LANDSCAPES OF URBAN TOPOGRAPHY VIVIAN MOK ADVISOR: CHRIS PERRY
LANDSCAPES OF URBAN TOPOGRAPHY AMBIGUOUS TERRITORY: ARCHITECTURE, LANDSCAPE + THE POSTNATURAL
STUDENT: VIVIAN MOK FINAL PROJECT STUDIO ADVISOR: CHRIS PERRY ASSESSMENT COMMITTEE MEMBER: BRAD HORN MAY 2018
BACHELORS OF ARCHITECTURE RENSSELAER SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRO + THESIS (1-3)
ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGIES (4-37) DISCURSIVE IMAGES READINGS
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE (38-73) FORMAL STUDIES SUPPLEMENTARY RESEARCH DESIGN CONCEPT
PROPOSAL (74-131) SITE RESEARCH SUPPLEMENTARY RESEARCH READINGS DRAWINGS/RENDERS/MODEL
This section of Final Project will utilize the pedagogical framework of the forthcoming exhibition/ symposium, Ambiguous Territory: Architecture, Landscape, and the Postnatural, co-organized by Chris Perry for the University of Michigan, as a mandate for its design research investigations. Students will be asked to work within this pedagogical
framework and respond to its various inquiries and propositions. A second iteration of the exhibition is expected to take place in New York City in 2018, followed by a book to be published by Actar, thus student work produced in this section of Final Project will be considered for inclusion in both.
INTRODUCTION Can the ill effects of modernityâ€™s insistence on isolation - of ideas, people, disciplines, cultures, species, wealth, objects, nature and culture, etc. - be understood, let alone reversed, by ever-more isolation? Or, do complex environmental and humanitarian issues demand more inclusive and indirect techniques to recognize and reflect upon them? Ambiguous Territory answers this second question in the affirmative. The sometimes unnerving, sometimes empathetic affects presented in this exhibition/symposium are the outcome of the unexpected juxtaposition of remote sensors, robots and rock piles; of strip mines, stratigraphy and satellite imagery; of pollution, plant languages, and point clouds; of deft draftsmanship and timely data-scapes, of networked kites, clouds, buoys, and balloons; and of new ideas and new forms of representation. The resultant forms highlight the synthetic and surprisingly efficient ability of art and design to reveal what is ubiquitous but often invisible in our cultural and physical climates. This is the function of new sensibilities: to capture and hold unlike things in a single, ambiguous form or image. Defined by uncertainty and indeterminacy, ambiguity would appear to be the antithesis of knowledge production and problem solving; in fact, it is the source of them. The existence
of ambiguity is what inspires intellectual and aesthetic inquiry. Ambiguous entities are always admixtures; they can grow and expand to incorporate more elements and engage more issues. Such forms do not fetishize form or distract one from reality. Rather, their transformative logic creates improbable hybrids; in Ambiguous Territory these include combinations that incorporate one discipline with another, that integrate information technologies with biological species, and aggregate invisible atmospheres with physical matter to create new architectural and artistic idioms. The alluring yet uncanny ecological aesthetic found in the mediation of atmospheric, biologic and geologic territories presented here not only appeal to our senses, they expand their capacity to make sense of and to help find our place within a newly unfamiliar world. This includes exposing the oftenviolent methods and outcomes of our existing age and the urgent need to respond to them with new aesthetic, social and political forms. It also allows us to recognize ourselves in these monsters and mutants and to engage if not embrace their alluring yet alienating status rather than seek a return to some familiar or impossibly pure state. Something is monstrous when it adds or exaggerates a specific part to produce a
disproportionate, novel, and seemingly unnatural whole. Mutations are unpredictable deviations from an existing condition, and in biology and elsewhere serve as essential additions to the evolutionary gene pool. Freed from the conventions of the existing they become a source of the new. In this experimental spirit of cultivating other outcomes Ambiguous Territory asks: in a Postnatural age where humans have been fundamentally displaced from their presumed place of privilege, philosophically as well as experientially, and the status of nature as an antidote or respite from humansâ€™ hubris has vanished, can architects, landscape architects, and artists propose to establish new affiliations and avail new ways to approach contemporary questions at the environmental scale? In other words, what new worlds, what new natures, and what new sensations can art and design reveal and create that other modes of inquiry and knowledge cannot? - Chris Perry
LANDSCAPES OF URBAN TOPOGRAPHY
THESIS STATEMENT This design research explores varying instances of architecture and landscape, and by extension, varying instances of artificiality, naturality, and disciplinarity. While suggestive of a singular condition, the term “instance” is reconceptualized here through the transitional implications of the term “varying”, whereby such conditions of artificiality, naturality, and disciplinarity exist simultaneously as separate yet integrated entities. In other words where do the limits of garden end and a house begin? And if the answer to this prompt is inherently ambiguous, could there be another form of identification that speaks for the “in-between”, given that, based on varying degrees of definition, architecture might be considered landscape, and landscape, architecture? It is at this moment that fixed identities that typically serve to separate the two are destabilized through newly odd and unfamiliar arrangements and conditions. In this design experiment, for example, different versions of architecture and landscape are produced as a means of generating new and strange compatibilities between elements and conditions typically considered foreign and thus incompatible to one another. In what could be described as an ambiguous territory of material as well as disciplinary transition, new forms of disruption between the conventions of architecture and those of landscape actively
challenge existing boundaries between the manmade and natural. As such, the design experiment illustrated here proposes a variegated mixture of cladding system with pleasure garden, in effect rendering newly yet strangely compatible that which was assumed to be incompatible, i.e. building skin and landscape, vertical and horizontal, structural and topographic, manmade and natural. Further, such an exploration of these “strange compatibilities” includes various aesthetic or perceptual effects. For example, what are the implications of a landscape that is altered in such a way that elevation resembles a plan? Additionally, how might one go about cladding landscape onto a side of a building? And in turn, how might one maintain such a vertically oriented landscape in terms of water distribution and planting? Necessarily, one would need to incorporate various systems and technologies, as well as design convention in the design of a landscape machine, or machinic landscape. Located deep in the urban wilderness of New York City, this proposal endeavors to provide an ambiguous yet familiar experience of “Nature” resituated within the context of urbanity by integrating the material, formal, and spatial qualities of landscape with those of architecture. The “Natural” dimensions of the proposal take the form of a
vertically oriented landscape comprised of plantings, water features, and faux rock formations, experienced by the visitor through a system of pathways that slowly climb the side of an existing building, thus producing simultaneously an architectural experience of structure, enclosure, and verticality. As one enters this vertical landscape – a “hanging garden” of sorts, given its appearance of being suspended off the side of an existing building, “natural” elements such as plants, wildlife, and running water intermingle with overt artificiality in the form of steel scaffolding, catwalks, and stairs. Furthermore, what on first glance might appear to be the aforementioned “natural rock formations” eventually reveal themselves to be manmade. In fact, these rock-like objects are themselves a paradoxical mixture of garden and building elements, functioning simultaneously as planters, water features, and cladding panels. Thus, viewed from afar the overall effect of these smallscale, paradoxical mixtures of landscape and architecture produces a new kind of urban environment for the city, one simultaneously reminiscent of a building and a cliff; a new kind of landscape for the city’s urban topography.
ARTIFICI A L E C O L O G I ES : DISCURSIVE IMAGES
Discursive image portraying architectural cladding systems on a natural landscape.
“Infrastructural systems are ‘artificial ecologies’ that manage ‘the flows of energy and resources on a site, and they direct the density and distribution of a habitat. They create the conditions necessary to respond to incremental adjustments in resource availability, and modify the status of inhabitation in response to changing environmental conditions.’”
- Designing Ecologies by Christopher Hight
In Christopher Hight’s essay “Designing Ecologies”, one of the quotes he mentioned right in the beginning is the concept of an ecology without nature. What would that scenario look like if it would strip away the one thing we depend on constantly? Would it be a machine that simulates environments that look natural? Would it be a territory that infuses both architecture and landscape? In the drawing above, it is my first attempt in portraying what that scenario would look like. It is a landscape fully cladded with architectural
cladding material such as steel, glass, concrete, and other types of existing materials. The cranes in the background suggests that this environment will continue to expand and grow. This type of environment also becomes a mosaic or a fabric of multiple materials overlapping and covering what was underneath. Although the shape of the landscape is still very much visible, it loses its natural material and is replaced instead with a more urban material. What kinds of things can this give back to people? And vice versa?
Discursive image portraying an urbanized ecology of Central Park in NYC.
version of Central Park. I imagined the grid of the city extending into the park to provide electricity. The power would be used to run holographic images of trees and grass that seem three dimensional but is only a projection created from the ground. The irony here obviously is that in order to provide nature, it needs to be produced electronically as an intangible object. Hence the park would be more of a digital experience of a landscape rather than the purest forms of nature.
“Ultimately then, ecology is not the new ‘technology.’ From authorizing design through scientistic metaphor or mandate, design becomes perhaps the central practice and way of thinking about our ecological condition and of intervening within it. Instead of adopting nature as a model, we need to urbanize ecology.” - Designing Ecologies by Christopher Hight
Speaking of urban, the biggest example of an ecology in NYC is Central Park. In the same essay, Hight described Central Park as a “biopolitical instruments for improving the physical and moral health of the populace.” In other terms it gives the city a healthy sanctuary that is not disturbed by cars or noise or anything else happening outside of the park. Hight later on mentioned more on the concept of an urbanized ecology instead of depending on nature as a model. This second discursive above is my attempt in portraying the urbanized ecology
The next set of hand drawings is an attempt in simplifying the first two earlier ones. This one starts off with the two concepts: natural and unnatural. Simply looking at the drawing, it is obvious that one element is more natural than the other. There are strict boundaries that separate the two
in terms of categorizing what is natural and unnatural. The trees are natural because it is an element of nature, and the building is unnatural because it is an artificial material. By choosing two very recognizable objects, it becomes easier to define how we interpret them to be in the
given context. There are other definitions in the term natural that can describe the drawing, such as logical and normalcy. There is nothing strange in the drawing because there are already exisitng examples of nature in architecture.
