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ADSair Journal Wen Jun Wei 555279 2014 Semester 1

Rosie + Cam

tutorial 1


2 Contents

Introduction PartA Conceptualization Part A1 Design Futuring

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Part A2 Design Computation

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Part A3 Composition Generation

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Part A4 Conclusion24 Part A5 Learning Outcomes

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Part A6 Algorithmic Sketches

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PartB Criteria Design Part B1 Research Field

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Part B2 Case study 1

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Part B3 Case Study 2

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Part B4 Technique: Development

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Part B5 Technique: Prototypes

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Part B6 Technique: Proposal

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Part B7 Learning Objectives & Outcomes

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Part B8 Algorithmic Sketches

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Introduction

Wei Wen Jun The University of Melbourne Bachelor of Environments Architecture (3rd year)

M

y name is Wen Jun Wei, a third year architecture student born and raised in Taiwan. Since moving to Melbourne in 2012, I have developed a strong interest in creative designing and architectural theories throughout the course. My first exposure to digital design came in the first year whilst studying Virtual Environments. This course involved using Rhinoceros 3D digital modelling software in conjunction with panelling plug-in tool to manipulate designs. Throughout the course, I was able to transform a virtual design into a physical one from complex NURBS surfaces into rational surfaces for fabrication, in order to build an architectural piece to the scale of human body. The experience with digital design was rewarding and it had attributed me insights into the complexity of digital world. Despite having the previous experience of digital modelling and paneling design, I consider myself still having a lot more to learn and grow. I see this course, Architecture Design Studio Air as an opportunity to broaden in both theoretical and technical knowledge in architecture. Despite the knowledge of digital architecture I gained in the past two years, myself is still fresh to the parametric language, piratically in Grasshopper. Knowing to comprehend this new language is not going to be easy, but I believe such tool will add my creativity and free my imagination in a computational sense.


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“The computer offers another kind of creativity. You cannot ignore the creativity that computer technology can bring. But you need to be able to move between those two different worlds.” - Tadao Ando


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PartA Conceptualization

ďťż


Design Futuring

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Part A1

Design Futuring Design Futuring l Land Art Generator Initiative

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he climate change and destruction of the planet’s natural environments are now being more widely recognized as challenges today. As a matter of fact, we human beings are facing our nemesis. We have created this condition unwittingly as we have been taking resources from the planet for granted. While innovative practices such as sustainable designs have emerged, efforts towards change remain unacknowledged. Fry argues this relation between creation and destruction is not an issue when a resource is renewable, but it is a disaster when it is not.[1] The notion of revaluing design as a world shaping force is vital in order to have a sustainable future. The reason being is that design plays a significant role in shaping every part of our lives. To understand the true power of design, we need to redefine its identity. In Fry’s words, design is not an independent entity but it influences, and is influenced by social, cultural, ethical and political means[2] ; thus, design can be rethought as futuring, to acknowledge the move from passive consumption to active participation. I agree with his view as followed by such way would reveal the power of design - to redirect practices to sustainability.

In a much closer discussion, the reception of the importance of architecture seems continually growing as a decisive role in our future. Indeed, what makes architecture great is not about its capability of being sustainable, but rather an influential force to educate users being sustainable. This notion will be my conceptual intent that drives the design of this project, which will be further explored in the journal. Going back to the notion that architecture as a design practice that contributes ideas to the ongoing disciplinary discourse and culture at large. To expand future sustainability, it is important for a degree of engagement to take place between the user and architecture itself. Certainly, I believe that design futuring is not about achieving a sustainable equilibrium, it is rather changing the attitude by which our lives are sustained.


Design Futuring

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supertees Grant Associates Singapore 2012

The colossal Supertrees are found in the Bay South garden in Singapore. The Supertrees act as vertical gardens and are embodied with renewable energy and water technology integral to the conservatories. The government intends to transform Singapore into a vision of “city in a garden� in contrast to its dense urban environment. It aims to symbolize the importance of revaluing natural balance and raise awareness of the environment globally.

Left: Supertree by Grant Associates in Singapore (2012) Right: Bridge and Skywalk of Supertree by Grant Associates in Singapore (2012)


Design Futuring

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The very powerful picture behind Supertrees is that they breathe life into Singapore’s urban oasis and expands future possibilities. Supertrees are a rich fusion of nature and technology taking inspiration from the form of the orchid. They act as cooling ducts for conservatories, collect rainwater for irrigating vegetation and are embodied with photovoltaic systems to generate solar power on-site. These sustainable features are appreciated because they refocus society from passive material consumption towards an active participation by a mean of ethical use of design as a force in repositioning the habitats.

This is a successful project for the reason being that it encapsulates the notion of design futuring, providing both leisure and education to the nation. The features of bridge and skywalks connect taller Supertress allow users to engage with nature from a spectacular height. Through the engagement with users, it changes the attitude by which our lives are sustained. In Fry’s words, ever design decision is future decision.[3] In light of contribution to the ideas, this project is remarkable in educating sustainable energy rather than merely sustain energy.


Design Futuring

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Urban Adapter Rocker Lange architects

Hong Kong 2011

Through a series of various seating arrangement, Urban Adaptor seeks to achieve an adoptive realm that reacts and interacts to its site and inhabitants. The variation of its style is obvious where there is a lack of uniformity in its formal expression. Each of them is designed to convey different set of formal expression. It seems to foster a unique Hong Kong identity, a culture that is international. These generated functional surface are being appreciated and engaged. As they invite multicultural users to new seating and communicative arrangements in the urban space to establish the connection to Hong Kong’s unique identity in both functional and educational manner. One important note about this parametric precedent is that it is a holistic scheme that utilizes site information and programmatic data to react and interact with its environment. Instead of offering a fixed form of single static design, this scheme expands a futuring thinking that suggesting multiple solutions to adapt to different site conditions and programmatic needs. This suggests that the development of computational simulation creates more responsive designs and allows more new design opportunities can be explored. This approach has became more appreciated today and the idea behind can be adapted to future design projects. This notion is engaged with Sean Ahlquist’s theory about computation in which he suggests that “processing information between elements that constitutes specific environment is able to provide a framework for influencing the interrelation of information with the capacity to generate complete order, form and structure”. [4] By seeing how this project achieves its adaptive nature through parametric approach, I realize the need for engaging computing in designing in which to expand future possibilities. To unfold the benefits of using computers in the architectural design process, two different design techniques, ‘computerization’ and ‘computation’ will be explored and compared in the next section Part 2 - Design Computation.


Design Futuring

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Left: Detail of Urban Adapter (2011) Above: Variation of Urban Adapter (2011)


Design Computation

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Part A2

Design Computation

Theories of the Digital in Architecture l Architecture’s New Media l Architecture in the Digital Age

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orking with computers to aid in architecture design process becomes apparent in the recent years. Digital modeling constantly changes the world of design and engineering, increasing the complexity and capability of what can be designed and built. It seems exploring and exploiting new methdologies of computation is key to fabricating innovative designs and expand boundaries of possibilities.

The evolution of digital in architecture in interaction with new technologies also causes ongoing changes within design and construction industries. Digital in architecture was merely the operative model of formal generation in design within the last decade, it had emerged beyond representation as Rivka and Robert suggests, “recognition of computational processes emerging technologies of materialization in generative processes.” [2]

The use of digital modeling software is shifting architecture from the drawing to the algorithms in designs. Brady describes computational design “attributes designer’s intellect to capture not only the complexity of building a project, but also the multitude of parameters that are instrumental in a buildings formation.” [1] Rather than designing in conventional ways, computational design has opened new territories of formal exploration in architecture in which forms are designed by generative process.

In synthesizing materiality and technologies, the relationship within computer and architecture is redefined from ‘design to production’ to ‘form generation to fabrication’.[3] The shift of technology changes the constructability in building designs to a function of computability. Complex geometries like NURBS curves and surfaces become constructionally possible by means of fabrication process, which opens up opportunities for exploration of new geometries.


Design Computation

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computerization

Edifici Torre Espiral Zaha Hadid’s architects

computation

ZA11 PAVILION

Dimitrie Stefanescu, Patrick Bedarf, Bogdan Hambasan

Computerization approach is a more traditional approach that utilizes computer as vidual drawing tools to execute existing procedures that are already preconceived in the designer’s mind. To illustrate this approach by Zaha Hadid’s Edifici Torre Espiral. Its conceptual design in of design process was already conceived and sketched out on paper prior to being manipulated by computers. On the other hand, computation uses digital model to digitise information through a generating code. To explore architectural spaces and concepts through algorithms. Rather than designing the outcome, it engages more directly with the result of generated system to explore further design potentials. An illustrated example here is ZA11 Pavilion in which the design was elaborated upon the system of Biomimicry that mimic hexagons. This mode of working is redefining the practice of architecture, which taking on an interpretive role to extend the capability of dealing with highly complex problems.

