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11 FOR HEALTH COACH’S Manual Mauritius


Preface

Joseph S. Blatter

The FIFA Medical Committee established F-MARC (FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre) as an academic body to study medical issues within and around the game of football. F-MARC has embraced the challenge through its mission and clear goals to protect the health of female and male football players of all skill levels, as well as to promote football as a safe and healthy leisure activity that contributes towards improving the health of the general population. Everyone should have the right to expect a healthy life. We must, therefore, concentrate on ways of preventing people from getting ill. Although most people understand that exercise improves physical fitness, it is less well known that exercise is also beneficial for preventing and treating major health threats such as obesity, diabetes, heart disease and some forms of cancer. Football’s popularity gives the game the potential to play a unique role in increasing the awareness and prevention of diseases – and at low costs. FIFA therefore asked, why not position football as a simple, enjoyable way of exercising while, at the same time, helping to tackle diseases by using the structure of the football family as a way of spreading simple, effective health messages that could help to protect people from infectious diseases such as HIV, tuberculosis and malaria? F-MARC therefore developed “The 11 for Health” programme, which aims to provide health education in a football setting for the children of Africa. The programme started on the African continent in South Africa, Mauritius and Zimbabwe, and the results clearly showed that the programme was an effective way of increasing the health knowledge and aware-

Prof. Jiri Dvorak

ness of schoolchildren. Other continents such as South America and Asia will undoubtedly follow. The research paper published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine reporting the results of the programme received recognition from the Journal’s Editorial Board and readership. This programme has become one of the main focuses of FIFA’s 2010 World Cup Win in Africa with Africa initiative, as part of providing a FIFA medical legacy for Africa. Mauritius is the first country in which the “The 11 for Health” programme will be implemented in all schools nationwide, starting in 2011, with football becoming an integrated part of the school curriculum. This achievement is the result of close and dedicated collaboration between the Mauritius Football Association, the Mauritius government (Ministries of Health, Education and Sport) and FIFA. For the Game. For the World. Joseph S. Blatter FIFA President Prof. Jiri Dvorak Chairman of F-MARC


Table of content

Introduction Football for Health and the ‘11 for Health’ programme Coaches’ agreement What makes a good ‘11 for Health’ coach? Terms used in the ‘11 for Health’ programme Praise and praise circles ‘11 for Health’ activity Checklist

4

Overview of the ‘11 for Health’ messages

8

General structure of ‘11 for Health’ sessions Play football Play fair

9

Warming up (‘The 11+’) 12

Session 2 Play football: Passing Play fair: Respect for girls and women Respect for girls and women: Information Sheet

16

SESSION 4 Play football: Dribbling Play fair: Avoid drugs and alcohol Drugs and alcohol: Information Sheet SESSION 5 Play football: Throwing-in Play fair: Prevent diabetes Diabetes: Information Sheet

4 5 6 6 7

9 9 10

Session 1 Play football: Playing football Play fair: Football is a healthy form of exercise

SESSION 3 Play football: Heading Play fair: Protect yourself from HIV HIV: Information Sheet

4

13

14

17 18

20 22 23 24 26 28 29 30 32 34 35 36 38

SESSION 6 Play football: Defending Play fair: Wash your hands Sanitation: Information Sheet SESSION 7 Play football: Trapping Play fair: Drink clean water Water and health: Information Sheet

40 41 42 44 46 47 48 50

SESSION 8 Play football: Building fitness Play fair: Eat a balanced diet Nutrition: Information Sheet

52

SESSION 9 Play football: Shooting Play fair: Vaccinate yourself and your family Vaccination: Information Sheet

58

SESSION 10 Play football: Goalkeeping Play fair: Take prescribed medications Medicine: Information Sheet

64

SESSION 11 Play football: Teamwork Play fair: Fair Play

70

53 54 56

59 60 63

65 66 68

71 72

3


Introduction

Football for Health and the ‘11 for Health’ programme ‘Football for Health’ encompasses the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) philosophy that football is a health-enhancing activity for all people of all ages. The ‘11 for Health’ programme is a series of football-based sessions aimed at encouraging physical activity and educating children about healthy behaviours related to some of the world’s health problems. FIFA is responsible for the organisation and governance of football worldwide: it is most well known for organising the various men’s and women’s FIFA World Cups ™. FIFA’s Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) was established in 1994; it is an independent research body within FIFA that brings together international experts in football medicine and related subjects. F-MARC’s mission is to protect the health of female and male footballers of all ages and all levels of skill and to promote football as a health-enhancing leisure activity (www.fifa.com). The ‘11 for Health’ programme is comprised of eleven, 90-minute sessions: each session comprises two 45-minute halves. The first half is called ‘Play football’ and focuses on teaching young people skills related to a specific aspect of football. The second half is called ‘Play fair’ and focuses on teaching young people about a particular health issue and helping them to learn healthy behaviours. The ‘11 for Health’ programme was first evaluated in research studies in Mauritius, South Africa and Zimbabwe in 2009 and 2010.

4 | Introduction

Coaches, who are recruited and trained locally, normally present the ‘11 for Health’ programme in mixed-gender pairs to groups of 20 to 25 children. The programme was designed so that it could be delivered in or out of school-time, depending on the local situation and resources available. The effectiveness of the programme can be evaluated using a standard health knowledge questionnaire before and after the programme is delivered. Coaches also record the children’s attendance at each session to assess compliance with the programme.

Coaches’ agreement The ‘11 For Health’ programme is designed to be fun, but it is also intended to be a serious health education programme. Presenting the ‘11 for Health’ programme gives coaches the opportunity to help young people in their country to live healthy lives. Before becoming an ‘11 for Health’ coach, it is important to recognise that coaches will be role models for the children in their community. All ‘11 for Health’ coaches are expected to: ✓✓Respect the ‘11 for Health’ programme and its objectives. ✓✓Respect other ‘11 for Health’ coaches, especially when working together. ✓✓Respect children’s ideas, beliefs and attitudes. ✓✓Communicate openly and freely with other ‘11 for Health’ coaches. ✓✓Be on time for all meetings and programmes. ✓✓Be prepared for sessions. ✓✓Be a role model to the children they teach.


What makes a good ‘11 for Health’ coach? 1. Be prepared. Prepare for sessions by reading the general guidance included in the ‘11 for Health’ Activity Checklist and the specific information given in the session guidance. Gather materials that you need for the session (be creative if you do not have the correct materials), and find out answers to questions you were not able to answer in the previous session. 2. Be exciting. Children will be twice as emotional as you are. If you are exciting, they will be twice as excited. If you are boring, they will be twice as bored. 3. Be an elephant. Elephants have big ears and small mouths: follow their example. A good facilitator only speaks for about 10% of the time; asks questions; gives children time to answer the questions; and listens to what they have to say. 4. Be neutral. Do not impose your personal values on the children, allow them to share their values with others. 5. Be seen. If the children cannot see you they will probably lose interest. Maintain eye contact when you are talking with the children. If you are outside, make sure the sun is behind the children and in your eyes: not the other way around.

8. Be at the same level as the children. Remember who your audience is and put yourself in their position. Try to understand their problems and concerns. Do not use words that the children will not know or understand and, if necessary, translate words and messages into the local language. When discussing sensitive issues, such as sex, allow children to laugh or make comments about the words used. That way, they are more likely to talk about the issues. 9. Be gender-sensitive. Sports often tend to be dominated by boys, but football and the ‘11 for Health’ programme are for everyone, so do not discriminate against girls in mixed gender activity groups. Girls can learn just as much as boys if they are encouraged to participate actively and it is just as important for girls to be physically active as it is for boys. 10. Be positive. Keep sessions positive to maintain children’s energy levels and create a good environment for learning. Give lots of praise to all children. 11. Be a role model. Always believe what you teach and always practise what you preach in the ‘11 for Health’ programme.

6. Be heard. If the children cannot hear you they will also lose interest. Make sure your voice is heard clearly by the children otherwise you will not get the messages across to them. 7. Be honest. Answer all the children’s questions honestly. If you do not know the answer to a question, say you do not know, but tell the children you will do everything possible to find out the answer by the next session.

Introduction | 5


Terms used in the ‘11 for Health’ programme The ‘11 for Health’ curriculum contains some words or phrases that might be new to you and to the children. Kilo is used as a group celebration lead by the coach when a child or the whole group does something well. It is used as a way of praising an individual or the whole group. During each ‘Play fair’ session, a new ‘Kilo’ will be introduced that relates to the session’s health message. Yebo is used instead of saying “yes”; it is the Zulu word for ‘yes’. Praise is used to recognise and congratulate someone by letting him / her know that they did something well. Throughout the programme, you should always look for ways to praise your children for their participation and commitment to the programme. This will help the children identify their strengths. Refer to the section on ‘Praise and praise circles’ to learn more about how to deliver praise well. Hazard is a danger, something that can harm you. For example a dangerous animal. Consequence is a result or outcome. When related to hazards, consequences are usually negative. For example, a possible consequence of meeting a dangerous animal is an injury or even death. Risk is the likelihood that the consequences will occur as a result of a person’s exposure to a hazard. Role model is a person thought of by others as someone to look up to; especially an example for children to copy.

6 | Introduction

Praise and praise circles Praise is recognising someone’s accomplishments and congratulating them for their actions. Praise from a peer, teacher or coach is important in building children’s confidence. Praise helps a child to identify their strengths and build their self-esteem. At the end of each ‘11 for Health’ session, praise partners should get together briefly to praise each other’s performance. You will also have the opportunity to give praise to your children. A ‘Kilo’ is a great way to give instant praise for positive behaviour, answering questions, completing an activity, learning a new word, etc. You may also want to praise the whole group as well as individual children. To give good praise, you should: ✓✓Be specific. Tell someone exactly what they did well that day and how it made you feel. ✓✓Make eye contact with the person you are praising. ✓✓Mean what you say. Example: “You showed great persistence today. You didn’t answer a question correctly the first time, but you kept trying and I felt proud when you eventually got the answer right.” The more you practise giving praise, the better you will get at giving praise. You will have the opportunity to give praise at the end of every session during the ‘Praise circle’.


‘11 for Health’ activity Checklist This checklist will help coaches prepare for and deliver the ‘11 for Health’ sessions effectively. Before the session at home ✓✓Read and work through each activity ready for the next session. Pay special attention to the requirements of the games and the key health messages. ✓✓Practise translating important words into the local language. ✓✓Read the Information Sheet for the session and find additional information that relates specifically to the local situation. ✓✓Prepare programme materials.

✓✓Deliver the key health messages presented in the Guide and make sure the children understand the health messages (use local language if necessary). ✓✓Lead a ‘Praise circle’; add your own comments to the group to support the individual comments made by the partners to each other. ✓✓Make sure children know what is expected of them for the next session by telling them the date and time of the next session and restating the Play football and Play fair home assignments. After the session ✓✓Review the strengths and weaknesses of the session presentation to improve the presentation of subsequent sessions.

at the session site ✓✓If possible, arrive 10 minutes before the session to give adequate time to prepare. ✓✓Set up the session space (e.g. cones, balls, Activity Cards, etc). ✓✓When presenting sessions with another coach, agree the roles and responsibilities of each coach for each activity. During the session INTRODUCTION ✓✓Clearly state the name of the activities. During the Activity – Follow each step of the activity as described in the Manual: ✓✓Give instructions ––Explain how to carry out the activity. ––Demonstrate how to play the games. ––Ask children if they have any questions and be sure to answer their questions. ✓✓Play ––Repeat and add additional instructions, if required. ––Give praise and advice to children as they play. ✓✓Ask questions linking the football activity to real life and the session’s health message to get the health messages across to the children clearly.

Introduction | 7


Overview of the ‘11 for Health’ messages

Session

Play football (football theme)

Play fair (health theme)

1

Playing football

Football is a healthy form of exercise

2

Passing

Respect for girls and women

3

Heading

Protect yourself from HIV

4

Dribbling

Avoid drugs and alcohol

5

Throwing-in

Prevent diabetes

6

Defending

Wash your hands

7

Trapping

Drink clean water

8

Building fitness

Eat a balanced diet

9

Shooting

Vaccinate yourself and your family

10

Goalkeeping

Take your prescribed medication

11

Teamwork

Fair play

8 | Overview of the ‘11 for Health’ messages


General structure of ‘11 for Health’ sessions Play football ‘Play football’ review

Play fair 4 min

Pose a few questions to the children to review quickly the key aspects of the previous week’s ‘Play football’ section.

‘Play fair’ review

Children report on their experiences completing the previous week’s ‘Play fair’ home assignment. Know your health fact and Kilo

Assign ‘Praise partners’

2 min

Where appropriate separate children into mixedgender praise partners during the sessions. These partners should preferably be changed every session but they can be maintained throughout the whole programme if changing them each week becomes too time-consuming. Know the game fact

2 min

Present a fun fact about football from around the world. Warming up

10 min

Children complete the warming up exercises to prepare for the session. Football skill

25 min

A different football skill is taught each session. The game used in the session is aimed at improving the children’s ability in the football skill. Coaches demonstrate the football skill and the children implement it during the game. ‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

A football-based home assignment is presented to encourage the children to further develop the football skill they have been taught in the session. HALF TIME PERIOD

2 to 3 min

4 min

2 min

Coaches introduce the session’s health issue; present an important fact about the health issue; and teach a new ‘Kilo’ for the session. Activity

20 min

Usually a football-based activity to build knowledge and encourage positive healthy behaviours related to the session’s health issue. Discussion

10 min

Present questions that allow the children to reflect on the activity and the health issue; talk about real-life situations and provide examples. Summarise the key health messages

3 min

The coaches should clearly summarise the key health messages that have been taught in the session. ‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

A home assignment is presented to encourage the children to develop their knowledge about the health issue further. Praise circle and final whistle

4 min

Partners praise each other on positive actions and attitudes shown during the session.

The coaches should complete the attendance monitoring record during this period and prepare the field for the ‘Play fair’ section.

