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THE CATCH WIRE A quarterly newsletter Jordan College of Agricultural Sciences & Technology

Department of Viticulture & Enology Vol. 1, Issue 2

May 2013

In This Issue Chair’s Message


Our Team


Our Class of 2013


UPDATES Vineyard Undergoing Redevelopment


Winery Continues to Lead


SPOTLIGHTS Bryan Anthony


Ron Metzler


CLUB NEWS & EVENTS Viticulture Club on the Road and on the Run


Outstanding Service Awards


Alumni Pay it Forward


ACADEMICS Celebrating the Class of 2013


New Enology Faculty Hired


Meet our Outstanding Achievers


Partnering with CART


V. E. PETRUCCI LIBRARY From the Collection—American Vines From the V. E. Petrucci Library– Innovative Approaches to Grape Rot Analysis

24 26

FEATURES The Importance of Xiphinema index in California Vineyards EVENTS

28 `

Disseminating Research Results


Spring Highlights


Calendar & Global Opportunities


IN MEMORIAM Keith Patterson


Earl Rocca

35 2

C h a i r ’s M e s s a g e


am writing to you having just completed the last of my grading for my grape and wine chemistry class and after seeing the last of our graduating students depart. We graduated a record number of students this year (47), and I am happy to say that all have

Our Mission 

leaders in viticulture and enology through education and research 

been successful at finding employment. In this issue of The Catch Wire you will find many stories about our students and this year’s graduating class. I am extremely proud of our students and the work that they have completed. I am also thankful to be working with such a committed and talented faculty and staff. They have worked to transfer knowledge and character to our students and I believe that Fresno State is producing extremely capable people.

In addition to the activities related to our students, our spring 2013 edition of The Catch Wire contains updates on our vineyard development. With the recent successful completion of negotiations intended to promote industry investment into the Department of Viticulture and Enology by returning a portion of future profits that result from investment, a considerable amount of interest has been raised. If you have driven by our vineyards recently you will notice that we have just completed the replanting of a 20-acre block. The establishment of this block was made possible by the generous investment of time and energy of many. It goes without saying that our program is successful because so many people outside of this university believe in our mission and want to be part of it. As we expand The Catch Wire we will be bringing in not only the news and stories that are going on in the department, but stories covering the people and places that are connected to this department and are part of our extended family. There are several such stories in this issue. If you have stories to tell or people to mention, please let us know, as we want to pass them along! For now, enjoy the spring edition of The Catch Wire.




industry 



knowledge and information to the grape and wine industry, and to the community

Fun Facts 

Two of Kaan Kurtural’s research projects, including a collaborative project, were featured on the cover of two scholarly journals in 2013—HortScience and HortTechnology

In 2013, we had our largest graduating class since the department was created in 2000




E. is

Petrucci having


Bookdrive! Visit their wishlist, select your gift,




bookplate that will remain a part of this

Jim Kennedy, Chair Department of Viticulture & Enology Email: The Fresno State vineyards and winery

To conduct solutiondriven research for the

Join Our E-List

On the Cover

To train the future

great collection

On the Left 3

New microscopes in our teaching laboratory

Our Viticulture


Faculty and Instructors Jim Kennedy, Faculty Chair Grape and wine phenolic chemistry, with an emphasis on tannins William Edinger, Lecturer Microbial wine spoilage, development of improved and automated detection and enumeration of wine microorganisms

John Giannini, Winemaker & Lecturer Winemaking, winery equipment and operations, production Sanliang Gu, Faculty, Ricchiuti Chair of Viticulture Fruit quality improvement, plant nutrition, plant-water relations, cold hardiness, cultivar evaluation, trellis systems and canopy management Kaan Kurtural, Faculty, Bronco Viticulture Research Chair Precision viticulture, whole grapevine physiology, mechanization of canopy management practices,

Enolog y Team Staff Andrea Cortes, Outreach and Events Coordinator Assistant Geoffrey Dervishian, Viticulture Associate Mechanical canopy management, crop load and irrigation stress on yield and fruit quality in the SJV Britt Foster, Librarian, V. E. Petrucci Library

