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Proceedings of the 67th Annual Conference

Melbourne 7–11 October 2012

W AZ Pr A T es ec en hn ta ica tio l C ns on on gr ly es s

Fighting Extinction


Imprint Editor: Gerald Dick, WAZA Executive Office IUCN Conservation Centre Rue Mauverney 28 CH-1196 Gland Switzerland phone: +41 22 999 07 90 (WAZA Executive Office) Layout &Typesetting: michal@sky.cz Cover photo: Skyline of Melbourne © Gerald Dick, WAZA Edition: © WAZA 2013 In order to make wise use of natural resources, it has been decided to offer the proceedings of WAZA Conferences online only. This saves paper resources and expensive postage costs, thus CO2 emissions. WAZA thanks for your understanding. www.waza.org (members’ area).

Founding Member

ISSN: 2073-6576


October 2012 | Melbourne

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Fighting Extinction Proceedings of the 67th Annual Conference 7–11 October 2012

W AZ Pr A T es ec en hn ta ica tio l C ns on on gr ly es s

Hosted by ZoosVictoria


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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Editorial Dear WAZA Members and Friends! I would like to start with a big thank you to our host, Zoos Victoria! Additionally, I wish to congratulate at the occasion of their 150th Anniversary – a nice coincidence with WAZA’s 77th Anniversary. Our conference was a big success and the focus on “fighting extinction” covered a wide array of topics, ranging from conservation, education to collection sustainability and population management. The keynote presenters underlined the important role of zoos and aquariums and the responsibility of our community in the interaction with about 700 million visitors to zoo and aquarium facilities worldwide.

Many positive examples and success stories were presented and the important link to the decade on biodiversity was underlined by many speakers. Fruitful discussions took place on the cooperation between associations, animal welfare and global species management plans. Welfare and population management as well as associated strategic developments have been identified as focus of work for the coming years. Finally, two resolutions, one on endorsing the new IUCN reintroduction guidelines and one on CO2 compensation while highlighting ocean acidification were adopted. Thanks again for this highlight in WAZA’s jubilee year and thanks to all members for the ongoing support and active involvement in the global zoo and aquarium community!! Gerald Dick Executive Director

Legend: Conference Documents DOC

Documents submitted prior to the Conference, like Committee reports, Association reports.

INF

Documents presented at the conference without previous documentation, made available after the Conference

MEM Presentations of new members ADM

Administrative sessions

COM

Committee meetings at the Conference

WS

Workshop results

RES Resolution

Example Number of Annual Conference

DOC 65.20 Type of document Number of document

The contents of reports are within the responsibility of the authors.


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October 2012 | Melbourne

Table of Contents Welcome Address by the Host...................................... 5 Welcome Address by the Minister for Environment and Climate Change, Victoria, Australia......................................................... 7 Welcome to Our Region...............................................9 Welcome Address by the WAZA President...............................................11

Special Session on Population Management and Ocean Conservation..................................... 73

Keynote Addresses............................ 13

List of Participants............................. 83

The Environmental Crisis – A Question of Leadership........................................... 14 A New Model for Conservation....................................17

WAZA Congress Papers Abstracts........ 19 Received Full WAZA Congress Contributions...................... 29

Love your Locals........................................................ 30 Release to the Wild of Charismatic Mega Fauna: the Risks and Successes............................................. 33 Current Conservation Efforts Supported by the Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums............. 37 Breeding and reintroduction of Ural owls (Strix uralensis)........................................ 39 The Big C – A Discussion on the Allocation of Scarce Resources for Zoo and Aquarium Conservations......... 40 Conservation of Swedish Amphibians – A Success Story?......................................................... 43 Zoos FIGHTING extinction & Zoos FACILITATING extinction................................ 45 Facts and Figures from The Granby Zoo: Increasing Revenues as a Major Player in Social Economy...................................................... 47 Conservation Efforts for the Endangered Ozark Hellbender................................... 52 Managing Toucans and Flamingos at the Parque das Aves, Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná State, Brazil............. 54 Panama’s Noah’s Ark.................................................. 56 Conservation Medicine: An Approach to Fight the Extinction of All Species.......................... 58 Temaikèn’s Natural Reserve in Misiones, Argentina: Join Us!..................................................... 62 Conserving Madagascar’s Biodiversity, Building Local Capacity and Raising Environmental Awareness of Youth: The cooperative work of zoos for Madagascar – The Madagascar Fauna and Flora Group............................................... 64 Unraveling a Mystery!................................................66 Community Conservation – A Peri‑Urban Case Study in Fighting Extinction...........68

Future Proofing Programs – an Australasian approach............................................74 Mission of Mermaids (film screening) and Introduction to Ocean Acidification............................ 79


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October 2012 | Melbourne

Welcome Address by the Host Kenneth Hinchcliff, Chairman of Zoos Victoria

I would like to thank the Hon. Ryan Smith, Minister for Environment and Climate Change, Jörg Junhold, WAZA President and Karen Fifield, Chairperson of ZAA for being here today.

This is not an empty goal or a hollow public relations promise. It’s what we believe needs to happen to prevent some of our most unique native animals from extinction.

And financially, it means we are focused on long­‑term sustainability in all our operations, so that we can deliver increased investment in conservation.

Zoos Victoria is extremely proud to be hosting 200 delegates from the world’s leading zoos and aquariums here in Melbourne.

It is why we have made conservation central to everything we do – whether you run the zoo kiosk or work in the native animal recovery team.

We gather because we are on a shared quest: Fighting Extinction.

We saw the opportunity for Zoos Victoria to play a much larger and more active role in conservation, in Australia and globally.

Conservation requires us all to work with our visitors and the broader community so they are empowered to save species from extinction. That’s why we focus on working with people and wildlife. Our fresh approach is already leading to some encouraging results. Such as a watershed funding agreement with world fashion brand, Lacoste, to strengthen the recovery of the Philippine crocodile in our Save Your Logo partnership.

And I am absolutely confident that by the end of our week together, we will be inspired with new ideas, experiences and insights, that will help us all play an important role in ensuring our children and grandchildren continue to experience species in the wild, not only in our zoos. For that is at the very heart of our work at Zoos Victoria. We have so much to learn from each another this week, but let me take the liberty of touching on some of the work we are doing here in Victoria, home of Australia’s oldest zoo. At Zoos Victoria, we are now in our third year of a 20-year plan to position ourselves as the world’s leading zoo­‑based conservation organisation.

We saw how important it is to support specialist knowledge in the captive holding and management of threatened native species. And we saw that it is essential to influence change in human behaviour across the community, so that zoos are not the only places where children will see wild animals in the future. Fighting Extinction is our number one priority. In practice, it means we want every animal in our collection to have conservation relevance. For visitors, it means we want to inspire them to become conservation advocates. For our staff, we want to support their development so they help our organization transition from a traditional zoo to a fully­‑fledged conservation organization.

By thinking outside the square, we’re reaching more people beyond the zoo gates. I hope you get time when you’re in the city to see the incredible street art promoting conservation in one of our celebrated lanes, AC/ DC Lane. Or at the Royal Children’s Hospital, which is the first hospital in the world to permanently exhibit live animals – Melbourne Zoo’s meerkat troupe of nine, who are cheering up the sickest children while teaching them about animals.


6 Over the past two years our Don’t Palm us Off campaign has connected thousands of Australians to the plight of orang­‑utans in South East Asia from unsustainable palm oil production. Some 160,000 students visit a Zoos Victoria campus each year, making it one of the largest non­‑classroom educators in the State. Recently, every Victorian school was given the opportunity to design, paint and exhibit one of 55 mini elephants alongside renowned Australian artists, to celebrate Melbourne Zoo’s most famous Asian Elephant calf, Mali. In our zoos, we have continued to expand our capacity to save priority threatened species by bolstering recovery Programs, such as for Tasmanian Devils at Healesville Sanctuary. The Tasmanian Devil is threatened by a serious Facial Tumor Disease, a fatal and contagious condition that is spreading rapidly through wild populations. Over the past breeding

Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

season, 24 Tasmanian Devil joeys were born at Healesville Sanctuary. This is an outstanding result for our expert keeping team.

Finally let me say how exciting it is to see so many delegates around the world – united in our efforts to Fight Extinction.

We have also taken stock of all of our conservation work and looked at it in the context of what is happening globally. This has led us to unite under a single premise: that Zoos Victoria is fighting, and will continue to fight extinction.

By working together, and with our communities, we will give our most precious creatures a fighting chance. I hope your time in Melbourne will inspire you on our shared goal of Fighting Extinction.

We are strengthening our efforts to save species from extinction, particularly those that are most at risk in Victoria. We have made a public commitment to ensure that no native terrestrial vertebrate species in Victoria will go extinct within the next five years. We call this our Fighting Extinction Commitment. And we will be taking every opportunity to showcase our work with threatened species and find new and exciting ways to engage our visitors in this critical quest. You will see some of these efforts when you visit Healesville Sanctuary on Wednesday.


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October 2012 | Melbourne

Welcome Address by the Minister for Environment and Climate Change, Victoria, Australia The Hon Ryan Smith

Jörg Junhold – President of WAZA

Karen Fifield – President of ZAA

Playing host to the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums, with 200 delegates from 35 countries around the world, is a great opportunity for us to learn about global efforts to fight extinction.

Welcome to Melbourne, an exciting city where we are united with your mission and conference theme, Fight‑ ing Extinction.

One thing is startlingly clear: extinction rates across the globe are reaching historic levels. And unfortunately Australia is no exception.

During your week here, I am sure you will fall in love with our native wildlife and help us, as we wish to help you, save species on the edge of extinction.

As an island nation, Australia experiences direct challenges to our unique wildlife. Here in Victoria, bushfires and climate change are a major threat to some of our unique species.

Melbourne Zoo, where you met last night, is celebrating its 150th anniversary this year.

I congratulate the leadership of Zoos Victoria for redoubling its efforts to fight for endangered native species. Twenty key species at greatest risk of extinction are now receiving the most support, to ensure that no native Victorian terrestrial vertebrate species will go extinct.

Gerald Dick –Executive Director of WAZA

This is an important milestone. As well as celebrating Australia’s oldest zoo and our conservation achievements, we are also using our 150th year to take stock of what is happening globally and in our own backyard. For Zoos Victoria has an ambitious goal: to be the world’s leading zoo‑based conservation organization within 20 years. We will not get there without the help of like‑minded organizations like your own.

Hopefully you will get to meet many of these special creatures on Wednesday when you visit Healesville Sanctuary. Shy characters like the Platypus. Our rare and endangered Helmeted Honeyeater. And the Tasmanian Devil, that we are trying to protect against a fatal facial tumor disease that is spreading rapidly through wild populations. Our resolve to strengthen our conservation efforts locally has been spurred by the success of our efforts on international issues such as deforestation in South East Asia. A successful Zoos Victoria campaign to raise awareness in our community of the effects of unsustainable oil palm farming has led to truth in labeling legislation in our national Senate.


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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

The Don’t Palm Us Off campaign brought together the voices of 163,000 Australians who were heard in Canberra, demonstrating the power of the community to affect change. As Minister for the Environment and Climate Change, and Minister for Youth, I am energized by the power of zoos and aquariums to connect children and the community with conservation. As a father who visits our zoos regularly with my children, I have seen firsthand how they are inspired to act to save wildlife. It’s so important to give all children the experience of wildlife up close. As a government, we are pleased to be supporting new interactive exhibits, with funding for the Growing Wild exhibit, to nurture a love of nature and wildlife. This new exhibit with child‑level viewing areas brings kids fact‑to‑face with inquisitive Meerkats and Giant Tortoises. Engaging the interest of children in nature and wildlife and raising awareness of the importance of looking after the environment, will help us all in our goal, Fighting Extinction.

For instance, many Victorians would not know the endangered Leadbeater Possum is our faunal emblem. So the task for us in Victoria, and the task for all of us committed to fight extinction, is to introduce our threatened animals to the world in every way possible. It’s difficult to expect people to take action to help save animals they don’t know. That’s why I am extremely proud that our Government has made it free for children to visit our zoos on any weekend or on school holidays. We are thrilled that through making zoo visits free for children, record numbers of children are visiting our three zoos, where they are learning more about wildlife. Total zoo visitation last year was 1,890,000 a growth of 10%. Of these 640,000 were children who enjoyed the opportunity of the free zoo provided by the State Policy.

While there are a great many things happening at Zoos Victoria, which you will learn about during the conference, there are also real challenges that we need your help and experience with. We are very pleased that you have chosen Melbourne for your annual conference. As like‑minded people committed to global conservation, I am sure you will have a very positive experience here in Victoria, and build friendships that will help in the care of endangered animals the world‑over.


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October 2012 | Melbourne

Welcome to Our Region Karen Fifield, President, Zoo Aquarium Association Australasia

Welcome to the land down under, Specifically I would like to mention and the land of the long white cloud the following areas which demonacross the ditch, welcome to the anstrate this trend. tipodes, welcome to country, wominjeka, tena kotou, tena kotou, tena • We have world leading exhibit katoa, greetings, greetings, greetings design and visitor engagement into you all. We are all at this confernovation to connect wild places with ence from all over the world, united in our collections and the emotional conservation. learning experience visitors have • We support scientific and innovative • Over 17 million visitors, visitor research to better under• over 600,000 school students, stand our work and why we do it • over 100 conservation breeding • Our leading edge species manageprograms, ment programs support and sustain • over $2million in funding to uniour precious collections and allow versities and research institutes for ever increasing global cooperation conservation research, both for animals and for support of • and much more financial support conservation programs in the wild for in situ conservation programs in • we have significant conservation wild places, breeding programs such as the Tas• over 14,000 native animals per year manian devil, the regent honeyeater, treated in zoo hospitals, over 1200 corroboree frog, tuatara, grand vertebrate species cared for, and otago skinks and brown kiwi • over 200 native species and 150 programs to name a few exotic species held that are on the • We have agreed to new animal welIUCN red list of endangered species, fare paradigms in the Five Domains • employment of thousands of people developed by Professor David Meland lor from Massey University in New • many more are engaged in commuZealand, which I believe will change nity volunteer programs. the face of our zoo community into the future These numbers are just the tip of • Our well supported community the iceberg that our 87 members of conservation programs change the Zoo and Aquarium Association hearts and minds like They’re CallAustralasia do for conservation and to ing on You and Don’t Palm Me Off fight extinction. The story is all in the programs numbers. • We support conservation efforts in the field such as the successful TenIn our small region with a population kile Alliance in Papua New Guinea, of around 27 million people across the Philippine Crocodile project and Australia and New Zealand I believe Forest and Bird Places for Penguins our member zoos and aquariums on the south coast of Wellington punch well above our weight in all • We have made a significant investfacets of our work and show leaderment into accreditation of memship as a collaborative community of bers to ensure the best care of our both small and large organisations. animals and professional growth for our member organisations • And we are developing our own standards with government in true partnership

In 2009 a number of members and a few non members of our Association contributed data and financial support to an economic and social value study for zoos and aquariums in Australia which our Association commissioned. Much of the data from this report can be extrapolated across the region particularly for New Zealand. The study looked at value for consumers, for conservation, contribution to education, contribution to bio‑security and economic value. For Australia alone it was discovered that; • For zoos and aquariums the total production added to the economy is $424 million per annum • Zoos and aquariums employ about 5300 people • International visitors to zoos and aquariums create an estimated net benefit to the Australian economy of about $58million • More Australians over 15 years of age visit zoos and aquariums than any other cultural organisation • Government subsidies to zoos are much lower than other cultural activities such as museums despite our growing visitation and scope of our work • Learning with emotional connection is seen as a major reason for people to visit zoos • Insitu and ex situ conservation activities were far ranging both within our region and globally and supported not only financially but by staff resources and ongoing commitment • The Australian Registry of Wildlife Health monitors disease which could be of community concern and zoos and aquariums contribute to this as part of our social commitment


10 These findings give us a snapshot of Australia and give us the information we need to value what we do and to start to understand how much the community values what we do and how much they want to be involved with us. We need to talk about this much more – I think we are often too self effacing about our work and we shouldn’t be – we should use the numbers to say how influential we are. Australia and New Zealand are both highly urbanised countries – around 89 and 86% respectively. As people in our region search for connections with nature, which I believe is a deep seated human need, our zoos and aquariums will become even more important as living treasures and places of significance. As an Australian by birth and a New Zealander by choice I have had the privilege to live and work in two of the most unique and marvellous countries on earth. As President of ZAA it is my pleasure to welcome you to our beautiful part of the world and encourage you to talk lots, make new contacts and enjoy the lovely experiences at Zoos Victoria. Jenny and her talented team have three amazing properties for you to enjoy‑ much of what I have spoken about is clearly visible at Melbourne Zoo, Healesville Sanctuary and Werribee Open Range Zoo.

Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

You are all in for a treat this week. I am very proud of our member organisations like Zoos Victoria and the work they do to show leadership and innovation for the cause we all believe in. And as we, as zoos and aquariums, assume leadership in the conservation space of the 21st century we take responsibility to think, act, and speak in a way that inspires people to follow what we say and do. Leadership is not about power and authority it is more than that – it requires a vision of a world that does not exist that inspires people to follow as volunteers for the cause. If we want to take leadership to fight extinction we must inspire action. It is a game of numbers. Numbers of us, numbers of people we can influence from governments to visitors, number of connections we have worldwide, numbers of animals and wild places we must save, numbers of dollars it will cost, numbers of years left to do it. Working alone we can not make the amount of critical change required to make our vision of a world without extinction of species a reality despite all our brave individual or organisational efforts but with the 17 million visitors in our region and the over 700 million worldwide we are indeed a powerhouse to explain why we must act together. They are pretty significant numbers and we have to use them.

But the first part of this change in the numbers starts with us and the work that we do in our zoos and aquariums into the future so that our full potential for conservation is realised not just in our Australasian region but the world over. Have an inspirational and awesome conference and use this conference as a springboard to our future view of our work. I look forward to talking with all of you over a Yarra Valley vino or two. Ka kite ano


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October 2012 | Melbourne

Welcome Address by the WAZA President Jörg Junhold – Zoo Leipzig

Honorable Minister for Environment and Climate Change, Mr. Ryan Smith; honorable Chairperson of the Australian Zoo Association, Mrs. Karen Fifield; distinguished guests, colleagues and friends; ladies and gentlemen, it is an enormous pleasure for me to welcome you here in Melbourne to this 67th Conference and Annual Meeting of WAZA. My special heartfelt greetings go to our distinguished host Zoos Victoria, represented by the Board Member Mr. Ken Hinchcliff and our esteemed colleague, Jenny Gray. I am well aware what is means to organize such a prestigious conference and I like to express my particular thanks on behalf of all the 200 participants for your ongoing committment and your tremendous work. I am especially proud to open this conference as it is the 77th Anniversary of our organization. WAZA has a changeful history and it is with its development also reflecting the change that every single zoo has taken. Starting as an „old boys club “of zoodirectors we came to be the united voice of the worldwide community of zoos and aquariums and a catalyst for their joint conservation action. We should be aware that this does not only mean a remarkable change in our mission but that we have taken over a high degree of responsibility as well. I believe that the international conservation network expects to see zoos taking over an even more perceptible role for wildlife conservation in the future.

Only a few weeks ago in mid‑September Dr Gerald Dick and myself attended the IUCN World Conservation Congress in Jeju, Korea. This congress is the largest and most important conservation meeting on our planet which is held every four years and it was attended by 10‘ 000 participants this time. We were very honoured to officially represent WAZA and thanks to a joint collaboration between our Executive Office and several of our members three sessions were offered which presented and discussed the zoos‘ commitment for conservation and education. Two memorable events of this conference are that IUCN has released a list of the 100 most threatened species on earth and secondly that the organization will establish a Red List of Threatened Ecosystems next to the existing one for species. The final congress declaration of Jeju states that biodiversity should not be seen as a problem but as an opportunity for a positive development of society. Nature‑based solutions deliver a broad range of societal benefits – but awareness and knowledge about ecosystem services are the key for their recognition. This is the point where zoos and aquariums are in a priviledged position to support this goal by inspiring their 700 million annual visitors about the value of biodiversity.

This declaration of IUCN reflects the committment of the global conservation community on the implementation of the UN Decade on Biodiversity. And it perfectly fits to our own strategy to implement this important global initiative. As decided during our last Annual Conference, WAZA plans to develop different kinds of communication tools for our members that should be used to inform the public about biodiversity issues. A group of 32 zoos is already working on this project. Thanks to a proposed generous grant of the Swiss MAVA Foundation we will produce videos, mobile phone apps and website services in different languages. An important part of the project are visitor surveys in order to find out more about what people know about biodiversity and how this knowledge can be improved. Since we have a broad interest in our membership to collaborate in this working group I am sure that this project can really improve our communication and public perception and place us in the front line of the discussion about biodiversity conservation.


12 I like to invite all members to be aware about this important project and to support it later on by using the communication services. Another remarkable result of this World Conservation Congress is the new elected President of IUCN – Mr. Zhang Xinsheng from China. It has been our long term wish as WAZA and one of the focal points which I have set for the time of my presidency that we increase the number of members in Asia, especially in China. The European region and also WAZA are already in contact to the Chinese Association of Zoological Gardens. By the end of last year a high‑level delegation of this association visited Europe in order to establish better contact with the international zoo community. They were kindly hosted by ZSL, BIAZA and EAZA and I was honoured to represent WAZA at this meeting in London, where we had very intensive and fruitful discussions with our Chinese colleagues. My hope is that a Chinese President of IUCN will positively influence this future cooperation within the zoo and aquarium community. The Chinese zoos serve 1.3 billion people which mean a large share of the world population. This underlines the enormous potential that Chinese zoos have for conservation and education and our goal should be to help our Chinese colleagues to make the best use of this chance.

Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Dear colleagues – the title of this conference is “Fighting Extinction”. This clarifies in very simple words: Time is running out and the challenges we face in terms of species conservation are huge. We have a superb variety of speakers and workshops scheduled in the coming days and there are already two important resolutions on the table to be ratified by this Annual Conference. One on the support of the new IUCN Guidelines for Reintroduction and other Conservation Translocations, and the other one on avoiding disastrous and unmanageable climate change effects. For our committee meetings and working sessions I see three major topics to be discussed: First the implementation of the Decade on Biodiversity, second WAZA’s role to improve the sustainability of our animal collections and third the progress on the ethical framework including a global Strategy on Animal Welfare.

I urge you to use this opportunity for the exchange of ideas and discussions in this global setting that we represent. I am sure that we will have a productive week and that we will share many exciting moments. I declare this 67th Conference and Annual Meeting of WAZA open. Thank you and Wo Men Chicca!


October 2012 | Melbourne

Keynote Addresses

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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

The Environmental Crisis – A Question of Leadership Arron Wood, Fire Starters

Introduction

Why Zoos Matter?

2007 Prime Minister’s Environmentalist of the Year Arron Wood grew up in Mildura spending his early years campaigning to save the River Murray. Rather aptly titled his autobiography‘ Billabong Boy’ was inspired by those early years. Arron is an expert in business sustainability and his company recently won the 2012 Victorian Telstra News Ltd Micro Business of the Year. He is founder of the award‑winning education program Kids Teaching Kids and is the 3AW environment reporter. Arron received The Centenary Medal for outstanding contribution to conservation, awarded by the Governor‑General and completed a Churchill Fellowship to New York with the United Nations. As a past winner of the United Nations Individual Award for Outstanding Service to the Environment Arron was also the 2001 Young Australian of the Year for the environment. He holds a degree in Forest Science and is currently the youngest Board Member of the Port Phillip and Westernport Catchment Management Authority. In what was a huge career highlight Arron’s commitment to the environment was covered on ABC’s Australian Story. From a boy who was told to regularly‘ be quiet’ in school to someone who now uses his voice to inspire others.

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Zoos and Aquaria are very often the first entry point for people to learn about deeper environmental concepts and issues. Animals can be the tangible, relatable face of ambiguous and complex issues such as climate change. WAZA members are more than animal exhibitors they are education centres, conservation organisations and they are striving to combat extinction. This is a changed role and therefore the way these organisations operate must also change.

I want to focus on the community and communication component of the role WAZA member organisations play.

Climate Change You can’t talk about conservation without talking about climate change. Climate change has been great at galvanising people but could be dangerous in the longer term: I’m a climate change sceptic. I’m not a sceptic about whether it is happening or whether it is caused by humans, I’m a sceptic in that a single focus on climate change has consumed us when biodiversity, species loss, environmental flows, soil health and a myriad of other issues are looming as even greater threats that will be accelerated by climate change – not to mention social & economic impacts.

A single focus, a single group or a single solution is not the silver bullet answer. When on a Churchill Fellowship to New York and Geneva I struggled with what United Nations meant. How difficult is it to truly unite nations when we are so different? I came to the conclusion that this environmental crisis could be our biggest opportunity yet because it may demonstrate that it doesn’t matter how old or young, rich or poor, what country or culture, what language you speak or religion you follow we all need to drink clean water and breathe fresh air. Thinking local, acting local is important.

So what does the future hold? The shortest distance in the discourse about climate change is that between denial and despair. The head wrested from the sand soon becomes the head in the hands. “Nothing needs doing” slides effortlessly into “nothing can be done”. Heart, Head and Hand – too often we go for the head first. Sustainability is not a new concept and long before green was the new black we had statements like: We should be using Nature’s inex‑ haustible sources of energy – the sun, wind and tide. I’d put my money on the sun and solar energy. What a source of power! I hope we don’t have to wait until oil and coal run out before we tackle that. | Thomas Edison, 1931


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October 2012 | Melbourne

That is why is important for us to combine passion and understanding with actual action. That is why I founded the Kids Teaching Kids Program. Children comprise twenty per cent of the population, but are one hundred percent of our future. From my work involving 66,000 students and teachers across Australia in the Kids Teaching Kids Program I also know that young people have so much to offer right now when it comes to solving environmental issues. 13 years and over 2600 workshops with kids teaching kids on energy, water, waste, biodiversity and climate change has resulted in 100’s of on‑ground projects with communities coming together around an issue that unites us all – the environment. All of these workshops are developed in partnership with wonderful adult mentors. However, while the kids remain optimistic and active, the complex negotiations going on globally, the pronouncements by the uninformed, the many different levels of understanding and vested interests in the status quo make me less so. I can’t help asking, at a time when the Australia’s attention has been so focused on leadership,‘ Who can lead us?’ There are 7 billion people in the world today, of that, 1 billion own 80% of wealth; 2 billion people have no access to clean water, there is a massive and growing gap between rich and poor and we are all facing an uncertain climate future. The thing that saddens me most is that we have so many of the answers. We have ordinary homes that use 90% less water and power than the average home, we have modern irrigation techniques that allow enough for agriculture and the environment, we have some of the best scientists and technologies in the world and we have cars that can run on green electricity.

The world obviously needs more leaders that have a social conscience and an innate sense of responsibility for the future of life on this planet. Education and schools offer a very powerful opportunity to reinstate positive sustainability and community values and can be the catalyst for environmental and social understanding and action in our communities, but they can’t do it alone. Ultimately whether we are teachers, bankers, miners, nurses or even politicians we must all seek a sustainable future -we all need fresh water to drink, clean air to breathe and food to sustain us.

The Resilient Person

If we want student leadership then we must provide them with the necessary social, academic, emotional and practical skills to cope in our increasingly complex society, but we must also embody the values we wish to see. Above all every student needs the motivation to learn and the capacity to take that learning through to action. Hope and a belief in a bright and compelling future is a very big part in keeping young people motivated to want to do more, to learn more. The Kids Teaching Kids Program was designed with exactly these outcomes in mind.

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They deserve leadership that is about action and inspiration. I’ve seen the kids that come out of environmental work of many kinds – they are resilient, optimistic, have a sense of future, are capable public speakers and can communicate ideas in many different forms. If the only outcome is that these young people can cope with the ups and downs of life then that is an amazing gift. You can find out more about the Kids Teaching Kids Program by visiting www.kidsteachingkids.com.au

One of the greatest things that WAZA members can do is link habitat conservation and combating extinction with human wellbeing and even human health. There is growing research about the impacts of green spaces, interaction with animals, walking in wild places and the link to human wellbeing and even depression. Given this research we attempted to turn the attributes of the resilient child into learning outcomes. The attributes are: Problem solving skills: abstract and reflective thinking, flexibility 5. Social competence: pro‑social behaviours such as responsiveness, empathy, caring, communication skills, a sense of humour 6. Autonomy: an internal locus of control, a strong sense of independence, power, self -esteem, and control 7. General characteristics: healthy expectations, goal directedness, orientation to the future, motivation to achieve, persistence, hopefulness, hardiness, belief in a bright and compelling future, a sense of anticipation Mental illness is rapidly becoming one of the greatest human health issues. • Depression affects 1 in 4 – rural suicide rates in Australia went up during the recent prolonged drought period • Kids as young as 5 suffering clinical depression • 25% of people in our jails are mentally ill One in five children already has a psychological disorder and by 2020, mental illness will be one of the top five causes of death or disability in the young. | United Nations You also need to tell the positive stories. When ABC Australia Story aired the story on my Dad and I my IN box went into melt down with all the congratulatory emails and offers of help. It was simply overwhelming to get such a response.