Left: Biomimicry of Hexagons (2011) Above: Conceptualization of Edifici Torre Espiral (2000)


Design Computation

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Yellow River Art Centre we architect anonymous

Yinchuan, China 2014

Right: Yellow River Art Centre (2014) Below: Conceptual Design (2014)

1 mass

4 layer

2 split

5 fracture

3 landscape

6 pitch


Design Computation

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The Yellow River Art Centre put attention on the geomorphology which is an observation of natural land formations. There is no doubt that a huge amount of digital aided elements are employed to visualize layers and textuaries the facade in order to implant an identity that echoes characters of the riverbank. Rather than defining the framework to influence the interrelation of information in the design process, its use of parametric techniques adds significance to its architectural form and the gradation of elements in the building facade. Upon its

underlying principles in the design process, this precedent is argued to be designed from an approach that is more computerised rather than computational. This case study suggests that emerging of a digital materiality in design, ‘fabrication technology’, has became a leading technological and design issue in the architecture design process. The Yellow River Art Centreis is constructed with GRC (Glass reinforced concrete) technologies. This construction technique allows for the seamless

transition of data from digital materiality to fabrication, removing human error from the construction process. It was employed with CNC milling machines, in which each panel was fabricated as a form to which concrete was poured with fiber-glass in order to create a very thin strong mould. [4] The digital materiality in architecture lifts up the capacity to solve complex design issues. As Mouzhan Majidi said: “This hasn’t simply transformed what we can design – it’s had a huge impact on how we build.” [5]


Design Computation

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Shenzhen Bao’an International Airport Massimiliano Fuksas Architects Shenzhen, China 2013

Below: Panel Morphing (2013) Right: Shenzhen Bao’an International Airport (2013)


Design Computation

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The Bao’an International Airport in Shenzhen is the largest parametrically defined free form structure and facade in the world, which covered on a perforated cladding consisting of 50,000 different facade elements and 400,000 individual steel members. [6]

This precedent is a clear example of computational approach where a defined algorithms is computed to give rise to the final design of the Bao’an International Airport. A parametric data model, panel morphing, controlles the size and slope of the openings, which were adapted to meet the requirements of daylight, solar gain and viewing angles, as well as the aesthetic intentions of the architect.

The highly sophisticated tectonics of the building is suggestive of its complex composition. A conventional approach would be difficult to compliment man’s creativity whereas computational approach has the potential to provide inspiration and go beyond the boundary of intellect. This is supported by Brady Peters’s discussion of algorithmic thinking as he describes “computation augments the intellect of the designer and increases capability to solve complex problems.” [7]


Composition Generation

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Part A3

Composition Generation

The Building of Algorithmic Thought l Definition of Algorithm l Guild to Renewable Energy Technoloies

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he use of digital in architectural design process has existed for quite some time. However, conventional approaches by means of simply digitizing entities that are preconceived in man’s rational becomes inefficient to coup with the emergence in complex systems. In responding to such phenomenon, computation undoubtably is redefining the practice of architecture, which had given rise to the shift of architecture practice from drawing to algorithm, in parallel to the shift from composition to generation. The action of empowering computers to generate complex forms furthering the intellect of a designer’s creativity and capability to solve complex problems. The algorithmic thinking takes an interpretive role to design the process of generating system rather than the outcome from itself. This allows the exploration to be versitile during the design process to achieve desired outcomes in a shorter period of time. In this important way, the shift from composition to generation propels architecture into a new paradigm of innovative designs. In reacting to the shift from composition to generation, computation had evolved as an integrated architectural form. Especially given complexities of architectural

form and construction today, parametric modelling not only works but has became essential to build large projects. Unlike conventional approach, computation as a new design approach that is developed to link the virtual environment with the physical environment where architects increasingly have the capability to explore building systems and building environments as a whole. [1] This could lead to a future where architects are able to capture and communicate designs through performance feedback between users and habitats that are updated in the digital model. At a higher degree of ability to generate designs, the computational architecture is no longer just a focus on the formal aspect of design. The shift from composition to generation certainly had given rise to freedom in our current position to explore beyond the surface qualities. Particularly, scripting language such as RhinoScrip and Grasshopper allows architects to customise their design environments in which further opportunities can be explored through modification to the program. As suggested by Brady Peter, “we are moving from an era where architects use software to one where they create software.” [2]


Composition Generation

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“Behind every structure is a personality. Behind every personality is an algorithm.� - Dr. Milos Dimcicw

Computational approach

Materialization Fabrication

Upon earlier researches of architectural precedents, I have came to appreciate the use of computational approach in architecture more and gained a strong interest in fabrication in particular. As suggested by Jan Knippers, computational design requires a new interpretation of construction process and such invention of technologies will continue to cause shifts in our discipline’s definition and boundaries. [3] I believe that the computational design in conjunction with fabrication technology will even more greatly affect the processes of design and delivery. Furthering the connection of architecture to users and to the society. To support this argument, precedents designed using parametric software in relation to fabrication will be examined in this section.


Composition Generation

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BanQ

office dA Boston, USA 2008

Computation certainly plays an important role of redefining the practice of architecture in the shift from composition to generation. In contrary to the predominate use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) today, computation design externalizes the relation between digital materiality and material fabrication. Arguably, it is important for architecture as a material practice in understanding of form, material, structure and environment as a complex system that can be explored through integral computational design process and fabrication.[4] BanQ is one of the computational designs that exhibits reciprocities of form, material, structure and environment. It unfolds plywood’s performative capacities from the synthesis of computational design and physical materialization.

This project was challenged with the task of creating the functional aspects of a dinning space. The architect took a computational approach by sectioning the form into a waffle grid structure to create a fluctuating activities of the restaurant space between ceiling and ground. A striated wood-slatted celing was generated through the use of parametric modelling, which results a seamless landscape that conceals the view of the mechanical, plumbing, and lighting systems above. The linkage between conception and production was eventually realized through CNC (computer numerically controlled) fabrication. Computational design information is used in fabrication which driving rapid prototyping and allowing for precise positioning of cut outs. This suggests that material fabrication has now emerged as a leading technology that affects the process of design and delivery.


Composition Generation

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Above: Exploded Axonometric Diagram (2013) Left: Interior of BanQ (2013)


Composition Generation

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Custore Pavilion Anna Dobek Mateusz wojciciki Warsaw, Poland 2013

A similar approach was taken for the Custore Pavilion designed by Anna Dobek and Mateusz Wojcicki. This commercial pavilion reveals the aesthetics of celebrating horizontal attitude rather than the vertical one like BanQ. One important note about this parametric precedent is the interpretive role of algorithm does in the design. The use of algorithmic thinking to shape the pavilion led to the exploration of new ideas. Regardless of its interior shape, the scripts defined in Grasshopper gave them opportunities to continuously experimenting with the properties of pavilion joints and material consumption. Through the manipulation of initial parameters, included its size, material type and density of its application. It eventually achieved a theme that is appropriate for the commercial market in which a translucent barrier

between a strongly geometrically defined exterior and a soft interior.[5] The emerging contemporary design culture however might lose its capacity to accommodate tectonic expression as a “poetics of construction� as described by Frampton in his critique of the Virtual Materiality of Digital Design.[6] On the other hand, within the renewed relation in materialization and fabrication from these two built examples, it can be argued that the ability to model the structures of material systems as tectonic systems has given new meaning to the discourse in the architectural design practice. This suggests the integration of digital materiality enables tectonic expression to be derived from the realm of digital materiality and material fabrication.


Composition Generation

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Above: Scheme Diagrame (2013) Left: Exterior of Custore Pavilion (2013) Right: Interior of Custore Pavilion (2013)


Conclusion

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Part A4

Conclusion Part A Conceptualisation l Design Approach

D

esigning for a sustainable future is a goal as well as a challenge for architecture today. Architecture has been taken as a decisive role in determing the future, not only begins to conceptualize issues on what is to be built but also how it will be built. Innovative designs that contribute to sustainble future is not about its capability of being sustainable, but rather an influential force to educate society being sustainable. That is, in order to expand future sustainability, it is important for a certain degree of engagement to take place between society and architecture itself. In relation to the idea of design futuring, engagement with computing becomes necessary. While computerisation

makes the realization of design possible, computational approach and algorithmic thinking push it further, augmenting the intellect of the designer and increasing capability to solve complex design problems. The parametric language undoubtably is redefining the practice of architecture, which had given rise to the shift of architecture practice from composition to generation. In respond to the design brief, redefining the attitude by which our lives are sustained through the engagement of users with the public art installation will be the conceptual intention. It will be approached through algorithmic exploration of parameters to generate a suitable design outcome.