In this context, the drawing shows a cliff and scaffolding. This already brings an unsettling idea to the context. Why does the cliff need to be held by scaffolding? Is the cliff some kind of architectural system? It takes away what was logical and normal before as something
abnormal and odd. There is still a distinct boundary between what is natural as in nature and what is unnatural as in artificial, but the drawing is being questioned for the things out of context. We are so used to seeing scaffolding as a structural element that supports a building in construction, but
not a cliff. A cliff is also normally seen as a self standing structure rather than supported by metal. This introduces the idea of recontextualizing architecture and landscape. And because it is a drawing, it also begins to blur what the textures mean.
ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGIES 07
nat·u·ral /‘naCH( )r l/ e e
adjective 1. existing in or caused by nature; not made or caused by humankind. 2. of or in agreement with the character or makeup of, or circumstances surrounding, someone or something. • (of a skill, quality, or ability) coming instinctively to a person; innate. • (of a person or their behavior) relaxed and unaffected; spontaneous. • occurring as a matter of course and without debate; inevitable. un·nat·u·ral /, n‘naCH( )r l/ e e
adjective contrary to the ordinary course of nature; abnormal. • not existing in nature; artificial. • affected or stilted.
This final hand drawing explores the glitch between natural and unnatural when it comes to defining architecture and landscape. This is a typical view of a landscape plan but in elevation. Because it is an elevation, our mind is focused in identifying what is a door? Which
is the window? In other words, an elevation drawing is an architectural tool that forces us to be familiar with the details within the context. The pool of water below the drawing could potentially be a door or the river could be a seam in the building. But there is a level of uncertainty
U N N ANTA UT URRAALL
U N NN A A TT UU RRAALL
and instability that blurs what is natural and unnatural. Is it a landscape flipped vertically? Or is it an actual building with vegetation?
ARCHITECTURE NATURAL So if architecture and landscape lacks a fixed identity in terms of the definitions natural and unnatural, then there is a circulatory of meanings between the two as shown in the diagram above. Instead of a hard edge boundary, architecture and landscape has a permeable membrane. Opposite meanings create an interesting juxtaposition, especially when they can interchange. This ultimately creates a new language that dissociates what was inherent before in architecture and landscape into a new composition of recognition.
UNNATURAL NATURE ARTIFICIAL NORMALCY ODD STABLE INSTABILITY LOGICAL IRRATIONAL SECURITY UNCERTAINTY FAMILIAR UNFAMILIAR ARCHITECTURE/ LANDSCAPE
ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGIES 09
READING: DESIGNING ECOLOGIES
AUTHOR: CHRISTOPHER HIGHT
In the reading, Christopher Hight framed that it was possible for the development of different egologies when change was shifting rapidly, such as the environment. But how did design become involved when arguably there was a paradox in society in regards to nature? Furthermore, nature could be taken as an uninvited guest in urbanism that threatens to “negate the project of architecture” as according to the project of Ecological Urbanism contributed by Preston Scott Cohen and Erika Naginski. They believed that utilizing
ecology and biology as a model for design would be rejecting the cultural, social, and symbolic life of forms. And rather than embracing ecology fully, it should be treated carefully from its self assertive ideology of sustainability. Nonetheless, it was fair to say that ecology operates as a catalyst for design, either it be the principal of design or secondary. It was a critical instrument for questioning and expanding on the current conditions of architecture in relation to its surrounding environment. Interestingly,
Hight brought up a point that ecology was a design reaction similiar to how industrialization did for the Modernist architecture in the 20th century or as technology serving as a game changing innovation following World War II. And because of the changing environmental conditions, the focus on ecology may have shifted higher in hierarchy in the discipline of design. It was important to realize too that it didn’t have to be one or the other (nature or society), but rather it could be a plurality of ideas when blurring the two.
EQUILIBRIUM VS CRISIS
SCIENCE VS CULTURE
NATURE VS SOCIETY
ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGIES *01 / This aerial view of Central Park depicts the strict borders between landscape and the city.
ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGIES *02 / This aerial view of Lititz in the US shows a variegated mixture of infrastructure, agriculture, and housing.
ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGIES *03 / This aerial view shows another complexity of infrastructure within agriculture and the living.
ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGIES *04 / This aerial view of Chilecito in Argentina shows a gradient between landscape, infrastructure, and agriculture.
ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGIES *05 / This aerial view of Haixi in China illustrates the orderliness of landscape and industrialization.
R E A D I N G : N AT U R E â€™ S H I S TO R I C A L C R I S I S
AUTHOR: DAVID GISSEN
David Gissen poses an interesting a historical and critical question in the reading in which how do we bridge the environment with architecture? One example he brought up was a 2002 proposal by R&Sie for an art museum in Bangkok. The firm itself focused on a lot of experimental site scenarios where elements and relationships that typically constitute nature or envrionments were under material and conceptual production studies. It tested a possibility of connecting physically the surrounding
environment with the building by establishing a building envelope that draws pollution from its site with its electrostatic skin. And doing so makes it physically apparent for us to recognize the dust or other tainted particles sticking to the building skin to form an overwhelming polluted gathered exterior. This was a very direct example between the environment and nature. Another way to connect the two was by utilizing sustainable methods for architecture, such as parametricism or datascaping. With the techonological
advancement that we have, it becomes a little easier predicting the details needed to design for a specific site or environment. Gissen further stressed that it was true that we have not fully explored natureâ€™s implications even though it had been an integral idea for a very long time. We may not realize it, but we are all part of nature. Nature may be objectified, formulated, and instrumentalized in multiple ways but at the end, it was inherently tied to the changes in the past and that of the environments we have yet to live or experience.
TEMPORARY SETTLEMENTS IN PRS Located in Parque Regional del Sureste in Madrid, PRS is a place of diverse ecosystems. The program proposed was for housing specifically to accomodate short stays in the park. The structures vary in locations, in things such as solar gain, prevailing winds, and views.
ARTIFICIAL SEA Madrid lacks a sea and for many centuries it was an impossible dream to bring the sea into the city itself. So the project proposal aims to bring an artificial sea that bridges the city with other local areas by acting as a parasite. In summer, the landscaped ground would be filled with water.
CARBONIPHEROUS FOREST Is it possible to produce a virtual system of a carbonipherous forest without fully imitating its nature? The aim in this project was to avoid a kitsch theme of nature and a didactic ecosystem typically found in a typology of a green house, with an assemblage multiple things.
ARCHITECT: CERO9 25
Thought of as an alternative to the usual Mediterranean mass tourism, this project explores a new territory of the Third Nature. This strangely induced experience reimagines the unexpected combinations of the pleasures of being in vacation, such as the greys of reality.
DUSTRELIEF This formless mass was imagined to draw pollution from the surrounding air onto its surface directly by having an electrostatic skin. The air in the interior was stabilized with a designed system so it could preserve the art in the proposed art museum program.
OLZWEG Made from recycled glass from a local factory in London, this aggregation was completely fabricated by a robot that was given a scipt. It raised an interesting concept in which a yet to be experienced environment could be fabricated in any way possible once determined.
HE SHOT ME DOWN - ROBOTIC DESIGN This machinic design integrated both landscape and movement together. Located in the DMZ zone in Korea (also known as the no manâ€™s land), it settled with the idea of danger and paranoia in a heavily militarized environment.
ARCHITECT: R&SIE 27
This project was proposed in Meudon in France in 2008 with a design concept about hydroponic tentacles. Acting as an extension to the Andre Bloc house, it created an area of domestication where food and water were constantly cycling in a loop to support itself.
READING:JOURNAL OF LANDSCAPE ARCH.
AUTHOR: DAVID SALOMON
What is the relevance of aesthetics and sensibility for infrastructure? What is the efficacy of aesthetics? What is the function of sensibility? These are the questions that Salomon brought up in the reading that piqued my interest. He stated that infrastructure is important in the day to day basis of social, environmental, economic, and political problems we are asked to tackle. One example would be rising sea levels. An answer that he suggested to the questions mentioned is that aesthetics and sensibility give infrastructure an
alternative framework in terms of conceptualization and production. Rather than isolating from landscape, aesthetics and sensibility open up the possibility of integrating with it. To clarify, aesthetic is not just about how things look. It is also referring to an intellectual practice and philosophical concept ready to be reflected upon. As for sensibility, it describes the ability to recognize a particular set of formal properties and sensorial effects. To quote Salomon, â€œIf aesthetics is a way of experiencing, knowing, and
making sense of the world, sensibility is the matter and the mediums through which to act upon and change it.â€? An older example would be the landscape architect, author, and conservationist, Frederick Law Olmstead. He believed in a pictureque sensibility in terms of integrating a variety of urban infrastructures. A big project from him would be Central Park. Besides the way it looks and feel, it allows for an effective transportation method for bikes, cars, and people to come and go across the picturesque park.
AESTHETICS + SENSIBILITY
ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGIES *14 / An old illustration of Central Park when Frederick Law Olmstead designed it.
ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGIES *15 / Intertwining infrastructure in Atlanta, with landscape in between.