16 Some Good News – Future We Are Creating Everyday Some of those good news stories include: • The proposal for increasing our network of marine parks. • I’ve visited homes in suburban Melb that use 90% less water than the average home and are positive energy suppliers • China will purchase $760 billion in renewable energy in the next 20 years – First solar energy billionaire – was the richest man in China • Green buildings are also healthy buildings for people – less sick days, greater well being etc Council House 2 Building in Melbourne The building design cuts C02 emissions by 87%, electricity usage by 82%, gas usage by 87% and water usage by 72%.

Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

In Closing When asked if I am pessimistic or opti‑ mistic about the future, my answer is always the same: If you look at the science about what is • Vect‑sure in Sweden Fossil Fuel Free happening on earth and aren’t pessi‑ by 2025 – “But, the best argument mistic, you don’t understand the data. has always been the economic one,” Edman says. “Clean technology and But if you meet the people who are energy solutions are the biggest working to restore this earth and the emerging global sectors. We can lives of the poor, and you aren’t opti‑ earn a lot of money and create a lot mistic, you haven’t got a pulse. of jobs by being at the frontier”. • California on track to meet 90% What I see everywhere in the world reduction by 2050 are ordinary people willing to confront • Germany has brought about an 18% despair, power, and incalculable odds reduction in order to restore some semblance of • Green Beer, Leading Edge Houses grace, justice, and beauty to this world. and Farms (9.2 star energy rated Mirvac home) The poet Adrie‑N Rich wrote, • Canberra, ACT on the way to 90,000 households being powered by wind “So much has been destroyed I have cast my lot with those who, age after age, perversely, with no extraordinary power, reconstitute the world.” There could be no better description. Humanity is coalescing. It is reconstituting the world, and the action is taking place in schoolrooms, farms, jungles, villages, campuses, companies, refuge camps, deserts, fisheries, and slums. | Paul Hawken


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A New Model for Conservation Martin Copley, Australian Wildlife Conservancy

Introduction

The Extinction Crisis

The Threats in the North

Martin Copley is an Australian conservationalist and philanthropist who established the Australian Wildlife Conservancy, AWC, an organization which purchases and manages large areas of land, mainly former farm land as sanctuaries for the conservation of biodiversity.

Over the last two hundred years Australia has experienced the worst mammal extinction record of any country in the world and biodiversity continues in serious decline. Iconic Kakadu National Park is a clear example with a 75% decline in small mammal species in the last 12 years. “Business as usual is not acceptable”.

In the north AWC is fighting that ecological “axis of evil”: feral herbivores, late season unplanned fires and feral predators.

Australia is one of a small number of mega‑diverse nations in the world. Yet we also have the planet’s worst mammal extinction rate, while a high proportion of our surviving species are on the brink. It is now clear that business as usual in Australia will mean more extinctions. A new model for conservation is required if we are to provide a secure future for Australia’s wildlife: Australian Wildlife Conservancy, AWC, is rolling out such a model, integrating practical innovative and on‑ground action with good science. We manage 3 million hectares – in iconic locations such as the Kimberley, Cape York and Lake Eyre – protecting 83% of native bird species and 67% of Australia’s mammal species. Some of the largest remaining populations of Australian most threatened species, such as Numbats and Bridled Nailtail wallabies, occur on AWC’s properties. Critical to our ongoing success in developing a new model for conservation are our partners: indigenous organisations, pastoralists, universities, governments and, of course, the zoo industry.

Australian Wildlife Conservancy Background AWC had its origins 20 years ago when I set up a small sanctuary, known as Karakamia, in the Perth Hills. Today there are 23 sanctuaries covering 3 million hectares across the country. The aim is to rebuild our natural capital through on‑ground protection and recovery programs – based on strong science. These sanctuaries now protect 67% of all terrestrial mammal species and 83% of bird species.

• Our work in the Kimberley, AWC’s northern Australia hub, has shown that the exclusion of feral herbivores leads to a dramatic recovery in native wildlife, contrasting strongly with the experience at Kakadu. After experimenting with a 40,000ha exclusion fence at Mornington in the central Kimberley, we have just completed a 100,00ha exclusion fence in the Northern Territory close to Kakadu. We are anticipating an immediate recovery in mammal populations. • Unplanned hot fires late in the dry season have been burning northern Australia to a cinder. Over the last 8 years, AWC through a program called Ecofire, has established a system of mosaic burning which has limited these fires in the central Kimberley. Flying 24000 Kms by helicopter this year in the early dry season and by dropping 50,000 incendiaries with pin point accuracy, AWC has created a chain of patch burns that have reduced significantly the incidence of hot fires and led to greatly enhanced ecosystems. • Extrapolating from the cat population at Mornington we estimate feral cats kill 2 million native animals a day in northern Australia alone. By radio‑collaring cats and dingoes (through the use of tracker dogs), we are gathering data that suggests that cats avoid dingo territory. We also know that, as generalists and scavengers, dingoes are more benign to our wildlife. The re‑establishment of the dingo may prove to be an effective control of feral cats provided we can prove that dingoes have minimal effect on cattle – at least in the Kimberley.


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The Principal Threat in the South

Recent AWC Initiatives

Two recent initiatives are worthy of In Southern Australia predation from mention: cats and foxes is the most significant threat to wildlife. AWC has responded • The first is a collaboration with the to this by protecting native species state government of Western Ausof mammal behind predator proof tralia in actively managing governfences: an 8000ha enclosure in westment land in the Artesian Range in ern New South Wales, the largest fethe Kimberley. This is a hot – spot ral free area in Australia, two smaller for endemics and a first and signifisanctuaries in SA and WA and the cant partnership with government commencement of a 6000 ha fence for a private sector conservation in the mid‑west of WA. We also have organisation. a 6000ha feral predator free island in • The second initiative is the manageShark Bay. These areas protect and ment of a neighbouring aboriginal build populations of endangered spepastoral lease, where, supported by cies in the wild of which AWC now has WA government funding, AWC is several of the critical populations. managing the lease for conservation and sustainable cattle production. This is an example of the outreach that AWC is now achieving in its areas of operation.

The AWC Model The model that has led to all these outcomes is essentially driven by the strong link between on‑ground science and operations. 80% of our staff, both scientists and on‑ground managers, are located in the bush, often in extremely remote areas. This is the key to understanding and responding to the major threatening processes. Our effectiveness in delivering incredible outcomes on an annual budget of $10-11m is due to private sector rigour and flexibility, which even governments are now recognising.

Faure Island Finally I would like to show you a slide of Faure Island in Shark Bay WA as an example of collaboration. Faure is the second largest island in the world from which feral cats have been eradicated. This was done through a collaboration with DEC, the WA conservation agency. 3000 sheep and goats were removed with the help of local pastoralists and finally re‑introductions were made with the help of DEC, a salt mining company and Perth Zoo. Faure is now a restored gem in the middle of Shark Bay, a World Heritage Area and a classic example of AWC’s work. Thanks go to all those involved in that project and to you for listening.


October 2012 | Melbourne

WAZA Congress Papers Abstracts

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Table of Contents Author

Title

Jenny Gray

Love your Locals – Saving Victorian Species

Susan Hunt

Release to the Wild of Charismatic Megafauna: The Risks and Successes

Markus Gusset

Species Extinct in the Wild: There and Back Again

Kanako Tomisawa

What kind of conservation efforts does JAZA have now?

Steve Taylor

The Big C – Allocation of Scarce Resources for Zoo and Aquarium Conservation

Helmut Mägdefrau

Breeding and Reintroduction of Ural owls (Strix uralensis)

Sumate Kamolnorranath

Conservation Breeding and Reintroduction Programs for Saving “Extinct-in-the-Wild” Species in Thailand

Lena Lindén

Conservation of Swedish amphibians – a success story?

Susie Boardman

Partnerships Needed to Fight Extinction – Forgotten Species, New Friends

Rick Hudson Bernard Harrison

The New Turtle Survival Center: Ensuring the Turtle Survival Alliance’s (TSA) Commitment to Zero Turtle Extinctions Fighting the Extinction of Zoos – Are Zoos Immune to Corporate Extinction?

Sally Walker

Zoos Fighting Extinction v/v Zoos Facilitating Extinctions

Ace Torre

Advocacy through Thematic Design

Joanne Lalumière

Facts and Figures from the Granby Zoo: Increasing Revenues as a Major Player in Social Economy

Becca Hanson

I Can’t Hear You! Rethinking the Zoo’s Acoustic Environment

Cameron Kerr

Know and Understand your Visitor – A Strategy for Improving Experience, Learning and Engagement

Jeffrey Bonner

Captive Propagation, Head-Start and Conservation Program for the Ozark Hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi at the Saint Louis Zoo Providing the Necessary Knowledge to Assure Long-term Management of Threatened and Vulnerable Species

Roger Stonecipher Paul Boyle

AZA Sustainability – Update & Progress

Ian Gunn & Ann Clarke

Australia’s Wildlife Gene Bank

Yara Barros

Managing Toucans at the Parque das Aves, Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná State, Brazil

Jason Watters

Integrating Research and Husbandry to Enhance Animal Welfare at Chicago Zoological Society’s Center for the Science of Animal Welfare Panama’s Noah’s Ark

Bob Chastain Dan Maloney & Pat Janikowski

Beyond Sustainability; Field Lessons Improve Life within the Fence-line

Dalia Conde Eric Miller

Threatened Species in the World’s Zoos: An Initial Assessment of the Complexity of Worldwide Metapopulation Management Conservation Medicine: An Approach to Fight the Extinction of all Species

Damián Pellandini

Temaikèn’s Natural Reserve in Misiones, Argentina: join us!

Alex Rübel Jean Thomas

Conserving Madagascar’s Biodiversity, Building Local Capacity and Raising Environmental Awareness of Youth: The Cooperative Work of Zoos for Madagascar – The Madagascar Fauna and Flora Group (MFG): Fighting extinction in Papua New Guinea

Lena Lindén

Unravelling a Mystery!

Eric Stephens

Cats of Belize

Shahrir Abdul Samad

In-Situ Conservation in Sabah, Malaysia

Laura Mumaw

Community Conservation – A Peri-urban Case Study in Fighting Extinction

James Musinguzi

Ex situ conservation to In situ conservation


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Love your Locals – Saving Victorian Species Jenny Gray

Release to the Wild of Charismatic Megafauna: The Risks and Successes

Species Extinct in the Wild: There and Back Again Markus Gusset

Susan Hunt In 2011 Zoos Victoria committed that no Victorian, terrestrial, vertebrate species will go extinct on our watch. Our scientific team assessed the health and viability of Victorian species and found that 16 species were under threat of extinction within 5-10 years if nothing was done to save them. Zoos Victoria has commenced a program to ensure their survival. We have captive populations secured, recovery teams trained and committed to breeding success, and a strong commitment to engage the Victorian community in saving these unknown, beautiful and interesting species. Visitors are powerful consumers thus their engagement with our local species is a first step to inspire and empower them to act to help us fight extinction.

Breeding animals in human care followed by reintroducing them back into the wild was one of the most frequently cited conservation actions that led to improvements in conservation status on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Species previously classified as Extinct in the Wild on the IUCN Red List that have improved in conservation status thanks to the reintroduction of captive‑bred In November 2006 Perth Zoo and FZS animals include the Arabian oryx released the first Zoo‑born Suma(Oryx leucoryx), black‑footed ferret tran orangutan into the wild at Bukit (Mustela nigripes), California condor Tigapuluh,‘ Temara’ born at Perth Zoo. (Gymnogyps californianus), European Over 140 orangutans have now been bison (Bison bonasus), Przewalski’s released back into the wild at Bukit horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) and Tigapuluh. red wolf (Canis rufus). Currently there are 33 animal species classified as Perth Zoo has continued the FZS Extinct in the Wild on the IUCN Red collaboration, delivering staff training, List. Thirty‑one of these species are ongoing project support and project actively bred in zoos, aquariums and funding. Perth Zoo has supported other animal propagation facilities, construction of infrastructure, wildlife which prevent their outright extincprotection programs, provided tion; 17 species are managed in veterinary care, staff training, funded a studbook‑based breeding proa human‑elephant conflict mitigagramme. Zoological institutions are tion program and a mobile education uniquely placed to contribute to the program for local villagers. Late in conservation of species that are no 2011 another Perth Zoo‑born male longer found in the wild, with reinorangutan,‘ Semeru’ was released to troduction efforts using captive‑bred the wild at Bukit Tigapuluh. animals already being implemented for six species classified as Extinct in What are the lessons learned from the Wild. the Zoo born releases and international partnerships involving charismatic species? Do the risks outweigh the benefits? We speak of‘ intensive conservation’ integrating Zoo breeding programs with on the ground conservation projects, but are we ready as a Zoo community to accept this approach? And how do Zoo patrons respond to farewelling their Zoo babies to the wilds of the jungle? In 2006 Perth Zoo joined the Frankfurt Zoological Society (FZS) in a partnership to support the ecosystem of Bukit Tigapuluh in Sumatra. A part of the partnership involved an ambitious Sumatran orangutan introduction program (www.orangutan‑lifeboat.de/? id=14&language=en&invali date=true).


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What kind of conservation efforts does JAZA have now?

Breeding and Reintroduction of Ural owls (Strix uralensis)

Kanako Tomisawa

Helmut Mägdefrau

The SSCJ: Species Survival Committee of Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums (JAZA) has been making effort for the population management of more than 150 species within entire JAZA member institutions. In this presentation, we would like to introduce you what we have been doing for wildlife conservation, especially for the five prioritized species. And we also would like to talk about our granted projects/activities include studies on such endangered species.

In Germany, Austria and Czech Republic the Ural owl was extinct since the early 20th century. In 1965 Nuremberg zoo has bred this species first time in the world. In the 70th a reintroduction program was established in the Bavarian Forest National Park and continued in the following decades on the Czech side. As recent genetic studies had shown, these locations must have been an essential former corridor for genetic exchange between the Scandinavian and Slovenian populations. A reintroduction in Austria was established at two sites as an additional step stone for migration. Actual results will be given and the important role of the zoos will be shown. Since 2003 Nuremberg Zoo offered 17 owls for release and gave 5 for the breeding network. In addition the Zoo made substantial financial support for the genetic studies and the monitoring in Austria.

The Big C – Allocation of Scarce Resources for Zoo and Aquarium Conservation Steve Taylor There can be no question that WAZA member zoos and aquariums are all about conservation. What exactly is zoo and aquarium conservation? 1. Is it about educating people about the plight of wildlife around the world? 2. Is it about creating the greenest institutions in the world with zero waste and a small carbon footprint? 3. Is it about breeding endangered species that in some case can augment wild populations? 4. Is it about conservation research and increasing the world’s knowledge about rare and endangered species? Or 5. Is it about funding worthwhile conservation projects in the field? The author will attempt to offer some suggestions on the challenges zoos and aquariums face in allocating resources to all these functions.

Conservation Breeding and Reintroduction Programs for Saving “Extinct-in-the-Wild” Species in Thailand Sumate Kamolnorranath 5 WAZA member zoos are implementing‘ UN Decade on Biodiversity’ Goal C (Improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity) to reduce extinction risks. Thai zoos contributions include; 1) maintaining genetic diversity of captive wildlife population of global importance; 2) strengthen research programs on reproductive science and establish genome bank; and 3) reintroduction programs for the‘ extinct‑in‑the‑wild’ Thamin Eld’s deer and Eastern Sarus crane. Successful results demonstrate that released animal are adaptable to forest and wetland ecosystems and coexist with predators and people. Success stories are shared with visitors and public through education programs and media.


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Conservation of Swedish amphibians – a success story? Lena Lindén

Partnerships Needed to Fight Extinction – Forgotten Species, New Friends

Fighting the Extinction of Zoos – Are Zoos Immune to Corporate Extinction? Bernard Harrison

Susie Boardman The Red List index shows that rare and threatened amphibian species in Sweden have had the most positive population results compared to all other taxa of animals and plants. The reason is a very goal‑oriented, practical conservation strategy with re‑creation of optimal habitats within the historical range of each species, complemented by conservation breeding and restocking or reintroduction in the wild when necessary. One previously nationally extinct species now has one of the best populations in northern Europe and has been removed from the Red List. Another two former threatened species have been removed from the Red List, and four others have been downgraded or maintained the same status. Sweden´s amphibian fauna includes 13 species with different habitat requirements, but all are favored by the small‑scale managed landscape with sunny shallow waters and many small habitat elements. During the last 50-100 years a major landscape change in structure and man´s use of the landscape has led to a substantial loss of amphibians. Despite the fact that we have been very successful in changing the negative impact on amphibian populations in Sweden, it must be kept in mind that the Red List criteria reflect present and future trends starting from usually very small populations. Any future positive development requires a continuous interest and economic support to amphibian conservation.

Significant global trends impacting upon our world include climate change; damage and loss of biodiversity; changing dynamics of human population and changing patterns of health and disease. Despite advances in our understanding of the “Web of life” and the value of species and ecosystems to individuals and communities, there is an increasing disconnect between humans and nature. Man depends on nature for our survival, yet over 1,000 species are at risk of extinction. Stakeholders from all committed organisations must recognise the need to stand side by side and work together as partners to fight extinction and connect to nature.

The New Turtle Survival Center: Ensuring the Turtle Survival Alliance’s (TSA) Commitment to Zero Turtle Extinctions Rick Hudson The Turtle Survival Alliance (TSA) developed in response to the Asian turtle crisis and has grown into a diverse and highly effective global partnership for turtle conservation. With a bold commitment to zero turtle extinctions, the TSA works in situ, with programs throughout Asia, and in Madagascar, Belize, Colombia and Africa, and ex situ to develop assurance colonies for species that defy recovery efforts in the wild. Captive programs are a cornerstone of the TSA, and the proposed new Turtle Survival Center in South Carolina will help ensure the survival of 17 species ranked Critically Endangered by the IUCN Red List, including nine in the Top 25 Most Endangered list.

The future of zoos was the subject of a recent symposium and the possible demise of White Oak Conservation Centre have made a review of their corporate extinction not only topical but also imperative. Zoos are fundamentally managed in three types of ways: Commercial, Society and Government /City. This paper reviews the three models with the view of offering a workable model for zoo survival in the 21st century.

Zoos Fighting Extinction v/v Zoos Facilitating Extinctions Sally Walker A small percentage of estimated 10,000 zoos worldwide actively fight extinction by engaging in difficult and costly programmes that contribute to species survival. Tragically, remaining ~90%+ of zoos (and their government agencies) facilitate suffering, deaths and (in the long term) extinctions due to ignorance, carelessness, and deliberate exploitation of international animal markets. The same agencies refuse to provide funds for training or infrastructure required to maintain animals well or to solve administrative and governance problems that abet it. Responsible zoos need to counter this serious problem by lobbying such governments and engaging dysfunctional zoos with training on welfare, conservation and management.


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Advocacy through Thematic Design Ace Torre

I Can’t Hear You! Rethinking the Zoo’s Acoustic Environment Becca Hanson

Impacts of extinction are hard to fathom for everyone, including zoo/ aquaria guests. Exhibits that truly immerse the guest into realms of species, juxtaposed by man’s presence, help convey these impacts through experiential emotion, a foundation of advocacy for change. The main interpretive theme is environmental stewardship and urgency of conservation. Exhibits will be shown that promote this emotional experience through history/geographical locations on a visual/auditory/tactile journey, demonstrating that humankind is only but a thread of the web of life, all while enhancing family values, having fun by traveling to places around the world only a few ever get to see.

Facts and Figures from the Granby Zoo: Increasing Revenues as a Major Player in Social Economy Joanne Lalumière In Prague, there were requests for facts and figures on making money. Since 2004, Granby zoo has managed to obtain 38 M$ Cdn dollars in government grants to improve animal exhibits and overall services. Revenues increased significantly enabling the zoo to increase the number of keepers and educators and support more conservation and research projects. The presentation will provide tips on securing grants and increasing revenues. Positioning the zoo as a major player in social economy was a key factor with many advantages.

Standards for human acoustic environments get increasing attention as our awareness of potential health impacts grows. In zoos, however, we have come to accept the verbal exuberance of visitors as proof that they are having fun; the clang and rattle of doors and keys as proof that things are secure; and the reflected noise from hard surfaces as a matter of course. The goal of this paper is to expand the definition of animal and human well‑being to focus on the nature and variables of zoos’ acoustic environments, and to learn what we can do with that knowledge.

Know and Understand your Visitor – A Strategy for Improving Experience, Learning and Engagement

Captive Propagation, Head-Start and Conservation Program for the Ozark Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) at the Saint Louis Zoo Jeffrey Bonner The Ozark hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi is a large aquatic salamander endemic to the spring‑fed rivers of the Ozark highlands in south‑central Missouri and adjacent north‑central Arkansas. Surveys over the past 40 years indicate that there has been at least a 70% decline in Ozark hellbender populations. The decline is attributed to a combination of factors including habitat degradation, illegal harvest for the pet trade, chemical contamination/water quality degradation and diseases. There has also been a shift in the age structure of the population to larger, older individuals. The limited number of young animals suggests a lack of reproductive success and/or high juvenile mortality.

Cameron Kerr Using a visitor tracking methodology developed by Vision XS, Taronga has developed a deeper understanding of how visitors interact with its sites. The tracking process has provided Taronga with a democratised data set that is being used to inform decision‑making from a visitor experience, learning and engagement perspective with the ultimate goals of increasing visitor dwell time and encouraging behaviour change. This paper outlines Taronga’s journey with its visitors, including quantitative improvements in visitor experience, learning and engagement since the tracking process commenced in 2010.

As a result of this precipitous decline the Saint Louis Zoo, in collaboration with the Missouri Department of Conservation, Arkansas Fish & Game and United States Fish & Wildlife Service, started a captive propagation and head‑start program for the Ozark hellbender in 2002. While recruitment is low, some egg clutches have been discovered annually in recent years. Portions of these clutches have been brought to the zoo for head‑start and future release. The larger goal was to provide juveniles for release through captive reproduction, a feat that had never been achieved by any institution before for either subspecies of hellbender.


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DOC 67.3 rev To help reach the goals of the program the Zoo constructed three environmentally‑controlled rooms, two outdoor streams and has dedicated three full‑time keeper staff to this conservation propagation program. Through simulation of natural environmental cycles (i.e. – photoperiod, water temperature, etc.) the hellbenders at the Zoo have cycled at exactly the same time as their wild counterparts and have laid eggs every year since 2007. However, it wasn’t until 2011 that fertilized eggs were achieved. In addition to adequate space, availability of suitable nesting sites and good sex ratios, adjustments to the ion concentration and conductivity of the water are believed to have played a role in this successful reproduction. The goal of the captive propagation and head‑starting efforts are to ensure the long‑term survival and recovery of the Ozark hellbender by maintaining populations through augmentation and if necessary reintroduction.

Providing the Necessary Knowledge to Assure Long-term Management of Threatened and Vulnerable Species Roger Stonecipher Since 1974, ISIS members have collected basic biologic information on more than 2.6 million animals of 10,000 species. The knowledgebase has been built through the collective efforts of individuals associated with more than 800 organizations in 83 countries. Through ISIS, our community has access to this comprehensive, integrated and current collection of animal, veterinary, husbandry, group and environmental knowledge. Already, we have used this knowledge base to save several species from extinction. Let’s have a conversation about how we bring the rest of the world’s conservation community into our network and use this knowledgebase to affect the survival of more species.

AZA Sustainability – Update & Progress Paul Boyle

Australia’s Wildlife Gene Bank Ian Gunn & Ann Clarke The Animal Gene Storage and Resource Centre of Australia (AGSRCA) was established as a joint venture by Monash University and the Zoological Parks Board of NSW (Tarongra and Western Plains Zoo’s) in 1995 to utilizes developments in reproductive technology to assist in the breeding and conservation of Australian native and exotic endangered wildlife. A major Commonwealth grant ensured the development and operations of the Gene Bank and an active research program. It became a founding member of the international UK based Frozen Ark Project. The Centre at Monash had collected and stored genetic samples (semen, cells, DNA and tissues) from over 100 species when its funding support collapsed in 2006.it now sits in hibernation in a high security facility at Monash.

Managing Toucans at the Parque das Aves, Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná State, Brazil Yara Barros

The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) is focusing on increasing the sustainability of North America’s cooperatively‑managed animal populations. AZA’s Sustainability Task Force implemented changes in 2011 intending that: all zoo populations should be managed on some level (institution, consortium, regional, or global); sustainability should be enhanced with incentives; population management processes should be simplified. While the changes to AZA’s Species Survival Programs (SSP’s) have operated for just over a year, we are encouraged by the degree to which the SSP’s and TAG’s are moving to build sustainability. We will provide a sustainability update with examples of progress.

Parque das Aves manages eight species of Ramphastidae, and had breeding success with 5 of them. Pairs are formed using a flocking management and couples are kept on separated facilities, to prevent intra‑specific aggression. Natural trunks are preferred, although toucans accept almost any cavity. A camera monitoring system allows a noninvasive monitoring and record of the parents’ behaviour and nestlings’ development. We have had both hand and parent reared chicks. Toucans need lots of stimuli and accept many different environmental enrichment techniques. Regarding nutrition toucans can develop iron storage disease; therefore we developed a special diet that minimizes the problem.


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Integrating Research and Husbandry to Enhance Animal Welfare at Chicago Zoological Society’s Center for the Science of Animal Welfare Jason Watters Blending the performance of research and research findings into husbandry practice enhances animal welfare. At Brookfield Zoo we have developed a program that places a cycle of research inquiry into animal husbandry and feeds findings into animal management practice. The program integrates several scientific disciplines – animal behavior, endocrinology, nutrition, and veterinary medicine – into animal husbandry practice. The result is a multi‑angled approach to advancing animal welfare. A parallel training program, designed to give animal managers the tools necessary to empirically address welfare questions and turn new findings into practice, drives us closer to the goal of advancing animal welfare.

Beyond Sustainability; Field Lessons Improve Life within the Fence-line

Conservation Medicine: An Approach to Fight the Extinction of all Species

Dan Maloney & Pat Janikowski

Eric Miller

Field research reveals a predator’s hard‑wired drive to patrol their home range. They reinforce their hunting grounds and protect their territory from intruders. Zoo life eleminates a hunter’s threats and challenges. Pacing cats are often classified as bored or worse. Staff distract them with novel items, but typically the animals resume their pacing. PJA Architects and Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens have designed a new approach that applies field work to zoo habitats. Together, the architect and the zoo professional will describe how they areby providing cats with a unique opportunity to channeling a tiger’s natural tendancy to move and explore walk.

In 2011 the Saint Louis Zoo launched the Institute for Conservation Medicine CICM) to further the Zoo’s mission to conserve animals and their habitats. The ICM takes a holistic approach to research on wildlife, public health, and sustainable ecosystems to ensure healthy animals and healthy people. This research includes 1) studies on diseases of conservation concern; 2) health care for the sustainability of biodiversity; 3) zoo animals as sentinels of disease in urban environments; 4) disease surveillance at the interface of wildlife, domestic animals and humans; 5) comparative medicine; and 6) exploration of the diversity of life.

Panama’s Noah’s Ark

Temaikèn’s Natural Reserve in Misiones, Threatened Species in the World’s Zoos: An Initial As- Argentina: join us! sessment of the Complexity of Worldwide Metapopula- Damián Pellandini tion Management

Bob Chastain

Dalia Conde

In 2004, several zoos responded to the amphibian crisis in Panama by creating ex‑situ assurance colonies of Panamanian amphibians in the USA and Panama. In 2008, chytridiomycosis crossed the Panama Canal, prompting renewed calls from scientists to build in‑country capacity to respond to the crisis. The aim is to build additional ex‑situ capacity to collect and house assurance colonies of frogs from Panama, and develop a country‑wide conservation action plan to prevent extinctions of 20 species of highly vulnerable amphibians. This session will explore why we should care about this crisis, what is being done and some of the early successes and challenges.