Learning Outcomes

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Part A5

Learning Outcomes

Theory & Practice of Architectural Computing

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eveloping proficient skills in a completely new design software had been difficult. As if being pushed into a pool of knowledge that we did not know what to expect at the beginning. However, everything seems to come together after subsequent learning experience of theory and practice of architectural computing. By learning grasshopper, I came to realize the capability of parametric design is not simply a tool of generating abstract form, but its potential to generate further options to solve complex design problems. While my computing knowledge is still at its introductory level, I believe that the learning outcome of algorithmic thinking will aid to my future designs.

It is true that computation is redefining the practice of architecture and causing a shift from composition to generation. On the other hand, computing is merely a tool that facilitates tasks in the design process. We, however, must not be fully ordered by what the computing performs but rather choose the right computational approach to suite the design problem. In Tadao Ando’s words, “The computer offers another kind of creativity. You cannot ignore the creativity that computer technology can bring.� Thus, it is important to being able to move between these two different worlds. I believe that every new information that I come across in this new world of parametric design serves as a piece of puzzle for my personal discourse of architecture.


Algorithmic Sketches

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Part A6

Algorithmic Sketches Parametric modeling l Computational design

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he parametric generation of gridshell is the most interesting outcome I have generated throughout the learning experience of Grasshopper. I was amazed by how quickly a versatility of forms can be generated through computation. It proves me that computation is capable to argument the intellect of a designer and increases his or her capability to solve complex problems. The illustrations also show that parametric design in 2D and 3D pattern have been useful to explore the forms and structures. Further exploration in integrating multiple computational techniques in the material systems would be ideal to generate a suitable design outcome for Part B. This is the reason why I chose to study a different computational technique from what I researched in Part A3. I intend to integrate the techniques I have developed here and sectioning (from Part A3 precedents) to broaden the design opportunities and generate an appropriate design outcome for the next section Part B.


Algorithmic Sketches

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Reference

Part A1 1. Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1-16 (p. 4). 2. Richard Farson, The Power of Design: A Force for Transforming Everything (Atlanta: Greenway, 2008) 3. Tony Fry, pp. 1-16, (p. 3). 4. Brady Peters, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, The Building of Algorithmic Thought, 83 (2013), pp. 8-15, (p. 10).

Part A2 1. Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), pp. 3-62 (p. 13). 2. Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1-10, (p. 3). 3. Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, pp. 1-10, (p. 5). 4. dezeen Magazine, Yinchuan Art Museum by WAA (8 June 2012) < http://www.dezeen.com/2012/06/08/ yinchuan-art-museum-by-waa/> [accessed 19 March 2014]. 5. David Jenkins, Norman Foster Works, (Munich: Prestel Verlag, 2004), (p. 28). 6. Milos Dimcic amd Florian Scheible, Controlled Parametrical Design Over Double Curved Surfaces, (Berlin: Design Modelling Symposium, 2009), pp. 1-5, (p. 1). 7. Brady Peters, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, The Building of Algorithmic Thought, 83 (2013), pp. 8-15, (p. 10).

Part A3 1. Brady Peters, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, The Building of Algorithmic Thought, 83 (2013), pp. 8-15, (p. 14). 2. Robert Wilson and Keil Frank, ‘Definition of Algorithm’, The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press, 1999), pp. 11-12, (p. 11). 3. Brady Peters, pp. 8-15, (p. 14). 4. Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1-10, (p. 5) 5. Archidaily, Custore Pavilion / Anna Dobek + Mateusz Wojcicki (10 May 2013) < http://www.archdaily. com/370542/custore-pavilion-anna-dobek-mateusz-wojcicki/ > [accessed 26 March 2014]. 6. Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, pp. 1-10, (p. 6)


image credit

Part A1 1. Archidaily, Garden by the Bay Grant Associates (2012) <http://www.archdaily.com/254471/gardens-bythe bay-grant-associates/> [accessed 10 March 2014]. 2. Designboom, Grant Associates: Bay South Gardens By the Bay (18 June 2012) <http://www. designboom.com/architecture/grant-associates-bay-south-gardens-by-the-bay/> [accessed 10 March 2014]. 3. dezeen Magazine, Urban Adapter by Rocker-Lange Architects (8 January 2010) < http://www.dezeen. com/2010/01/08/urban-adapter-by-rocker-lange-architects/> [accessed 22 March 2014]. 4. eVolo, New Parametric Urban Street Furniture for Hong Kong (18 August 2011) < http://www.evolo.us/ architecture/new-parametric-urban-street-furniture-for-hong-kong/ > [accessed 22 March 2014].

Part A2 1. Buildpedia, Zaha Hadid Architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Edifici Torre Espiral (19 September 2011) < http://buildipedia.com/ aec-pros/featured-architecture/zaha-hadid-architects-edifici-torre-espiral > [accessed 24 March 2014]. 2. Archidaily, ZA11 Pavilion (05 July 2011) < http://www.archdaily.com/147948/za11-pavilion-dimitriestefanescu-patrick-bedarf-bogdan-hambasan/ > [accessed 24 March 2014]. 3. Archidaily, Yellow River Art Centre / Waa (17 June 2010) <http://www.archdaily.com/242885/yellowriver-art-centre-waa/> [accessed by 19 March 2014]. 4. Milos Dimcic and Florian Scheible, Controlled Parametrical Design Over Double Curved Surfaces, (Berlin: Design Modelling Symposium, 2009)

Part A3 1. Archidaily, BanQ / Office dA (03 December 2009) < http://www.archdaily.com/42581/banq-office-da/ > [accessed 26 March 2014]. 2. Archidaily, Custore Pavilion / Anna Dobek + Mateusz Wojcicki (10 May 2013) < http://www.archdaily. com/370542/custore-pavilion-anna-dobek-mateusz-wojcicki/ > [accessed 26 March 2014].


PartB Criteria Design


Research Field

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Part B1

Research Field Material system: Strip and Folding

Approaching towards the case study, the material system of Strip and Folding were chosen for our exploration purpose. We are convinced that its fluidity and continuity characteristics are suitable for constructing an interactive community space. Supported by Moussavi’s argument in the paper of The Function of Ornament, “when the idea of randomness is fully understood, the sense of intuition can be expressed without restriction when demonstrating a parametric design”. [1] If we perceive Strip and Folding based on the interpretation of architecture, we realized its fluidity attribute could further link with a dynamic overview in our final design outcome. However, we are also aware that giving aesthetic manner alone to parametric design is never enough. As Moussavi mentioned, a fine piece of architecture should complete a body of integration which consists of both functional and representational features.[1] The intended design approach in Part B will be using Seroussi Pavilion as the starting point to explore the form of sculpture design (representational feature) together with the installation of sustainable energy (functional feature).

It is important to consider urban settings and cultural respect into the design to provide a function as interactive community space. In Moussavi’s words, he mentioned that “apart from its exterior, interior design could be independent to create a different sensation to users”. [1] We proposed to enhance the level of interaction between users by customizing spatial aspect to serve as educational purpose. That is, the design outcome would be favorable not only in terms of its aesthetic beauty but also being an interactive space to create the awareness of sustainability.


Research Field

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Shimmer concept

Philips 2010


Research Field

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The Shimmer Concept is a futuristic architecture design which aid to improve the standard of well-being by introducing natural movement, noise and natural light dispersion into human living space. [2] Stripes presented in the design promote flexibility for light and wind to enter. They act as important medium to enhance the interactivity between interior surrounding and exterior environment. Shimmer Concept promotes the similar principle with â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Strip and Foldingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; which focus on the continuity created by different curvature. In this precedent, unpredictability and constant changes in nature have given inspiration to develop through transformative spaces. Asymmetrical form which shaped this

Above & Left: Conceptual designs of Shimmer concept

case study possessed interesting gestural representation that incorporates with sunlight and wind. By connecting the design with nature, interaction between users and environmental space can be achieved. Hence, the feature of sustainability is introduced in this design with the aim to promote a better living sensation for the users.


Case study 1

Part B2

Case study 1

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B2.1 Case study 1

Seroussi Pavilion Biothing Paris 2007

Seroussi Pavilion by Biothing clearly shows the material system of strip and folding. It uses adaptive mathematical logics that allows for localized differentiation where the mathematics of electro-magnetic fields are used to derive the form. Electro magnetic fields (EMF) are conceptualized as primary vector points to cultivate different possibilities where attraction/ and repulsion of field charges are manipulated. Using mathematical rationale, different frequencies of sine function are further incorporated to manipulate its form. Seroussi Pavilion demonstrates the possibilities of a simple and yet visually appealing structure.

