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STUDIO AIR 2018, SEMESTER 2 STUDIO 4 - ISABELLE JO0STE 844516 - WEI HONG NG


INTRODUCTION HI MY NAME IS WEI HONG. I AM A THIRD YEAR BACHELOR OF ENVIRONMENTS STUDENT MAJORING IN ARCHITECTURE. HAVING INTEREST IN ARCHITECTURE FROM YOUNG AGE DUE TO MY FATHER’S FIELD OF WORK BUT ALSO BUILDINGS JUST LOOK ASTONISHING ATTRACTIVE IN CERTAIN WAYS. HAD ALWAYS ADMIRED STUDENTS DOING COOL PARAMETRIC DESIGN AND FORM FINDING. STUDIO AIR HAS GIVEN ME THE OPPORTUNITY TO LEARN HOW TO USE GRASSHOPPER TO START DOING ‘COOL’ PARAMETRIC DESIGN. LOOKING FORWARD TO MORE EXPLORATION IN GRASSHOPPER.


Table of Contents A1  Design Futuring Case Study 1 Case Study 2 A2  Design Futuring Case Study 1 Case Study 2 A3  Design Futuring Case Study 1 Case Study 2 A5  Learning outcomes A6 Appendix


PART A – CONCEPTUALISATION

4

CONCEPTUALISATION


A1 - DESIGN FUTURING

IN A FINITE RESOURCE WORLD AND EVER-INCREASING POPULATION DEPLETING FURTHER RESOURCES, EARTH WILL HIT ITS LIMIT IN NO TIME. THE THOUGHT OF SACRIFICING FUTURE TO SUSTAIN THE EXCESSES OF THE PRESENT SHOULD NOT BE THE RIGHT MINDSET FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE. FOREMOST, WE SHOULD THINK ABOUT HOW THE FUTURE IS` BEING UNDERSTOOD AND WHAT IS MEANT BY DESIGN? THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A SUSTAINABLE DESIGN AND DEFUTURING IS TO ASK HOW A FUTURE CAN ACTUALLY BE SECURED BY DESIGN AND NOT HOW TO, BECAUSE WHENEVER WE BRING SOMETHING INTO BEING WE ALSO DESTROY SOMETHING. THIS CREATION AND DESTRUCTION ARE NOT A PROBLEM WHEN A RESOURCE IS RENEWABLE.1 THE THOUGHT OF RENEWABLE RESOURCE IS ESSENTIAL IN DESIGN FUTURING. “SPECULATING DESIGN NOT IN TRYING TO PREDICT THE FUTURE BUT IN USING DESIGN TO OPEN UP ALL SORTS OF POSSIBILITIES THAT CAN BE DISCUSSED, DEBATED, AND USED TO COLLECTIVELY DEFINE A PREFERABLE FUTURE FOR A GIVEN GROUP OF PEOPLE: FROM COMPANIES, TO CITIES, TO SOCIETIES. DESIGNERS SHOULD NOT DEFINE FUTURES FOR EVERYONE ELSE BUT WORKING WITH EXPERTS, INCLUDING ETHICISTS, POLITICAL SCIENTISTS, ECONOMISTS, AND SO ON, GENERATE FUTURES THAT ACT AS CATALYSTS FOR PUBLIC DEBATE AND DISCUSSION ABOUT THE KINDS OF FUTURES PEOPLE REALLY WANT.”2 BY SPECULATING FURTHER, THE PROBABILITY OF REALISING MORE DESIRABLE FUTURES WILL INCREASE.