As species‑level climate change impact evaluations become more common, the number of species requiring intensive management is likely to dramatically increase. The resultant demands on the zoo and aquarium community are certain to exceed its capacity, and therefore a creative management approach is essential. We assessed the proportion of threatened species within ISIS institutions, and examined the network’s complexity required for zoos to reach a metapopulation of above 50, 100 and 250 individuals. We paid particular attention number of institutions required, and their geographical distribution. We propose further analyses to assess “optimal zoo aquarium‑networks” intensively managed populations of at risk‑taxa.

Osununú is a natural reserve located in San Ignacio, Misiones, Argentina. It preserves a particular ecosystem, the Interior Atlantic forest, which is considered one of the most threatened biomes in the world. It has endemic and unique plant species. We have surveyed and identified 330 plants, 205 birds and 357 diurnal butterflies, but there is more research ahead to know the whole richness of the area. Because of the high touristic and educational potential of the area, we are developing ecotourism, environmental education programs and establishing a biological station as strategies for its conservation and sustainable management.


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Conserving Madagascar’s Biodiversity, Building Local Capacity and Raising Environmental Awareness of Youth: The Cooperative Work of Zoos for Madagascar – The Madagascar Fauna and Flora Group (MFG): Alex Rübel Celebrating its 25 year anniversary, MFG integrates training with research that has led to documenting new species, identifying the significant threat posed by invasive plants and generating recommendations to conserve Betampona, itself an endangered lowland rainforest in Madagascar, where just 76 frog species have been found, 30% endemic to the site. MFGs innovative education program has led to collaborating with UNICEF’s program: connecting youth, schools and communities for the environment. MFG offers zoos the opportunity to take ownership of a specific project while rightfully taking credit for the entire program by funding the key to the MFG’s success – its staff and infrastructure.

Fighting Extinction in Papua New Guinea

Unravelling a Mystery! Lena Lindén

Jean Thomas Jim and Jean Thomas originally from Zoos Victoria have been working with the Tenkile Conservation Alliance in the north coast ranges of Papua New Guinea for ten years. Their aim is to protect the critically endangered Tenkile (Dendrolagus scottae) and Weimang (Dendrolagus pulcherrimus) Tree Kangaroos. During this time the Tenkile population has increased from 100 to 300 animals. The project area has increased from 13 to 50 villages and resulted in a major shift in local people’s attitudes and behaviours towards nature conservation. This has come about through a variety of strategies including establishing a hunting a moratorium, introducing alternative protein sources, conservation education programs and community development projects.

Even though it has always intrigued people around the globe the snow leopard is one of the worlds’ most secretive big cats. It is found in the rugged mountains of Central Asia where it is perfectly adapted to a life at high‑altitude in the cold and barren climate. The snow leopard is listed as Endangered by the IUCN Red List and there are only between 4000 and 6500 individuals left in the wild. Despite the hard work of several researchers, the elusiveness of this cat and the rough terrain it inhabits are part of the reason why there are still large gaps in our understanding of its natural history. The two organizations’ Snow Leopard Trust and Panthera therefore started the first long‑term ecological study of wild snow leopards in Mongolia in 2008. Nordens Ark became involved in the study in 2010 by funding the Swedish PhD student, Örjan Johansson, who is in charge of the field work in Mongolia. His primary task is to capture and fit snow leopards with GPS‑collars. The GPS‑satellite collar will provide answers to the some of the basic questions about snow leopard ecology such as habitat use, home‑range size, birth and mortality rates, prey preference and daily or seasonal movements. The study also aims to assess the impact of conservation programs and find methods of measuring population size. However to be able to put collars on the cats Örjan first had to learn how to capture them. So far he has managed to capture and collared 18 snow leopards which means that he is now on the way to unravel some of the mystery surrounding this amazing cat.


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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

DOC 67.3 rev

Cats of Belize Eric Stephens

In-Situ Conservation in Sabah, Malaysia Shahrir Abdul Samad

This Project in Belize focuses on five Cat Species, one of the very few places in the world where all five occur; Jaguar, Cougar, Ocelot, Margay and Jaguarundi. It is important to study these animals and their relationships to the people who live in the area (camera traps are placed on the property of willing farmers) as well as how the Cats manage to coexist with this many other predators. In partnership with the University of Florida, these studies highlight areas of habitats traveled, activity, prey species, and health issues. In addition, when tracking these Cats, significant work on a variety of reptile species native to the area is also conducted including river turtles and Morelet’s Crocodile. The children of the immediate area are taught to stay away from the edge of close by freshwater pools as they can be dangerous so a visit to a local elementary school, was the first time these children had ever seen the native Crocodile with which they share the countryside.

Community Conservation – A Peri-urban Case Study in Fighting Extinction Laura Mumaw

Sabah is home to many of the charismatic mega species including the Bornean elephants, orang‑utans and Sumatran rhino. Sadly many of these species are confronting extinction in the wild. Sabah is also the largest producer of palm oil in Malaysia. While palm oil has brought benefits to its rural population, the presence of wild life in its natural setting has also given Sabah its tourism industry. The challenge for Malaysia is how to pursue development while undertaking conservation. This challenge opens the opportunity for bodies with expertise to participate in in‑situ conservation. One such multi‑stakeholder conservation collaboration involving the Malaysian government, oil palm industry and various NGO’s is underway to conserve key ecological areas along the Kinabatangan River. The project will involve restoring the identified biodiversity corridor to ensure the conservation of these species.

A case study (Yarra4Life) of fighting extinction in a peri‑urban region adjoining Melbourne City will be presented. Yarra4Life is a collaboration between local, State and regional agencies, landowners and interested community to protect and enhance local native habitat and its iconic wildlife. It includes a zoo based captive breeding, rearing and release program. The case study will describe the statutory environmental strategy for greater Melbourne’s environmental assets. It will also highlight the use of an Australian‑first interactive catchment management website to support adaptive management and connect local agencies, organizations (like zoos), and communities to achieve regional environmental goals.

POSTER PRESENTATION James Musinguzi

Project conducted and authored by Dr. Frank Ridgley and Mr. Dustin Smith.

Ex situ conservation to In situ conservation: the role of Conservation Education in changing attitudes and behaviors of communities towards Rhino reintroduction in Murchison Falls National Park, Northern Uganda


October 2012 | Melbourne

Received Full WAZA Congress Contributions

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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Love your Locals Jenny Gray, Zoos Victoria

Abstract

Background

In 2011 Zoos Victoria committed that Extinction at its current rate is not no Victorian, terrestrial, vertebrate natural and it is not inevitable. Right species will go extinct on our watch. now, in 2012, extinction is a man Our scientific team assessed the made phenomenon and as much as health and viability of Victorian spewe can drive species into extinction cies and found that 16 species were we can also interrupt the process, under threat of extinction within 5-10 slow it and reverse the trend. We can years if nothing was done to save and should fight extinction; because them. Zoos Victoria has commenced once a species is gone, it is gone a program to ensure their survival. forever. We have captive populations secured, recovery teams trained and commitI propose that there are a number of ted to breeding success, and a strong reasons why we should be Fighting commitment to engage the Victorian Extinction: community in saving these unknown, beautiful and interesting species. • The threat of extinction in 2012 is Visitors are powerful consumers thus largely man made and a human their engagement with our local driven process. We have made the species is a first step to inspire and mess that threatens to engulf other empower them to act to help us fight animals and it is thus our moral extinction. responsibility to clean it up. • It is a fight that we can win. Extinction is not inevitable and many examples are available that show that when we put our minds to protecting and recovery species we can. • We share our environment with the animals that are in trouble. It is not rocket science to understand that the threats to animals are also threats to humans. We need the environment to live and if we are destroying it for others we destroy it for ourselves. • The animals at most risk are amazing and beautiful and of enormous value in their own right. We should fight their extinction, because without them our planet will be duller and less amazing.

Zoos are well placed to fight extinction and can contribute to conservation outcomes in a number of ways. Zoos can support International Conservation Programs which protect wild areas, zoos can empower visitors and the wider community to take action and zoos can work with threatened species engaging in captive breeding recovery programs. This paper will address the third aspect of zoo based conservation, the critical role that zoos should be playing in endangered species recovery programs. In 2009 Zoos Victoria, Perth Zoo and Taronga Conservation Society, were involved in a program on Christmas Island to try and save the Christmas Island Pipistrelle. Scientists had observed the decline in these small insectivorous bats caused by an invasive pest species, the crazy yellow ant. They estimated that the population may have shrunk to as few as 20 individuals. They were wrong. The recovery team recorded a single male bat over three nights. For the next 5 weeks there was no recording of any bats, across the whole range. A recording on the 26 August 2009 marks the last time the Christmas Island Pipistrelle ever flew. We arrived in time to record the extinction of a species. We never want to do this again.


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October 2012 | Melbourne

Our Fighting Extinction Commitment Based on the experience at Christmas Island Zoos Victoria developed a new approach to conservation. Zoos Victoria decided that it is unacceptable to lose a local species and further committed that “No Victorian, terres‑ trial, vertebrate species will go extinct on our watch”. The commitment necessitated an investigation into the extent of the threat to Victorian, terrestrial vertebrates. The Conservation Science team at Zoos Victoria undertook an assessment of Victorian species against the question ‘What is the Like‑ lihood of extinction over the coming 10 years’ using the following criteria: • Small population size • Declining population trend • Restricted distribution • Key threatening processes Populations that met the criteria but had good numbers in other states were excluded. The final list of species meeting the criteria was 16 Victoria species. Zoos Victoria was already involved in 4 captive breeding programs which did not meet the criteria but where the Zoos Victoria contribution was considered as important to the ongoing success of the programs. From the combined lists emerged Zoos Victoria’s 20 priority species. Each of these species is amazing; a hibernating marsupial, a migratory parrot and a lizard that pretends it is a snake. The Zoos Victoria science and life science teams are hard at work bringing these species into our care, at this stage we are working with 17 of the 20 species.

A five year plan has been developed for each species with success indicators for five and 10 years. In all cases success is defined as a secure wild population. In many cases the plans involve the management of the metapopulation plans such that genetics can be managed through transfer between the wild and captive population. Much progress has been made in working with the recovery teams, securing permits and developing husbandry. As success is to secure wild populations, Zoos Victoria is engaging with land holders, support groups and conservation organisations to address the threats to species in their habitat. Wherever possible, Zoos Victoria will replace common species within our care with the 20 priority species, in education programs and on display. This philosophy means that the threatened species are part of the zoo collection not additional to the collection. Research programs are being aligned such that they will assist with the unknown issues and improving our chances of success. We are setting the agenda with the Universities and they are absolutely supportive and engaged.

Love Your Locals – Engaging the Community The greatest challenge facing the program is to secure the support of the community of Victoria. If people don’t know and don’t care about species it is unlikely that they will take the steps needed to save them. As zoos we have spent 150 years telling people how cool elephants and orang‑utans are; now we need to them to fall in love with local species which are small, brown, cryptic and creepy. So we have embarked on an awareness campaign called ‘Love you Locals’. The campaign aims to raise awareness of the threatened species and the actions that people can take to help protect them. At Zoos Victoria we are putting our full weight, skills and commitment into this campaign. We also recognised that the campaign needs to be fun, engaging and accessible to the target market, kids. So we called on a friend, a super hero with extra ordinary charisma, Zooperman. Zooperman is joined by the 20 extinction fighters, cartoon representations of the 20 priority species. Zooperman and the Extinction Fighters are coming to life, to engage kids and to help them take actions that help animals. There is a cartoon in the member magazine, secret missions and retail products.


32 Exhibits are now designed to engage visitors with the priority species. In April Lunar’s secret forest was launched at Healesville Sanctuary. Lunar is a Lead Beaters Possum, she is fast and courageous, but not fast enough to out run extinction. This beautiful species lives in a small area heavily impacted by fires and is, plausibly, one fire away from extinction. Underpinning the exhibit is real data and a recovery program, along with the promotion of FSC timber. A behaviour change project has been launched observing changes in consumer behaviour following a visit to the Lunar experience. While early days we can see difference in preference for the FSC product even though it is slightly more expensive than the non FSC by people who have been exposed to the experience in Lunar’s secret forest. We are putting our threatened species work on display. Instead of hiding our work we are showing people what we do, it is just amazing how they respond. At Healesville we are running a Fighting Extinction Tour, which contributes to our financial sustainability as a not‑for‑profit organisation and shares our love for these incredible species, a passion that is contagious.

Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Marketing is aligned with ‘Love your Locals’ with a tram branded, posters in trams and public spaces. We have employed alternate options for spreading the message. We have a graffiti wall of the endangered species, AC/DC lane in the city. Not often you want your brand graffiti in an alley. As part of the 150th celebrations we hosted a comedy debate – who gets on the ark? A group of 6 comedians each defended why their species should get a space on the Ark and I am glad to say the audience threw the humans overboard. In addition to the awareness is the solid foundation of behaviour change that underpins this strategy. We have strong messaging on actions that the community can take to help wild life, like ‘Wipe for Wildlife,’ a campaign to have visitors switch to recycled toilette paper. Research shows that it is working, with 30 % of people visiting Healesville Sanctuary that do not use recycled toilette paper switching after one visit. Retail shops are aligned to Fighting Extinction as the shop is often the last contact point in a zoo visit. The retail outlets are an important part of telling the story. In addition to the shop fit out and staff training we are developing a new line of products that support and encourage love for our locals.

Conclusion Globally zoos are a powerful force. When we put our minds to a project we can achieve so much. Zoos can move elephants around the world; build rainforests in Europe and raise millions of dollars for new enclosures. Surely we can stem the tide of extinction. Not just saving species but also saving ourselves. Extinction is not inevitable. So, which 20 species will you save from extinction?


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October 2012 | Melbourne

Release to the Wild of Charismatic Mega Fauna: the Risks and Successes Susan Hunt, PSM, Chief Executive Officer, Perth Zoo

Abstract

Background

Zoos and Release Programs

In 2006 Perth Zoo joined the Frankfurt Zoological Society (FZS) in a partnership to support the ecosystem and landscape of Bukit Tigapuluh in Sumatra. A part of the partnership involved an ambitious Sumatran Orangutan introduction program (www.orangutan‑lifeboat.de/? id=14 &language=en&invalidate=true). In November 2006 Perth Zoo and FZS released of the first Zoo‑born Sumatran Orangutan into the wild at Bukit Tigapuluh,‘ Temara’ born at Perth Zoo.

This intent of this paper is to reflect on Perth Zoo’s release of two Zoo born Sumatran Orangutans (Pongo abelii) into a Sumatran Orangutan release program run by the Frankfurt Zoological Society (FZS).

As the Zoo community we are increasingly speaking of‘ intensive conservation’ or more recently‘ One Plan’ approaches integrating Zoo breeding programs with on‑the‑ground conservation projects. This is such a program.

Perth Zoo has continued the FZS collaboration, delivering staff training at Bukit Tigapuluh, ongoing project support and project funding. Perth Zoo funds have been used to construct infrastructure, support wildlife protection programs, research programs, a human‑elephant conflict mitigation program, a mobile education program for local villagers and a small community development program. Late in 2011 another Perth Zoo‑born male orangutan was released to the wild.

As a component of a wider project, Local species’ release‑to‑the‑wild the Sumatran Orangutan Conservaprograms are not new for zoos. Perth tion Program, the FZS has worked Zoo has run breed‑for‑release prowith the Indonesian Government’s grams for native Western Australian Department of Forest Protection and species for over 20 years. As it is for Nature Conservation PHKA, Yayasan many zoos, these programs are now Ekosistem Lestari YEL (Foundation a part of our part of our core business. for a Sustainable Ecosystem) and Pan We have bred and released over 2,500 Eco to build a sustainable new wild native WA specimens, working with population in an area where orangureptiles, mammals, amphibians and tans are now extinct in Bukit Tigapumore recently birds in conjunction luh, Jambi Province, Sumatra. With with local wildlife authorities. the support of Perth Zoo and other partners, the Bukit Tigapuluh based While there are risks involved with activities have now grown to incorlocal breed‑for‑release programs and porate broader activities of habitat often a large investment of time and protection, including elephant human resources, the complexities and risks conflict mitigation, community deare now relatively well understood. velopment, research and community This is primarily as a result of: education programs. This work, now badged the Bukit Tigapuluh Wildlife • the local and endemic species’ and Ecosystem Protection Program, focus; is a WAZA branded program and has • species usually do not have regional been since 2008. or global partners and are not a part of management plans involving The FZS introduction program is many partners; thorough and rigorous, developed • stakeholder management is usually consistent with IUCN guidelines and local; with Indonesian Government collabo- • disease risk is understood and bio‑security issues are not complex; ration and approvals. After preparaand tion by experienced staff, orangutans confiscated by Indonesian authorities • species’ knowledge and expertise is usually not in dispute, and is often as illegal pets or rescued as a result exclusive to the one zoo – your own. of dispersal of animals through forest destruction are released into Bukit On the whole, in most zoo based Tigapuluh, an area providing ideal breed for release programs, the risks lowland rainforest habitat. are well understood, controlled and accepted.


34 Sumatran Orang‑utan The conservation status for Sumatran orangutan remains as critically endangered, with and estimated 6,600 animals left in the wild. While protected in Indonesia, the political environment in Aceh Province in Sumatra, which contains the only remaining wild populations is unstable. Major threats for Sumatran orang‑utan remain habitat destruction, poaching, land‑use conflicts and encroachments into protected areas for plantations, mining and farming. With the longest inter‑birth interval of any mammal, the outlook for Sumatran orangutan appears very bleak, with estimates of wild extinctions within 10 years. The population of Sumatran orang‑utan in zoos as recorded through ISIS is presently 256, with 18 being held in the Australasian breeding program. The global zoo population of 256 animals are housed in 66 institutions across 5 regions. Of these, 7.13.0 are housed in Australia with 1.2.0 at Adelaide Zoo, 2.2.0 at Melbourne Zoo and 4.9.0 at Perth Zoo. There is also no global program for this species and the opportunities to hold this charismatic species in sufficient numbers to establish a sustainable captive population in zoos are limited.

Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Perth Zoo Sumatran Orangutan Program

The Decision for an Integrated Perth Zoo Orang‑utan Program

Perth Zoo’s breeding record and ongoing breeding capacity for this In the context of an assessment of critically endangered species is sound. Perth Zoo’s orang‑utan program There have been 30 Sumatran oranand its future, and in the light of our gutans born at Perth Zoo over the last strategic priorities and the status of 20 years and the Zoo holds a constant this species in the wild, the partnerpopulation of 13 or 14 animals. The ship with the FZS was forged. The methodology of holding orangutan at decision was made to release young Perth Zoo is in small groups in a series female orang‑utan‘ Temara’ into the of enclosures, females housed with wild as a pilot program to test the offspring and males held alone or integration of our Zoo program with with a breeding female. This system the FZS re‑introduction program. provides optimum visual contact This decision was based on: and maintenance of a social system, providing individual territories and • The conservation status of Sumaalso reflecting Sumatran orangutans’ tran orang‑utan was dire; and it was primary solitary nature. confirmed by FZS that even a few breeding animals would make a Up until 2006 Perth Zoo’s conservadifference to the success of the FZS tion emphasis had been on educarelease program; tion and to raise awareness about • FZS was an established conservaorangutans and their threats. Followtion organisation with a high reputaing a new strategic direction for Perth tion; Zoo set through master and strategic • A release to the wild program planning and aligned with the World for Sumatran orang‑utan was an Zoo Conservation Strategy, opporextension of our commitment and tunities for greater conservation expertise with this species. It was involvement in international species the next step; was possible. While the Zoo was • Staff expertise and experience proinvolved in direct conservation of lovided confidence that this would be cal species, the decision was made to successful; support international wildlife projects. • Our community strongly supported the initiative and confirmed that A community fundraising project, this was consistent with its expectaPerth Zoo’s Wildlife Conservation Action of Perth Zoo; tion, was founded. • A Zoo release would assist in raising awareness of the serious situation Also at that time, despite Perth Zoo’s facing Sumatran orang‑utan, of the capacity to continue to successfully FZS program and of the need to breed this critically endangered speprotect Sumatran forests, habitat cies, there was a‘ no breed’ recomand wildlife; mendation from the regional Australasian Species Management Program. • To enable breeding of the Perth Zoo animals was a priority to ensure This was due to a lack of spaces in animal welfare and good health. To receiving zoos. As a result Perth Zoo’s find an option for our animals which breeding females were placed on had a conservation benefit was a‘ contraception indefinitely. win‑win’; • It was‘ authentic’ for us to link our zoo breeding to a wild population. We were‘ walking the talk’ and delivering on our conservation message.


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October 2012 | Melbourne

It was resolved to manage‘ Temara’ to the FZS program as much as possible as a regular‘ animal transaction’. The process included many of the same processes as sending an animal to another zoo: in terms of health checks, welfare and transport. However, there were significant additional tasks and more complex stakeholder management including:

Outcomes from the Partnership with FZS In 2006 Perth Zoo sent‘ Temara’ to Sumatra where she was released into the Bukit Tigapuluh FZS program. She was tracked for almost three years in the soft release approach used by the FZS and now she lives independently in the Bukit Tigapuluh forest. This was followed by‘ Semeru’ in late 2011.‘ Semeru’ who was released at a younger age has integrated into the program swiftly and is thriving. The FZS program has grown with the Zoo’s involvement. As at 2012, 140 Sumatran orangutans – confiscated pet trade and orphaned animals along with‘ Temara’ and‘ Semeru’ have been released into Bukit Tigapuluh. FZS has reported that these numbers are at least half way towards a sustainable wild orangutan population for the size of the release area.

• Site visits to Sumatra to ensure the bone fide and to assess the suitability of the on‑the‑ground program; • Application and testing of the project and approach against relevant IUCN Guidelines, Bio‑security & wildlife health conditions relating to releases to the wild; • Engagement with in‑country stakeholders including Government of Indonesia in Jakarta and with local government officials; • Briefing and seeking approvals from the Western Australian Minister for Environment, the Australian GovOver that period, Perth Zoo has ernment and also Zoo stakeholders – become a major partner of FZS, the Zoo Board, the Zoo’s Animal providing ongoing financial support Ethics and Welfare Committee. and resources through staff exchange, Additionally bringing staff, voluntraining and expertise in the areas of teers and Zoo visitors along with our veterinary care and advice on animal vision was an extensive process; husbandry, nutrition, animal enrichment and tracking and telemetry. • Preparing‘ Temara’for release Perth Zoo staff regularly visit Bukit including introducing her to SumaTigapuluh with a commitment to at tran fruits, termites and giving her least four staff visits annually and access to climbing trees pre‑release to maximise her chance of success FZS staff visit Perth Zoo for training in veterinary care, animal husbandry, in the wild. animal enrichment, training and even office management. The direct contribution of zoo skills to wildlife conservation should not be under‑ emphasized. For this release program, Perth Zoo’s staff expertise have helped build local capacity in animal handling, animal welfare, enrichment techniques pre release. Other skills like delivery of zoo veterinary expertise in training local staff in implantation of transponders and assistance with telemetry have been important to the success of the program.

Perth Zoo and FZS have in 2012 signed a second 5-year agreement. Over the life of the agreement some US $1.2million will go from Perth Zoo to FZS. This is all community fundraising from our Wildlife Conservation Action program. The majority of the funds go to employ local staff in forest protection patrols, local education programs, elephant research, human elephant conflict mitigation and community development programs. Another benefit from the Zoo’s involvement has been the increased profile for the project. Our involvement brought credibility and profile to the project, locally and in Jakarta. As Perth Zoo, CEO I was brought into diplomatic discussions in Indonesia advocating for the protection of Bukit Tigapuluh and pressing for the extension of protected areas. We became a mechanism and voice for the program. Another direct benefit was that the partnership strengthened Perth Zoo’s bona fide credentials in wildlife conservation. Our visitors are demanding; they expect that we take an active role in conserving species and not just talk about it. Through our work, we were proving our authenticity as a conservation organisation. We were directly contributing to conservation. This also had internal benefits, as staff could see the direct link between their work at the Zoo and the conservation achievements on the ground in Sumatra.


36 Other Lessons learned

• Media interest is transitory. By the time of the second release in late It has now been six years since Perth 2011, there was little media interest. Zoo released‘ Temara’ to the wild. It was no longer a big story! Instead In summary, what are the lessons of looking for big splash stories, learned? we used social media and blogs to tell the story of‘ Semeru’s’ release • The profile for the project was and to connect the public. This was greatly enhanced by the involvemore effective and meaningful. ment of a zoo. The fact that a • There was some reputational damZoo‑born orang‑utan were a part of age with zoo colleagues. While the program gave an increased prothe general public and local stakefile and as a result, the likelihood of holders strongly supported us, in the project’s success was increased. some zoo circles there was a mixed Zoos can be powerful advocates and response. This was perhaps partially can actively leverage conservation ill‑informed in confusing the situaoutcomes. tion of Sumatran orang‑utans with • The public interest and support of Borneon orang‑utans, but there our release to the wild of‘ Temara’ was also a broad reticence about and of‘ Semeru’ was predominantly releasing a managed species like a that this type of work was expected Sumatran orang‑utan to the wild. of us as a modern zoo. Our commuI am pleased that with the recent nity expects that we are conservaliterature and growing acceptance tion agents and want us to make a of integrated conservation,‘ intendifference for wildlife. That is why sive management’ and a‘ One Plan’ they support us. approach and with more informa• By sending a Zoo animal to the tion about the FZS and Perth Zoo wild – particularly a charismatic approach, this criticism is now not orang‑utan resulted in increased as prevalent. community involvement and • The financial cost was not high, interest in conservation. Our generally equivalent to the cost of conservation fundraising for the the transaction of a giraffe to a zoo FZS project grew. Our market within Australia. Although the proresearch has shown that awarecess of release to the wild is comness of orang‑utan conservation plex, the financial cost is not high. and of Bukit Tigapulu has grown enormously over the past six years. By telling the story of‘ Temara’ and‘ Semeru’, we have been able to connect Zoo visitors with the plight of orang‑utans in the wild.

Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

On reflection, our partnership and the release of‘ Temara’ and‘ Semeru’ have been extremely positive. I believe we have demonstrated that zoo populations can be successfully integrated with wildlife conservation projects – even for complex charismatic species such as Sumatran orang‑utan. It has certainly been worth the risks. In addition to the many other issues learned in this approach, it has also highlights for me that as a zoo community we need a greater investment in global management programs. Yet this does not exclude the need for us to link such programs to wildlife conservation. In disastrous situations such as those facing Sumatran orang‑utan, we must ensure that population management programs have strong wildlife conservation projects at their centre. Finally, another short point on visitor engagement – In our social‑media‑savvy world, zoo visitors and the general public have loved the story of‘ Temara’ and‘ Semeru’. You don’t lose visitors by sending animals away from your zoo. You gain a whole new audience – of conservationists.


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October 2012 | Melbourne

Current Conservation Efforts Supported by the Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums Shigeyuki Yamamoto, Kazutoshi Arai and Kanako Tomisawa, Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums (JAZA)

Abstract The SSCJ: Species Survival Committee of Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums (JAZA) has been making efforts for the population management of more than 150 species within entire JAZA member institutions. This paper will introduce those activities focused on wildlife conservation. We also would like to talk about our granted projects/activities including studies on such endangered species.

The Species Survival Committee of JAZA

The conservation efforts for ex‑situ and in‑situ

Currently the JAZA membership comprises of 65 aquariums and 86 zoos, totaling 151 member institutions. Relative to the countries land area, the number of zoos and aquariums in Japan is not small. Japan has coexisted with wildlife for a long time and the Japanese lifestyle is deeply related to both of terrestrial and aquatic animals.

Terrestrial

JAZA has been working with143 species as Species Survival Projects. Most of the activities for these species are related to ex‑situ conservation. However, some of them are also working with in‑situ conservation. JAZA is trying to expand its efforts to link to in‑situ conservation more and more, especially for Japanese endemic species.

JAZA has several species that have both ex‑situ and in‑ situ components. A specific example is the Oriental white stork. The Oriental white stork is an endangered species in East Asia. In Japan, the local conservation project was started in 1955. However, unfortunately the last individual in the wild was lost in 1971. Following this, the Japanese government cooperated together with local community for the reintroduction effort, and JAZA also joined in this project. JAZA members have kept several different species of stork and the husbandry knowledge and skill have been developed. Those experiences were then applied to the husbandry of the Oriental white stork. They experienced a lot of hardship for the captive breeding at first. They achieved success in their breeding finally and subsequently succeeded in the reintroduction of the species to the wild in 2005. The people of Japan can once again see them in Japanese sky.

Aquatic Activities are not only focused on terrestrial animals, but JAZA also supports efforts for aquatic species. Last year, JAZA celebrated its 20th anniversary for freshwater fish conservation. In Japan, there are more than 15,000 main rivers and there are 400 endemic freshwater fishes. 144 species of them are endangered. The committee for Breeding of Endangered Japanese Freshwater Fishes, JAZA takes the initiative to support biodiversity conservation.


