多 種語言進行平等的知識交流的數字平台。
2012 年於上海舉辦的《變動中的世界，變動中的想象：2012 亞洲思想界上海論壇》現場。 The ' World in Transition, Imagination in Flux: Asian Circle of Thought 2012 Shanghai Summit' , Shanghai, 2012
Over the past century, Asian modern thought has developed within a framework of separate national dialogues with the West. The authoritative academic discourse of the West has represented the leading intellectual paradigm in the modern world, and as such, the only path for the international participation of Asian thought has been via Western channels. Any academic or, indeed, non-Western cultural practice disconnected from this relationship occupies by default a position external to the authoritative academic discourse. The Inter-Asia School’s intellectual foundation is built on the platform of Inter-Asia Journal, a scholarly publication of Asian thought founded by Chen Kuan-Hsing and published in English. At the 2012 Shanghai Biennale, through my initiative as the Biennale co-curator, and at Chen KuanHsing’s invitation, seven major Asian thinkers from Korea, Japan, Malaysia and India took part in a symposium that was conceived as an integral part of the Biennale. In light of the scholarly community’s overwhelmingly positive response to this event, Chen Kuan-Hsing and Zhang Songyi broached the possibility of creating a structure to link the existing institutions of Asian modern social thought through publications and yearly conferences.
Current project activities include: 1. The selection, on a yearly basis, of a major Asian scholar as a subject of research. 2. An annual academic conference on Asian thought. 3. Regular publications and eventual establishment of a digital platform to allow Asian scholars working in different languages to achieve an equitable intellectual exchange.