Above: Seroussi Pavilion (2007) Right: Rainbow Cloud (2012)


Case study 1

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LAGI Rainbow Cloud

Chie Fuyuki & Lichao Qin 2012

Rainbow Cloud is the competition entry we examined of from the Land Art Generator Initiative 2012. This project is inspired from the behavior and formation of clouds. By appreciating its ubiquitous mass and random form, Rainbow Cloud is designed using thousands of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;balloonsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; which will involve in collection of energy. These balloons attract each other to form a giant cloud in the sky, if not repulse one another when it is in use for energy collection purposes by users. It would also vary into different tones of colours based on the rate of energy collected. It is a dynamic design where it enhances interaction between people, at the same time creating awareness regarding ecological issues. [3] We are convinced that Rainbow Cloud expresses several similarities that are aligned with the core focus of Seroussi Pavilion. These two projects originated from the concept of realizing the pathways which are attracted to the source. In this case, more than one source of attraction/ repulsion is introduced to create a complex tessellation where striking aesthetics can be observed.

Upon the analysis of Seroussi Pavilion in conjunction with Ranbow Cloud, we argued that parametric designs alone will not be satisfied in expression of an ideal architecture that possess an interactive environment to users. Computation only puts us into an advantage position where precision can be promised. We believe that other considerations such as technology and construction materials have to take into account in order to produce a parametric design that is suitable for the real world. This aspect will be further developed in Part B4.


Case study 1

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B2.2 Species & Iterations

#1.1 Crv divide 2 Radius 0.05 Cir divide 10 Fline step 200

002:crv divide pt: 3circle r: 0.5; c divide: 50fline N (steps): 150 #1.2 Crv divide 3 Radius 0.4 Cir divide 50 001:crv divide pt: 2circle r: 0.05; c divide: 10fline N (steps): 200 002:crv divide pt: 3circle r: 0.5; c divide: 50fline N (steps): 150 Fline step 150 001:crv divide pt: 2circle r: 0.05; c divide: 10fline N (steps): 200 002:crv divide pt: 3circle r: 0.5; c divide: 50fline N (steps): 150

001:crv divide pt: 2circle r: 0.05; c divide: 10fline N (steps): 200

001:crv divide pt: 2circle r: 0.05; c divide: 10fline N (steps): 200 001:crv divide pt: 2circle 001:crvr: divide 0.05; cpt: divide: 2circle 10fline r: 0.05; N (steps): c divide:200 10fline N (steps): 200

#1.3 Crv divide 3 Radius 0.5 Cir divide 25 Fline step 80

003:crv divide pt: 3circle r: 0.5; c divide: 25fline N (steps): 80

002:crv divide pt: 3circle r: 0.5; c divide: 50fline N (steps): 150 002:crv divide pt: 3circle 002:crvr: divide 0.5; c divide: pt: 3circle 50fline r: 0.5; N (steps): c divide:150 50fline N (steps): 150

#1.4 Crv divide 1 Radius 0.5 Cir divide 525 Fline step 350

003:crv divide pt: 3circle r: 0.5; c divide: 25fline N (steps): 80

004:crv divide pt: 1circle r: 0.5; c divide: 25fline N (steps): 350

003:crv divide pt: 3circle r: 0.5; c divide: 25fline N (steps): 80

004:crv divide pt: 1circle r: 0.5; c divide: 25fline N (steps): 350

003:crv divide pt: 3circle r: 0.5; c divide: 25fline N (steps): 80

004:crv divide pt: 1circle r: 0.5; c divide: 25fline N (steps): 350

003:crv divide pt: 3circle 003:crvr: divide 0.5; c divide: pt: 3circle 25fline r: 0.5; N (steps): c divide:80 25fline N (steps): 80

#1.5 Crv divide 2 Radius 0.5 Cir divide 30 Fline step 200

004:crv divide pt: 1circle r: 0.5; c divide: 25fline N (steps): 350

004:crv divide pt: 1circle 004:crvr: divide 0.5; c divide: pt: 1circle 25fline r: 0.5; N (steps): c divide:350 25fline N (steps): 350

#1.6 Crv divide 10 Radius 0.2 Cir divide 40 Fline step 40

006:crv divide pt: 10circle r: 0.2; c divide: 30fline N (steps): 40 005:crv divide pt: 2circle r: 0.5; c divide: 30fline N (steps): 200

006:crv divide pt: 10circle r: 0.2; c divide: 30fline N (steps): 40 005:crv divide pt: 2circle r: 0.5; c divide: 30fline N (steps): 200

006:crv divide pt: 10circle r: 0.2; c divide: 30fline N (steps): 40 005:crv divide pt: 2circle r: 0.5; c divide: 30fline N (steps): 200 006:crv divide pt: 10circle r: 0.2; c divide: 30fline N (steps): 40 005:crv divide pt: 2circle r: 0.5; c divide: 30fline N (steps): 200

006:crv divide pt: 10circle 006:crv r:divide 0.2; cpt: divide: 10circle 30fline r: 0.2; N (steps): c divide:40 30fline N (steps): 40


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#2.1 F-spin every charge Strength 2 radius 2 decay 2

Divided curve points Divided as Spin curveforceStrength points as Spin2Radius forceStrength 2Decay2Radius 2 2Decay 2

#2.2 F-spin every charge Strength 2 Divided curve points Divided as Spin curveforceStrength points as Spin2Radius forceStrength 3Decay2Radius 2 3Decay 2 radius 3 decay 2

Divided curveforceStrength points as Spin2Radius forceStrength 2Decay 2 Divided curve points as Spin 2Decay2Radius 2

Divided curve points Divided as Spin curveforceStrength points as Spin2Radius forceStrength 3Decay2Radius 2 3Decay 2

#2.3 #2.4 F-spin every charge F-spin centre point Strength 5 Strength 9 Divided curve Divided points curve as Spin points forceStrength as Spin forceStrength 5Radius 4Decay 5Radius 1 4Decay 1 as Spin point forceStrength as Spin forceStrength 9Radius 2Decay 9Radius 1 2Decay 1 radius 4 radius 2 One point One decay 1 decay 1

Divided curve Divided points curve as Spin points forceStrength as Spin forceStrength 5Radius 4Decay 5Radius 1 4Decay 1

#2.5 F-spin centre point Strength 5 radius 2 decay 0.4

One point One as Spin point forceStrength as Spin forceStrength 9Radius 2Decay 9Radius 1 2Decay 1

#2.6 F-spin centre point Strength 10 radius 8 decay 0.8

One point as Spin One forceStrength point as Spin6Radius forceStrength 2Decay6Radius 0.4 2Decay 0.4

One point as Spin One forceStrength point as Spin6Radius forceStrength 2Decay6Radius 0.4 2Decay 0.4

One point as Spin One forceStrength point as Spin10Radius forceStrength 8Decay 10Radius 0.8 8Decay 0.8

One point as Spin One forceStrength point as Spin10Radius forceStrength 8Decay 10Radius 0.8 8Decay 0.8


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#3.1 Repulsor 3 Attractor 0 Chr(+) 1.0 Chr(-) 1.0

#3.2 Repulsor 3 Attractor 1 Chr(+) 0.1 Chr(-) 1.0 3 positive charges 3 positive charges 3 positive charges different heights different heightsdifferent heights

#3.3 Repulsor 3 Attractor 2 Chr(+) 0.1 Chr(-) 1.0

3 positive charges (repulsor) 3 positive 3 positive (repulsor) charges (repulsor) withcharges 1 negative charge (attractor) with 1 Positive negativecharge: with charge 1 negative (attractor) charge (attractor) 0.10 Positive charge:Positive 0.10 charge: Negative charge: -1.00 0.10 Negative charge: Negative -1.00 charge: -1.00

#3.4 Repulsor 3 Attractor 2 Chr(+) 0.5 Chr(-) 0.8

3 positive charges (repulsor) 3 positive 3negative positive(repulsor) charges(attractor) (repulsor) with 2charges charge with Positive 2 negative with 2charge negative (attractor) charge (attractor) charge: 0.10 Positive charge: Positive 0.10 charge: Negative charge: -1.000.10 Negative charge: Negative -1.00 charge: -1.00

3 positive charges (repulsor) 3 positive 3negative positive(repulsor) charges(attractor) (repulsor) with 2charges charge with Positive 2 negative with 2charge negative (attractor) charge (attractor) charge: 0.10 Positive charge: Positive 0.10 charge: Negative charge: -1.000.10 Negative charge: Negative -1.00 charge: -1.00

#3.6 Repulsor 3 Attractor 2 Chr(+) 0.3 Chr(+) decay 1.42 Chr(-) 0.8 Chr(-) decay 0.97

#3.5 Repulsor 3 Attractor 2 Chr(+) 0.6 Chr(-) 0.8

3 positive charges 3 positive charges 3 positive charges 2 negative charges 2 negative negative charges + 0.602charges + 0.60 - 0.80 + 0.60 - 0.80 - 0.80