R E A D I N G : S U S TA I N I N G B E A U T Y
AUTHOR: ELIZABETH K. MEYER
Playing the role of a designer is very essential in being able to alter an individual’s consciousness and assist in restructuring their priorities and values. Sustainable landscape design specifically draws the attention of an urban audience (perhaps urban tourism) away from their distracted daily concerns or from the digital informational world. Take for example the Teardrop Park in NYC located in a city block. Its “hypernature” is very effective in terms of shifting one’s attention toward this underground natural
park. Hypernature describes the amplified sense of nature as one walks through the park, such as the more than eight meter tall walls that creates an enclosed environment. Sustainable landscapes are usually regarded immediately as something too far fetched or illusory. It is often neglected for its softness in conceptualization. Meyer believed however, that it is not just about design when it comes to sustainable landscapes. It requires new vocabularies and new technologies that shape the social culture of our lives. It is
there to challenge spaces and our conceptions of beauty in our environment. She further explained that sustainable landscapes can only fluorish by creating new worlds. One answer to that is hybridization: “through hybridization... paired terms have the potential to open up new conceptual design approaches between and across the categories that restrict our thinking: social and ecological, urban and wild, aesthetic and ethical, appearance and performance, beauty and disturbance...”
ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGIES *16 / A side of the wall in Teardrop Park in NYC.
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE:
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
Moving into the morphology of the object, the decision was to translate the flat sketches seen previously into something three dimensionally. The first outcome is something suggestive of a vertical cladding system that can contain program in the interior as well as some exterior platform. The second iterration is a series of extrusions of the textural lines in different heights. The surfaces of the result create a very dynamic imagery of something rough on the exterior elevation, compared to the first iterration which is flat.
Adding more context to this scenario allows us to visualize what this can potentially be. Is it a vertical garden system? A structural topography? A garden curtain wall? Adding grass onto the horizontal platforms gives us a sense that this can be a patio where in some moments people can walk out onto. Adding the opaque glass onto the sides of the modules tells us that there can be a moment where people can enter in some of these modules, or even contain something in the void. While still unfamiliar with what it actually is, adding more context provides a sense of familiarity both spatially and programmatically.
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
VERTICAL GARDEN SYSTEM STRUCTURAL TOPOGRAPHY GARDEN CURTAIN WALL LANDSCAPE MACHINE GARDEN SKIN
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
S U P P L E M E N TA RY R E S E A R C H : E L I A S S O N
*17 / This cascading waterfall is by Olafur Eliasson that evokes the sight, sounds, and rhythm of a natural waterfall, with an exposed mechanism to allow viewers to understand the logic behind it.
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
A great example that utilizes both architecture and landscape are the waterfall projects by Olafur Eliasson. It brings an idea of a waterfall that mimics a natural one into a completely different context, such as New York City. But it also uses materials that are recognizable to that context, such as scaffolding. It obscures the context but at the same time blends well within it, almost as if it is naturally falling into place, or moreover have a place of its own in the urban fabric. His other waterfall works such as the â€œReversed Waterfallâ€? takes place in a natural setting but in an unsettling way. Naturally a
*18 / One of the NYC Waterfalls located in Governors Island by Olafur Eliasson. It offers an experience to the public eye by manipulating a normally flat river.
waterfall would casacde down, but for this exhibit Eliasson reverses the water flow so that it projects upwards. However, because of the way it is angled, its flow of the water looks like a waterfall. The sound of the water rushing and splashing into its immediate surroundings adds to its familiarity. So these examples in a way are a landscape machinery - it holds a system of pipes, pumps, and scaffolding that performs in a similar manner to nature and recontextualize itself in a setting, etheir that be a forest or a city.
*19 / Another NYC Waterfall series by Olafur Eliasson located under the Brooklyn Bridge, which alters the original context.
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE *20 / Named the “Reverse Waterfall”, this piece by Olafur Eliasson reverses the natural gravitational flow of a waterfall.
SUPPLEMENTARY RESEARCH:VILLA D. Villa d’este is a 16th century villa in Italy and it is renowned for its pleasure garden. When the cardinal Ippolito II d’Este acquired more land, he went extensively into designing how the aqueducts will transfer water into the garden from the Aniene river. Because the water was underground, it needed to be sent upwards to the desired locations. Water was able to go to 51 fountains and nymphaeums, 398 spouts, 364 water jets, 64 waterfalls, and 220 water basins by feeding through 875 meters of canals, channels, and cascades. It was all through water pressure and the force of gravity; nothing was
water pumped. And so in a sense, this hydraulic organ gave life to a Renaissance garden that in return distributes mythological stories in forms of statues and mosaics, gives pleasure to the public eye, and brings nature through a system of architecture and/or machine. What is also interesting is formally, most of these things are man-made. To the eye they may look like natural cliffs or boulders, but they are replicas that resemble nature through the use of textural applications. But as vegetation takes over the form, it makes it more believable and convincing that these things are natural by hiding what is beneath it.
16 15 17
22 9 23
31 32 30 33
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
*21 / This frontal axonometric image shows the arrangements of all the fountains, grottoes, and other designs in Villa d’este.
1. Palace 2. Fountain of Venus in Courtyard 3. Grotto of Leda 4. Double Loggia 5. Fountain of Tripod 6. Loggia of Pandora 7. Fountain of Bicchierone 8. Fountain of Hercules 9. Fountain of the Dragons
10. Fountain of Europa 11. Grotto of Aesculapius 12. Grotto of Igea 13. Fountain of Pegasus 14. Grotto of Diana 15. Oval Fountain 16. Grotto of Venus 17. Fountains of Bacchus 18. Grotto of Pomona
19. The Hundred Fountains 20. Grotto of Flora 21. Fountain of Rometta 22. Fountain of Prosperina 23. Fountain of the Owl 24. Stairs of the Bubbling Fountains 25. Grottoes of the Sibyls 26. Water Organ 27. Fountain of Venus
28. Fountain of Neptune 29. Fish ponds 30. Cypress Circle 31. Fountain of the Eagles 32. Rustic Fountains or “Mete” 33. Fountains of the Swans 34. Fountain of the Nature Goddess or Ephesian Diana
*24 / Water Organ: This fountain makes music by separating water and air from a pipe. When air passes through each of the 22 pipes, a different note is made.
*25 / Fountain of Rometta: This fountain is a miniature of Ancient Rome. In the distance, the actual city is visible from the fountain.
*26 / Rustic Fountains: These two fountains were designed to mimic the textures of natural rocks and caves. The moss growing makes it more familiar.
*27 / Fountain of the Dragons: This fountain depicts the story of Hercules stealing the golden apples from the guarding dragons, Ladon.
*28 / Oval Fountain : This fountain is designed as a water theater that sprays water in a different number of ways. It is loctaed in front of an artificial mountain.
*29 / Fountain of Ephesian Diana: Also known as the fountain of Mother Nature, this fountain depicts the goddess’s mythological power of abundance.
*30 / Grotto of Pomona: This grotto is covered with moss, but some bits and parts of the mosaic decoration on the walls are still visible.
*31 / Grotto of Diana: This underground vaulted chamber is covered fully with mosaics of ancient mythological stories such as animals and landscape.
*32 / Grotto of Igea: Igea is the goddess of healing. The figure in the grotto adds scale to the man made nature.
*33 / Grotto of Aesculpius: Aesculpius is the god of medicine, and the figure share the same grotto location as Igea. It is decorated with tartar flakes and mosaics.
*23 / The Hundred Fountains: There are around 300 spouts here in the form of lillies (the emblem of France), d’Este eagles, boats, and obelisks.
*22 / Fountain of Bicchierone: This was added a century later to Villa d’este. The fountain’s water was adjusted to keep the view of the garden and palace.
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE 45
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE *34 / A side view of the Hundred Fountains in Villa Dâ€™este with a close up of its man-made fountain head spitting out water.
