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BOOSTING THE URBAN PROSPERITY ENGINE:

WALKABLE LONDON A PROPOSAL BY ZAHA HADID ARCHITECTS


CONTENTS

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CASE STUDIES PEDESTRIAN STREETS : AROUND THE WORLD PEDESTRIAN STREETS : ALTERNATIVES

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WALKABLE LONDON — PROPOSED NETWORK OF PEDESTRIAN ROUTES

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CITY DATA — ZHA CODE ANALYTICS WITH HABIDATUM

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ALTERNATIVE HOUSING

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BENEFITS & METRICS

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CONSIDERATIONS

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EXISTING PROPOSALS & INITIATIVES

A PROPOSA L BY ZA HA HA D ID A RCHITE CT S


INTRODUCTION

Campaigns for pedestrianising Oxford Street have been going on for decades. They have become much more vocal in recent years — to such an extent that in 2016 both mayoral candidates spoke in favour of the policy. The incumbent Mayor of London Sadiq Khan has pledged to remove all traffic from Oxford Street. At the same time, pedestrianising just one street in central London, however popular, will hardly solve multiple London’s problems, such as air pollution and road safety. All over the continent, the trend is towards pedestrianising whole districts rather than individual streets. As a result of pedestrian-friendly policy, the number of drivers in Paris has already dropped from 60% to 40% since 2001. Madrid has banned most traffic from certain streets, and soon the car-free zone will expand even further. Oslo announced plans to ban cars from the city centre by 2019.

Transforming just a few streets will hardly make a big difference in terms of congestion, pollution, safety, public health, economic benefits and social capital. To make walking part of a daily routine, we might need a full pedestrian network which would contribute to the means of transport across the city. The UK capital has already seen some great examples of pedestrianisation that revitalised the whole districts. “Walkable London” project suggests creating a full-scale network of pedestrian routes across the capital. Developing pedestrian-friendly environment may involve a whole range of transformations — as there is no one-size-fits-all solution, it takes careful consideration to find the best option for each and every street. Based on our experience of working in 44 countries, Zaha Hadid Architects is presenting a radical, yet tangible strategy to make London the number one walking city in the world.

1 O’Sullivan, Feargus. (2014, Dec 9). Paris Aims to End Its Pollution Misery by Cutting Out Cars. CityLab. Retrieved from: www.citylab.com on Aug 25, 2017. 2 Peters, Adele (2013, Dec 12). Goodbye Car Lanes: Madrid Wants To Take Back Streets For Pedestrians. Fast Company. Retrieved from: www.fastcompany.com on Aug 25, 2017. 3 Agence France-Presse (2015, Oct 10). Oslo moves to ban cars from city centre within four years. The Guardian. Retrieved from: www.theguardian.com on Aug 25, 2017.

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CASE STUDIES PEDESTRIAN STREETS : AROUND THE WORLD PEDESTRIAN STREETS : ALTERNATIVES


CAS E S T U D I ES

PEDESTRIAN STREETS : AROUND THE WORLD

K N YA Z A LE KSA N DA R I PLOV DIV, BULG A RIA

I S TI K L A L S TR E E T ISTA NBUL, T URK E Y

Z H O N GYA N G DAJ I E H A RBIN, CHIN A

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CA S E S T U D I E S

PEDESTRIAN STREETS : AROUND THE WORLD

L A R U E S A I NTE - CATH E R I N E BORDE AU, FR A NCE

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KÖ N I G S TR AS S E ST U T TG ART, GERM A N Y

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S TR ØG E T COPENH AGEN, DENM A RK

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PEDESTRIAN STREETS : AROUND THE WORLD Knyaz Aleksandar I — Plovdiv, Bulgaria Knyaz Aleksandar I is the main pedestrian street in Plovdiv and one of the longest pedestrian-only streets in Europe. It lies above the remnants of a giant stadium built by Philip of Macedonia about 2300 years ago. Stretching from the former Party House on Central Square to Novotel Plovdiv, it is the city’s busiest spot in the summertime when hundreds of citizens and tourists stroll up and down the street, popping in and out of the various shops, boutiques, restaurants, and cafes.

P h o to c r e d i t: b g.w i k i p e d i a .o r g

M A P C R E D I T: G O O G L E ST R E E T M A P S

1.75 KM

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PEDESTRIAN STREETS : AROUND THE WORLD Istiklal Street — Istanbul, Turkey Visited by nearly 3 million people a day, Istiklal Street leads from the medieval Galata Tower up to Taksim Square. This cosmopolitan avenue is surrounded by late Ottoman era buildings and attractions such as the Flower Passage and The Fish Market; several synagogues; mosques; academic institutions and consulates. Its formative transformation in the early 1990s involved the restoration of the historic buildings, full pedestrianisation and repavement, and the reinstallation of the historic trams. Since then Istiklal Street has become Istanbul’s centre of fine arts and leisure, with real estate prices rising quickly as a result. Today the area is flourishing due to its numerous art galleries, bookstores, cafés, pubs, restaurants, shops and hotels. The street became the host of many international art festivals, marches, and parades.

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1.4 KM

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PEDESTRIAN STREETS : AROUND THE WORLD Zhongyang Dajie — Harbin, China Zhongyang Dajie is one of the longest pedestrian-only streets in Asia and the pearl of Harbin, the city known as ‘Eastern Moscow’. Constructed in 1898, the street was intended for horse-drawn carts. Some 20 years later, according to a project designed by a Russian engineer, Zhongyang Dajie was paved with square stones and became a popular attraction with numerous foreign shops, hotels, and bars. In 1997, Harbin local government finally pedestrianised the street and transformed it into an “open air museum” of European architecture. Today, the street hosts 71 art works, some of which are replicas of European buildings representing various styles from Renaissance to Baroque to Modernism. P h o to c r e d i t: to p c h i n a t r av e l.c o m

1.4 KM

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PEDESTRIAN STREETS : AROUND THE WORLD La rue Sainte-Catherine — Bordeaux, France The Rue Sainte-Catherine, the major shopping street in Bordeaux, is one of two main lines running through the heart of the city. This corridor connects two of the city’s most prominent attractions, the Grande Theater and the Place de la Victoire. It was pedestrianised for most of its length between 1976 and 1977 and then fully in 1984. Between 2000 and 2003 it was completely refurbished in a project planned by French architect Jean-Michel Wilmotte.

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1.25 KM

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PEDESTRIAN STREETS : AROUND THE WORLD Königstraße — Stuttgart, Germany One of Germany’s finest shopping destinations, Königstraße begins in front of the main railway station. The lower part of the Königstraße was laid out at the beginning of the 19th century when King Frederick I of Württemberg moved the royal stables here. For the 1977 national gardening exhibition, the lower part of the street was redesigned as a pedestrian zone with fountains, trees, kiosks and playgrounds. Today Königstraße is a popular boulevard with diverse shops, cafés, restaurants and public spaces.

P h o to c r e d i t: s t u t tg a r t-to u r i s t.d e

1.2 KM

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PEDESTRIAN STREETS : AROUND THE WORLD Strøget — Copenhagen, Denmark The regenerantion of Copenhagen’s city centre for pedestrian use in the 1960s is an often admired example of revitalising the area by removing motor vehicles. The aim was to make the urban centre a more pleasant place to work and live. The number of people using the streets doubled, cafe culture boomed, and in the decades following tourism and migration increased significantly.

P h o to c r e d i t: f l i c k r.c o m /e s t u d i a n te

1.1 KM

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PEDESTRIAN STREETS : AROUND THE WORLD Buchanan Street + Sauchiehall St — Glasgow, UK Buchanan Street is the second busiest shopping thoroughfare in the UK, only surpassed by Oxford Street in London. It runs south from the junction with Sauchiehall Street, which is also pedestrianised. The area is home to the Buchanan Galleries, the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall, and the Gallery of Modern Art, as well as numerous flagship stores. In 1999, the whole street was repaved with high quality granite stonework and decorated with innovative blue neon lighting. The combination of Victorian architecture and modern urban design won Buchanan Street the Academy of Urbanism ‘Great Street Award’ 2008. The street is particularly popular with street musicians. P h o to c r e d i t: r e l e v a n t s e a r c h s c o t l a n d.c o.u k

1.2 KM

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CLIPPINGS

“Madrid's mayor, Manuela Carmena, is serious about kicking personal cars off the road in the city center. On a November 5 show on Spanish radio network Cadena Ser, she confirmed that Madrid's main avenue, the Gran Vía, will only allow access to bikes, buses, and taxis before she leaves office in May 2019 ... The effort is part of a larger plan to ban all diesel cars in Madrid by 2025.” 1

“The mayor of Paris, Anne Hidalgo, has unveiled plans to restrict traffic in the French capital and pedestrianise the city centre in an attempt to halve the number of private cars on the roads. …Hidalgo told the Journal du Dimanche she wanted to “divide by around half the number of polluting private cars” in Paris as part of her ongoing campaign to “reconquer the public space” for pedestrians, cyclists and other non-polluting transport, including electric cars and scooters.”2

“Norway’s capital has been grabbing headlines recently thanks to its bold push to remove as much car traffic as possible from its city center. Now Sweden’s capital is gearing up for a little friendly rivalry. New proposals sponsored by Stockholm Transit Commissioner Daniel Helldén would slash available car space in the city’s streets and open up a large chunk of its waterfront as a pedestrianfriendly, newly strollable promenade.” 3

1 Garfield, L. (Jan 7, 2017). Madrid, Spain is banning cars from its crowded city center. Independent.

2 Willsher, K. (Jan 8, 2017). Paris mayor unveils plan to restrict traffic and pedestrianise city centre.

3 O’Sullivan, F. (May 12, 2017). Stockholm Is Coming for Oslo’s Car-Free Crown. CityLab. URL:

URL: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/madrid-spain-is-banning-cars-from-its-

The Guardian. URL: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/08/paris-mayor-anne-hidalgo-

https://www.citylab.com/design/2017/05/stockholm-pedestrian-downtown-plans-oslo/526464/

crowded-city-center-a7514971.html

plan-restrict-traffic-pedestrianise-city-centre-france

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CLIPPINGS

“For decades the simple act of walking was largely overlooked by city planners but, no matter how you choose to get around your city, the chances are that you are a pedestrian at some point during the day. Recently, some cities have made great strides: from the ambitious public squares programmes of New York and Paris to the pedestrianisation of major streets (realised in the case of Strøget in Copenhagen; proposed in the case of London’s Oxford Street and Madrid’s Gran Vía.”

“London-based landscape experts have suggested Fleet Street could become the first major thoroughfare to be closed to traffic and used to improve air quality and enhance biodiversity. A team at architecture firm WATG have teamed up with “guerrilla geographer” Daniel Raven-Ellison who is leading the campaign to have London declared the world’s first city national park. The proposals, which follow the collapse of the Garden Bridge project, would see new buildings in Fleet Street made out of a “modular, living building material” permeated with native wildflower seeds and containing its own irrigation reservoir.”

“When residents of the International Business District (IBD) in Songdo, South Korea go to work, pick up their kids from school, or shop for groceries, driving is optional. That’s because the $35 billion district — currently a work-in-progress about the size of downtown Boston — was designed to eliminate the need for cars. A project that began in 2002, the area prioritizes mass transit, like buses, subways, and bikes, instead of road traffic, according to Stan Gale, the chairman of Gale International, the developer behind the IBD. When completed by 2020, the district will span 100 million square feet.”

Laker, L. (2017, Sep 12). Where is the world’s most walkable city? The Guardian. URL: https://www.

Prynn, J. (2017, Oct 13). One of central London’s most traffic-infested streets could be turned into

Garfield, L. (2017, Nov 7). South Korea is building a $35 billion city designed to eliminate the

theguardian.com/cities/2017/sep/12/walkable-city-worlds-most-new-york-melbourne-fes-el-bali

‘green boulevard’. Evening Standard. URL: https://www.standard.co.uk/news/london/one-of-central-

need for cars. Business Insider. URL: http://uk.businessinsider.com/songdo-south-korea-design-

london-s-most-trafficinfested-streets-could-be-turned-into-green-boulevard-a3657986.html

2017-11/#in-songdo-city-south-korea-gale-international-is-building-the-international-businessdistrictibdon-reclaimed-landalong-the-yellow-sea-1

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CLIPPINGS

“In 2016, vehicle ownership reached 5.7 million in Beijing, roughly equal to the total number of registered vehicles in all of Sweden. The soaring number of cars and trucks on the roads have made Beijing one of the worst cities to commute in. According to Gaode Map, commuters spend an average of 31 minutes per hour in traffic jams during peak times. Having realized that expanding capacity can simply induce more travel demand and worsen congestion, Beijing’s government is experimenting with a number of TDM [Transport Demand Management] strategies.”

“When it comes to nudging drivers out of cars, Vancouver ranks as North America’s biggest success story. Fully 10 percent of commutes to work are on bikes, far exceeding U.S. and Canadian cities of a comparable size. As of 2015, half of all trips within city limits are taken on foot, bike, or transit—a goal the city had hoped to reach by 2020.”

“Philadelphians got at least seven hours of car-free access to certain streets Saturday as part of the second Philly Free Streets, an initiative spawned by Pope Francis’ visit in September 2015 and its numerous security-based closures. From 6 a.m. until at least 1 p.m. joggers, bikers, stroller-pushers, and just plain walkers had full run of portions of typically traffic-heavy arteries, including Chestnut, Third, Vine, and South Streets, as well as portions of Germantown Avenue.”

Shiyong Q., Ying W. (2017, Nov 30). Toward Car-Free Cities: Beijing Seeks an Inroad to Sustainable

Bliss, L. (2016, Dec 5). How Vancouver Became North America’s Car-Free Capital. CityLab.

Mastrull, D. (2017, Oct 28). With cars banned, Philadelphians biked, skated and walked through

Transport. The City Fix. URL: http://thecityfix.com/blog/toward-car-free-cities-beijing-seeks-an-

URL: https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2016/12/vancouver-is-north-americas-car-free-

Philly Free Streets. The Inquirer. URL: http://www.philly.com/philly/news/pennsylvania/philadelphia/

inroad-to-sustainable-transport-shiyong-qiu-ying-wang/

capital/509480/

hey-philly-get-out-and-enjoy-the-car-free-streets-20171028.html

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PEDESTRIAN STREETS : ALTERNATIVES

R I V E R B A N K T R A N S F O R M AT I O N

M U LT I L E V E L

M U LT I L E V E L

E L E VAT E D PA R K

E L E VAT E D PA R K

PHOTO / TE X TING L ANE

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PEDESTRIAN STREETS : ALTERNATIVES Transit Mall — Yonsei-Ro, Seoul, South Korea A transit mall is a street along which automobile traffic is prohibited or greatly restricted and only public transit vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians are permitted. Yonsei-ro, Seoul’s first transit mall, is the 550-m stretch between the renowned Yonsei University and a subway station. Situated in the centre of the Shinchon area, a popular nightlife district, it is a favourite of university students and is filled with interesting retail shops, famous restaurants and trendsetting boutiques. Private vehicles have been restricted, streets narrowed and sidewalks widened to encourage public transport and provide a pleasant pedestrian environment for local residents.

4 Chua, Grace (2016, Nov 17). Walkable and Bikeable Cities: Lessons from Seoul and Singapore. Centre for Liveable Cities. URL: https://www.clc.gov.sg/publications/books-walkable-and-bikeable-cities.htm

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PEDESTRIAN STREETS : ALTERNATIVES Elevated Park — Promenade plantée, Paris, France An elevated park (also known as a sky park) is a park located above the street level. While usually associated with repurposed transportation infrastructure, some elevated parks are designed on top of buildings. The Promenade plantée is an extensive green belt that follows the old Vincennes railway line. Beginning just east of the Opéra Bastille with the elevated Viaduc des Arts, it follows a 4.7 km (2.9 mi) path eastward. At its west end near the Bastille, the parkway rises 10 m above the surrounding area and forms the Viaduc des Arts, over a line of shops featuring arts and crafts. The shops are located in the arches of the former elevated railway viaduct, with the parkway being supported atop the viaduct.