1 2

Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) pp. 1-9, 33-45 CONCEPTUALISATION 5


CASE STUDY 1 PROJECT: ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION ARCHITECTS: INSTITUTE FOR COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN (ICD) AND INSTITUTE OF BUILDING STRUCTURES AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN (ITKE) YEAR COMPLETED: AUGUST 2011 LOCATION: UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART, GERMANY

CREATED WITH PLYWOOD OF JUST 6.5MM THICK, FASTENED TO GROUND TO PREVENT IT BLOWING AWAY. THE EXTERIOR PLYWOOD PANELS ARE SLOTTED TOGETHER USING FINGER JOINTS, IN THE SAME WAY AS MINUTE PROTRUSIONS OF A SEA URCHIN’S SHELL PLATES NOTCH INTO ONE ANOTHER. THE PROJECT EXPLORES THE ARCHITECTURAL TRANSFER OF BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF THE SEA URCHIN’S PLATE SKELETON MORPHOLOGY BY MEANS OF NOVEL COMPUTER-BASED DESIGN AND SIMULATION METHODS, ALONG WITH COMPUTERCONTROLLED MANUFACTURING METHODS FOR ITS BUILDING IMPLEMENTATION.1 BY EXTENDING THE RECOGNIZED BIONIC PRINCIPLE OF A SEA URCHIN’S PLATE SKELETON MORPHOLOGY WITH COMPUTATIONAL PROCESSES, IT CREATES AN INNOVATION WITH A RANGE OF GEOMETRIES THAT COULD BE BUILT WITH EXTREMELY THIN SHEETS OF PLYWOOD. ONE PARTICULAR SUB-SPECIES OF SEA URCHIN, SAND DOLLAR WAS BEST FITTED TO REALISE THE BASIC PRINCIPLE OF THE BIONIC STRUCTURE OF THE PAVILION WITH ITS CHARACTERISTIC. THE SKELETAL SHELL OF THE SAND DOLLAR IS A MODULAR SYSTEM OF POLYGONAL PLATES, WHICH ARE LINKED TOGETHER AT THE EDGES BY FINGER-LIKE CALCITE PROTRUSIONS. WHEN IT WAS JOINED TOGETHER, THREE PLATE EDGES ALWAYS MEET AT ONE POINT TO CREATE A HIGH LOAD BEARING CAPACITY. THIS ALSO ENABLES A BENDING BEARING DEFORMABLE STRUCTURE WITH NO BENDING MOMENTS BETWEEN JOINTS. IT WAS FABRICATED THROUGH A ROBOTIC FABRICATION SYSTEM FOR AN ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF GEOMETRICAL COMPONENTS AND JOINTS. THIS PROJECT CONTRIBUTES TO THE EXPLORATION AND DESIGNING THROUGH BIOMIMICRY TO SEEK SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION FROM NATURE.

1 Amy Frearson, “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion At The University Of Stuttgart “, Dezeen, 2011 <https://www.dezeen. com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/> [Accessed 9 August 2018].


IMAGE SOURCE: HTTPS://WWW.DEZEEN.COM/2011/10/31/ICDITKE-RESEARCH-PAVILION-AT-THE-UNIVERSITY-OF-STUTTGART/

IMAGE SOURCE: HTTPS://WWW.DEZEEN.COM/2011/10/31/ICDITKE-RESEARCH-PAVILION-AT-THE-UNIVERSITY-OF-STUTTGART/


CASE STUDY 2 PROJECT: TEXTILE HYBRID M1 AT LA TOUR DE L’ARCHITECTE ARCHITECTS: INSTITUTE FOR COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN (ICD) AND INSTITUTE OF BUILDING STRUCTURES AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN (ITKE) YEAR COMPLETED: 2012 LOCATION: UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART, GERMANY