D E S I G N C O N C E P T: T E R R I TO RY
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
ORTHOGONAL PRECISE REGULARITY ENGINEERED REFINED TAME CONTROLLED
VARYING IMPRECISE IRREGULARITY NATURAL RUSTICATED WILD UNCONTROLLED
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE 49
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
D E S I G N C O N C E P T: T E R R I TO RY
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
ACHILLEAMILLEFOLIUM MILLEFOLIUM ACHILLEA
COREOPSIS LANCEOLATA LANCEOLATA COREOPSIS
2-4feet feet ••2-4 suitedfor forrain raingardens gardens ••suited lowfertility fertilityneeds needs ••low acid/basicsoil soil ••acid��asic partshade shade ••part perennial ••perennial
1-2feet feet ••1-2 mediumwater wateruse use ••medium mediumfertility fertilityneeds needs ••medium sandy/gravellysoil soil ••sandy�gra�elly partshade shade ••part perennial ••perennial
CHAMERIONANGUSTIFOILUM ANGUSTIFOILUM CHAMERION
PENSTEMON DIGITALIS DIGITALIS PENSTEMON
3-5feet feet ••3-5 highwater wateruse use ••high mediumfertility fertilityneeds needs ••medium moisttotodry drysoil soil ••moist welllitlitareas areas ••well perennial ••perennial
2-5feet feet ••2-5 variablewater wateruse use ••�aria�le variablefertility fertilityneeds needs ••�aria�le preferacid acidsoil� soil;clay�loam�sand clay/loam/sand ••prefer partshade shade ••part perennial ••perennial
CINNAMONFERN FERN CINNAMON
BLACK HUCKLEBERRY HUCKLEBERRY BLACK
3-5feet feet ••3-5 mediumtotohigh highwater wateruse use ••medium mediumfertility fertilityneeds needs ••medium muddy/acidsoil soil ••muddy�acid partshade shade ••part perennial ••perennial
1-2feet feet ••1-2 lowwater wateruse use ••low variablefertility fertilityneeds needs ••�aria�le sandy/rockysoil soil ••sandy�roc�y partshade shade ••part perennial ••perennial
• 10-40 feet • medium water use • self-fertile • rich, moist, and slightly acidic soil • part shade • perennial
• 20-30 feet • medium water use • high fertility needs • rich and moist soil • part shade • perennial
BLUE GRAMA GRAMA BLUE 6-12inches inches ••�-12 lowwater wateruse use ••low lowfertility fertilityneeds needs ••low well-drainedsoil soil ••well-drained welllitlitareas areas ••well perennial ••perennial
CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA ROTUNDIFOLIA CAMPANULA 1-3feet feet ••1-3 mediumwater wateruse use ••medium lowfertility fertilityneeds needs ••low sandysoil soil ••sandy partshade shade ••part perennial ••perennial
PHLOX DIVARICATA DIVARICATA PHLOX 8-18inches inches ••�-1� mediumwater wateruse use ••medium mediumfertility fertilityneeds needs ••medium richand andmoist moistacid acidsoil soil ••rich partshade shade ••part perennial ••perennial
ROYAL FERN FERN ROYAL 2-5feet feet ••2-5 highwater wateruse use ••high mediumfertility fertilityneeds needs ••medium sandy/loam/claysoil soil ••sandy�loam�clay partshade shade ••part perennial ••perennial
PINUS VIRGINIANA • 15-40 feet • low water use • medium fertility needs • poor and well-drained soil • well lit areas • perennial
BAHIA-GRASS BAHIA-GRASS 3-4 inches inches •• 3-4 low water water use use •• low low fertility fertility needs needs •• low sandy soil soil •• sandy part shade shade •• part perennial •• perennial
RUDBECKIA HIRTA HIRTA RUDBECKIA 1-2 feet feet •• 1-2 medium water water use use •• medium low fertility fertility needs needs •• low moist toto dry dry soil soil •• moist well litlit areas areas •• well annual •• annual
ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA TUBEROSA ASCLEPIAS 1-2 feet feet •• 1-2 low water water use use •• low medium fertility fertility needs needs •• medium sandy soil soil •• sandy well litlit areas areas •• well perennial •• perennial
CHRISTMAS FERN FERN CHRISTMAS 1-2 feet feet •• 1-2 medium water water use use •• medium medium fertility fertility needs needs •• medium best inin roc�y�sandy rocky/sandy soil soil •• �est part shade shade •• part perennial •• perennial
SORBUS AMERICANA • 15-20 feet • medium water use • medium fertility needs • cool, moist, and acidic soil • part shade • perennial
2.5-4inches inches ••2�5-4 moderatetotohigh highwater wateruse use ••moderate mediumfertility fertilityneeds needs ••medium acidic-neutralsoil soil ••acidic-neutral partshade shade ••part perennial ••perennial
KENTUCKY BLUE-GRASS BLUE-GRASS KENTUCKY
2-3inches inches ••2-3 moderatewater wateruse use ••moderate lowfertility fertilityneeds needs ••low acidic-neutralsoil soil ••acidic-neutral partshade shade ••part perennial ••perennial
TALLFESCUE FESCUE TALL
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
D E S I G N C O N C E P T: P L A N T E R S
The idea of planters is to combine the idea of what is considered architectural, which is the module itself with what is considered as landscape, which are the planting elements in the modules. Plants are very sensitive to the environment so the selection of plants is very important. The matrix shown on the left are plants dedicated more to the New York State area. Each of these plants have a storage of information that describe their water use, their fertility needs, their soil types, and their sunlight requirements. So depending on where these planters are situated, there is a lot of flexibility with where the plants can be or cannot be. The modules can also accomodate different plant sizes. The diagram on the right portrays the different layers a module will contain.
FILTER LAYER SUBSOIL
DETAILED SOIL LAYERS FOR TREES
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
PLANTER MODULE LAYERS
D E S I G N C O N C E P T: WAT E R I R R I G AT I O N
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
SLOW DRIP IRRIGATION
Water irrigation is essential in providing water back into farming ecologies and to assure that the flow of water is endless. Because the modules are a void, it is a possibility in having a system that integrates piping which circulates water throughout the entire design. To water the plants, water tank modules are placed at the top of the system to collect any rainwater. The pipe that connects to the water tank is inserted to the fountainhead modules which cascades water onto the plants. These pipes are hidden in the system rather than exposed.
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
When we talk about cladding systems, we usually associate it with architectural cladding systems specifically such as bricks, shingles, stones, concrete panels, and so on. There are cladding that exists naturally as well when you take away all the fabrication processes done by machines and technology, and that is nature itself. There is a distinct difference between architectural and natural cladding systems: design. Architecturally, it is all about the material selection, the performance, and the aesthetic appearance of
the system. These things can be tweaked by adding or subtracting and manipulating what the material used to be like into something more regulated and refined. When you think about natural cladding systems on a landscape, these are the exact opposite of what architectural systems are expected to be. They have their own natural processes that occur from the cycle of rain, sunlight and disturbances from other things that create their appearance. And unlike architecture, these things are hard to control.
TYPICAL ARCHITECTURE CLADDING SYSTEMS A. ROUGH CONCRETE B. POROUS CONCRETE C. CHIPPED PAINT D. WOOD E. PLASTIC F. WHITE MARBLE G. FROSTED GLASS H. BLACK AND WHITE MARBLE I. BRICK J. STONE K. FABRICATED CONCRETE L. GRAINY CONCRETE M. WORN STEEL N. GREEN MARBLE O. WOOD SIDING P. FROSTED GLASS
*35A-P / Images of different architectural cladding systems
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
D E S I G N C O N C E P T: S K I N C L A D D I N G
This catelog of images is a comparison between architecture and landscape cladding systems that shows how similar their appearance is with each other despite how different they were produced either naturally or artificially. The conversation could be interesting when we take a closer look at how nature can be fabricated and still preserve its textural qualities without having the very refined aesthetic architecture cladding has. And if we combine these two systems together, what would the result look like? Or rather what would
the module look like if it were to be cladded with the natural systems of a landscape? Lastly, what would the fabrication process be like in order to produce something artificial yet natural?
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
TYPICAL LANDSCAPE CLADDING SYSTEMS 1. ROCK FROM CLIFF 2. POROUS ROCK 3. ROCK FROM CLIFF 4. ROCK STRIATION 5. DARK WATER 6. REFLECTING WATER 7. RIPPLING WATER 8. WAVES 9. CLAY 10. GRAVEL 11. SAND 12. SILT 13. LICHEN 14. MOSS 15. FUNGUS 16. ALGAE
*36.1-16 / Images of different natural landscape skins
SKIN CLADDING MODULES
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
Module with a landscape cladding
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE *37 / Rock texture along the side of a mountain.
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE *38 / High School Crinkled Wall by Wiesflecker Architecture.
D E S I G N C O N C E P T: S I T E T Y P O L O G Y
INTERSTITIAL (PUBLIC + PRIVATE)
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
IN BETWEEN INTERVAL MEDIAL
*39 / Interstitial example: an alleyway
RESIDUAL (INSIDE + OUTSIDE)
LEFT-OVER FRAGMENT REMNANT
*40 / Residual example: an overhang
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
D E S I G N C O N C E P T: S I T E S C E N A R I O S
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
D E S I G N C O N C E P T: S I T E S C E N A R I O 1
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
Site scenario 1 in Troy, NY
“Through architecture, nature appears as a production of the city - nature’s contemporary reality - but also as an act of recovery.” - The Architectural Reconstruction of Nature by David Gissen
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
The first scenario for this iterration is set in Troy, NY. The intention for this site selection is to not finalize the decision, but to test a series of sites to determine the language behind the system more. Interstitial and/or residual spaces are the main objective because it goes in between the realm of architecture and landscape. This site is set in an alleyway in downtown Troy where it is considered a shortcut for cars and people. While this example is setting a tone for an urban renewal of the space, it is also introducing an aritifical
Site scenario 1 render
system that brings the lack of landscape into the city. Additionally this brings the idea of not just one site but multiple zones that require more attention and possibly of an urban renewal condition. The scaffolding structure also suggests an unfinished system that can grow and expand where and when needed, blurring the architectural boundaries of landscape, construction, and program. This raises questions about the neighboring territories and what becomes shared and not shared, or what is private and public.
ARCHITECTURE + LANDSCAPE
Site scenario 1 circulation diagram
P ROP OSAL :
H O U S T O N S T.
Houston street in NY is a major east-west street connecting FDR Drive from the east to Pier 40 on the west. It is also a boundary indicator between neighborhoods such as SoHo, NoHo, Bowery, East Village, West Village, and Greenwich Village. Before the 1930 construction for the Independent Subway Systemâ€™s Sixth Avenue Line, it was like another Times Square with buildings showcasing large billboards and other advertising signs. The construction was a huge planning decision with over 5,000 residents being evicted
with another 5,000 workers being displaced for the new street widening. About 1,795 apartments were demolished for this project. As a result, there are ghostly remainders of some buildings such as bare lots, raw party walls, past sidewalk outlines, and visible traces of adjacent buildings. Some of them today are either being redeveloped, used by vendors, turned into playgrounds or into community gardens. This site offers an interesting proposition about the leftover spaces or walls in the city. And because
this site is also very crowded with visitors and residents coming and going, the user percentage is very high. Can the idea of a vertical landscape be strategized into this environment? It certainly also brings into the question of privacy for adjacent buildings because this is an urban public park being built vertically. This proposal introduces the concept of bringing the comfort aesthetics of a park into the city that is normally seen as something rather flat and horizontal that is instead constructed vertically against a wall or between two.
PROPOSAL *41/ View of the blank wall Hollister building on Houston Street in NYC.