Carrie Irby, Accounting Technician Jayne Ramirez, Administrative Assistant to the Chair and Director, and Office Manager

Wine microbiology, growth and metabolism of lactic acid bacteria and yeast in wine using flow cytometry and specific antibodies, wine sensory evaluation, grape rot quantification Kevin Smith, Winery Marketing & Lecturer Winery business and marketing Roy Thornton, Faculty Wine microbiology with an emphasis on wine yeast genetics and physiology, the breeding of wine yeast by selective hybridization for improved winemaking properties, manipulation of wine flavor by the use of different wine yeast, flow cytometry, and quantifying microbial rot on wine grapes Sonet Van Zyl, Faculty Table and raisin grape production and marketing, cultivar development and evaluation, grapevine and rootstock breeding for improved quality and pest and disease resistance, industry focused research for California’s table grape and raisin industries

Jim Coleman, IAB Chair, E & J Gallo Winery Barry Bedwell, California Grape & Tree Fruit League Nat DiBuduo, Allied Grape Growers

Cathy Ference, Treasury Wine Estates Fred Franzia, Bronco Wine Company Glen Goto, Raisin Bargaining Association

Mark Salwasser, Vineyard Manager Raisin , table and wine grape production Terri Stephenson, Sensory Lab Manager Cynthia Wood, Outreach and Event Coordinator

vineyard efficiency Susan Rodriguez, Research Fellow & Lecturer

Viticulture & Enology Industry Advisory Board

Viticulture and Enology Emeriti Sayed Badr, Professor emeritus, Viticulture and former chair, Plant Science Department Kenneth Fugelsang (FERP), Professor emeritus, Enology

Barry Gump, Professor emeritus, Chemistry and former Adjunct Faculty of Enology Carlos J. Muller, Professor emeritus, Enology

Vincent E. Petrucci, Professor emeritus, Viticulture and former director, Viticulture & Enology Research Center Robert L. Wample, Professor & Chair emeritus, and former director, Viticulture & Enology Research Center

Hal Huffsmith, Sutter Home Vineyards Ron Metzler, Metzler Family Farms Dianne Nury, Vie-Del Winery Michael Othites, Constellation Wines, US

Rick Stark, Sun-Maid Raisin Growers Brian Vos, The Wine Group Ryan Zaninovich, VB Zaninovich & Sons

Viticulture & Enology Newsletter Editorial Staff Britt Foster Jim Kennedy

Cynthia Wood Contact: 559.278.2089

Visit our web site for a listing of adjunct faculty.


Presenting Our Largest Graduating Class! Master of Science

Adrian Guerrero

John Viano*

Jennifer Barak ++

Shane Harlan

Crystal Weaver

David Langone

Joseph Joralemon

Joshua Wulf

Lindsay Mate

Michael Long**

Sean Pinnell

Vanessa Lynch-Tomsen

Certificate Students

Julian Maher

Jeffrey Fiegel

John McKenna

Geoff Mace

Andrew Beebe**

Tim Mendonca

Andrew Lardy

Lauren Billys +

Matthew Mikulic

Craig Bono

Nicholas Moraida

Belen Ceja

William Mundy

Bachelor of Science

** Magna Cum Laude * Cum Laude

Jacqueline Clark

With Distinction

Melissa Costa

++ Outstanding Graduate Student

Madelyn Crawford

Matthew Neyman

Julie Crippen

Kristyn Peterson

April Delatorre

John Piearcy

Kerry Fitzgerald

Connie Ramos

Michael Foley**

Jordan Randall

Erik Garibay

Patrick Rodriguez

Jessica Gonzaga

Timothy Rooney

Gregorio Gonzalez

Brett Schmitz

Lillian Gresset

Amelia Toscano*

Emily Gritz

Shayne Vetter


+ Outstanding Undergraduate Student JCAST Outstanding Thesis Award May 16, 2013 Department of Viticulture & Enology Annual Graduation Dinner May 17, 2013 Jordan College of Agricultural Sciences & Technology Convocation Ceremony