General structure of ‘11 for Health’ sessions | 9


Warming up (‘The 11+’)

The ‘Warming up’ session uses 5 of the exercises taken from the F-MARC injury prevention programme ‘The 11+’. Warming up exercises, which introduce children to the important issue of correct preparation before physical activity, are introduced in Session 1 and are then used to prepare the children at the start of each of the subsequent sessions. Warming up correctly also helps to prevent injuries and improve performance. Coaches should demonstrate and teach the children each of the warming up exercises correctly during Session 1 and focus on correct posture during the exercises, including leg alignment, knee-over-toe position and soft landings:

✓✓Shuffle sideways at a 90-degree angle towards your partner, shuffle an entire circle around one other (without changing the direction you are looking) and shuffle back to the first cone. ✓✓During this aspect of the exercise, bend your hips and knees slightly and carry your body weight on the balls of your feet; do not let your knees buckle inwards. ✓✓Jog to the next cone and repeat the exercise. ✓✓When you have finished the course, jog back. ✓✓Repeat this sequence once more. 2. Front bench – static

1. Running – circling partners

✓✓Lie on your front. ✓✓Support your upper body with your forearms and feet; ensure your elbows are under your shoulders. ✓✓Lift your upper body, pelvis and legs until your body forms a straight line from head to feet. ✓✓Hold this position for 20 seconds and then lower your body back to the ground. ✓✓Repeat this exercise once more.

✓✓Set up several pairs of cones in lines about 2 metres apart. ✓✓Jog forwards in pairs to the first cone.

10 | Warming up (‘The 11+’)


3. Balance – single leg

body forwards; hold the position for 1 second; then jump as high as possible, straightening the body at the same time. Repeat this for 30 seconds. (It is important to jump off both feet and to land gently on the balls of both feet.) ✓✓Repeat this sequence once more. 5. Running

✓✓Stand on one leg with the knee and hip slightly bent: keep the hip, knee and foot of the standing leg in a straight line. ✓✓Hold this position for 30 seconds then repeat the same exercise on the other leg. ✓✓Repeat this sequence once more. ✓✓As a variation, the exercise can also be completed while holding a football. 4. Jumps – vertical ✓✓Run approx halfway across the pitch at 75% of maximum speed and then jog the rest of the way. Jog easily back to the starting point. ✓✓During the exercise, keep your upper body straight; your hip, knee and foot aligned, and do not let your knees buckle inwards. ✓✓Repeat this sequence once more.

✓✓Stand with feet hip-width apart with hands on hips. ✓✓Slowly bend hips, knees and ankles until the knees are flexed to 90 degrees. Lean upper

Warming up (‘The 11+’) | 11


Session 1 Play football: Playing football Play fair: Football is a healthy form of exercise Session goals ✓✓Exercise is an essential activity for children to undertake in order to stay healthy. ✓✓To show that football is an excellent form of exercise. ✓✓To demonstrate how to warm up before playing football.

Materials ✓✓Coach’s Guide ✓✓Whistle ✓✓Stopwatch ✓✓Footballs ✓✓Cones ✓✓Bibs

Preparation and coach’s tips ✓✓This is your first session, so preparation is essential to ensure the children enjoy the session and want to come back for the next one. ✓✓If possible, set up the activity area before the start of the session to avoid losing session time. ✓✓Remember to praise your children during the session. ✓✓In this session, it is important that the children learn how to complete the warming up exercises correctly, as they will repeat these in each of the subsequent sessions. Make sure you are familiar with the warming up exercises before the session begins. ✓✓In this first session, it is important to raise the children’s interest in the programme. Emphasise the importance of physical activity for a healthy lifestyle.

Session timetable Play football

Duration

Play fair

Duration

Introduction

4 min

Introduction

4 min

Assign praise partners

2 min

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

Know the game fact

2 min

Football is a healthy activity

20 min

Football skill – warming up

35 min

Discussion

10 min

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

Summarise key health message

3 min

Halftime

2 – 3 min

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

Praise circle

4 min

Close of session

12


SESSION 1 Play football: Playing football

Introduction

4 min

✓✓Explain to the children that ‘11 for Health’ is an 11-week programme where they can learn football skills and how to lead a healthy lifestyle. ✓✓Each ‘11 for Health’ session has two 45-minute halves, just like a football match. The first half is called ‘Play football’ and the second half is called ‘Play fair’. ✓✓In the ‘Play football’ sections they will learn a new football skill each session to make them better footballers.

Assign ‘Praise partners’

2 min

✓✓Arrange children into ‘Praise partners’ (preferably mixed gender). ✓✓Explain that at the beginning of each session children will be paired with a praise partner; these partners will observe and comment on how well each other performed during the session.

Know the game fact

2 min

✓✓Explain that during each ‘Play football’ session, they will be told a ‘Know the game fact’, which will be an interesting fact about football from around the world. ✓✓For this session: There have been 19 FIFA World Cup ™ Finals. South Africa hosted the 19th World Cup ™ Final in 2010, which was the first time the competition had ever been held in Africa. Brazil has won the World Cup 5 times, which is more than any other country.

Football skill: Warming up

35 min

✓✓Explain that at the beginning of each ‘Play football’ session, the children will warm up with five exercises taken from ‘The 11+’. These exercises will help the children to prepare to play football and reduce their chances of getting injured while playing. ✓✓Demonstrate and explain the warm up exercises to the children in this session so that they learn how to do the exercises correctly ready for the other sessions. Refer to the ‘Warming up’ section of the Manual for detailed instructions on the exercises. ✓✓It is important that the children learn the correct way to do the exercises, as they will use them at the start of every football session.

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Explain that during each ‘Play football’ session, children will be given a ‘Play football’ home assignment: this is a fun way to practise what they learn during the sessions so they become better footballers. ✓✓The home assignment for this session is to practise the warming up exercises each day until the next session.

HALF TIME PERIOD

2 to 3 min

Coach should complete the attendance record for the session.

SESSION 1: Play football: Playing football | 13


SESSION 1 Play fair: Football is a healthy form of exercise Introduction

4 min

✓✓Explain that during the second half of each ‘11 for Health’ session some important messages about a health hazard / issue will be introduced. In the ‘Play fair’ section of the programme, you will explain ways of avoiding the potential consequences of these health hazards to increase the children’s chances of staying healthy.

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

✓✓Explain that during each ‘Play fair’ session you will present a ‘Know your health fact’ about a health issue. ✓✓For this session: ‘Vigorous exercise for just 30 minutes a day helps to prevent heart disease, obesity, diabetes and many other diseases; to give you more energy and to sleep better at night; and helps you to study better at school. After vigorous exercise you should be slightly out of breath for a short time. Football is an excellent form of exercise.’ Kilo ✓✓Explain that a ‘Kilo’ is a fun way to celebrate events during a session. ✓✓Demonstrate a Kilo to the children: ✓✓Clap-clap. Clap-clap-clap, “FIFA”. This can be varied with Clap-clap. Clap-clap-clap, “Play football” and Clap-clap. Clap-clapclap, “Play fair”.

Activity

20 min

✓✓Divide the children into 4 equal ability teams. If you have both boys and girls, make sure there are equal numbers in each team. ✓✓Set up 2 small football pitches, using cones to make goals at each end of the pitch. Assign 1 coach to referee / control each game. Encourage the children to play and enjoy a football game for 10 minutes. ✓✓Arrange for the 2 winning teams and the 2 losing teams to play each other in a short 5-minute game.

Discussion

10 min

Ask the children questions about exercising, such as: ✓✓How did you feel after playing football? (Out of breath, tired, legs ached) ✓✓Why is exercise good for you? (Improves blood pressure, helps control weight) ✓✓Is it okay for boys and girls to play football?

Summarise the key health messages

3 min

✓✓Explain that the children have joined an important health education programme. During the programme, they will learn about football and ways to stay healthy. Encourage children to share the information they learn with their family and friends. ✓✓Emphasise it is important to exercise vigorously for at least 30 minutes a day to stay healthy; playing football is a good way to exercise.

14 | SESSION 1: Play fair: Football is a healthy form of exercise


‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Each session, children will be given a ‘Play fair’ home assignment. ✓✓The home assignment for this session is to exercise for 30 mins / day.

Praise circle and final whistle

4 min

✓✓Children praise their partner on positive actions and attitudes.

SESSION 1: Play fair: Football is a healthy form of exercise | 15


sessIon 2 play football: Passing play fair: Respect for girls and women sessIon Goals

10 metres

✓ To learn how to make good passes to support your team mates ✓ To talk about why boys and men should be team mates with girls and women and support them throughout life. play football

materIals ✓ coach’s Guide ✓ Whistle ✓ Stopwatch ✓ Footballs ✓ cones ✓ Bibs

10 metres

preparatIon and coach’s tIps ✓ If possible, set up the activity area before the start of the session. ✓ This will be the first session where the children use the warming up exercises; watch to see that the children are doing the exercises correctly, if not show them again how to do the exercises correctly. ✓ Read the Information Sheet before the session.

sessIon tImetable play football

duration

play fair

duration

Session 1 review

4 min

Session 1 review

4 min

Assign praise partners

2 min

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

Know the game fact

2 min

Activity

20 min

Warming up

10 min

Discussion

10 min

Football skill

25 min

Summarise key health message

3 min

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

halftime

2 – 3 min

Praise circle

4 min

close of session

16


SESSION 2 Play football: Passing

Session 1 Play football review

4 min

The Play football assignment was to practise the warming up exercises every day. ✓✓How many times did you practise the warming up exercises? ✓✓Who did you practise with? Did you teach the exercises to anyone? ✓✓When is a good time to do warming up exercises? (Before you play football) ✓✓Is it easier for girls or boys to complete the warming up exercises?

Assign ‘Praise partners’

2 min

✓✓Arrange praise partners.

Know the game fact

2 min

✓✓An assist is a pass that directly leads to a goal. Five players were credited with 3 assists at the 2010 World Cup ™: Mesut Özil, Bastian Schweinsteiger, Thomas Müller (all Germany); Dirk Kuyt (Holland); Kaká (Brazil).

Warming up

10 min

✓✓Complete the warm-up session.

Football skill

25 min

✓✓Prepare 2 squares with 10m sides, using cones. ✓✓Divide children into 2 groups of ~10 children with 1 coach assigned to each group (make sure praise partners are in the same group).

✓✓Instruct children in each group to stand in lines behind the 4 cones in about equal numbers with the first child at each cone standing in front of the cone. ✓✓Show children how to make a pass using the inside of the foot. ✓✓Face the target with the planted foot also pointed towards the target. ✓✓Swing the other foot through the ball, hitting the centre of the ball with the inside part of the foot. ✓✓Explain the rules of the exercise: ✓✓Each player passes the ball to the player at the cone to their left ✓✓After making a pass, run to the end of the line at the cone you passed to ✓✓The player receiving the ball should make 1 or 2 touches on the ball to control it and then make a pass to the player at the cone to his / her left and so on around the square until everyone has passed the ball at least 3 times. ✓✓Take your time to make a good pass. ✓✓Repeat the exercise with the players using their weaker foot to pass the ball.

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Pair up with your brother, sister or friend at home and see how many passes you can make to each other without losing control of the ball. ✓✓If you practise on your own, pass the ball against a wall so it bounces back to you each time you pass the ball.

HALF TIME PERIOD

2 to 3 min

Coach should complete the attendance record for the session.

SESSION 2: Play football: Passing | 17


SESSION 2 Play fair: Respect for girls and women

Session 1 Play fair review

4 min

The Play fair assignment was to complete 30 minutes exercise each day. ✓✓How many days did you exercise and what exercises did you do? ✓✓Did you feel tired after exercising? Why? ✓✓What did your friends and family think about you exercising each day?

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

✓✓In many countries, girls / women are less respected than boys / men and are subjected to many forms of violence in their daily lives. Sometimes they are beaten, raped or forced to do things they do not want to do. Kilo ✓✓Children clasp their hands together and say “Respect”.

Activity

20 min

✓✓In ‘Play football’, we learned how to pass the ball to our teammates. In ‘Play fair’, we are going to talk about ways boys and men can work together with girls and women to be teammates. ✓✓Divide the children into the same 2 groups as before with 1 coach assigned to each group. Divide each group into 2 teams of ~5 players.

✓✓Set up 2 small football pitches, using cones to make goals at each end of the pitch. The rules of the game are: ✓✓Children on the same team pass the ball to each other. ✓✓Teammates should talk to each other to achieve the best result. ✓✓To score, the ball must be passed between the opponent’s goal posts. Goalkeepers are not allowed and defensive players are not allowed to make body contact with attacking players. ✓✓The ball goes to the other team if the attacking team loses control of the ball, the ball goes out of bounds or the attacking team scores a goal. ✓✓Games should last 10 minutes. The 2 winning and the 2 losing teams can play each other in two 5-minute games.

Discussion

10 min

Ask the children questions about communication and respect. ✓✓Why is communication important in life? ✓✓Why should you respect your teammates’ opinions? ✓✓Why can it be difficult for boys and girls to communicate with each other? ✓✓Why should you report all forms of abuse?

18 | SESSION 2: Play fair: Respect for girls and women


Summarise the key health messages

3 min

✓✓Boys and girls should listen to each other and respect each other. ✓✓When communicating with someone of the opposite gender, remember to look him / her in the eye, and do not just talk, listen as well. ✓✓In life, we should stand up for girls and women at all times.

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Talk to someone of the opposite gender for at least 10 minutes: try to listen to what they have to say rather than you talking too much.

Praise circle and final whistle

4 min

✓✓Children praise their partner on positive actions and attitudes.

SESSION 2: Play fair: Respect for girls and women | 19


SESSION 2 Respect for girls and women: Information Sheet Violence against girls and women and its relationship with health Violence and discrimination against girls and women exist in many societies. Ideas about men’s and women’s positions in these societies are taught to children at an early age and they become difficult to change in later life. Because of discrimination, girls and women in many countries are deprived of education and health care. A United Nations’ report said that genderbased violence constituted a risk for hundreds of millions of girls and women around the world throughout their lives. Gender-based violence includes rape, physical and mental abuse, mutilation, ‘honour killings’ and trafficking in women. Gender-based violence is recognised as a major public health concern in many countries and it is also a violation of girls’ and women’s human rights. The problem is worst in parts of Asia and Africa.