3 positive charges 3 positive charges 3 positive charges 2 negative charges 2 negative negative charges + 0.272charges + 0.27 0.27 Decay+1.42 Decay 1.42Decay 1.42 - 0.80 - 0.80 0.80 Decay- 0.97 Decay 0.97Decay 0.97 Radius of cir 8 Radius of cir Radius 8 of cir 8


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#4.1 F-spin centre Strength 5 radius 3

#4.2 F-spin centre Strength 10 radius 3

point spin force Strength 5 Radius 3

point spin force Strength 5 Radius 3

point spin force Strength 10 Radius 3

point spin force Strength 10 Radius 3

#4.4 F-spin attractor Strength 7.5 radius 2.4

#4.3 F-spin Centre Strength 32 radius 4 point spin force Strength 32 Radius 4

point spin force Strength 32 Radius 4

#4.5 F-spin 2 attractors Strength 14 radius 2.5

Attractor as spin force Strength 7.5 Radius 2.4

Attractor as spin force Strength 7.5 Radius 2.4

#4.6 F-spin every charge Strength 10 radius 1.2

two attractors as spin force Strength 14 Radius 2.5 two attractors as spin force Strength 14 Radius 2.5

Every point as spin force Strength 10 Radius 1.2 Every point as spin force Strength 10 Radius 1.2


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#5.1 Geometry input circle Graph type Conic

#5.2 Geometry input circle Graph type square root

Geometry: Geometry: circle circle Graph type:Graph Conictype: Conic

#5.3 Geometry input circle Graph type power

Graph type:Graph Square type: rootSquare root

#5.4 Geometry input circle Graph type parabola

Graph type: Graph Power type: Power

#5.5 Geometry input circle Graph type gaussian

Graph type: Graph Parabola type: Parabola

#5.6 Geometry input circle Graph type sine

Graph type: Graph Gaussian type: Gaussian

Graph type: Graph Sinetype: Sine


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#6.1 graph type Conic F-spin every charge strength 30 radius 1.2

#6.2 graph type Conic F-spin every charge strength 45 radius 2.1 Geometry: circle Geometry: circle Graph type: Conic Graph type: Conic FSpin for every charge FSpin for every charge S 30 S 30 R 1.2 R 1.2

#6.3 graph type Bezier F-spin every charge strength 30 radius 2.1 Attractor centre

Geometry: circle Geometry: circle Graph type: Conic Graph type: Conic FSpin for every charge FSpin for every charge S 30 S 30 R 1.2 R 1.2

#6.4 graph type parabola F-spin every charge strength 8 radius 2.1 Attractor centre Negative charge (Attractor) Negative charge (Attractor) Geometry: circle Geometry: circle Graph type: Bezier Graph type: Bezier FSpin for every charge FSpin for every charge S8 S8 R 2.1 R 2.1

Geometry: circle Geometry: circle Graph type: Parabola Graph type: Parabola FSpin for every charge FSpin for every charge S 30 S 30 R 1.2 R 1.2

#6.6 graph type parabola F-spin attractor strength 8 radius 1.2 Attractor new circle in the centre with crv divided

#6.5 graph type parabola F-spin attractor strength 8 radius 1.2 Attractor centre

Geometry: circle Geometry: circle Graph type: Parabola Graph type: Parabola One point attractor in the One center point attractor in the center FSpin for every chargeFSpin for every charge S 30 S 30 R 1.2 R 1.2

Geometry: circle Geometry: circle Graph type: Parabola Graph type: Parabola Negative charge (Attractor) Negative charge (Attractor) FSpin for every chargeFSpin for every charge S 30 S 30 R1 R1


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3 positive charges different heights

Divided curve points as Spin forceStrength 2Radius 2Decay 2 001:crv divide pt: 2circle r: 0.05; c divide: 10fline N (steps): 200

Divided curve points as Spin forceStrength 2Radius 3Decay 2

002:crv divide pt: 3circle r: 0.5; c divide: 50fline N (steps): 150

1

Divided curve points as Spin forceStrength 5Radius 4Decay 1 003:crv divide pt: 3circle r: 0.5; c divide: 25fline N (steps): 80

3 positive charges (repulsor) with 1 negative charge (attract Positive charge: 0.10 Negative charge: -1.00

004:crv divide pt: 1circle r: 0.5; c divide: 25fline N (steps): 350

2

One point as Spin forceStrength 9Radius 2Decay 1

3 positive charges (repulsor) with 2 negative charge (attractor) Positive charge: 0.10 Negative charge: -1.00

3

3 positive charges ( with 2 negative cha Positive charge: 0.1 Negative charge: -1

006:crv divide pt: 10circle r: 0.2; c divide: 30fline N (steps): 40 005:crv divide pt: 2circle r: 0.5; c divide: 30fline N (steps): 200

One point as Spin forceStrength 6Radius 2Decay 0.4

Parametric modelling consists of infinite possibilities to form different species from one primary source. In this case study, the given grasshopper definition of Seroussi Pavilion was breakdowned into simpler form by changing existing parameters, input geometries and component options. The aim was to develop unexpected outcomes, experiment and push the capabilities of the definition. Five species were developed to explore the potential of 2D spatial organization and 3D spatial arrangement.

One point as Spin forceStrength 10Radius 8Decay 0.8

3 positive charges 2 negative charges + 0.60 - 0.80

1 At the primary stage of experiment, first species only altered the existing parameters without changing input geometries or adding new definition. This allow us to understood the primitive mechanism of magnetic field influenced on Seroussi Pavilion. 2 The second species customized the first species by adding spin force to explore on the dynamic movement and continuity flow of magnetic field. The intensity of strength, size of radius and rate of decay were also adjusted to experiment different possibilities of form. By adding or re-positioned the spin force would also aid in the study.

3 pos 2 neg + 0.27 Deca - 0.80 Deca Radiu


Case study 1

43

tor)

3

point spin force Strength 5 Radius 3

point spin force Strength 10 Radius 3 Geometry: circle Graph type: Conic

(repulsor) arge (attractor) 10 1.00

point spin force Strength 32 Radius 4

two attractors as spin force sitive charges gative Strength charges 14 Radius 2.5 7 ay 1.42 0 ay 0.97 us of cir 8

Attractor as spin force Strength 7.5 Radius 2.4

4

Graph type: Square root

Geometry: circle Graph type: Conic FSpin for every charge S 30 R 1.2

5 Graph type: Power

Every point as spin force Graph type: Gaussian Strength 10 Radius 1.2

3 The third species dealt with an additional negative point charge to transform the previous study into three dimensional spatial arrangement. New attracting point redefines the iteration when reacting with existing repulsing point (positive charge). 4 The fourth species focused on the vortex form that possesses fluidity characteristic that links to Strip and Folding. The spin force is incorporated here not only being used for the purpose of contrasting with the 2D forms of first and second species but also push the form to a whole new level.

Graph type: Parabola

Geometry: circle Graph type: Conic FSpin for every charge S 30 R 1.2

6 Negative charge (Attractor) Geometry: circle Graph type: Bezier FSpin for every charge S8 R 2.1

Geometry: circle Graph type: Parabola One point attractor in the center

Graph type: SineFSpin for every charge S 30 R 1.2

Geometry: circle Graph type: Parabola FSpin for every charge S 30 R 1.2

Geometry: circle Graph type: Parabola Negative charge (Attractor) FSpin for every charge S 30 R1

5 The fifth species explored more on the dynamics of form by introducing mathematical influences. 6 When magnetic orientations vary its original state to match with these graphs, interesting wave-liked shapes with continuity relation can be observed. The capability of different outcomes generated with graph mapper were achieved by incorporating spin force and negative point charge in the sixth species.


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B2.3 3 positive charges (repulsor) with 2 negative charge (attractor) Selection 3 positive charges (repulsor) Criteria & Outcomes Divided curve points as Spin forceStrength 2Radius 2Decay 2

with 2 negative charge (attractor) Positive charge: 0.10 Negative charge: -1.00

Divided curve points as Spin forceStrength 5Radius 4Decay 1

1 #2.3

After experimenting variation of different species, we moved on to the selection criteria to pick four iterations 3 positive charges from different species which we believed are the most 2 negative ‘evolved’. charges These selections will enable us to process into further exploration and research. + 0.60

- 0.80

Selection Criteria 1. Public art installation: Function as interactive space to create awareness among visitors 2. Renewable energy generator: Potential to inhabit sustainable energy material 3. Aesthetic characteristics: Stimulate visitors to the site 4. Fabrication : The possibility to fabricate designs One point as Spin forceStrength 6Radius 2Decay 0.4 5. Further exploration: The potential for further development

Divided curve points as Spin forceStrength 2Radius 3Decay 2

Positive charge: 0.10 Negative charge: -1.00

One point as Spin forceStrength 9Radius 2Decay 1

2

#3.6

positive charges In the case 3study one, discovering different 2 negative charges kinds of chemistry that could be formed between + 0.27 different iterations produced by base geometries and various parameters Decay 1.42are the main focus to generate creative - 0.80outcome. Hence, experiment the selection of individual Decay 0.97iteration would develop its potential Radius into various Further of cir possibilities. 8 development of this iteration may result in surpassing the conventional understanding of “Strips and Folding”. The reason behind the exploration of different types of vortex formed structures in this matrix is due to its flexible and fluid formed characteristic. This shape aligns with the initial intention to incorporate different attributes of sustainable technology into our further design development. Final stage of geometric iteration may not always be the most ideal design outcome. In fact, One point as Spin forceStrength 10Radius 8Decay 0.8 development of iteration contributes opportunity to select suitable outcomes which we can relate to requirements of the design brief.