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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Wild Animal Conservation Fund

• Research on the rubbing behavior to citrus tree found in Tufted Capuchin (Cebus paella) and consideration JAZA also encourages research about display and explanation activities and supports a wild animal • Development and practice of workconservation fund. All of JAZA memshop on the linking between zoos ber institutions install donation boxes, and wildlife habitats for wildlife and the donated funds and a part conservation of the JAZA budget are used for the • “Crawfish summit in Hokkaido” at fund. Every year JAZA makes grants Maruyama zoo for a variety of research or related • Baseline survey for Hotoke Loach activities. The projects received the (Lefua echigonia) in Tanba region grant in 2012are listed as follows: • An examination for disinfestation of Red‑eared Slider (Testudo scripta • Research on conservation and elegans) reproduction of Japanese Giant • Building the model for international Salamander (Andrias japonicus) transmission of information • Research on captive reproduction of • Support of captive reproduction Svalbard Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus of Humboldt Penguin (Spheniscus muta hyperborea) humboldti) at Santiago Metropolitan • Research on environment for wildZoo in Chile, and the conservation life conservation at the dairy farmactivities for Humboldt penguin in ing villages around Fuurenkawa the wild riverine system • Activities for reproduction of Reticulated Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) • Genetic analysis of Shinal dwarf gudgeon (Pseudorasbora pumila pumila) for effective genealogical preservation in captivity • Research on the reproductive physi‑ ology and egg shell characteristics of Penguins

Conclusion JAZA has been making efforts for wildlife conservation. However, there are some genetic limitations for many of the species in captivity. More recently JAZA strongly promotes international affairs and to cooperate with regional associations around the world. JAZA keeps 122 regional studbooks and supports them working with the international and other regional studbook keepers. JAZA is keen to cooperate with other regions to have more effective population management. If other regional institutions are interested to cooperate with JAZA or know more about JAZA, please contact the JAZA office as follows. JAZA looks forward to working with partners in support of wildlife conservation.


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October 2012 | Melbourne

Breeding and reintroduction of Ural owls (Strix uralensis) Helmut Mägdefrau, Nuremberg Zoo, Germany and Richard Zink, Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, Vienna, Austria

In Germany, Austria and Czech Republic the Ural owl was extinct since the early 20th century. In 1965 Nuremberg zoo has bred this species first time in the world. A reintroduction program was established in the 70th in the Bavarian Forest National Park and continued in the following decades on the Czech side. Some 300 Owls were released on both sides of the border. Observations in the Bavarian National park could record 10 chicks, successfully raised in natural nesting sites in 2012. As recent genetic studies had shown, these locations must have been an essential former corridor for genetic exchange between the Baltic and Slovenian populations, which show very similar genetic clusters. In 2009 a reintroduction project in Austria was established at two sites as an additional step stone for migration and genetic exchange, where 86 birds were released. According to the mass fructification of beech 9 breeding pairs have raised successfully 30 chicks in artificial nest boxes in 2012. Since 2003 Nuremberg Zoo made available 17 owls for release and gave 5 additional birds for the breeding network. On the other hand the Zoo made substantial financial support (35.000 €) for the genetic studies and the monitoring of the owls in Austria. In total 9 WAZA zoos and additional breeding centers as Vienna breeding unit have sent birds for the projects.

© Helmut Mägdefrau Ural owl.


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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

The Big C – A Discussion on the Allocation of Scarce Resources for Zoo and Aquarium Conservations Steve H. Taylor, Director, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo

There is no question that zoos and aquariums around the world are all about conservation. But what exactly is meant by conservation in zoos and aquariums? Is it educating an endless number of adults and children about the plight of wildlife and encouraging them to do something about it? Is it breeding endangered species in their collections, some of which can be released back into the wild? After all if we do not create sustainable animal collections in zoos and aquariums around world, we won’t even have zoos and aquariums. Is it “walking the walk and talking the talk” by creating the greenest institutions in the world with zero waste and a small carbon footprint? Is it conservation research? The more we know about a species’ biology and behavior, the easier it will be to save them from extinction. Or is it about raising and spending millions of dollars for worthwhile field conservation programs outside our walls? Isn’t this the only thing that will directly save wildlife and wild places? In 2005, the Worlds Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) produce a 70-page booklet with nine chapters entitled, The Zoo and aquarium Conservation Strategy – Building a Future for Wildlife (WZACS). This paper looks at five of those areas that most directly affect the conservation of wildlife and I believe that these five combine to describe a zoo or aquariums total conservation effort.

Conservation education programs at zoos and aquariums should be designed to turn students and other guests into conservation activists. Recent studies have verified that premises. In the publication, “Why Zoos and Aquariums Matter”, the authors state, “Visit to accredited zoos and aquariums prompt individuals to reconsider their role in environment problems and conservation action, and to see themselves and part of the solutions.” This is confirmed with data from various studies. In talking about zoos and aquariums, Lees and Wilckens in 2009 stated “To fulfill the full suite of conservation roles required of them, these animal collections must be demographically robust, genetically representative of their wild counterparts and able to sustain these characteristics for the foreseeable future”. Unfortunately, they also realized that very few of the animals in zoo and aquarium collections are sustainable for even 0ne hundred years. Zoos throughout the world have been building facilities to increase collection sustainability, such as the turtle facility in Allwetterzoo in Munster, Germany and The National Elephant Center in Florida, USA. If our animal collections are not sustainable, zoos will just be the largest collection of artificial rocks in the universe! At all recent meetings of WAZA, the role of zoos and aquariums in environmental sustainability has been a major topic. As Harvard professor E. O. Wilson stated, “At the current levels of consumption of natural resources humanity needs three earth‑sized planets to survive.”

While Wildlife Conservation Society (New York), The Zoological Society of London, Zoo Frankfurt have historically had large commitments to field conservation, it has only been relatively recently that all modern zoos and aquariums have dedicated funds towards these projects. WAZA database now shows 905 field conservation projects and AZA zoos and aquariums spend $134 million a year on 4,000 field conservation projects in more than 100 countries. These numbers are growing every year. It has been estimated that zoos and aquariums worldwide fund $350 million in field conservation programs in the wild. The WZACS states, zoos and aquariums should be seen “as serious, respected scientific institutions that make significant contributions and sound scientific decisions for wildlife worldwide”. As with field conservation only a few of the largest zoos had research departments in the past, but now most larger zoos contribute greatly to scientific knowledge concerning wildlife.


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October 2012 | Melbourne

The challenge a zoo and/or aquarium director has is to allocate funding for these activities while operating a business at the same time. Cleveland Metroparks Zoo/Cleveland Zoological Society has an annual operating budget of approximately $25 million US. Of that amount $17.7 million (74%) is spent on administration, fund‑raising, marketing, utilities, guest services and basic animal care. That leaves $6.3 million (26%) for Conservation. This amount could be divided as such: $500,000 for field conservation, $2.1 million for education, $3.3 for collection sustainability (50% of animal care budget), $100,000 for green practices and $300,000 for conservation research. What about conservation and the “mega zoo exhibits” that are popular in every region of the world. Examples would include Leipzig’s Gondwanaland, Zurich’s Madagascar exhibit, Hannover’s polar bear exhibit and Denver’s new Toyota Elephant Passage. Some would criticize this expense saying that these funds would be better spent on field conservation. However, in every case those funds were not available for field conservation, only for local development. In addition, one can make a good argument that these new large exhibits do much for conservation. The new $25 million African Elephant Crossing exhibit at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo is contributing to the Zoo’s conservation efforts if one measures the expense in the following manner. Of the $25 million, $5 million is for conservation education, $200,000 was raised for field conservation, $6 million to increase the herd size of African elephants at the Zoo, thus increasing collection sustainability, $1.5 million spend on green practices (LEED building) and some money spent on associated conservation research programs for a total of 12.7 million (50%) on Conservation.

So how can zoos and aquariums do it all and fund all facets of a total Conservation program. First, it is important that all five areas of zoo and aquarium conservation are integrated. Again, in the case of the African Elephant Crossing, learning about conservation of African wildlife is a major focus of the Zoo’s guest experience. In fact, this exhibit won the top education award by AZA in 2012. This exhibit teaches guests about human/wildlife conflicts and the creation of wildlife corridors. This project is a LEED’s certified as a green building for its construction. During the fund‑raising campaign, the Cleveland Zoological Society raised over $200,000 to support African elephant projects in Tanzania and Botswana. The project increased the Zoo’s capability of breeding African elephant thus improving collection sustainability of African elephants in this region. In addition, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo gives financial support to The National Elephant Center in Florida. And finally, the exhibit has increased opportunities for the Zoo’s researchers to do conservation research on this species. All these activities are documented in the Zoo’s Conservation Report which can be found on the Cleveland Zoological Society’s website (http://issuu.com/ clevelandzoosociety). Many zoos do an even better job of integrating their total conservation efforts. The St. Louis Zoo’s WildCare Institute is one such example.

To provide addition funding, there are opportunities to increase funds by letting many education programs pay for themselves and more. Many sleepover programs at zoos and aquariums do just that. Animal interaction programs, such as giraffe and lorikeet feedings, are other examples of ways education can help pay for itself. At Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, we have been successful in increasing corporate support for the Zoo’s conservation education programs by explaining to local corporations that the Zoo’s programs are a fun way to teach inquiry‑based science. These skills are important to corporations hoping to get well‑trained young employees with skills necessary for their corporations. Increasing sustainability of our animal collections is a major challenge to all zoos and aquariums around the world. Zoos and aquariums must, in certain cases, get help for the private sector, must expand the capacity (space), must expand planning expertise (staff and volunteers), must have more global cooperation (GSMPS) and need to consider increasing the use of management euthanasia. There are many examples of this occurring around the world. While I have mentioned, The National Elephant Center, there are now plans by the Turtle Survival Alliance to create a facility in South Carolina (USA) to raise certain endangered Asian turtles and Madagascan tortoises. In addition, there are several large acreage facilities in North America, African and Australia that have increased capacity to breed large hoof animals and carnivores.


42 Environmental sustainability, in many cases, can pay for itself over time. Aside from that, it’s just the right thing to do. Most major zoos and aquariums are completely dedicated to recycling just about everything from paper to cell phones. Many institutions have programs that compost much of their waste and use it on their grounds or sell it to the public. The Toyota Elephant Passage exhibit in Denver, Colorado (USA) has a Biomass Gasification System that will turn trash and animal waste into energy (90% of the zoo’s waste make enough energy to power that new exhibit). Zoos and aquariums around the world are finding new ways to fund field conservation programs when donor funds are not enough. Some zoos use carousel ride income to fund field conservation. Several zoos in the United States add a small fee to admissions and memberships to fund field conservation programs ( “Quarters for Conservation”).

Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

And finally, the funding of conserAuthor Kurt Vonnegut once said, vation research is probably best “We could have saved the earth, but achieved through innovative partwe were just too damned cheap”! nerships. Cleveland Metroparks Zoo Let’s not let that happen. partners with The Ohio State University in funding a full‑time Epidemiolo- This paper was a result of a panel gist position. Leipzig Zoo partners discussion at the September 2012 with the Max Planck Institute for annual meeting of AZA. Participants Evolutionary Anthropology on chimp included Steve Burns, Director, Zoo research at their zoo. Boise, Doug Piekarz, VP of Planning and Conservation Programs, As an optimist, I believe zoos and Akron Zoo, Kathy Wagner, Consultaquariums are going in the right ant, Dr. Pam Dennis, Epidemiologist, direction in creating a diverse apCleveland Metroparks Zoo, and Bruce proach to the conservation of wildlife. Bohmke, COO, Woodland Park Zoo, While much of our funding does go to Seattle, Washington. operations (keeping people coming and having a good time), much goes towards Conservation. But we must constantly look for revenue sources to continue zoo and aquarium conservation.


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October 2012 | Melbourne

Conservation of Swedish Amphibians – A Success Story? Lena M Lindén, CEO and founder of Foundation Nordens Ark, Sweden

Three species of amphibians were on the edge to disappear from Sweden. They have though been saved due to contribution from a group of committed people from authorities, NGO’s, universities and Nordens Ark The amphibians in Sweden have had a far more positive development compared to other threatened species in Sweden. One reason for that is probably because we have focused on a range of conservation actions as captive breeding at the same time as we have restored suitable and healthy environment for each species. So far we also have been exempt from the fungus as a major problem in Sweden. Globally is though the situation still very troublesome. The amphibians crises has been discussed for decades but it was not until the publishing of “The Global Amphibian Assessment” 2004 as scientists in general got aware of how serious the situation for amphibians had become. As a result of this awareness “Amphibian Conservation Summit “was arranged to find a way to understand, stop and turn the negative trend around.

The outcome from the Summit was the action plan which still is the leading star for everybody involved in conservation of amphibians – ACAP – Amphibian Conservation Action Plan”. This extremely important document emphasize the work in situ, but also ex situ, to secure an assurance population of the most critical endangered species. The very same year the AArk was launched to coordinate the ex – situ work done mainly by zoos to create assurance populations with high biosecurity wherever it was possible. In Sweden the Swedish Species Information Centre has done a “red list index” to find out the development and outcome from conservation activities. They have understood that amphibians in Sweden have done far better than any other threatened species. Why and how come? Amphibians are not on the top of mind for media or people in general so we had to decide to work in partnership with authorities and other NGO’s and solve the crises.

First of all we had to find out the reason to the declining number of several species of amphibians. How the threat has developed. And the historical reason is of course the draining of lakes and wetlands to get more agriculture and forest land. So between 1950 and 1980 decreased all major populations of amphibians. Amphibians prefer a mosaik of small wind sheltered biotops with sun and water. Amphibians do not like large scale productive landscape, polluted and nutritious surface water and they literally hate roads. So we had to act as a real scientific minded Ark by measuring and restore the environment and at the same time work with captive breeding to have a secure population when the environment was restored. Where the frogs chose to cross the road – we had to build frog tunnels for them!


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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

© Claes Andrén Swedish amphibians-frog tunnel.

What have we achieved through all this effort? One extinct species is now reintroduced and removed from the red list. Two former critical endangered species now have viable populations established and are removed from the red‑list. And finally four endangered species have stronger populations. The species that still are on the red list are connected to modern land use and surplus nutrition. The winners in the tough competition of attention is the Fire‑ bellied toad. It was extinct in 1960 – today there are about 20 000 individuals in the wild. One reason is the restoring of breeding ponds in the South of Sweden. They have got several new ponds so the future for the fire‑ bellied toad looks quite good And we have the same bright horizon for Spade Foot Toad. The population is quite strong with 7000 individuals. And the reason for that achievement is all new ponds dig in an area with a lot of sand.

The real success story is the development of the European Tree Frog with the fantastic number of 40 000 individuals from being very close to be extinct. Nordens Ark is still struggling with breeding and reintroduction of the Green Toad. We have not been so successful yet but we are working hard and have hope we will be able to build up a sustainable population in their natural environment within a few years. And we are preparing their arrival to former breeding area by digging several new ponds.

To get some attention to the amphibian crises you have to play on the common peoples’ ground so we arrange “European song contest for frogs” every second year. It is launched a week before the real thing in television and we got a huge media interest and I am proud to say the song of the fire‑bellied toad in the south of Sweden have won the first prize two years in a row but this year the German frogs won the first prize.


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October 2012 | Melbourne

Zoos FIGHTING extinction & Zoos FACILITATING extinction Sally R. Walker, Founder/Director, Zoo Outreach Organisation & Chair, South Asian Zoo Association for Regional Cooperation SAZARC

What do we mean by zoos facilitating extinction?

Although nobody really knows the exact number of zoos, estimates range from 8,000-15,000 or (more Bad zoos and their ways actually con- reasonably) 9,000 zoos globally. tribute to the extinction or at least There are about 1000 recognized the wastage of wildlife. They do so or otherwise respectable zoos and through about 9,000 other zoos. Other zoos is a term which refers to substandard • Poor animal welfare, inadequate zoos that are not associated with any veterinary care, inadequate and recognized zoo association. Within poor nutrition leads to high death the 1000 recognized zoos there are rates a few hundred that would not pass • Poor to zero population managethe good zoo test. They are included ment leads to unscrupulous disposi- in the good zoo list because they are tion of surplus linked with countries that have zoo • Uncontrolled visitor behavior – plas- associations, and therefore listed, but tic bags, inappropriate food, teasing, are not necessarily up to good zoo throwing rocks, deliberately giving standards. Because they are linked toxic items (cigarettes, plastic with zoo associations, however, there items), etc. are chances they will improve. • Inappropriate and dangerous animal shows stressing animals and If we do not act on this problem … putting public at risk consider what is at stake • Wrong messages generating incorrect image of zoos generally 1. The welfare of the animals suf• Dependence on animal dealers, fering and dying in dysfunctional trappers or others including wild zoos catch 2. the welfare of the animals that will • Wild catch leads to depletion of be caught to replace those that wildlife and disturbed habitats die in dysfunctional zoos and the • Etc. 3. obvious conservation issues accompanying the scenario of These actions not only hurt animals. dysfunctional zoos holding threatBad zoos with all their careless, corened species\ rupt and cunning ways give all zoos a bad name. Bad zoos give ALL zoos a bad name.

WAZA, their members and other organisations have tried to improve bad zoos but the rate of improvement is too slow, too costly, too time‑consuming and too unpredictable. Zoos, whether public, private, governmental, or non‑governmental, should be regulated by government. Government itself knows little about zoo management so good zoos should provide help to governments of countries without zoo legislation and with a significant number of dysfunctional zoos.


46 Benefits of Zoo Legislation

Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Other considerations

• Zoo legislation can bring significant We are targeting countries that benefits to large numbers of powerless animals in dysfunctional zoo. • need zoo legislation but do not have • Zoo legislation can be written it… but there are other considerato cover all the zoos in a country tions, e.g., including the vague Animal facili• countries that have it but do not ties, rescue centers, roadside zoos, implement it and animal shows, as well as zoos can be • countries that have useless zoo covered. legislation… • Working to establish zoo legislation in a country can result in improveCountries that have successful zoo ments to all the zoos of that country legislation, such as Great Britain, for the same investment of time, Australia, India, etc., can provide their money and energy as one or two. legislation and experience as models • Promoting and assisting local auand people to advise. thorities with zoo legislation should be seriously considered as a project by zoos that have a presence in developing countries.

Approaching government agencies There are many ways to approach government agencies. Many will be grateful for your interest, as they might have been facing difficult criticism. Zoo personnel conducting in situ projects in countries with needy zoos would be very effective. Visiting zoo personnel can approach the relevant government agencies and get a hearing … build a relationship. Zoo specialists are not viewed as a threat … they are welcomed as colleagues unlike fanatical animal rights or animal welfare advocates. A zoo specialist can introduce the idea of zoo legislation and provide successful examples. They can plant a seed. Working with government is not that difficult And remember what is at stake if you don’t act… • welfare of animals suffering and dying in dysfunctional zoos • welfare of animals that will be caught to replace those that die • conservation issues with dysfunctional zoos holding threatened species


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October 2012 | Melbourne

Facts and Figures from The Granby Zoo: Increasing Revenues as a Major Player in Social Economy Joanne Lalumière, Executive Director, Granby Zoo, Quebec, Canada Abstract In Prague, there were requests for facts and figures on making money. Since 2004, Granby Zoo has managed to obtain $38 M CDN in government grants to improve animal exhibits and overall services. Revenues increased significantly enabling the zoo to increase the number of keepers and educators and support conservation and research projects. The presentation will provide tips on securing grants and increasing revenues. Positioning the zoo as a major player in social economy was a key factor with many advantages.

What Is Social Economy? Main Characteristics Social economy is considered one of the three main economic sectors, the private and public sectors being the two other ones. Organizations evolving in social economy distinguish themselves by being mainly mission driven with missions usually based on human, social, environmental, educational or health related activities. However such activities do carry economic components and can play a significant role in the economy of a region.

Key Arguments for Government Grants at the Granby Zoo and A New Master Plan In Granby, the zoo plays an important role in the economy of the region with an estimated $27 M in direct and indirect economic spinoffs in 2004. This was a driving factor, along with its important conservation and educational mission, in generating $31 M in government grants that allowed a complete new master plan for all of the zoo site and a significant portion of a large modernization project that was a must in order to keep up the economic, conservation and educational roles of the zoo with a particular objective to increase the economic spinoffs. From 2004 to 2007, the zoo invested $42.9 M CDN to complete approximately 60% of the master plan of which $11.9 M CDN came from the zoo’s own funds with the support of its financial partner. From 2009 to 2012, the successes in attendance and annual surpluses triggered new government grants totalling $7.7 M CDN. Investments at the Zoo now total more than $61 M CDN. The economic spinoffs are now estimated at more than $50 M yearly in the region and it is estimated that the fiscal returns to the governments linked to this economic activity have enabled them to earn back their investment within a scope of 4 to 5 years.


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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Financial Results in Facts and Figures Financial Evolution and 2011 Financial Results The financial evolution of the Granby Zoo’s various economic parameters provided more than conclusive information on the real impact of the modernization. Here are a few figures that speak for themselves on the evolution between 2004 (beginning of the investments) to 2011: • 83.8% increase in revenues • 74.9% increase in expenses • 129.4% increase in surpluses before amortization • 174.5% increase in net surpluses

Per capita Revenue 2.7% increase in 2011 over 2010 and 50 % since 2002

Attendance Seasons 2002 to 2011 (summer/fall)

Based on such results it is easy to understand the importance of the Zoo’s contribution to the region’s economy! The year 2011 was a record breaking one with overall revenues of $22 M CDN and a $4.5 M CDN actual surplus before amortization. Such results now enable the Zoo to look at the future with more optimism and consider a medium to long term investment plan that will ensure ongoing novelties for the visitor and continuous growth for the organization.

Attendance in 2011 As mentioned earlier, 2011 was also a record breaking year for both seasonal and overall yearly attendance. The summer / fall season, which accounts for 118 days of operations welcomed 614,875 visitors, a 6,3% increase over 2010’s 578,326 visitors and a first above the 600 000 figure. By adding the attendance of the winter season and the school programs’ attendance, the yearly attendance missed the 665,000 figure by a few visitors only, “du jamais vu” at the Zoo. A brand new aquarium, a powerful marketing strategy and great weather are considered the main success factors of such a success.

Average of last 5 years = 572,000 visitors

Average of last 10 years = 545,000 visitors


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October 2012 | Melbourne

Conservation Consequences in Facts and Figures

More Staff For The Mission

The following tables will show the importance of sound financial results on our mission related activities. The Zoo was able to hire much more staff in all of its key areas linked to animal care, enrichment, education and conservation as well as in‑situ conservation and research activities. The Zoo was able to showcase the importance of all its mission related activities to the Board members, none of which had any background linked to the Zoo’s activities, to the point where the Board saw the importance of bringing such expertise within its rank. Since April 2012, a retired accredited zoo expert now sits on the Board and will be responsible of a new Board committee dedicated to Research and Conservation. This was more than welcomed by all the zoo staff and is seen as a very important step towards an increasing role of the Granby Zoo in both conservation and research. The educational outreach was also greatly improved with more staff, a new Zoomobile and new programs such as the addition of summer day camps.

Veterinary technicians Veterinary interns Life support technicians Animal Care Management Educators Education students Conservation and Education Management Total

TITLES Keepers

2004 2011 21 regular 32 regular 7 seasonal 8 seasonal 1 vet. technician 2 vet. technicians None 3 every year None 2 life support technicians 3 persons 9 persons 5 full-time educators 8 full-time educators 14 education students 20 education students 1 management position 3 management positions 52 persons 84 persons

More Resources For Research And Conservation TITLES Support for in-situ projects and organisations Dedicated research person Academic partners Nb. of research projects

2004 $4 500 None 1 university 4

2011 $31 000 1 person 5 universities 14

VARIATION 688% 100% 500% 350%

Greater Educational Outreach Title Summer Day Camps Night at the Zoo Adopt an Animal Program

2004 None None $9,000 Approx. 100 parents

2011 9 weeks with 2 groups per week 28 nights $21,600 Approx. 100 parents

Variation $80,000 $79,000 240% Parents give more money


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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Some Best Practices

Revenue Strategies

Among the best practices that underlie such results, there were a few strategies that paid off. The initial strategies were mostly to improve the financial results. The deep feeling is that with no money, there is no mission possible! Among the main strategies, there was high retention on the site in order to increase both the attendance and visitor spending on the site. With the investments in modernizing the site, it was then possible to develop high quality products and improve both services and visitor experiences.

Revenue strategies were reviewed and modernized in many aspects and in all possible areas.

High Retention Strategy The high retention strategy started in 1999 with the addition of a water park: the average yearly attendance jumped from 375,000 to over 500,000 visitors, a great boost for the zoo revenues but the site was aging and significant investments were still required to improve animal enclosures and night and winter quarters as well as many guest services facilities. Underground infrastructures also had to be completely redone after 50 years of existence. Since 2004, over 60 million dollars have been invested to modernize the zoo. This enabled the addition of a winter season in 2007 and an aquarium in 2011 bringing the yearly attendance over 660 000 visitors. Now, a typical day at the Zoo for our visitors goes as follows: • From 10 am to 2 pm: visit through the zoo • From 2 pm to 4 pm: fun at the water park • From 4 pm to 6 pm: back to the zoo • From 6 pm to 7 pm: finishing the day at the rides With the current diverse offer, the one‑day visit can now move on to a 2-day experience by promoting 4 activities at 1 destination. Here again, the figures talk as the sale of 2-day passes has increased since inception in 2005 from 7,000 to 30,000 passes.

• Admission and amenities Pricing strategies were reviewed. More lockers and a wider variety of strollers were offered. • Food Services Many aspects were reviewed such as the variety and the quality of the food. Some novelties were introduced such as a souvenir cup program. A greater attention was paid to facing and theming including active menu screens. Mobile food carts brought the offer closer to the visitors. • Retail In the retail sector, aspects such as location, presentation and merchandising were reviewed. Novelties and a greater variety of products were introduced such as candy, balloons, jewelry, etc. Demand brought the addition of branded items as well as licensed products. Portable kiosks were added for high attendance days. Results were astonishing with 30% sales increases in the last 2 years. • Pricing Strategies Among the pricing strategies, annual passes were introduced with discounts on rides, retail and food. Family deals became more flexible to deal with the new reality of reconstituted families. As mentioned earlier, the 2-day pass was also added. The daily ticket was cut by 50% after 4 pm or it could be upgraded for 2-day ticket. Finally, combos with other attractions were used in some of the marketing strategies.

• Paid Attractions or Experiences Additional paid attractions or experiences were also available for those who could afford to add a little extra to their visit. In this regard, we can mention the following: • Mechanical rides and monorail • Skill games • Video arcades or coin operated machines • Animal rides • Feeding the rays or animals at the mini‑farm • New technology based experiences (6 XD experience) • Cabanas at the waterpark • Corporate sales and catering • By modernizing the site, corporate sales and catering became possible providing interesting new revenue sources. Space rental and banquet services for parties and weddings, business meetings and professional team building activities as well as special events. These new activities have generated close to 1 million dollars in 2012. • New Products A whole series of new products were also offered to our visitors and to the public in general. All the new buildings and facilities were planned with the intention of opening the zoo in peak periods of the winter season. Three additional week‑ends were added in October with investments in Halloween decorations. Spending the night at the zoo in small huts is becoming an increasingly popular feature during the summer. And a special Valentine’s Day experience was also offered in recent years. VIP visits with a guide also prove to be quite popular. The Zoo also acquired a neighbouring Bed and Breakfast and offers special family oriented accommodations with zoo themed rooms and suites which are about sold out in July and August.


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October 2012 | Melbourne

It’s All AboutExperiences

Conclusion: The Positive Spiral

Sponsorships

Good Advertizing

The popularity of the zoo and the quality of the visitor experience has drawn increasing interest from sponsors. In 2011, a record high was reached with over $720,000 in sponsorships a 24% increase over 2010 and 342% over 2003. This is only possible with a great product, an excellent service and a good return in visibility for the sponsor’s investment.

Good advertising is also fundamental in capturing visitors’ attention and bringing a visit at the zoo as a top of mind experience and family outing. Competition to attract families’ leisure money is more and more ferocious and it is imperative to highlight the high quality experience of a visit at the zoo.

Less Pressure on Admission Revenues Adding new revenue sources reduces the pressure on the admission revenues which are highly influenced by the weather factor over which control is difficult.

In conclusion, one must acknowledge that: “Money attracts money”! This is what we could call the positive spiral where: • Quality experiences draw people and media attention • More people and more media attention mean more revenues • More revenues mean more capacity to deliver our mission of conservation and education • More conservation and education impact positively reputation and notoriety • Good reputation attracts people and… money!


