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AAG Boston 2008

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People Giulietta Fadda1, Alejandra Cortés2 and Alessandra Olivi3 Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile. Carrera de Arquitectura, Universidad Federico Santa María, Chile. 3 Centro de Investigación Sociológica, Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile 1

2


AAG Boston 2008

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

VALPARAISO as a Case Study Valparaiso is an especially interesting case: Because it has the highest aging rate among the 3 major Chilean cities.

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

PACIFIC OCEAN

METHODOLOGY RESULTS

VALPARAISO

According to 2002 Census:

SANTIAGO CONCEPCION

CONCLUSIONS

3 Major Chilean Cities

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

% Senior Citizens

N° Senior Citizens

Valparaiso District

13.94

38.481

Concepcion District

11.71

25.297

Santiago Metropolitan Region

11.05

669.543

11.4

1.717.478

Chile


PACIF IC OCEAN

PACIFIC OCEAN

AAG Boston 2008

PORT BOARDER

PLAIN AREA

AV. BRASIL

• Urban Structure • Main Elements

METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

Seashore - Plain area – Metropolitan Equipment Delimited by a set of hills - Neighborhood Equipment

A

TIN GEN

Source: PRDUV, 2006

VALPARAÍSO

. AR AV

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

Connected to the sea by a system of routes from every hill, constituting independent units. This total area forms the urban network


AAG Boston 2008

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

MAIN ELEMENTS OF THE URBAN STRUCTURE A PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEM IN THREE DIFFERENT LEVELS

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

SQUARES & METROPOLITAN EQUIPMENT

METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

3

HILLS

2

MEDIUM

1

CONNECTING ELEMENTS

SIGHTSEEING-POINTS

+200

50 m Height PLAIN AREA

Sea level = 0.0

Schematic Sectional view Source: PRDUV, 2006


Connecting elements: ASCENSORES (cable car elevators) AAG Boston 2008

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

.


OR MA T IO N

NF Y

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

CARACTERISTIC More Vulnerable

Plain Area

Less Vulnerable

Hills

More Vulnerable Less Vulnerable

RO

E RV SU

CONCLUSIONS

SG

I PH

RESULTS

127 GIS Maps by blocks and census districts

SOCIOECONOMIC

HILLS

• 2 in the Hills • 2 in the Plain Area

L DE

METHODOLOGY

232 Thematic maps accounting for current neighborhoods conditions

DOWN-TOWN

4 Focus Groups:

CU

PS

• Main Elements

FO

ATION V R E S B O FIELD

A

• Urban Structure

WS

M

VALPARAÍSO

Sample of 480 elderly people

EY V R SU

ER VIE

32 Interviews and videos to senior citizens

National & International Bibliography

UP

S

Survey to 12 experts on the topic. Information source for Survey & Focus Groups

Ecological Zones

INT

IS

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

G

AAG Boston 2008

Due to the complexity of studying QoL, a triangulation approach was used: i.e., a combination of several quantitative and qualitative instruments for data collection and for the theoretical and methodological analysis

BIBLIOG SE CO ND AR YI

EVIEW R L A C I RAPH

METHODOLOGY


FIELDS AAG Boston 2008

HUMAN

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

DEFINITION

QoL INDICATORS

Skills and Capacities.

Social Problems

Socio-cultural, educational, ideological and psychological knowledge.

Perception

Real and perceived health conditions (mental and physical) of the elderly to reach different levels of self-efficiency and autonomy in the urban habitat

Use of leisure time

Aging Health (physical and mental) Health service quality Training Activities Affectivity

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure

SOCIO CULTURAL

• Main Elements

METHODOLOGY RESULTS

NATURAL

Elements and resources that create social networks (formal and informal).

Social Networks

Capacities for action, mobilization and participation in community associations.