Domestic violence Many cultures condone or at least tolerate a certain amount of violence against women in the home. In parts of Africa and Asia, husbands are seen to have a right to discipline their wives as they see fit. Unfortunately, this behaviour has become so ingrained in these societies that the women themselves often accept a certain level of physical abuse as being justified. The rationale for violence in these societies comes from views about the roles and responsibilities of men and women. These views include women not obeying their husbands, talking back, refusing sex, not having food ready on time, failing

to care for their children, or going out of the house without permission.

Sexual abuse In South Africa, the incidence of rape is thought to be the highest in the world. Forced or unprotected sex puts women at risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV / AIDS. Up to 30 per cent of women raped in the United States develop sexually transmitted diseases as a result of the attack. Physical and sexual abuse also increases women’s risk of sustaining injuries and illnesses. Women who are abused are at risk of repeated and unwanted pregnancy, consequently many abused women arrange for abortions. Violence has also been linked with an increased risk of miscarriages, premature labour, foetal distress and low birth weight.

‘Honour’ killings Possibly 5,000 women and girls are murdered every year by a member of their own family for bringing ‘dishonour’ to their family; sometimes, even because they had been raped. Killings of this type are reported in Asia, Africa and South America. The practice of ‘honour killings’ is most prevalent in, but not limited to, Muslim societies even though there is no religious basis to the practice.

Mutilation Many societies in Africa and Asia practise mutilation of the female genitals. It has been estimated that ~2 million girls and women are at risk each year. About 25 to 30 countries in

20 | SESSION 2: Respect for girls and women: Information Sheet


Africa practise female mutilation: the prevalence of this practice in these countries ranges from 5 to 98%. This violation of girls’ and young women’s human rights is based on a belief that female sexuality must be controlled, and the virginity of young girls preserved until marriage. Genital mutilation is nearly always carried out in unsanitary conditions without anaesthetic; the practice is therefore very painful and often results in infections and in severe cases death.

SESSION 2: Respect for girls and women: Information Sheet | 21


sessIon 3 play football: Heading play fair: Protect yourself from HIV sessIon Goals

BE FAITHFuL

✓ To learn how to use your head to score goals and to play defence ✓ To learn to use your head to make smart decisions to protect yourself from HIV / AIDS

uSE cOnDOMS ABSTAIn

materIals ✓ coach’s Guide ✓ Whistle ✓ Stopwatch ✓ Footballs ✓ cones ✓ ‘ABSTAIn; BE FAITHFuL; uSE cOnDOMS’ Activity cards

play fair

preparatIon and coach’s tIps ✓ Read the Information Sheet before the session. ✓ Let children know that people with HIV are normal people who have contracted a disease. People with HIV will be a member of someone’s family: they will be someone’s parent, son, daughter, brother or sister.

sessIon tImetable play football

duration

play fair

duration

Session 2 review

4 min

Session 2 review

4 min

Assign praise partners

2 min

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

Know the game fact

2 min

Activity

20 min

Warming up

10 min

Discussion

10 min

Football skill

25 min

Summarise key health message

3 min

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

halftime

2 – 3 min

Praise circle

4 min

close of session

22


SESSION 3 Play football: Heading

Session 2 Play football review

4 min

The Play football assignment was to practise passing the ball. ✓✓What was the maximum number of passes you made without losing control? ✓✓Who did you practise passing the ball with? ✓✓Did you find it easier to practise with a teammate or to practise alone?

Assign ‘Praise partners’

2 min

✓✓Arrange praise partners.

Know the game fact

2 min

✓✓The most headed goals in a World Cup ™ tournament are 5: scored by Germany’s Miroslav Klose in 2006.

Warming up

10 min

✓✓Complete the warm-up session.

Football skill

25 min

✓✓Divide children into 2 groups with 1 coach assigned to each group; instruct the children to form 2 circles. ✓✓Coaches should then instruct children how to head the ball correctly: ✓✓Place one foot slightly in front of the other; knees slightly bent; body leaning slightly back; arms forwards; and eyes focussed on the ball. ✓✓Keep eyes open; watch the ball and make contact with the forehead.

✓✓Make head contact with the top half of the ball to head it downwards and the bottom half to head it upwards. Ensure the head continues to move through the ball towards the target to achieve a more powerful header. ✓✓Explain the rules of the game: ✓✓A coach stands in the middle of each circle and throws the ball in the air to the children and shouts either “attack” or “defend”. ✓✓When the coach shouts “attack”, the ball should be headed downwards back towards the coach’s feet; when the shout is “defend”, the ball should be headed back over the coach’s head. ✓✓If the child makes a mistake or misses the ball, they must sit down; continue the game until there is just one person left. ✓✓Repeat the game as many times as you can within the time available.

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Pair up with your brother, sister or friend at home and play ‘attack and defend’. If you are good at heading a ball, try heading the ball against a high wall or with a friend and try to keep the ball off the ground as long as possible.

HALF TIME PERIOD

2 to 3 min

Coach should complete the attendance record for the session.

SESSION 3: Play football: Heading | 23


SESSION 3 Play fair: Protect yourself from HIV

Session 2 Play fair review

4 min

The Play fair assignment was to talk to someone of the opposite gender for at least 10 minutes. ✓✓Who did you talk to? ✓✓What did you talk about? ✓✓How easy was it for you to talk to someone of the opposite gender?

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

✓✓In Africa, many people have HIV; for example, in Zimbabwe, about 1 in every 5 adults has HIV. Kilo ✓✓In Play football, we learned how to use our heads to attack and defend. We should also use our heads to make smart decisions to protect ourselves from HIV / AIDS. Learn and use the ‘ABC’: ✓✓Abstain from sex; Be faithful to one uninfected partner; Use Condoms every time you have sex. ✓✓Get the children to spell out A-B-C with their arms and bodies shouting “A – B – C. Be safe” at the same time.

Activity

20 min

✓✓Explain that avoiding sexually transmitted diseases requires partners to work together. This game demonstrates how the best results are obtained when you work together. ✓✓Set up 2 fields and divide the children into 2 groups with 1 coach assigned to each group. ✓✓In this game, praise partners form into pairs to play. ✓✓The pairs line up behind the start cone; they must hold hands at all times while they dribble

24 | SESSION 3: Play fair: Protect yourself from HIV

the football through the ‘Abstain’, ‘Be faithful’ and ‘Use condoms’ mini-goals. When the first pair has completed the circuit they shout “Be safe”; pass the ball to the next pair; and then sit down at the back of the line. ✓✓The first group to have all their pairs sitting down is the winner. ✓✓Repeat the game as many times as possible in the time available.

Discussion

10 min

✓✓Ask the children the ‘FACT or NONENSE’ questions about HIV / AIDS shown in the Appendix. Ask the children to shout out the answers. ✓✓Discuss the answers with the children.

Summarise the key health messages

3 min

✓✓HIV is spread through unprotected sex with an infected person; mother-to-child transmission at birth and during breastfeeding; sharing needles when using drugs. ✓✓You can protect yourself from HIV by Abstaining from sex as long as possible; Being faithful to one uninfected sexual partner; and using a Condom correctly every time you have sex.

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Think about the ways in which you and your family might be affected if someone in your family had HIV and how this might change your life.

Praise circle and final whistle

4 min

✓✓Children praise their partner on positive actions and attitudes.


APPENDIX: Session 3: FACT and NONSENSE statements Question

Statement

Answer

1

HIV is the same thing as AIDS.

Nonense HIV is a virus that attacks the body’s immune system and this leads to the condition referred to as AIDS. There is no known cure for AIDS.

2

You can get HIV by touching someone who has the disease.

Nonsense You cannot get HIV just by touching someone with the disease, by sharing a meal or going to a swimming pool with them.

3

Condoms can protect you from HIV.

Fact Condoms can protect you from HIV, if you use them correctly every time you have sex.

4

You can tell if someone has HIV by looking at them.

Nonsense You cannot tell just by looking at someone. Some people think that if a person is fat they do not have HIV, this is not true: the only way to know is by having an HIV test.

5

The most effective way to protect oneself from HIV is not to have sex.

Fact ‘Abstinence’ means not having sex at all; this is the most effective way of avoiding HIV.

HIV is spread by sharing needles with someone who has HIV.

Fact HIV is spread when certain body fluids of an infected person, such as blood or semen, come in contact with the body fluids of someone who is not infected.

HIV testing is expensive.

Nonsense HIV testing is available in most hospitals and clinics; sometimes there is a small fee but if you cannot afford the test it is usually free.

6

7

SESSION 3: Play fair: Protect yourself from HIV | 25


SESSION 3 HIV: Information Sheet

What are HIV and AIDS? The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gradually attacks the body’s immune system; the immune system is needed to protect the human body from infections and diseases. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the condition that results from this viral attack on the immune system. Because HIV destroys the immune system, people with HIV find it more difficult to overcome illnesses and diseases that they contract. There are ~40 million people living with HIV or AIDS worldwide, and more than 3 million people die every year from AIDSrelated illnesses. New drugs have been developed that slow down the attack of HIV on the immune system, and people with the disease can now live longer; however, there is still no cure for HIV and AIDS. AIDS is therefore one of the most serious conditions that can affect the human body. HIV can be transmitted from an infected person to another person through contact with blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The virus is therefore easily spread through high-risk behaviours such as unprotected sexual intercourse (‘unprotected’ means not using a condom) and sharing needles when taking drugs and having tattoos. People who have other sexually transmitted diseases, such as syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydia and gonorrhoea, are at greater risk of getting HIV during sex with infected partners. If a woman with HIV is pregnant, her newborn baby can get the virus from her before birth, during the birthing process, or from breastfeeding. If doctors know that an expectant mother has HIV, they can usually prevent the spread of the virus from mother to baby by using special

26 | SESSION 3: HIV: Information Sheet

antiviral drugs. All pregnant women should therefore be tested for HIV so they can begin treatment, if necessary.

How does HIV affect the body? People in the early stages of HIV still have a sufficiently strong immune system to control infections and diseases but once the immune system has been weakened beyond a specific level they will be diagnosed as having AIDS. The length of time it takes for AIDS to be diagnosed in someone with HIV varies from person to person. Although people may feel and look healthy for many years while they are infected with HIV, it is still possible for someone with no outward symptoms of HIV to infect other people with the virus. It is not possible to tell simply by looking at someone whether he / she has HIV. Because the immune system is weakened, people who have HIV / AIDS, are particularly susceptible to infections affecting the lungs, such as pneumonia and tuberculosis (TB); the surface covering of the brain (meningitis), and the brain itself (encephalitis). People who have AIDS tend to gradually become sicker, especially if they are not taking antiviral medications properly. Because AIDS is inevitably fatal, it is important that doctors detect HIV infection as early as possible so that an infected person can take medication to delay the onset of AIDS.


How can HIV be prevented? One reason that HIV is so dangerous is that a person can have the virus for a long time without knowing it. That person can spread the virus to other people through high-risk behaviours. HIV transmission can be prevented by: ✓✓abstaining from sex (not having sex of any kind). ✓✓always using latex condoms for all types of sexual intercourse. ✓✓avoiding contact with bodily fluids through which HIV is transmitted. ✓✓never sharing needles for drug-taking or tattooing.

SESSION 3: HIV: Information Sheet | 27


sessIon 4 play football: Dribbling play fair: Avoid drugs and alcohol sessIon Goals

play football

play fair

✓ To learn how to dribble a football around defenders ✓ To learn how to avoid drugs and alcohol

materIals

HASH

✓ coach’s Guide ✓ Whistle ✓ Stopwatch ✓ Footballs ✓ cones ✓ ‘HASH; TOBAccO; HEROIn; ALcOHOL’ Activity cards

TOBAccO

HEROIn

preparatIon and coach’s tIps

ALcOHOL

✓ Read the Information Sheet before the session. ✓ Try to set the fields up before the session starts.

sessIon tImetable play football

duration

play fair

duration

Session 3 review

4 min

Session 3 review

4 min

Assign praise partners

2 min

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

Know the game fact

2 min

Activity

20 min

Warming up

10 min

Discussion

10 min

Football skill

25 min

Summarise key health message

3 min

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

halftime

2 – 3 min

Praise circle

4 min

close of session

28


SESSION 4 Play football: Dribbling

Session 3 Play football review

4 min

The Play football assignment was to practise heading the ball by playing ‘attack’ and ‘defend’. ✓✓How many times did you head the ball without losing control? ✓✓Who did you practise heading the ball with? ✓✓Did you find it easier to practise with a teammate or to practise alone?

Assign ‘Praise partners’

2 min

✓✓Arrange praise partners.

Know the game fact

2 min

✓✓At the 1986 FIFA World Cup ™, Diego Maradona of Argentina dribbled the ball 60 metres past 5 England defenders to score a goal: this was voted the ‘Greatest Goal in FIFA World Cup ™ History’.

Warming up

10 min

✓✓Complete the warm-up session.

Football skill

25 min

✓✓Set up 2 fields using cones: the distance between cones can be varied to fit the space available. ✓✓This session will teach dribbling skills. The exercise is not intended to be a race; it is more important that the children learn to keep control of the ball. ✓✓Divide the children into 2 groups.

✓✓Teach one dribbling skill at a time and let the children practise that skill before moving on to the next dribbling skill. ✓✓Pretend that the cone in the middle of the field is a real defender. ✓✓The fake shot: ✓✓As you dribble towards the middle cone (defender), plant one foot next to the ball and pretend you are getting read to shoot or pass the ball. ✓✓Instead of shooting, move the ball quickly to the right or left of the cone with the inside or outside of the foot. ✓✓Accelerate away and pass the ball to the player waiting at the other cone. ✓✓Continue until everyone has dribbled the football around the course. ✓✓Scissors (or step over): ✓✓As you dribble towards the middle cone, plant your left foot slightly in front and to the side of the ball. ✓✓As the ball moves forward, swing your right foot to the left side of the ball then quickly swing the same foot in front of the ball in a left to right motion. ✓✓Now plant the right foot then take the ball on the outside of your left foot and accelerate away with the ball to the left; finally pass the ball to the player waiting at the other cone. ✓✓Shibobo (or nutmeg): ✓✓Instruct one player from each team to stand next to the cone with their legs set shoulder width apart. ✓✓As you dribble towards the player, push the ball between their legs; collect the ball behind them; accelerate away and pass the ball to the next player.