P h o to c r e d i t: a l a m y.c o m / R E N AU LT P h i l i p p e

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PEDESTRIAN STREETS : ALTERNATIVES Elevated Park — High Line, New York City, U.S. High Line in New York City started a worldwide trend of elevated parks.5 Many cities across the world are considering construction of elevated parks, including London, Washington, DC, Jersey City, Chicago, Philadelphia, São Paulo, and Rotterdam. However, landscape architect James Corner, who led the High Line's design team, noted that “The High Line is not easily replicable in other cities.” According to Center City District, a business improvement group, it costs substantially less to redevelop an abandoned urban rail line into a linear park than to demolish it.6 A research by StreetEasy shows a “halo effect” for real estate prices surrounding the elevated park, soaring as high as 20% above the area just two blocks east of it. Since 2011, prices have increased by 50.6% near section one of the park and 48.2% near section two while the rest of the neighborhood saw increases of 31.4%. Even buildings pre-dating the High Line and surrounding the park demand higher prices than newer developments outside the immediate area.7

5 Littke, H. et al. (Oct 1, 2016). Taking the High Line: elevated parks, transforming neighbourhoods, and the ever-changing relationship between the urban and nature. Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability. 9 (4): 353–371. 6 Shevory, K. (August 3, 2011). Cities See the Other Side of the Tracks. The New York Times. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/03/realestate/commercial/cities-see-another-side-to-old-tracks.html 7 Pereira, I. (August 8, 2016). High Line spurs jump in nearby home prices: StreetEasy. AMNY. URL: https://www.amny.com/real-estate/high-line-spurs-jump-in-nearby-home-prices-streeteasy-1.12149516

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PEDESTRIAN STREETS : ALTERNATIVES River Bank Transformation — Cheonggyecheon, Seoul, South Korea Cheonggyecheon river bank is an impressive conversion of a 5 mile long concrete road with an elevated highway into a lively and green public space.8 The reduction of the road width and the elimination of the highway greatly improved north-south connections for pedestrians. A total of 22 vehicle and pedestrian bridges were built across the restored river at the locations of all existing intersections and crossings. The greening of central Seoul created a great amount of public amenities, but this resulted in a significant loss in road capacity. The traffic congestion issue was dealt with by introducing a new multi-modal transportation policy and with a strong focus on public transport.9

B E F O R E T R A N S F O R M AT I O N

A F T E R T R A N S F O R M AT I O N

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• The city opened 40 miles of dedicated rapid-bus lanes along major arterials. • In 2004, the city reconfigured bus routes to feed more effectively into the subway. • As a result, the daily traffic volume of the CGC area, which was about 168,556 in 2001, had decreased. • In 2006, the bus and subway ridership of the inner city had increased by 11% and 13.7% respectively.

8 Landscape performance series. Cheonggyecheon Stream Restoration Project. // https://landscapeperformance.org/case-study-briefs/cheonggyecheon-stream-restoration 9 Re: Streets. Cheong Gye Cheon Stream Restoration. // http://www.restreets.org/case-studies/cheong-gye-cheon-stream-restoration

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CAS E S T U D I ES

PEDESTRIAN STREETS : ALTERNATIVES Boulevard — Las Ramblas, Barcelona, Spain Las Ramblas is a primarily pedestrianised tree-lined mall with only two narrow one-way traffic roads running on either side of the boulevard. It connects Plaça de Catalunya in the centre with the Christopher Columbus Monument at Port Vell. Attractions along the boulevard include live performances, human statues, artists, and many more, as well as the Modernist Boqueria Market with a diverse selection of goods. A curious pedestrian might spot a pavement mosaic next to the Liceu Theatre created by the famous artist Joan Miró. The Spanish poet Federico García Lorca once said that Las Ramblas was “the only street in the world which I wish would never end.” P h o to c r e d i t: W i k i m e d i a c o m m o n s

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PEDESTRIAN STREETS : ALTERNATIVES Tunnel — The Big Dig, Boston, U.S. The Big Dig rerouted the Central Artery of Interstate 93, the chief highway through the heart of the city, into the 3.5-mile tunnel. The project also included the construction of the the Rose Kennedy Greenway in the space vacated by the previous I-93 elevated roadway. Planning began in 1982; the construction work started in 1991 and finished on December 31, 2007. The Big Dig was the most expensive highway project in the US.10

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10 Flint, A. (Dec 25, 2015). 10 years later, did the Big Dig deliver? Boston Globe. URL: https://www.bostonglobe.com/magazine/2015/12/29/years-later-did-big-dig-deliver/tSb8PIMS4QJUETsMpA7SpI/story.html

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WALKABLE LONDON — PROPOSED NETWORK OF PEDESTRIAN ROUTES


WAL K A B L E L ONDON — A PR O POSAL BY Z AH A H AD ID ARC H ITEC TS

DRAFT PROPOSAL TO MAYOR’S OFFICE

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WA L K A BL E L ON DON — A P ROP OS A L BY ZA H A H A D I D A R CHI T E CT S

DRAFT PROPOSAL TO MAYOR’S OFFICE Mayor’s Draft Transport Strategy 2017 — Consultation Response A pedestrian-friendly environment can activate people and revitalise public spaces, so we fully support the Mayor’s goal to make London more walkable. Based on our experience of working in 44 countries, we want to make a more radical proposal for walkability of a city. All over the world, we have noticed the trend towards pedestrianising whole districts rather than individual streets. Madrid is gradually expanding its car-free zone; Oslo announced plans to ban cars from the city centre by 2019; as a result of pedestrian-friendly policy, the number of drivers in Paris is constantly declining. Transforming just a few streets will not make a big difference in terms of congestion, pollution, safety and public health. To make walking part of a daily routine, we need a full pedestrian network which would contribute to the means of transport across the city. The Mayor’s Transport Strategy suggests such a grid for cycling but lacks one for walking. Walking needs to be promoted as transport, along with bikes and buses. For that reason, pedestrian routes have to be tied into the rail and underground network — only a combination of public transport and walking can make a real change. If the Mayor’s aim is to empower pedestrians, we need to see not only the map but also the timeline for implementing changes.

London has seen some great examples of pedestrianisation that revitalised the whole districts. The most recent one was the transformation of the South Bank into a highly attractive cultural hub. Creating the “shared space” out of Exhibition Road in South Kensington was another successful project. A striking example is Trafalgar Square which had a 300% increase in visitors after pedestrianising its North Terrace. Although “shared spaces” are an option, London also needs 100% pedestrian avenues not compromised by cyclists or buses. In the Mayor’s Transport Strategy, walking and cycling are parts of the same goal of promoting a non-motorised way of travelling. In reality, sometimes there is a trade-off as collisions between the two of them are sadly common. Along with millions of Londoners, we are looking forward to Oxford Street finally becoming car-free. But we are also thinking big — Oxford Street can become a full-scale east-west route, in addition to Culture Mile, the northsouth route suggested by the City of London Corporation. Museum of London, Barbican, Guildhall, the Smithfields market and the new concert hall — all of them will then become reachable. Successful cases as Exhibition Road as well as potential cases as Oxford Street and Bank show an indication of possibilities.

Londoners spent more than 100 hours per year being stuck in traffic which costs them £6.2bn, or £1,911 each. Increasing the density of residential buildings, in particular through converting some office spaces for residential use, may not sound like part of the transport strategy, yet it would address the two most burning issues, housing and transportation. As one study showed, every 10 minutes of commuting cuts community involvement by 10%. More people living in walking distance to their work would result in boosting social capital, the key prerequisite for happiness and prosperity. The economic benefits are also clear: all over the world commercial activity increases by 30% following pedestrianisation. If the Mayor wants Oxford Street to provide “the world’s best outdoor shopping experience”, the key word is “experience”. Because of increasing competition from shopping malls and online retail, high street shops can only survive as “third spaces” making it a pleasurable experience for buyers to physically spend time there. Zaha Hadid Architects proposes “Walkable London”, a full-scale network of pedestrian routes which will create corridors of activation across the capital. We are looking forward to contributing to make London the number one walking city in the world.

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LONDON CASE STUDIES Existing Pedestrianised areas in London Leicester Square

Covent Garden

Carnaby Street

With Trafalgar Square to the south, Piccadilly Circus to the west, Chinatown to the north and Covent Garden to the east, pedestrianised Leicester Square is the beating heart of West End. In the 19th century, after retailers arrived and a number of major theatres were founded here, it became London’s number one destination for entertainment, and keeps this status till today. In the daytime, it is a popular public space with a garden area overlooked by statues of Shakespeare and Charlie Chaplin. At night, Leicester Square becomes full of tourists and locals visiting numerous clubs and bars. Last but certainly not least, Leicester Square is famous for its cinemas, which often host film premieres.

Designed in 1630, the central square in Covent Garden was the first modern square in London, inspired by town planning in continental Europe, particularly Piazza San Marco in Venice and the Place des Vosges in Paris. This had a great influence on English town, acting as the prototype for the design of new estates. An open-air fruit-and-vegetable market emerged here as early as 1654, and by mid-19th century the present market hall had been built to put an end to the square’s bad reputation of a red-light district. Nowadays the market is an immensely popular tourist attraction with cafes, pubs, brand stores, and small craft shops. The space is unsurprisingly popular with street performers, who have to audition with the site’s owners for an allocated slot.

Carnaby Street is a pedestrianised shopping street in Soho and home to fashion and lifestyle retailers. By mid-20th century, the street became hugely popular with fans of the mod and hippie cultures. Bands such as the The Who and Rolling Stones appeared in the area to play at the legendary Marquee Club, shop, and socialise. In 1966, Time magazine wrote: “Perhaps nothing illustrates the new swinging London better than narrow, three-block-long Carnaby Street, which is crammed with a cluster of the ‘gear’ boutiques where the girls and boys buy each other clothing.” In 1973, the Greater London Council banned the cars from the street which led to a 30% increase in pedestrian flow. A campaign commenced early in 2010 to call for pedestrianisation in the adjacent area of Soho.

Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

Before & After

14 Verlinde, S. et al. Sustainable Freight Deliveries in the Pedestrian Zone: Facilitating the Necessity. 2016.

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LONDON CASE STUDIES Existing Pedestrianised areas in London Trafalgar Square Trafalgar Square — Before & After Pedestrianising in 2003

Extensive analyses were carried out using all manner of technical tools available ranging from 3D simulation of the urban design proposals to pedestrian movement analysis. At least 17 separate bus routes pass through the Square and in the morning rush hour more than 160 buses in each direction moved through the system. The closure of the north side of Trafalgar Square and the new circulatory system on the south side meant a radical change to the bus circulation. 15

Photo Credit: Source Unknown

Photo Credit: Wikipedia.com

15 Atkins F. K., Earl T. The Pedestrianisation of Trafalgar Square: How Do We Deliver a Sustainable Scheme at a World Heritage Site? // Transport for London. 2004.

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LONDON CASE STUDIES Temporary Closures — Regent Street Every Sunday in July Regent Street is banning traffic for the popular Summer Streets series. The month-long event combines themes of culture, style and wellness with food and drink. Events include live music, family-friendly pop-ups and workshops. 16

photo credit : www.regentstreetonline.com

16 http://www.regentstreetonline.com/events/summer-streets

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photo credit : www.regentstreetonline.com

photo credit : www.regentstreetonline.com


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LONDON CASE STUDIES

57% INCREASE IN FOOTFALL

98% VISITOR APPROVAL

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REGENT STREET — TODAY

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REGENT STREET — TOMORROW

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LONDON CASE STUDIES Exhibition Road, South Kensington (before and after) Naked street schemes simply remove unnecessary street clutter to reduce complexity and driver confusion. Many schemes also involve changes to geometric layout or surface texture.

Exhibition Road — Before & After the 2012 Renovation

Types of ‘naked streets’ schemes: 17 • Schemes that ‘simply’ reduce (or remove) signs and markings but keep normal priorities (e.g. drive on left, pedestrians have right of way on crossings) • Schemes that retain the normal physical features (e.g. kerbed footways) but remove normal priorities between different road users • Idealised ‘shared space’ schemes with neither signs nor priorities. Advocates have also argued that ‘simplified streetscape schemes’ can improve safety. It is suggested that removing signage, increasing uncertainty and giving road users the responsibility for their own actions can reduce collisions by increasing perceived risk.

photo source: unknown

photo source: www.londontown.com

17 Quimby, A., Castle, J. (January, 2006). A Review of Simplified Streetscape Schemes. Prepared for: Transport for London, Street Management. URL: http://content.tfl.gov.uk/review-of-simplified-streetscape-schemes.pdf

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LONDON CASE STUDIES Exhibition Road, South Kensington Kensington High Street is regarded as one of London’s premier shopping areas. In 2000 the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea started a major improvement scheme that included: 18 • Simplified road markings • Recalculation of traffic signal timings • Introduction of additional pedestrian crossings • Replacing existing staggered pedestrian crossings with straight across crossings • Widening of footways and narrowing of carriageway • Introduction of new paving, trees and improved cycle parking facilities • Removal of street clutter and guard railing.

photo source: unknown

18 Quimby, A., Castle, J. (January, 2006). A Review of Simplified Streetscape Schemes. Prepared for: Transport for London, Street Management. URL: http://content.tfl.gov.uk/review-of-simplified-streetscape-schemes.pdf

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OXFORD CIRCUS

photo source : http://www.londontown.com

Oxford Street, Oxford Circus

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OXFORD STREET

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OXFORD CIRCUS — TODAY

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OXFORD CIRCUS — TOMORROW

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OXFORD STREET — TODAY

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OXFORD STREET — TOMORROW

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WALKABLE LONDON — REGENTS CANAL Regents Canal Regent's Canal: from Paddington to Limehouse 13.7 km (8.5 miles)

13.7 KM

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REGENTS CANAL — WALKABLE LONDON Regents Canal — Efficient mobility

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WALKABLE LONDON Proposed Network of Pedestrian Routes

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WALKABLE LONDON Proposed Network of Pedestrian Routes

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WALKABLE LONDON Proposed Network of Pedestrian Routes

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WALKABLE LONDON Proposed Network of Pedestrian Routes

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WALKABLE LONDON Proposed Network of Pedestrian Routes

West End

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WALKABLE LONDON Proposed Network of Pedestrian Routes

The City

The City West End

West End

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WALKABLE LONDON Impact on Commercial Rental Prices

28%

Non prime to Prime

INCREASE IN TRADE*

?%

£37 to £47.5

£50 to £60

£47.5 to £72.5

£55 to £80

£70 to £120

£60 to £90

* Summer Streets by Regent Street, 2013

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£47.5 to £57.5

£52 to £75

INCREASE IN DEMAND FOR COMMERCIAL PROPERTY?

£47.5 to £78.5

£50 to £67.5 £49.5 to £65

Low

High


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WALKABLE LONDON Pedestrianised Routes To Underground Stations

88% WITHIN 1KM PEDESTRIAN ONLY ROUTE TO AN UNDERGROUND STATION

65% WITHIN 500M

27% WITHIN 250M

London Underground station Pedestrianised clusters Pedestrianised walking distance to nearest station

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WALKABLE LONDON Pedestrianised Areas Affecting Bus Routes To encourage pedestrians to use a walkable London, their journeys to the pedestrianised clusters must be smooth and untroubled. What is the impact on the established bus network in these areas?

Pedestrianised clusters Connectivity grid London bus routes

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WALKABLE LONDON Air Quality The proposed pedestrian areas include some of the most polluted in London.

City of Westminster Environmental Study of Summer Streets found “significantly better air quality on Regent Street” on pedestrian only days when compared to normal days.

Pedestrianised clusters Annual mean NO2 air pollution for 2013, (µg/m3 )

<16

>97

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WALKABLE LONDON

Sadler’s Wells

Barbican

St. Pauls

Tate

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WALKABLE LONDON

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UPPER STREET ( ISLINGTON )

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UPPER STREET ( ISLINGTON )

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UPPER STREET ( ISLINGTON ) — TODAY

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UPPER STREET ( ISLINGTON ) — TOMORROW

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EUSTON ROAD

An underpass to avoid the junction with Tottenham Court Road was proposed in 1961, with construction taking place in 1964. In the early 2000’s, the Greater London Authority commissioned a plan to improve the road from the architectural firm, Terry Farrell and Partners. The original study proposed removing the underpass (which was subsequently cancelled) and providing a pedestrian crossing and removing the gyratory system connecting Tottenham Court Road and Gower Street. The scheme was approved by the Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone as “the start of changing the Marylebone to Euston road from a highway into a series of linked public spaces.” The pedestrian crossing opened in March 2010.

Euston Road Underpass, London, UK

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EUSTON ROAD

The Central Artery/Tunnel Project (CA/T), known as the Big Dig, was a megaproject in Boston that rerouted the Central Artery of Interstate 93, the chief highway through the heart of the city, into the 3.5-mile (5.6 km) Thomas P. O'Neill Jr. Tunnel. The project also included the construction of the Ted Williams Tunnel (extending Interstate 90 to Logan International Airport), the Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge, and the Rose Kennedy Greenway in the space vacated by the previous I-93 elevated roadway.

P h o to c r e d i t: B i g D i g, B o s to n, U.S .

Data: Boston Globe. Big Dig's red ink engulfs state. 2008 // https://www.boston.com/boston-traffic

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EUSTON ROAD — TODAY

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EUSTON ROAD — TOMORROW

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CITY DATA â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ZHA CODE ANALYTICS WITH HABIDATUM

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CITY DATA Residential and Commercial Population There is a wide discrepancy in residential and commercial populations in Central London. The commercial population is 1385 persons/hectare (LSOA Tower Hamlets 033B), while the highest residential population is only half of that. The most densely populated area of Central London, Kensington and Chelsea (LSOA Kensington and Chelsea 021C), has a residential population of 684 persons/hectare. On average, Central Londonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s residential population is only 139 persons/ he, one tenth of the maximum commercial population. When visualized, the residential density of Central London shows that the residential population is relatively low and dispersed. Furthermore, relatively few people live in the areas that have the highest commercial population density, requiring millions of Londoners to commute to meet the daytime demand. In 2011, the City of London had a residential population of less than 2K, with 1.5 million people arriving each morning for work. Parts of the City of Westminster whose population peaks during the daytime, also rely on a commuting workforce. Close to a half million people commute to Soho and Fitzrovia daily, predominantly using the underground network.