Urban Safety

Roots and identity of the Elderly with the urban habitat

Perception of local authorities

Resources and characteristics of the natural environment where the Elderly lives and moves

Quality of Air

CONCLUSIONS

Heritage City and Culture Recreation and Leisure Empowerment Environmental Hygiene Noise Levels Topographical Vulnerability

PHYSICAL

Equipment and infrastructure for the Elderly selfsufficiency in services: transport, housing, energy and telecommunications

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

Accessibility Equipment Housing quality Infrastructure Quality of the Utilities Privacy

ECONOMIC

Economic and financial resources; social

Retirement


TRIANGULATION FOR FINAL RESULTS

SURVEY

*

* * * * * * *

FINAL RESULTS / FIELD

H/R

SC/R

DELPHY SURVEY VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure

FOCUS GROUPS

• Main Elements

METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

* *

GIS MAPS SECONDARY INFORMATION INTERVIEWS

* *

FIELD OBSERVATION

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

* * * *

N/R

* * * * * * * * * P/R

ECONOMIC

PHYSICAL

INSTRUMENTS

NATURAL

FIELDS

SOCIO CULTURAL

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

From the collection of information, results by field and by instrument were obtained. The triangulation of these results leads to a final synthesis

HUMAN

AAG Boston 2008

* * * * *

FINAL RESULTS / INSTRUMENTS Natural Field

Human Field

DS/R FG/R

SocioCultural Field

Physical Field Economic Field

GM/R SI/R I/R FO/R

*

S/R

E/R

FINAL SYNTHESIS

Quality of Life Indeces


AAG Boston 2008

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

RESULTS

• One of the purposes of this presentation is to analyze the form in which the peculiar geography of the City of Valparaiso affects the quality of life of the senior citizen.

METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

• Results are presented with the help of GIS maps, Focus Groups and Survey. They reflect some of the differences perceived by the senior citizens living either in the hills or in the plain area of Valparaiso.


Valparaiso:The 800 blocks with the most senior inhabitants AAG Boston 2008

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure

+ Valparaiso: % of precarious housing as per the total # of dwellings per block

• Main Elements

Selection of 4 Focus Group Zones

METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

Valparaiso: Overlapping the 800 blocks with the highest concentration of the elderly and precarious housing

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

Selection of Survey Zones


SURVEY RESULTS AAG Boston 2008

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

Results of the survey on the perception that the senior citizen have of their quality of life. Indeces scale between 0 and 1

Very Good

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

Very Bad


AAG Boston 2008

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People Very Good

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

Very Bad


AAG Boston 2008

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

Very Good

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

Very Bad


AAG Boston 2008

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People Very Good

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

METHODOLOGY Very Bad

RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda


PERCENT DISTRIBUTION REGARDING THE ELDERLY CONSIDERING THEIR NEIGHBORHOOD AS SAFE / U

AAG Boston 2008

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

The other thing is the spirit of solidarity which the people have here on the hill, that is something important; I think that people settle here, there are lots of people with families, they feel more secure, too. (Textual quote in Focus Groups).

66,500% Porcentaje

Safety in the neighborhood

57,375% 48,250% 39,125% 30,000% SAFE

UNSAFE

Opinion about the neighborhood

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

Police Covered Area

METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

Fire Fighters

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

Areas where “pick-pocketing” most often happens

Hill Plain


PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF ELDER PEOPLE COMMUTING BETWEEN THE PLAIN AREA AND THE HILLS ACCORDING TO THE LOCATION THEY LIVE IN

Plain - Hills Transit AAG Boston 2008

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

METHODOLOGY

100% 80% Porcentaje

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

“…the streets are so difficult to walk on, they are hard to climb, but that is the attraction, that’s why it is pretty …so I think that it’s difficult to change, because Valparaiso would lose all its charm; if you changed the streets, if you modernized them, you would change the whole structure, and Valparaiso is like that, it’s beautiful just as it is, even if it´s difficult going up and down the hills sometimes, but that is what people notice, what they like.” (Textual quote in Focus Groups).

60% Hills

40%

Plain

20% 0% Yes

Commuting between Plain Areas and Hills

RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

Public Transport Covering Frequency of Public Transport

No


PERCENT DISTRIBUTION RELATIVE TO THE OPINION OF THE ELDERLY IN TERMS OF STREETS MAINTAINANCE SERVICES ACCORDING TO THE LOCATION THEY LIVE IN

Street Maintenance AAG Boston 2008

100% 80%

“We’re aging and the town is becoming more and more deteriorated, the roads, you just have to walk and you stumble… you just stumble” (Textual quote in Focus Groups)