SESSION 4: Play football: Dribbling | 29


SESSION 4 Play fair: Avoid drugs and alcohol ‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Find a small area of ground where you can place 4 or 5 objects on the ground to make an obstacle course. Now dribble a ball around the objects as quickly as you can. Try using the dribbling skills you learned in the session; also try dribbling in different directions and using both your left and right feet to dribble the ball.

HALF TIME PERIOD

2 to 3 min

Coach should complete the attendance record for the session.

Session 3 Play fair review

4 min

The Play fair assignment was to think about ways in which you and your family might be affected if someone in your family had HIV and how this might change your life. ✓✓What ways did you think your life might be changed? ✓✓How did you feel about a member of your family having HIV? ✓✓Did you discuss your thoughts with anyone in your family?

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

✓✓People who start to drink before the age of 15 are five times more likely to end up drinking too much alcohol than people who do not start drinking until after they are 20. Kilo ✓✓In Play football, we learned dribbling moves to avoid defenders. In Play fair, we are going to learn moves to avoid substances like drugs that are bad for your health. ✓✓Clap-clap, clap-clap-clap, then shout “Say NO to drugs”; children should wave a finger on one hand from left to right and shake their head to indicate NO.

Activity

20 min

✓✓Set up 2 fields and divide the children into 2 groups: the distance between the cones can be varied to fit the space available. Assign one coach to each team.

30 | SESSION 4: Play fair: Avoid drugs and alcohol


✓✓Explain the rules of the game: ✓✓This is a game where you are going to practise avoiding substances that are bad for your health (the cones on the field). ✓✓This game is a race between the 2 teams. Each player must dribble the ball around the 4 cones; dribble the ball back to the start position without going round the cones and then pass the ball to the next player on the team. Once you have passed the ball to your teammate, go to the end of the line and sit down. ✓✓The next player repeats the dribbling exercise. ✓✓If the ball touches a cone, the player must stop; do 3 press-ups then continue playing. ✓✓The first team with all its members sitting down is the winner. ✓✓Repeat the exercise as many times as possible in the time available.

Discussion

10 min

✓✓Ask the children questions about drugs and alcohol. ✓✓If drugs and alcohol are so dangerous, why do people take them? (To look cool or ‘grown up’; pressure from friends). ✓✓How can you avoid pressure to use drugs and alcohol? (Build a team of friends who care more about you and your health than just looking ‘cool’; get involved in positive activities, like playing football) ✓✓What are the consequences of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs? (Read the Information sheet at the end of the section).

Summarise the key health messages

3 min

✓✓If someone uses drugs or alcohol, they hurt not only themselves but also their friends and family, who must look after them when they become addicted and unable to look after themselves. ✓✓Surround yourself with people who support you and who will help you to avoid using drugs and alcohol.

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Draw a map of your community and then mark all the places to avoid, where people use drugs and alcohol: then mark all the safe places, where you will not be put under pressure to use drugs and alcohol.

Praise circle and final whistle

4 min

✓✓Children praise their partner on positive actions and attitudes.

SESSION 4: Play fair: Avoid drugs and alcohol | 31


SESSION 4 Drugs and alcohol: Information Sheet

Addictive substances

Why do people take drugs?

Thanks to medical and drug research, there are thousands of beneficial drugs that help people when they are ill. Antibiotics and vaccines have revolutionised the treatment of infections. Medicines can lower blood pressure, treat diabetes, and reduce the body’s rejection of new organs. Medicines can cure, slow, or prevent the spread of disease, helping us to lead healthier and happier lives. But there are also lots of illegal, harmful drugs that people take because they believe they will give them a good time.

Just as there are many kinds of drugs available, there are as many reasons why people try them or start to use them regularly. People take drugs just for the pleasure they believe they can bring. Often it is because someone tried to convince them that drugs would make them feel good or that they would have a better time if they took them. Some people believe drugs will help them think better, be more popular, stay more active, or become better athletes. Others are simply curious, believing that just trying drugs will not cause harm, or to fit in with people who already take drugs. Drugs do not solve problems, when the drugs wear off, the feelings and problems remain, or even become worse.

Drugs are chemicals or substances that change the way our bodies work. When you put them into your body (often by swallowing, inhaling, or injection), drugs find their way into your bloodstream and are transported to parts of your body, such as your brain. In the brain, drugs may intensify or dull the senses, alter your sense of alertness, and sometimes decrease physical pain. Drugs may be helpful or harmful. The effects of drugs can vary depending upon the kind of drug taken, how much is taken, how often it is used, how quickly it gets to the brain, and what other drugs, food, or substances are taken at the same time. Although some substances can make people feel good at first, ultimately they do an enormous amount of harm to the body and the brain. Drinking alcohol, smoking tobacco, taking illegal drugs, and sniffing glue can all cause serious damage to the human body. Some drugs severely impair a person’s ability to make healthy choices and decisions. People who drink alcohol are more likely to get involved in dangerous situations, such as driving under the influence or having unprotected sex.

Alcohol Alcohol is the most widely used drug in the world; it is a depressant that alters perceptions, emotions, and senses. Effects and dangers: ✓✓Alcohol first acts as a stimulant, and then it makes people feel relaxed and a bit sleepy. ✓✓High doses of alcohol seriously affect judgment and coordination. Drinkers may experience slurred speech, confusion, depression, shortterm memory loss, and slow reaction times. ✓✓Large volumes of alcohol drunk in a short period of time may cause alcohol poisoning. Tobacco and nicotine Nicotine is an addictive stimulant found in tobacco that is absorbed into the bloodstream: this is the chemical that makes it difficult for people to stop smoking. It is the carcinogenic chemicals in tobacco smoke that causes people to get lung cancer.

32 | SESSION 4: Drugs and alcohol: Information Sheet


Effects and dangers: ✓✓Physical effects include an increased heartbeat and blood pressure and shortness of breath. ✓✓Tobacco users have an increased risk of lung and mouth cancer and heart disease. Marijuana Marijuana is probably the most commonly used drug other than alcohol and tobacco. It resembles green / brown / grey tobacco: one form of marijuana (hash) is a brown / black cake / ball. Marijuana use often leads to the use of stronger drugs. Effects and dangers: ✓✓Marijuana can affect people’s mood and coordination. Users may experience mood swings that range from being happy to drowsy or depressed. ✓✓Marijuana elevates the heart-rate and blood pressure; it is as bad for the lungs as tobacco.

Effects and dangers: ✓✓Cocaine is a stimulant that affects the central nervous system, giving users a quick, intense feeling of power and energy. Effects last from 5 to 30 minutes. ✓✓Cocaine elevates heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure, and body temperature. ✓✓Injecting cocaine can transmit hepatitis A / B and HIV / AIDS if the needles are shared with other infected users. ✓✓First-time users of these drugs can stop breathing or have fatal heart attacks. Heroin Heroin comes from the dried milk of the opium poppy, which is also used to create painkillers such as codeine and morphine. Heroin comes in a range of forms, such as a white / dark brown powder to a sticky, tar-like substance. Effects and dangers: ✓✓Heroin gives people a euphoric (high) feeling, especially when injected. Highs can be followed by drowsiness, nausea, stomach cramps, and vomiting. ✓✓Heroin users feel they need to take more heroin as soon as possible to feel good again. ✓✓Long-term users of heroin suffer chronic constipation, dry skin, scarred veins, and breathing problems. ✓✓People injecting heroin often have collapsed veins and put themselves at risk of getting infections such as HIV and hepatitis B / C, if they share needles with other users.

Inhalants Inhalants are substances that are sniffed to give the user an immediate ‘high’. They include products like glues, paint thinners, dry-cleaning fluids, petrol and aerosols. Effects and dangers: ✓✓Inhalants make people feel giddy and confused, similar to drinking alcohol. Long-term users get headaches, nosebleeds, and may suffer loss of hearing and sense of smell. ✓✓Inhalants are the drugs most likely to cause severe toxic reaction and death. Cocaine and crack Cocaine is a white crystalline powder made from the dried leaves of the coca plant. Crack, named for its crackle when heated, is made from cocaine.

SESSION 4: Drugs and alcohol: Information Sheet | 33


sessIon 5 play football: Throwing-in play fair: Prevent diabetes sessIon Goals ✓ To learn how to take throw-ins ✓ To learn how to prevent diabetes 10 metres

materIals play football

✓ coach’s Guide ✓ Whistle ✓ Stopwatch ✓ Footballs ✓ cones ✓ ‘OVERWEIGHT; REGuLAR ExERcISE’ Activity cards

preparatIon and coach’s tIps ✓ Read the diabetes Information Sheet before the session. ✓ If possible, set up the field, as shown, before the start of the session.

REGuLAR ExERcISE

play fair

OVERWEIGHT

sessIon tImetable play football

duration

play fair

duration

Session 4 review

4 min

Session 4 review

4 min

Assign praise partners

2 min

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

Know the game fact

2 min

Activity

20 min

Warming up

10 min

Discussion

10 min

Football skill

25 min

Summarise key health message

3 min

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

halftime

2 – 3 min

Praise circle

4 min

close of session

34


SESSION 5 Play football: Throwing-in

Session 4 Play football review

4 min

The Play football assignment was to find a small area of ground where you could place 4 or 5 objects on the ground to make an obstacle course and then to dribble a ball around the objects as quickly as possible. ✓✓How easy did you find it to dribble the football around the obstacles? ✓✓Could you dribble the ball with both your feet? ✓✓What objects did you use to dribble the ball round?

Assign ‘Praise partners’

2 min

✓✓Arrange praise partners.

Know the game fact

2 min

✓✓Pele, from Brazil, is probably the best football player of all time; he scored over 1,000 goals in his career and won 3 FIFA World Cup ™ medals in 1958, 1962 and 1970, which is more than any other player.

Warming up

10 min

✓✓Complete the warm-up session.

Football skill

25 min

✓✓This session will teach how to take throw-ins: ✓✓Stand with feet apart facing the direction you want to throw the ball; place one hand on each side of the ball. ✓✓Take the ball behind the head and throw it forwards onto the field.

✓✓When throwing in, both feet must stay on the ground, behind the side-line. ✓✓The player must use both hands equally; the ball must go behind the head and be released whilst still just behind the head. ✓✓For a longer throw-in, players should take 1 or 2 steps before taking the throw in. ✓✓Set up 2 square fields using cones: the distance between cones should be about 10 metres but can be varied to fit the space available and the throwing abilities of the children. Assign 1 coach to each field to help the children. ✓✓The game is not intended to see who can throw-in the ball the furthest but to improve the accuracy of throwing the ball in. ✓✓Get the children to form in lines of equal length at each corner of the square: the children in 2 adjacent corners play the game together. ✓✓Adjacent corners: the first child throws the ball to the child at the front of the line at the adjacent corner: he / she must try to throw the ball so that it lands just at the other player’s feet; the receiving player should stop the ball with his / her foot. The person who has thrown the ball in runs to the back of their line. The person who stopped the ball should pick it up and make a throw-in back to the child at the front of the other corner. Each time someone has thrown the ball in they should run to the back of their line. When everyone has thrown the ball in once, they should repeat the exercise but this time aim to throw the ball to the chest of the player at the adjacent corner, who should try to catch the ball; when this exercise has been

SESSION 5: Play football: Throwing-in | 35


SESSION 5 Play fair: Prevent diabetes completed by everyone, they should finally repeat the exercise but aim to throw the ball towards the head of the other player, who must again catch the ball. ✓✓Diagonally opposite corners: when the exercise of throwing to an adjacent corner has been completed, the whole round should be played again but this time throwing the ball to the line of children standing at the corner on the diagonally opposite side of the square. ✓✓Repeat the whole exercise again if there is time available.

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

✓✓If possible practise this exercise each day with a friend, brother or sister. First stand about 5 metres apart and see if you can throw a ball, using a football style throw-in, to each other so you can catch the ball. When you have both done this successfully 3 times consecutively, increase the distance between yourselves and repeat the exercise. See what the maximum distance is that you can throw the ball to each other. If you can only practise on your own, throw the ball against a wall so that it bounces back towards yourself each time.

HALF TIME PERIOD

2 to 3 min

Coach should complete the attendance record for the session.

Session 4 Play fair review

4 min

The Play fair assignment was to draw a map of your community and to mark all the places where people use drugs and alcohol and identify the safe places where you would not be put under pressure to use drugs and alcohol. ✓✓Which places did you identify as the safest places to be? (e.g. home, church, school, football pitch) ✓✓Which places did you identify as the most dangerous? ✓✓Did you discuss dangerous places with anyone in your family?

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

✓✓People with diabetes are more likely to have health problems associated with their kidneys (in some cases leading to kidney failure), nerves, feet (in some cases leading to amputation), and eyes (sometimes leading to blindness). Diabetes can also cause heart disease and bone and joint disorders. Kilo ✓✓In Play football, we learned how to take throw-ins. In Play fair, we are going to learn ways for people to avoid getting diabetes. ✓✓Get children to sing the chorus from the 2010 FIFA World Cup ™ song “Waka, waka, Eh! Eh! This time for Africa”.

Activity

20 min

✓✓Set up 2 fields and divide the children into 2 groups with 1 coach working with each group. The distance between the cones can be varied to fit the space available.

36 | SESSION 5: Play fair: Prevent diabetes


✓✓Explain that to avoid getting diabetes you need to avoid being overweight and take regular exercise. (You will learn about balanced diets in a later session). ✓✓Explain the rules of the game: ✓✓This is a game where you are going to connect avoiding being overweight and taking regular exercise. ✓✓The game is a race between the 2 groups around the circuit. Each player in turn must dribble the ball around the ‘Overweight’ cone and through the ‘Regular exercise’ mini-goal to complete the circuit. When they get back to the start, they should pass the ball to the next person in the line and then sit down at the back of the line. The next player repeats the dribbling exercise until everyone has completed the circuit. The first team with all their players sitting down is the winner. ✓✓Now play the game again but this time, when you have dribbled the ball through the ‘Regular exercise’ mini-goal, kick or pass the ball to the next person waiting at the start cone. Again the first team to finish is the winner.