SITUATED AT HISTORICALLY PROTECTED SITE OF A STONE TOWER BY LEONARDO DA VINCI. THE CANOPY WAS DESIGNED AND ORIENTED TO EXERT MINIMAL FORCE TO ITS SURROUNDING WHILE MAXIMALLY ARTICULATED. THE STRUCTURE WAS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH A MACRO-SYSTEM OF INTERWOVEN BENDING RODS THAT FORM LEAF-LIKE SHAPES AND A MESO-SCALE DIFFERENTIATED CELL LOGIC. PHYSICAL EXPERIMENTS AND COMPUTATIONAL METHODS WERE CRUCIAL IN FINDING THE COMPARATIVE STIFFNESS AND PRE-STRESS BETWEEN COMPOSITE RODS AND TEXTILES TO ACHIEVE A STABLE FORM. A KEY FEATURE IN THE DESIGN WAS THE TEXTILE HYBRID SYSTEM OF THE STRUCTURE INTEGRATION AND HETEROGENEITY. THE ORGANIZATION OF BENDING-ACTIVE BEAMS AND TENSILE SURFACES CREATES MOMENTS OF LONG SPAN ARCHES FOR SPATIAL EXPERIENCES. “THE VERY NATURE OF THE SYSTEM DEMANDED SIMULTANEOUS STUDY OF HOW STRUCTURAL EQUILIBRIUM IS FORMED AND DETERMINATION OF THE SPATIAL PERFORMATIVE CAPACITY OF THE RESULT. AS SUCH, THE DESIGN METHODOLOGY WAS FORMED TO TRACK BOTH, ARTICULATION OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND DIFFERENTIATION OF SPATIAL CONSEQUENCES.”1 SPECULATING THIS DESIGN INCREASE THE POSSIBILITY TO FIND SUCH HYBRID TEXTILE SYSTEM THAT PEOPLE WANTED. IT PRESERVED THE HISTORICAL PROTECTED SITE WHILE MAXIMISING THE USE OF SPACE. EFFICIENT USE OF MATERIAL AND TECTONIC SYSTEMS REDUCE WASTE AND INCREASE THE OVERALL PERFORMANCE SUSTAINABLY.

1 Achim Menges, “Textile Hybrid M1: La Tour De L’Architecte | Institute For Computational Design And Construction”, Icd.UniStuttgart.De, 2012 <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=7799> [Accessed 9 August 2018]. 8

CONCEPTUALISATION


IMAGE SOURCE: HTTP://ICD.UNI-STUTTGART.DE/?P=7799

CONCEPTUALISATION 9


A2 - DESIGN COMPUTATION

DESIGN IS A PROCESS WE ENGAGE IN WHEN THE CURRENT SITUATION IS DIFFERENT FROM SOME DESIRED SITUATION, AND WHEN THE ACTIONS NEEDED TO TRANSFORM THE FORMER INTO THE LATTER ARE NOT IMMEDIATELY OBVIOUS.1 WITH CURRENT EVOLVING DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES, THE TRANSFORMATION OF ACTIONS NEEDED FOR DESIRABLE DESIGN ARE OVERWHELMED WITH MANY DIFFERENT POSSIBLE OUTCOMES INSTEAD OF ONE. THE GROWING CAPABILITY FOR SCRIPTING THE ALGORITHMS OF A MEDIATED VARIABILITY THAT CAN BE SELECTIVELY STUDIED FOR PERFORMATIVE BEHAVIORS SUCH AS ENERGY AND STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE PROVIDED A NEW CREATIVE PROFESSIONAL PROFILE.2 THIS ENABLED ARCHITECTS TO START DESIGNING FORM THAT IS DRIVEN BY PERFORMANCE. AS THE TECHNOLOGY CONTINUED EVOLVING, DIGITAL MATERIALITY AND FABRICATION DESIGN EMERGED AND ENABLED DIGITAL DESIGN INFORMATION TO BE USED IN FABRICATION DRIVING RAPID PROTOTYPING AND CNC MACHINERY. THE TREND SHIFTS TOWARD COMPUTATION DESIGN BECAUSE OF ITS ABILITY TO PRODUCE EVERY POSSIBLE WAY OF DESIGNING AND PICK POSSIBLY THE BEST AMONG ALL AS WELL AS REDUCING WASTAGE AND TIME.