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Negative charge (Attractor)

point spin force Geometry: circle Strength 10 Graph type: Bezier FSpin for every charge Radius 3 S 8 R 2.1

Geometry: circle

Attractor as spinGraph forcetype: Parabola attractor in the center 3 #4.4 Strength 7.5 One point FSpin for every charge Radius 2.4 S 30 R 1.2

1 This iteration possesses the most fluid form compare to the other three. The number of spin force decreases as they get further away from the core. It allows form to be express in a flat spatial organization. This iteration has a flat characteristic that may be suitable for underground context if further develop. In terms of adaptability of sustainable technology, geothermal energy harvesting would be best to introduced to this iteration. 2 A good demonstration of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Strip and Foldingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; can be seen in this iteration. By incorporating attractor and repulsor component into the subject, a bloated form of lines and curvature is produced. Due to its large surface area characteristic, wind energy harvesting technology would be an ideal option to introduce into this iteration for further exploration. to the focus point to 3 3D spin force is added Every point ascore spin force experiment the different variation which can be Strength 10 produced. Three bloated shapes are stretch out for the Radius 1.2 core in different direction. In this case, hydroelectric technology could be adapted into this iteration as a

Geometry: circle Graph type: Parabola FSpin for every charge S 30 R 1.2

Geometry: circle Graph type: Parabola Negative charge (Attractor) #6.6 FSpin for4every charge S 30 R1

feature of sustainability by adding turbine onto the location of point charge. 4 The graphmapper allows iteration to be visualized as a 3D form. However, it is incomplete in terms of volumetric and complexity. However, it still has a very strong potential to flourish into a desirable outcome. With several point charges extrude vertically up and declined, this iteration favours the installation of solar panel at the top of these column-liked formation. In this case, clean energy can be generated by using solar energy to achieve sustainability. Although these iterations may look continuous and dynamic for its aesthetic appearance, they are still far from completion in terms of constructability. An interactive space that creates awareness among users would only be realized if structural aspect is satisfied. Hence, the combination of a social living space and clean energy generator would be achieved. As conclusion, designâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structural rigidity and real world consideration should be the core focus for further research exercise.


Case study 2

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Part B3

B3.1 Case study 2

Beijing National Stadium is the world largest steel structure with unwrapped steel used. This design combines a pair of structures: a brightred concrete bowl for seating and the iconic steel frame around it.[4] Structural integrity of this design mainly lies on the steel framework. The vertically positioned steels resist compression and transfer loads to the footing below; horizontal positioned steels stabilize the load act on the structure and maintain its design form.[4] It is amazing to understand how architectural design intent can have functional uses which contribute to the design’s structural integrity. This design gives us insight to solve the constraint from previous case study where forms were simply composed of lines without the consideration for material construction. Forms were generated for conceptual references only. However, in this case study, an advance level of computation has pushed ‘Strip and Folding’ to its maximum potential. By giving solid 3D form to this abstract conceptual design, ‘Bird Nest’ earns an opportunity to exist in the real world as true architecture.

Case Study 2 Case Study 2

47

This design technically started out with a simple form with added complex geometry onto it. The calculation is so numerous that software is needed to ensure the web of twisting steel sections fitted together. In this case study, we are particularly interested in discovering how the random strokes of steel lattice are produced using computation. Its lattice structure is being dynamic. Random strokes not only portray a strong movement sensation but also act as a medium to enhance the interactivity between interior surrounding and exterior environment. In the previous case study of Serrousi Pavilion, computation method had been used as tools to generate form. In this case study, however, we have shifted our focus to generate desirable structure for the means of incorporation of sustainable energy and its aesthetic characteristic.

Above: Bird’s Nest Exterior (2003) Left: Interior structure (2003)


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B3.2 Reverse enginnering

3

1

2

pseudo script 1. Create three ellipse curves 2. Adjust curvature (curve from two views) to loft the surface 3. Divide the surface and interpolate curves to create vertical supporting structures. While adjusting step (N) to create horizontal structures for stabilizing vertical members . 4. Reverse curves to add complexity into structure.

4


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49

4

5

6

5. Dispatch curves randomly to simulate random strokes of steel lattice of the Birdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Nest. Offset and loft curves on surface for curve extrusion. 6. Offset curves on surface with solid mode to build realize the real form of structure. 7. Structure on the initial lofted surface as the result.

7


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Case Study 2

51

Above: Rendering of the reverse enginnering case study


Techniqu Develop

Technique: Development

Part B4

52

B4.1 Species & Iterations

1

2

In the first species, alteration of Bird Nest’s parameter is made. Points are shifted to enhance different intensity of dynamicity. Besides, the alteration enables difference aesthetic continuity as curves are randomly reduced.

3

In the second and third species, researches are stressed on Bird’s Nest structural exploration. In these species, a new plugin ‘Weaverbird’ is introduced to experiment different structural attributes. Meshes are altered to intensify the complexity of curvature and continuity characteristic in real form. Frames (WbFrame) are added not only to improve the aesthetic appearance of the species, but also contributing to structural integrity.

4

5

By keeping ‘Weaverbird’ as a key plugin, all the framings are modified into windows in the fourth and fifth species. New excitement is found in the exploration of Bird Nest’s structural variation as a difference form of aesthetic and material innovation can be achieved here.


ue: pment

Technique: Development

53

#1.1 STEP 1 REDUCTION 0 SEED 0

#1.2 STEP 1 REDUCTION 35 SEED 31

#1.3 STEP 4 REDUCTION 5 SEED 3

#1.4 STEP 4 REDUCTION 45 SEED 23

#1.5 STEP 6 REDUCTION 23 SEED 12

#1.6 STEP 6 REDUCTION 45 SEED 40


Technique: Development

54

#2.1 Wbloop WbFrame WbThicken

#2.2 WbCatmullClark WbFrame WbThicken

#2.3 WbSierpinski WbFrame WbThicken

#2.4 WbTriangle WbFrame WbThicken

#2.5 WbSplitPolygon WbFrame WbThicken

#2.6 WbMidedge WbFrame WbThicken


Technique: Development

55

#3.1 Wbloop WbFrame WbBevelEdge

#3.2 WbCatmullClark WbFrame WbBevelEdge

#3.3 WbSierpinski WbFrame WbBevelEdge

#3.4 WbTriangle WbFrame WbBevelEdge

#3.5 WbInnerPolygon WbFrame WbBevelEdge

#3.6 WbMidedge WbFrame WbBevelEdge


Technique: Development

56

#4.1 WbCatmullClark WbWindow

#4.2 WbSierpinski WbWindow

#4.3 WbTriangle WbWindow

#4.4 WbSplitPolygon WbWindow

#4.5 WbMidedge WbWindow

#4.6 WbInnerPolygon WbWindow


Technique: Development

57

#5.1 Wbloop WbStellate WbWindow

#5.2 WbCatmullClark WbStellate WbWindow

#5.3 WbSierpinski WbStellate WbWindow

#5.4 WbTriangle WbStellate WbWindow

#5.5 WbInnerPolygon WbStellate WbWindow

#5.6 WbMidedge WbStellate WbWindow


Technique: Development

58

Isolate idividual component to sho

6

7

By using previous species as a stepping stone, species sixth, seventh and eighth gain an advantage to further explore Bird Nestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s form and complexity in depth. By improvising the current structural form of Bird Nest, species sixth generates alteration to understand the possibilities of different

8

aesthetic styles that could be expressed by an individual component. On the other hand, species seventh and eighth generate modification to favour the dynamic appearance and fluidity movement of Bird Nestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structure as a whole.