V i n e y a rVd i nReeydaev ee n ltoipnmMeon t i o n r de lRoepdmev In January, we reported in the Catch Wire that the Fresno State Ag Foundation and our Viticulture and Enology Industry Advisory Board had signed an agreement that would increase the long-term sustainability of the vineyards and viticulture program at Fresno State. As a result, a new model for

alumnus and senior viticulturist for West Coast Grape Farming, has also been a lead advisor on the project. “This first phase has been made possible because of the generosity of several industry partners, beginning with West Coast Grape Farming,” said Mark Salwasser. Plans are underway to recognize all donors using university-approved signage.

creating university-industry partnerships and a plan for redeveloping the vineyards was formed to ensure that Fresno State remains the premier institution for hands-on training in the vineyard.

“Partnerships like these continue to be the cornerstone of our program’s success. We are grateful that our industry is committed to helping us make improvements in the vineyard that will ultimately benefit our students and the grape and wine industry,” said Dr. Jim Kennedy, department chair.

In February, the vineyard redevelopment plan was launched with a major commitment from West Coast Grape Farming, a division of Bronco Wine Company. Mark Salwasser, vineyard manager, and recently hired assistant vineyard manager, Ryan Hessler, have been busy working closely with Sal Arriola, chief agricultural officer at West Coast Grape Farming, to coordinate industry donations and the scheduling of multiple vendors, crews, supplies, and materials needed to replant approximately 20 acres of French Colombard winegrapes. Tom Valdero, a Fresno State viticulture

The department looks forward to the next phase of the project, which includes redevelopment of the raisin and table grape acreage as well as new instructional and demonstration plots for training the industry and students for generations to come.

For full story,



Pa r t n e r i n g w i t h I n d u s t r y


Industry Investment The Department of Viticulture and Enology wishes to recognize West Coast Grape Farming’s commitment to making the Fresno State Vineyards the premier location for training students and the grape and wine industry. The Vineyard Redevelopment Plan is an ongoing project in the Fresno State Vineyards. A complete list of contributors will be recognized in subsequent issues of the Catch Wire. 7


F r e s n o S t a t e W i n e r y o n To p 1 0 L i s t For many years, the Fresno State Winery has been on our university’s Top 10 list of things that make Fresno State unique. As the first commercially bonded winery on any U.S. university campus, the winery has a solid reputation for being the “home of tomorrow’s winemakers.” But with all of the accolades that our students and winery have received over the years, we remain forward-thinking and are committed to building upon our successes. Under the leadership of Dr. Jim Kennedy, chair of the Department of Viticulture and Enology, Fresno State is always looking for ways to enhance our ability to prepare students for careers in the wine industry. “We take our role as educators seriously and are excited about our new courses, additional faculty and staff, and the overall direction we are headed,” said Kennedy.

New winery and marketing manager, Kevin Smith, promotes the Fresno State Winery’s new wine club, “Unleashed” at Vino Italiano on April 18.

Get “Unleashed” at Viticulture and Enology, Kevin brings creativity, knowledge, and lots of energy. “Having a commercial winery on campus gives me so many opportunities to integrate the business and marketing aspects into the curriculum, while providing students with real-world experience in these areas,” said Kevin.

One example of this growth is the arrival of Kevin Smith, our new wine business marketing manager. And has he ever been busy! Since March, Kevin has already developed and launched a new wine club called, “Unleashed,” hosted a successful Vino Italiano event in the Fresno State Winery on April 18 for the community, and released the 2012

Kevin is a graduate of Fresno State’s Craig School of Business and holds an MBA in entrepreneurship with honors (2001). His professional experience in winery marketing and business management and university course instruction is a great fit for the Fresno State Winery and Department of Viticulture

President’s Reserve Classic Chardonnay named “Legacy” on April 19 to honor retiring university President John Welty. As the marketing and sales manager for the Fresno State Winery and a lecturer for the Department of

and Enology. Welcome, Kevin, to our team!



A r e Yo u R e a d y t o G e t U n l e a s h e d ? Fresno State Wines Unleashed! We heard your plea and have responded with wine! The Fresno State wine club has been re-designed, re-named, and re-launched! “Unleashed” was coined to represent the spirit of exploration and unbridled affection we find in every student winemaker and every bottle of Fresno State wine. Kevin Smith is passionate about conveying the energy and cutting edge styles of the student enologists, combined with the quality winemaking practices that make us an award-winning winery.