1 Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 2 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 10

CONCEPTUALISATION


CONCEPTUALISATION 11


CASE STUDY 1 PROJECT: CANON TOWER ARCHITECTS: INFORMATION BASED ARCHITECTURE (IBA) ARCHITECTS YEAR COMPLETED: 2010 LOCATION: GUANG ZHOU, CHINA

CAYAN TOWER IS A MULTI-PURPOSE OBSERVATION TOWER WHICH HELD THE TITLE OF THE TALLEST TOWER IN THE WORLD AFTER COMPLETION. THE TOWER’S HYPERBOLOID SHAPE WHICH WAS SAID TO BE INSPIRED BY RUSSIAN EMPIRE PATENT NO. 1896 BECAUSE OF ITS STRUCTURAL STRENGTH FOR SUPPORT. IT IS TO REPRESENT GUANG ZHOU AS A DYNAMIC AND EXCITING CITY WITH ITS SLENDER AND TALL FIGURE SYMBOLIZING THE FIGURE OF A FEMALE. THE TOWER WAS CREATED THROUGH ART FABRICATION AND COMPUTERIZED ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES TO CREATE COMPLEX LOAD BEARING STRUCTURE. LATTICE STRUCTURE WITH TWO ELLIPSES ROTATED TO EACH OTHER, ONE AT FOUNDATION LEVEL AND THE OTHER AT HORIZONTAL PLANE OF 450 METERS.1 THE ROTATION OF THE STRUCTURE TIGHTENED AND DENSIFIED THE STRUCTURE MATERIAL. COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN PROCESS ALLOWS THE FORM DRIVEN BY PERFORMANCE AND IMPROVED MATERIAL SYSTEMS ALTOGETHER.

1 “Canton Tower / Information Based Architecture”, Archdaily, 2010 <https://www.archdaily.com/89849/canton-tower-informationbased-architecture/> [Accessed 9 August 2018]. 12

CONCEPTUALISATION


IMAGE SOURCE: HTTPS://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/89849/CANTON-TOWER-INFORMATION-BASED-ARCHITECTURE/

CONCEPTUALISATION 13


CASE STUDY 2 PROJECT: SG2012 GRIDSHELL ARCHITECTS: MARK CABRINHA, ANDREW KUDLESS YEAR COMPLETED: 2012 LOCATION: NEW YORK, USA

THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SG2012 GRIDSHELL ON THE 4-DAY WORKSHOP AT SMARTGEOMETRY 2012 WAS INCOMPLETE WITHOUT THE HELP OF PARAMETRIC TOOLS. ONLY STRAIGHT WOOD MEMBERS WERE USED TO BEND ALONG GEODESIC LINES ON A RELAXED SURFACE TO CREATE THE COMPLEX GEOMETRY. WITH THE HELP OF PARAMETRIC TOOLS, THE DESIGN WAS DEVELOPED AND ANLYZED TO MINIMIZE MATERIAL WASTE WHILE MAXIMIZING ITS ARCHITECTURAL PRESENCE IN THE SPACE.1 HOWEVER, THE CAPABILITY OF TIMBER BENDING HAS TO BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT AS DIFFERENT TIMBER HAS DIFFERENT BENDING CAPABILITIES. IT IS IMPORTANT TO HAVE THE FEASIBILITY OF MATERIAL METHOD TO BE TESTED PRIOR TO FABRICATION. THIS WAY IT INCREASES THE EFFICIENCY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE OVERALL STRUCTURE WHEN BUILT.