Porcentaje

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

60%

Hill

40%

Plain

20% 0% Very bad

Good

Very Good

Quality of the Service

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

Bad

Sidewalks Condition

No Answer


PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF THE ELDERLY CONSIDERING THEIR NEIGHBORHOOD AS IDEAL / NOT IDEAL TO LIVE ACCORDING TO THE LOCATION THEY LIVE IN

Ideal and not Ideal Neighborhood

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

VALPARAÍSO

“For example I arrived in this hill when I was 22… There’s a house that’s broken, damaged by earthquakes and everything, but if I'd have to leave it I’d die, just imagine, it’s been more than 60 years in there. Living in the same neighborhood, in the same hill, I adore that, doesn't matter that houses are not as pretty anymore, because you get used to it” (Textual quote in Focus Groups)

100% 80% Porcentaje

AAG Boston 2008

Hill

60%

Plain 40% 20% 0% Ideal to ilive in

No Answer

Opinion of the neighborhood

• Urban Structure • Main Elements

METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

Not ideal to live in

Condition of the Façades


PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF ELDER PEOPLE CONSIDERING THAT THE CITY OF VALPARAISO IS FRIENDLY TO THE ELDERLY ACCORDING TO THE LOCATION THEY LIVE IN

Friendly / not friendly city

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

“What’s positive about living in the hills are the views, there’s not as much noise or smog as in downtown, because in downtown you can hardly communicate because of so many vehicles as there are there... especially if you’re a bit hard of hearing” (Textual quote in Focus Groups).

100% 80% Porcentaje

AAG Boston 2008

60%

Hill Plain

40% 20% 0% Yes

No The City is Friendly

No Answer


Quality of Life AAG Boston 2008

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

I lost my mother at age two. At eleven I lost my father, I never married, never had children, I’m alone but I have plenty of people around me, friendships, I love life deeply. I love life deeply and don’t want to die under any circumstances. You know why? Because I find that it’s beautiful to be alive. (Textual quote in Focus Groups). I feel so good in my life, I want to live…I want to live and live. It’s lovely, yes, the winter is nice because it’s cold; summer is nice because it’s dry. (Textual quote in Focus Groups). PERCENT DISTRIBUTION RELATIVE TO THE OPINION OF THE ELDERLY IN TERMS OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN VALPARAISO CITY ACCORDING TO THE LOCATION THEY LIVE IN

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

METHODOLOGY

100% 80%

CONCLUSIONS

Porcentaje

RESULTS

60%

Hill Plain

40% 20% 0%

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

Bad

Regular

Good Quality of Life

Very Good

No Answer


CONCLUSIONS AAG Boston 2008

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

Elder People of Valparaiso City perceive that: -

There are many urban deficiencies that are dangerous for their physical security: - It’s an unsafe place, causing a sensation of insecurity, fragility, and lack of protection;

-

While being physically difficult for them, the hills have plenty of other positive meanings, such as:

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

METHODOLOGY

RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

• •

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

Hosting neighborhoods that are filled with community ties and create bonds of friendship and solidarity among neighbors, Hosting a network of human relationships that are an essential support for the life of senior citizens, and Being a healthier and more fulfilling place than downtown.


CONCLUSIONS AAG Boston 2008

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

On the other hand, downtown does not provide the same rich community life; therefore, the quality conditions detected in the hills should be stimulated, and the urban conditions particularly impacting senior citizens should be improved.


CONCLUSIONS AAG Boston 2008

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

- As a heritage city, Valparaiso is full of positive attributes and picturesque aspects in its urban structure. However, this is not a relevant aspect for the quality of life of elder people.

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

- Social networks are wide and heterogeneous, provide emotional support, and allow them to stay active. Finally, it can be concluded that the irregular topography of Valparaiso which could be considered as something negative for the quality of life of senior citizens - turns out to be an advantage for achieving a friendlier and more sustainable city. This is attributed both to a rich community life and to the habitat provided by the hills, which meet most of the requirements for being considered a real “neighborhood”.


AAG Boston 2008

The Incidence of the Morphology of the City of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life of the Elderly People

VALPARAÍSO • Urban Structure • Main Elements

METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS

FONDECYT Research Project N° 1061179 - 2006 Reseacher Giulietta Fadda

The incidence of the Morphology on the city of Valparaiso on the Quality of Life  

Ponencia Annual Conference of the American Association of Geographers, Boston 14 - 19 april 2008