Discussion

Summarise the key health messages

3 min

✓✓You are more likely to develop diabetes if you are overweight and do not take regular exercise. ✓✓You can avoid getting diabetes by not eating more food than you need and taking regular exercise.

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Draw a chart of your extended family, showing your grandparents, your parents, your siblings, your uncles and aunts and their children. ✓✓Now ask each one of these family members whether they have diabetes. ✓✓Finally count how many people in your extended family have diabetes.

Praise circle and final whistle

4 min

✓✓Children praise their partner on positive actions and attitudes.

10 min

✓✓Ask the children questions about diabetes. ✓✓What are the common causes of Type 2 diabetes? (genetics – your mother or father had diabetes, being overweight, physical inactivity; increasing age). ✓✓What are the consequences of having diabetes? (Greater chance of suffering from conditions associated with the kidneys, feet, eyes, heart and joints). ✓✓How do you control diabetes? (balanced diet, regular physical exercise and medication).

SESSION 5: Play fair: Prevent diabetes | 37


SESSION 5 Diabetes: Information Sheet

What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that affects how the body uses glucose, which is a sugar and the body’s main source of energy. The body takes in food and the glucose in the food enters the blood stream; the pancreas, one of the important organs in the body, makes a hormone called insulin, which helps to transport the glucose to the body’s cells where the energy is needed. If someone has diabetes, the body either cannot make insulin (Type 1 diabetes) or the insulin that is made does not work in the way that it should (Type 2 diabetes). Because the glucose taken into the body when we eat cannot be transported to the body’s cells, the sugar level in the blood builds up and becomes too high. Too much sugar in the blood makes people very ill unless it is treated. Diabetes causes a number of health problems associated with the kidneys (in some cases leading to kidney failure), nerves, feet (in some cases leading to amputation), and eyes (sometimes leading to blindness). Diabetes can also cause heart disease and bone and joint disorders.

Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes (also referred to as insulindependent diabetes) cannot be prevented; it occurs where the pancreas’s ability to make insulin has been lost because the body’s immune system attacked it and destroyed the cells that make insulin. When a person has Type 1 diabetes, the body still obtains the glucose from food but the lack of insulin means that the glucose cannot get to the cells where it is needed:

38 | SESSION 5: Diabetes: Information Sheet

the glucose therefore stays in the blood. When someone has Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can never make insulin again; therefore, someone with Type 1 diabetes must take insulin on a regular basis through regular injections or through an insulin pump People with Type 1 diabetes need to monitor their diet carefully and: ✓✓check blood sugar levels during the day ✓✓give themselves insulin injections or use an insulin pump ✓✓exercise regularly ✓✓have regular checkups on their diabetes health

Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is more common than Type 1 and occurs when a person produces insulin but the body does not respond normally to the insulin produced. Therefore, glucose is less able to enter the cells and supply energy to the cells; glucose builds up in the blood stream; the pancreas detects high blood sugar levels and produces more insulin. This process puts a high workload on the pancreas and eventually it ceases to work properly. Some people take pills to help the insulin in their bodies work better, while others also need insulin injections. The main causes of Type 2 diabetes are genetics, being overweight, physical inactivity and increasing age. It used to be mainly overweight adults who developed Type 2 diabetes but nowadays more children develop Type 2 diabetes, probably because more and more children are overweight.


People with Type 2 diabetes must pay more attention to what they eat than people who do not have diabetes and they must: ✓✓eat a balanced diet and smaller portions with less salt and fat content ✓✓get regular physical activity ✓✓take medicines that help the body control the level of glucose in the blood system ✓✓check their blood sugar levels on a regular basis ✓✓have regular health checkups

SESSION 5: Diabetes: Information Sheet | 39


sessIon 6 play football: Defending play fair: Wash your hands sessIon Goals

play football

15 metres

✓ To learn how to defend against your attacking opponents ✓ To learn how and when to wash your hands correctly in order to defend yourself against infections, such as diarrhoea.

materIals ✓ coach’s Guide ✓ Whistle ✓ Stopwatch ✓ Footballs ✓ cones ✓ Bibs ✓ ‘START; BEFORE; AFTER; nEITHER’ Activity cards

15 metres

preparatIon and coach’s tIps ✓ Read the Information sheet before the session. ✓ Prepare 2 fields as shown in the diagram.

sessIon tImetable play football

duration

play fair

duration

Session 5 review

4 min

Session 5 review

4 min

Assign praise partners

2 min

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

Know the game fact

2 min

Activity

20 min

Warming up

10 min

Discussion

10 min

Football skill

25 min

Summarise key health message

3 min

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

halftime

2 – 3 min

Praise circle

4 min

close of session

40


SESSION 6 Play football: Defending

Session 5 Play football review

4 min

The Play football assignment was to practise throwing a ball in to your friend, brother or sister and to see the furthest distance you could throw the ball in. ✓✓Did you practise throw-ins on your own or with a friend? ✓✓What was the furthest distance you could throw the ball? ✓✓Who could throw the ball the furthest, you or your friend?

Assign ‘Praise partners’

2 min

✓✓Arrange praise partners.

Know the game fact

2 min

✓✓The record for the fewest number of goals conceded by the team winning the FIFA World Cup ™ is 2: this record is held by France (1998), Italy (2006) and Spain (2010).

Warming up

10 min

✓✓Complete the warm-up session.

Football skill

25 min

Set up 2 fields with a cone in the centre of each field, as shown in the Session overview. Explain the rules of the game: ✓✓Divide the children into pairs and assign equal numbers of pairs to each field; one player in each pair is assigned to be the ‘attacker’ and

given a football; the other player to be the ‘defender’. ✓✓Show children how to defend: ✓✓The defender should stay alert; keep his / her head up so they can see the attacking player; stay as close to the attacking player as possible and always keep between the player and the centre cone. ✓✓The attacking players have 30 seconds to dribble with the ball and escape from their defender by running anywhere within the field, but they must keep control of the ball and not leave the field ✓✓At the end of 30 seconds the coach blows a whistle and everyone stops running and stands still. The defender scores a point if he / she is close enough to touch the attacker. The attacker scores a point if the defender cannot touch them. ✓✓The defenders and attackers switch roles each time the whistle is blown. ✓✓The player with the most points at the end of the game is the winner.

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Pair up with your brother, sister or friend and play the ‘attacker’ and ‘defender’ game at home. If you are good at controlling the ball, try having one ‘attacker’ and two ‘defenders’ when you play the game.

HALF TIME PERIOD

2 to 3 min

Coach should complete the attendance record for the session.

SESSION 6: Play football: Defending | 41


SESSION 6 Play fair: Wash your hands

Session 5 Play fair review

4 min

The Play fair assignment was to draw a chart of your extended family, showing your grandparents, your parents, your siblings, your uncles and aunts and their children and to find out how many people in your family has diabetes. ✓✓Who had the lowest number of people in their family with diabetes? (Start with 0, 1, 2, gradually increasing). ✓✓Who had the highest number of people in their family with diabetes? (continue increasing the number until everyone has reported the number in their family).

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

✓✓You can halve your chances of getting diarrhoea by always washing your hands properly. Kilo ✓✓In Play football, we learned how to defend against football opponents. In Play fair, we are going to teach you when to wash your hands and how to wash them properly to defend yourselves against infection, such as diarrhoea. ✓✓Children act out washing their hands and then drying them in the air: singing the chorus from the 2010 World Cup ™ song ‘Wavin’ flags’: “Wave your flag (left hand); and wave your flag (right hand); now wave your flags (both hands).”

Activity

20 min

✓✓Explain how children should wash their hands: ✓✓Use clean water and soap. Wash all parts

42 | SESSION 6: Play fair: Wash your hands

of the hands, including front, back, fingers, nails for at least 15 seconds (approximately the time required to sing the ‘Happy Birthday’ song). Rinse the hands with clean water and then dry them on a clean towel. If you do not have a clean towel, wave them in the air like 2 flags and shout “Wave your flag; and wave your flag; now wave your flags.” ✓✓Explain that the children should wash their hands after using the toilet, coughing and sneezing but they should wash their hands before cooking and eating. ✓✓If you have no soap, use washing powder, ash or just wash your hands with clean water. ✓✓Explain the game: ✓✓Use the same squares that were used for the defending exercise but without the centre cone and place labels on the 4 cones: START; BEFORE; NEITHER; AFTER. ✓✓Divide the children into 2 equal groups with 1 group and 1 coach assigned to each square; get all the children to stand by the START cone. ✓✓The coaches now shout out activities, in random sequence, from the following list: going to the toilet, cooking, eating, sneezing, coughing, playing football, running, going shopping, watching television. Each time the children must run to the appropriate cone to indicate whether they should wash their hands BEFORE, or AFTER the activity or whether NEITHER is necessary. Afterwards the children run back to the START cone ready for the next activity to be called out.


Discussion

10 min

Ask the children questions about washing their hands. ✓✓Why should you wash your hands? ✓✓When should you wash your hands? (Before cooking and eating; after going to the toilet, coughing and sneezing). ✓✓Why should you NOT dry your hands on your shirt? (Germs transferred from clothes to hands). ✓✓Can you see germs on your hands? (No; germs are too small to see with the human eye).

Summarise the key health messages

3 min

✓✓Washing your hands properly can help to keep you healthy and avoid getting diarrhoea and other illnesses. ✓✓Wash your hands after using the toilet and after coughing and sneezing. Wash your hands before cooking and before eating. ✓✓To remove all the germs, wash your hands with soap for 15 seconds or about as long as it takes to sing “Happy Birthday” and never dry your hands on your shirt.

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Teach your brothers and sisters and 2 friends how to wash their hands properly and show them how to ‘Wave their flags’.

Praise circle and final whistle

4 min

✓✓Children praise their partner on positive actions and attitudes.

SESSION 6: Play fair: Wash your hands | 43


SESSION 6 Sanitation: Information Sheet

What is meant by sanitation? 1 gram of human faeces in untreated water can contain 10 million viruses, 1 million bacteria, 1000 parasite cysts and 100 worm eggs. The river Ganges in India, for example, has over 1 million litres of raw sewage containing human waste discharged into it every minute of every day. In Africa, over 100 people die every hour of every day from diseases linked to poor sanitation, poor hygiene and contaminated water. Many of the deaths resulting from poor sanitation are sustained by children under 5 years of age. Examples of diseases transmitted through water contaminated by human waste include diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid, and hepatitis A. Sanitation refers to the provision of facilities or services to dispose of human urine and faeces safely and without risk to human health. Sanitation is also used in connection with the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal. Lack of good quality sanitation facilities forces people to defecate in the open, in rivers or near areas where children play or food is prepared: this increases the risk of transmitting diseases. Communities need proper sanitation and must practise good hygiene to control infection. Eradication of poor sanitation is a major target of many international aid agencies. Adequate sanitation facilities raises school attendance rates for children, especially amongst girls.

44 | SESSION 6: Sanitation: Information Sheet

Countries in some parts of the world have good sanitation facilities but these can be destroyed as a consequence of natural disasters. For example, every year more than 200 million people are affected by droughts, floods, tropical storms, earthquakes, forest fires, and other natural disasters. Maintaining good sanitation services in these situations is an essential part of international emergency responses.

How can the risks from poor sanitation facilities be reduced? Hygiene education and promotion of hand washing are simple, cost-effective measures that can reduce the spread of diarrhoea. Even when ideal sanitation facilities are available, good hygiene practices are still essential and lead to better health in the community. Good hygiene complements good sanitation facilities in the prevention of disease. It has been claimed that for every US$1 invested in improved sanitation, there is a return on average of US$9 from reductions in health costs.


SESSION 6: Sanitation: Information Sheet | 45


sessIon 7 play football: Trapping play fair: Drink clean water sessIon Goals

play football

✓ To learn how to trap a football. ✓ To learn about drinking clean water.

materIals 10 metres

✓ coach’s Guide ✓ Whistle ✓ Stopwatch ✓ Footballs ✓ cones ✓ ‘WATER SOuRcE; BOIL; cOOL; DRInK’ Activity cards

10 metres

preparatIon and coach’s tIps

WATER SOuRcE

BOIL

✓ Read the Information Sheet before the session. ✓ Preferably use small groups in the games so the children are always active.

10 metres

play fair

DRInK

sessIon tImetable

10 metres

cOOL

play football

duration

play fair

duration

Session 6 review

4 min

Session 6 review

4 min

Assign praise partners

2 min

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

Know the game fact

2 min

Activity

20 min

Warming up

10 min

Discussion

10 min

Football skill

25 min

Summarise key health message

3 min

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

halftime

2 – 3 min

Praise circle

4 min

close of session

46


SESSION 7 Play football: Trapping

Session 6 Play football review

4 min

The Play football assignment was to pair up with your brother, sister or friend and play the ‘attacker’ and ‘defender’ game at home. ✓✓Who did you play the game with? ✓✓How does this game make you a better defender? ✓✓Did you prefer to play as the attacker or the defender?

Assign ‘Praise partners’

2 min

✓✓Arrange praise partners.

Know the game fact

2 min

✓✓Trapping the ball means bringing the ball under control with any part of the player’s body other than the hands or arms. Ronaldinho of Brazil is renowned for his trapping skills; he could trap the ball using his feet, thighs, chest or head. When he was a teenager, Ronaldinho scored 23 goals in one match.

Warming up

10 min

✓✓Complete the warm-up session.

Football skill

25 min

✓✓Set up 4 fields with 1 cone on one side of the field and 4 cones creating a small square on the other side of the field. ✓✓Show the children how to trap a moving football with their feet: ✓✓Ball rolling along the ground: first judge the speed and direction of the ball as it

comes towards you; lift one foot slightly off the ground and turn this foot sideways towards the ball; cushion the ball with the inside of the foot so that you stop the ball on the ground – avoid letting the ball bounce away from your foot. ✓✓Ball bouncing towards you: this is the same as for the ball rolling along the ground but you must also judge the height that the ball will bounce. ✓✓Split the children into 4 equal groups with 1 coach assigned to look after 2 groups: 1 child stands inside the square and the other children stand in a line behind the single cone. ✓✓The child at the front of the line kicks the ball along the ground towards the child in the square; the child in the square must trap the ball and then pass the ball back towards the next child waiting in the line. The first child having kicked the ball runs to the square and the child originally in the square runs to the back of the line. Keep passing, trapping and running for 10 minutes. ✓✓Now repeat the exercise but when you pass the ball to the person in the square try to make the ball bounce so it is more difficult to trap.