Some of our Industry Advisory Board members enjoyed Vino Italiano on April 18 at the Fresno State Winery. L to R: Nat DiBuduo, Allied Grape Growers; Dianne Nury, Vie-del Winery; Michael Othites, Constellation Wines; Cathy

Unleashed is a member’s choice club with options around the Ference, Treasury Estates volume (12 bottles or 6 bottles per year), color, and delivery. There are three shipments each year, timed with various holiday seasons.

Kevin knows that customer loyalty is critical for long-term sales and success and that a wine club is the best way to keep members loyal. Joining the club is free, and signing up today qualifies members for instant discounts on all student-produced Fresno State wines. The benefits of the club include: 

A 20% discount on all wines through our online store

Several wines each year limited to wine club members only

VIP invitation to all events, many of which are exclusive to wine club members

Priority invitations and discounts for you and two guests to all of our winery events, and more!

Meet Shayne Vetter, the Fresno State Winery’s intern, and Derek Sanchez, wine business marketing intern. Shayne assists winemaker, John Giannini, with the production aspects of the winery while Derek assists Kevin Smith with winery sales and marketing. 9

Alumni Spotlight

B r y a n A n t h o n y, M . S . am still in touch with today. The network of viticulturists and enologists that I developed while in school has been invaluable to me in my professional life. But, no doubt the best experience I had while attending Fresno State was meeting my future wife, Marit Arana, who was working on her masters in Animal Science,” he added.

If you have been to any one of our viticulture and enology events, you probably have seen or met Bryan Anthony. His commitment to Fresno State’s viticulture and enology program is evident in the many ways he gives back to this institution. Bryan came to Fresno State in the fall of 1985 and after meeting with Vincent Petrucci, former professor of viticulture, he decided to pursue a master’s degree in plant science.

Today Bryan continues to support the viticulture and enology program as a member of the Fresno State Viticulture and Enology Alumni. For many years, he served on their Board of Directors and also held the office of president from 2005 to 2012.

Fortunate to have been hired as a student assistant by Dominic Pecchenino, former vineyard manager (1985), Bryan soon became a big part of the viticulture team at Fresno State. In the next few years he worked as the acting table grape technician in the university vineyards and was also a teaching assistant for two years for former viticulture professor Sayed Badr.

“Being involved with the Alumni Association has been rewarding. Working with other alumni and friends of the program to support the V. E. Petrucci Library has been a worthwhile endeavor,” he said. Bryan is employed by Diageo Chateau and Wine Estates as a grower relations manager, responsible for grape sourcing and grower management in the San Joaquin Valley. Previous employment includes positions as senior viticulture manager and senior viticulturist for Wente Family Estates where he managed 1,900 acres of vineyards in the Livermore

As a student, Bryan enrolled in a number of vineyard enterprise projects including Thompson Seedless, Zinfandel, and Flame Seedless. “One of the best experiences I had during my time at Fresno State was participating in the vineyard projects. They provided me with hands-on opportunities to learn the practical side of grape growing,” said Bryan.

Valley and supported the Director of Viticulture with the technical aspects of vineyard production in Livermore and Monterey County. Prior to Wente, Bryan held a number of viticulture positions at E & J Gallo Winery, where he focused on production viticulture, winegrape quality, and grower education.

He completed his M.S. degree in 1990 and was fortunate to receive funding for his masters project through the USDA Research Station in Fresno where he worked in the Postharvest Pathology Lab headed by Dr. Doug Phillips.

Thank you, Bryan, for all you do for our students and the viticulture and enology program at Fresno State!