Site plan of Houston Street, NY
POTENTIAL SITES ADJACENT BUILDINGS MAIN ROAD BUILDINGS PARKS
S U P P L E M E N TA RY R E S E A R C H : P O M P I D O U
One excellent example that showcases an alternative use for staircases is the Centre Georges Pompidou which was completed in 1977. It is a cultural center in Paris that attracts many visitors every year and ever since then it became a monumental aspect of the city. At that time, it was one of the earliest buildings that exposed its system of stairs and infrastructure on the outside while maximizing the interior use of the space. This skeleton like design has a very machineesque style to it. The reason why this was brought up however is
because of the building’s ability to utilize program on the exterior. There is a different level of flexibility in terms of circulation, seating, viewing, and advertising with the exterior infrastructure of the building. This brings into attention that the program for my scheme(s) are very important because it can transform the purpose of the project on a site. And this project really is a “catalyst for urban regeneration.” So the question becomes what is the site missing and what can my project offer for that?
PROPOSAL *42 / The plaza in the Pompidou center looking straight ahead at the front exposed facade.
SUPPLEMENTARY RESEARCH: POPS
POPS was introduced in 1961 and it stands for privately owned public spaces. Its mission is to enhance the cityâ€™s greatness with an attractive and usable egalitarian public realm. This is geared more towards big corporation buildings. In exchange, POPS offers zoning concessions to commercial and residential developers. This is if the buildings are willing to provide a variety of accessible spaces for the public, and there must be amenities included. Currently there are about 500 POPS at 320 buildings in NYC,
most of them residing in Manhattan. The spaces can be extended from sidewalks, situated in between buildings, indoor atriums, or an undercover plaza. These social spaces can include gardens, seating areas, public bathrooms, art installations, cafes, and so on. Jerold Kayden, a professor of urban planning at Harvard who founded APOPS in 2002 described these spaces as a decentralized Central Park. In other words, people can have an escape from the city with these localized spaces that gives something back to the public.
PROPOSAL *43 / Area where the first protest for POPS started in.
55 WATER STREET
AMENITIES: • elevated plaza • arcade • urban park • landscaping • lighting • seating • events platform • support space • stair balconies • viewing platform • public events • water feature
520 MADISON AVENUE
• urban plaza • sidewalk widening • 24 hours of access • tables within space • trees within space • waterfall • reflecting pool • lighting • planting
. St d
er at W
Vietnam Veterans Plaza
BUILDING SPECIAL PERMIT PLAZA ARCADE
E. 5 4
E. 5 3
Urban Plaza St.
BUILDING SIDEWALK WIDENING URBAN PLAZA
This building location has two of the largest outdoor spaces in the city with views looking at Brooklyn and the East River. This POPS was given permission to join with the Vietnam Veterans Plaza which then as a result functions as one park. This visually looks bigger than what was originally only intended for the program requirement. The Vietnam Veterans plaza offers seating with an amphitheater style arrangement of bricks chiseled out of the grade change. To get up the elevated plaza, the entrance is on Water
Street and up the escalator or stairs. This is one of the six elevated plazas in the city. The space has litte interaction with the public realm of streets and sidewalks, but it doesnâ€™t cancel out the noise coming from the FDR Drive or helicopters flying nearby. Situated between two buildings, the space itself is rather nice with dense vegetation, landscaping, and shading. People usually come here for a lunch break from work where many of the seating areas are filled around the afternoon.
The urban plaza reveals itself on the side of 520 Madison Avenue and it has 24 hours of access. The first thing you would notice is an artwork: five large reinforced concrete slabs taken from the Berlin Wall directly and relocated on the western side of the space. On the same western edge you can see four paneled water-walls with reflecting pools lining along them. The reflecting pools turn into concrete benches at the very end near the entrance of the plaza. The plaza has cobblestone paving with at least 10 trees loosely arraying within
the space. Movable tables and chairs allow people to have lunch breaks or other activities during the day. There are more trees surrounding the actual building which includes a sidewalk widening along 53rd street, 54th street, and Madison Avenue. An open air cafe had installed tables and chairs on the side of 54th street.
590 MADISON AVENUE
AMENITIES: • through block arcade • covered pedestrian space • urban plaza • seating area • indoor sculpture garden • food service • tables • lighting • trees within area and street • sculpture pool
DAVID RUBENSTEIN ATRIUM
• covered plaza • min. 60 degrees farenheit • coffee bar • lighting: min. 5 foot candles • climbing wall • movable stage • skylight • one hour musical per week • seating • tables • trees on street • green wall
E. 5 7
E. 5 6
Through Block Arcade
Covered Pedestrian Space
BUILDING URBAN PLAZA ARCADE
Located in the heart of the city, this glass enclosed pedestrian space includes a tree-filled conservatory and a “public living room” for visitors to read, to write, to eat, to rest - anything that doesn’t deem as interrupting to others. Unfotunately, some of the rather taller trees such as the bamboo species are removed and in place a sculpture garden was installed. The 65 foot high glass atrium allows natural daylighting to flood the room which really gives a peaceful look to the space among the trees shading the people and
the light washing on the white granite floors. But because the interior basically acts as a greenhouse, the space can be uncomfortable during the summer without air conditioning. The food kiosk serves light beverages, lunch, and snacks. Overall the space attracts many incoming visitors because visually it is welcoming with its see-through walls. It is also attracting many young artists to portray their artworks in the sculpture garden.
This covered plaza is very easy to miss when you are passing along the entrance on Columbus Avenue. The atrium is two stories tall and includes a rock climbing wall, a coffee bar/food service counter, and an one hour weekly musical or similar performance. The space alone is very controlled. It has to be at least 60 degrees farenheit and for the lighting it has to be at least 5 foot candles. And because it is inside, there are rules for no smoking, no sleeping, and no sitting on the floors or heating vents. There are many tables and
chairs that are movable on both the first floor and the mezzanine. On the first floor, there is a large green wall designed by Tod Williams and Billie Tsien covered with lush vegetation that absorbs carbon dioxide in the space and releases back oxygen into the space. Lastly, because this space is located near Lincoln Center, it offers almost a secret space for performers or other visitors to simply escape from the busyness of the city.
THROUGH BLOCK ARCADE COVERED SEATING AREA ACCESS
E. 6 3
E. 6 2
Mezzanine Above Street Level
BUILDING COVERED PLAZA
AMENITIES: • urban park • planting • landscaping • trees within space • outdoor cafe • 25 foot waterfall • reflecting pool • tables • seating • lighting • raised terrace
• urban park • planting • landscaping • trees within space • food kiosk • 20 foot waterfall • reflecting pool • tables • seating • lighting
a serene brook. Surrounding the space are a series of plantings that are well defined with different species and textural variation. Depending on the season, the plants and flowers change annually. The russet brick paving contrasts nicely with the vegetation and the honey locust trees offer shading since the space is open to the sky. The table and chair arrangements can be flexible for any activities. Conveniently, there is also a raised terrace that contains heating elements to warm visitors during cooler seasons.
a tranquil place for people to relax in. There are about 17 trees spaced in 12 foot intervals growing out of the rough stone tiles, walls covered with ivy that completely envelop the space, and a 20 foot waterfall that blocks out completely the noise of the city. It really does a wonderful job in removing itself from the city as a decentralized space. If the city is described as fast and intense, then the park can be described as just the opposite: slow and calm.
Paley Park is one of the earliest models of POPS and since then it has become a design example for other urban parks. The park is roughly about 4,200 square feet. Its presence can be recognized by passerbys with its strategic placement of trees, flowers, and a special kind of pavement on the sidewalk. The landscaping has a modern feel to it with its selective textures of material and vegetation. And interestingly, it is a standalone space unconnected to a bonused building, and so its sole mission is to exist on its own as
E. 5 4
E. 5 1
Influenced by Paley Park, Greenacre Park is a “vest pocket park” that is privately funded and maintained by Abby Rockefeller Mauze’s Greenacre Foundation. The site is about 60 feet wide and 120 feet deep. There is a series of steps that lead up to the park directly along 51st street that can be easily missed if you have not turned your head. And directly upfront is the 25 foot high cascade waterfall situated in a sunken terrace in the middle of the garden. The water trickles all the way down to the park’s entrance as it gradually turns into
E. 5 3
There are several ways of occupying the buildings given along Houston Street. I specifically chose the second one out of the nine examples illustrated above because I was interested in the scheme of a blank wall as well as the rooftop and how these two completely
different axes create different relationships with each other. On the right, I experimented with different massing studies and how people would circulate around the system. I found that the fourth one would be the most suitable for the site so it can still utilize the remaining space.
UNFIXED FREEDOM USABLE FLEXIBLE
SCULPTURE GARDEN ART PROMENADE MUSEUM LANDSCAPE URBAN INSTALLATION
REGULATED CONTROLLED INACCESSIBLE CONFINED
Given that this is in NYC, you would feel a sense of disconnection once you enter into the landscape. In some areas though, you would experience simultaneously the rush of the cars with a mixture of water running and birds chirping. Your senses and emotions are heightened during the hike, similar to how you would feel in an actual hike: in awe, frightened, paranoid, disgusted, or at pleasure. Lastly, when you reach the rooftop, you are removed from the dense vegetation and replaced with a open meadow.
Named as the â€œMechanical Rooftopâ€?, it showcases various artworks from artists in SoHo who collaborated together. I pictured this program to be similar to that of the MET or at MoMA where people gather and socialize and explore. The diagram to the left disects how the public and private can come together in a partnership which came up as an idea referenced from POPS in NYC. By mixing the two programs, the results can correspond to the mixture of the vertical landscape, which is also a mixture of its own.
On the lowest level of the building is the garden plaza. I imagine it to be similar to how the Lincoln Center plaza is like. There would be chairs to accomodate public seating and reflection pools that collect the remaining water from the vertical system escalating against the building. The urban hike takes place on the two facades of the building highlighted above on the drawing. The urban hike here is simulated through the vertical landscape system made out of artificial rocks that hold vegetation and water features.