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CITY DATA

6

Population density at 11:00 — Commercial

> 600

Population density at 23:00 — Residential Persons/Hectare

Data Source : Census 2011 www.nomisweb.co.uk Table : WD703EW

Data Source : Census 2011 www.nomisweb.co.uk Table : WD102EW

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

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CITY DATA Modes of Travel The following dataset looks at journeys made by different modes of travel â&#x20AC;&#x201D; by train, by tube, by foot and by bicycle. Each journey has a Destination and an Origin. The first set shows the percentage of journeys made for each mode of travel by origin, or from where people started their journeys. The second one shows the travel modes by journey destination. The modes of travel by origin, show that people living inside the congestion zone are able to walk to work. Most people outside the congestion zone take the underground and rail network, while Hackney residents, who are further away from the Underground, take the bus or cycle to work instead. The modes of travel by destination, show that the largest group of commuters enter Central London using the Rail and Underground networks. Most people who commute to the City of London arrive by National Rail; Oxford Street is predominantly reached via the Underground.

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CITY DATA

Proposed Pedestrian Network

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CITY DATA

0%

Origin of commuters travelling : by tube

> 40%

Origin of commuters travelling : by train of working population

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Data Source : Census 2011 www.nomisweb.co.uk Table : WD703EW

Data Source : Census 2011 www.nomisweb.co.uk Table : WD703EW

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017


ZH A C ODE A N A LY TI C S W I T H HA B I D AT U M

CITY DATA

0%

Origin of commuters travelling : by foot

> 40%

Origin of commuters travelling : by bicycle of working population

Data Source : Census 2011 www.nomisweb.co.uk Table : WD703EW

Data Source : Census 2011 www.nomisweb.co.uk Table : WD703EW

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

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CITY DATA

0%

Destinations of commuters travelling : by tube

> 40%

Destinations of commuters travelling : by train of working population

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Data Source : Census 2011 www.nomisweb.co.uk Table : WD703EW

Data Source : Census 2011 www.nomisweb.co.uk Table : WD703EW

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017


ZH A C ODE A N A LY TI C S W I T H HA B I D AT U M

CITY DATA

0%

Destination of commuters travelling : by foot

> 40%

Destination of commuters travelling : by bicycle of working population

Data Source : Census 2011 www.nomisweb.co.uk Table : WD703EW

Data Source : Census 2011 www.nomisweb.co.uk Table : WD703EW

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

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CITY DATA Driving Network Integration The Driving Network Integration is an analysis on how traffic will be affected by the different stages of the proposed pedestrianisation. Existing Situation This map looks at the current situation and how well integrated the driving network is at the moment. It shows that interest areas are well-integrated into the urban tissue (nodes and distances were calculated between all the points in the analysis area); the western zone has the highest average index values. Modelled Situation Next page features four maps which explore how the driving network will be affected by the proposed pedestrianisation and the surrounding areas. Average index values change for the adjacent streets; the eastern area is the most influenced by the change. Overall, there seem to be no critical changes for the analysed area. However, the general distribution is better â&#x20AC;&#x201D; it has become more even and there are no more significant gaps between low and high index values (e.g. green and red colours).

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CITY DATA

Integration Index

Proposed Pedestrian Network

Driving Network Integration : Existing Situation

0.127 to 0.186 0.186 to 0.244 0.244 to 0.302 0.302 to 0.361 0.361 to 0.419

Data Analysis : Habidatum © Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

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CITY DATA

Integration Index

Driving Network Integration : Primary and Secondary Phase

Driving Network Integration : Primary Phase

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0.127 to 0.186 0.186 to 0.244 0.244 to 0.302 0.302 to 0.361 0.361 to 0.419

Data Analysis : Habidatum

Data Analysis : Habidatum

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017


ZH A C ODE A N A LY TI C S W I T H HA B I D AT U M

CITY DATA

Integration Index

Driving Network Integration : Primary and Secondary and Tertiary Phase

Driving Network Integration : Primary and Tertiary Phase

0.127 to 0.186 0.186 to 0.244 0.244 to 0.302 0.302 to 0.361 0.361 to 0.419

Data Analysis : Habidatum

Data Analysis : Habidatum

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

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CITY DATA Walking Distance from Underground Stations The largest group of commuters enter Central London using the Rail and Underground networks. The annual traveller volume through each station is visualised to understand their impact on the city network. A common concept in Airport Design strategies has estimated a walking distance of 600 metres as a comfortable distance that anyone is willing to walk. Most of Central London can be reached within a 7-minute walk (600m) from a tube station. Extending the walking range to 15-minutes, covers 95% of Central London.

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CITY DATA

0

7 min — Moderate Walk

> 100 million

14 min — Moderate Walk Annual number of passengers by station

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

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CITY DATA Walking Distance from Rail Stations The train stations alone donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t cover as large an area reached by walking as the underground network. However, they make for a great addition to the overall network.

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CITY DATA

0

7 min — Moderate Walk

> 100 million

14 min — Moderate Walk Annual number of passengers by station

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

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CITY DATA Commercial Diversity Diversity is calculated by the number of unique commercial function by LSOA. (A Lower Layer Super Output Area) The metric shows the number of unique commercial functions in the area, e.g. a grocery store, a cafe, a restaurant, a library and a hotel form a diverse area with 6 unique functions â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in contrast, 10 various cafes would characterise an area as commercially dense, but not diverse. Existing Although all four interest areas show high level of commercial diversity, the southern area has the least number of unique commercial function by LSOA. Potential Dividing the amount of social media posts by the number of commercial functions areas with high activity and relatively low number of POI can be identified. These areas may be characterised as those where commercial footfall can be increased.

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CITY DATA

0

> 62

Commercial Diversity — Existing

0

> 20%

Commercial Diversity — Potential Diverse functions

Data Source : Habidatum

Data Analysis : Habidatum

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

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CITY DATA Undersupplied Commercial Diversity Interest areas differ in lacking commercial infrastructure. Northern and Western sites are the most provided while the other two are the most undersupplied. The number of lacking functions differs from one area to another. Being situated in the very centre, pedestrianized zones have most of the functions and services for everyday needs. Those that lack are rather specific and mostly represent an existing pattern of small undersupply rather than are a guide to action. An example of lacking functions can be: bicycle store, bowling alley, library, place of worship, roofing contractor, movie theater

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CITY DATA

7

Proposed Pedestrian Network

> 24

Lack of Commercial Function Functions

Data Source : Habidatum © Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

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Z H A CO D E A N ALY TI CS WI TH HABID ATUM

CITY DATA Happiness and Wellbeing Londonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s social media activity is concentrated in the city centre, but the majority of positive posts occur outside of this zone. It seems that people inside the congestion zone are generally not feeling as positive. Perhaps it is the congestion, the traffic, and the lack of pedestrian areas that is making us grumpy?

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A PROPOSA L BY ZA HA HA D ID A RCHITE C T S


ZH A C ODE A N A LY TI C S W I T H HA B I D AT U M

CITY DATA

0

> 2300

Social Media Posts — Overall

0

> 43%

Social Media Posts — Happy Sentiment Posts per Day

of total posts

Data Source : Habidatum

Data Analysis : Habidatum

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

© Zaha Hadid Architects 2017

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THE PROPOSAL PRESENTS CURRENT HOUSING MODELS AND DEVELOPS ALTERNATIVE HOUSING STRATEGIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION TO PROMOTE HEALTH, WELL BEING, AND WALKABILITY. IN COLLABORATION WITH LIKE MINDED INNOVATORS IN REAL ESTATE AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT WE DEVELOP ALTERNATIVE FUTURES FOR HOUSING. THE OBJECTIVE OF THE INITIATIVE IS TO OPTIMISE LAND USE PATTERNS AND UNLOCK LAND ASSETS FROM SCENARIOS DEEMED OVERLY CONSTRAINED FOR DEVELOPMENT AND OCCUPATION. THE PROPOSAL POSITS HOUSING SHORTAGES, AND DEMAND NEAR AREAS OF POPULATION WORK DENSITY CAN BE ADDRESSED VIA INNOVATIVE DESIGN AND DELIVERY METHODS, AS WELL AS CONTRIBUTE TO THE ENRICHMENT OF AMENITIES OF PLACE AND THE WELL-BEING OF INHABITANTS.

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A PROPOSA L BY ZA HA HA D ID A RCHITE C T S


ALTERNATIVE HOUSING

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ROLE OF HOUSING IN BROADER CONTEXT


A LTER NAT I V E HO U S I NG

Socio-Ecologial Model Considering cities as a broader social-ecological system, [Meirong, 2010] provides a framework for investigating how cities function and how parts affect other parts. In this context, we examine how walkability and housing are affected by one another. An entire field of research in “urban ecosystems” is focused upon: a. Understanding how cities work as integrated socialecological systems b. Developing approaches that reduce negative impact on surrounding environments c Developing approaches that provide for health and opportunity for citizens. [Boada, 2016] Therefore the holistic approach to walkability requires implementation strategies for commercial, residential, open spaces alike and addressing a gradation of spaces and service offering along any pedestrian route. As a way of thinking, the concept of a social-ecological system is also suitable for examining differing granularities of scale at each the broader city, the local neighborhood, and even within the organisation of individual structures.

Housing

High Street

Gray Space

Landscape

Green Space

Walkable Ecosystem Focus

References Meirong, SU. 2010. Urban ecosystem health assessment:A review. The Science of the total environment. pp. 2425–2434. Martí Boada & Roser Maneja. 2016. Cities are ecosystems. website. http://web.unep.org/ourplanet/october-2016/articles/cities-are-ecosystems

Water Bodies

Blue Space

Pedestrian


ALT E R NAT I V E HOUSI NG

Sense of Place There is a symbiotic relationship between walkable pathways and the locations encountered. Both retail centers burgeoning with activity and greener areas of intimacy and reprieve (a) commuter from a constant influx of information and stimuli contribute (b) household tenure (c) househiold size to the selection of a walkable route. Activity and inactivity, (d) housing cost development and open space, focus and meander, all aim to keep walkable interest. Likewise they define a sense of place, establish character, and enhance difference from block to block, or neighbourhood to neighbourhood.

(e) population (f) employment (g) greenbelt & conservation (h) foreign educated residents

Thusly, strategies are needed in each commercial, residential, waterways, and open greens to conserve, augment, redevelop, or revitalise spaces to support and foster a walking culture. It is important to supplement commercial and residential areas where applicable as underscored through the proposal, and equally necessary to respect, preserve and celebrate a multiplicity of places.

Existing Pedestrian Paths

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ALT E R NAT I V E HOUSI NG

Momentum and Innovation London’s housing crisis requires innovative thinking and a need to generate momentum by developers & the design community. Large-scale developers tend to focus on the development of large scale strategic sites identified through local plans. The speed at which these larger projects are delivered can in instances make it difficult for the local authorities to meet the targets set within the national planning policy framework – which could be in excess of 20% per annum of current housing stock — where there has been persistent under supply. Neither the large scale developers nor the local authorities currently have the resources to identify smaller parcels and assess their potential for addressing more immediate housing needs. Our proposal builds on London’s dynamic entrepreneurial approach to problem solving. It will look at the wider urban impact of the intervention, such as worklive models which allow for increased localism, sense of community and well-being.


A LTER NAT I V E HO U S I NG

Strategic Vision At a time when the local authorities are seeing the need for new housing stock surpass the ability of the market to supply units — the idea of ‘consent & implement’ proposed by Baylight, could be a viable alternative to flattening and redeveloping entire brown field sites in order to achieve inner city densification. The ‘consent and implement ‘approach appeals in its possibility of incentivizing SME developers, who tend to work on a quick turn around of projects and might be more flexible in their procurement structure. This in turn allows us the opportunity to explore a more diverse set of functional typologies and design — that address the specific needs of the demographic of the neighborhood and encourage proactive community engagement. As part of the design process we have taken the challenge of construction within inner city sites as a powerful constraint which defines the design solutions. We are working with Crispin and his team, towards developing modular systems which would address the multi-layered requirements of — speed of construction, flexibility in unit configurations and the potential for incremental growth on-site — in a creative way.


ALT E R NAT I V E HOUSI NG

Traditional Housing Models Structures Traditional housing models can be summarised corresponding to density of implementation. Mass housing is used for high density applications of hundreds of unitstypically organised in towers and midrises. Row housing is used for low density applications ranging from a handful to few dozen units typically limited in height to four floors or arrayed along a street. Detached housing is used for single use applications. Financial Financial backing and risk management of investment is supported by historical data for new ventures. Ownership is seen as an investment approach for occupants building equity through time.

architectural scope structure

ďŹ nancial scope procurement

ownership

operation

mass housing

individual

individual

individual

row house

government

government

government

company

company

company

detached house

traditional housing models

Location Housing is developed on sites with minimal development constraints, and sites selected using word of mouth or other analogue techniques. Audience Traditional housing models are capable of serving most living arrangements, personas, and locations however the housing stock is simply not available to support a diverse spectrum of quality.

traditional

coliving

amenity proximity strategies

microhousing


A LTER NAT I V E HO U S I NG

Alternative Housing Models Alternative housing models supplement current housing strategies. By targeting specific site conditions, audiences, and delivery strategies, we can add to existing residential use sites through incremental densification. The aim is to optimise available land use and provide additional housing stock, as is the shared goal of planning zoning and permitting. The result is housing density in population and amenity rich centers. Likewise maintained open areas as counterpoint to increased occupant densities maintaining the qualitative and characteristic features of place making and promoting a walking culture. Alternative models focus on cooperative ventures between government and companies to provide additional, leasable properties to bear in the market where population density is at its highest. This does not preclude an ownership housing model, but rather targets providing lettable properties of varied quality to support choice and diversity in the market.

architectural scope data

lifecycle

demographic permanent

ďŹ nancial scope procurement

structure

mass housing (4+ ďŹ&#x201A;oors)

ownership

operation

individual

individual

individual

government

government

government

company

company

company

transport saturation open space row house <4 ďŹ&#x201A;oors

amenities proximities

detached house (single dwelling)

features popularity

temporary

alternative housing models

Methods operate outside of traditional and historic data sets, requiring greater due diligence and data analysis to support new ventures for financial backing, risk assessment in the market, and planning approvals. They develop and structure space to promote an active social network by consolidating entertaining and gathering spaces into more active amenity rich volumes. This is an opportunity in the market for increased architectural scope of services expanded to foster early planning discussions. In addition using data analytics it is possible to select, tailor, and optimise bespoke housing solutions for sites less desirable, deemed undevelopable, or locked into other financial and contractual arrangements that would otherwise be occupiable. They are suggestive of an expanded role of designers, owners, traditional and governments in addressing the deficiently in housing stock available.

coliving

amenity proximity strategies

microhousing traditional

time based strategies

modular


ALT E R NAT I V E HOUSI NG

Challenges to Implementation 11/16/2017

Digital Tax Map - New York City Department of Finance

platone - Digital Tax Map - New York City Dept. of Finance (11/16/2017)

Several challenges face implementation of alternative strategies to housing: a. Categorising alternative housing into existing classification systems in planning, zoning, regulations, and, insurance, and investments limits avenues for innovation.

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b. Plot data evaluation is a daunting manual task. Creation of early stage tools evaluating feasibility feasibility potential for remainder, encumbered, or otherwise non-traditional sites will assist property owners with selecting sites and developing bespoke plans to optimise their usage for tailored housing solutions. 11/16/2017

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c. Manual data repositories tasked with managing complexities and multiplicity of housing is not scalable to address broad investment portfolios and diversity of occupant needs and changing demographics. Simplified analysis and optimisation platone platone- -Digital DigitalTax TaxMap Map- -New NewYork YorkCity CityDept. Dept.ofofFinance Finance(11/16/2017) (11/16/2017) toolkits using data analytics will automate and promote site selection and assist in maintaining differentiation in the market. 11/16/2017 11/16/2017

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d. Limited historic data existing utilising alternative models beyond the precedents notes. Abstracting existing data patterns into a financially viable and proven occupant amenity structure into a prototypical data set could assist. that. Deployment on varied sites, demographics, and regulatory conditions could be tested against a this data set providing performance metrics to support early stage planning procedures necessary for approvals.

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Approximate Tax Lot Dimension Borough BoroughBoundary Boundary Condo Units Range Label Tax TaxBlock BlockBoundary Boundary Building Footprint Tax TaxBlock BlockNumber Number

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A LTER NAT I V E HO U S I NG

Strategic Approach Overview 11/16/2017

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No single housing strategy is capable of addressing demand, density, locale, quality. Working with industry leaders we are developing strategies to each facet of the housing conversation including, occupant driven social responses, delivery responses, as well as bespoke data enabled design responses. Social — Organisation of housing space through an amenity based, shared space approach. Emphasising interaction, network culture, and a service based attitude toward living.

persona

individual

locale

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country

solitary

couple

suburban

family

social

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Delivery — Logistical, financial, and deployment responses to expedite construction schedules thereby reducing total investment and providing housing faster within the market.