“I met so many great people while at Fresno State from professors to fellow students, many of whom I


Alumni Spotlight

R o n M e t z l e r, B . S . How can you thank someone who has been a part of the viticulture and enology program for over five decades? Well, Dr. Jim Kennedy, department chair, did his best as he surprised Ron Metzler with the Department of Viticulture and Enology’s Outstanding Alumni Award during the graduation dinner on May

And finally, Ron is an active member of the grape and wine industry who has also served on numerous committees. Always interested in learning and in promoting the central valley’s grape and wine industry, his affiliations include the Central California Winegrape Growers, San Joaquin Valley Viticulture Tech Group, Farm Bureau, California Association of Winegrape Growers where he is a founding member, and the Fresno State Ag Foundation, just to name a few!

16, 2013 at Fresno State.

Ron has helped guide our research and academic programs at Fresno State with genuine interest and Fresno State pride. Through his dedication and service, he has been a role model and has made significant and lasting contributions to our viticulture and enology program for which we are truly grateful. On May 16, Dr. Kennedy tried to find the words to let him know how much we appreciate what he has done for the viticulture and enology program, and for the grape and wine industry as a whole. Ron’s message to the graduates encouraged them to get involved in their industry, and to find a way to give back.

The story of Ron’s service began in the 1950s when he was a student in Fresno State’s viticulture program. He graduated in 1959 and has remained an active member of the viticulture and enology alumni, as well as an integral part of the university and the grape and wine community by serving in many different roles.

The inscription on the plaque commended Ron for his dedication, contributions, and heartfelt service to the viticulture and enology programs at California State University, Fresno.

Ron continues to be an active member of the Viticulture and Enology Alumni Association and has devoted a tremendous amount of time on their Board—most recently as treasurer.

In May, Ron and his wife, Diadre, relocated to Arizona where they will enjoy retirement. His interest in Fresno State will no doubt continue, and we look forward to hearing from them often. With gratitude and friendship, we wish them well!

He has demonstrated his commitment to the V. E. Petrucci Library by serving on its Library Committee. Ron is a charter member and former chair of department’s Industry Advisory Board—a board meets regularly and provides guidance to academic and research programs within department.

our that the the


C l u b N e w s & E ve n t s

D i a r y o f a V i t i c u l t u r e C l u b F i e l d Tr i p Monday, March 25

took care of their vineyard, so he had some great insight into the relationship between the vines and wines.

Today is the first day of Spring Break. We headed out and spent our first afternoon at Viticulture Club member John Viano’s family home, vineyard, and winery in Martinez., CA. Viano Vineyards has been family owned since 1920 and John is the fourth

Wednesday, March 27 Our visit to Caymus Vineyards (center photo) was amazing. They literally wined and dined us! Chuck Wagner personally gave us a tour of their cellar (barrel tasting!) and their estate vineyard. He told us about his family history and how the vineyards and winery have developed along the way. Joe Wagner (winemaker and Chuck’s son) elaborated on the winemaking process and how they are finding ways to make popular wines even between vintages. They shared many wines and Janet Thomas and Mike Gioia had a wonderful Mediterranean lunch prepared for us. They really pulled out the stops!

generation. The vineyard was established in 1888 so they have vines that are over 120 years old. His family was amazing and they let a bunch of us into their home. We had a blast there, camped on their property, grilled tri-tip, and made pineapple upside-down cake! Tuesday, March 26 Today we headed up to Shafer Vineyards in Stags Leap where Elias F e r n a n d e z , winemaker, and their head of viticulture showed us their vineyards and gave us a tour of their gorgeous and very modern winery. We also visited Markham Vineyards in St. Helena where Bryan Del Bondio, president, gave us a wonderfully entertaining personal tour of the winery. He told us all about their history and told many stories about the photos in their rock n– roll museum. They have a great team who were more than gracious!

Our last visit was to Maldanado, a small winery just outside Calistoga where Hugo Maldonado and his family told us how they dug for two years to create their hillside cave/winery. Theirs was a romantic story of a family of vineyard workers who created a winery. Hugh (second generation) is the winemaker and his wife, Lydia, is Horacio’s cousin. They were great to us and told us how they are very simple winery that is family and quality-focused.

Next we visited Flora Springs where winemaker Paul Steinhauer gave us a tour of their winery and caves. The wines were nice and Paul had a lot to say about how they were made. Viticulture Club member Horacio Lopez-Segura spent last summer working for a vineyard management company that

Thursday, March 28 After a great trip, we returned to Fresno.