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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Conservation Efforts for the Endangered Ozark Hellbender Jeff Ettling, Curator of Herpetology & Aquatics and Director, Ron Goellner Center for Hellbender Conservation, Saint Louis Zoo | Presented by Jeffrey P. Bonner, Dana Brown President & CEO, Saint Louis Zoo

Hellbenders are large aquatic salamanders that can reach lengths of 50.8 cm. There are two subspecies of hellbender: the Eastern hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis allegan‑ iensis which has a distribution from southern New York state south to Georgia and west to Missouri and the Ozark hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi which only occurs in the Ozark highlands of south central Missouri and adjacent north central Arkansas. Missouri is the only place in the United States where both subspecies occur. The closest relatives of the hellbender are the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus and the Japanese giant salamander, Andrias japonicus (Johnson 2000). Hellbenders live in cool, clear fast‑moving streams. They are perfectly adapted for a fully aquatic existence with a dorsal ventrally flattened body and rudder‑like tail. The conspicuous folds of skin on the sides of body and legs are used to absorb dissolved oxygen from the water. While they do have lungs, they are small and primarily used to help with buoyancy. They are nocturnal and spend the daylight hours under large rocks on the river bottom. Crayfish make up about 90% of the diet, but they will also eat fish and aquatic invertebrates (Johnson 2000).

Hellbender populations in Missouri have dropped by more than 70% over the past 40 years with a prominent shift in the age structure with reduced or absent younger age classes and a prevalence of larger adult specimens (Trauth et al. 1992, Wheeler et al. 2003). While it has been hard to pinpoint a single cause of the population decline, it appears to be a combination of factors including habitat degradation, disease, degraded water quality, over‑collection, and predation by introduced fish. As a result of this decline the Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC) listed both the Eastern and Ozark hellbenders as critically imperiled and state endangered in 2003. In 2011 the United States Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) listed the Ozark hellbender as federally endangered (USFWS 2011).

While the carrying capacity of Ozark streams has been estimated at 11,000 specimens, current estimates of Ozark hellbenders remaining in Missouri is only 590 individuals. The results of a Population and Habitat Viability Assessment (PHVA) indicate that over the next 75 years Ozark hellbenders run a high risk of extinction (>96%) unless populations can be bolstered (Briggler et al. 2007). To ensure the long‑term survival and recovery of the Ozark hellbender the Ozark Hellbender Working Group (OHWG), which is composed of State and Federal agencies, universities, zoos, non‑governmental agencies and interested individuals, developed a comprehensive conservation strategy for the subspecies in Arkansas and Missouri (Briggler et al. 2010). Included in this plan is an extensive section on captive propagation, augmentation and reintroduction. It was determined that captive propagation and head‑starting were required to ensure the long‑term recovery of the Ozark hellbender.


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October 2012 | Melbourne

A captive propagation and head‑start program for the Ozark hellbender was initiated by the Saint Louis Zoo (STLZ) and MDC in 2002 (Briggler et al. 2011). The program was designed to provide stock for increasing wild population sizes through augmentation and if necessary reintroduction. While recruitment is low, some egg clutches have been discovered annually in recent years. Portions of these clutches have been brought to the zoo for head‑start and future release. The larger goal was to provide juveniles for release through captive reproduction, a feat that had never been achieved by any institution before. To help reach the goals of the program STLZ constructed three environmentally‑controlled rooms, an indoor stream (9.7 x 1.7 x 0.6 m) two outdoor streams (11.3 x 1.5 x 1.4 m and 11.7 x 1.8 x 1.4 m) and dedicated three full‑time keeper staff to this conservation propagation program. To date STLZ has breeding stock from three Missouri Ozark rivers: the North Fork of the White River (n=8; 5 males; 3 females), Eleven Point River (n=8; 5 males; 3 females), and Current River (n=8; 4 males, 4 females). The breeding season for the Ozark hellbender in Missouri is mid‑September through mid‑November (Nickerson and Mays 1973). Seasonal changes in photoperiod, water temperature, and precipitation patterns are thought to trigger breeding activity. Water quality was intensively monitored to ensure animal health and sperm production. Artificial nest boxes were placed in raceways to provide cover and nesting habitat which can be easily accessed for observation and egg collection (Briggler and Ackerson 2012).

Every year since 2007 the female hellbenders at the Zoo have laid eggs, but they weren’t being fertilized by the males. On October 18, 2011 the Zoo discovered two clutches of eggs from its Eleven Point River population, which was the world’s first captive reproduction of the species. The key change which is believed to have resulted in successful reproduction was the addition of nest boxes and adjustments to the ion concentration and conductivity of the water. Between September 22 and October 1, 2012 eight female Ozark Hellbenders laid eggs in artificial nest boxes provided in their simulated stream habitats. All three populations of Ozark Hellbenders maintained at the Zoo produced eggs: Current River – 3 clutches; North Fork of the White River – 3 clutches and Eleven Point River – 2 clutches. Approximately 2,809 fertile eggs resulted from all eight cluthces. The significance of this second reproductive event was that all three river populations of Ozark Hellbender reproduced including the North Fork of the White River population which has been maintained indoors for the past eight years. The STLZ has been head‑starting hellbenders for release back into their native habitat since 2002. The first release of captive raised hellbenders occurred in 2008 in the North Fork of the White River. Thirty six juvenile Ozark hellbenders that had been hatched from eggs collected in 2002 and raised at the STLZ were released at two locations with varying rock composition. Over the next year to year and a half these individuals were tracked using radio telemetry to determine the feasibility of head‑starting juvenile hellbenders. The results of the study demonstrated that these captive‑reared hellbenders had high survivorship (75% and 48%), had established home ranges, were growing and demonstrating reproductive cycling at the same time as the wild population (Bodinof 2010). The success of this first release indicates that augmenting wild populations with captive, head‑started animals can be successful and that they can survive in the wild (Briggler et al. 2011).

Literature Cited • Bodinof, C. M. 2010. Translocation and conservation of hellbenders (Cryptobran‑ chus alleganiensis) in Missouri. M. S. Thesis, University of Missouri, Columbia.pp. 169. • Briggler, J. T. and J. R. Ackerson. 2012. Construction and use of artificial shelters to supplement habitat for hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Herpetological Review. • Briggler, J. T., T. Crabill, K. J. Irwin, C. Davidson, J. Utrup, and A. Salveter (editors). 2010. Hellbender Conservation Strategy: An action plan for the recovery of the Ozark and Eastern Hellbender in the Ozark Highlands of Missouri and Arkansas. Ozark Hellbender Working Group, Jefferson City, Missouri.59 pp. • Briggler, J., J. Utrup, C. Davidson, J. Humphries, J. Groves, T. Johnson, J. Ettling, M. Wanner, K. Traylor‑Holzer, D. Reed, V. Lindgren, O. Byers (eds.) 2007. Hellbender Population and Viability Assessment: Final Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN. • Briggler, J., M. Wanner, and J. Civiello. 2011. Hellbender propagation efforts. Missouri Department of Conservation Science Notes. 6 (5). • Johnson, T. R. 2000. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Pgs. 40-43. • Nickerson, M. A. and C. E. Mays. 1973. The hellbenders: North American giant salamanders. Milwaukee Public Museum Publications in Biology and Geology 1: 1−106. • Trauth, S. E., J. D. Wilhide, and P. Daniel. 1992. Status of the Ozark hellbender, Cryptobranchus bishopi, (Urodela: Cryptobranchidae), in the Spring River, Fulton County, Arkansas. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science 46: 83−86. • [USFWS] U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2011. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; endangered status for the Ozark Hellbender Salamander. Federal Register 76: 61956. • Wheeler, B. A., E. Prosen, A. Mathis, and R. F. Wilkinson. 2003. Population declines of a long−lived salamander: a 20+ year study of hellbenders, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Biological Conservation 109: 151−156.


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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Managing Toucans and Flamingos at the Parque das Aves, Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná State, Brazil Yara Barros, Zoological Director, Parque das Aves

Parque das Aves manages eight species of Ramphastidae, and had breeding success with 5 of them. Pairs are formed using a flocking management and couples are kept on separated facilities, to prevent intra‑specific aggression. Natural trunks are preferred, although toucans accept almost any cavity. A camera monitoring system allows a noninvasive monitoring and record of the parents’ behaviour and nestlings’ development. We have had both hand and parent reared chicks. Toucans need lots of stimuli and accept many different environmental enrichment techniques. Regarding nutrition toucans can develop iron storage disease; therefore we developed a special diet that minimizes the problem. Flamingo management at Parque das Aves is directed towards parent rearing, even when the eggs are artificially incubated. The facility holds Phoenicopterus ruber (43) and Phoe‑ nicopterus chilensis (10). Nests are built with sand, along a mirror wall, to create the illusion of a bigger flock. Broken eggs are replaced by wooden ones which are incubated by the foster parents until they are exchanged for abandoned eggs from the incubator that are about to hatch. This management allows for an increase in the number of young that can be parent raised, which is better for nutrition, natural immunization and behaviour.

Introduction Parque das Aves is a private zoo in southeast Brazil, specializing in birds. We hold around 1.000 animals from 140 species. We manage eight species of Ramphastidae, and so far we have had breeding sucess with five of them (toco toucan, red‑breasted toucan, spot‑billed aracari, chestnut‑eared aracari, saffron toucanet). Currently we have 96 Ramphastidae from 9 species in the park.

Husbandry To form pairs, the best strategy is to make a flock and let the birds choose their mates; once the pairs are established, they are kept in separate facilities to prevent intra‑specific aggression. We also have toucans in mixed species aviaries, but in this case sexes must be kept separate. The aviary must allow the birds to fly, which is important for courtship behaviour, and have different types of vegetation to provide a variety of shelter and perching options, as toucans also use vertical perches. We use both natural trunks and artificial boxes as nests, as toucans accept almost any cavity. For aracaris, nesting boxes are also used as roosting sites troughout the year.

The genus Ramphastos does not use nesting material, but we observed that when we put small wood pieces inside the cavity, the pair starts to remove this material and clean the cavity, which stimulates breeding activity. This resembles the behaviour in the wild, as they do not build their own nests and use cavities previously occupied by other species. We prefer to allow the parents to incubate and raise the chicks, but in case it is not possible, we use artificial incubation and hand‑rearing. A camera monitoring system inside the nests allows non‑invasive monitoring and a record of the parents‘ behavior and nestlings‘ development. This tool is fundamental to evaluate the need for intervention.


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Generally, in the last 10 years, we have had the following results:

Nutrition

Enviromental Enrichment

Toucans are omnivorous birds, being Toucans are smart, active and curious primarily frugivorous and opportunbirds. Their acrobatic skills and existic faunivores. There is little inforplorative nature makes them specially mation available about the composireceptive to environmental enrichToco tion of their diet in the wild, but our ment devices, such as fruit kebabs, toucan observations suggest that the protein ice lollipops, paper boxes with food Red-breasted 2 2 (100%) toucan intake might be underestimated. Tak- inside, fake nests with quail eggs, and Spot-billed 4 3 (75%) ing this into account, we developed a corncobs. aracari homemade diet, which includes sevChestnut-eared 11 7 (64%) eral sources of animal protein, such aracari as chicken meat and `Ricotta´ cheese. Saffron 2 2 (100%) Since toucans are prone to develop toucanet nutritional iron storage disease, care A higher breeding sucess was has to be taken that iron levels in the achieved with aracaris, as around diet do not reach high values. Provid70% of the chicks survive the first year, ing high protein and low iron levels in mostly parent raised. We also had a the same diet is a challenge. Our tousignificant sucess with Toco toucans, can food has 15% of protein, 3% of fat, with 14 young produced from 2 cou76% of carbohydrates, 4% of ash in a ples. Altough we have a high number dry matter basis, with 27ppm of iron. of chicks produced, their survival This protein level has proven itself to still represents a challenge, as many be adequate for the succesfull breed(79%) die during the first 5 weeks of ing of several species. The addition development. The main causes of of canthaxantin in the food provides death are impactation, cannibalism the birds pigments necessary to keep and yolk sac infections. The impaca colourful beak and plumage. This tation can be caused by either food might be important for their breedor plant material, as the response ing behaviour, with regards to mate of the parents to the begging calls selection. of the offspring is offering anything available that resembles food (this behaviour may be one of the causes of cannibalism as well). Therefore, besides the regular diet, it is important to provide them, as often as possible, plenty of live food (moths, crickets, mealworms), specially in the first hours in the morning. We use a incandescent lamp in the aviary during the night to attract insects that can be captured by the parents, and also as an enrichment activity. Species

Number Number and of eggs (%) of chicks that survival over hatched a year 14 3 (21%)


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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Panama’s Noah’s Ark Bob Chastain, Director, Cheyenne Mountain Zoo

I think we could all agree these words are all very different especially when it comes to fighting extinction. And they certainly do not function in a straight line: knowledge – motivation – action Today I am going to spend my time on motivation, so let’s get started. I stand here today representing the hard work of the partners who make up the Panamanian Amphibian Rescue. But since I can not speak to what motivated them, I will tell my story of going from knowledge to motivation to action. I have a saying on my door from the movie The Edge, it says “What one man can do, another man can do”. Can you say that? My point to that is we can accomplish anything we set our minds to. The hardest part of the equation is deciding what we want to do; whether it is sending a man to the moon or saving frogs. While it is hard to say exactly where my interest in saving amphibians really began, it could have been at an AZA conference where the director of the National Zoo got up and made an impassioned plea on behalf of frogs, or most likely it started on a trip with my staff somewhere in the middle of Wyoming. Cheyenne Mountain Zoo had been breeding and releasing an endangered species of Wyoming toad for years and I decided to go see an introduction back into the wild for myself. It was there that I could not escape the question; is this all we are going to do for frogs around the world in the global amphibian crisis? I heard the call from the amphibian ark a couple of years before that if each zoo around the world would save just one species more we could make a huge impact on this crisis. I had heard the stories about the crisis and seen the papers on the crisis, but as we began to look for projects to save frogs, there did not seem to be many.

We have a saying at Cheyenne Mountain Zoo; you can accomplish anything if you don’t care who gets the credit. While that might be true, I want to take a moment and give credit where credit is due. I have to thank the leadership at the Houston Zoo for being one of the only projects we could find back then. I remember being impressed with their work and I still am to this day. I continued to hear about how many species were being lost and how many were threatened, endangered and data deficient. I had heard how this was far worse than what was happening around the world with both bird and mammal species combined. So here we are in the middle of Wyoming when the decision to do something is made. When I returned to Colorado I picked up the phone and called the director of the National Zoo. I told him that I had heard him speak and asked if we are going to do anything to save amphibians or if we are just going to sit idly by. After talking, he told me about a project in Panama where they thought we could make a difference but we would be looking at starting a project from scratch with the help of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama City. They had been looking at a project and trying to raise the funds. Within a few days we were their first partner to bring a commitment of $50,000 a year for 3 years to the table, plus some money for expeditions. Now let me put this in perspective for you; our entire field conservation program only gave away $7,000 a year up to that point. So to go from $7000 a year to $57,000 a year was a big deal.

Here was the plan in a nut shell; the deadly Chytrid fungus was sweeping through Mexico to Costa Rica to Panama. The theory at the time was it may stop at the Panama Canal which is where we would start our work. Houston had started their work on the west side of the canal and we would focus on the east side of the canal, where whole ecosystems of frogs were still intact. At this same time we would work with researchers to study the fungus and see if it could be stopped using naturally occurring bacteria to fight it. In short order we had several other partners including the Houston Zoo ready to start work in Panama. Zoo New England and Cheyenne Mountain Zoo would supply the vets, Summit Zoo in Panama would supply a site for the rescue pods, The Smithsonian and National Zoo would supply project leader salaries and equipment and several of us including Africam Safari would supply operating cash. We got together and hired the in‑country expert on Panama’s amphibians, Dr. Roberto Ibanez. We scoured the species prioritization list and selected about 20 target species then geared up for a big job ahead. Before I knew it we were at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute checking out a vehicle and heading into the jungle with all our gear on horseback. After a grueling eight hour walk in the high mountain cloud forest, we arrived at the small research shelter in the middle of the jungle. While it was not luxurious, we did have a roof over our heads; well, at least some of us did, some of us had a floor over our heads. Before long we were searching for frogs both during the day and night. And we were finding frogs too, beautiful frogs like the Atelopus limosus. Upon catching them, the frogs were


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bagged and notes were taken about when and where we found them. After that, we began the tests to see if any of them had the Chytrid fungus; swabbing them per the developed protocol including the sides, legs and belly. As the days went on we gathered more information including measurements as well as labeling and categorizing all the amphibians we found. The work was long and cramped but rewarding. Panama was the place where I learned and was told in no uncertain terms by Edgardo Griffith, the director of the El Valle project, that Houston had started a rule that a cooler or ice chest is a seat until it has frogs in it and then under no circumstance is it a seat after the first frog gets packed. Remember our simple plan was to catch Chytrid before it crossed the Panama Canal? Even though we thought we had 3 to 5 years before the fungus reached this location, I had a bad feeling that we were too late. As a reminder, when Chytrid comes into an area it comes in like a storm. Here is a study that shows healthy frogs being found in a stream in western Panama and then in comes the fungus and the whole population begins to rapidly collapse. Here is the other way to look at that. Along this stream almost no dead frogs were found in 1998-2003 and then all of the sudden dead frogs are everywhere. It turns out that we did find that Chytrid was in the area a full 2 to 5 years before we expected it; it had indeed crossed the canal. We were the only project ready and on the ground to help protect frog species in protected breeding colonies as it swept through the area. We quickly turned around and mounted another expedition and then one more. You can see from these results that the average number of frogs from trip one to trip three went from 38 per day to 6.5 per day. We were literally watching species go extinct before our eyes.

Maybe no frog can illustrate this like the one I told you about before. For sake of ease, how about we don’t call it Atelopus limosus, the scientific name, but we call her yellow toes. Yellow toes could only be found in this localized area and they were currently known only in this valley. They had proven to be disappearing so fast, at one point we only had one female in captivity in the whole world; her situation was bleak. Luckily, we had a few Mr. yellow toes to take care of the male side of the equation. While we were scrambling to get these species into an ark of sorts, our little project was gaining speed. We had fully united the western and eastern Panama projects into a Panamanian amphibian powerhouse. We had raised about $50,000 per partner plus $200,000 in other funding and leverage; all that for a $2 million National Science Foundation Grant. We had begun to breed and had success with other species while we searched from more yellow toes. The western center in El Valle had begun to have their own luck too. We began to build a strong online presence with 50,000 visits to our web page. We also built a world‑class public relations program with 84 news stories and a feature documentary. The first cure experiments were being done where bacteria isolated from the skin of amphibians was being used to fight the fungus. Early results were showing promise where the bacteria was fighting off the fungus, but it did not prove to be long lasting enough and eventually the frogs that stayed in a Chytrid environment eventually died. We had created a strong volunteer program with over 70 international and local participants. We outfitted four recue pods using old refrigerated shipping containers from the canal to breed these and future species of frogs. One of them is now outfitted to grow our own frog food in the form of crickets, meal worms and fruit flies.

So what is next for the project? We are moving the pods to the property owned by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, building lab and education space, securing the last of the Mrs. yellow toes, gearing up for more species, continuing the cure research and working toward the future release programs. You can follow the progress on anphibianrescue.org. I could not, in good faith, complete this program without mentioning all the work that Dr. Brian Gratwicke has done to make this project run. As a project leader and employee of the National Zoo, he has done much of the leg work needed to make this project successful. Without his help at least one species, if not more, would be on the verge of extinction today. As I close I think about if this project is more about the frog families or my family. I had a niece named Clair with a brain tumor. I vividly remember a dream I had one night. I dreamt she came and told me she had a brain tumor. In the dream I remember being in shock. I remember her saying to me, Uncle Bob its okay. They found a cure and had isolated it from one of the frogs we had saved. She said to me, you have already done the work to save me. I still remember how relieved I felt, like the weight of the world had been lifted off my shoulders. While you all know this was just a dream and they have not found the cure for brain tumors, the day will come when they do or maybe diabetes, AIDS, or heart disease. Frogs play an important part in our world both for medicine and beauty. When our kids and our grandkids turn to us when we are old, they will either thank us for the work we have done or ask us why we did not do more.


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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Conservation Medicine: An Approach to Fight the Extinction of All Species Sharon L Deem, Saint Louis Zoo, Institute for Conservation Medicine and Eric Miller, Saint Louis Zoo, Director WildCare Institute Abstract

Introduction

In 2011 the Saint Louis Zoo launched the Institute for Conservation Medicine (ICM) to further the Zoo’s mission to conserve animals and their habitats. The ICM takes a holistic approach to research on wildlife, public health, and sustainable ecosystems to ensure healthy animals and healthy people. This research includes 1) studies on diseases of conservation concern; 2) health care for the sustainability of biodiversity; 3) zoo animals as sentinels of disease in urban environments; 4) disease surveillance at the interface of wildlife, domestic animals and humans; 5) comparative medicine; and 6) the exploration of the diversity of life. In this paper we describe the significance of these roles and provide concrete examples of zoos working in conservation medicine to show how this approach helps to fight the extinction of all species.

It is estimated that since 1970 global population sizes of wildlife species have decreased by 30% (World Wildlife Fund, 2010). If one looks at decline by animal taxa, the numbers threatened with extinction are 12% of birds, 21% of mammals, 32% of amphibians, and 27% of reef‑building corals (Marton‑Lèfevre, 2010). Even though the number of species endangered with extinction grows daily, outside the conservation community, little time, money, or energy has been directed towards the conservation of biodiversity. However, within the conservation community, accredited zoological institutions are now

As accredited zoos have become increasingly appreciated for their conservation initiatives, it has also become evident that the leadership role of zoos in species’ conservation was concurrent with advancements in health care that is important for population viability (e.g., fitness and reproductive success). Previously overlooked as instrumental in the role of zoos in the conservation of species, veterinary sciences are now seen as imperative for conservation efforts and the long‑term survival of populations both in zoo collections and for free‑living populations (Miller, 1992; Deem, 2007). In fact, one of the key reasons that zoos are successful fully recognized as organizations conservation organizations is related dedicated to the conservation of anito the veterinary care provided both mal species. (In this paper, the word animals in our collections, as well accredited will refer to the 218 zoos as field based health studies that accredited by the Association of improve conservation efforts and Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) since the provide comparative health data authors are most familiar with AZA.) between free‑living and collection Unlike many of the other conservapopulations. Today, with the push tion organizations, zoos are the for AZA‑accredited zoos to dedicate “species people” and are dedicated to 3% of their revenue to conservathe long‑term conservation of wildlife tion (and other organizations making species. For example, of the 68 spesimilar commitments) the time is cies whose IUCN threat level was reright for these zoos to include conduced, 17 (25%) had captive breeding servation medicine initiatives in their at zoological institutions play a role in “toolbox” if we are to strive for the the threat level reductions (Conde et conservation of all species.  al., 2011). So what is conservation medicine? This approach was first coined in the 1990s and may be defined as a trans‑disciplinary field that studies the relationship between human, animal, and ecosystem health to ensure the conservation of biodiversity, including Homo sapiens (Koch, 1996; Deem et al., 2000; Aguirre et al., 2002). Although there are a number of definitions for conservation medicine the heart of the approach is


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the realization that the health of environments, and animals and people within, are intimately related and will require multiple disciplines to better understand and manage the conservation and disease challenges that impact each. The Saint Louis Zoo launched the Institute for Conservation Medicine (ICM) in 2011 to further advance our role in conservation medicine. The establishment of this new Institute at the Saint Louis Zoo was a natural progression that built on the decades of conservation medicine performed by zoo personnel both at the zoo and globally through the WildCare Institute and other zoo funded and/ or led global conservation and health projects. For example, the zoo has on‑going projects that include research and biomedical surveys of lemurs in Madagascar, avian health studies in the Galapagos Islands, and studies of Humboldt penguins in Punta San Juan, Peru. Since the start of the ICM, we have strengthened long held partnerships while building new ones with other health and / or conservation organizations as we develop the Midwest Consortium of Conservation Medicine. The mission of the ICM is to take a holistic approach to research on wildlife, public health, and sustainable ecosystems to ensure healthy animals and healthy people. In this paper we discuss the six conservation medicine roles identified by the ICM that accredited zoos should perform and that are essential for the conservation of the wildlife species, as well as Homo sapiens which are dependent on biodiversity for survival (Fig 1).

Studies on diseases of conservation concern Disease in wildlife species have now been documented to impact species’ survival with both population extirpations and even species extinctions (Harvell et al., 1999; Daszak et al., 2000; Pedersen et al., 2007; Palacios et al., 2011). Many of the infectious diseases that threaten the long‑term survival of wildlife species, including fibropapillomatosis in sea turtles, chytridiomycosis in amphibians, canine distemper in a number of carnivores, and Ebola virus in humans and animals (as reviewed in Daszak et al. 2000; Deem et al. 2001; Kuiken et al. 2005) are studied extensively by zoological health professionals. Disease‑related conservation challenges are not solely linked to infectious diseases as evident from the near extinction of three Gyps spp. in India associated with the use of an anti‑inflammatory in livestock (Oaks et al., 2004). Whether infectious or non‑infectious, these diseases can have impacts that occur on multiple scales, affecting individuals (fitness costs), populations (population size and connection), communities (changes in species composition), and ecosystems (structure, function, and resilience) (Deem et al. 2008). The epidemiology, pathology, and clinical implications of many of these significant disease challenges are studied extensively by zoo health professionals, both in situ and ex situ (for examples see Munson et al., 1999; Rideout et al., 2012).

Six roles of zoos in conservation medicine for the advancement of the conservation of all species (Fig 1)

Figure 1: Role of Zoos in Conservation Medicine

Health care for the sustainability of biodiversity Accomplishments by accredited zoos that have resulted in bringing species back from the brink of extinction were only possible through advances in veterinary care, including preventive and therapeutic medicine to minimize infectious and non‑infectious diseases. Similar to public health programs (e.g., vaccination and proper nutrition) that were instrumental for the human population to grow beyond 7 billion individuals, these veterinary health care methods are essential for species propagation. Now as wild spaces become less so and free‑living wildlife are often little more than species placed in “large zoos” these veterinary advancements, many of which are first developed with zoo collection animals, are being used for the long term survival of populations in the “wild” (Deem, 2007). Lastly, a number of reintroduction programs such as those for black‑footed ferrets, red wolves and freshwater mussels have resulted in species propagated at AZA accredited institutions to be placed back in the wild (www.aza. org/reintroduction‑programs/). These programs were successful only when health challenges were appropriately addressed within the reintroduction plans in conjunction with other important components.


60 Zoo animals as sentinels of disease in urban environments Often located in urban settings, zoos with diverse species collections may serve as sentinels of emerging diseases. The native and non‑native species housed at zoological collections vary in susceptibilities to pathogens. The most recent and well‑known example of zoo animals serving as sentinels was the detection of West Nile Virus at a zoo in New York State, alerting human and animal health communities to the arrival of this vector‑borne pathogen to the New World (Lanciotti, 1999; Ludwig et al., 2002). The network of accredited zoological parks in America and Europe now have surveillance programs for zoonotic pathogens such as avian influenza, tuberculosis, and WNV, linking zoos and effectively covering continents (Travis et al., 2002; Chosy et al., 2007). Additionally, many zoos in North America have surveillance programs for urban wildlife on and near zoo grounds for zoonotic pathogens such as rabies virus and Bayliascaris procyonis. Lastly, with the sophisticated record keeping capabilities at these institutions along with the careful pathologic evaluations of deaths of zoo animals, the ability to better understand trends in potential non‑infectious health concerns shared by animals and humans (e.g., cancer and toxins) are also explored at zoological institutions. The pathology staff at many of these zoos have close ties with human medical facilities and thus allow for the sharing of comparative findings between the zoo animals and human patients presenting to the hospital (see also comparative medicine section).

Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Disease surveillance at the interface of wildlife, domestic animals and humans

Exploration of the diversity of life

In biodiversity conservation much emphasis is given to the long term surIn 2001, it was estimated that bevival of vertebrate species with lesser tween all the zoos accredited by AZA emphasis on invertebrate conservaand World Association of Zoos and tion, and even less on the conservation Aquariums (WAZA) there were apof micro‑organisms. However, species proximately 1,100 field based projects are metagenomic in that they are in 80 countries, with a combined composed of their own gene compleeffort that allows for a reach of wild ments and those of all their associated populations for disease surveillance microbes. Each species, in fact each around the globe (Dick and Gusset, individual is known to have unique 2010). These zoo‑funded and zoo‑led “microbiomes”. For example in one in situ conservation projects span the study of the bacterial 16S ribosomal globe, occurring in both biodiversity RNA gene sequences from a variety and pandemic pathogen hotpots of zoological animals it was demon(Deem et al., 2011). The often long strated that host diet and phylogeny term commitments to field conboth influence bacterial diversity (Ley servation and research from these et al., 2008). Accredited zoos with their programs allows zoo staff to perform collections of diverse species and their health surveillance studies on species outreach across the globe in which of conservation interest and sympathey lead studies on free‑living wildlife tric species. These studies invariably populations can and must contribute also have a human health component to the exploration of the diversity of as many of the pathogens of interest life at the microbial level. When we are zoonotic and may spillover from lose one vertebrate species to extincwild populations to domestic animals tion we must also realize the great loss and / or humans which share the in microbial biodiversity. habitat (Bronson et al., 2008; Deem et al., 2004; Junge et al., 2011).

Comparative medicine Comparative medicine is a long established field within both the veterinary and medical professions which is based on comparison and contrasts of the anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of diseases between humans and other species. For example, advances in human medicine are largely due to comparative studies using animal models. Today there is growing application of human studies that help with our understanding of diseases of animals (e.g., cancers, arthritis) and the use of sentinel animals and humans for the health of the other (Rabinowitz and Conti, 2010). The role zoos play in the field of comparative medicine has been underutilized. However, zoos and the animals for which they care are now largely included in comparative medicine studies concurrent with advances in veterinary services that are provided to the diverse taxa of animals during recent decades (Natterson‑Horowitz and Bowers, 2012).

Conclusions: importance of conservation medicine practiced by zoo staff to help with the conservation of all species

In this paper we presented the six roles identified by the ICM of what accredited zoos can and must perform in the area of conservation medicine as they continue to serve as leaders in the conservation of wildlife species. Throughout all these roles it must also be appreciated that our ability to serve as educators of conservation issues is one of the key roles of accredited zoos in today’s society. Education of our visitors must move towards one that also embraces the conservation medicine approach and informs the public of the interconnected nature of the health of animals and humans in the context of continually changing ecosystems. In conclusion, this short article provides evidence and examples of the significant conservation medicine roles that accredited zoos have performed for decades and will continue to perform for many years to come.


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References: • Aguirre, A. A., Ostfeld, R. S., Tabor, G. M., House, C., and Pearl, M. C. 2002. Conservation Medicine Ecological Health in Practice. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. 407 pp. • Anderson, P. K., Cunningham, A. A., Patel, N. G., Morales, F. J., Epstein, P. R., and Daszak, P. 2004. Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19: 535-544. • Bronson, E., Emmons, L. H., Murray, S., Dubovi, E. J., and Deem, S. L. 2008. Serosurvey of pathogens in domestic dogs on the border of Noël Kempff Mercado National Park, Bolivia. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39: 28-36. • Chosy, J., Travis, D., and Nadler, Y. 2009. Zoos as disease sentinels: Piloting an avian influenza surveillance system in zoological institutions. Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine 3: 184. • Conde, D. A., Flesness, N., Colchero, F., Jones O. R., and Scheuerlein, A. 2011. An emerging role of zoos to conserve biodiversity. Science 331: 1390-1391. • Daszak, P., Cunningham, A. A., and Hyatt, A. D. 2000. Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife –threats to biodiversity and human health. Science 287: 443-449. • Deem, S. L., Kilbourn, A. M., Wolfe, N. D., Cook, R. A., and Karesh, W. B. Conservation medicine. Annuals of New York Academia of Science 2000: 370-377. • Deem, S. L., Karesh, W. B., and Weisman, W. 2001. Putting theory into practice: wildlife health in conservation. Conservation Biology 13: 1246-1256. • Deem, S. L., Noss, A. J., Villarroel, R., Uhart, M. M., and Karesh, W. B. 2004. Disease Survey of Grey Brocket Deer (Mazama goua‑ zoubira) in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40: 92-98. • Deem, S. L., 2007. Role of the zoo veterinarian in the conservation of captive and free‑ranging wildlife. International Zoo Yearbook 41: 3-11. • Deem S. L., Ezenwa V. O., Ward J. R., and Wilcox B. A. 2008. Research frontiers in Ecological Systems: Evaluating the Impacts of Infectious Disease on Ecosystems. In: Ostfeld R. S., Eviner V. T., Keesing F. (eds.), Infectious Disease Ecology: Effects of Ecosystems on Disease and of Disease on Ecosystems. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, pp. 304-318.

• Deem, S. L., Miller, R. E., and Bonner, J. 2011. The role of Zoological Parks in One Health. In: 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human‑Animal Interface (ICOPHAI): Impact, Limitations and Needs in Developing Countries. September 15-17, 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. VPH‑Biotech Global Consortium. Pp. 27. • Dick, G., and Gusset, M. 2010. Building a Future for Wildlife: Zoos and Aquariums Committed to Biodiversity Conservation. Gland: WAZA Executive Office. 215 Pp. • Harvell, C. D., Mitchell, C. E., Ward, J. R., Altizer, S., Dobson, A. P., Ostfeld, R. S., and Samuel, M. D. 2002. Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Science 296: 2158-2162. • Junge, R. E., Barrett, M. A., and Yoder, A. D. 2011. Effects of anthropogenic disturbance on Indri (Indri indri) health in Madagascar. American Journal of Primatology 73: 1-11. • Koch, M. 1996. Wildlife, people, and development. Tropical Animal Health Production 28: 68-80. • Kuiken, T., Leighton, F. A., Fouchier, R. A. M., LeDuc, J. W., Peiris, J. S. M., Schudel, A., Stöhr, K., and Osterhaus, A. D. M. E. 2005. Pathogen surveillance in animals. Science 309: 1680-1681. • Lanciotti, R. S., Roehrig, J. T., Deubel, V., Smith, J., Parker, M., Steele, K., Crise, B., Volpe, K. E., Crabtree, M. B., Scherret, J. H., and others. 1999. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science 286: 2333–2337. • Ley, R. E., Hamady, M., Lozupone, C., Turnbaugh, P. J., Ramey, R. R., Bircher, J. S., Schlegel, M. L., Tucker, T. A., Schrenzel, M. D., Knight, R., and Gordon, J. I. 2008. Evolution of mammals and their gut microbes. Science 320: 1647-1651. • Ludwig, G. V., P. P. Calle, J. A. Mangiafico, B. L. Raphael, D. K. Danner, J. A. Hile, T. L. Clippinger, J. F. Smith, R. A. Cook, and T. McNamara. 2002. An outbreak of West Nile virus in a New York City captive wildlife population. American Journal of Tropical Medical Hygiene 67: 67–75. • Marton‑Lèfevre, J. 2010. Biodiversity is our life. Science 327: 1179. • Miller, R. E. 1992. Zoo veterinarians—the doctors on the ark? Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 200: 642647. • Munson, L., Nesbit, J. W., Meltzer, D. G., Colly, L. P., Bolton, L., and Kriek, N. P. 1999. Diseases of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) in South Africa: a 20-year retrospective survey. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 30: 342-347.

• Natterson‑Horowitz, B., and Bowers, K. 2012. Zoobiquity: What animals can teach us about health and the science of healing. Random House Inc., New York, New York. 320 pp. • Oaks JL, Gilbert M, Virani MZ, Watson RT, Meteyer CU, Rideout, B. A., Shivaprasad, H. L., Ahmed, S., Chaudhry, M. J., Arshad, M., Mahmood, S., Ali, A., and Khan, A. A. 2004. Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population declines in Pakistan. Nature 427: 630–633. • Palacios, G., Lowenstine, L. J., Cranfield, M. R., Gilardi, K. V. K., Spelman, L., Lukasik‑Braum, M., Kinani, J.-F., Mudakikwas, A., Nyirakaragire, E., Bussetti, A. V., Savji, N., Hutchison, S., Eghlom, M., and Lipkin, W. I. 2011. Human metapneumovirus infection in wild mountain gorillas, Rwanda. Emerging Infectious Diseases 17: 711-713. • Pedersen, A. B., Jones, K. E., Nunn, C. L., and Altizer, S. 2007. Infectious diseases and extinction risk in wild mammals. Conservation Biology 21: 1269-1279. • Rabinowitz, P. M., and Conti, L. A. 2010. Sentinel disease signs and symptoms. In: Human‑Animal Medicine: Clinical Approaches to Zoonoses, Toxicants, and Other Shared Health Risks (Rabinowitz, P. M., and Conti, L. A., eds.). Saunders, Maryland Heights, Missouri. pp. 18-23. • Rideout, B. A., Stalis, I., Papendick, R., Pessier, A., Puschner, B., Finkelstein, M. E., Smith, D. R., Johnson, M., Mace, M., Stroud, R., Brandt, J., Burnett, J., Parish, C., Petterson, J., Witte, C., Stringfield, C., Orr, K., Zuba, J., Wallace, and Grantham, J. 2012. Patterns of mortality in free‑ranging California condors (Gymnogyps californianus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 48: 95-112. • Travis, D., and Miller, M., 2003. A short review of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, and guidelines for managing risks associated with chronic wasting disease in captive cervids in zoos. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34: 125-133. • World Wildlife Fund. 2010. Living Planet Index, Report 2010: Biodiversity, biocapacity, and development. www.library.drexel. edu/blogs/drexelbioscience/2010/11/30/ living‑planet‑report‑2010-biodiversity‑biocapacity‑development/. 57 pp.


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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Temaikèn’s Natural Reserve in Misiones, Argentina: Join Us! Damian Pellandini, Fundación Temaikèn, Argentina

Good morning everyone! Not even in my wildest dreams could I have imagined I was going to be giving a presentation to this audience. I have a degree in Technology and later I did some training in business administration and management as well. So it is really amazing being in Australia and talking about field conservation. But the reason why I am here is not to talk about my life but to present to you our Natural Resérve. To begin with, Temaikèn Foundation (TMK) has a mission and it is “To protect Nature”. It is as simple to mention as difficult to run. It is easy to communicate, just three words and every person in our organization know it, but it is quite a challenge. To achieve our mission we are based on 6 pillars. Our zoo that is located in Escobar, 1hour drive from Buenos Aires. We receive nearly 900.000 visitors a year. How many of you have ever been to TMK? We also have a breeding centre as you may see in this picture with wonderful premises. A Natural reserve that is what brings me here today. We have educational programs. Each year we receive 120.000 children. We also work in conservation with projects of maned wolf, tapirs, the Parana pine ecosystem and research projects like stingrays or Magellanic penguins in Patagonia. I don’t want to extend on these but if you are interested to learn more about us I will be happy to meet with you during this week.

But what brings me here today is Osununú. Osununú is a 170 ha reserve, located in a small town called San Ignacio, in the province of Misiones, in the north of Argentina, close to the Brazilian jungle better known as Atlantic forest. In aborigine language, Osununu means noise of rivers and the story says that the noise was made from the logs falling from the cliff that you see in this picture and that is 80meters high. As you may imagine these logs where cut illegally and drop into the river. Osununú was donated in 2005 by a private donor who had just inherited the land from his uncle together with the will to reserve it. When he knew that we were working on the preservation of the area he contacted us trusting us this land. After a couple of years and lots of paper work and documentation the governor of Misiones declared it a private reserve.

I’m sure many of you know this graph where Conservation International shows the hotspots all over the world, and as you can see, Misiones is one of them. This was a short introduction but let me share with you what we do and which are our plans for the area. In our reserve we work in three different lines: 1. 2. 3.

One related to research A second one regarding education And the third one called sustainable development

Research Regarding research we work or plan to work in different projects:

• A Survey detected two species of bats that gather and reproduce in one of our premises. • Amphibians are also studied in our Resérve. We have found 15 species. There are also some interesting speBut why Osununú? Difficult to procies of reptiles including (Oxyrhopus nounce, don’t you think? Even for us petola) that I believe its common in Spanish. name is false coralsnake, a rare species for this area. This area has a high conservation • In Osununu we have 32 types of value. It is located in a particular orchids. Due to its ornamental value geological region, with fossil remains they are highly exposed to illegal which persist to this day in sandy soils extraction. We work in a research and only exist in this area. project of this specie (Vanilla chamissonis) Do you know that there are 19 exclu• Endemic and unique flora. As sive flora species which can only be I’ve previously said, this area hosts found in Argentina, 4 of which are 19 species that in Argentina you can endemic of Osununu? only find here, and 4 of them that are endemic. These among others were the reasons • The grasslands are not well kept and why Osununú was declared a WAZA they shelter unique and endemic Conservation Project in 2009. species that are not being studied. We are running alliances with the owners of these lands in order to study and preserve them.


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Learning and Training • We perform courses on biodiversity and natural areas for college students, among others. • We are looking for volunteers, leaders and stakeholders committed to scientific activities in the field to participate in our projects. • We are promoting partnerships with local and national institutions for the development of the research lines before mentioned.

Infrastructure

Last month, we had an amazing experience when kids from these communities (and from other parts of the country where we work in conservation) participated in our annual science fair. They were able to tell other children and our zoo visitors about their experiences and showed the project they developed in their areas. In addition, and because the fair lasted for two days, these kids slept in our aquarium, having a once in a lifetime experience.

• Here you can see the lodge we have for researchers. It has two bedrooms with private bathrooms and kitchen, very comfortable for hosting up to 8 people.

It was incredible to see the kids sense of belonging to the project. Traveling to Buenos Aires (many of them visited the city for the first time) and sharing their experiences deepened each child’s commitment to the project.

Environmental Education

Sustainable Development

Interpretative Visits We have tested these visits with schools of the area and the experience was incredible, both for students and teachers. We are designing some signs and improving paths and viewpoints to make the visit more attractive. We hope the students experience the contact with nature as part of their academic training.

Training for Teachers Our plan is to focus the training in Osununu to help the teachers and local leaders become multipliers of the social and environmental plans in their community.

Projects for Community School We are working with the community, especially with kids so they become the ones who help us protect and value this place. We want to create in these kids the sense of belonging being ambassadors of the region so they respect, love and defend this area.

We work with local and provincial governments for the development and update of the Action Plan of the Teyu Cuare state park and the elaboration of an environmental plan for Osununu´s buffer zone.

Participative Workshops We have developed workshops which aim at participation of the community in planning and implementing actions related to the conservation of Osununu and its environment: development of tourism, environmental education programs and action plan of the area’s natural zones.

Alliances with Other Partners We have different agreements with local tourism operators with the objective of developing activities with visitors which are compatible with the conservation of the area. We also have an alliance with San Ignacio’s town council to work together in the urban planning and training.

This year we signed an agreement with Club del Rio, an institution that had tourism activities in the area but without controls. Since the signing of the agreement, they have committed to carrying out responsible tourism. They have hired a park ranger and they will pResérve the natural areas, making good use of the areas with special conservation value. In addition, they have great facilities where they receive tourists, field trips for children and a meeting room that can be used as a training center.

Ecoturism Our goal is to get people to start changing their habits. We believe they have to appreciate the area´s natural beauty instead of extracting. By doing this we will: • Give the community an alternative of development • Allow the expansion of protected areas • Stop the degradation in the natural areas surrounding the State Park To sum up all, you have been able to see what we are working on and what we can do. But we can’t achieve it alone. Our mission states: Protecting nature together. We invite you to join our project. We believe Osununú is a unique place, because of what it represents and what we can accomplish.


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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Conserving Madagascar’s Biodiversity, Building Local Capacity and Raising Environmental Awareness of Youth: The cooperative work of zoos for Madagascar – The Madagascar Fauna and Flora Group Alex Rübel, Zoo Zürich Switzerland and Eric Miller, St. Louis Zoo, USA

The Madagascar Fauna and Flora Group (MFG) was founded as an international consortium of zoos working in Madagascar to strengthen conservation influence and results. It was formed in 1988 after an international meeting attended by representatives of the Malagasy government, zoos, CBSG, the IUCN Primate Specialist Group and field biologists. The MFG’s conservation objectives and its authorization are established through a Protocol of Collaboration between the Malagasy Government and the MFG, which has been renewed several times.

MFG is celebrating its 25 year anniversary in 2013. In that time it has developed from working with little zoos with confiscated animals to an integrated conservation project. The main parts of MFG today are the Ivoloina Zoo and Rescue Station, the Betampona National Reserve No 1, its wide environmental education and training program, its sustainable farming and reforestation training and implementation projects and conservation research.

Betampona National Reserve is an isolated small reserve 30km north of Tamatave with highest floral and faunal biodiversity of its lowland rainforest, which is one of the last spots of this ecosystem in Madagascar. MFG has established a research village at the edge of the reserve and achieved an impressive inventory of this best researched conservation spot in Madagascar. Due to the conservation and research agents presence, the illegal harvesting of animal and plant species has significantly reduced.

Parc Zoologique Ivoloina was officially reopened in 1990 as Madagascar’s second zoological park. Beside caring for confiscated animals and its captive animal management program, it provides a family entertainment and tourist attraction. It has initiated a broad educational interpretive program with an environmental focused school of several hundred children, does teacher courses and it also keeps a model station for sustainable farming and does training for farmers far around. It also serves as the headquarter of Betampona National Reserve.

Today’s core of MFG activities are its education programs. We believe that training is the only effective way to help Madagascar get itself back on its feet again. 9000 school children visit the park every year. It runs a broad zoo and outreach environmental education programs. This led to the development of teacher’s guide for environmental education and teacher training workshops in the whole region. This again led to “Saturday classes” – basic curriculum tutoring classes for local primary grade school children and middle and high school environmental education “camps”.


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Latest Success Stories Following the educational activities it was realized, that habitat can only be protected by demonstrating and teaching sustainable agricultural practices. At the park a Sustainable Agriculture Model Station was established where improved rice paddy techniques, the cultivation of alternative fruits and vegetables are instructed as well as the identification of plants that can be used for erosion control and of appropriate plants for commercial use. Training courses in new farming techniques were established for farmers and village majors. The program supports also the governments reforestation initiative. Deforestation followed by erosion is one of the biggest problems of Madagascar. MFG has identified native trees and environmentally friendly reforestation options and built up many nurseries and agroforestry stations in the villages, especially around Betampona. Together with the villagers a huge reforestation project has started around Betampona to strengthen the reserve and help villagers to raise construction wood.

Recently, MFG could celebrate several successes in its activity fields: 1.

2.

3.

4.

The Saturday school project in Tamatave and around Betampona Reserve proofed to be very effective. Due to its success, UNICEF has adopted the scheme for Madagascar and some African countries and is applying it in 4 places in Madagascar. The researchers doing the Amphibian Inventory in Betampona found 76 taxa, of which 34 are undescribed and 24 are only found at the reserve. Some of the best Malagasy frog specialist work in the reserve. They have registered the distribution of each species, collected photos and audios, a overwhelming survey. The Primate Landscape Ecology Project covered 5 species, which were overlaid on vegetation maps to analyze their feeding habits and capacity of the reserve. The strong presence of the conservation and research agents could avoid major illegal logging in the reserve. Looking at the mafia‑like logging further north involving 4’000 woodcutters, huge money ($230 Mio.) and as side effects lemur hunting for bush meat: The situation in Betampona is quite well. As a big achievement in dealing illegal wood was the Gibson case in the US where the company had to pay a fine of $300’000 due to a violation of the Lacey Act importing illegal cutted wood. This was made possible by investigation results provided by members of MFG.

MFG has proven to be very effective, in large part due to maintaining an in country staff an office in Tamatave. To accomplish this, MFG was structured as a membership organization with annual dues. These provide and are essential for the seed money and to carry the project over the years. Grants helped to put up projects. This help from many zoos, botanical gardens and universities made the MFG conservation projects some of the most effective in Madagascar. New members are always welcome.


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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Unraveling a Mystery! Lena M Lindén, CEO and founder of Foundation Nordens Ark, Sweden and Örjan Johansson and Emma Nygren

Nordens Ark in Sweden is a non‑profit organization that started 23 years ago with a solve goal of saving endangered animals. Throughout the years we have mostly focused our efforts on endangered native species and are involved in reintroducing species such as the peregrine falcon, the white‑backed woodpecker and the green toad. Snow leopards have always been one of Nordens Arks flagship species, and we have been working with the species ex‑situ since 1989. Our zoologist Leif Blomqvist is the holder of both the European and the International studbooks. Since it has been such an important species in Nordens Ark history we felt that it was essential for us to also try to support in‑situ conservation of the species. We therefore began to collaborate with Snow Leopard Trust and Panthera, to support their long‑term ecological study of wild snow leopards in Mongolia Even though the snow leopards always have intrigued people around the globe little is actually known about this secretive big cat. It is found in the rugged mountains of Central Asia where it is perfectly adapted to a life at high‑altitude in the cold and barren climate. The species is spread across two million km2 but despite this there is only between 4000 and 7000 individuals left in the wild and the snow leopard is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List.

Despite the hard work of several researchers, the elusiveness of this cat and the rough terrain it inhabits are part of the reason why there are still large gaps in our understanding of its natural history and the threats they are facing. Even the most basic information about snow leopard ecology is poorly understood and data on habitat use, predation, dispersal, mortality, cub rearing etcetera are at a minimal. Very little data on basic snow leopard ecology existed in 2008. A lot of the existing data was gathered with older techniques such as VHF collars and scat analysis without DNA confirmation of species. Unfortunately these techniques have proved inaccurate for snow leopards. In order to protect the snow leopard the gaps in the knowledge about the species needed to be filled. By finding out the answer some of the key questions, like habitat use and prey preference, conservation actions are more likely to succeed. This is the reason why the two U. S. based organizations Snow Leopard Trust and Panthera started the world’s first long‑term study of snow leopards. The scientific study is called Long Term Ecological Study or LTES. The study was launched in 2008 with the aim to collect scientific data of the highest quality. Previous studies have lasted for up to five years, the intention with this study is to go in depth to understand a snow leopard population. The research is aimed at improving our understanding of snow leopards so that we can improve our conservation efforts.

 In 2010 a permanent research center was constructed. Here scientists, field staff and visitors can learn field techniques and stay while conducting research in the area. The study is located in the Southern part of Mongolia. The area is called Tost Uul and is situated in the Gobi desert. Nordens Ark became involved in the study in 2010 by, funding the Swedish PhD student Örjan Johansson, who is in charge of the field work and we also provided the project with two GPS‑collars. To study a species that one hardly ever sees and that can’t be tracked, little snow (that means no tracks on ground) and way too steep mountains, it is necessary to fit it with a tracking device. GPS collars with satellite uplink of data have proven to be a great tool. The collars gather data for two years. When the battery is almost depleted the collar drops off. This means that we can find the dropped collar due to lack of movement and change battery and use the same collar again and the animal does not need to carry a non‑functioning collar.


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© Snow Leopard Trust Snow Leopard with GPS locator.

Örjans primary task is to capture and fit snow leopards with GPS‑collars but this is not an easy task. To be able to do this Örjan has to spend months at the Mongolian base camp setting snares in areas he knows snow leopards to be. Capture methods have been improved since 2008. To date 43 captures have taken place, multiple trappings of same individuals but 19 unique individuals have been trapped. And only a few Snow leopards have exhibited minor cuts and abrasions, similar to what they must experience during hunts. No serious injuries have occurred. In 2010 they employed a system that constantly monitors the traps and alerts the researchers within minutes after an animal has been caught. With the system, the leopards will only have to wait 20-60 minutes before the researchers will arrive at the trap site. A big effort the first years have been to develop new research methods and improve the existing ones. A staff member at Nordens Ark is testing how well the remote cameras work for identifying Snow Leopards as her master thesis.

A lot of data have been gathered in these years. 18 000 GPs locations is about 20 times more than all previous studies combined. The dots are locations from GPS collars from 3 different males. It is clear they spend their time in the high mountains and there are sharp borders between the home ranges. It seems as if adult males are territorial, before 2008 snow leopards were considered not to be territorial. The researchers visit all sites where the collared Snow leopard stops for more than a day. Usually they have killed a prey at these sites. Prey species, gender and age are determined to estimate what Snow Leopards feed on and how often they kill prey. For the first time ever, the researchers were able to located dens with cubs in June 2012. Two collared females had delivered cubs, one of them had two cubs and the other had only one. This is the first data of birth rates for wild snow leopards.

Thanks to the amazing work that is being done in Mongolia by Örjan and Snow Leopard Trust and Panthera, they are now well on their way to unravel some of the mystery surrounding this amazing cat. Nordens Ark is proud to be a part of it. By engaging in collaboration with dedicated field organizations we in zoo community can contribute to global conservation and be an active force in saving endangered animals. I will end this paper by telling you that the costs for Nordens Ark to be part of this extremely valuable research is not that much. The donation and support we get as a result of the profile gained from the involvement in this project is far more than if we simply used the same amount of money on advertisement to generate more visitors. My humble advice is – go for real conservation, work in partnership, tell the whole world about our work and the money will be there for you!


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Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

Community Conservation – A Peri‑Urban Case Study in Fighting Extinction Laura Mumaw, Port Phillip and Westernport Catchment Management Authority (previously of Zoos Victoria, Australia)

Abstract Lessons from the fight to save the Helmeted Honeyeater from extinction in greater Melbourne are presented. Work has involved collaboration between local, State and regional agencies, landowners and interested community over years and includes a zoo based captive breeding and release program. The development of an integrated conservation strategy for greater Melbourne’s environmental assets as an interactive website is described. The benefits of this approach, a first in Australia, include the promotion of adaptive management and continuous improvement, better prioritisation of programs and resources, and support for partnerships of agencies, organizations (like zoos), and communities to achieve regional environmental goals.

Causes of vertebrate species extinction in Australia are similar to those worldwide Key factors which have caused and continue to threaten the extinction of Australian vertebrate species are; widespread land clearing and alteration; changes to river and groundwater hydrology; pollution; overfishing; and the introduction of exotic animals and plants. The legacy of poor past practices leaves us with significant ongoing challenges (State of the Environment 2011 Committee, 2011). We will continue to battle future pressures from human population growth, economic development and climate change. Vertebrate species whose populations have dwindled will be even more vulnerable to change.

Fighting extinction in urban/peri‑urban areas Improving and protecting Australian environmental assets is a priority of all levels of Australian government. Keys to achieving this will be integrated and coordinated policy, planning and management decisions and better environmental information systems and access to data. It will require cooperation and collaboration of all levels of government with stakeholders, most importantly the community (State of the Environment 2011 Committee, 2011).

Amongst the challenges to halt the loss of biodiversity in cities are the many different government jurisdictions involved at national, state, and local level. Here in greater Melbourne (the Port Phillip and Westernport region) there are 38 different local government municipalities. For local Councils the development of effective action plans is hampered by lack of information on species’ presence and life histories, population changes over time, causes of loss and ways to mitigate them and further compounded by inadequate monitoring and reporting feedback loops. This is made worse by the time scales required to monitor impacts and the dearth of interim indicator measures. There are always too few resources and filling knowledge gaps is given lower priority. Over the last twenty years there has been a growing movement of partnerships between community‑based environmental care groups, government and nongovernment organisations working collaboratively on habitat and species conservation. There is emerging evidence that some of these initiatives are halting a decline in individual species and or seeing a return of species to an area. A case study of one of these initiatives – saving the Helmeted Honeyeater from extinction – is described below.


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Saving the Helmeted Honeyeater from extinction – a case study

Commencement of the Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery Program

The Helmeted Honeyeater was first described in 1867. After several scientific name changes, it was reclassified in 1973 as a sub‑species of the Yellow‑tufted Honeyeater. It is the brightest and largest of four subspecies and is listed as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List. It is the one native Australian bird found only in Victoria.

In 1952 the Bird Observers Club of Australia began a 10 year investigation of Helmeted Honeyeaters at Yellingbo. Alarmed by its decline, interested groups, chief among them the Bird Observers Club, began urging the Victorian Government in 1960 to establish a Helmeted Honeyeater sanctuary and to make the Helmeted Honeyeater a Victorian state emblem. In 1967 Yellingbo State Fauna Reserve was established. By this time there were estimated to be only 200 Helmeted Honeyeaters in the wild. In 1971 the Helmeted Honeyeater was proclaimed a faunal emblem.

The first Helmeted Honeyeater specimen was collected in 1866 in the Bass River area near Western Port Bay. In the 1880s and early 1900s Helmeted Honeyeaters were recorded at Olinda Creek, Cardinia Creek and Woori Yallock Creek. By the 1940s its original range had shrunk dramatically as the land was transformed through drainage of swamps and clearing for agricultural production.