Copyright 2017 The City of New York

(a) fitting to existing models

traditional

coliving

microhousing

traditional

modular

amenity proximity strategies

Design — Data enabled design strategies for sourcing potential housing sites and implementing bespoke solutions tailored features of small constrained sites.

time based strategies

Social Strategies

Delivery Strategies

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Design Strategies alternative housing strategies

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ALT E R NAT I V E HOUSI NG

Social Based Strategies Londoners are faced with a bleak housing outlook at the moment. They can no longer afford to rent or buy in the traditional housing market and are instead forced to rent substandard accommodation, often from parttime landlords unconcerned with quality of life, or move away from the density of city amenities, away from the places they work, increasing commute hours rather than leisure hours and further burdening an ailing commuter infrastructure. These are not conditions, or areas they choose to live, but rather the default prospects available in a limited housing market.

arrangement

persona

individual

locale

country

solitary

couple

suburban

Traditional — Units include both sleeping and communal spaces decentralising shared spaces in structures. The communal volume is primarily vacant unless entertaining or growth in living arrangement occurs. Occupants operate communal spaces themselves. Co-living — Gathers communal spaces into more generous volumes shared by multiple tenants and operated by others. Often a floor or a few floors establish a “community” of occupants. Kitchen spaces are provided per floor, while gathering and entertaining areas provided per community. Microhousing — A complete decentralisation of communal entertaining spaces utilising the existing city activities to provide venues for gathering and entertaining. Accommodation is for sleeping and the remainder of activities are supplemented by the city offerings.

family

social

city

elder

parameters

traditional

coliving

amenity proximity strategies

microhousing


A LTER NAT I V E HO U S I NG

Time Based Strategies A time based approach to construction offers alternatives of temporary and phased construction to facilitate more permanent construction stock, seasonal demand, or sites demanding less disruption. In addition, accelerating the schedule of housing delivery has the advantage of new housing stock availability in the short term and more amenable leasable rate per unit on offer due to a reduced investment payback period. Developing innovative solutions to expedite delivery and remove onsite construction assists as well in offering factory customisation and quality assurance advantages.

traditional

modular

TIME BASED STRATEGIES time based strategies


ALT E R NAT I V E HOUSI NG

Co-living Co-living is form of living concentrated on community and shared amenities to create a more convenient and fulfilling lifestyle. The innovative form of rental accommodation focuses on quality, convenience, and community. Targeted toward audiences who want and prefer experiences rather than possessions, with a service driven approach rather than an ownership model for property occupation. It is in essence a curated community of like-minded professionals, brought together in high quality communal space and through exclusive member events to promote connection, communication, and community. It is comparable in operational structure to a serviced apartment, or long stay hotel.

Co-Working Similar to co-living and often coupled with co-living as amenity working spaces for remote business and start-ups to reduce overhead and increase productivity. It emphasises a live-work lifestyle in close proximity to one another, and sharing working spaces to meet like minded professionals.


A LTER NAT I V E HO U S I NG

The Collective at Old Oak London, UK Client: The Collective – Reza Merchant Architect: PLP Architecture Stats: 550 bedrooms, 11 storey, 16,000sqm

The Stratford Collective London, UK Client: The Collective – Reza Merchant Architect: PLP Architecture Stats: 223 co-living apartments , 214 apartments, 30 floors, 18,800sqm

Roam London, Miami, Bali, Madrid Global subscription based network to co-living and local communities around the world

Hive Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam

WeWork USA, UK, China, Europe, South America

WeWork is taking over London’s postmodern icon One Poultry


ALT E R NAT I V E HOUSI NG

Micro Housing A serviced unit approach utilising the existing urban fabric as the active community and amenity spaces on offer.

Modular Housing Modular housing approaches construction through controlled working environments offsite and prefabricated elements. Construction timeline and thereby overhead costs are reduced compared with similar scale developments.


A LTER NAT I V E HO U S I NG

Gap House Seoul Bokjeong-dong, South Korea 2015 Architect: Archihood WXY

Carmel Place New York City, USA 2016 Architect: nArchitects team Stats: 55 units , 35,000sf (3,250 sqm)

Songpa Seoul, South Korea Architect: SSd Architects

Moriyama House Nagoya, Japan Architect: Suppose Smart

Hilton Palacio del Rio San Antonio, USA 1968 Construction: Zachary Construction Group Stats:500 rooms, 200 days

185 Bowery NYC 2017 Stats: 300 rooms, 120 days

Apex House Wembley, London 2017 Architect: HTA Design LLP Stats: 680 modules (560 rooms) in 365 days

Wolverhampton Manchester, UK 2009 Architects: Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Connell East Stats: 805 units in 189-270 days


ALT E R NAT I V E HOUSI NG

Innovative Fabrication Technologies The development of new robotic production technologies within architectural construction facilitates a liberation from established design constraints, bringing about new formal and tectonic expression. Odico Odico is an international first to commercialize and demonstrate in large scale commercial construction robotic hot-wire cutting and abrasion cutting of solids. This technology enables increases in production speeds of up to 126 times existing technologies, resulting in an unprecedented coupling of design freedom and cost reduction. AiBuild Ai Build has developed a large scale 3D printing technology using industrial robots and machine learning software, that enables complex architectural forms to be produced in short lead times and at low cost using thermoplastic filament. Ai Buildâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s on-demand manufacturing service enables architects and engineers to design increasingly unique buildings, and contractors to speed up production, while reducing both costs and waste material. FibR FibR is a start-up whose work is based on six years of research. Based on interdisciplinary collaborations at the University of Stuttgart we transferred the principles of natureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most efficient lightweight structures into technical constructions based on high performance materials like carbon fiber reinforced polymers and cutting edge robotic fabrication and simulation technology.

Robotic Hot Wire Cutting, Abrasion Cutting ODICO

Robotic Thermofused Filament Extrusin AiBuild

Robotic Spun Carbon Fibre Winding FiBR & ICD


A LTER NAT I V E HO U S I NG

Innovative Financial Strategies Traditional financial and risk assessment strategies rely upon historical data to qualify and classify proposals. This places additional burden on alternative housing proposals to enrich early stage feasibility and concept design models with data to support early planning and project structuring conversations in securing financial backing and investors.. Likewise risk sharing and cost amortisation through alternative land-property ownership arrangements can open new territories for housing realisation. The â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;consent and implementâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; idea proposed by Baylight appeals in its possibility of incentivizing SME developers, who tend to work on a quick turn-around of projects and might be more flexible in their procurement structure.


ALT E R NAT I V E HOUSI NG

Innovative Design Strategies Design strategies aim to incrementally increase density in existing housing sites near pedestrian activity centers through innovative data search, design strategies and financial structures. They examine critically open space and building footprint utilisation to earmark potential sites for small scale construction interventions. The aim is to be surgically precise and minimally disruptive, maintaining tenancy of adjoining structures during construction. These housing strategies optimise existing residential land use sites rather than creating new build sites elsewhere farther from infrastructure and walkable thoroughfares. This in turn helps fulfill the long term need for housing more rapidly than new construction builds.

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We propose a digitally directed search for potential housing locations. The search identifies properties that are amenable to infill, small scale, and minimally disruptive construction on existing residential sites. Sites which are less suitable for traditional housing development are specifically targeted, looking for remainder and partial spaces on existing residential properties. While this will not address the entirety of the projected housing need, it will incrementally allow clients to optimise their existing residential properties for maximum utilisation resulting in more (a) housing density in preferred pedestrian areas.

Digital Tax Map - New York City Department of Finance

platone - Digital Tax Map - New York City Dept. of Finance (11/16/2017)

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Design Strategies Detail

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End of Block Addition Potential sites exhibit blank windowless end walls often associated with fire stairwells at the ends of double loaded corridor organised structures. Design consists of a stand alone structure appearing to â&#x20AC;&#x153;extendâ&#x20AC;? the existing housing volume. Stand Alone Permanent Structure Potential sites exhibit disused structures, low density parking covered onsite parking, or large underutilised hardscape courts. There is a significant disparity between open space area and habitable footprint which could be decreased. Design consists of a stand alone structure appearing to match existing housing heights. Located where permanent structures are desired in lieu of temporary. Temporary Modular Community Potential sites exhibit disused structures, low density parking covered onsite parking, or large underutilised hardscape courts. There is a significant disparity between open space area and habitable footprint which could be decreased. Design consists of a community in aggregate unit structures. Units are accessed via external terracing and the development favours porosity. Located where temporary structures are desired or phased renovation of nearby permanent structures to preserve tenancy during permanent structure construction. Reconstructive Development Potential sites are remainder sites with limited access or odd geometry often adjacent a road or rail line bifurcating spaces. Design consists of a structures reconstructing contiguous areas suitable for residences.

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ALT E R NAT I V E HOUSI NG

Data Driven Method Overview We develop a custom method whereby properties are queried for valid attributes amenable to an alternative housing strategy. We utilise open sources such as Open Street Maps, NASA photogrammetry, JPL Labs terrain, as well as commissioned sources such as Habidatum for data sets. Extracted data is organised according to geospatial location, and attributes stored as metadata within an object entry in a database. The database is queried for attributes during property search. Properties exhibiting valid attribute data are further examined for relevant architectural features. Currently this second tier is filtered manually while we continue development of machine learning and image recognition algorithms to validate architectural features such as blank walls nested in the urban landscape.

Infill sites End-of-block sites Pedestrian Street


A LTER NAT I V E HO U S I NG

Data Driven Method Detail Exclusivity Search

Quantitative Search

A search using “yes/no” criteria as a first tier search pass.

A search using calculated metrics as a second tier search pass.

Is the property within a proximity threshold of a pedestrianised boulevards? This aims to reinforce pedestrian areas with additional occupant activity. Is the property a council owned estate? This aims to collaborate and incrementally address deficits in projected housing goals through an existing portfolio of properties. Is the property low rise? This aims to filter quick turn-around, or temporary interventions that can be realised without the use of lifts.

Using metrics such as total open space, footprint area, building area we can calculate density metrics and visualise measured disparities in density for a particular community, street or site.

Qualitative Search

Blank Walls — Building faces with limited openings are opportunities where existing residents have minimal site disruption to views, and light access during a new build. Storage Structures — Volumes which are transiently occupied, or not at all, and can contribute to occupied housing infrastructure if relocated or consolidated. Truncated Sites — Overly constrained and limited site access can be addressed using alternative development pro formas.


ALT E R NAT I V E HOUSI NG

END OF BLOCK End of Block Case Study Compton street, Clerkenwell 10.03

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Infill

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alternative housing strategies

Reconstructive

Flat 1 1 Bedrom Area = 41.21sqm


A LTER NAT I V E HO U S I NG

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ALT E R NAT I V E HOUSI NG

PERMANENT INFILL Permanent Infill Case Study Meridith Street Estate, Islington 51°31’35.3”N 0°06’18.4”W

Flat 2 1 Bedrom Area = 50.8 sqm

Flat 1 1 Bedrom Area = 40.13sqm

Flat 3 1 Bedrom Area = 43.9sqm

Infill

Temporary

alternative housing strategies

Reconstructive


A LTER NAT I V E HO U S I NG

PERMANENT INFILL


ALT E R NAT I V E HOUSI NG

PERMANENT INFILL Permanent Infill Case Study Spa Green Estate, Clerkenwell

13.91

51°31’43.1”N 0°06’19.3”W

Type A 1 Bedrom Area = 53.21sqm

Infill

Temporary

alternative housing strategies

Reconstructive

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BENEFITS & METRICS Traffic & Congestion Worldwide Statistics

UK Statistics

• Nearly 70% of the world’s population set to live in cities by 2030.1

• The UK been has ranked the 3rd most congested country in Europe.

• Europe is the most urbanised continent in the world: at present over 80% of its population lives in towns and cities.

• Londoners spend more than 100 hours every year in traffic.4

• Between 1975 and 1995 the daily distance travelled by average European doubled. A further doubling of traffic is predicted by 2025.2 • Of all journeys, 20-40% are travelled by cycle or on foot, with the highest percentage in the Netherlands and the lowest in Finland. Trips on foot take place most frequently in Great Britain, whereas bicycle trips are most frequent in the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden. 3

• The direct and indirect costs of traffic jams cost London drivers £6.2bn last year — £1,911 each. • Buses in central London today move slower than a cyclist or a horse.5 • Opening of Crossrail could bring another 50,000 to 80,000 pedestrians to Oxford Street each day.6

1 Claris, S., Scopelliti, D. (2016, Jun). Cities Alive: Towards a walking world. ARUP. 2 European Commission. Reclaiming city streets for people // http://ec.europa.eu/environment/pubs/pdf/streets_people.pdf 3 European Commission. Pedestrians and cyclists: unprotected road users. // https://ec.europa.eu/transport/road_safety/specialist/knowledge/pedestrians/pedestrians_and_cyclists_unprotected_road_users_en 4 Inrix Roadway Analytics. Europe’s Traffic Hotspots. 2016. // http://www2.inrix.com/traffic-hotspots-research-2016 5 Ibid. 6 Lydall, R. (2017, Apr 20). Cyclists ‘could be banned from Oxford Street when it is pedestrianised’. Evening Standard. URL: https://www.standard.co.uk/news/transport/cyclists-could-be-banned-from-oxford-street-when-it-is-pedestrianised-a3518816.html 7 The Lancet. Global Burden of Disease. 2012 // http://thelancet.com/gbd 8 TfL. Healthy Streets for London. 2017 // http://content.tfl.gov.uk/healthy-streets-for-london.pdf

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BENEFITS & METRICS Public Health & Environment Physical Health & Environment • Obesity is killing three times as many people as malnutrition — with more than 3 million worldwide dying from having a ‘high body mass index’.7 • More than 40% of Londoners do not achieve the recommended 150 minutes of activity a week.8 • Walking for 20 minutes a day can cut the risk of heart disease by 30%,9 while heart disease remains the major cause of premature death in the country.10 • In January 2017, London breached its annual air pollution limit in five days surpassing Beijing on that measure.11 • A car driver is exposed to more than twice the

amount of air pollution as the person walking the same route, and almost 8 times more pollution than the cyclist.12 • 27% of older European adults (65 years and over) choose walking as their main mode of transport.13 • 7 million premature deaths annually linked to air pollution.14

• About 50% of the global urban population experiences air pollution 2.5 times higher than World Health Organization recommendations.17 • Over 90% of air pollution in cities is caused by vehicle emissions.18 • People who walk 8.6 minutes a day are 33% more likely to report better mental health.19

• A 30 min commuting walk at an average speed of 5km/h can burn up to 100 kcal.15 • In the UK, the cost of illnesses derived from physical inactivity has been estimated at €14.2bn per annum, 8.3% of national health spending.16

9 Harvard Health Publication. Walking: your steps to health. 2009 // https://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletter_article/walking-your-steps-to-health 10 NHS. The top five causes for premature death. 2016 // http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/over60s/Pages/The-top-five-causes-of-premature-death.aspx 11 Air Quality Index // http://aqicn.org/map/london/ 12 Healthy Air. Which transport option is the healthiest? 2014 // https://www.healthyair.org.uk/healthiest-transport-option-video/ 13 Scopelliti, D. et al. (2016, Apr). Shaping Ageing Cities. ARUP. 14 World Health Organisation (2014, May 15). World Health Statistics 2014 15 Claris, S., Scopelliti, D. (2016, Jun). Cities Alive: Towards a walking world. ARUP. 16 Physical inactivity costs UK over £10bn per year, report suggests, by S. Clarke. 2015. http://www.cyclingweekly.co.uk/news/latest-news/physical-inactivity-costs-uk-over-10bn-per-year-report-suggests-177548 17 Air quality deteriorating in many of the world’s cities, by World Health Organization. 2014. Available from: http://bit.ly/1nnM5Pb. 18 Urban Air Pollution, by United Nations Environment Programme (N/A). 19 Making the case for investment in the walking environment: A review of the evidence, by Danielle Sinnett, Katie Williams, Kiron Chatterjee and Nick Cavill. 2011. UWE. Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/15502/ 20 Urban Audit (European Commission). Perceptions in City Life in the UK and Europe. 2012 // http://nationalarchives.gov.uk/20160106194446/http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171776_371585.pdf

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BENEFITS & METRICS Safety • Almost one third of Londoners do not feel safe in the capital — less than residents of Paris, Barcelona, Zagreb, and Malaga.20 • Department for Transport estimates the total value of prevention of reported road accidents in 2015 to be £15.3 billion (this includes an estimate of the cost of damage only accidents). • 25% of pedestrian casualties in the UK occurred between 4pm and 7pm.

• In terms of fatalities, the most vulnerable group consists of pedestrians aged 60 years or older.21 • Road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among people aged between 15 and 29 years. 22 • Three of Britain’s most dangerous pedestrian crossings are on Oxford Street, with the intersection at Holles Street cited as the very worst with 18 accidents.23

• 80% of pedestrian casualties occurred on a 30mph road. • 39% of child casualties are pedestrian. • Good weather tends to increase casualties, while bad weather has an opposite effect.