SUPPLEMENTARY RESEARCH: BLANC
Patrick Blanc is a renowned French botanist assigned to assist with the vertical hanging columsn for the Perez Art Museum in Miami. With approximately 80 different plant species used, Blanc was challenged also to specify different areas with various criterias. For example, plants facing the sea would face full sun and also strong winds, and sometimes salt and hurricanes. On the contrary, the side facing the museum are dimmer areas so plants situated there are ones that love the shade.
And because this is a vertical garden, the design took advantage of that with a rainwater collection system from the roof. The rainwater is collected in cisterns and a drip-chain system irrigates the vegetation throughout the building. The rainwater spreads through the irrigation tubes. Any remaining water is drained into the planters.
PROPOSAL *51 / PAMM exterior view.
S U P P L E M E N TA RY R E S E A R C H : F R E E WAY
Located over the Interstate 5 in downtown Seattle, Freeway Park was the first park to be built over a highway. Using the air rights of the interstate, the design of the park was a series of irregularly shaped plazas linked by enclosed board-formed concrete planting containers. Driving underneath the park, one can notice that the park starts to overtake the highway with its vines and moss spilling over the sides. The towering trees also had a presence of its own, signifying that forces of nature can very quickly hide the man-
made design. This new land-use typology offers different water features, places to sit, pedestrian access, and an ever changing urban landscape through seasonal changes. While brutal and sharp in its undulated city landscape appearance, the vegetation seemed to have soften it over time. Besides bridging the community together, the park literally also bridges two different systems together: the natural and the man-made. And the two seemingly incompatible systems compliment each other in an unexpected manner.
PROPOSAL *52 / Freeway Park viewing along the highway.
PROPOSAL *53 / Freeway Parkâ€™s modulated concrete covered planters worned down from the rain and vegetation.
HYBRIDITY OF SYSTEMS
The overall scheme is made out of multiple layers, programs, and functionalities. To start off, the vertical landscape is made out of panels. These panels are imagined to be compressed Manhattan schist bedrock found locally into a number of sections that form as one module. There are two modules that make up the whole system: a planter cladding module and a water feature cladding module. Aesthetically, they both are the same but with different functions. Although in segmented panels, the texture of the schist is still
apparent on the surface, giving the sensibility of it being an architectural element in the form of a rock, or a refined rock so to speak. The planter cladding module will be filled with soil and other necessary minerals needed by the chosen plant. The module itself has hole on the bottom to allow for drainage come when it rains or when water drips down from the water feature cladding panels. The water feature cladding panel has a slit near the top so when it is full from the rain-water collection, it will pour water out from the slit. The panel
also has holes on the back where the scaffolding is connected. The rainwater collection starts from the rooftop and circulates into the scaffolding structure. In return it feeds into the water cladding panels and back onto the vegetation. The scaffolding system is situated between the cladding systems for the vertical circulation. In contrast to the cladding systems, the metal scaffolding is designed to look lighter, such as the details on the handrails with thin cables running through as well as the cantilevered walkways.
HYBRIDITY OF SYSTEMS
S U P P L E M E N TA RY R E S E A R C H : S C H I S T
The Manhattan schist is what allowed New York City to be where it is now. Formed approximately four hundred fifty years ago, it started with a continental collision between the East Coast of North America and the floor of the Atlantic ocean. The phenomenon pushed a layer of shale nine miles into the molten core of the earth, causing a tremendous pressure and heat onto the shale itself. The sedimentary rock suddenly transformed into a mixture of other minerals, and the resulting metamorphic rock is now known
as schist. This new layer of rock is very strong and durable. And because in some areas it is very close to the surface of the ground, it would be easier to excavate to form the panels that make up the vertical landscape in my project proposal. The Manhattan schist could be found in various depths. Because it is in SoHo, it would be between zero feet to eighteen feet below the surface. And because of its stability, it creates a very strong foundation that holds up the entire system against the building, with additional supports.
PROPOSAL *54 / Geology map of New York through New Jersey. Majority of the bedrock is the Manhattan Schist.
S U P P L E M E N TA RY R E S E A R C H : T H E G E T T Y
The Getty Center is made out of 1.2 million square travertine stone material. It reflects sharply in the morning hours and emits a warm color in the afternoon. Richard Meir chose this stone specifically because it is often associated with public architecture and it expresses the qualities that he wanted the center to get across: permanence, solidity, simplicity, warmth, and craftmanship. In some areas, the travertine stone is smooth and sharply cut. In other ares it is just the opposite: rough but somewhat refined.
Similarly in my project, I was interested in emulating these efforts, where in some areas the texture is kept naturally while in other areas, more smooth and controlled. This textural selection blurs what is actually man-made and what is actually considered natural. By hybridizing the rough like panels into a clean-edge planter module, the result can be seen as a perfect rock, or an imperfect module. This speaks toward the controlled relationship typically seen in architecture, and the uncontrolled or less refined in landscape.
PROPOSAL *55 / Getty Center with various rock types and fabrication.
PROPOSAL *56 / Getty Center with its Travertine columns.
PROPOSAL Render of frontal view of the proposal in SoHo as you are approaching it.
R E A D I N G : S U B N AT U R E - D A N K N E S S
AUTHOR: DAVID GISSEN
There was a time when dankness was associated with natural and artificial subterranean spaces, such as caves and grottoes. That association stopped during the 19th century when it suddenly became better known as underground spaces due to the increase of urbanization. Underground spaces became familiarized as sewers and basements. Unlike grottoes and caves however, sewers and basements had a much more negative perspective when it comes to charactization. They were known as unsafe,
dark, wet, unsanitary, stagnated, moisture collected, crime formented, and outmoded. Other times they can also be associated with disease and mice. Caves and grottoes on the other hand were usually taken as the unexplored, unique, and mysterious. It was interesting that the characterization of dankness shifted from premodern to modern times. Although the term dankness now had been negatively viewed, it slowly had been getting acceptance with its unexplored new pleasures. Its haunting qualities can simulate
a new kind of experience that can be uncomfortable or undesirable but needless to say still somewhat familiar. Theyâ€™re familiar when you walk into the jungle or downstairs to your basement to retrieve your laundry or when it gets dark outside during the rain. The concept can get even more interesting when the two opposite associations for dankness (pleasure and discomfort) intermingle. This type of spatial and metaphorical glitch was something that I was intrigued with in my project.
R E A D I N G : S U B N AT U R E - W E E D S
AUTHOR: DAVID GISSEN
A similiar kind of association that dankness had, weeds often were taken as a new form of subjectivity in modern society as a metaphorical subnatural form of life. To further quote from the reading: “no form of life is inherently subnatural; rather, relative to architecture, life becomes subnatural when it makes us question the dominant social role of architecture.” We question if things were good for us or if they belong where they should be. Other types of subnatural examples can include smog, dust, exhaust gas,
sewage, debris, and rubble. They were all the by-products of urbanization, industrialization, war, abandonment, and societal collapse. Plants become weeds when they were out of place or undesirable, disrupting the aesthetics of the surrounding environment. For example, plants become weeds in an agricultural setting when they were not aligned with other plants. They immediately become associated as “wild” because they disrupted the orderly fashion of the agriculture grid. Similarly, in the front yard of houses, plants
become weeds when they did not match the green grass that was freshly trimmed a few days ago, such as dandelions or a different type of grass species or even a different height. Because it disrupted an inherent order, it automatically became a metaphor of the undesirable. In my project, I wanted to embrace the qualities of the wildness in nature. Rather than controlling nature itself, it would be interesting to see the fabrication it can naturally create on its own. Plant or weed, controlled or wild, they all play a role in landscape.
INVASIVE + UNDESIRED
S U P P L E M E N TA RY R E S E A R C H : L I G H T I N G
LIGHTING REQUIREMENT: 6 HOURS OR MORE
EQUISETUM ARVENSE - 1-2 feet - high water use - wet soil
HIBISCUS MOSCHEUTOS - 3-8 feet - high water use - wet soil - attracts hummingbirds
LATHYRUS JAPONICUS - 3-6 feet - medium water use - wet soil
OSMUNDA CINNAMOMEA - 3-6 feet - medium/high water use - wet soil - can be standing under water
There are several locations in my project where the lighting is brighter than others. This allows me to experiment with different niches in terms of the plant species to control the environment that I want to a certain extent. A few of the plant species are shown above that require about six hours or more lighting. Because they all prefer a wet soil type of environment, it would be perfect for rainfall or the scattered water features that spill over the edges of the vertical landscape. To create variation in the plants, I also
VIBURNUM NUDUM - 12-36 feet - medium water use - wet soil
selected different plants with different heights. The Viburnum Nudum for example can exceed over twelve feet and reach up to thirty six feet. The Equisetum Arvense species on the other hand can only reach up to two feet. Depending on how much water the plants need, they can also be placed closer to the water features or further below where water takes time to trickle down. Shown in the render on the right, the lighting and the variegated vegetation creates a dense urban jungle in the pleasures of walking.
PROPOSAL Render of the proposal in lighter conditions.
S U P P L E M E N TA RY R E S E A R C H : L I G H T I N G
LIGHTING REQUIREMENT: 2 HOURS OR LESS
CALAMAGROSTIS CAN. - 3-6 feet - medium water use - wet soil - stands well during winter
CAREX HYALINOLEPIS - 3-6 feet - medium water use - wet soil - stands well during winter
CLETHRA ALNIFOLIA - 3-6 feet - high water use - wet soil - attracts birds and butterflies
MIKANIA SCANDENS - 3-6 feet - medium water use - wet soil
Treated as a sequence of experiential walking, in some areas of the vertical landscape it would be more poorly lit, have more moisture, and be a few degrees cooler compared to the other well lit areas. While it is artificial, the degree in controlling the fabricated environment simulates closely to that of a real one. Even though lighting gets a little more difficult in reaching these types of spaces as seen in the render ot the right, there would be vegetation that still thrive in lower lighting requirement. Moss for example
PHYSOCARPUS OPUL. - 6-12 feet - low water use - wet soil - attracts birds
is a great plant to have in this type of scenario. Their ideal location would be cool, moist, and dark. Because it is a non-vascular plant, it uses its tiny threads to anchor itself to things such as stones or rocks. Although it prefer shady grounds, it has adapted over time to survive periods of dry weather. Their ability to absorb moisutre is also a great advantage for the vertical landscape because it prevents any erosion from happening. So any rain or water features will be absorbed by their sponge-like bodies.