Friends of the Helmeted Honeyeater A community support group has been pivotal for almost a quarter of a century. The Friends of the Helmeted Honeyeater formed at a public meeting to bring the Helmeted Honeyeater back from the brink, its inaugural chair a retired primary schoolteacher who promised his friend, the ranger, “If there’s anything I can help you with, let me know,”. Twenty three years later he is still busy monitoring birds and working with fellow volunteers. But as Mr Anderson says – “I’m not a birdo, I’m more a plant person”. Due to his influence, early on the Friends developed a native plant nursery for locally provenanced species and began revegetation on the reserve and private land close by. Today the 300 strong group produce between 50,000 to 80,000 plants a year for plantings, employ two paid positions and contribute over 5000 hours a year in volunteer labour including community education, fauna surveys and supplementary feeding of Helmeted Honeyeaters (Friends of the Helmeted Honeyeater, 2012).

In 1983 the Ash Wednesday bushfires destroyed two of the three known colonies of Helmeted Honeyeaters, leaving the Yellingbo population the sole remaining group. In 1989, 23 years ago, the population of birds hit an all‑time low of fifty individuals, including fifteen pairs of breeding birds (Craddock, 2012). At this time the Friends of the Helmeted Honeyeater, the official Helmeted Honeyeater Recovery team, and the captive breedLessons: ing program at Healesville Sanctuary were commenced. This was a nadir for the Helmeted Honeyeater popula- • Community involvement is essential (long term, committed, persistent tion and numbers have not sunk this with relevant expertise) low since. • Personal friendships and networks Lessons: make a difference

Today the Helmeted Honeyeater lives in dense riverside vegetation at low altitudes with relatively high and consistent rainfall. Though it appears this was not always the case, all existing wild populations depend on remnant patches of Mountain Swamp Gum with an abundance of loose bark, trees and the presence of surface water for much of the year. These appear to be features of high‑quality breeding habitat and they prefer to nest in partially submerged trees. The scarcity of good breeding habitat is hypothesized to be what is limiting its • The involvement of birdwatchers – population (Barrett, Freudenberger most amateurs – over years started & Nicholls, 2005). There are currently a significant conservation program estimated to be 100 or so Helmeted • Early detection of decline is critical Honeyeaters in three colonies in the • A charismatic animal draws attenwild – colonies which are only 60 km tion (or about 40 miles) from downtown Melbourne.


70 Zoo involvement The involvement of a zoo has been invaluable. Since 1989 Healesville Sanctuary has successfully bred 350 Helmeted Honeyeaters and has released over 200 birds into the wild since 1995. Today, wild birds number in the order of 100.

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Current captive management challenges are to increase success in getting birds to pair, improve the strength of nests to avoid egg loss and improve the skills of captive‑reared birds in predator avoidance and feeding so that they are less reliant on supplementary feeding (B. Quinn, personal communication, September 6, 2012).

The landscape focus provides benefits to a range of other native plant and animal populations using this habitat. Yellingbo Reserve itself is home to the critically endangered Leadbeater’s Possum (another Victorian emblem species) and the vulnerable Mountain Swamp Gum. Tragically the gums continue to dieback due to past changes to the hydrology of the creeks within and upstream of the Reserve. This has been exacerbated by twelve years of drought in which patches of the gums were left with no water flow for long periods of time, followed by recent excessive flooding which itself seems to be causing some dieback.

Critics say that a lot of funding and work has gone into a program for‘ Lessons: just a subspecies’, with little progress in terms of number of birds in • An insurance population is critical the wild. But independent reviews • Captive management and reinsuggest that in all likelihood the troduction techniques need to be Helmeted Honeyeater would be developed extinct today without the efforts of • Research is needed the Recovery program (Barrett et Lessons al, 2005). The wild population has more than doubled since the start of Landscape management the program. In January this year, a is required • Expand and improve land in re17 year old male bird from the first serves release was sighted – a record for Initially the Recovery program • Create habitat corridors/biolinks survival. The long term objective is to focused on small population manage- • Focus on landscape management achieve a stable population of at least ment – genetics, captive breeding, and help other species 1000 individuals in at least 10 separeintroduction and translocation, rerate but interconnected colonies. moval of competitors and predators, and habitat restoration and expanYarra4Life The zoo’s work has set the foundation sion in the conservation reserve. This for understanding how to successfully was not enough. In 2006 Yarra4Life was formed, buildbreed, rear and reintroduce caping on previous work, to improve the tive honeyeaters, including the use Of the 40,000 hectares of Yarra Valley quality of land, water and native habiof cross‑fostering. There is a viable countryside surrounding and includtat in the Yarra Valley. Coordinated captive population as an insurance ing Yellingbo Reserve, only 30% of by the Port Phillip and Westernport policy. Release techniques have the original native habitat remains, in Catchment Management Authority, evolved from hand release to the use patches and along narrow lineal creek participants include the Department of portable aviaries with a removable frontages. The natural flows of some of Sustainability and Environment, roof, allowing the birds to leave when local rivers and creeks have been Zoos Victoria, Friends of the Heland as they wish. Supplementary altered and the quality of water has meted Honeyeater, Melbourne Water, feeding stations are provided around declined due to nutrient, sediment Birdlife Australia, LaTrobe University, release sites, which are placed in the and toxicant inputs from horticultural the Macclesfield Landcare group, activities such as potato farming. This Parks Victoria, Trust for Nature, Yarra vicinity of wild birds. Released birds also causes the swampy areas to silt are being radio tracked, banded and Ranges Shire, traditional owners the up, reducing natural flood events. micro‑chipped. Wurrundjeri Tribe, Food for Trees (a nongovernment organisation whose Increasingly the Recovery Program members consist of food and wine began to focus on broader landscape industry members and who donate a management in and around the repercentage of their profits to planting serve, nearby parks, and surrounding trees) and others. agricultural land. Tens of thousands of local native plants have been planted Yarra4Life is designed to be a landto restore habitat, fences erected to scape‑scale, practical response to protect habitat patches and willows environmental pressures by creating killed and removed. Major engineernew partnerships, finding resources, ing works have been undertaken in and delivering on ground improveone of the creeks to control erosion, ments. raise the level of the stream bed, and divert water across the floodplain.


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One of its key objectives is the establishment of three major biolinks to connect Yellingbo Reserve with Bunyip State Park to the Southeast, the Yarra Ranges National Park to the north and the Dandenong Ranges National Park to the West. The current target is to increase habitat in the proposed biolinks by 1000 hectares by 2016 (Port Phillip and Westernport Catchment Management Authority (PPWCMA), in press). Success will be dependent on efficient and professional systems and people to manage the creation of the biolinks and funding from the public, private and philanthropic sectors. Most critically, it will rely on public and private landholders contributing some of their land to form part of the biolinks and taking responsibility for maintaining a site when it has been restored and protected. One of the challenges recruiting landholders is their suspicion of government agencies. Letters on official letterhead explaining what is on offer are often‘ chucked in the bin’. Another challenge is the increasing parcelling of landholdings in the area into smaller units which are purchased by town residents. These new owners have weaker connections with the local community and land management practices. In response, communication about the biolinks program is increasingly being done through local nurseries, farmers’ markets, local events and community volunteers. Lessons • Community leaders, passionate about making a difference long term, are essential • Connect with community in their places and ways to build relationships and share knowledge

Support for nature conservation in peri‑urban regions – Port Phillip and Westernport Catchment Management Authority In 1994 the State of Victoria set up 10 Catchment Management Authorities (CMAs) to protect and improve the land, water, plant and animal resources across their respective regions in an integrated and coordinated way, and to encourage and support participation of landholders and other members of the community in that work (State of Victoria Catchment and Land Protection Act 1994, Act No. 52/1994). The Port Phillip and Westernport Catchment Management Authority (PPWCMA) is responsible for the Greater Melbourne Region. Features of this region include: • It is home to 75% of the State’s population and its largest city • Of its 1.3 million hectares, 50% is rural farmland whose annual gross value of agricultural production is greater than $1 billion • 39% of local indigenous vegetation remains (including several areas of significant grasslands) and 34% of this is in parks and reserves with a further 20% on public land, with the remaining 46% on private land • There are 38 local municipalities and over 500 volunteer landcare and community groups. The PPWCMA has 23 staff and an annual budget of about $8M, with most coming from State and Australian government (approximately 50% each) for carrying out on ground works. The agency’s work has to be strategic and focused and carried out through partnerships. We see ourselves as strategic guide and advisor, facilitator, and sometimes coordinator of environmental care in our region.

A primary task of a CMA is the preparation, with broad input, of a 5 year regional catchment strategy which sets out the natural resources in the region, identifies objectives and targets for improving its quality, and nominates who should undertake them. The CMA is responsible for supporting the implementation of the approved strategy and reporting on progress. This year for the first time anywhere in Australia our CMA will be preparing its catchment strategy as a website.

The draft Regional Catchment Strategy website Preparing the strategy as a website has many advantages. One of its greatest strengths is its ability, unlike a paper version, to be updated as required. Different types of assets can be added, filling of knowledge gaps can be communicated as discoveries are made, and targets and action plans can be modified. This will support adaptive management and continuous improvement in a world which is changing at an ever increasing pace. Most importantly, the information will be easily accessible to any organisations and the community interested in environmental management. A website is currently being developed. When you click on an asset, a pop‑up box displays its current condition, objectives and targets for improving it, who is playing a lead role, and where you can find out more. Other tabs in the website provide detailed information on the methodology for measuring the current condition of an asset and setting targets for its future condition, the pressures it is under, and known knowledge gaps. The website can help agencies and groups add and review data at a scale useful to them. It can assist them to prioritise their programs and resources, targeting improvements which link with those of others to get better‘ bang for buck’. The community can learn what is happening and join in.


72 Partnerships and a regional alliance Our aim is to connect, support and assist in the initiation of collaborative partnerships between community groups, government and nongovernment organisations to protect and improve the environment and our natural heritage, like the Yarra4Life program described above. In order for this approach to work the various agencies and groups accountable for environmental health need to flesh out the strategy and take responsibility for its implementation as an alliance. What you are hearing is breaking news – we will be having a workshop this Thursday with a group of potential Alliance members to discuss the design of the alliance, how it might work, their thoughts on the website, and next steps.

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Application to zoos In closing, what does this mean for zoos? We have heard a lot about the work zoos carry out, from connecting visitors with nature to captive management, reintroduction, fieldwork and leading personal behavioural change. I would like to urge you, particularly those with urban zoos, to continue to work at connecting people with nature, not only in your zoos but in their own backyards. Introduce your visitors and community to activities like birdwatching, bird and butterfly surveys and other forms of citizen science. Encourage them to share discoveries with their neighbours, restore habitat in their local parks, plant native species in their gardens and ask their councils to be environmental leaders. Help your environmental agencies in targeted projects – there is always a need for leadership by organisations and people who understand administration, project management, and science. Zoos are usually not seen as government agencies and can be good facilitators. This work will build your credibility, relationships and recognition as players working real time outside your walls.

References • Barrett, G., Freudenberger, D. and Nicholls, A. O. (2005). A template for threatened species management: learning from the Helmeted Honeyeater (Lichenostomus melanops cassidix). CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra. • Craddock, M. (2012). The Helmeted Hon‑ eyeater in time. Unpublished manuscript. • Friends of the Helmeted Honeyeater (2012). www.helmetedhoneyeater.org.au. • Port Phillip and Westernport Catchment Management Authority (in press). Yarra4Life Business Plan. • State of the Environment 2011 Committee (2011). Australia state of the environ‑ ment 2011 – in brief. Independent report to the Australian Government Minister for Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Canberra: DSEWPaC.


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Special Session on Population Management and Ocean Conservation

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Future Proofing Programs – an Australasian approach Zoo and Aquarium Association Australasia Karen Fifield, Susan Hunt, Chris Hibbard, Carolyn Hogg, Amanda Embury

This paper aims to share the approach taken by the Zoo and Aquarium Association – Australasia (ZAA) for enhancing and delivering our regional species management programs and improving the accuracy of reporting and feedback to our members. We acknowledge that institution decision‑makers are keen to determine the level of resource commitment required to participate in a species management program, and the likelihood of success, available opportunities as well as assessment of any risks and their potential mitigation. Consequently our species management documents have evolved beyond reporting on genetic and demographic parameters. They now also communicate evidence‑based details that will inform a Director’s or CEO’s decision on the value, commitment required and any challenges in participating in a specific program.

Introduction The Zoo and Aquarium Association has evolved rapidly since its formation as a regional association in 1990 when 10 organisations founded the Association – all large government sector zoos. Now in 2012, the Association hosts 87 members with a significant shift toward smaller private sector businesses. In Australia the industry attracts 17.7 million visitors per annum. When the Australasian Species Management Program (ASMP) started, program capacity was limited in line with membership size. These constraints prompted a rapidly evolving suite of programs for the management of exotic species. The driving factor was the need to ensure that there was effective management of the genetics of these populations. The challenge was to apply sound principle of small population to a scenario that had many limitations. This included the need for maintaining many species in non‑breeding situations for prolonged periods in order to avoid production of surplus. Currently the ASMP supports 116 professionally managed species programs. The region has been fortunate to have a number of forward thinking people shape our regional programs, with acknowledgement going to Caroline Lees and Jonathan Wilcken for their contribution. Both Australia and New Zealand have stringent legislation and regulations around import of wildlife. These restrictions have shaped our regional

animal collections. Primary production is a significant revenue earner and forms a major part of the regions export market. The region is also free of most major livestock and poultry diseases and as such there is a strong lobby to maintain very stringent requirements on animal movements and as such birds and pigs are not eligible for import and bovids are highly restricted. During the 1990s, it was hoped that our regional collections could include various species nominated as priorities by IUCN/SSC Global Captive Action Plans, however stringent import requirements, particularly in regard to many of the range state countries and in several cases the limited availability of specimens – even within the zoo community did not see many of these realised upon. Most exotic species managed under ASMP programs are managed to ensure that the species will be available for exhibition by zoos in this region, with conservation outcomes often being achieved by advocacy roles, although we do have a number of regional populations which are relevant and have value to global captive population; and our programs strive to consider both local and global requirements. Zoos in this region have a significant opportunity for involvement in Recovery Programs for New Zealand native and Australian native species. Thus our regional ASMP programs tend to have one of either of the two following objectives – sustain populations for conservation education in zoos or a contribution to Recovery programs.


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What Is Species Management?

In many organizations this has lead to changing profile of financial stakeholders and there is an increased requirement for confidence in accuracy Over the years we have considered and resilience. In addition with the inthe term species management. When creased links to species recovery and we talk about species management, in‑situ conservation efforts facts and what do we mean? Are we talking accuracy are pivotal to maintaining about provision of animal welfare, credibility and relevance in a highly the way in which we manage species in our collections or are we talking competitive market – especially in about principles of small populations relation to external funding. These management? types of conversations were significant issues for many of our AssociaFor our ASMP programs we consider tions members and these conversathat all of these factors contribute to tion were ultimately the catalyst for species management, however difthe development of the Associations ferent stakeholders will have differing “Future Directions Project”. needs and focus.

A Directors Perspective Zoos present a complex business‑focussed operating environment working for conservation outcomes. Directors seek accessible, clear material to inform decisions and brief stakeholders. Evidence based information is a business priority, unfortunately is some cases‘ Zoomours’ or zoo based rumours can be considered as fact and compromise the integrity of evidence based decision making. The Associations recently developed executive summaries for all managed species clearly illustrate a series of strategic, operational and small population biology trends that support sound and holistic decision making. A summary of these executive summaries is published and provided to directors for the complete suite of managed programs and this further enhance business reporting on the overall investment made by members of the Association in the ASMP and its supported programs.

Future Directions Project In 2008 the Australasian Species management Program (ASMP), (the species management arm of ZAA) Committee formally raised concerns over the quality of delivery of its species management programs. This was the impetus for a significant change to the approach taken in delivering these programs and was titled the “ASMP Future Directions Project”. The process implemented by the ZAA follows a process that came from Motorola in the late 1980’s. It’s a quality management methodology commonly known as the “Six Sigma” approach. It’s based on a cycle of constant quality improvement, review and refinement The small size of the Australasian region makes some of the regions animals programs at risk where the number of participants is limited and zoo spaces are at a premium. Genetic and demographic stability can be challenged from a number of events whether the impacts of our own actions, those applied externally (Government legislation) or purely stochastic. The Associations animal management portfolio comprised of 129 managed programs which were meeting their annual reporting requirements (and therefore providing some facts on program status) at a rate of 60%.

The project required that the suite of regionally prioritised species be re defined and this resulted in a critical analysis of the existing species programs. The initial approach to species selection had followed a typical and well considered TAG approach where the conservation value of the species were sought to be optimised. Whilst this was working in some cases, there were a number of species selected for management where the availability of specimens and/or supporting legislation was not allowing the regional collection plans to be implemented effectively and or opportunities were being lost where species subject to phase out were not being superseded at the same rate as those planned to phase in. The Future Directions Project opted to look at the current operating environment both internal and external along with the status of the species populations at a broad population level in order to determine the likelihood of success. This sorted the species into what was likely to be viable in terms of investing in a more detailed critical analysis process. Out of this process a number of existing animal programs were removed from the regional species management portfolio. These were species that typically were housed in low numbers, had poor commitment to future capacity, were genetically limited, and did not have supporting legislation in regard to importation. The door for flexibility in the managed suite of programs was left open, however under a new application process whereby the Associations ASMP Committee would approve all applications to formally manage species from the TAGs. This requires that a number of key criteria around sustainability, such as access to founders, potential for inter regional collaboration, commitment to facilities and ability to import are all demonstrated before such approval is given.


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Building The Facts Around Performance There was a lot of guessing on the performance of the species programs, but only limited facts, and those facts were largely skewed to genetic analysis and in turn were only available where a program had a viable studbook and that studbook was being used to generate formal reporting. Whilst several programs were performing admirably – there was not the level of consistency to present the facts across the whole suite of Association supported programs in order to inform the members of the Association in a manner that was evidence driven. The Associations ASMP Committee had raised that the performance of a number of programs was not meeting expectation and solutions to issues were not readily apparent, however at the outset of the discussion the reasons for the lack of performance were largely anecdotal. There was a perception that outside (legislative) influences were a significant issue in regard to exotic species in particular. On the basis of anecdote we may well have put significant resources into legislative issues, however not only were the facts not available to support this consideration later analysis of those facts would prove to be very revealing when working within the current legislative framework. The import of large animals into Australia is a costly exercise and any supported efforts need to be strategically useful. The Association had undertaken a compliance report over a number of years to measure the rate at which individual members were implementing recommendations in regard to animal movements and breeding recommendations where formally provided and although the level of compliance was deemed to be high, this was largely based on‘ attempted’ rather than actual. Although successful in developing a better awareness within organisations it was still only measuring individual participants and not the overall program success and achievements.

Benchmarking In order to determine the drivers behind the overall success or otherwise of the Associations programs we opted for an‘ all of business’ assessment model named as the ASMP Health Check Report This saw us assess programs in relation to three key areas; the program administration and training that the Association provides, the small population biology and implementation success of transfer and breeding recommendations supported through the membership participation and the level of support provided by external factors such as government legislation and ability to access founders. A final aggregated score flaged points of focus in determining the appropriate deployment of Association resources.

Managing The Change & Stakeholder Engagement Our Zoo communities have a diversity of views although sometimes we are not as good at celebrating people diversity as much as biodiversity. Not everyone loves the facts! Like all organisations the Association has evolved in its membership over time. The initial members of the Association tended to be the larger Government based organisations who had provided all of the establishment funding, drive and staff on which the Association was founded and as such services tended to suit the business model represented by the Government organisations. As time has passed and the membership has grown a majority of the‘ growth’ has been in the private sector, including small fauna parks through to large international companies with interests in some of the country’s leading tourist attractions.

As the Association has developed there has been an increased reliance on a multitude of business models interacting with each other in order to make the best use of limited spaces and resources. As such the question of‘ what does our typical member or customer look like and how does the Association best cater for their needs’ becomes all the more important. This also raises the important case of any one species serving a multitude of outcomes for an equally diverse range of stakeholders. The focus of the Associations approach has been on providing advice and facilitating opportunities that support the sustainability of the collections that the members desire to hold. Previously a completely centralised model for the delivery of species management was considered, however the level of staffing predicted suggested that this was not cost effective and was not pursued. An effective model was required to resource the goal of program management supported from the membership with quality control oversight from the Association, Strategy led by the ASMP Committee and technical advice and problem solving supported through the TAG process. This saw a new resourcing model established which aimed at developing clear lines of responsibility and inter relationships between the Association office, TAGs and member institutions.


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Policy & Procedure

Globalization

The approach is based on an “invitation to participate”. As part of the stakeholder engagement process the Association sought to redevelop a series of policies and procedures that took a complex topic and promote an intent driven framework that informed members and invited participation.

Program globalisation should not be seen as a cure for program challenges at the regional level. We need to take the responsibility for what we can facilitate as a region before defaulting to a global position. The various analysis undertaken by several regions all point to similar sorts of challenges facing their managed programs – essentially we are all on the same slope but some of us are further down the slope than others.

The approach is based on one of constant improvement and uses any developing‘ real life’ situations to shape changes and amendments. This has resulted in a policy and procedure framework that is short and accessible.

Government Affairs The Association has significantly increased its interface with Federal Government and through the mutual understanding of each other needs this has reduced permit processing times as well as invitations to sit on joint committee’s relative to vertebrate pest species and import risk assessment process for new species being considered for import.

The Association is proud of its participation on the WAZA CPM and as a contributor to the ISB and GSMP process. Part of the work is around communicating the benefit of ISBs and GSMPs and as such the ASMP has chosen to promote the WAZA ISB and GSMP label on all relevant regional documentation. Global management across the diversity of partners requires all of us to value the connection, promote the process and acknowledge that changes to the way we do things will need to occur in order to maximise the potential.

Facing the Facts The health check report commenced tracking program statistics in 2008 and each year thereafter. In 2012 we conducted a review of the process to determine a measure of improvement. In 2008 there were 129 managed programs and by 2012 113 programs. The analysis indicated that significant improvement were observed in the Administration of programs for birds, herpetofauna, NZ fauna and ungulates. The Science area had improved for birds and legislative improvements for ungulate programs. This analysis was published in Zoo Biology, Hogg et al. (2012) Zoo Biol: DOI 10.1002/ zoo.21039

The current Health Check Report allows for easy assessment across a multitude of criteria and as a result of the observed trends will weight the scores in the science area more heavily as this is where the major trends on shortfall are showing. This was largely driven through the observed shortfalls in recommended specimen transfers and targeted breeding recommendations. In this regard we sought to better understand some of the drivers behind such information and what might be supported by the Association to address these. One such initiative was the assessment of observed breeding seasonality across programs and the resetting of deadlines for annual reporting where transfer and breeding recommendations were provided. At a more specific level the Association has also sought to introduce more detailed analysis of studbook data to challenge thinking into quantifiable and evidence based dialogue. Some of the improved functionality within the species management software packages have been instrumental in supporting this. In order to reach the institutional leaders in a manner that provides both science and business context the Association has sought to publish the entire years programs as a series of Executive Summaries. These show trend analysis and identify key achievements and challenges that allow Directors and CEO’s to quickly determine the status of a particular program, the likelihood of success and inform decision making on whether joining the program has the required level of sustainability and/or meeds business confidence needs.


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Supporting Training

Resourcing Model

The Association has identified the need to target training with two current initiatives. The first is to understand the rationale and background to the outputs from the software packages. It has been found that whilst species coordinators are able to extract various outputs from the software, comparatively fewer full understand the rationale to such data and are able to critically review this. The Mx values are a good example where the understanding of the Risk (Mx) scores is required to ensure expectations around success are not overly ambitious.

It’s accepted practice for zoos to have targets for admissions, budgets, catering and retail. Targets are set, and performance is monitored. As appropriate, adjustments will be made to ensure favourable outcomes. When zoos progress capital developments, there are stringent expectations around scope of the program, budget allocations and time for delivery. The program is constantly reviewed and assessed, with variations approved in responses to any changes required.

Another development in supporting a broadly distributed membership has been the development of self help training videos on a dedicated You Tube channel. This provides support to our members in the use of the various software packages and in turn how to extract specific outputs that are required as part of the Association’s Annual Reporting requirements for each of the managed programs. A trial run of these self help tools saw some with no or limited experience in the use of PMx for example to be able to complete annual reporting requirements with a very minimal level of additional training support.

It would make good sense then for a similar philosophy to be applied to management of our species. There should be rigour in developing programs to ensure that targets are identified, and clarity of roles (including resource commitments). Performance should be monitored, and if programs are not on track to deliver targets, investigation should occur to determine contributing factors, and appropriate risk mitigation occur. The Association has supported a model of shared responsibility for the delivery of its species management portfolio. Key changes included shifting the responsibility for program reporting performance to the institution rather than the nominated species coordinator and repositioning the TAGs in a more husbandry focused support role to address the identified shortfalls in program performance through the ASMP Health Check report.

The first step in assessing programs is gaining reports. Encouraging ASMP position holders to complete reports has been a priority, with percentage return increasing. For 2011, reports were completed and submitted for 93% of ASMP Programs. Previously we’ve known that some programs are in dire straits – but we’ve not really understood the factors contributing to lack of success. It was suggested that it might be due to inexperienced species co‑ordinators, or to the fact that we were unable to recruit new founders. We have developed some simple techniques, to assess program performance, and to pin‑point factors that are compromising program delivery. This has resulted in an evidence‑based approach to assessment of our programs. In summary we are continuing to • Promote the high level of reporting on our nominated programs • We’re no longer guessing because we now have the facts • With the facts we can now analyse the probable causes of program shortfalls and successes


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Mission of Mermaids (film screening) and Introduction to Ocean Acidification Presented by Ellycia Harrould‑Kolieb* Introduction Climate change is now widely recognized as the most significant environmental challenge of our time. This does not just mean that the environment or‘ nature’ is in danger. We too will suffer the consequences. We are inherently inseparable from the environment around us and are reliant upon the services it provides, from the air we breathe and the climates we inhabit, to the fertilized crops we consume. We are exquisitely adapted to the Earth as we know it. Unfortunately, our activities are now altering the balance of gases in the atmosphere – the very gases that help regulate the temperature and climate. Our ever‑growing greenhouse gas emissions, predominantly carbon dioxide, are trapping more heat in the atmosphere, causing the temperature of the Earth’s surface to rise. The result? Melting ice caps, sea level rise, hotter average temperatures, shifting wildlife populations, changing disease patterns, and more severe droughts and storms. The disrupted climate system will dramatically change the way people live on this planet. We can expect to see more heat‑related sickness and death, and food supplies and food prices disrupted by more severe droughts. There will likely be widespread hunger in some countries and perhaps even famine. Rising sea levels will flood huge swaths of coastline. Within the coming centuries some of the world’s largest and most important cities – including New York City, Bangkok and London – will be at risk of flooding and even total immersion. Entire countries such as Bang-

ladesh and most small island nations will lose significant land area forcing millions of climate refugees to flee the rising seas. Along with a disrupted climate system, our emissions of carbon dioxide are having a severe, but more insidious, impact on the oceans. The oceans absorb roughly 30 percent of global carbon emissions and 80 percent of the heat generated by increased levels of greenhouse gases, thereby mitigating some of the climate change that would otherwise occur.1,2 However, this relief comes at a great cost. Not only are the oceans warming and rising, but they are also becoming more acidic. The increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the oceans results in reactions that are changing the chemistry of the oceans, through a process known as ocean acidification. This threatens marine organisms like hard corals, clams and crabs that create calcium carbonate shells and skeletons. The acid created by excess carbon dioxide in the oceans takes the materials these organisms would otherwise use to create shells and skeletons, and makes it unavailable. This makes it increasingly difficult for corals and other marine animals to strengthen existing structures and build new ones. If ocean acidification continues, the very water that these organisms live in could become so corrosive that it would dissolve their shells and skeletons directly.