21 Department for Transport. Reported Road Casualties. Great Britain: 2015 Annual Report. 2016 // https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/568484/rrcgb-2015.pdf 22 WHO. Save lives: a road safety technical package. 2017 // http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs358/en/ 23 https://data.gov.uk/dataset/road-accidents-safety-data 24 Department for Business, Innovation and Skills and Genecon and Partners. Understanding High Street Performance. 2011 // http://genecon.co.uk/news-comments/genecon-high-streets-review.aspx 25 Burden, Dan, and Todd Litman. 2011. “America Needs Complete Streets.” ITE Journal 81 (4): 36–43. 26 The Means. “The relevance of parking in the success of urban centres”, a review for London Councils. 2012. // http://www.londoncouncils.gov.uk/services/parking-services/parking-and-traffic/parking-information-professionals/review-relevance 27 Making the case for investment in the walking environment: A review of the evidence, by Danielle Sinnett, Katie Williams, Kiron Chatterjee and Nick Cavill. 2011. UWE. Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/15502/ 28 Pere, P.-P. The effect of pedestrianisation and bicycles on local business. Future Place Leadership. // https://futureplaceleadership.com/toolboxes/the-effect-of-pedestrianisation-and-bicycling-and-local-businesses/ 29 Ibid. 30 . Claris, S., Scopelliti, D. (2016, Jun). Cities Alive: Towards a walking world. ARUP. 31 Improving the health of Londoners: transport action plan, by Transport for London. 2014. Available from: http://content.tfl.gov.uk/improving-the-health-of-londoners-transport-action-plan.pdf. 32 Annual Report 2014/15, by Transport for London. 2014. Available from: http://content.tfl.gov.uk/annual-report-2013-14.pdf 33 Foot Traffic ahead, by Smart Growth America. 2014. Available from: http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/documents/foot-traffic-ahead.pdf 34 Walkability, Real Estate, and Public Health Data, by Walkscore. Available from: https://www.walkscore.com/professional/research.php

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BENEFITS & METRICS Profit • Across Britain, up to 15,000 high street store closed between 2000 and 2010 due to increasing competition from shopping malls and online retail.24 • Walking and other non-motorised transport projects typically increase retails sales by 30%.25 • Although car drivers spend more on a single trip, walkers spend more per month than those travelling by car.26 • Walking and cycling projects typically increase land value from 70 to 300%.27 • Ströget, a high street located in the city centre of Copenhagen, closed to cars in 1962. Within a year sales were up 30%, the number of pedestrians increased 35%.28 • Pedestrianisation of parts of Time Square in New York City — arguably one of the most high profile projects to date — resulted in that 75% of people think it has improved the area and economic activity went up by a staggering 22% between 2007 and 2011 (compared to a 9% increase in city growth during a time of economic crisis). According to the 2012 Economic Impact Study

pedestrian activity has rose by 11%, with 35% less accidents with pedestrians and 63% less traffic accidents. • According to the Alliance for Biking and Walking Benchmarking Project, cycling/walking projects create 11-14 jobs per 1 mln USD invested compared with 7 jobs created per 1 mln USD invested in motorwayscompared with 7 jobs created per 1 mln USD invested in motorways.

• In the US, the most walkable urban metro areas have substantially higher GDPs per capita and percentages of college graduates over 25 years of age in the population.33 • Pedestrianisation of a street can lead to an increase of $9 per square foot for annual office rents, $7 per square foot for retail rents, $82 per square foot for home values, and over $300 per month for apartment rents.34

• London’s Oxford Circus Diagonal saw a 25% increase in turnover in the stores immediately adjacent – rising from £20m to £25m in the year after completion of the scheme.29

• As shown by 2014 UK spending data, transport costs are rising and make up the biggest proportion of weekly household expenditure — £74.80 per week.35

• According to UNHabitat, streets should make up 30 to 35% of city’s land area in order to make a city “prosperous”.30

• Recent studies on the economic benefits of walking interventions show an average benefitto-cost ratio of 13:1.36

• According to Transport for London, the likelihood for individual obesity decreases 4.8% every km of walk per day.31

• Investments in sidewalks return health and air quality benefits valued at nearly twice the construction cost.37

• According to Transport for London analysis, pedestrians usually spend 65% more than drivers.32

• Londoners declared that in order to make improvements to pedestrian environments, they would pay extra council taxes, from £14.78 to £17.35 per year.38

35 Claris, S., Scopelliti, D. (2016, Jun). Cities Alive: Towards a walking world. ARUP. 36 Value for Money: Economic Assessment of Investment in Walking and Cycling, by Dr. Adrian Davis for the Department of Health. 2010 . Available from: http://www.apho.org.uk/resource/item.aspx?RID=91553 37 An economic evaluation of health-promotive built environment changes, by JY Guo, S. Gandavarapu. 2010. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19840817

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BENEFITS & METRICS Happiness and Wellbeing • London is the least happy major city in the UK.39 • Cyclists report higher levels of happiness and lower levels of stress than everyone else.40 • London was named the unfriendliest place in Britain.41 • Only a half of Brits know their neighbour’s name and less than a third say hello to each other.42 • Residents living in walkable neighbourhoods exhibit at least 80% greater levels of social capital than those living in car-dependent ones. For instance, they are more likely to know — and to trust — other neighbours, they feel more connected to the community, and they are more politically involved.43 • Statistics show that personal happiness decreases with every mile of commute.44 • According to economists from the University

of Zurich, a person with a one-hour commute to work has to earn 40% more money to be as satisfied as someone who walks. At the same time, shifting from a long commute to a short walk would make a single person as happy as if he or she had found a new love.45 • Those who walk for more than 8.6 min per day are 33% more likely to report better mental health. • Shortening crosswalk distances by one metre can reduce pedestrian crashes by 6%.46

• More than half of street markets’ visitors also buy at other neighbouring shops.49 • According to a Stanford study, a person’s creative output increases by an average of 60% when walking.50 • Standard practices and local land development codes set for the creation of a permeable network a max block length that usually falls within a range of 300-600 ft (90-180 mtr).51 • Every 10 minutes of commuting cuts community involvement by 10%.52

• Residents of the street with light car traffic volumes had three times more friends and twice as many acquaintances than those living on the street with high car traffic.47 • Cycling and walking are estimated to provide up to $11.80 return of investment per $1 invested.48

38 The pedestrian pound. The business case for better streets and places, by Living Streets. 2014. Available from: http://www.livingstreets.org.uk/media/1391/pedestrianpound_fullreport_web.pdf 39 Urban Audit (European Commission). Perceptions in City Life in the UK and Europe. 2012 // http://nationalarchives.gov.uk/20160106194446/http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171776_371585.pdf 40 TimeOut. The Great City Living Survey. 2015 // https://www.timeout.com/london/things-to-do/city-living-survey-2015 41 Provident Personal Credit. Unbroken Britain. 2017 // https://www.providentpersonalcredit.com/unbroken-britain-community-survey/ 42 Bisto Together Project // http://www.bistotogetherproject.com 43 Social Capital and the Built Environment: The importance of walkable neighbourhoods. 2003 // http://www.jtc.sala.ubc.ca/reports/leyden.pdf 44 Commuting and Personal Well-being, by Office for National Statistics. 2014. Available from: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20160105160709/http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171766_351954.pdf 45 The Economics of Happiness, by Bruno S. Frey and Alois Stutzer. 2002. World Economics, vol. 3, no. 1. Available from: https://www.bsfrey.ch/articles/365_02.pdf. 46 Cities Safer by Design. Guidance and Examples to Promote Traffic Safety through Urban and Street Design, by Ben Welle, Wei Li, Claudia Adriazola, Robin King, Maria Obelheiro, Claudio Sarmiento and Qingnan Liu. 2015. World Resource Institute. Available from: http://www.wri.org/publication/cities-safer-design.

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BENEFITS & METRICS Attractiveness History and Tourism • 35% of Londoners say the capital’s history is the number one thing they like about living in the capital. • The new North Terrace of Trafalgar Square had a 300% increase in visitors after pedestrianising. • The number of international tourists worldwide is expected to increase by 43m every year. • The “High Line effect” has shown how an iconic pedestrian park, funded with only $115m of public investment, can generate over $2bn in private investment surrounding the park, attracting 5 million visitors a year, creating 12,000 new jobs and doubling the property value in the neighbourhood.

47 Revisiting Donald Appleyard’s Livable Streets, by StreetFilms. 2010. Available from: https://vimeo.com/16399180. 48 Economic benefits of public space investment, by Future of Places. Available from: http://futureofplaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/FoP_Economic-benefits-of-public-space-investment.pdf. 49 Five Reasons Demand for Walkability is Growing Across America, by Opticos. 2015. Available from: http://opticosdesign.com/five-reasons-demand-for-walkability-is-growing-across-america/. 50 Give Your Ideas Some Legs: The Positive Effect of Walking on Creative Thinking, by Marily Oppezzo and Daniel L. Schwartz. 2014. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1142-1152. Available from: https://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/xlm-a0036577.pdf 51 Measuring Network Connectivity for Bicycling and Walking, by Jennifer Dill. 2004. Available from: http://reconnectingamerica.org/assets/Uploads/TRB2004-001550.pdf 52 “Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community”, by Robert D. Putnam. 2000. Simon & Schuster. Available from: http://bowlingalone.com/ 53 YouGov. What do Londoners like most and least about living in London? 2016 // https://yougov.co.uk/news/2016/11/09/what-do-londoners-most-and-least-about-living-lond/ 54 Tourism towards 2030: Global overview, by World Tourist Organization. 2011. Available from: http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/pdf/unwto_2030_ga_2011_korea_1.pdf. 55 Walkonomics: the High Line effect, by Demetrio Scopelliti. 2015. Available from: http://thoughts.arup.com/post/details/429/walkonomics-the-high-line-effect

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Traffic and congestion. Inrix Roadway Analytics named the UK the 3rd most congested country in Europe. According to their last report, Londoners spent more than 100 hours in traffic last year which costed them — directly and indirectly — £6.2bn altogether, or £1,911 each. Switching to public transport is not an ideal solution as buses in central London today move slower than a cyclist1. Encouraging Londoners to walk could help to tackle the deepening transportation crisis. Environment. World Health Organisation links 7 million premature deaths annually to air pollution.2 Over 90% of air pollution in cities is believed to be caused by vehicle emissions.3 In January 2017, London breached its annual air pollution limit in five days surpassing Beijing on that indicator.4 Notably, a car driver is exposed to more than twice the amount of air pollution as someone walking the same route, and almost 8 times more than someone cycling.5

Public health. With obesity killing three times as many people as malnutrition worldwide6, more than 40% of Londoners do not undertake the recommended 150 minutes of activity a week.7 In all the UK, the cost of illnesses related to physical inactivity has been estimated at €14.2bn per annum — 8.3% of national health spending.8 Walking for 20 minutes a day can reduce the risk of heart disease, which remains the major cause of premature death in the country9, by 30%10. As the population is aging, the financial burden of NHS on the taxpayer is growing, which makes it crucial to promote a healthy lifestyle. Safety. Department for Transport estimates the total value of prevention of reported road accidents to be £15.3 billion a year.11 Road traffic injuries remain the leading cause of death among people aged 15-29 years (WHO, 2017). As pedestrians are the most vulnerable group on the roads, encouraging walking will not help until our streets are safe. Creating a walkable environment also affects safety in

1 Cookson, Graham (2016, Nov 30). Europe’s Traffic Hotspots: Measuring the Impact of Congestion in Europe. Inrix. Retrieved from: www2.inrix.com on Aug 25, 2017. 2 World Health Organisation (2014, Mar 25). 7 million premature deaths annually linked to air pollution. Retrieved from: www.who.int on Aug 25, 2017. 3 Claris, S., Scopelliti, D. (2016, Jun). Cities Alive: Towards a walking world. ARUP. Retrieved from: www.arup.com on Aug 25, 2017. 4 http://aqicn.org/map/london/ 5 Healthy Air (2014, Aug 12). Which transport option is the healthiest? Retrieved from: www.healthyair.org.uk on Aug 25, 2017. 6 Nomura, Shuhei et al. (2017, Jul 19). Global Burden of Disease. The Lancet. Retrieved from: http://thelancet.com on Aug 25, 2017. 7 Healthy Streets for London (2017, Feb 16). Transport for London. Retrieved from: http://content.tfl.gov.uk on Aug 25, 2017. 8 Centre For Economic and Business Research (2015, Jun 17). The costs of inactivity in Europe. Retrieved from: https://cebr.com on Aug 25, 2017. 9 NHS. The top five causes for premature death. Retrieved from: www.nhs.uk on Aug 25, 2017. 10 Harvard Men’s Health Watch (2009, Aug). Walking: Your steps to health. Harvard Health Publication. Retrieved from: www.health.harvard.edu on Aug 25, 2017. 11 Lloyd, Daryl et al. (2016, Sep). Reported Road Casualties. Great Britain: 2015. Annual Report. Department for Transport. Retrieved from: www.gov.uk on Aug 25, 2017. 12 Social capital is defined as the networks of relationships between people enabling the society to function more effectively.

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another way, boosting social capital.12 There are almost 6 million closed-circuit television cameras (CCTV) in Britain, one for every 11 people, but one third of Londoners still do not feel safe on the streets.13 As noted by urban planning guru Jane Jacobs, creating constant pedestrian flows results in more safety as people become “eyes on the streets”. Retail business. Across Britain, around 15,000 high street stores closed in 2000-2010 due to increasing competition from shopping malls and online retail.14 Offline shops can only survive as “third spaces” making it a pleasurable experience for buyers to physically spend time there. Although car drivers spend more on a single trip, walkers spend more per month than those travelling by car.15 Studies show an increase in commercial activity by 30% following pedestrianisation all over the world.16 Quality of life. Case studies demonstrate the connection


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between street interface and social safety and well-being.17 Danish planner Jan Gehl, the mastermind behind arguably the most successful case of pedestrianisation,18 believes that cities should facilitate interaction on a human scale. It is essential given the current situation — as polls reveal, only a half of British respondents know their neighbour’s name19 while London was named the unfriendliest20 and the least happy major city in the UK. There is, however, hope — London cyclists reported higher levels of happiness and lower levels of stress than drivers.21 It makes a strong case for encouraging non-motorised means of transportation.

industry, which makes them overcrowded on working days while deserted over the weekend. Developing a framework for more flexible use of streets can potentially make those areas attractive for a diverse range of visitors.

Tourism. 35% Londoners say that the capital’s history is the number one thing they like about living in London.22 Creating pedestrian routes would allow more people (tourists and locals alike) to enjoy its sites. One striking example is the new North Terrace of Trafalgar Square which had a 300% increase in visitors after pedestrianising.23 Some boroughs, such as the City of London, are dependent on one single

13 Urban Audit (2014, Jun 23). Perceptions in City Life in the UK and Europe. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved from: www.ons.gov.uk/ on Aug 25, 2017. 14 Genecon and Partners (2011, Jan). Understanding High Street Performance. Retrieved from: http://genecon.co.uk on Aug 25, 2017. 15 Tyler, Sophie et al. (2012, Oct 31). Review of the relevance of parking to the success of urban centres. London Councils. Retrieved from: www.londoncouncils.gov.uk on Aug 25, 2017. 16 Sastre, Julián et al. Economic Impact of Pedestrianisation in Historic Urban Centre, the Valdemoro Case – Study (Spain). // Procedia — Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2013. 17 CABE (2007, Jan 14). This way to better streets:10 case studies on improving street design. Design Council. Retrieved from: www.designcouncil.org.uk on Aug 25, 2017. 18 Pedestrianisation of Copenhagen’s city centre in the 1960s is a widely praised case that doubled number of pedestrians and helped local shops and cafes to flourish. 19 Bingham, John. (2015, Jul 1). Love thy neighbour? Many Britons barely know them. The Telegraph. Retrieved from: www.telegraph.co.uk on Aug 25, 2017. 20 www.providentpersonalcredit.com/unbroken-britain-community-survey/ 21 Parsons, Guy (2015, Jun 24). The Great City Living Survey 2015. Time Out. Retrieved from: www.timeout.com on Aug 25, 2017. 22 Smith, Matthew (2016, Nov 9). What do Londoners like most and least about living in London? YouGov. Retrieved from: https://yougov.co.uk on Aug 25, 2017. 23 Lawlor, Eilís (2013, Sep 20). The pedestrian pound: The business case for better streets and places. Living Streets. Retrieved from: www.livingstreets.org.uk on Aug 25, 2017.

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CONSIDERATIONS ‘What happens to all the traffic?’ If not planned carefully and incrementally, banning cars from some streets could result in unmanageable and extended areas of congestion and overspill parking. However, congestion, though getting worse immediately after pedestrianisation, has been shown to return to an equilibrium as drivers adjust. A research group led by University College London analysed 60 cases worldwide and noticed that an average of 20% of traffic dissolves in case of pedestrianisation or reducing the road capacity. The study even found examples where 60% of the traffic disappeared! Re-routing schemes must be carefully designed in collaboration between London authorities, local representatives, and transport associations. While attempts are made to simulate traffic through complex computer models, the true effect of closing off specific streets to vehicular traffic can best be tested through temporary closures. Finally, an adequate supply of public transport facilities linking the pedestrian areas across the the city is always a necessary measure.

1 Case Studies: Octavia Boulevard. re:Streets. URL: https://www.restreets.org/case-studies/octavia-boulevard 2 Case Studies: Mobility and Access / Best Practices. re:Streets. URL: https://www.restreets.org/mobility-and-access/best-practices/11m 3 Reclaiming city streets for people Chaos or quality of life? // European Commission. 2004.