PROPOSAL Render of the proposal in dimmer conditions.
The last place to stop walking is on the very top of the roof. The journey up here can be very tiring, given that this is a system against a ten story building. I want the visitors to feel a sense of relief after having to go through and experience the overwhelming abundance of nature as well as the different narrow walkways in the dark or in the light. The aim of the rooftop is to extend its cultural space to SoHo. After all, SoHo is a neighborhood filled with many different cultures and artists. The rooftop is a way of bringing
*57 / SoHO wall art by Banksy
creative people together and collaborating. In return, the public would get to view their artworks. This goes back to what I mentioned earlier about the POPS networking. The air rights of this private building may be negotiable if it gives back to the public community. And in a way, this is an integration of landscape, structure, and the arts. All three of these components are integrated in a way to maximize a full potential of the cityâ€™s social and cultural needs. In other words, a multi-sensorial hybridization.
PROPOSAL Render of the proposal on the peak of the rooftop illustrating a collaboration with other local artists.
S U P P L E M E N TA RY R E S E A R C H : W I L D L I F E The black swallowtail butterfly can be usually found in habitats such as gardens, fields, suburbs, marshes, damp meadows, and roadsides. In NYC specfically, they are quite common in open fields or parks. During low temperatures, they are seen to perch close to the ground with their wings spread. In higher temperatures, they perch higher and fly more frequently. Their common food sources are red
clovers, milkweeds, and thistles. The black swallowtail also has a short life span, living only between six to fourteen days. They are commonly seen in late May to mid July.
This medium sized butterfly can be seen during the early summers in NYC. They are also known as avid mud-puddlers where they would be seen as swarms fluttering around a mud puddle. Other areas to be found are fields, lawns, road edges, and meadows. This type of butterfly lays one egg at a time. The egg would typically be found in plants of the pea family such as alfafa and white clover. Once they
become adults, they consume the flower nectar from many plants. Just like the black swallowtail, colias philodice is also labeled as a generalist. In other words it can thrive in various environmental conditions and make usre of a variety of different resources.
One of NYCâ€™s smallest vertebrates, the northern cricket frog can jump in long distances despite its size (approximately five to six feet). However it does not climb very much. Adults average only one inch in length, with males often the smaller one compared to the females. It was named specifically after its breeding call which resembles that of a cricket making a sound.
Breeding times for the frog occurs between June to July. The female would lay about severa dozen of eggs onto aquatic vegetation. During the coldest times of the year, they can be found buried beneath muck. Although some can be found overwintering in some other areas.
NORTHERN CRICKET FROG 120
The house sparrow is possibly one of the first wild animals you would see in NYC immediately. They were one of the first species to successfully populate urban areas. Just over 200 years ago, there were no house sparrows at all on the entire continent of North America. Today however, their population went up to over one hundred fifty million. There were a couple of theories of how they were
introduced into the city in the first place. One of them examined the possibility of using them to create a natural balance between predator and prey. In the first half of 19th century, there was an insect infestation on trees and other plants near new housing and commercial developments. Eight pairs of new house sparrows were introduced to control the insect infestation by a couple of New Yorkers.
Although one might think that feral pigeons are native to North America due to their population, they are actually native to Europe. They adapted to NYC pretty well because of the tall city buildings and window ledges that mimic similarly to that of the rocky cliffs their ancestors have inhabited in Europe. In NYC alone, their population exceeded over one million. As long as there is access to water, food, and
shelter, the feral pigeon could be found pretty much anywhere, such as farm yards, parks, city buildings, bridges, and other structures. Pigeon droppings are a huge problem in the city for unsanitary and aesthetic reasons.
Another common animal seen around in NYC, the northern grey squirrel is usually found in parks or in the backyards of houses. Its food source can range from tree bark, tree buds, berries, acorns, nuts, and fungi to some tolerance for human food. Sometimes they would raid bird feeders in search for corn, millet, and sunflower seeds. The northern grey squirrel is also known to be a scatter-
hoarder. It is excellent in hoarding food in numerous caches for a later recovery. With its excellent smell and spatial memory, it can find its way back to where it stored the food originally.
EASTERN GREY SQUIRREL 121
S U P P L E M E N TA R Y R E S E A R C H : U R B A N J U N G L E
LANGUR MONKIES IN INDIA
STARLINGS IN ROME
PLANET EARTH 2: CITIES
There are various animals coming into urban cities in search of their own niche. The challenge in that is finding the perfect niche in the midst of busy human activities and their already established rules. And just like the wilderness, there is still competition for spaces in the city for the wild animals. But why would an animal come to the city of all places? It depends on the specific animal. For example, NYC is a strange and ideal habitat for birds to build their nest in and for other birds like peregrines to scope. NYC also
has large bodies of water for fishes to inhabit or for other animals to drink from. And not to mention, the concrete makes the city much more warmer so the animals inhabiting around the area are comfortable. Food is also an abundance in the city when trash cans are located in almost every corner of the block. Pigeons and squirrels are common in parks where tourists and residents visit everyday. By marking its territory, these wild animals can establish a relationship with humans in the city and live in harmony.
PROPOSAL *58 / Scene in Planet Earth 2: Cities.
PROPOSAL Render of the smaller rooftop during sunset hours, overlooking the streets of SoHo.
PROPOSAL Elevation drawing/render of the proposal.
PROPOSAL Physical models of the final proposal.
BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOK SOURCES Allen, Stan. Geological Form. Landform Building: Architecture’s New Terrain. Stan Allen. Lars Müller, 2011. 75-83 Allen, Stan. Nature in the Plural. Landform Building: Architecture’s New Terrain. Stan Allen. Lars Müller, 2011. 285-291 Allen, Stan. Matters of Surface. Landform Building: Architecture’s New Terrain. Stan Allen. Lars Müller, 2011. 363-371 Gissen, David. The Architectural Reconstruction of Nature. Landform Building: Architecture’s New Terrain. Stan Allen. Lars Müller, 2011. 456-463 Gissen, David. Nature’s Historical Crisis. Journal of Architectural Education, 69:1. Taylor & Francis, 2015. 5-7 Grosz, Elizabeth. In Between: The Natural in Architecture and Culture. Architecture from the Outside. Elizabeth Grosz and Peter Eisenman. MIT Press, 2001. 90-105 Hight, Christopher. Designing Ecologies. Projective Ecologies. Chris Reed. ACTAR, Harvard Graduate School of Design, 2014. 86-102 Martin, Timothy D. Robert Smithson and the Anglo-American Picturesque. Anglo-American Exchange in Postwar Sculpture, 1945-1975. Getty Publications, 2011. 164-173 Meyer, Elizabeth K. Journal of Landscape Architecture. Sustaining beauty. The performance of appearance. Taylor & Francis, 2008. 6-21 Salomon, David. Journal of Landscape Architecture. Towards a new infrastructure: aesthetic thinking, synthetic sensibilities. Taylor & Francis, 2016. 54-64
WEB SOURCES www.olafureliasson.net. Waterfall projects by Olafur Eliasson. Web. 30 Oct. 2017. http://olafureliasson.net/tag/TEL2752/waterfall www.nymag.com. The Falls Guy. Web. 30 Oct. 2017. http://nymag.com/arts/art/features/47554/index3.html www.engineeringrome.wikispaces.com. Italian Renaissance Gardens and Villa d’Este. Web. 30 Oct. 2017. https://engineeringrome.wikispaces. com/Italian+Renaissance+Gardens+and+Villa+d%27Este www.cdc.gov. Types of Agricultural Water Use. Web. 30 Oct. 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/other/agricultural/types.html www.archdaily.com. Perez Art Museum - Herzog & de Mueron. 1 March. 2018. https://www.archdaily.com/493736/perez-art-museum-herzogand-de-meuron www.tclf.org. Freeway Park. Web. 10 March. 2018. https://tclf.org/landscapes/freeway-park
www.nycgovparks.org. Manhattan Schist in New York City Parks. Web. 11 April. 2018. https://www.nycgovparks.org/parks/j-hood-wright-park/ highlights/12369
IMAGE SOURCES 1
Central Park. <https://cdn.theatlantic.com/static/mt/assets/science/Amateur-built-environment-1-Sergey-Semenov.jpeg>