* first published by Oceana 2009 as Acid Test: Can We Save Our Oceans From Co2? By Ellycia Harrould‑Kolieb & Jacqueline Savitz

While the chemical processes making the oceans more acidic are well understood and accepted, we are just beginning to understand the wide‑ranging effects acidification is likely to have on marine wildlife. Increased acidity may not directly kill non‑calcifying organisms, but many are likely to be harmed in ways that reduce their overall fitness and ability to survive. These impacts could include decreased growth rate, reduced reproduction, disrupted respiratory and nervous system function and increased susceptibility to predators and disease, all of which could produce ripple effects through food webs and ecosystems. Ultimately, ocean acidification could transform the oceans, leaving them far less diverse and productive and making the lives and livelihoods of those who depend on them far more uncertain. According to Stanford University oceanographer Ken Caldeira and his colleagues: “[The] chemical effects of CO2 on the marine environment may be as great a cause for concern as the radiative effects of CO2 on Earth’s climate.” 3


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Reaching the Limits Current atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are already above safe levels. As a result, significant changes are already taking place throughout the oceans, from decreasing growth rates of corals on the Great Barrier Reef to massive coral bleaching events across the tropics. Coral reefs provide important habitat to a quarter of all marine species and are critical to the lives and livelihoods of many humans. Allowing coral reefs to disappear would result in intolerable changes throughout the oceans and to the lives of hundreds of millions of humans. What happens to coral reefs will foreshadow other catastrophic changes that are likely to take place around the world due to ocean acidification and climate change. To prevent the loss of coral reefs, and ultimately avert a climate crisis, we must reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide levels below 350 parts per million (ppm).4 Unfortunately, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has already reached 385 part per million and is still climbing.5 This current level is also much higher than it has been at any time over the course of human civilization.6 In today’s society carbon dioxide emissions are directly tied to our continually growing need for energy. Recent figures released by the U. S. Energy and Information Administration (EIA) suggest that staying on the current business‑as‑usual (BAU) path, where

current laws and policies remain unchanged, will result in world energy consumption in 2030 that is 50 percent above 2005 levels.7 This would result in an atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration of over 570 ppm.8 If we continue along our current emissions path reefs will continue to degrade and could be pushed passed a tipping point, which is likely to occur at an atmospheric carbon dioxide level of around 450 ppm. At this point, reefs as we know them would be threatened with extinction. Once we surpass this tipping point coral reefs will shrink rapidly,9 and at least half of coral‑associated wildlife will become rare or extinct. Shortly after that, coral reef ecosystems will likely be reduced to crumbling frameworks with few calcareous corals remaining.10 Since coral reefs take decades or even centuries to form, once such damage is done, the impacts will be irreversible for generations.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that in order to stabilize carbon dioxide in the atmosphere at 350 ppm, global carbon dioxide emissions would need to be cut 85 percent below 2000 levels by 2050,11 and in order to achieve this Annex I countries (industrialized countries and countries with economies in transition, such as the Russian Federation) would need to reduce their carbon emissions by 25 to 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 and 80 to 95 percent by 2050. Because these are not easy goals to achieve, countries and the international community must take action now to meet them. Our ability to set and meet short‑term goals over the coming years will determine how successful we will be at safely stabilizing the climate. The longer we wait to act the more difficult averting catastrophe becomes.

Findings

To save coral reefs from ocean acidification, we must stabilize atmospheric This report highlights the following carbon dioxide at or below a concenrecent findings demonstrating that tration of 350 ppm. By doing so, we ocean acidification is already ocwill also prevent other climate‑relatcurring and threatening the oceans. ed catastrophes. Current atmospheric It also identifies the likely consecarbon dioxide levels already exceed quences of continued carbon dioxide this amount, and with a projected emissions for oceans and marine increase over the coming decades ecosystems. it is vital to get on the right trajectory within the next few years and • Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is to make sure that carbon emissions higher than it has been for 800,000 peak and begin to decline within years and probably for much a decade. longer.12 • The acidity of the ocean surface has increased 30 percent since before the Industrial Revolution.13 If current trends continue, it could rise by another 100 percent by the end of this century14, exceeding the levels of the past 20 million years.15 • The increased amount of carbon dioxide the oceans are absorbing alters the movement of nutrients and chemicals in the oceans and has wide ranging effects on ecosystems and marine life.16 • The higher acidity will also affect growth, reproduction, disease resistance and other biological and physiological processes in many species.21


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INF 67.5 • Many species will be unable to adapt to the rapid changes in ocean acidity and carbonate concentrations, especially those that build calcium carbonate shells and skeletons. This may lead to population crashes in many species, including oysters, mussels, crabs and lobsters.17,18,19, 20 • Impacts on carbonate‑dependent species like corals and pteropods could cause major ripple effects throughout ecosystems and food webs ultimately affecting even the largest animals in the oceans, as well as many commercial fisheries.22 • Nearly 30 percent of the world’s tropical corals have vanished since 1980, mainly due to warming events. At the current rate of emission growth, tropical corals could be gone by the middle to the end of this century.23,24 • If current emission trends continue, cold‑water corals will be severely stressed by 2040, and two‑thirds of them could be in a corrosive environment by the century’s end.25 • The disappearance of coral reefs would cost society billions of dollars annually due to losses in fishing, tourism and coastal protection services.26 • Over 100 million people depend on coral reefs economically,27 and subsistence communities may experience health consequences and lack of food security due to the loss of protein associated with coral reefs.28 • Many commercial fisheries depend on reefs which provide food and shelter for fish.29,30 The loss of reefs may further destabilize already depressed commercial fish populations. • To protect coral reefs and the ecosystems that depend on them, we must stabilize carbon dioxide in the atmosphere at or below 350 ppm. To achieve this, global emissions must be reduced to 85 percent below 2000 levels by 2050, which will require industrialized nations to reduce their emissions 25 to 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 and 80 to 95 percent by 2050.31,32,33

Solutions A variety of solutions will be needed to reduce levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to 350 ppm. These include: (1) a shift away from our carbon‑based energy economy, which can been done by building an infrastructure for energy alternatives such as solar, wind and hydrogen, and scaling back the use of coal unless carbon capture is effectively employed; (2) increasing energy efficiency in cars, trucks, trains, planes and ships, as well as in homes, office buildings, power generation and the industrial sector; and (3) reducing deforestation while also planting more forest land to help “draw down” carbon dioxide levels. If we want to save our coral reefs and shellfish fisheries, the ecosystems that depend on them and the values that we derive from them, we need to start now. With a 25-to‑40 percent reduction needed by the industrialized countries of the world by 2020, there is no time to waste.

Recommendations Adopt a Policy of Stabilizing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide at 350 ppm Governments must commit to stabilizing the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere at 350 ppm or below. To achieve this, serious strides need to be taken within the next five years to set society on a path to zero net carbon emissions within the coming decades.

Promote Energy Efficiency and Low Carbon Fuels Energy should be conserved at every opportunity, including through improved fuel efficiency of cars, trucks, airplanes and ships, provision of cleaner fuels, investment in efficient mass transit, and individual, institutional and corporate actions to reduce energy use.

Shift to Alternative Energy Sources New or expanded coal‑fired power plants and other expanded uses of coal should be prohibited until global warming pollution can be trapped and safely stored. In their place, governments and the private sector should implement programs to stimulate the development and use of renewable energy options such as wind and solar, and invest in upgrading the national power transmission grid so that energy produced from alternative sources can be cost‑effectively moved to markets. Governments should immediately eliminate any and all subsidies that encourage the use of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels currently in the ground in sensitive ecosystems such as the Arctic and offshore should stay in the ground.

Regulate Carbon Releases Governments should immediately begin regulating carbon releases using a system that internalizes emissions costs and prevents continued releases that harm the oceans. Under‑regulated sources of carbon dioxide emissions, such as those from shipping and aircraft should be included in a post‑Kyoto Agreement and regulated by the appropriate international bodies, such as the International Maritime Organization and the International Civil Aviation Organization.

Preserve Natural Resilience The natural resilience of marine ecosystem should be maintained by curtailing other human caused threats, such as overfishing and pollution. Ocean acidification and climate change are not isolated threats, but act in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Ocean ecosystems will have the best chance of surviving the pressures of ocean acidification if they are not simultaneously struggling to survive in the face of other threats.


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References Sabine, C. L. et al. (2004) The Oceanic Sink for Anthropogenic CO2, Science 305: 367–371 2. IPCC (2007) Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Con‑ tribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 3. Caldeira, Ken and Michael E. Wickett (2005) Ocean Model Predictions of Chemistry Changes from Carbon Dioxide Emissions to the Atmosphere and Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 110 4. Hoegh‑Guldberg, Ove et al. (2007) Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification, Science, 318: 1737–1742 5. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Global Climate Change, NASA’s Eyes on the Earth, http://climate. jpl.nasa.gov/ 6. Luthi, Dieter et al. (2005) Highresolution in carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000–800,000 years before present, Nature, 453: 379–382 7. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (2008) International Energy Outlook 2008, Highlights, www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/highlights.html 8. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (2008) International Energy Outlook 2008, Highlights, www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/highlights.html 9. Hoegh‑Guldberg, Ove et al. (2007) Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification, Science, 318: 1737–1742 10. 10 Hoegh‑Guldberg, Ove et al. (2007) Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification, Science, 318: 1737–1742 11. IPCC (2007) Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 12. Luthi, Dieter et al.. (2005) Highresolution in carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000–800,000 years before present, Nature, 453: 379–382 1.

13. Orr, James C. et al. (2005) Anthro-

22. Fabry, Victoria J. et al. (2008)

pogenic Ocean Acidification Over the Twenty‑first Century and its Impact on Calcifying Organisms, Nature, 437: 681–686 14. Caldeira, K. and Wickett, M. E. (2005) Ocean model predictions of chemistry changes from carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere and ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, 10: C09S04 15. Turley, C. M., J. M. Roberts and J. M. Guinotte (2007) Corals in deepwater: Will the unseen hand of ocean acidification destroy cold‑water ecosystems? Coral Reefs, 26: 445–448 16. Fabry, Victoria J. et al. (2008) Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Fauna and Ecosystem Processes, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65: 414–432 17. Hoegh‑Guldberg, Ove (2005) Low Coral Cover in a High‑CO2 World, Journal of Geophysical Research, 110: C09S06 18. Fabry, Victoria J. et al.. (2008) Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Fauna and Ecosystem Processes, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65: 414–432 19. Feely, Richard, et al. (2004) Impacts of Anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 System in the Oceans. Science, 305: 362–366 20. Gazeau, Frederic et al. (2007) Impact of Elevated CO2 on Shellfish Calcification, Geophysical Research Letters, 34 21. For example: Bibby, R. et al. (2008) Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Immune Response of the Blue Mussel Mytilus edulis, Aquatic Biology, 2: 67–74, Portner, Hans O., Martina Langenbuch and Anke Reipschlager (2004) Biological Impact of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentrations: Lessons from animal physiology and Earth History, Journal of Oceanography, 60: 705–718, Kurihara, Haruko, Shinji Shimode and Yoshihisa Shirayama (2004) Sub‑Lethal Effects of Elevated Concentration of CO2 on Planktonic Copepods and Sea Urchins, Journal of Oceanography, 60: 743–750, Castro, K. et al. (2006) The Conceptual Approach to Lobster Shell Disease Revisited, Journal of Crustacean Biology, 26(4): 646-660

Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Fauna and Ecosystem Processes, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65: 414–432 23. Caldeira, Ken. (2007) What Corals are Dying to Tell Us: About CO2 and Ocean Acidification, Roger Revelle Commemorative Lecture, Oceanography, 20 (2): 188–195 24. Hoegh‑Guldberg, Ove et al. (2007) Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification, Science, 318: 1737–1742 25. Guinotte, J. M. et al. (2006) Will human‑induced changes in seawater chemistry alter the distribution of deep‑sea corals? Frontiers Ecol. Env. 4: 141–146 26. Hoegh‑Guldberg, Ove (2005) Low Coral Cover in a High‑CO2 World, Journal of Geophysical Research, 110: C09S06 27. Hoegh‑Guldberg, Ove (2005) Low Coral Cover in a High‑CO2 World, Journal of Geophysical Research, 110: C09S06 28. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation) (2004) The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2004, FAO, Rome 29. Ishimatsu, Atsushi et al. (2004) Effects of CO2 on Marine Fish: Larvae and Adults, Journal of Oceanography, 60: 731–741 30. Roberts, S. and Hirshfield, M. (2004) Deep Sea Corals: Out of Sight, But no Longer out of Mind, Front. Ecol. Environ., 3: 123–130 31. IPCC (2007) Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 32. Hansen, J. et al. (2008) Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim? 33. Hoegh‑Guldberg, Ove et al. (2007) Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification, Science, 318: 1737–1742


October 2012 | Melbourne

List of Participants

83


84

Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

First Name Surname Amitabh Agnihotri Muna

Al Dhaheri

Organisation National Zoological Park New Delhi Al Ain Wildlife Park Resort

Ghanim

Al Hajeri

Al Ain Wildlife Park & Resort

Al Ain

Ahmed

Al Jneibi

Al Ain Wildlife Park & Resort

Al Ain

Henrik Lehmann Trine Gisselmann Brad Kazutoshi

Andersen

Odense Zoo

Odense

United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates Denmark

Andersen

Odense Zoo

Odense

Denmark

hla@odensezoo.dk

Sea World Orlando Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums Ararat Haifa Educational Zoo Archer Oceanis Australia Group Arsaithamkul Zoological Park Organisation Ban Fischinger Zoo Ljubljana Bar Zoological Centre Tel-Aviv Ramat-Gan Barongi Houston Zoo Barros Parque das Aves Baumgartner Zoo Nuremberg Bell Lincoln Park Zoo Bensted Adelaide Zoo Bergsma Melbourne Aquarium Bishan Singh Central Zoo Authority India Boardman Twycross Zoo Bobek Zoo Praha (Prague zoo) Bonner St Louis Zoo Boos Seaworld USA Boyle Association of Zoos & Aquariums Brady Memphis Zoo Brattmyhr Skansen Foundation Byers CBSG Carroll Bristol Zoo Gardens Chastain Cheyenne Mountain Zoo Chin Taipei Zoo Chin Wildlife Conservation Society Clarke Australia Zoo Clarke The Frozen Ark Coates Dreamworld Colas Zoo Ostrava Croukamp Parque das Aves de Kock Al Bustan Zoological Centre

Orlando Tokyo

USA Japan

brad.andrews@seaworld.com kazutoshi_arai@granvista.co.jp

Haifa Melbourne Bangkok Ljubljana Ramat-Gan

Israel Australia Thailand Slovenia Israel

haifazoo@ethos.co.il jeffarcher@hotmail.com visit.vet47@gmail.com info@zoo.si maya@safari.co.il

Houston Foz do Iguacu Nuremberg Chicago Adelaide Melbourne Delhi Atherstone Praha St Louis Orlando Silver Spring

USA Brazil Germany USA Australia Australia India UK Czech Republic USA USA USA

rbarongi@houstonzoo.org yarambarros@yahoo.com.br katrin.baumgartner@stadt.nuernberg.de kbell@lpzoo.org ebensted@zoossa.com.au caramello_koala_182@hotmail.com bonalbishan@gmail.com ceo@twycrosszoo.org ivan.rehak@volny.cz bonner@stlzoo.org michael.boos@seaworld.com pboyle@aza.org

Memphis Stockholm Apple Valley Bristol Colorado Springs Taipei New York Sunshine Coast Nottingham Gold Coast Ostrava Foz do Iguacu Sharjah

cbrady@memphiszoo.org john.brattmyhr@skansen.se onnie@cbsg.org cbarron@bristolzoo.org.uk bchastain@cmzoo.org sux01@zoo.gov.tw schin@wcs.org giles@australiazoo.com.au ann.clarke@nottingham.ac.uk letitia_lester@dreamworld.com.au director@zoo-ostrava.cz croukamp@uol.com.br meyer@albustanzoo.ae

De Silva’s Dick

Dehiwala Gland

USA Sweden USA UK USA Taiwan USA Australia UK Australia Czech Republic Brazil United Arab Emirates Sri Lanka Switzerland

Amsterdam Krefeld Apple Valley London Wellington Gold Coast Waco Chester Baton Rouge Tokoyo Gland

Netherlands Germany USA UK New Zealand Australia USA UK USA Japan Switzerland

lesley.dickie@eaza.net wolfgang.dressen@zookrefeld.de lee.ehmke@state.mn.us David.Field@zsl.org karen.fifield@wellingtonzoo.com jfisher@cws,org.au jimf@ci.waco.tx.us m.pilgrim@chesterzoo.org pfrost@brzoo.org ueno-zoo@tzps.or.jp monica.gamp@waza.org

Etty Jeffrey Visit Zdenka Yehuda Rick Yara Katrin Kevin Elaine April Bonal Suzanne Miroslav Jeffrey Michael Paul Chuck John Onnie Bryan Bob Jason Susan Giles Ann Todd Petr Anna Meyer Etienne Anura Gerald Lesley Wolfgang Lee David Karen Jonathan Jim Kirstie Phil Yutaka Monica

Andrews Arai

Dickie Dressen Ehmke Field Fifield Fisher Fleshman Fraser Frost Fukuda Gamp

National Zoological Gardens World Association of Zoos and Aquariums EAZA Zoo Krefeld Minnesota Zoological Garden Zoological Society of London Wellington Zoo Currumban Wildlife Sanctuary Cameron Park Zoo Chester Zoo Baton Rouge Zoo Ueno Zoological Gardens World Association of Zoos and Aquarium

City Delhi

Country India

email bonalbishan@gmail.com

Al Ain

muna.aldhaheri@awpr.ae heba.hamza@awpr.ae ahmed.aljneibi@awpr.ae hla@odensezoo.dk

zoosl@slt.lk secretariat@waza.org


85

October 2012 | Melbourne

First Name Suzanne Nancy Louise Jenny Lewis Ian Markus

Surname Gendron Gibson Gordon Gray Greene Gunn Gusset

Robin Natalie Becca Julia Bernard Hisashi Gisela Chris Robert

Hale Hansby Hanson Hanuliakova Harrison Hashikawa Hegel Hibbard Hilsenroth

Heribert

Hofer

Mats Glen Susan Bunyat Mervyn Patrick David Jörg Thomas Dennis Cameron

Hoggren Holland Hunt Insuwan Jacobson Janikowski Jones Junhold Kauffels Kelly Kerr

Somvang

Bo Wichit Pavel

Kiasrithanakorn Kiasrithanakorn Kjellson Kongkham Krasemsly

Andrzej Eliska Willie

Kruszewicz Kubikova Labuschagne

Joanne Meng Tat Susanne Dominik Sally Lena M Daisy Rachel Helmut Dan Jansen David Niekisch Judy Gumay Keith

Lalumiere Lee Leitinger Lermen Lewis Linden Ling Lowry Mägdefrau Maloney Manansang Manansang Manfred Mann Marsawitri McClintock

Eddie

Organisation Ocean Park Lao Zoo Johannesburg Zoo Zoos Victoria Columbus Zoo & Aquarium The Frozen Ark World Association of Zoos and Aquariums Toronto Zoo Auckland Zoo Studio Hanson Roberts Foz Tropicana Parque das Aves Bernard Harrison & Friends Nagoya Higashiyama Zoo Zoologischer Garten Karlstuhe Zoo & Aquarium Association American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Leibniz Institute for Zoo & Wildlife Kolmårdens Djurpark Zoos Victoria Perth Zoo Zoological Park Organisation Ibream PJA Architects ad Landscapes North Carolina Zoo Leipzig Zoo Opel Zoo Smithsonian National Zoo Taronga Conservation Society Australia Lao Zoo

City Hong Kong Bangkok Johannesburg Melbourne Powell Tarwin Lower Gland

Country China Thailand South Africa Australia USA Australia Switzerland

email suzanne.gendron@oceanpark.com.hk ekias@loxinfo.co.th louise@@jhbzoo.org.za jgray@zoo.org.au patty.peters@yahoo.com ian.gunn@monash.edu markus.gusset@waza.org

Toronto Auckland Bainbridge Island Washington Singapore Nagoya Karlstuhe Sydney Yulee

Canada New Zealand USA USA Singapore Japan Germany Australia USA

rhale@torontozoo.ca Natalie.Hansby@auklandcouncil.govt.nz bhanson@studio-hansonroberts.com julijask@hotmail.com info@bernardharrisonandfriends.com ngyzoo01@crocus.ocn.ne.jp hegel@zoo.karlsruhe.de chris@zooaquarium.org.au rhilsenrothaazv@aol.com

Berlin

Germany

direktor@izw-berlin.de

Kolmården Melbourne Perth Nakhon Ratchaisima Melbourne Seattle Ashebord Leipzig Kronberg Im Taunus Washington Clovelly

Sweden Australia Australia Thailand Australia USA USA Germany Germany USA Australia

mats.hoggren@kolmarden.com gholland@zoo.org.au shelley.rush@perthzoo.wa.gov.au kongkham35@hotmail.com mjacob2579@aol.com patj@pjarchitects David.M.Jones@nczoo.org Chefcekretariat@zoo-leipzig.de thomas.kauffels@opel-zoo.de KellyD@si.edu epollard@zoo.nsw.gov.au

Bangkok

Thailand

ekias@loxinfo.co.th

Lao Zoo

Bangkok

Thailand

ekias@loxinfo.co.th

Boras Zoo Zoological Park Organisation Podkrušnohorský zoopark Chomutov Warsaw Zoo Zoologická zahrada Jihlava Mgmt. Nat. Cons. President’s Affairs Zoo de Granby Wildlife Reserves Singapore Loro Parque The Frozen Ark Zoos Victoria Nordens Ark Wildlife Reserves Singapore Zoos Victoria Nuremberg Zoo Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens Taman Safari Indonesia Taman Safari Indonesia Zoo Frankfurt uShaka Sea World Ragunan Zoological Parks Portico Group

Boras Nakhon Ratchaisima Prague

bo.kjellson@boraszoo.se Sweden kongkham35@hotmail.com Thailand Czech Republic krasensky@zoopark.cz

Warsaw Jihlava Al Ain

Poland Czech Republic United Arab Emirates Canada Singapore Spain Germany Australia Sweden Singapore Australia Germany USA Indonesia Indonesia Germany South Africa Indonesia USA

Granby Singapore Tenerife Saarbruecken Melbourne Bohuslän Singapore Melbourne Nuremberg Jacksonville West Java West Java Frankfurt Durban Jakarta Seattle

andrzej.kruszewicz@zoo.waw.pl director@zoojihlava.cz willie@ewbcc.ae jlalumiere@zoodegranby.com mengtat.lee@wrs.com.sg loroparque@loroparque.com dominik.lermen@ibmt.fraunhofer.de slewis@zoo.org.au lml@nordensark.se daisy.ling@wrs.comisg rlowry@zoo.org.au helmut.maegdefrau@stadt.nuernberg.de maloneyd@jacksonvillezoo.org safari@tamansafari.com safari@tamansafari.net manfred.niekisch@stadt-frankfurt.de jmann@saambr.org.za murdimantrriono1@gmail.com kmcclintock@porticogroup.com


86

Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference

First Name Tom R. Eric David

Surname Mehrmann Miller Morgan

Organisation Ocean Park Corporation Saint Louis Zoo Global Zooethics and Welfare Initiative Honorary Life Member Uganda Wildlife and Education Centre Al Ain Wildlife Park Resort

City Hong Kong St Louis Atherstone

Country China USA UK

email tom.mehrmann@oceanpark.com.hk remiller@stlzoo.org dave.morgan@twycrosszoo.org

Laura James

Mumaw Musinguzi

Melbourne Entebbe

Australia Uganda

mumaw.white@optusnet.com.au jmusinguzi@uwec.ug

Binod

Narasimhan

Al Ain

binod.narasimhan@awpr.ae

Singapore Amnéville Leipzig  Burena Vista Basel Köln Melbourne Omaha

louis@acres.org.sg nicolas@zoo-amneville.com ataute@zoo-leipzig.de jackie.ogden@disney.com pagan@zoobasel.ch pagel@koelnerzoo.de kpahlow@zoo.org.au dpate@omahazoo.com

London Buenos Aires Burena Vista San Francisco

UK Argentina USA USA

Paul.Pearce-Kelly@zsl.org dpellandini@temaiken.org.ar mark.r.penning@disney.com tanyap@sfzoo.org

Chester Burena Vista Ohrada Prague

UK USA Czech Republic Czech Republic

m.pilgrim@chesterzoo.org Chelle.Plasse@disney.com info@zoo-ohrada.cz krasensky@zoopark.cz

Wroblewskiego Wichita Zürich Canberra Bangkok Helsinki Küsnacht Portland Eagan Osaka

Poland USA Switzerland Australia Thailand Finland Switzerland USA USA Japan

Lutra@zoo.wroc.pl mreed@scz.org alex.ruebel@zoo.ch trentrussell@nationalzoo.com.au admin@kkopenzoo.com jukka.salo@hel.fi schmidtzoo@gmx.net kim.smith@oregonzoo.org dorene@isis.org m-takahashi@city.osaka.lg.jp

Melbourne Cleveland Auckland Tokyo

Australia USA New Zealand Japan

ktanner@zoo.org.au sht@clevelandmetroparks.com Craig@thorburn.co.nz kanako@jaza.jp

Paignton New Orleans Jakarta Taipei Pretoria

UK USA Indonesia Taiwan South Africa

simon.tonge@paigntonzoo.org.uk a.torre@t-dcl.com murdimantrriono1@gmail.com dwx07@zoo.gov.tw Stephen@nzg.co.za

Silver Spring

USA

kvehrs@aza.org

Viethen

ACRES Zoo d’Amnéville Leipzig Zoo Walt Disney Parks & Resort Zoo Basel Kölner Zoo Zoos Victoria Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo & Aquarium Zoological Society of London Fundacion Temaiken Walt Disney Parks & Resort San Francisco Zoological Society Chester Zoo Disney’s Animal Kingdom Zoological Garden Ohrad Podkrušnohorský zoopark Chomutov Wroclaw Zoo Sedgwick County Zoo Zoo Zürich National Zoo Zoological Park Organisation Helsinki Zoo Honorary Life Member Oregon Zoo I.S.I.S Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zoological Gardens Zoos Victoria Cleveland Metroparks Zoo Sealife Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums Paignton Zoo Torre Design Consortium Ltd Ragunan Zological Parks Taipei Zoo African Association of Zoo and Aquaria Association of Zoos & Aquariums Al Ain Wildlife Park Resort

United Arab Emirates Singapore France Germany USA Switzerland Germany Australia USA

Louis Leroux Frank Jackie Olivier Theo Katie Dennis

Ng Nicolas Oberwemmer Ogden Pagan Pagel Pahlow Pate

Paul Damian Mark Tanya

Pearce-Kelly Pellandini Penning Peterson

Mark Rochelle Vladimir Iveta

Pilgrim Plasse Pokorny Rabasova

Radoslaw Mark Alex Trent Suriya Jukka Christian Kim Roger Masayuki

Ratajszczak Reed Ruebel Russell Saengpong Salo Schmidt Smith Stonecipner Takahashi

Kevin Steve Craig Kanako

Tanner Taylor Thorburn Tomisawa

Simon Ace Bambang Eric Stephen

Tonge Torre Triana Tsao van der Spuy

Kristin

Vehrs

Simone Christiane Thanarat Jonas

Al Ain

sumaya.viethen@awpr.ae

Wadeesirisak Wahlstrom

Zoological Park Organisation Skansen-Akvariet AB

United Arab Emirates Thailand Sweden

Bangkok Stockholm

tanarat_@hotmail.com monkeybusiness@skansen-akvariet.se


87

October 2012 | Melbourne

First Name Ana Sally Raulston Ursula Christopher Jason

Surname Wahlstrom Walker

Organisation Skansen-Akvariet AB Zoo Outreach / SAZARC

City Country Stockholm Sweden Goldsboro/Coimbatore USA/India

email monkeybusiness@skansen-akvariet.se sallyrwalker@zooreach.org

Walters Warner Watters

Sydney Brisbane Chicago

Australia Australia USA

ursh.walters@gmail.com aquatic1@ozemail.com.au jason.watters@czs.org

Sandra Elizabeth Wisid Bob Jonathan Randy Stephen Shigeyuki

Wedel Whealy Wichasilpa Wiese Wilcken Wisthoff Wylie Yamamoto

Munich Sioux Falls Bangkok San Diego Auckland Kansas City Edmond Tokyo

Germany USA Thailand USA New Zealand USA USA Japan

sandra@gkair.de EWhealy@gpzoo.org wisidzoo_zpo@hotmail.com BWiese@sandiegozoo.org Jonathan.Wilcken@auklandcouncil.govt.nz Randywisthoff@fotzkc.org stephen.r.wylie@gmail.com s-yama@toyama-familypark.jp

Zhanat William

Yestayev Zeigler

  Aquatic Environment Systems Chicago Zoological Society/ Brookfield Zoo G.K. Airfreight Service Great Plains Zoo Zoological Park Organisation Zoological Society of San Diego Auckland Zoo Kansas City Zoo Honorary Life Member Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums Almaty Zoo Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield Zoo

Almaty Chicago

Kazakhstan USA

tair@nursat.kz bill.zeigler@czs.org


88

Proceedings of 67th Annual Conference


III

October 2012 | Melbourne Š ZOOS Victoria Melbourne conference participants.


www.waza.org

ISSN: 2073-6576


Proceedings WAZA Melbourne  

Proceedings WAZA annual conference Melbourne 2012

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