1 “SG2012 Gridshell MATSYS”, Matsysdesign.Com, 2012 <http://matsysdesign.com/category/projects/sg2012-gridshell/> [Accessed 9 August 2018]. 14

CONCEPTUALISATION


IMAGE SOURCE: HTTP://MATSYSDESIGN.COM/CATEGORY/PROJECTS/SG2012-GRIDSHELL/ IMAGE SOURCE: HTTP://MATSYSDESIGN.COM/CATEGORY/PROJECTS/SG2012-GRIDSHELL/

IMAGE SOURCE: HTTP://MATSYSDESIGN.COM/CATEGORY/PROJECTS/SG2012-GRIDSHELL/

CONCEPTUALISATION 15


A3 - COMPOSITION/GENERATION

COMPUTERIZATION HAS BEEN ALWAYS CONFUSED WITH COMPUTATION. IN A NUT SHELL, COMPUTERIZATION IS SIMPLY A DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY SUCH AS COMPUTER USED TO MAKE DRAFTING EASIER TO EDIT AND COPY WITH BETTER PRECISION. WHERE AS COMPUTATION IS A SOFTWARE SUCH AS GRASSHOPPER TO ALLOW US TO DEAL WITH COMPLEX SITUATION LIKE FORM FINDING AND GENERATING. THE TERM ‘COMPUTATION’ MEANS THE USE OF THE COMPUTER TO PROCESS INFORMATION THROUGH AN UNDERSTOOD MODEL WHICH CAN BE EXPRESSED AS AN ALGORITHM. THIS THEN ALLOWS THE EXPLORATION OF NEW IDEAS: COMPUTATION AUGMENTS THE INTELLECT OF THE DESIGNER AND INCREASES CAPABILITY TO SOLVE COMPLEX PROBLEMS.1 COMPUTATIONAL DESIGNERS GENERATE AND EXPLORE ARCHITECTURAL SPACES AND CONCEPTS THROUGH THE WRITING AND MODIFYING OF ALGORITHMS THAT RELATE TO ELEMENT PLACEMENT, ELEMENT CONFIGURATION, AND THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ELEMENTS.2 THIS ALLOWS THE FLEXIBILITY FOR THE DESIGN TO BE ADAPTED TO CHANGING PARAMETERS OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN AND THE SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENT. TO GENERATE SUCH COMPLEX COMPOSITION, DIGITAL DESIGNERS USED ALGORITHM. WILSON DESCRIBES ALGORITHM AS A RECIPE, METHOD, OR A TECHNIQUE FOR SOMETHING.3 AS SUCH, COMPUTERS ARE THE PERFORMER OF ALGORITHM. IT IS SIMPLY MADE UP OF FINITE SETS OF RULES KNOWN AS INPUT FOR THE COMPUTER TO FOLLOW. INPUT COULD INCLUDE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT, SITE RESTRAIN AND MORE. AS THE INPUT CHANGES, THE OUTCOME FOLLOWED. THIS ENABLED THE PROBLEM SOLVING OF COMPLEX SITUATION SUCH AS GENERATING A FORM ACCORDINGLY TO RESTRICTIONS.

1 Douglas C Engelbart, Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework, Summary Report, Stanford Research Institute (Menlo Park, CA), 1962, p 1. 2 Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 3 Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12 16

CONCEPTUALISATION


CONCEPTUALISATION 17


CASE STUDY 1 PROJECT: SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION ARCHITECTS: SMITH GROUP INC YEAR COMPLETED: 2004 LOCATION: WASHINGTON, USA

THE PATENT BUILDING IN USA WHICH WAS TO BE SAID AS THE FINEST EXAMPLE OF GREEK REVIVAL ARCHITECTURE WAS RESCUED FROM DEMOLITION FOR THE USE OF NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY AND SMITHSONIAN AMERICA ART MUSEUM. THE LARGE COURTYARD WAS TRANSFORMED INTO AN ENCLOSED SPACE WITH ONE OF THE LARGEST EVENT SPACES IN WASHINGTON. THIS COURTYARD WAS ENABLED BY UNDULATING GLASS CANOPY ENCLOSING THE OPEN SPACE. STRUCTURALLY, THE ROOF IS COMPOSED OF THREE INTERCONNECTED VAULTS THAT FLOW INTO ONE ANOTHER THROUGH SOFTLY CURVED VALLEYS. THE DOUBLEGLAZED PANELS ARE SET WITHIN A DIAGRID OF FINS, CLAD IN ACOUSTIC MATERIAL, WHICH TOGETHER FORM A RIGID SHELL THAT NEEDS TO BE SUPPORTED BY ONLY EIGHT COLUMNS.1 THIS WAS POSSIBLE THROUGH GENERATING GEOMETRY OF THE ROOF THROUGH COMPUTATIONAL PROGRAM. BESIDES, IT WAS ALSO USED TO GENERATE THE FINAL GEOMETRY AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION NEEDED TO ANALYSE STRUCTURAL AND ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE, TO VISUALISE THE SPACE, AND TO CREATE FABRICATION DATA FOR PHYSICAL MODELS.2