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Pair up with your brother, sister or friend and play passing, trapping and passing to each other without losing control of the ball. You can also practise this game on your own by kicking the ball against a wall so that it bounces back towards you to trap it. As you get better at this game you can practise trapping the ball with your thigh or chest. ➜

SESSION 7: Play football: Trapping | 47


SESSION 7 Play fair: Drink clean water HALF TIME PERIOD

2 to 3 min

Coach should complete the attendance record for the session.

Session 6 Play fair review

4 min

The Play fair assignment was to teach your brothers and sisters and 2 friends how to wash their hands properly and show them how to ‘Wave their flags’. ✓✓Who did you teach to wash their hands properly? ✓✓Did they ‘wave their flags’ to dry their hands? ✓✓Did you remember to wash your hands before eating and cooking and to wash them after using the toilet, coughing and sneezing?

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

✓✓Drinking boiled or bottled water can reduce your chances of getting diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, and hepatitis A by half. Kilo ✓✓In Play football, you learned different ways to control the ball. In Play fair, we are going to talk about drinking clean water so that you can control your health. ✓✓Children act out boiling, cooling and then drinking water: saying: “Bubble, bubble; Cool, cool; Gulp, gulp, gulp.”

Activity

20 min

✓✓If children do not have access to clean water (such as bottled water), explain how they can make water safe to drink by filtering and then boiling it: ✓✓Use clean water and then boil it in a kettle or pot for at least 60 seconds (Emphasise that boiling means seeing bubbles forming in the water NOT just heating the water for 60 seconds). If the water has sus-

48 | SESSION 7: Play fair: Drink clean water


pended material in it, first filter the water through a fine mesh before boiling. Avoid using water taken from a river, a pond or a source near to a toilet. ✓✓Explain that boiling the water for 60 seconds kills the germs in the water that would otherwise make you ill. ✓✓Explain the game: ✓✓Set up 2 squares using 4 cones labelled in turn: ‘Water source’, ‘Boil’, ‘Cool’ and ‘Drink’’; place the football by the ‘Water source’ cone. ✓✓Divide the children into 2 equal groups with 1 group and 1 coach assigned to each square; get the children to stand behind the ‘Water source’ cone. ✓✓The first child picks up the football and runs with it to the ‘Boil’ cone; here they must throw the ball in the air and catch it 3 times; they then run with the ball to the ‘Cool’ cone, where they must bounce the ball and catch it 3 times; finally, the child runs with the ball to the ‘Drink ’ cone, where they place the ball on the ground, kick the ball to the next child waiting at the ‘Water source’ cone and run to the back of the line and sit down. The first team to have all their children sitting down is the winner. ✓✓Repeat the game if there is sufficient time available.

Discussion

✓✓If water looks clean can you be sure that it is safe to drink? (Not necessarily, germs in the water that can make you ill are too small to be seen). ✓✓How can you be sure that water will be safe to drink? (Use bottled water or boil other water for 60 seconds).

Summarise the key health messages

3 min

✓✓If you are in an area you don’t know, drink only bottled or boiled water. ✓✓Never drink water from a pond, river, or a source near to a toilet. ✓✓You must boil water for at least 60 seconds to kill the germs in water that cause infections such as diarrhoea or cholera.

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Explain to your brothers, sisters and parents the importance of drinking clean water. Ask your parents to show you how to boil water safely at home.

Praise circle and final whistle

4 min

✓✓Children praise their partner on positive actions and attitudes.

10 min

Ask the children questions about drinking clean water, such as: ✓✓What are the potential outcomes from drinking dirty water? (e.g. diarrhoea, cholera). ✓✓Who is most at risk of diarrhoea? (Children and especially children under 5 years of age).

SESSION 7: Play fair: Drink clean water | 49


SESSION 7 Water and health: Information Sheet

Over 2.2 million people die each year (mostly in developing countries) as a direct consequence of poor water supplies and sanitation conditions. That is twice the number of people living a country the size of Mauritius. At any time half of all the hospital beds in the world are occupied by people suffering from water borne diseases. Every week about 42,000 people die from diseases related to low quality drinking water and lack of sanitation. Over 90% of these deaths occur to children <5 years old. Two water-related diseases, diarrhoea and malaria, are ranked in 3rd and 4th place in the causes of deaths among children under 5 years old; these account for 17% and 8% of all deaths. In sub-Saharan Africa, a baby is 500 times more likely to die from diarrhoea than a child in Europe or the USA. Improvements in drinking water quality through household water treatment can lead to a reduction of one third in the number of cases of diarrhoea and hand-washing can lead to a further reduction in the number of cases by almost a half. A study by the World Health Organisation showed that every US$1 invested in improved drinking water and sanitation services yielded between US$4 and $34 in health benefits, depending on the country.

50 | SESSION 7: Water and health: Information Sheet


SESSION 7: Water and health: Information Sheet | 51


sessIon 8 play football: Building fitness play fair: Eat a balanced diet sessIon Goals

play fair

✓ To learn how to improve fitness through exercising. ✓ To learn about eating a range of healthy foods.

materIals

MEAL TIME

✓ coach’s Guide ✓ Whistle ✓ Stopwatch ✓ Footballs ✓ cones ✓ ‘MEAL TIME; FRIED FOOD; cAKES & BIScuITS; FIZZY DRInKS; BALAncED DIET’ Activity cards

preparatIon and coach’s tIps

FRIED FOOD

cAKES & BIScuITS

FIZZY DRInKS

✓ Read the Information Sheet before the session. ✓ If possible, set up the field for the Play fair session before you start. BALAncED DIET

play football

sessIon tImetable play football

duration

play fair

duration

Session 7 review

4 min

Session 7 review

4 min

Assign praise partners

2 min

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

Know the game fact

2 min

Activity

20 min

Warming up

10 min

Discussion

10 min

Football skill

25 min

Summarise key health message

3 min

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

halftime

2 – 3 min

Praise circle

4 min

close of session

52


sessIon 8 plaY Football: BuILDInG FITnESS

sessIon 7 plaY Football revIeW

4 min

The Play football assignment was to pair up with your brother, sister or friend and play passing, trapping and passing back to each other without losing control of the ball or, if you practise the exercise on your own, kicking the ball against a wall so that it bounces back towards you to trap it. ✓ Did you play this game with your friends or on your own? ✓ Did you prefer to practise on your own or with your friends? ✓ Did you find it easy to trap the ball with other parts of your body?

assIGn ‘praIse partners’

2 min

✓ Arrange praise partners.

knoW the Game Fact

2 min

✓ Fitness is very important for footballers. A midfielder in a professional football team often runs over 10 kilometres in one match.

WarmInG up

10 min

✓ complete the warm-up session.

Football skIll

25 min

✓ Divide the children into 4 groups with 1 coach supervising 2 groups. ✓ Instruct the children to sit on the ground in a straight line, about 1 metre apart and all facing in the same direction.

✓ Each team has to pass the ball from the first to the last person in the line without the ball touching the ground. To do this the person at the front of the line with the ball leans back onto the ground so the person behind can reach the ball; this is repeated until the ball reaches the end of the line. ✓ When the ball reaches the last player in the line, that player then reverses the process by sitting up and passing the ball to the person in front of them (who should still be lying down); each child repeats this until the ball reaches the front of the line. The first team to complete the exercise is the winner. ✓ now repeat the whole exercise but this time get the children to stand up and pass the ball between their legs. The first team to complete the exercise is the winner. ✓ Finally repeat the whole exercise but this time pass the ball over their heads. Again, the first team to finish the exercise is the winner. ✓ If the ground is wet, just pass the ball between their legs and over their heads rather than sitting on the ground.

‘plaY Football’ assIGnment

2 min

✓ Stand with your back close to a wall or a door. Slowly squat down, until your thighs are parallel to the ground, allowing your weight to move onto the balls of your feet; finally, slowly straighten your legs until you are standing up straight again. Repeat this exercise 5 times each evening to strengthen your leg muscles. ✓ As you become stronger, you will be able to increase gradually the number of squats to 10 each day.

SESSIOn 8: PLAY FOOTBALL: BuILDInG FITnESS | 53


SESSION 8 Play fair: Eat a balanced diet HALF TIME PERIOD

2 to 3 min

Coach should complete the attendance record for the session.

Session 7 Play fair review

4 min

The Play fair assignment was to explain to your brothers, sisters and parents the importance of drinking clean water and to ask your parents to show you how to boil water safely. ✓✓Did you explain to your parents, brothers and sisters why you should drink only clean water and if the water is not clean to boil it so that the germs in the water are killed? ✓✓Did your parents show you how to boil water safely? ✓✓What did you do to make sure that you did not burn yourself while boiling the water?

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

✓✓People who are overweight are more likely to have serious health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and some forms of cancer. Eating a balanced diet will help you to avoid becoming overweight. Kilo ✓✓In Play football, you learned about improving fitness through exercise. In Play fair, we are going to talk about eating a balanced diet. ✓✓Children stand on one leg; act out eating food; and shout out: “I’m balancing on one leg so I’m eating a balanced diet.”

Activity

20 min

✓✓Explain to children what overweight and obesity mean and what the health consequences of obesity are. Explain how they can avoid this: ✓✓Overweight means you are eating more food than your body needs to stay healthy,

54 | SESSION 8: Play fair: Eat a balanced diet


so your body stores all the excess food as fat: this eventually leads to you being obese. ✓✓Being overweight increases people’s chances of getting diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and many other diseases. ✓✓Explain that you can avoid being overweight by exercising regularly and eating a balanced diet. A balanced diet contains carbohydrates for energy, meat and fish for protein, and fruit and vegetables for vitamins, essential minerals and fibre. ✓✓Explain the game: ✓✓The aim of the game is to avoid unhealthy foods at mealtimes with the goal of achieving a balanced diet. Set up 2 fields using 4 cones in a line down the field and labelled in turn: ‘Meal time’, ‘Fried food’, ‘Cakes & biscuits’, ‘Fizzy drinks’ and 2 further cones to make a goal labelled ‘Balanced diet’ at the other end of the field. ✓✓Divide the children into 2 equal groups with 1 group and 1 coach assigned to each field; get one child to stand behind the ‘Balanced diet’ goal and all the other children to stand behind the ‘Mealtime’ cone. ✓✓The first child dribbles the ball from the ‘Meal time’ cone around the ‘Fried food’, ‘Cakes & biscuits’, and ‘Fizzy drinks’ cones. When they have rounded the last cone they should try to score in the ‘Balanced diet’ goal. The child behind the goal should collect the ball and run with it back to the ‘Mealtime’ cone and give it to the next child to start and then join the end of the line. The child who has just played should go behind the goal to collect the ball from the next player. The first team with all children completing the course is the winner.

✓✓Repeat the game as often as possible within the time available.

Discussion

10 min

✓✓Ask the children questions about eating a balanced diet, such as: ✓✓Why is it important to eat a balanced diet? (to ensure the body gets all the important nutrients it needs to stay healthy). ✓✓What is wrong with being overweight? (You will become unhealthy and you are more likely to get diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure). ✓✓How can you avoid becoming overweight? (Exercise regularly AND eat a balanced diet). ✓✓How do you know if you are eating a healthy, balanced diet? (The food on your plate will contain foods of many colours and the food will not be piled high on the plate). ✓✓Do you have to be rich to eat a balanced diet? (No; the good food you should eat, such as fresh fruit and vegetables and carbohydrates are usually cheaper than the fatty, sweet foods you should not eat).

Summarise the key health messages

3 min

✓✓Eating too much food and eating the wrong type of food will make you overweight: if you become overweight, you are more likely to develop health problems. ✓✓An adequate, balanced diet generally contains food of many different colours and the plate should not be piled high. ✓✓Although, when you are a child, it is not always possible to choose what you eat,

SESSION 8: Play fair: Eat a balanced diet | 55


SESSION 8 Nutrition: Information Sheet when you do have a choice, eat fruits and vegetables as these are good for you and will help to keep you healthy. As you get older, and you have children of your own, make sure you give them a healthy, balanced diet.

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

✓✓In the time until the next ‘11 for Health’ session, count how many different colours of food you eat each day and keep a note of the number. Before you come to the next session see what the highest number of colours is that you eat in one day.

Praise circle and final whistle ✓✓Children praise their partner on positive actions and attitudes.

4 min

Why should you eat a balanced diet? You must eat a balanced diet and the right amount of food in order to stay healthy. A balanced diet contains carbohydrate (for energy), protein (muscle growth and repair), fat (energy, fat soluble vitamins), vitamins (control of essential body functions), mineral salts (development and control of essential bodily functions) and fibre (helps the digestive system to work correctly). The body uses fats and carbohydrates as fuel but if they are not used up during daily activities or through exercise, the body will store them in fat cells. If we eat too many fats and carbohydrates, we become overweight and eventually obese. This can lead to health problems, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, bone and joint problems, breathing and sleeping problems, and even depression. People who overeat are at greater risk of heart disease.