C l u b N e w s & E ve n t s

C l u b R a i s e s F u n d s f o r V. E . Pe t r u c c i L i b r a r y On Sunday, April 20, runners from all over Fresno and Clovis gathered in the Fresno State Vineyards to run, walk, or stroll for a good cause. Hosted by the Viticulture Club, this 2nd annual 5K event raised $2,000 for the V. E. Petrucci Library in the Department of Viticulture and Enology at Fresno State. The 5K and the library itself is named for Vincent E. Petrucci, founder of the Viticulture and Enology programs at Fresno State and a legend in the field. Under the direction of Britt Foster, our librarian, the library supports and continues Petrucci’s legacy of excellence in academics, research, and extension in the heart of California's Central Valley. Viticulture Club members were out in force, helping to make this community event a success. And that it was! For a fee of $35, participants received a “Papa Petrucci” shirt, bottled water, and a lot of fun! Best of all, Professor Petrucci not only kicked off the event, he also gave a “high-five” to each 5K participant as they crossed the finish line.

1st Place John Viano 2nd Place Brett Schmitz 3rd Place Mario (Ricky) Lanza

So get your running shoes ready for the next Papa Petrucci Run in April 2014!

Papa Petrucci Kicks off the 5K Run in the Fresno State Vineyards 13

C l u b N e w s & E ve n t s

Awards for Outstanding Ser vice The Viticulture Club is the oldest student club on the Fresno State campus and is committed to serving the Department of Viticulture and Enology and the grape and wine industry while providing learning and networking opportunities for its student membership. In addition to various service projects, their annual educational and fundraising events include the Fall Harvest Dinner, FFA Vine Pruning Contest, FFA Vine Judging Contest, the Papa Petrucci 5K Run in the Fresno State Vineyards, and the annual American Viticultural Area (AVA) field trip to grape growing regions in the state. The club is a source of pride for the department and we want to commend 2012-2013 president, Steve Smith, for demonstrating excellent leadership skills. On May 16, 2013 Steve Smith presented the Richard Hansen Outstanding Junior Award to Erin Palumbo and the Elmer Snyder Outstanding Senior Award to Melissa Costa for their dedication, leadership, and service to the Viticulture Club in 2012-2013. Congratulations to their newly elected 2013-2014 officers:

Patrick Tachella, President; Doris Michue, Vice

President; Derrick Webb, Treasurer; Jacqueline Chenoweth, Secretary; and Erin Palumbo, Sergeant-at-Arms.

Stay in touch with the Viticulture Club and Enology Society on Facebook! The Enology Society is an organization that promotes the education of wine and the wine industry through organoleptic evaluation, lectures and tours. Its members are primarily upper-division enology students (21 and over) as well as members of the community with an interest in wine. Each semester, the Enology Society provides a series of educational meetings and relies on support from alumni winemakers and various wineries to support these activities. Their annual Enology Society Banquet is held each spring to help raise funds to support their mission. On May 16, 2013, outgoing president Lauren Billys recognized two outstanding members who have provided extraordinary service and commitment to the Enology Society in 2012-2013. Andrew Phillips (junior) and Nick Moraida (senior) were the proud recipients of these awards. Congratulations to their newly elected 2013-2014 officers: Andrew Phillips, President; Lauren Meissner, Vice President; Bill Guadagni, Treasurer; Andrew Belzer, Secretary; Roy Oneto, Social Chair; Randy Gardenhire and Rachael Fishman, Acquisition Officers; Shaun Jue and Stephanie Reynolds, Food Chairs.


C l u b N e w s & E ve n t s

Viticulture & Enolog y Alumni News Several years ago the once separate viticulture and enology alumni groups officially combined their memberships into one organization, the Viticulture and Enology Alumni Association, or VEAA. This


unity mirrored the creation of the Department of Viticulture and Enology, with the hope that graduates would one day become active members of the VEAA. Regardless of what era our alums attended Fresno State, when they think back to their days as students they may not realize how much the alumni groups did to support their educational experience. Through dedication and giving of time and resources, many opportunities for success were made possible because of the viticulture and enology program's strong ties with alumni and industry friends.