1 “Smithsonian Institution Courtyard”, Fosterandpartners.Com, 2004 <https://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/smithsonianinstitution-courtyard/> [Accessed 9 August 2018]. 2 Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 12-13 18

CONCEPTUALISATION


IMAGE SOURCE: HTTPS://WWW.FOSTERANDPARTNERS.COM/PROJECTS/SMITHSONIANINSTITUTION-COURTYARD/SMITHSONIAN-INSTITUTION-COURTYARD/

CONCEPTUALISATION 19


CASE STUDY 2 PROJECT: CAYAN TOWER ARCHITECTS: SKIDMORE, OWINGS & MERRILL (SOM) YEAR COMPLETED: 2012 LOCATION: DUBAI

THE LATERAL STEPPING OF THE PERIMETER COLUMNS FOR THE INFINITY TOWER BECAME A DRIVER OF THE BUILDING’S EXTERIOR ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION AND WERE DESIGNED IN A CLOSE COLLABORATION BETWEEN THE SOM ARCHITECTS AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS. THE USE OF FINITE ELEMENT (FE) ALGORITHMS WAS CRITICAL TO THE SUCCESS OF THE COLLABORATION, PROVIDING ANALYSIS AND VISUALISATION OF THE STRUCTURAL FORCES FOR THE VARIOUS STRUCTURAL DESIGN OPTIONS THAT WERE CONSIDERED FOR THE BUILDING’S TWISTING FORM.1 THE TWISTED PROFILE AIMS TO REDUCE POWERFUL WIND FORCES ON THE TOWER BY DISPERSING THEM AROUND THE EXTERIOR, WHILE THE PERFORATED METAL SKIN IS DESIGNED TO SCREEN THE INTERIOR FROM HARSH DESERT SUNLIGHT.2 THE TOWER AND ITS COLUMNS TWISTED AS THEY ASCEND RELATIVELY TO THE FLOOR PLATE. SERVICES SUCH AS ELECTRICAL AND WATER ARE IN THE CENTRAL CIRCULATION ZONE TOGETHER WITH RESIDENTIAL ROOMS TO ALLOW STRAIGHT VERTICAL PATHS. THIS COMPLEX GENERATION THROUGH COMPUTATION METHOD CREATED AN AESTHETICALLY UNIQUE OUTLOOK BUT ALSO SERVES AS A STRUCTURAL FUNCTION THAT GREATLY REDUCES WIND LOAD ON THE TOWER.

1 Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 14 2 Amy Frearson, “SOM Completes Twisted Skyscraper In Dubai”, Dezeen, 2013 <https://www.dezeen.com/2013/06/18/som-completes-twisted-skyscraper-in-dubai/> [Accessed 9 August 2018]. 20