Technique: Development

59

ow its detail clearly

#6.1 Wbloop WbFrame WbThicken

#6.2 WbCatmullClark WbFrame WbThicken

#6.3 WbSierpinski WbFrame WbThicken

#6.4 WbTriangle WbFrame WbThicken

#6.5 WbInnerPolygon WbFrame WbThicken

#6.6 WbMidedge WbFrame WbThicken


Technique: Development

60

#7.1 WbCatmullClark Wboffset wbthicken

#7.2 WbSierpinski Wboffset wbthicken

#7.3 WbTriangle Wboffset wbthicken

#7.4 WbSplitPolygon Wboffset wbthicken

#7.5 WbInnerPolygon Wboffset wbthicken

#7.6 WbInnerPolygon Wboffset wbthicken


Technique: Development

61

#8.1 Wbloop WbBevelEdge wbstellate

#8.2 WbCatmullClark WbBevelEdge wbstellate

#8.3 WbSierpinski WbBevelEdge wbstellate

#8.4 WbTriangle WbBevelEdge wbstellate

#8.5 WbInnerPolygon WbBevelEdge wbstellate

#8.6 WbMidedge WbBevelEdge wbstellate


Technique: Development

62

B4.2 Selection Criteria & Outcomes Apart from the brief criteria, the selection criteria our team decided include aesthetic appearance, potential for further development, and fabrication possibilities (see page 44) require thorough consideration in order to push this measure to its optimum standard.

Hence, by exploring a problem’s logical conclusion in depth, creating several alternative ways out and prioritizing the most promising solution, only design confusion such as materiality selection, structural integrity and aesthetic appearance can be solved efficiently.

By referencing the ‘search’ concept from Kalay, it is mentioned that in order to obtain the best result, problems have to be tackled by producing candidate solutions for consideration and choosing the right solution for further consideration and development.[5] As Kalay proposed, any difficulties encounter in selection criteria can be solved if when solution includes following aspects:

A few suitable iterations in previous species were selected to further develop in order to approach an ideal structural form in species ninth and tenth. Main focus heavily lies on prioritizing structural aesthetic of Bird Nest. In species ninth, both grasshopper definition: window and frame are emerged together in order to enhance better structural complexity and visual appearance. In species tenth, the customization of WbFrame gives extra texture to Bird Nest’s substructure which directly contributes to further materiality selection and fabrication possibilities.

• • •

depth breadth best (priority)

9

1


Technique: Development

63

9

3

+

5

10

2

+

1


Technique: Development

64

#9.1 WbCatmullClark WbStellate WbWindow + WbFrame

#9.2 WbSplitPolygon WbStellate WbWindow + WbFrame

#9.3 WbTriangle WbStellate WbWindow + WbFrame

#9.4 WbSierpinski WbStellate WbWindow + WbFrame

#9.5 WbCatmullClark WbStellate WbWindow + WbFrame

#9.6 Wbloop WbStellate WbWindow + WbFrame


Technique: Development

65

#10.1 Wbloop WbFrame WbThicken Birdnest Frame

#10.2 WbCatmullClark WbFrame WbThicken Birdnest Frame

#10.3 WbSierpinski WbFrame WbThicken Birdnest Frame

#10.4 WbTriangle WbFrame WbThicken Birdnest Frame

#10.5 WbInnerPolygon WbFrame WbThicken Birdnest Frame

#10.6 WbMidedge WbFrame WbThicken Birdnest Frame


Technique: Development

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Technique: Development

67

Above: Rendering of the technique development


Technique: Prototypes

68

Part B5

B5 Technique: Prototypes

Techniq Protot

Prototypes

Technology

Materialisation

Wind Energy

Fabrication


que: types

DESPITE UNEXCEPTIONAL WIND RESOURCES, 22% OF DENMARK’S TOTAL ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IS PRODUCED Technique: Prototypes BY WIND TURBINES, THE HIGHEST RATE IN THE WORLD. IN 69 COPENHAGEN A RENEWABLE ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE HAS BEEN INTRODUCED THROUGH A UNIQUE PARTNERSHIP BASED ON LOCAL OWNERSHIP. Like every city, Copenhagen faces challenges to wind power: limited space to implement wind energy on a large scale within an urban environment, wind turbines are expensive to build, and there is public resistance to the

perceived visual and noise impact of wind turbines in the landscape. The solution was to encourage public support for windpower by creating a community-owned facilities and using local skills.

DENMARK

COPENHAGEN

2012

2020

2025

22%

50%

+100 NEW WIND TURBINES IN COPENHAGEN

ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION FROM WIND POWER

Interest Wind energy

SOLUTION – LOCAL OWNERSHIP

Our team is particularly interested technology. inp High-class adapting wind energy into our p Community ownership. parametric design. Instead of p Overcome the ’not in my backyard‘ attitude. focusing on conventional wind turbine, new windbelt technology has caught our attention as its powerful mechanism for generating electricity surpasses the efficiency of turbines. As this technology performs best at wind speeds of 7m/s or higher, [6] it would reached its optimum efficiency at Copenhagen. Denmark is a wind climate domination country where average wind speed often reaches 10m/s. [7]

BENEFITS Windbelt’s dynamic form, flexibity

p Significant contribution to achieving and strip-formed fit well with our carbon-reduction goals. design core of ‘Strip and Folding’. p Creation of new jobs. By toresearching p Boost the Green Economy. our site in depth,

Denmark government intends to increase the use of wind energy from supporting 22% of nation’s total electricity consumption to 50% by 2020.[7] Denmark government incentive has favored large amount of investment in research and development to improvise the efficiency of wind technology, and of course reducing cost. These therefore, lead to our interest in using windbelt technology as its potential continues to grow positively. Above: Denmark Government’s Proposal of increasing wind energy usage


Technique: Prototypes

70

Frame

Magnet

A NOTE ON FANS The Classic Windbelt will only work well with a powerful fan. It works best with wind speeds of 15mph (7m/s) or higher. High quality metal fans tend to be more powerful than cheap plastic ones. A metal cage is one sign of a strong fam. When shopping for a fan, another good indicator of fan power is the amount of electricity it draws. Look at the specs to find amperage. Many weaker fans draw less than 1 amp. These will Belt not work. Look for a fan that draws around 2Sators amps.

Windbelt is an device that uses a Troubleshoot tensioned membrane which enable

Q: What if the belt will not vibrate? ‘aeroelastic flutter’ when wind passes through, energy collected

could sure be turned intousing electricity A: Make you are a highbypower fan. electromagnetic induction method. and less tension (as the Windbelt is in the m When windbelt moves up and sure thethe magnets not the “stuck” down, magnet are follows sameto the stato motion which changes magnetic so close to the stator that the magnets are c field rapidly to produce electric rotating Windbelt so that alternatethe current (AC). This ACthe canwind blow be converted into direct current side. Otherwise, remount the (DC) belt with prop with an enclosed rectifier within the belt and stator. structure. [8]

Q: The belt is vibrating but I am not getting any

Windbelt Concept

Longitudinal flutter is more effective at generating electricity than torsional flutter.

A: Make sure all the wires have good connect stalled in the proper orientation and that the to—but not touching—the stator. The electricity is generated via

Electromagnetic Induction, which is the production of current across a conductor in a to changing magnetic Q: The belt seems be in torsion, and is gene field. [8]

output.

Longitudinal Flutter

A: Measure the electrical output (if any) with a parison. Then flick the belt with your finger. the belt tension with your fingers. Try rotatin blows through from the other side.

Torsional Flutter

Torsional flutter often occurs when the belt is Above: Windbelt Component diagram misaligned on the bolts, or too close to the Below: Electromagnetic Induction tudinal oscillations, reinstall the belt. Left: Windbelt Prototype

Q: The bolts loosen and will not hold the belt in A: Tighten the two lock nuts slightly. +

Q: Is it ok to hook up two or more units togethe


Technique: Prototypes

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1

2

3

4

Windbelt Design

In our team first attempt, metal clips are designed to position windbelt in place. However, this method limits the movement of windbelt, which might eventually reduce the efficiency of energy collection. Joining blocks with metal clips too, would lock the windbelt facing to only one direction. This method is also not desirable as wind direction may vary at different times. Instead of locking it, our team decided to penetrate a round bar at the edge of the belt to allow flexibilities for different angles.

Using the previous attempt as a stepping stone, our team eventually complete the design structure by adding an â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;adjust ballâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; into the rigid locking system to enable optimum rotation movement towards all direction and angle.


Technique: Prototypes

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Fabrication

Tecton

Fabrication

Waffle grid structure: Prototypes were fabricated to investigate structural tectonics and wind belt installation. Notches of waffle grid creates stability and prevents structure from collapsing. Flat surface of rib structure allows opportunities for wind belt installation. The resulted lighting effects from lattice structural form and wind belts further enhances the visual aesthetics. These facts then informed our digital model design.