Sunday, June 3, 2013—Visit

REGIONAL GATHERINGS New and exciting events, regional activities, and opportunities to feature our alums are among the many concepts for the VEAA’s future and our efforts to support the V. E. Petrucci Library and the Department of Viticulture and Enology.

PAY IT FORWARD With that said, we invite our alumni to pay it for-


ward and get involved in the VEAA today! Support comes in many forms, but the first step is to become a member of this organization! There are also many opportunities to serve as regional Directors on the VEAA Board.

The Department of Viticulture and Enology is building a list of alumni and we need your help! Please provide us with your current employer and contact information by email. Thank you.

The VEAA is in the process of redefining itself and wants your input and ideas on how we can come

together, young and old, as a strong and unified group that can give back to the Fresno State viticulture and enology students and to the grape and wine industry. We need and appreciate your help! Join today! Let's make a difference together!

AG ONE EVENT On July 10, 2013, the Jordan College of Agricultural Sciences and Technology and Ag One will be hosting the North Bay Alumni & Friends Reunion in Windsor. Advance reservations required. For more information, visit

- Robert Wample, VEAA President - Jim Kennedy, Department of Viticulture & Enology



Celebrating the Class of 2013 On Thursday evening, May 16, 2013 the Department of Viticulture and Enology’s lawn was filled with laughter, tears, applause, and excitement as a record number of viticulture and enology graduates, families, and friends enjoyed a celebratory dinner to honor our 47 students in the Class of 2013.

this proud moment with us,” said Kennedy. Awards were also a part of the evening’s program. The department’s outstanding graduate and undergraduate student achievers, Jennifer Barak and Lauren Billys, respectively, were announced and given the honor of pouring a celebratory glass of wine to each of the graduates for the annual toast.

Following a social with hors d’oeuvres and wine (21 and over), Dr. Jim Kennedy, Department Chair, Ron Metzler received the kicked off the dinner with a Department of Viticulture warm welcome and thank you and Enology’s Outstanding to all of our sponsors, which Alumni Award for his included the San Joaquin Valley years of dedication and Winemakers Group. Each year service to the program (see this group provides major support page 11), and several students for this event, and proudly makes it and graduates received awards for one of their monthly meetings for its their leadership and contributions members—shown standing to be rec- Over 260 persons attended the celebratory dinner to the Viticulture Club and Enoloognized in the photo to the right. at the Department of Viticulture and Enology on May16, 2013 gy Society in 2012-2013 (see page “Because of our the generosity of 14 for details). our sponsors, we (the department) are able to proThe department’s annual graduation dinner is convide a complimentary meal to each graduate, discount veniently held the evening before the Jordan College the cost for our undergraduates, and reduce the cost of Agricultural Sciences and Technology’s convocaof the dinner for everyone,” said Cynthia Wood, tion ceremony where graduates don caps and gowns event coordinator. All sponsors were acknowledged and walk the stage at the Save Mart Center. Families at the dinner. and friends often drive long distances to be a part of While guests experienced cool weather, a delicious these graduation festivities that begin on Thursday, meal by Pardini’s Catering, and Fresno State ice and end with the official university commencement cream for dessert, they enjoyed listening to Dr. Kenceremony on Saturday. nedy, the evening’s Master of Ceremonies. As the evening on May 16 concluded, excitement “Each year I look forward to personally recognizing was in the air and many graduates looked forward to each graduate as they take center stage on the Metzthe pomp and circumstance yet to come. ler gazebo. I think my favorite part of the evening is Congratulations to the Class of 2013! Wishing each when I get to share their favorite Fresno State of you success as you enter the grape and wine inmemory and their future plans. I’m glad that so many dustry! friends and family members are able to experience



New Wine Chemistr y Faculty

Introducing Dr. Hend Letaief

It is with great pleasure that I announce that our search for a wine chemistry faculty member has successfully concluded. Dr. Hend Letaief will join our team in August 2013. She brings excellent credentials, energy and passion to this position. She will be teaching wine production and analysis courses in the Fall 2013. I would like to thank Dr. Kaan Kurtural and the search committee, our faculty and staff, and so many other industry members for their hard work and dedication to this search. — Jim Kennedy, Chair Department of Viticulture & Enology