What is recommended? People today eat more than they used to – and more than they need to. This means that they are constantly taking in more food than their bodies require. Unfortunately, lots of people do not realise that they are eating too much because they have become used to seeing and eating food portions that are too large. Portion sizes tell you how much nutrition you are getting from a particular food but they do not tell you which foods you should eat to stay healthy. Food can be divided into five main groups: ✓✓Fruit (e.g. bananas, mangoes, apples) and vegetables (e.g. carrots, peas, cauliflower): are rich in vitamins, minerals and fibre that the body needs to function properly. They should

56 | SESSION 8: Nutrition: Information Sheet


make up about one third of the daily diet. ✓✓Grains (e.g. bread, pasta, potato, rice): contain carbohydrates that are the body’s main source of energy. They should make up about one-third of your daily diet. ✓✓Milk and dairy products: contain fat and are a source of calcium, which is required for forming healthy bones and teeth: choose low-fat dairy products. These products should be eaten in moderation. ✓✓Meat, fish, eggs, nuts and beans: contain animal and plant sources of protein which the body needs for tissue growth and repair and also energy. Choose foods that are high in protein but low in fat, such as fish. These should make up about one third of the daily diet ✓✓Fats (oil) and sugar (sweets, fizzy drinks): contain saturated and unsaturated fats – unsaturated vegetable fats (usually liquids) like sunflower and olive oil are preferable to saturated fats (usually solid) that come from meat, butter and cheese. These foods contain few important nutrients for the body and should therefore be eaten sparingly.

more salads and fruit if you are hungry because these foods have very low levels of fats and carbohydrates and they help to control feelings of hunger. Avoid eating too many sweets and sweet drinks as these usually contain large amounts of sugar (carbohydrates). Replace cakes, biscuits and sweets with healthy fresh or dried fruit. Avoid frying food as this introduces high levels of fat into your diet. A plate containing food of many colours usually provides a balanced diet.

A good way to decide portion size is to imagine a ‘divided plate’. Think of your plate being divided into three equal sections. Use one-third for protein (e.g. meat, fish, beans, nuts); use another third for carbohydrates or starch (e.g. bread, pasta, potatoes, cereals, rice); and the final third of the plate for vegetables or salad (e.g. peas, carrots, green beans, lettuce, tomatoes). None of the sections on the plate should be piled high. By dividing your plate like this, it will help you to eat the right things, and also help you to keep the portions of food you eat at the right size: in other words it will provide you with a ‘balanced diet’. You can always eat

SESSION 8: Nutrition: Information Sheet | 57


sessIon 9 play football: Shooting play fair: Vaccinate yourself and your family sessIon Goals

play football

✓ To learn how to shoot correctly. ✓ To learn about vaccinations (‘shots’).

FREE-KIcK SPOTS

materIals ✓ coach’s Guide ✓ Whistle ✓ Stopwatch ✓ Footballs ✓ cones ✓ ‘VAccInATED’ Activity card GOAL

preparatIon and coach’s tIps ✓ Review the vaccination information sheet before the start of the session. Shot

miss

ed

play fair

GOAL

VAccInATED

d

ore

t sc

Sho

sessIon tImetable play football

duration

play fair

duration

Session 8 review

4 min

Session 8 review

4 min

Assign praise partners

2 min

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

Know the game fact

2 min

Activity

20 min

Warming up

10 min

Discussion

10 min

Football skill

25 min

Summarise key health message

3 min

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

halftime

2 – 3 min

Praise circle

4 min

close of session

58


SESSION 9 Play football: Shooting

Session 8 Play football review

Football skill 4 min

The Play football assignment was to stand with your back close to a wall or a door. Then to squat down slowly, until your thighs were parallel to the ground, allowing your weight to move onto the balls of your feet. Finally, slowly straighten your legs until you are standing up straight again. ✓✓Did your legs ache when you first started to do the exercise? ✓✓Why do you think your legs ached when you first began to do exercises? ✓✓What were the most leg squats you managed to do in one session?

Assign ‘Praise partners’

2 min

✓✓Arrange praise partners.

Know the game fact

2 min

✓✓Players who score goals are very important for football teams: if your team does not score a goal, it is impossible to win a game. Geoff Hurst of England holds the record for the most goals scored by one player in a FIFA World Cup ™ Final: he scored 3 goals in the 1966 Final.

Warming up ✓✓Complete the warm-up session.

10 min

25 min

✓✓In this session you are going to learn how to kick the ball to improve your chances of scoring a goal. ✓✓Show the children how to kick the ball: ✓✓Run up to the ball so that you are facing the direction you want to kick the ball; place your standing foot alongside the ball; then swing your other foot powerfully through the ball so that the top / inside of the foot strikes the ball. Avoid kicking the ball with your toes. ✓✓Players can choose whether to hit the ball hard or to concentrate on kicking the ball in the right direction. As the players become better at taking free kicks they will be able to hit the ball harder and also hit it in the right direction. ✓✓Set up 2 fields and divide the children into 2 groups with 1 coach working with each group. Make the goal fairly wide (~5 metres) so that there is a good chance of the children scoring a goal at least from the first 2 free-kick spots. Set the first free-kick spot ~5 metres from the goal and each of the other free kick spots a further ~5metres away from the goal. ✓✓One player stands behind the goal to collect the ball and one player is the goalkeeper (he / she tries to save the free kick). The other players form a line waiting to take a free kick from the first cone. ✓✓The first player takes a free kick; after the shot, the goalkeeper or the person behind the goal collects the ball and returns it to the freekick spot. The player behind the goal then joins the end of the line waiting to take a free kick; the goalkeeper goes behind the goal and the free-kick taker becomes the goalkeeper.

SESSION 9: Play football: Shooting | 59


SESSION 9 Play fair: Vaccinate yourself and your family ✓✓Repeat this sequence until all the players have taken a free kick from the first cone. ✓✓Now repeat the whole exercise from the second, third and fourth free-kick cones. The person scoring the most goals is the winner. ✓✓If there is time repeat the whole exercise.

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Each day practise taking at least 10 free-kicks; you can hit the ball against a wall or, if you play with your brothers, sisters or friends, make a goal with one person acting as a goalkeeper. ✓✓Try kicking the ball first with one foot, then the other foot low into the goal. Now repeat the exercise, trying to hit the ball into the top of the goal.

HALF TIME PERIOD

2 to 3 min

Coach should complete the attendance record for the session.

Session 8 Play fair review

4 min

The Play fair assignment was to count how many different colours of food you ate each day, to keep a note of the number, and to record the highest number of colours you ate in one day. ✓✓Did you explain to your parents, brothers and sisters what eating a healthy diet meant and why they should not eat too much food? ✓✓Did you explain what you were doing at each mealtime? ✓✓Who counted the most colours in their food? (You can ask everyone who counted 2 colours to put their hands up; then 3 colours, and so on: when you get to the last people with their hands up, ask them what colours the foods were that they had eaten).

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

✓✓About 2.5 million children under the age of 5 years die each year from diseases that could have been prevented by being vaccinated. Kilo ✓✓In Play football, you learned how to shoot and to score goals. In Play fair, we are going to talk about getting ‘shots’ or vaccinations, which will help to protect you from diseases. ✓✓Children stand in 2 lines in pairs opposite each other with their hands behind their backs. When the coach shouts ‘shots’, the children must bring their hands round to the front and clap – ‘Clap, clap; Clap, clap, clap’ and then shout “Get your shots”.

60 | SESSION 9: Play fair: Vaccinate yourself and your family


Activity

20 min

✓✓Explain to the children about vaccinations and what the benefits of vaccinations are: ✓✓Vaccinations are medical treatments that will enhance their immune system and prevent them from getting certain diseases. ✓✓Vaccinations, which are usually given by a doctor or nurse, can be given by injection, orally or inhalation. ✓✓Vaccinations are normally provided free at clinics. ✓✓Explain that this game is about ensuring you get the correct ‘shots’: ✓✓Set up the game by laying out 2 fields; dividing the children into 2 groups; and assigning 1 coach to each group. ✓✓At the start of the game, all the children stand in a line behind the goal; the first child dribbles the ball through the goal; around the end cone and back to the shooting line, where they must shoot for goal. If they score, the child runs to the vaccinated cone and sits down; if they miss the goal, they must run back to the end of the line ready to repeat the exercise. ✓✓The first team with all their players sitting down is the winner. ✓✓If there is time, play the game again.

Discussion

Summarise the key health messages

3 min

✓✓Vaccinations provide protection against some diseases. ✓✓Vaccinations are free at public clinics. ✓✓Vaccinations are safe.

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Ask your parent or guardian which vaccinations you have already received and which ones you still need. ✓✓Ask your parents or guardian if everyone in your family has received vaccinations. If not ask why they have not received them yet.

Praise circle and final whistle

4 min

✓✓Children praise their partner on positive actions and attitudes.

10 min

✓✓Ask the children the ‘FACT or NONENSE’ questions about vaccinations shown in the Appendix. Ask the children to shout out the answers. ✓✓Discuss the answers with the children.

SESSION 9: Play fair: Vaccinate yourself and your family | 61


APPENDIX: Session 9: FACT and NONSENSE statements Question

Statement

Answer

1

People get all the vaccinations they will require when they are born.

Nonense Some vaccinations are received soon after you are born but others are not received until you are older.

2

All vaccinations are received as injections.

Nonsense Some vaccinations are received by injection but other may be given by mouth or inhalation.

3

Vaccinations are free.

Fact In most African countries, vaccinations can be obtained free at public clinics.

4

Vaccinations are not dangerous for your health.

Fact There is no reason to be afraid of receiving a vaccination; if the vaccination is given by injection, you may feel a small pin prick.

5

All vaccinations received at birth will last for a lifetime.

NONSENSE For some diseases, you do only need one dose of vaccine but for some conditions you may need booster doses later in life. For example, it is normally recommended that people get a booster vaccination for tetanus every 10 years.

6

Ask children which diseases they can get vaccinations for.

Tuberculosis (TB), diphtheria, hepatitis, measles, typhoid, tetanus, polio.

62 | SESSION 9: Play fair: Vaccinate yourself and your family


SESSION 9 Vaccination: Information Sheet

What is vaccination or immunisation? It is the process of making people resistant to an infectious disease by administering a vaccine, which is a microbe that has been killed or weakened to the extent that it does not cause an infection but still stimulates the bodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s immune system to protect it against future infection. Vaccinations are used widely around the world to prevent many contagious diseases. Immunisation is a way of protecting our future health. Vaccinations administered depend on the particular diseases that are prevalent in a country but typically vaccinations that are provided include diphtheria, tetanus, measles, mumps, chickenpox, polio, meningitis and hepatitis A and B. If you have already had a disease you do not need to be vaccinated, as your body will already have built up its immune system against that disease to prevent further infections. Vaccines are often administered by injection but others are delivered orally by mouth or by inhalation using nasal sprays.

Why and when should people be vaccinated? Nearly 1 in 4 of those children who die under the age of 5 years die from a disease that could have been prevented by immunisation. Many vaccinations are administered in the first 2 years after birth and most people should have received all their vaccinations by 11 or 12 years of age. However, if you have missed a vaccination you should consult your doctor or nurse to receive the missing vaccinations. In addition, some diseases require booster doses of vaccine; for example, tetanus normally requires a booster every 10 years.

Are vaccinations safe? Vaccines are generally very safe (see section below about people who should seek advice before having vaccinations): the protection provided to people by vaccines greatly outweighs the very small risks associated with their use. Vaccines have been so successful in some countries that some diseases, such as smallpox, polio, measles and mumps, have been virtually eliminated. Sometimes, people will experience very mild side effects after receiving a vaccine; for example, minor soreness or redness where an injection has been given. Sometimes diseases can be virtually eliminated in a country and then people are tempted to stop immunising their children against these diseases only for the diseases to return and spread quickly through the now unprotected population.

Who should not be vaccinated? People who have a weakened immune system, for example someone with AIDS or someone receiving chemotherapy treatment for some cancers: girls and women who are pregnant should speak to their doctor about the risks. Because of the way vaccines are made, people with some forms of allergy should not receive some vaccines; again this should be discussed with your doctor.

SESSION 9: Vaccination: Information Sheet | 63


sessIon 10 play football: Goalkeeping play fair: Take prescribed medications sessIon Goals

play football

✓ To learn goalkeeping techniques. ✓ To learn about protecting your health by taking prescribed medications.

materIals ✓ coach’s Guide ✓ Whistle ✓ Stopwatch ✓ Footballs ✓ cones

preparatIon and coach’s tIps

GOAL

✓ Read the Information sheet before the start of the session. ✓ If possible set up the field before the start of the session.

sessIon tImetable play football

duration

play fair

duration

Session 9 review

4 min

Session 9 review

4 min

Assign praise partners

2 min

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

Know the game fact

2 min

Activity

20 min

Warming up

10 min

Discussion

10 min

Football skill

25 min

Summarise key health message

3 min

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

halftime

2 – 3 min

Praise circle

4 min

close of session

64


SESSION 10 Play football: Goalkeeping

Session 9 Play football review

4 min

The Play football assignment was to practise taking at least 10 free-kicks each day; either hitting the ball against a wall or playing with your brothers, sisters or friends and using a goal. ✓✓Did your shooting skills improve with practice? ✓✓Did you learn how to take shots with both feet? ✓✓Could you hit high shots as well as low shots?

Assign ‘Praise partners’

2 min

✓✓Arrange praise partners.

Know the game fact

2 min

✓✓Walter Zenga, an Italian goalkeeper, holds the record for the longest period in the FIFA World Cup ™ without conceding a goal; he managed 518 consecutive minutes during the 1986 and 1990 FIFA World Cups ™.

Warming up

10 min

✓✓Complete the warm-up session.

Football skill

25 min

✓✓In this session you are going to learn how to be a goalkeeper. ✓✓Demonstrate good goalkeeping technique: ✓✓For low balls: stand on the balls of your feet; lean forward slightly with your knees bent; your elbows should be by your side; collect the ball with your arms and wrap the ball into your stomach.

✓✓For balls at chest or head-height: again stand on the balls of your feet; lean forward slightly with your knees bent; but this time keep your hands in front of your chest with the palms of your hands facing forwards, your fingers pointed upwards and your thumbs pointed towards each other. When you catch the ball, your thumbs should be behind the ball and touching at their tips; your hands should then form a ‘W’. Pull the ball towards your chest. ✓✓For aerial balls: again stand on the balls of your feet; lean forward slightly with your knees bent; shuffle sideways in the direction of the ball; jump off the leg nearest to the ball moving slightly forwards away from the goal. If you can, catch the ball with both hands; otherwise, push the ball away from the goal with your outstretched hand. When landing, impact should be taken on the side of the body and the shoulders. ✓✓When goalkeeping, maintain your concentration at all times; stand square to the ball and always move your feet to get your body behind the ball. ✓✓Set up 2 fields; use 2 cones to make a goal and place other cones about 15 metres away from the goal. Divide the children into 2 groups with 1 coach working with each group. The purpose of this exercise is to use the skills that were learned during the shooting session to give the goalkeeper practice; the purpose is NOT to score a goal. ✓✓One player is the goalkeeper and tries to save the kick using the goalkeeping techniques shown. Another player stands behind the goal to collect the ball if the goalkeeper

SESSION 10: Play football: Goalkeeping | 65


SESSION 10 Play fair: Take prescribed medications misses the ball. All other players form a line by the cone waiting to take a kick to the goalkeeper. ✓✓The first player takes a kick; after the shot the goalkeeper or the person behind the goal collects the ball and rolls it back to the cone. The person behind the goal then joins the end of the line waiting to take a free kick; the goalkeeper goes behind the goal; and the kicker becomes the new goalkeeper. ✓✓Repeat this sequence until all the players have taken a shot at goal. ✓✓If there is time repeat the above exercise from the other positions.