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Example: Octavia Boulevard, San Francisco — “Just wait and see” strategy Despite the reduced capacity of Octavia Boulevard after the removal of the freeway, traffic along detour routes returned in the months after its opening to pre-closure levels.1 The corridor, which used to carry 93,000 vehicles per day now serves 45,000 vehicles per day with some of the remaining traffic displaced onto alternate routes.

Example: Improved navigation Car-free commuters can be encouraged by providing dynamic on-trip (en route) information to influence time, route, mode and destination choice. This strategy influences travelers before they get into cars promoting non-motorized modes and alternative destinations of travel. Pre-trip information can also influence the mode selected (e.g., public transport or carpooling) or even the destination of travel (such as working from home or shopping closer to home). Good guidance for parking facilities can also decrease traffic.2 In Geneva, walking distances between tourist attractions are signposted, so that city dwellers can see they can reach many targets quickly by walking.3 Vancouver, as part of its goal to become the greenest city in the world by 2020, commissioned a new pedestrian wayfinding system that would encourage walking. The new system includes a detailed map, various forms of on-street map design, themed print maps and a number of mobile applications.

Photo credit: flickr.com/sfcityscape

Photo credit: lake-geneva-switzerland.com

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CONSIDERATIONS ‘Can public transport really replace cars?’ Given the recently published Mayor’s Transport Strategy, one has all the reasons to expect more private vehicles to be replaced by public transport in London. By 2041, Transport for London plans to reduce car usage by 3 million journeys a day. Various measures to achieve this goal will include opening new bus routes, Tube stations and the 21 km long Elizabeth Line; plans are in place to include extending the operating times of public transport, investing in low-emissions buses and, in parallel, discouraging private vehicles through new “toxicity charges”. The Hopper fare already allows passengers with Oyster card to take two buses for the price of one within a 60 minutes period, while the new electric taxis will arguably become the least polluting form of public transport. Finally, giving more people a chance to live closer to their jobs could encourage more Londoners to give up their cars.

4 Re: Streets. Cheong Gye Cheon Stream Restoration. // http://www.restreets.org/case-studies/cheong-gye-cheon-stream-restoration 5 Reclaiming city streets for people Chaos or quality of life? // European Commission. 2004. 6 Pojani, D. Downtown pedestrian malls : including a case study of Santa Monica’s Third Street Promenade. 2005.

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Example: Cheonggyecheon, Seoul — Reconfiguring bus routes

Example: Freiburg — Environmental ticket (“RegioKarte”)

Example: The Third Street Promenade, Santa Monica — Shuttle bus with tokens

The greening of central Seoul created a great amount of public amenities but resulted in a significant loss in road capacity. As part of a new transportation policy,4 the city opened 40 miles of dedicated rapid-bus lanes along major arterials and reconfigured bus routes to feed more effectively into the subway. As a result, the bus and subway ridership of the inner city increased by 11% and 13.7% respectively.

In the 1983 the city of Freiburg started to expand the railway network, and an “environment ticket” was introduced. The number of public transport users doubled in ten years — nearly 30,000 car journeys changed into public transport journeys. At the moment, public transport in the city centre is managed only by trams. Buses transport people to terminals where they then board trams. Tourist receive a free public transport ticket from their hotel for the duration of the visit. 5

A popular shopping district in Santa Monica, The Third Street Promenade is difficult to reach due to increased traffic. A shuttle bus system helps alleviate the need for parking nearby, while parking lots are located in the surrounding neighbourhoods. The City encourages merchants to provide their customers and employees with bus tokens, and disseminate bus line information.6

Photo credit: badische-zeitung.de

Photo credit: flickr.com/hercwad

Photo credit: landscapeiskingston.wordpress.com

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CONSIDERATIONS ‘How will service and emergency vehicles access pedestrianised areas?’ Pivotal to the safe and efficient day-to-day operations within a city are well planned arrangements for services, such as deliveries, street cleaning and garbage removal, as well as emergency vehicles such as police cars, fire engines and ambulances. Those arrangements could incorporate removable bollards, which restrict vehicles besides emergency ones, or retaining a ‘fire path’ through pedestrianised zones. Deliveries, in turn, could be restricted to times when pedestrian flow is at a minimum, or arrangements can be made to utilise backstreets. Some cities allow freight vehicles in their pedestrianised areas during specific time windows, often between 7am and 11am; others open up their pedestrian streets twice a day or allow evening and night time deliveries.7 As real-time parking and traffic apps become more technologically advanced and driverless electric vehicles become more widespread, the potential to streamline these arrangements increases with time. Finally, a city with a river as wide as Thames should consider utilising it for deliveries to ease road traffic.

7 Verlinde, S. et al. Sustainable Freight Deliveries in the Pedestrian Zone: Facilitating the Necessity. 2016. 8 Davies, A. (Jan 25, 2017). A Très Dinky Self-Driving Shuttle Nudges Paris Into the Future. Wired. URL: https://www.wired.com/2017/01/tres-dinky-self-driving-shuttle-nudges-paris-future/ 9 http://www.londonchamber.co.uk/news/press-releases/the-thames-could-be-a-highway%E2%80%9D-easing-road-conges/

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Example: Paris — Free driverless electric shuttles

Suggestion: Using the Thames for freight deliveries

Paris has introduced Easy Mile, the futuristic driverless shuttle for travelers crossing the River Seine between the Gare d’Austerlitz and Gare de Lyon train stations. With the new free shuttle travelers no longer need to struggle with their luggage and call a taxi for a two-minute ride. A similar electric vehicle can be used for emergency or delivery services.8

Today 90% of all freight in the British capital is moved by road. London Chamber of Commerce and Industry has suggested creating a “highway” out of London’s main water artery to ease road congestion. Chief Executive of LCCI, Colin Stanbridge said: “In effect, the Thames is an underused superhighway which flows through the heart of our capital, surely we should look to maximise its potential.”9

Photo credit: easymile.com

Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

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CONSIDERATIONS How will pedestrian zones be inclusive and accessible for all?’ A pedestrian network only benefits the community if it is equally safe and accessible for everyone. Elderly people and children, visually impaired people and people with restricted mobility, pregnant women and pushchair users — all of them must be considered so that they can enjoy the streets. Moreover, when public spaces are well-designed, vulnerable road users are those who benefit the most as for them spending time in “third spaces” is an additional opportunity to socialise. A flexible barrier-free environment includes but is not limited to a suitable number of parking lots for disabled badge holders, tactile-based pedestrian navigation, and enough seating spaces for people with mobility restrictions.

10 http://www.ecomobility-expo.net/themes/05-personal-mobility/

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Suggestion: “Green” and safe options for anybody In addition to wheelchairs and walkers, handbikes, “social” tricycles, four-wheeled scooters are just a few options available for people with mobility restrictions and other vulnerable road users. EcoMobility Expo Online, a website educating urban dwellers on green transport options, suggests a variety of vehicles specially designed for people with reduced physical mobility.10 Kids, who are another kind of unprotected road users, could make use of walking bikes, scooters, or tricycles.

Photo credit: pfmobility.dk

Photo credit: nordiccab.no

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CONSIDERATIONS ‘How would this be funded?’ Large-scale urban projects can be very expensive and involve time and cost overruns. Political concerns behind such an ambitious pedestrianisation plan may prevent local government from supporting it. However, engaging with private capital can save money and make the project more attractive for public officials and taxpayers alike. The Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE) suggests eight models for funding green spaces in the city, from planning agreements for new developments to endowments that provide funding from the interest earned on investments. Not-for-profit organisations and voluntary grassroots groups can also contribute time and labour and raise money for creating and maintaining public spaces.11 All of these options have their strengths and weaknesses (carefully assessed in the CABE report), and will therefore be suitable for different kinds of urban space.

Example: A crowdfunded bridge in Rotterdam In 2011, a local architecture bureau in Rotterdam proposed a project of a pedestrian bridge that would link two parts of the city separated by the railroad. The citizens appreciated the project but the local government refused to fund it, so the architects launched a public crowdfunding campaign “I Make Rotterdam”. Anyone who paid at least 25 Euros could have their message inscribed on the bridge. As a result, the firm raised enough money to complete the project.12 This is a perfect example of how social capital can bridge aspirations and reality — sometimes even literally.

Photo credit: zus.cc

11 CABE Space (2006). Paying for parks Eight models for funding urban green spaces. 12 Citymetric (2015, June 29). Rotterdam’s residents crowdfunded its new pedestrian bridge. URL: http://www.citymetric.com.

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CONSIDERATIONS ‘How can all the voices be heard and all the needs considered?’ To ensure a progressive and successful strategy for moving forward, all the stakeholders — residents, workers, landowners, vendors, police units, transport unions and many more — must be encouraged to participate in the public conversation. If a vocal minority opposes the renovation, the silent majority should be given a chance to speak up, too. Any urban project, from pedestrianised Trafalgar Square to the renovated South Bank, initially faced some amount of scepticism, yet these public spaces are loved by many Londoners today. All in all, urban development is not a zero sum game — in the end, the city wins.

Example: Conflict resolution for the Yonsei-ro Transit Mall In planning for the Yonsei-ro Transit Mall, some opposition was expected from residents, vendors and pedestrians. Anticipating this, the city held presentations for residents and communicated actively with interested parties to listen to and address all the possible complaints and conflicts. For instance, local merchants were concerned about reduced business revenues, increased congestion and lack of parking facilities after prohibiting vehicle access. The planners, in turn, presented past examples of how increased foot traffic has positive effects on business, locally and abroad, and also showed traffic simulation results. After negotiations, both sides have come up with a plan to attract more visitors through cultural events.13

13 Chua, Grace (2016, Nov 17). Walkable and Bikeable Cities: Lessons from Seoul and Singapore. Centre for Liveable Cities. URL: www.clc.gov.sg

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CONSIDERATIONS ‘Can everything be taken into account at the planning stage?’ A city is not only a layout of streets, it is also a social canvas, and it is impossible to predict how millions of people will respond to new initiatives. One effective way to verify in advance whether a pedestrianised area will become a vibrant space or a “ghost town” is through a series of traffic-free — and event-free — days. A plan must be flexible and should be tried temporarily and on a smaller scale before implementation. For instance, in 2013, Haenggung-dong, a neighborhood of the South Korean Suwon, removed all cars from the road for one month. As a result, children were able to play in the streets safely and cafés could extend their seating onto the sidewalk.14 Two years later, Johannesburg decided to take up the challenge and removed all cars from its business district for 30 days. 15

Example: Temporary closures Partial closures have proved very successful for many cities. Weekly or annual closures create an event and many people enjoy the novelty of walking down a normally congested street. 16

In Bogota, Columbia, the Ciclovia is a weekly event on Sundays and holidays in which over 70 miles of city streets are closed to traffic.17

In New York City, Summer Streets closes a route from Central Park to the Brooklyn Bridge on three Saturdays in August. This event is similar to the city’s Museum Mile, an annual event that closes Fifth Avenue to traffic and allows pedestrians to visit museums at a discounted rate.

Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

Photo credit: cheapflights.co.uk

14 Deckert, T. (Apr 17, 2015). Neighbor­hood In Motion: One Neighbor­hood, One Month, No Cars. URL: http://popupcity.net/neighborhood-in-motion-one-neighborhood-one-month-no-cars/ 15 ICLEI (Oct 23, 2014). Johannesburg takes up the challenge of a car-free city. URL: http://www.iclei.org/details/article/johannesburg-takes-up-the-challenge-of-a-car-free-city.html 16 Schmidt, J. Revisiting Pedestrian Malls. Prepared for the ITE 2010 Technical Conference and Exhibit, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Savannah, GA: 2010. 17 Barclay, E.(Jul 30, 2017). Bogotá closes its roads every Sunday. Now everyone wants to do it. VOX. URL: https://www.vox.com/2016/10/9/13017282/bogota-ciclovia-open-streets

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Normally one of the busiest highways in Paris, the Georges Pompidou Expressway along Paris’s Right Bank becomes car-free for one month every summer. The road is transformed into a beach with floating pools, cafes, fountains and features activities including a climbing wall, dance lessons, and nighttime shows. The plan allows for the highway to be reopened in emergencies.

The stretch of highway being closed – along which an estimated 2,700 cars pass each hour at peak times – runs from the Tuileries tunnel in the first arrondissement to the Henri IV tunnel near Bastille in the fourth. 18

Photo credit: la-croix.com

Photo credit: Francois Guillot/AFP/Getty Images

18 Willsher, K. (Sep 9, 2016). Paris divided: two-mile highway by Seine goes car-free for six months. The Guardian. URL: https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/sep/09/paris-divided-highway-car-free-six-months-pedestrianisation

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EXISTING PROPOSALS & INITIATIVES MAJOR TFL PROJECTS OXFORD STREET CULTURE MILE

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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS Walking steps between stations on the same line

3

Walking can be a quick and easy way to get around, particularly when travelling during the busiest times, which are 08:00-09:00 and 17:30-18:30 Monday to Friday. This map shows how many steps it takes to walk between stations on the same line. For more walking maps, visit tfl.gov.uk/walking.

Hampstead

1600

Willesden Junction 2000 1800

2400

Brondesbury Park 1200 1200

1200 1000 1600

Kilburn High Road Paddington

Riverboat services Victoria Coach Station

A PROPO S A L BY ZA HA HA D ID A RCHITE C T S

Bayswater

Ladbroke Grove 1300

Latimer Road

1500

Shepherd’s Bush

1500

3000 Hammersmith

Turnham Stamford Ravenscourt Park Brook Green

1800

Barons Court 2100 700

1600

Bond Street

1500

Knightsbridge 1700

1200

1

1900

Victoria

800

1700 Sloane 1300

South Kensington

Square

Piccadilly Circus

2

Putney Bridge East Putney

1500

Imperial Wharf

300 900

3

Wandsworth Road 1100

2100

Clapham High Street Clapham North Clapham Common Clapham South

1

900

1000

Bank

London Bridge

1600

800

Kennington

Oval

Stockwell

Denmark Hill

700 1600

Shadwell

1800

1500

1000

2/3

800

Poplar

1100

West Ham 1100

Star Lane 1100

Canning Town

2600

1300 Blackwall East 400

India 10400

West India Quay

4400

700

800

14400

Canada Water

Bermondsey

Westferry

by-Bow

2200

All Saints

Wapping

1600

1700 Bromley-

600

Abbey Road 1000

Bow Church

Langdon Park

1000

Tower Gateway

Bow Road

1300

900

Pudding Mill Lane

Stratford High Street 1100

Canary Wharf

7600 200

Heron Quays 800

South Quay Crossharbour

Surrey Quays

Mudchute Island Gardens

North Greenwich

900 700 900 700 1200

1300

2

2

2400 2400

1600

Devons Road

1500

Tower Hill

2

900

3800

Queens Road Peckham

Elephant & Castle

2200

Whitechapel

900

Stratford 700

4300

700

Limehouse

2800

Lambeth North

1100

1200

Stepney Green

1600

1800

1000

River Thames

1000

3300

Bethnal Green

2

1100

2900

Hackney Wick

Bethnal Green 2400 Mile End

900

600

Southwark

1800

East

Rotherhithe 1000

Cambridge Heath

1300

900

Fenchurch Street

400

Borough

2500

Aldgate 1200

Aldgate

2900

500 Monument

1900

1000 3000

Clapham Junction

1100

Liverpool Street

Temple

Embankment

900

1500

1000

Blackfriars

600

1700

900

Mansion House

Vauxhall

3600

1400

Cannon Street

1000

600

St. Paul’s

700

300

1

1800

1600

Chancery Lane

800

Pimlico

2500

Holborn

Homerton London Fields

Shoreditch High Street 1700

1900

1400

1600

1500

3300

Waterloo

1500

1100

1000

Moorgate

Covent Garden

Charing Cross

1100 Westminster

1200

Fulham Broadway

1100

St. James’s Park 1100

800

West Brompton

400

800

900

Barbican

900

Leicester Square

600

2100

800

Farringdon

800

1000

800

1200

800

2600 1400

2500

Stratford International

Hackney Central

Hoxton

2000

Old Street

700

Tottenham Court Road

Green Park

1200

Gloucester Road800 1200

Earl’s Court

1400

Lancaster Gate

Square

Russell Square Goodge Street

900

700

700

1600

West Kensington

Oxford Circus

Haggerston

Clapton

2000

1700

Hackney Downs

1100 1600 Angel

Euston1500

1800

1200

3500

1200

700 1800

1500

Canonbury 1800

Rectory Road

1300

Dalston Junction

King’s Cross St. Pancras

900

Warren Street

1500

Hyde Park Corner

1800

1000

Dalston Kingsland

1300

Caledonian Road & Barnsbury

2700

1900

1100

Regent’s Park

High Street Kensington 700

2100

1200

1400

1000

1300

600

1700

1300

1500

800 Queensway

Kensington (Olympia)

Goldhawk Road

1000

1000

1100 Holland 1700

800

600

2500

800

Baker Great Portland Euston Street 900 Street

1000

1

Camden Town

Highbury & Islington

1300

Camden Road

1200

2900

1000

Caledonian Road

1600

Chalk Farm

5300

Holloway Road

Stoke Newington

Finsbury Park

2000

1300

Mornington Crescent

Arsenal

1000

2200

Marble Arch

Notting Hill Gate

Park

Wood Lane

Shepherd’s Bush Market

1000

Parsons Green

152

Road

1700

1300

White East Acton 2500 City 2400

St. John’s Wood

4400

1000 Edgware

Westbourne Park

1000

1400

1000

1300

North Acton

Swiss Cottage

Edgware Road 700 Marylebone 1100

Royal Oak

National Rail

South Hampstead

1500

1900

Interchange stations Step-free access from street to train Step-free access from street to platform

Finchley Road

Warwick Avenue

3

2

1300

1000

700

1300

1100

Maida Vale

Key to symbols

West Hampstead

1000

Kentish Town

1400

1300

Upper Holloway

Tufnell Park

Kentish Town West

Belsize Park

1500 800

Kensal Green

Key to lines

open weekends and on some public holidays

Kilburn

Brondesbury Queen’s Park

Kilburn Park

Bakerloo Central Circle District Hammersmith & City Jubilee Metropolitan Northern Piccadilly Victoria Waterloo & City DLR London Overground District

Kensal Rise

Finchley Road & Frognal

1700

1600

1600

2100

Willesden Green

1200

2800

3

Manor House

Archway Gospel Oak

Hampstead Heath

1400

Peckham Rye

3100

New Cross Gate 1800

Brockley

3100

800

New Cross

800 1200

Cutty Sark for Maritime Greenwich Greenwich Deptford Bridge Elverson Road

900

Lewisham 1800

4500

Brixton

3

Approximate steps, based on a moderate walking speed of 100 steps per minute. © Transport for London


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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS Walking times between stations on the same line

3

Walking can be a quick and easy way to get around, particularly when travelling during the busiest times, which are 08:00-09:00 and 17:30-18:30 Monday to Friday. This map shows how much time it takes to walk between stations on the same line. For more walking maps, visit tfl.gov.uk/walking.