Wind


Technique: Prototypes

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nics

Before Windbelt Installation

dbelt

After Windbelt Installation


Technique: Proposal

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Part B6

B6 Technique: Proposal This public art installation aims to stimulate visitors to the site through its aesthetic characteristics and create an interactive community space to raise the awareness of sustainable energy. Upon the idea that â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;windâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is the most dominant natural resource at the site, the organic form of lattice structure of our proposed design was emerged from the wind diagram study. It integrates wind belt technology to create an dynamic environment that stimulate visitors to visualize wind movement and sensing the sound from wind belt, thereby encouraging the awareness of renewable energy. The design aligns with computational approaches for flexible and innovative outcomes where the form was followed by the dominate wind direction to determine the most efficient angle for wind belt installation to optimize the efficiency.

Techniq Proposa


que: sal

Technique: Proposal

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1

FORM

2

PRELIMINARY STRUCTURE

3

SECONDARY STRUCTURE

4

Aesthetics

Form was followed by the dominant wind direction to optimize the efficiency of energy generation. It was created from magnetic field in the logic of attactor and reposor.


Technique: Proposal

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1

FORM

2

PRELIMINARY STRUCTURE

3

SECONDARY STRUCTURE

4

Aesthetics

Random strocks of lattice structure was built to articulate a dynamic status.


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FORM

2

PRELIMINARY STRUCTURE

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SECONDARY STRUCTURE

4

Aesthetics


Technique: Proposal

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In order to maintain the integrity and continuity of structure the secondary structure is created to strengthen the east facade which argubly would recieve greater degree of wind stress.


1

FORM

2

PRELIMINARY STRUCTURE

3

SECONDARY STRUCTURE

4

Aesthetics


Technique: Proposal

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Technique: Proposal

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E W


Technique: Proposal

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N S


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Technique: Proposal

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BAMBOO & CARBON FIBER JOINT

ETFE FOIL & PANEL

PAPER TUBE/ CARDBOARD

Materiality

At this stage of development, seeking of suitable materiality for the design is crucial. As it not only contributes to the aesthetic appearance but also structural integrity of the whole design. Hence, our team has look into various types of possibilities, particular in renewable construction materials.


Technique: Proposal

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Bamboo is one of the most efficient renewable materials in the planet. When 30 to 50 years are needed for harvesting of conventional timber, bamboo only needs 3 to 5 years to be ready. Furthermore, their light and high strength coefficients characteristic ensure structural integrity. In our design, bamboo material will be developing for the use of construction substructure frames. In this case, carbon fibre joint would consider as a connection to link bamboos to form complex structural forms.

Paper and Cardboard Tubing, also known as Shigeru Ban catches our attention due to its high load bearing properties.[9] With beer crates filed and sandbags as its main components, it is recognized as a cheap material which also possessed a characteristic of fire resistance. In relation to our case study, our team decided to use this material as our primary structure due to its rigidity and high tensile and compression resistance. Using Taiwan Paper Dome as precedent, different structural construction method with the use of Shigeru Ban can be replicate and fit into our design.

The trending material Ethylene Tetra Fluoro Ethylene (ETFE) foil is an ideal material to replace conventional glass. It has attributes similar with glass which are transparent and corrosion resistance. However, it only weighs approximately 1% of glass weight and offers flexibility for bending and folding due to its thin characteristic. [10] Hence, by using Beijing Olympics Aquatic Centre (Water Cubic) as precedent, our team would be investigating on how different sizes of ETFE foil are installed into its primary steel structure. By exploring the precedent, adaptation of ETFE foil into the designâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s frames and windows would be more well organized and simple.


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Learning Objective & Outcomes

Part B7

Learning Objectives & Outcomes

B7 Learning Outcomes & Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Although a lot of progressions have been achieved until this stage, there are still some defects and incompleteness which are needed to be concerned. One of the main adjustments from structural material has to be improvised. Paper and Cardboard Tubing also known as Shigeru Ban only possessed minimal water resistance and weather proofing characteristics even if coating layer is applied. Using this material as the design primary structural body causes frequent maintenance overtime which leads to high cost. Thus, in part C, Shigeru Ban should be replaced by an alternative for better cost and maintenance efficiency. In terms of wind technology, further improvisation has to be done to achieve the best outcome possible. At this stage, we have not considered the fact that wind changes its direction overtime. In order to harvest the most of wind energy, numerical data and statistics are necessary to aid the installation of windbelt at its best position.

Moreover, our team also concerned about the placement of windbelt in the design. In the meantime, all windbelts are placed horizontally. In part C, we may be shifting windbelt into different forms of placement, may it be vertically, 45 degree slanted, inverted, double positioning etc. to push its energy harvesting to its optimum condition and refining its aesthetic appearance.


Learning Objectives & Outcomes

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es

s

Learning Objectives In this studio, there have been a lot of challenges to be overcome. In relation, satisfying each and every learning objective is not an easy task. At the initial point where our team started adapting a new digitalizes designing method also known as parametric computation; it was difficult to develop an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities. In this case, by using Woodbury’s reading as a guide book to perceive the parametric fundamentals, solutions are given on how to get started on case study, parametric algorithm and also fabrication considerations. Choosing the right decision related to algorithm design and parametric modeling was indeed one of the toughest requirements to be satisfied. Besides, Kalay’s reading also provides us with some useful technique such as the ‘search’ process. This however, becomes an advantage for our team to generate better ideas and iterations when comprehend.

Besides, this studio also stress on the understanding of relationships between architecture and its surrounding environment. This objective may not sound crucial but it does contribute a lot into our design process in terms of sustainability and green technology consideration. Moreover, our design satisfies real world construction criteria as we fulfilled the objective which requires us to reflect and study digital fabrication possibilities in depth. Last but not least, by fulfilling all learning objectives, I have developed my very own style of computation design where individuality can be expressed by using computer-aid program. From the algorithm sketches that are shown, a heavy influence of ‘Strip and Folding’ blending with Weaverbird plugin definition express a strong dynamic aesthetics which I believe, would be a design style of mine.


Part B8 Algorithmic Sketches

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Algorithmic Sketches

B8 Algorithmic Sketches

Controlling Data Structures: Cluster

Point charge and Weaverbird manipulation


c

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Above: Controlling Data Structures: Cluster


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Algorithmic Sketches

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Above: Point charge and Weaverbird manipulation


Reference

1. Farshid Moussavi and Michael Kubo, eds,The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar, 2006), pp. 5-14 2. Philips, Shimmer Concept (2010) <http://www.design.philips.com/philips/sites/philipsdesign/about/design/ designportfolio/design_futures/design_probes/projects/metamorphosis.page> [accessed 29 March 2014]. 3. Land Art Generator Initiative, Rainbow Cloud (2012) <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/tsyns220/> [accessed 29 March 2014]. 4. Misfitsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; The New Architecture of Austerity (2011) < http://misfitsarchitecture.com/tag/beijing-nationalstadium-structure/> [accessed 4 April 2014]. 5. Kalay, Yehuda E., Architectureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5-25 6. Balaguru, Low Cost Energy Production Using Wind Belt Technology (2013) < http://ijeit.com/vol%202/ Issue%209/IJEIT1412201303_48.pdf > [accessed 25 April 2014]. 7. LAGI, Design Guidline (2014) <http://landartgenerator.org/designcomp/downloads/LAGI2014DesignGuidelines.pdf> [28 April 2014]. 8. Humdinger, Wind Belt Kit (2013) <http://learn.kidwind.org/files/manuals/WINDBELT_MANUAL.pdf> [accessed 25 April 2014]. 9. Archidaily, The Humanitarian Works of Shigeru Ban (2014) <http://inhabitat.com/tag/shigeru-ban/> 10. Architen, ETFE Foil: A Guide to Design (2013) < http://www.architen.com/articles/etfe-foil-a-guide-todesign/ > [28 Aprial 2014]


image credit

1. Philips Designe, Philips Design Probes - Metamorphosis (2010) <https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=ePeor5334sQ> [accessed 29 March 2014]. 2. Philips, Shimmer Concept (2010) <http://www.design.philips.com/philips/sites/philipsdesign/about/ design/designportfolio/design_futures/design_probes/projects/metamorphosis.page> [accessed 29 March 2014] 3. Biothing, Seroussi Pavilion (2007) <http://www.biothing.org/?cat=5> [accessed 29 March 2014]. 4. Land Art Generator Initiative, Rainbow Cloud (2012) <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/tsyns220/> [accessed 30 March 2014]. 5. Misfitsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; The New Architecture of Austerity (2011) < http://misfitsarchitecture.com/tag/beijing-nationalstadium-structure/> [accessed 4 April 2014]. 6. Humdinger, Wind Belt Kit (2013) <http://learn.kidwind.org/files/manuals/WINDBELT_MANUAL.pdf> [accessed 25 April 2014].

Wei wen jun 555279 part a b  
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