CONCEPTUALISATION


IMAGE SOURCE: HTTPS://WWW.DEZEEN.COM/2013/06/18/ SOM-COMPLETES-TWISTED-SKYSCRAPER-IN-DUBAI/

CONCEPTUALISATION 21


A4 CONCLUSION ARCHITECTURE HAS BEEN CONSTANTLY CHANGING AS NEW DISCOVERY OF MATERIAL, TECHNOLOGY AND FABRICATION METHODS ARE FOUND. COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN ALLOWS ARCHITECTURE TO BE EXPLORED, TO SOLVED COMPLEX PROBLEMS IN A SIMPLER MANNER. THIS INNOVATIVE WAY OF SOLVING PROBLEM IS NOT ONLY LIMITED TO AESTHETIC VIEW OF ARCHITECTURE BUT ALSO STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE IN INTEGRATION AND SUSTAINABILITY. SINCE RESOURCES WILL BE USED EFFICIENTLY WITH ADVANCED FABRICATION METHOD AS IT IMPROVES OVER TIME. THIS INSPIRED MY INTENTION IN DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT BY EXPLORING USING DIFFERENT INPUTS IN A CREATIVE MANNER. NOT ONLY AN INTERESTING OUTLOOK WILL BE CREATED BUT ALSO RESPONDING TO ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND VARIOUS FACTORS AFFECTING THE DESIGN PROCESS.

A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES OVER THE PAST THREE WEEKS, MY UNDERSTANDING OF DIGITAL DESIGN HAS GREATLY CHANGED. MY THINKING HAS DEVELOPED FROM JUST CREATING A COMPLEX FORM FOR A BUILDING TO GENERATING A SOLUTION TO COMPLEX PROBLEMS FROM MATERIAL, STRUCTURAL, ENVIRONMENTAL OR EVEN CLIENT REQUIREMENTS. THROUGH THE ONLINE READINGS, LECTURE AND RESEARCH ON PRECEDENTS, I REALISED THAT DIGITAL DESIGN HAS GREATER POTENTIAL AS TECHNOLOGY ADVANCES. IT ALLOWS US TO GENERATE SUCH COMPLEX FORM YET SOLVING THE PROBLEM IN A CREATIVE MANNER. IF I WAS EXPOSED TO DIGITAL DESIGN EARLIER, IT WOULD HAVE HAD A GREAT IMPACT ON MY PREVIOUS DESIGNS. I WILL BE ABLE TO USE TIME MORE EFFICIENTLY AND EXPLORE MUCH MORE POSSIBLE SOLUTION IN THE DESIGN PROCESS TO CREATE A MORE SATISFYING DESIGN.

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CONCEPTUALISATION


A6 APPENDIX

CREATING GEODESIC GRIDSHELL.

TO

FORM

A

SPIRALING CURVES AND POINTS FOR LINE TO CONNECT.

CONCEPTUALISATION 23


BIBLIOGRAPHY Achim Menges, “Textile Hybrid M1: La Tour De L’Architecte | Institute For Computational Design And Construction”, Icd.Uni-Stuttgart.De, 2012 <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=7799> [Accessed 9 August 2018]. Amy Frearson, “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion At The University Of Stuttgart “, Dezeen, 2011 <https://www. dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/> [Accessed 9 August 2018]. Amy Frearson, “SOM Completes Twisted Skyscraper In Dubai”, Dezeen, 2013 <https://www.dezeen. com/2013/06/18/som-completes-twisted-skyscraper-in-dubai/> [Accessed 9 August 2018]. “Canton Tower / Information Based Architecture”, Archdaily, 2010 <https://www.archdaily.com/89849/ canton-tower-information-based-architecture/> [Accessed 9 August 2018]. Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12 Douglas C Engelbart, Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework, Summary Report, Stanford Research Institute (Menlo Park, CA), 1962, p 1. Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) pp. 1-9, 33-45 Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 “SG2012 Gridshell MATSYS”, Matsysdesign.Com, 2012 <http://matsysdesign.com/category/projects/ sg2012-gridshell/> [Accessed 9 August 2018]. “Smithsonian Institution Courtyard”, Fosterandpartners.Com, 2004 <https://www.fosterandpartners.com/ projects/smithsonian-institution-courtyard/> [Accessed 9 August 2018].

Ng_Wei Hong_844516_PartA  
Ng_Wei Hong_844516_PartA  
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