Hampstead

16 Willesden Junction

20 18

24

Kilburn High Road

13

11 12

Maida Vale

3 White East City 24 Acton 25

North Acton

16

Warwick Avenue

Paddington

Wood Lane

Goldhawk Road

30 Hammersmith 10 14

Turnham Stamford Ravenscourt Brook Park Green

18

Interchange stations Step-free access from street to train Step-free access from street to platform National Rail Riverboat services Victoria Coach Station

7

15

Lancaster Gate

Hyde Park Corner

7

Knightsbridge

17

Gloucester 12 Road 8

Earl’s Court

12

14

8

1

8 South

19

Kensington

17 Sloane 13

2

Putney Bridge East Putney

11 15

3

Wandsworth Road

14

9

9 6

17

Clapham Common

16

8

Bank

4

Monument

10

22

Stockwell

16

2

Denmark Hill

7

18

10

Tower Gateway

33

London Bridge

15

11

2/3

6 9

10

Westferry

by-Bow

West Ham

8

Star Lane

11

Canning Town

Poplar

11 26 13 4 Blackwall East India

104

West India Quay

7

8

144

Canary Wharf

76 North Greenwich

2

Canada Water

Bermondsey

2

9

Shadwell

Abbey Road

10

22

Langdon Park All Saints

Stratford High Street

11

17 BromleyBow Church

13

Wapping

16

Pudding 16 Mill Lane

7

Limehouse

24 24

43

Devons Road

44

28

10

Heron Quays

8

9

South Quay

7

Crossharbour

Surrey Quays

9

Mudchute

7

Island Gardens

12

13

Kennington

15 Tower Hill

Rotherhithe

Temple

Southwark

Oval

10

River Thames

Lambeth North

11

2

18

9

Fenchurch Street

6

19

18

Aldgate

7

Bow Road

9

Whitechapel

9

Stratford

Hackney Wick

2

16 Green

10

5

Borough

25

Aldgate 12 East

29

38

Elephant & Castle

11

Clapham North

10

St. Paul’s

Embankment

9

1

9

Queens Road Peckham

21

Clapham High Street

Clapham South

Chancery Lane

Liverpool Street

12

Stepney

17

11

Bethnal Green

11

29

Bethnal Green 24 Mile End

Shoreditch High Street

33 6

Moorgate

Blackfriars

3

10 30 Clapham Junction

Holborn

8

Mansion House

Vauxhall

36

9

Cannon Street

10

1

18

16

Barbican

8

Pimlico Imperial Wharf

10

Cambridge Heath

13

15

25

9

Waterloo

15 Fulham Broadway

8

Farringdon

7

3

St. James’s Park 11

12

25

8

Charing Cross

Westminster

Old Street

19

14 Homerton London Fields

15

Hoxton

Stratford International

Hackney Central

16 12

Haggerston

20

Angel

26

14

Leicester Square

11

Canonbury 18

11

Covent Garden

4

6

Piccadilly Circus

8 West Brompton

8

21

11

Square

10

Hackney Downs

18

Clapton

20

17

15

Dalston Junction

7

12

Green Park

12

Russell Square Goodge Street

Tottenham Court Road

13

Caledonian Road & Barnsbury

Rectory Road

13

Dalston Kingsland

35

16 Square

9

15

Victoria

16

West Kensington

Oxford Circus

29

12

9 Euston 15

18

7

25

Stoke Newington

Finsbury Park

Highbury & Islington

13

27

7

15

Bond Street

High Street Kensington

21 21 7

16

20

King’s Cross St. Pancras

9

Warren Street

10

10

Caledonian Road

19

11

10

Holloway Road

Camden Road

12

Mornington Crescent

53

13

13

16

8

Regent’s Park

Marble Arch

18

6

10

Camden Town

Baker Great Portland Euston Street Street

10

1

13

22

10

10 8 Queensway

Kensington (Olympia)

12

St. John’s Wood

44

Notting Hill Gate

Park

Parsons Green

Key to symbols

Bayswater

10 11 Holland

Barons Court

Road

10

2

13

7 Swiss Cottage 14

Marylebone

10 Edgware 17

17

17

South Hampstead

15

Shepherd’s Bush

6

West Hampstead

Chalk Farm

Arsenal

Kentish Town

14

13

Upper Holloway

Tufnell Park

Kentish Town West

Belsize Park

10 Finchley Road

11 Edgware Road 7

Royal Oak 13 Westbourne Park 13 Ladbroke Grove 13 Latimer Road 15

8

15

8

19

15

Shepherd’s Bush Market

10

10

Kilburn

Brondesbury

Kensal Green

Key to lines

open weekends and on some public holidays

Brondesbury Park 12 12

Queen’s Park

Kilburn Park

Bakerloo Central Circle District Hammersmith & City Jubilee Metropolitan Northern Piccadilly Victoria Waterloo & City DLR London Overground District

Kensal Rise

Finchley Road & Frognal

17

16

16

21 Willesden Green

12

28

3

Manor House

Archway Gospel Oak

Hampstead Heath

14 Peckham Rye

31

New Cross Gate

18 Brockley

31

8 New Cross

8 12 9

Cutty Sark for Maritime Greenwich Greenwich Deptford Bridge Elverson Road Lewisham

18

45 Brixton

3

Approximate times, in minutes, based on a moderate walking speed. © Transport for London

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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS Walk London â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Routes Beautiful and interesting walks can be found all across central and Greater London. As suggested by TFL. https://tfl.gov.uk/modes/walking/top-walking-routes?intcmp=2424

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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS

GREEN CHAIN WALK

J U B I L E E G R E E N W AY

T H A M E S PAT H

J U B I L E E W A L K W AY

L EE VA L L E Y WA L K

LONDON LOOP

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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS New Transport Strategy by The Mayor of London (June 2017) £2.1bn has already been allocated to a new TfL Healthy Streets Portfolio1 that will focus on creating more welcoming and inclusive streets to enable more Londoners to walk, cycle and use public transport.

• Increase the proportion of people walking, cycling and taking public transport to 80% of journeys by 2041 (compared to 64%), meaning an average of 3 million fewer car journeys in London each day. • Encourage Londoners to do at least 20 minutes of active travel each day. • 70% of Londoners to live within 400 metres of a safe cycle route by 2041. • Improve ‘Legible London’ pedestrian wayfinding maps, and use new data to develop and improve navigation tools for walking and cycling trips. • Create more vehicle-free zones, where traffic is physically prevented from using specific streets, and more car-free days. • Restrict car parking provision within new developments, with those most accessible to public transport expected to be car free (where necessary, provision should be made for electric vehicle charging points).

1 http://content.tfl.gov.uk/healthy-streets-for-london.pdf 2 https://tfl.gov.uk/campaign/our-plan-for-londons-roads

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• Seek opportunities for densification of developments around public transport stations and stops. • Support the provision of car clubs for residents, enabling more Londoners to give up their cars. • Explore the next generation of road user charging to better reflect distance, time, emissions, road danger and other factors in an integrated way. • Review and extend the operating times of bus lanes, and making greater provision for bus priority lanes.


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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS London Roads Plan2 • By the end of 2021/22, more than 40% of Underground stations will have step-free access to all platforms. This will directly benefit older and disabled people, as well as parents and carers with children and pushchairs. • When the Elizabeth line opens fully in December 2019, like the DLR and London Trams, all 40 stations will be step-free from street to platform, and from street to train in the central section, where there will be level boarding. • TfL is providing 45 new London Overground trains and are extending the service to Barking Riverside, an area with potentially 10,800 new homes.

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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS Project — Central London Grid The Central London Grid is a network of Quietways and Cycle Superhighways will make up 100 km of safer cycle routes. It is a 10-year plan funded by the Mayor’s Vision for Cycling with spending set to total £913m by 2022. • Quietways are signposted cycle routes, run on quieter back streets to provide for those cyclists who want to travel at a more relaxed pace. Central London will have 85km of the entire network. • Cycle Superhighways are on main roads and often segregate cyclists from other traffic. • This network will complement other cycling initiatives such as Mini-Hollands. Timeline: The first Quietway route, from Waterloo to Greenwich, launched in June 2016 — seven Quietways are due to be complete by 2017.

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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS Project â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Quietways3 Quietways will be a network of radial and orbital cycle routes throughout London. Linking key destinations, they will follow backstreet routes, through parks, along waterways or tree-lined streets. To develop the new, continuous cycle routes, new wayfinding, surface and junction improvements will be introduced and barriers, such as chicanes, will be removed. Timeline: Most of the first seven Quietways will be complete by the end of 2017. Route consultations will be carried out by the boroughs locally.

3 https://tfl.gov.uk/travel-information/improvements-and-projects/quietways

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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS Project — East-West Cycle Superhighway4 • The East-West Cycle Superhighway will run through central London — from Tower Hill to Lancaster Gate. An extension to Acton has also been proposed. Improvements include:

The segregated cycle track is now open to cyclists travelling in both directions between Tower Hill and Great George Street, and between Hyde Park Corner and Lancaster Gate. TfL is still finishing works in these areas:

• Victoria Embankment • Blackfriars Underpass/Puddle Dock • Castle Baynard Street • Upper and Lower Thames Street

• A segregated two-way cycle track to separate cyclists from motor traffic

• Green Park

Junction innovations including early start, early release and two-stage right turn facilities for cyclists

• Parliament Square/Westminster Bridge

• More pedestrian space with widened footways, traffic islands and bus and coach stop waiting areas • New pedestrian crossings in some places and improved crossings elsewhere

4 https://tfl.gov.uk/travel-information/improvements-and-projects/cycle-superhighway-east-west

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• Tower Hill

• Hyde Park Timeline: Construction work continues at St. James's Park until November 2017.


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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS Project — North-South Cycle Superhighway5 The North-South Cycle Superhighway (CS6) will provide a safe and direct route for cyclists across central London between Elephant and Castle and King's Cross. • The 5 km North-South route will be either fully separated from traffic, or on quiet back streets. • The route also provides new and improved pedestrian facilities along the route. • Cyclists can use the route in both directions. Timeline: The first section opened between Elephant and Castle and Stonecutter Street, near Holborn Viaduct in spring 2016. TfL expect to start building the extension to King’s Cross in autumn 2017.

5 https://tfl.gov.uk/travel-information/improvements-and-projects/cycle-superhighway-north-south

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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS Project â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Crossrail / Elizabeth Line6 Crossrail is a 118-kilometre (73-mile) railway line under development running through parts of London and the home counties of Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Essex. It has been described as one of Europe's largest infrastructure construction projects. The new railway will stop at 40 accessible stations, 10 newly built and 30 newly upgraded, and is expected to serve around 200 million people each year. Its main feature is 21 km (13 mi) of new twin tunnels through central London named the Elizabeth line.

Timeline: The project was approved in 2007 and construction began in 2009. The central tunnels under London open in December 2018. Why important: Mayorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s walking and cycling commissioner Will Norman said the opening of Crossrail would bring another 50,000 to 80,000 pedestrians to Oxford Street each day.

6 https://tfl.gov.uk/travel-information/improvements-and-projects/countdown-to-launch

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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS Project — New River Crossings7 1.

A new pedestrian and cycle crossing linking Rotherhithe and Canary Wharf 9

2. Canary Wharf — North Greenwich Ferry 3. Silvertown Tunnel 8 (has progressed the most) 4. A DLR extension from Gallions Reach to Thamesmead 5. An extension of London Overground services from Barking Riverside CityMetric labels the last two as “basically housing policy in disguise: there are big opportunity areas on both sides of the river at that point, but not a lot has happened because they're a right pain to get to. New transport links would make those new homes much more likely to happen.” 10 Timeline: Announced in October 2016 by Mayor Sadiq Khan. Why important: The map gives a clue on which riverside areas are supposed to attract more pedestrians in the nearest future.

7 https://tfl.gov.uk/corporate/about-tfl/how-we-work/planning-for-the-future/new-river-crossings-for-london 8 https://tfl.gov.uk/corporate/publications-and-reports/silvertown-tunnel 9 https://tfl.gov.uk/corporate/about-tfl/how-we-work/planning-for-the-future/rotherhithe-canary-wharf-crossing 10 http://www.citymetric.com/transport/sadiq-speaks-london-really-getting-five-new-river-crossings-2494

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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS Project — Baker Street two-way traffic11 The project is aimed to reduce the dominance of traffic along Baker Street and Gloucester Place, making it safer and easier to access. Rebalancing road space should benefit pedestrians and cyclists, and keep traffic flowing while also discouraging high speeds. The plans include: • Introducing two-way traffic will help shorten journey times as vehicles won’t have to follow long routes around the system or make circuitous routes on residential streets • Up to 50 new and upgraded pedestrian crossings will be introduced, making it easier to cross safely in any direction • Wider pavements, reduced street clutter and improved street lighting along Baker Street and at Dorset Square will make the area more pleasant. Westminster City Council is also exploring opportunities to introduce more trees and green spaces • New cycle lanes will connect the area with the emerging Central London Grid and Cycle Superhighways • Two-way traffic will help improve access to buses and take passengers closer to their destinations • The project will help prepare the area for the extra visitors and workers expected when the Elizabeth line is finished in 2018.

11 http://www.bakerstreettwoway.co.uk/

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Timeline: Works started in July 2017 and will last until early 2019. Why important: The project provides more facilities for pedestrians and cyclists showing one possible way of arranging a shared space and balancing the interests of all the road users.


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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS Project — Westminster Bridge South12 Westminster Bridge, Westminster Bridge Road, Lambeth Palace Road, Addington Street and York Road are cycling routes which pass through the roundabout formed by Westminster Bridge Road, Addington Street and York Road. The roundabout is currently dominated by motor traffic and can be an intimidating place to walk and cycle. The plan is to create substantially segregated cycle lanes and provide dedicated cycle signals at junctions, separating cyclists from motor vehicles, namely:

Timeline: The public consultation for this project closed in December 2015. TfL plans to finish works in early 2018. Why important: The project provides an example of a sophisticated plan aiming to improve the cycling facilities in the very center of London.

• Provide cyclists with substantially segregated cycle lanes on Westminster Bridge, Westminster Bridge Road, Lambeth Palace Road, Addington Street and York Road • Separate cyclists from other vehicle movements at junctions by giving cyclists their own dedicated traffic signals • Upgrade pedestrian and cycle crossing points and provide a new pedestrian crossing on Westminster Bridge Road • Widen the footway near the York Road Slip Road, by the Park Plaza Hotel, and plant trees in this area • Remove the centre line on Westminster Bridge. Our trials elsewhere have shown that this should reduce traffic speeds

12 https://tfl.gov.uk/travel-information/improvements-and-projects/westminster-bridge-south

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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS Project — Camden High Street13 Cobden Junction (outside Mornington Crescent Tube station) and Britannia junction have already been improved by new public spaces with better crossings for pedestrians. Camden High Street South (between Mornington Crescent station and Camden Town stations) will complete the regeneration of the area. Improvements will include: • Renewed carriageways • Wider footways • More seats and cycle stands • Trees planted • A review of parking and loading activities on the street Additional traffic calming measures are being considered to build upon the success of the 20mph limit on the high street. Timeline: Depending on the results of the public consultation later in 2017, we expect to start work in 2018 and finish in 2019. Why important: An example of developing a public space in an area that is already very attractive to pedestrians.