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Each day practise your goalkeeping skills with a friend, stand about 5 metres apart and one player throws the ball to one side and then the other side of the goalkeeper with some balls thrown high and some thrown low to give variety; take it in turns to be the goalkeeper. ✓✓As you become a better goalkeeper, your partner can start to kick the ball towards you.

HALF TIME PERIOD

2 to 3 min

Coach should complete the attendance record for the session.

Session 9 Play fair review

4 min

✓✓The Play fair assignment was to ask your parent or guardian which vaccinations you had already received and which ones you still needed and also to ask them if everyone in your family had received vaccinations and if not why not. ✓✓Did your parents / guardian tell you which vaccinations you had received? ✓✓Do you still have any vaccinations to get? ✓✓How many people in your family had not received vaccinations or did not know whether they had had any vaccinations?

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

✓✓Doctors prescribe medication for many conditions, such as colds, heart disease, diabetes and mental illnesses. Although many people die when they develop AIDS and heart disease, it is still possible to live for many years if you take the right medications. Kilo ✓✓In Play football, you learned how to be a goalkeeper. In Play fair we are going to learn how we can make our lives better, even cure our illnesses and sometimes even avoid dieing from a disease, if we take the medications prescribed by the doctor. ✓✓Children stand in 2 lines in pairs opposite each other and when the coach shouts “Let’s get better”, the children clap their hands – ‘Clap, clap; Clap, clap, clap’; shout “Take your medicine” and point towards their partner.

66 | SESSION 10: Play fair: Take prescribed medications


Activity

20 min

✓✓Explain to children about medicine and the benefits of taking medicine: ✓✓Medicines are used occasionally to control or improve the condition of people with a medical condition, such as colds and headaches. People with more serious conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease and HIV, must often take medicines for the rest of their lives. In these cases, it is essential that the medicine is taken regularly. ✓✓This game is to explain the importance of controlling blood glucose levels in people with diabetes by taking regular medicine; if people do not take their medicine regularly they will become more ill and may die. For more information about diabetes read the Information Sheet in Session 5 ✓✓Set up the game by dividing the children into 2 groups with 1 coach working with each group; children form a circle with 1 child in the centre. The child in the middle represents someone with diabetes; the children in the circle are allowed to pass the ball to each and throw the ball from between their legs at the person in the middle – trying to hit them below the waist. ✓✓First, see how many times you can hit the person in the middle in a period of 1 minute. ✓✓Next, one of the other children goes into the circle to represent the medicine the person with diabetes would be prescribed. Play the game again but this time the person acting as the medicine keeps between the person with diabetes and the people throwing the ball. Now see how many times you can hit the person with diabetes

below their waist in a period of 1 minute. ✓✓Finally, if the children in the circle managed to hit the person with diabetes with the ball, another person goes into the circle to protect the person with diabetes – they act as a higher dose of medicine. Now see how many times you can hit the person with diabetes in a period of 1 minute. ✓✓If there is sufficient time, repeat the whole exercise with different people acting as the ill person and the medicine.

Discussion

10 min

✓✓Ask the children questions about medicine, such as: ✓✓Did you hit the person in the game with diabetes more or less times when there was medicine trying to protect them from being hit? ✓✓Did you hit the person fewer times when there were 2 people protecting the person with diabetes? ✓✓Why was it harder to hit the person with diabetes with the ball when there were 2 people in the circle? (It is like having a higher dose of medicine) ✓✓Why do some people stop taking their medication when they are supposed to keep taking it? (e.g. they do not understand the directions; they start to feel better; they do not think it is worth taking the medicine). ✓✓What other conditions do you know about that people have to treat with medicines for long periods of time? (e.g. HIV / AIDS; high cholesterol levels in the blood; high blood pressure; depression).

SESSION 10: Play fair: Take prescribed medications | 67


SESSION 10 Medicine: Information Sheet Summarise the key health messages

What are medicines? 3 min

✓✓People with long-term medical conditions, such as HIV, high blood pressure, diabetes, often take medicines for the rest of their lives. ✓✓People taking medication should listen to what their doctor tells them, read the instructions carefully and only take the amounts prescribed. ✓✓Even if you start to feel better, you should continue to take the medication until your doctor tells you to stop. ✓✓If you are on long-term medication for an illness, make sure you know the name of the condition and the name of the medicine you take in case you have to go to hospital.

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Find out whether anyone in your family has to take medicines. Ask them whether they take the medication occasionally or do they have to take it all the time. ✓✓Ask them why they take medication.

Praise circle and final whistle

4 min

✓✓Children praise their partner on positive actions and attitudes.

Medicines are chemicals or compounds used to cure, reduce symptoms, or prevent the spread of diseases. Some medicines are natural products, some are produced in laboratories and others are by-products. Many people think that medicines are only administered as pills but they can also be administered as liquids, creams, inhalers, patches or even injected.

How do medicines act? Medicines act in a variety of ways. Some medicines cure an illness by killing or halting the spread of invading germs, some treat cancer by killing cells or preventing cells multiplying, some replace missing substances in body fluids and others correct high or low concentrations of chemicals in the body. Most people will have taken antibiotics to fight bacterial infections, such as a sore throat or ear. Sometimes a part of the body cannot produce certain chemicals, which can lead to illness, such as insulin deficient Type 1 diabetes, while other medicines treat the symptoms rather than cure the illness. For example, some medicines are designed to relieve the effects of pain; these do not remove the pain, they just stop the pain signals from reaching the brain, so we think we have been cured. Medicines can help to control certain conditions like high blood pressure or high cholesterol. These drugs do not provide a cure for the underlying problem, but they do help to prevent some of the effects of the disease or condition over time. Among the most important medicines are vaccines, which help to prevent

68 | SESSION 10: Medicine: Information Sheet


people from getting sick in the first place by immunising, or protecting, the body against certain infectious diseases. Vaccines usually contain a small amount of an agent that resembles a specific germ or germs that have been modified or killed. When someone is vaccinated, it primes the body’s immune system to ‘remember’ the germ so it will be able to fight off infection by those germs in the future. Most immunisations that prevent you from catching diseases like measles, whooping cough, and chickenpox are given by injection.

Taking medicines No matter what type of medicine your doctor prescribes, it’s always important to be safe and follow some basic rules; for example, tell your doctor if you feel worse after taking the medicine, read the label and follow the directions carefully, take medicines exactly as prescribed, never take more medication than is recommended, never share prescription medicine with anyone else, always take antibiotics for the full length of the time prescribed, even if you start to feel better. Taking medicines may sometimes feel unpleasant but it is often the most effective treatment available for an illness. If you ever have any questions about your medicine you should talk with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

SESSION 10: Medicine: Information Sheet | 69


SESSION 11 Play football: Teamwork Play fair: Fair play Session goals ✓✓To develop teamworking skills ✓✓To assess whether the health skills and knowledge have been assimilated.

Materials ✓✓Coach’s Guide ✓✓Whistle ✓✓Stopwatch ✓✓Footballs ✓✓Cones

Preparation and coach’s tips ✓✓This is the final session in the programme and there is an opportunity for the children to revisit the health messages. ✓✓Take the opportunity to emphasise the importance of eating a balanced diet and taking regular physical exercise to stay healthy.

Session timetable Play football

Duration

Play fair

Duration

Session 10 review

4 min

Session 10 review

4 min

Assign praise partners

2 min

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

Know the game fact

2 min

Activity

20 min

Warming up

10 min

Discussion

10 min

Football skill

25 min

Summarise key health message

3 min

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

Halftime

2 – 3 min

Praise circle

4 min

Close of session

70


SESSION 11 Play football: Teamwork

Session 10 Play football review

Football skill 4 min

The Play football assignment was to practise your goalkeeping skills each day with a friend by standing about 5 metres apart with one player throwing the ball to either side of you; some balls being thrown high and some thrown low to give variety. ✓✓Did your goalkeeping skills improve with this exercise? ✓✓Did you learn how to make saves on both sides of the goal? ✓✓Could you stop both high and low shots? ✓✓Does anyone now want to be a goalkeeper?

Assign ‘Praise partners’

2 min

✓✓Arrange praise partners.

Know the game fact

2 min

✓✓Success in a team game like football is dependant on teamwork and relying on fellow players to support you. The most brothers representing their country at the same FIFA World Cup ™ is 3. They were: Wilson, Jhony and Jerry Palacios for Honduras in the 2010 FIFA World Cup ™ in South Africa.

Warming up ✓✓Complete the warm-up session.

10 min

25 min

✓✓In this session, we are going to learn how to trust our teammates to support us in difficult times. First divide the children into 2 groups with 1 coach assigned to each group. One child stands in the middle and the other children form a close circle around him / her. ✓✓Instruct and demonstrate to the children forming the circle how to stand: ✓✓Stand close to one another with one foot towards the middle of the circle, one foot back, knees slightly bent; hands at chest height with palms pointing up. ✓✓The child in the middle of the circle will lean, and be caught / supported by his / her teammates. ✓✓Always have at least three people (6 hands) supporting the person in the middle. ✓✓For safety, do not push the person in the middle, but gently pass them around the circle ✓✓Demonstrate to the child in the middle of the circle how to stand with their arms folded across their chest. ✓✓The children on the outside of the circle are the supportive friends and the child in the middle is someone who needs support. The person in the middle of the circle is going to fall backwards towards the supportive friends, who will use their hands / arms to support them and prevent them from falling over. ✓✓The supportive friends will carefully pass the person in the middle round the circle, while they are leaning back, so that everyone can provide some support. ✓✓Before falling backwards, the person in the middle asks: “My friends, are you ready to support me?” The response from the friends

SESSION 11: Play football: Teamwork | 71


SESSION 11 Play fair: Fair Play

should be “Yebo”. At which point, the person in the middle should fall backwards and the children in the circle should catch and support him / her, so they do not fall down to the ground. The person in the middle is then carefully passed around the circle. ✓✓The coaches should help each group to play the game safely and to give everyone the chance to be the person in the middle looking for help from their friends.

‘Play football’ assignment

2 min

✓✓You have now completed all the Play football sessions; you should have learned a lot about football and how to improve your football skills. You should also have learned that exercise is very good for your health. ✓✓You should therefore continue to exercise every day and a great way to exercise is to play football and to practise the skills you learned in this programme. Join a football team; create teams with your friends and play games on a regular basis. Eventually, you may play football for your country in a FIFA Football World Cup ™. There are always 11 players in a team and if you practise regularly, there is no reason why you could not be one of those players.

HALF TIME PERIOD

2 to 3 min

Coach should complete the attendance record for the session.

72 | SESSION 11: Play fair: Fair Play

Session 10 Play fair review

4 min

✓✓The Play fair assignment was to find out whether anyone in your family took medicine and whether they took the medicine occasionally or all the time. ✓✓Who had family members that took medicine occasionally? ✓✓Who had family members who took medicine all the time? ✓✓Why did members of your family need to take medication?

Know your health fact and Kilo

2 min

✓✓You have learned 10 very important health messages; if everyone here teaches the same 10 health messages to 10 other people then another 200 people will have learned these important health messages. Kilo ✓✓Clap, clap; Clap, clap, clap: FIFA. ‘Clap, clap; Clap, clap, clap: Play football. ‘Clap, clap; Clap, clap, clap: Play fair”.

Activity

20 min

✓✓One of FIFA’s most important messages for all footballers is ‘Fair Play’. Explain to the children the importance of treating other people in the same way that they would most probably like to be treated. (If you are nice to other people, they will be nice to you.) ✓✓We are now going to have a quick revision of each ‘Play fair’ health message. Children form a line in pairs with their praise partners. Number the pairs from 1 to 10 (repeat the


numbers if there are more than 20 children). Assign the sessions to the children in order: Session 1: Football is a healthy activity Session 2: Respect for girls and women Session 3: Protect yourself from HIV Session 4: Avoid drugs and alcohol Session 5: Prevent diabetes Session 6: Wash your hands Session 7: Drink clean or boiled water Session 8: Eat a balanced diet Session 9: Get vaccinations for you and your family Session 10: Take your prescribed medications

friends to help you and do not listen to people who want you to make the wrong choices.

‘Play fair’ assignment

2 min

✓✓Teach your family and friends about the ‘11 for Health’ messages and then you will have helped someone else to live a healthier life.

Praise circle and final whistle

4 min

✓✓Children praise their partner on positive actions and attitudes.

✓✓Each pair must: ✓✓prepare and present a ‘Kilo’ for their session. ✓✓present 1 important fact about their health issue.

Discussion

10 min

✓✓During this time, ask each pair of children one question about their Health Session. ✓✓If the children cannot remember the answers, help them. ✓✓Remember to praise the children for their correct answers.

Summarise the key health messages

3 min

✓✓A healthy life only comes if you have a healthy lifestyle. ✓✓The ‘11 for Health’ messages should help you to understand how to live a healthy lifestyle. ✓✓Now it is your responsibility to put everything you have learned into practice. ✓✓It is very difficult to make all the right choices in life by yourself, so ask your family and

SESSION 11: Play fair: Fair Play | 73


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Official publication of the FĂŠdĂŠration Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Publisher FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) Content Colin Fuller, Astrid Junge, Jiri Dvorak Graphic design and layout Von Grebel Motion Printed in Mauritius

11 for Health Coaching Manual  

11 for Health Coaching Manual

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