7. Aritifial Sea. <http://www.cero9.com/wp-content/uploads/01_ArtificialSea_05_1024px.jpg> 8
Carbonipherous Forest. <http://www.cero9.com/wp-content/uploads/01_Carbonipherous-Forest_23_1024px.jpg>
Aegean Forest. <http://www.cero9.com/wp-content/uploads/01_AegeanParadise_99_1024px.jpg>
10 Dustyrelief. <http://www.new-territories.com/images/essaiFRGRILLE.jpg> 11 Olzweg. <http://www.new-territories.com/images/frac93.jpg> 12 Robotic Design. <http://www.new-territories.com/he%20sho7.jpg> 13 Broomwitch. <http://www.new-territories.com/broomw6.jpg> 14 Old Central Park. <https://interactive.wttw.com/sites/default/files/P4-HERO_j7ns5k_c_scale,w_1600.jpg> 15 Atlanta. <https://earthview.withgoogle.com/atlanta-united-states-1432> 16 Teardrop Park. <https://i.pinimg.com/originals/97/ac/1c/97ac1c8ebef6cd2750861348dedc15f0.jpg > 17 2004. Waterfall by Olafur Eliasson. Photo by Poul Pedersen <http://images.tanyabonakdargallery.com/www_tanyabonakdargallery_ com/2013_halls_waterfalls_ELIAS080701_cropped1.jpg> 18 2008. Waterfall in NYC by Olafur Eliasson. Photo by Alan Schein <https://learner.org/courses/globalart/assets/non_flash_796/work_184. jpg> 19 2008. Waterfall in NYC by Olafur Eliasson. Photo by Julienne Schaer <http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/olafureliasson.net/objektimages_final/IMG_MDA102264_1600px.jpg> 20 1998. Reversed Waterfall by Olafur Eliasson. Photo by Anders Norrsel <http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/olafureliasson.net/objektimages_final/IMG_MDA103989_1600px.jpg> 21 2005. Axon view of Villa dâ€™este. <https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bb/Tivoli%2C_Villa_d%27Este%2C_Schautafel.jpg>
22 Fountain of Bicchierone. <http://static.panoramio.com/photos/large/60190293.jpg>
IMAGE SOURCES 23 The Hundred Fountains. <https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2f/One.hundred.fountain.at.villa.d%27este.arp.jpg> 24 The Water Organ. <http://www.yairkarelic.com/Albums/Tivoli_villa_deste/slides/IMG_3889_90_91.jpg> 25 Fountain of Rometa. <https://c1.staticflickr.com/3/2259/2214163593_cf997c1027_z.jpg> 26 Rustic Rountains. <https://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/06/03/a2/a6/villa-d-este.jpg> 27 Fountain of the Dragons. <https://kevinfernandes.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/dsc04903.jpg> 28 Oval Fountain. <http://www.guideromaetruria.com/images/itinerari/villa-d-este.jpg> 29 Fountain of Ephesian Diana. < https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/Fontana_di_Diana_Efesina-Tivoli%2C_Villa_d%27Este.jpg> 30 Grotto of Pomona. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villa_d%27Este#/media/File:Villa_d%27Este_fountain_5.jpg> 31 Grotto of Diana. <http://www.jeffbondono.com/TouristInRome/RomeImages/IMG_9901-20131001.jpg> 32 Grotto of Igea. <https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a6/La_Rometta_%28Tivoli%29_%285868497139%29.jpg> 33 Grotto of Aesculpius. <https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a6/La_Rometta_%28Tivoli%29_%285868497139%29.jpg> 34 Villa Dâ€™este - Hundred Fountains. <https://romancandletours.com/assets/img/library/large/1300x731/villa-d-este-tivoli_800517.jpg> 35A Rough concrete texture <ttps://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwic6MKx8KjXAhXG5yYKHQi0Bi0QjBwIBA&url.jpg> 35B Porous concrete texture <https://orig00.deviantart.net/b1be/f/2015/036/9/8/free_texture__19__porous_rock_by_rjd37-d8gssb7. jpg> 35C Chipping paint texture <https://pixabay.com/p-719782/?no_redirect> 35D Wood texture <http://aleaoffice.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/wood-1240x930.jpg> 35E Plastic texture <https://static1.squarespace.com/static/586d3d8620099e253c6c5592/t/58700fa7d1758e8afb849f5c/1483739054147/black+gold.jpg?format=1500w> 35F White marble texture <http://www.imagekote.com.au/uploads/2/8/3/2/28321531/_8381406_orig.jpg> 35G Frosted glass texture <https://previews.123rf.com/images/stillfx/stillfx1403/stillfx140300273/26972498-Closeup-of-frosted-glass-texture-Stock-Photo.jpg>
35H Grey marble texture <https://c1.staticflickr.com/7/6030/6016098388_cc430af107_b.jpg> 35I Brick layout texture <http://texturelib.com/Textures/brick/damaged/brick_damaged_0030_02_preview.jpg> 35J Stone layout texture <https://static5.depositphotos.com/1001925/424/i/950/depositphotos_4241149-stock-photo-stone-wall-texture. jpg>
IMAGE SOURCES 35K Fabricated concrete texture <https://image.architonic.com/img_pro2-4/113/6170/VID004-gesamt-h.jpg> 35L Asphalt texture <https://thumbs.dreamstime.com/b/grainy-concrete-texture-273903.jpg> 35M Steel texture <https://images.designtrends.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/03102046/Worn-Steel-Texture.jpg> 35N Green marble texture <https://4.imimg.com/data4/DR/PM/MY-22214156/udaipur-green-marble-500x500.jpg> 35O Cedar shingles texture <http://mobilehomeliving.org/wp-content/uploads/cedar-shingles-untreated-500.jpg> 35P Opaque glass texture <http://www.mintjulepsupply.com/images/background.jpg> 36.1 Rough rock texture <http://www.lughertexture.com/rocks-wall-high-resolution-texture/heavy-rock-wall-340> 36.2 Porous rock texture <https://orig00.deviantart.net/b1be/f/2015/036/9/8/free_texture__19__porous_rock_by_rjd37-d8gssb7.jpg> 36.3 Jagged rock texture <https://www.textures.com/system/categories/25551/frontend-large.jpg> 36.4 Wavy rock texture <https://image.freepik.com/foto-gratis/textura-de-la-roca-fondos-de-la-pared-macro_1122-1754.jpg> 36.5 Dark water texture <http://creativity103.com/collections/Texture/black_waterP9042843.JPG> 36.6 Reflective water texture <http://ak1.picdn.net/shutterstock/videos/2487821/thumb/1.jpg?i10c=img.resize(height:160)> 36.7 Ripples texture <https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwjl_JPO-KjXAhVEziYKHWFiDkAQjBwIBA&url=https%3A%2F%2Falethakuschan.files.wordpress.com%2F2008%2F05%2Flike-water.jpg> 36.8 Water waves texture <https://img00.deviantart.net/f309/i/2007/178/7/c/water_texture_10_by_greeneyezz_stock.jpg> 36.9 Clay texture <https://naldzgraphics.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/29-red-clay-texture.jpg> 36.10 Gravel texture <https://static6.depositphotos.com/1080363/612/i/950/depositphotos_6123129-stock-photo-gravel-texture.jpg> 36.11 Sand texture <https://www.rd.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2016/07/10-garden-survive-winter.jpg> 36.12 Silt texture <https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Sm8lcEe05Ug/V7hOvNLLixI/AAAAAAAAAkE/KB1os1Mn-TQzwS-dknIxXm1XBKLlKCU5gCLcB/s1600/soil%2Btexture.jpg> 36.13 Lichen texture <https://patriciadeguzmanunit02.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/untitled-1.jpg> 36.14 Moss texture <http://texturelib.com/Textures/nature/moss/nature_moss_0046_01_preview.jpg> 36.15 Fungi texture <https://i.pinimg.com/736x/44/08/a2/4408a2d3060b3e98a116bd53f7fdeda6--patterns-in-nature-nature-pictures. jpg>
36.16 Algae texture <https://www.colourbox.com/preview/2267095-background-green-rough-texture-with-grass-and-rust.jpg>
IMAGE SOURCES 37 Rock texture. <http://www.pxleyes.com/images/contests/textures/fullsize/textures_4bdfdf81905f7_hires.jpg> 38 Crinkled Wall. <https://i.pinimg.com/564x/26/00/1a/26001a3afea17a4c405b02e749da49d2.jpg> 39 Alleyway. <http://bossfight.co/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/boss-fight-free-stock-images-photography-photos-high-resolution-city-alleyway.jpeg> 40 Highway overhang. <http://static.panoramio.com/photos/large/33560456.jpg> 41 The Wall. <http://photos.wikimapia.org/p/00/03/38/79/06_big.jpg> 42 Pompidou. <http://m.cdn.blog.hu/tu/turistaepitesz/image/PARIS.jpg> 43 Zucotti Park. <https://thenypost.files.wordpress.com/2015/11/zucotti_park.jpg?quality=90&strip=all&strip=all> 44 55 Water Street. <https://apops.mas.org/pops/q201/> 45 520 Madison Ave. <https://apops.mas.org/pops/525/> 46 590 Madison Ave. <https://apops.mas.org/pops/515/> 47 David Rubenstein Atrium. <https://apops.mas.org/pops/716/> 48 Greenacre Park. <http://www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/hidden_gems/greenacre_waterfall.html> 49 Paley Park. <https://paperweightethics.wordpress.com/2010/10/26/waterfalls-in-manhattan/> 50 PAMM. <https://www.pinterest.com/pin/471048442248502978/> 51 PAMM. <http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-hRGM6WzinP4/U9e67Mvs8BI/AAAAAAAAr98/14CX_-5wD_4/s1600/1406125075226PAMM_2. jpg> 52 Freeway Park. <https://www.pinterest.com/pin/560698222329102931/> 53 Freeway Park. <https://tclf.org/sites/default/files/microsites/halprinlegacy/images/freeway-park/Historic4.jpg> 54 Geology Map. <https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/UpyNQydD4ipm08jchCFtIauKG7QGA4LRYyU0oWcRlPdUOgUo4M7EJx2VWQOSszi7dtcW=s85> 55 Getty Center. <https://www.cruisebe.com/sites/default/files/portofcallobject/commons/0/00/Getty_Center_fountain_California_from_NW_ on_2009-02-08.jpg> 56 Getty Center. <http://stoneworks.cooritalia.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Getty-4.jpg>
57 Soho Wall Art. <https://imgs.6sqft.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/16133103/Houston-Bowery-Wall-Banksy-1.jpeg> 58 Planet Earth 2. <https://i.ytimg.com/vi/eakKfY5aHmY/maxresdefault.jpg>