13 https://tfl.gov.uk/travel-information/improvements-and-projects/camden-high-street

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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS Project —King’s Cross & Euston Road Area14 Transform the King's Cross and Euston Road areas, and help to meet the growing demand for space prompted by other changes in the area. Changes are aimed at simplifying the local road network for all road users. They would: • Improve the quality of the footpath on both sides of Euston Road to encourage more people to walk between Euston and King’s Cross stations • Introduce two-way traffic on many of the roads that are currently one-way. This would reduce the length of some motor vehicle and cycle journeys • Reduce motor traffic on some (mostly residential) streets to improve the local environment. This would benefit residents, pedestrians and cyclists • Provide new and improved pedestrian crossings at key junctions • Improve the local cycle network through the addition of new cycle facilities. These could include contra-flow cycle lanes on remaining one-way roads as well as new cycle crossings at key junctions.

Timeline: We consulted on high level plans to transform King's Cross in February-March 2016. Another consultation on our more detailed proposals should follow in late summer 2018. Find out more on the King's Cross gyratory consultation page. If our proposals for Euston Road and the King's Cross area are supported, and subject to approval including coordination with HS2, work on site could begin in 2019. Why important: A project involves a big transport hub which makes it a relevant example of balancing various interests.

14 https://consultations.tfl.gov.uk/roads/kings-cross-gyratory/

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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS Project —Old Street Roundabout TfL is currently working on proposals to turn the Old Street area into a more pedestrian and cycle-friendly environment. As part of the scheme they will: • Remove the existing roundabout by closing the Northwest arm to all traffic • Restore two-way operation to the road network surrounding three new ‘peninsula’ public space • Create this new public space with better pedestrian access to Old Street Tube station • Build a new entrance to Old Street station in the new public space • Close three of the four existing subways around Old Street, replacing them with new surface-level, signalcontrolled pedestrian crossings • Improve the Cowper Street subway • Improve facilities for cyclists travelling through the junction

15 https://consultations.tfl.gov.uk/roads/old-street-roundabout/?cid=old-street-roundabout

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15

Timeline: A public consultation on the proposals for Old Street was held between November 2014 and January 2015. We hope to submit our plans for a new station entrance to the London Borough of Islington for approval in late 2017. Why important: Old Street’s creative hub was named a “Silicon Roundabout” referring to the high number of web businesses located nearby.


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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS Project — Waterloo Roundabout

16

Proposals to transform the area around Waterloo roundabout and Waterloo Road would create better walking and cycling routes, a new greener public space and an upgraded bus station. The proposals would: • Create a new tree-filled public square supporting civic and cultural life of the area by moving the existing bus stops from Tenison Way to an improved bus station on Waterloo Road, closing the south-west arm of the roundabout and changing the remaining carriageway to two-way traffic • Introduce segregated cycle lanes making cycling around Waterloo roundabout safer • Create new pedestrian routes and permanently remove some subways (but keep others) to help create more direct walking routes towards the river Thames. • Widen the footways on Waterloo Road to give more space to pedestrians and waiting bus passengers by narrowing the carriageway through removing a section of bus lane • Relocate northbound and southbound bus stops to keep traffic moving on Waterloo Road • Ban the right turns from Waterloo Road into Stamford Street and from Concert Hall Approach (except for buses) to keep traffic moving.

Timeline: The consultation closes Sunday 20 August 2017. Depending on the consultation results, work could be complete by 2020. Why important: On the one hand, the area involves a huge transport hub; on the other hand, it is not far from the Southwark pedestrian zone, arguably the most successful recent case of creating a public space in London.

16 http://tfl.gov.uk/waterloo-roundabout

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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS Project — Lambeth Bridge roundabouts TfL propose to convert both the northern and the southern roundabouts of Lambeth Bridge into crossroad junctions, with traffic signals and signalised pedestrian crossings. At each junction, dedicated space would be given for cyclists and new pedestrian areas would be created. • Changes to the road layout on Lambeth Bridge itself, at the Millbank north junction with Great Peter Street and along Lambeth Palace Road. • Public realm improvements, sensitive to the heritage of the area. • The Metropolitan Police Service has installed barriers to increase security on London’s busiest bridges. TfL’s proposals aim to ensure that the security of all road users is maintained in the future.

Timeline: This project is now complete. Visit the Lambeth Bridge consultation page by Sunday 20 August 2017 for more details. Why important: The project can be integrated into a wider strategy of developing the riverside area (akin to the Southwark pedestrian zone).

17 https://tfl.gov.uk/travel-information/improvements-and-projects/lambeth-bridge-northern-roundabout

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MAJOR TFL PROJECTS Project — Vauxhall Cross Gyratory

18

The aim is to return the one-way road system at Vauxhall (Parry Street, Wandsworth Road, Kennington Way and South Lambeth Road) to two-way roads, in particular: • Provide more cycle and pedestrian crossings as well as segregated lanes and parking for cyclists • Improve existing public spaces and provide new public spaces • Redesign the transport interchange, including a new central bus station The next stage of the project involves detailed designs for the new bus station, public spaces, lighting, public amenities and art opportunities.

Timeline: Pre-planning took place in March/April 2017. TfL expect to start construction in 2019 and finish by 2021, subject to approvals. Why important: The project provides more facilities for pedestrians and cyclists showing a possible way of arranging a shared space.

18 https://consultations.tfl.gov.uk/roads/vauxhall-cross/

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OXFORD STREET

“Our eventual ambition should be to turn one of the world’s most polluted streets into one of the world’s finest public spaces — a tree-lined avenue from Tottenham Court Road to Marble Arch” Sadiq Khan, Mayor of London “If you do something radical on Oxford Street it has implications for the whole of Central London” Alex Williams, TfL’s managing director for planning

19 http://www.sadiq.london/a_manifesto_for_all_londoners

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Briefly

Quick Facts

Oxford Street is Europe’s busiest shopping street with half a million daily visitors and more than 300 shops. It is also one of the most popular destinations in London for tourists, with an annual estimated turnover of over £1 billion. Most of Oxford Street serves as a bus lane during daytime. It is only open to taxis, bikes and deliveries between 7:00am and 7:00pm on all days except Sundays.

Oxford Street has been ranked as the most important retail location in Britain and the busiest shopping street in Europe. • Around 175,000 people get on or off a bus on Oxford Street every day, along with 43,000 further through passengers.

In 2005, the first VIP Day (“Very Important Pedestrians”) was organised when Oxford Street became completely traffic-free on a Saturday before Christmas. In 2012, the same scheme boosted sales by over £17m. Ken Livingstone was the first Mayor of London to propose pedestrianising Oxford Street. After winning the election, the incumbent Mayor Sadiq Khan promised to turn “one of the world’s most polluted streets” into “one of the world’s finest public spaces” by 2020.19

• TfL: 41% of trips on Oxford Street are by bus; 56% of trips within Oxford Street are made on foot. • TfL: London’s population is now at a record high of 8.6 million and is forecast to grow to 10 million by 2031. There are expected to be around 2.2 million jobs in central London by 2031. Levels of crowding on Oxford Street will increase by 72% by 2021 and 100% by 2031 compared to 2015. • Oxford Street had the world’s highest concentration of nitrogen dioxide pollution, at 135 micrograms per cubic metre of air (μg/m3). At peak times during the day, levels up to 463 μg/m3 were recorded – over 11 times the permitted EU maximum of 40 μg/m3.


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OXFORD STREET

• In 2005 an internal Metropolitan Police report named it as the most dangerous street in Central London. In 2012 an analysis of crime statistics revealed that Oxford Street was the shopping destination most surrounded by crime in Britain. During 2011, there were 656 vehicle crimes, 915 robberies, 2,597 violent crimes and 5,039 reported instances of anti-social behaviour. • Between 2009 and 2012, there were 71 accidents involving traffic and pedestrians. • Once a week pedestrian is involved in a collision on Oxford Street.

CREDIT: KING’S COLLEGE LONDON

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OXFORD STREET Existing Plans Mayor of London

TfL’s overview 20

Particular Proposals

All traffic including buses and taxis should be banned from the shopping street, the Mayor Sadiq Khan famously said. The work would be in two stages. The first would pedestrianise the street from Oxford Circus to Tottenham Court Road, the second would remove vehicles from between Oxford Circus and Selfridges. Buses would be rerouted around Oxford Street while bikes could be banned as part of a wider plan to build safer bike routes throughout the area.

The transformation of Oxford Street is part of a wider package of improvements for the West End. With your feedback, we hope to create proposals for the Oxford Street district that would:

• The introduction of the Elizabeth Line In the short term we would make changes to the look and feel of Oxford Street ahead of the opening of the Elizabeth line in late 2018. We would like to ‘de-clutter’ the area to create as much space as possible. We could also explore temporary planting or public art.

• Radically reduce the volume of traffic on Oxford Street • Manage the traffic in the surrounding area to minimise any negative impacts • Support future growth and economic activity • Reduce crowding on Oxford Street • Address very poor air quality • Ensure the area remains accessible by public transport services • Create a new world-class public space for those who live in, work or visit the area • Improve road safety for all • Support businesses throughout the district, enabling economic growth and creating jobs • Create innovative partnerships between the public and private sectors to deliver the transformation • Provide the commercial accommodation necessary to meet economic and employment growth targets

20 https://consultations.tfl.gov.uk/roads/oxford-street/ 21 https://consultations.tfl.gov.uk/buses/west-end-bus-changes

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• Possible changes to buses Transport for London today confirmed that the number of buses running along Oxford Street will be cut by 40%, with changes to 23 routes21. Eight routes will still use Oxford Street. Removing buses would maximise our ability to transform Oxford Street, since it would provide more space for people. We could divert some buses to a suitable alternative route such as Wigmore Street, which is not currently served by bus. We are reviewing whether it might be feasible to create new points, potentially in the areas surrounding Marble Arch or Oxford Circus, where buses would end or begin their journey. Passengers who currently travel through Oxford Street may need to change buses. The new bus Hopper fare would mean that passengers using Oyster cards would not need to pay any extra fare, providing they change bus within one hour.


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OXFORD STREET

Allowing night buses to use Oxford Street could have implications for transforming the street as we would need to maintain a carriageway along Oxford Street at all times for buses. Alternatively, we could make the same changes described earlier, and divert night buses to an alternative east-west route. • Cyclists Three possible options are mentioned: - Shared space - Allow cycling at night - Full restriction (alternative east-west routes?) • Pedicabs A particular issue for Oxford Street and the West End is the prevalence of pedicabs, which have a disproportionate effect on traffic congestion. Currently no public bodies have the regulatory or licensing authority necessary to improve safety or reduce fare abuses prevalent among some pedicab drivers. TfL and Westminster City Council recognise the issue and are working with the Government for the powers we need to tackle the problem.

• Taxis Currently, black cabs can access Oxford Street at any time. Private hire vehicles can use Oxford Street only from 19:00 – 07:00 Monday to Saturday. Despite making up almost a third of the traffic, taxis account for only 2% of trips on Oxford Street. Taxis are a particularly important for those with restricted mobility, shoppers and tourists. • Making no changes to the current arrangements would greatly limit our ability to transform the area. • Restricting access for taxis during the day and allowing night-time access either to the full length of Oxford Street, or only to particular sections of it, could provide pedestrians with much more space; this would, however, reduce the accessibility of Oxford Street by taxi during the day. • Restricting access for taxis and private hire vehicles at all times would have implications for the accessibility of Oxford Street by taxi and potentially for traffic flow in the surrounding area.

• Delivery services Currently, freight vehicles can access Oxford Street to make deliveries at any time, but the majority of activity takes place between 22:00 and 10:00. If we restricted access for freight vehicles during the day, and allowed night-time access either to the full length of Oxford Street, businesses may need to re-time when they receive deliveries. Some businesses on Oxford Street already have arrangements in place to make or take deliveries via the side roads nearby Oxford Street, or to loading facilities at the rear. There have been similar schemes that have successfully reduced the number of vehicles which deliver to shops on Regent Street, and reduced the number of vehicles collecting waste from businesses on Bond Street. New crossing points would enable freight and servicing vehicles to head north to south (or vice versa).

• Should we propose to restrict access to Oxford Street for all taxis we would consider whether it was possible to establish designated crossing points. These would enable taxis to head north to south (or vice versa), preventing long diversions to bypass Oxford Street.

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OXFORD STREET Major Stakeholders Living Streets, the oldest and most influential charity for everyday walking in the UK, campaigns actively on pedestrianising Oxford Street. Tompion Platt, head of policy and communications, Living Streets: “We are campaigning to make Oxford Street one of the world’s great public spaces — and it should be for people not vehicles. Everyone should be able to walk freely, safely, breathe fresh air, socialise and have a relaxed shopping experience on the UK’s most iconic street. Pedestrianisation will save lives and clean up one of London’s most polluted streets but we agree that it requires a comprehensive review of buses in central London to ensure the problems of Oxford Street are not simply pushed elsewhere — and that it remains accessible for everyone”. 22

22 https://www.livingstreets.org.uk/who-we-are/press-media/help-us-transform-oxford-street-into-a-world-class-destination-urge-national-charities

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OXFORD STREET

The London Assembly’s Transport Committee suggested four improvements23 it wants to see for the capital’s busiest shopping street: 1. More support for disabled people in the West End (taxis should still be allowed) 2. Helping shoppers get out of Crossrail stations 3.

More pedestrian crossings at Hyde Park

4.

Safe cycling routes

Caroline Pidgeon, Lib-Dem chairwoman of the London Assembly transport committee: “Improving pedestrianisation of Oxford Street must definitely include proposals to improve cycling provision in the area, however the case for allowing cyclists on a pedestrianised Oxford Street itself does pose some challenges. It should be looked at, but it might just not be possible to deliver and neighbouring streets may be a better alternative.” 24 The New West End Company, formerly the Oxford Street Association, is a group that oversees stores and trade along the street whose objective is to make the place safe and

desirable for shoppers. They welcomed the move, having campaigned for a reduction in traffic for many years. The New West End Company CEO Jace Tyrrell: “We feel very strongly that any form of vehicle-free zones must lead to a genuine reduction of traffic, rather than large-scale rerouting down smaller residential or commercial streets.” 25 The West End Partnership (WEP) brings together all the major interest groups concerned with improving Oxford Street: TfL, NWEC, Westminster, Camden Council, local residents, property owners, the Met and more.26

everything they can to avoid Oxford Street at the moment. It’s so horrifically unpleasant. But the desire is there. It’s very clear there has to be a really high-quality east-west route.” Siwan Puw, policy manager at the London Chambers of Commerce: “The huge increase in footfall will require clear planning to maximise pedestrian safety and minimise disruption to businesses. Doing it in stages certainly has its advantages in that it means trading will continue more easily and any issues can be ironed out as we go along.”

The leader of Westminster Council Philippa Roe: “The key to any Oxford Street improvements is a very significant reduction of buses that move through the area and we need to ensure that traffic is not displaced creating congestion and air pollution elsewhere.” Simon Munk, infrastructure campaigner at London Cycling Campaign: “What is really clear is that cyclists are doing

23 http://www.cityam.com/248761/four-improvements-sadiq-khan-must-make-get-oxford-street 24 https://www.standard.co.uk/news/transport/cyclists-could-be-banned-from-oxford-street-when-it-is-pedestrianised-a3518816.html 25 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-36791485 26 https://westendpartnership.london/partners/

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CULTURE MILE

The City of London Corporation, together with the Barbican, Guildhall School of Music & Drama, London Symphony Orchestra and Museum of London, have announced plans for a major destination for culture and creativity in the Square Mile. Stretching just under a mile from Farringdon to Moorgate and covering just 45 hectares, Culture Mile will become a vibrant cultural area in the north-west corner of the City over the next 10 to 15 years. 27 The transformation will include better way-finding, signage, more green spaces, new measures to improve air quality, lighting, public information and art installations, as well as events seven days a week and improved access to and between cultural venues.

The three major projects associated with Culture Mile are: • The new Museum of London at West Smithfield. • The proposed Centre for Music, for which the preferred site is currently occupied by the Museum of London. • The transformation of Beech Street, which will become a crucial axis for Culture Mile, into a more welcoming environment, particularly for pedestrians and cyclists.

By December 2019, Crossrail’s new Elizabeth Line connections at Farringdon and Moorgate, is expected to bring 1.5 million additional visitors a year within a 45-minute journey of the area.

27 http://news.cityoflondon.gov.uk/culture-mile--a-major-destination-for-culture-and-creativity-in-the-heart-of-the-square-mile/

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CULTURE MILE

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WEBSITES & ORGANISATIONS

A list of useful websites and organisations.

LIVINGSTREE TS.ORG.UK

C U LT U R E M I L E . L O N D O N

LC C.O R G .U K /A R T I C L E S / T H E- LO N D O N - B O U L E VA R D

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Profile for Walkable London

ZHA Walkable London  

All over the world, we are observing the trend towards pedestrianising whole districts rather than individual streets. Zaha Hadid Architects...

ZHA Walkable London  

All over the world, we are observing the trend towards pedestrianising whole districts rather than individual streets. Zaha Hadid Architects...

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