The Department of Viticulture and Enology is excited about the arrival of our newest faculty member this summer. After a successful search process held earlier this spring, Dr. Hend Letaief accepted the position of Assistant Professor—Enology and Wine Chemistry. When the fall semester begins in August 2013, she will be busy working with students as she brings her knowledge and experience to the classroom. Dr. Hend Letaief received her B.S. degree in food engineering from the Higher Institute of Food Industries of Tunisia (ESIAT) in 2002, and her M.S. in viticulture and enology from SupAgro Montpellier, France in 2004. She completed her Ph.D. in Food Science and Technology from the University of Turin in Italy in 2007. Prior to accepting the position at Fresno State, she was an assistant professor at ESIAT in Tunisia where she taught fermented beverages and sensory analysis at the graduate level and enology, brewery, and sensory analysis at the undergraduate level. She also is a part-time scientific translator for VINIDEA, an internet journal of viticulture and enology ( Letaief speaks and reads multiple languages. Her research experience has resulted in several publications and outreach projects. In the fall of 2013, the Department of Viticulture and Enology will host a welcome reception for Dr. Letaief for the campus community and industry. We know she will be a great addition to the viticulture and enology faculty at Fresno State!


Jordan College of Agricultural Sciences & Technology 18

Convocation 2013 19


O u t s t a n d i n g G r a d u a t e S t u d e n t A c h i eve r When it came time to celebrate her academic achievements in May, Jennifer Barak had many reasons to smile. In addition to receiving the Department of Viticulture and Enology’s 2013 Outstanding Graduate Student Achiever award, she was awarded with the 2013 Jordan College of Agricultural Sciences and Technology’s Outstanding Thesis Award on May 18 at the commencement ceremony at the Save Mart Center. Jennifer grew up in Los Angeles, California. After high school and junior college she transferred to Fresno State in order to pursue an enology degree, in which she found the perfect blend of art and science. During her undergraduate career, while

waiting to turn 21, she studied abroad in London, and was able to complete a 3-month internship in Veneto, Italy where she lived and worked in the winery and shadowed the viticulturist and visited vineyards across the Italian countryside. In the summer of 2010, she had the opportunity to travel to Europe again as a Fresno State student where she spent a month studying winemaking in Switzerland, Italy and France. After receiving her B.S. degree in enology from Fresno State in 2011, Jennifer began to pursue her master’s degree in viticulture and enology under advisor Dr. James Kennedy.

Jennifer Barak, M.S. As a graduate student Jennifer successfully performed several research projects in the field of grape and wine phenolics and designed, executed, and concluded a research project that was published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Her thesis title is HPLC Retention Thermodynamics of Grape and Wine Tannins. “The Department of Viticulture has given me so much—not only the base of knowledge required to pursue my chosen career, but lifetime friends and faculty and staff who I will always be able to turn to during my career,” said Jennifer. ‘I can’t wait to start my career and get my chance to give back!”

Link to YouTube video interview with Jennifer

Jennifer will begin her career working for Ridge Vineyards in Healdsburg, California. We are proud of her accomplishments and look forward to keeping an eye on her as she makes her mark on the grape and wine industry. 20


O u t s t a n d i n g U n d e r g r a d u a t e S t u d e n t A c h i ev e r Meet Lauren Billys, the Department of Viticulture and Enology’s 2013 Outstanding Undergraduate Student Achiever. Lauren not only earned a B.S. in enology in May 2013, but she earned a B.A. in chemistry from Fresno State. As a double major, Lauren remained very active in the Delta Gamma Fraternity where she served as their Director of Public Relations and Vice President of Social Standards. In the Department of Viticulture and Enology, she was an active member of the Enology Society where she held the offices of Social Chair and

Lauren Billys, B.S. President. She says that it is through these extracurricular activities and commitments that she found a unique set of relationships and was able to enhance her educational experience at Fresno State.

“Becoming a student in the Department of Viticulture and Enology has been the best decision I made at Fresno State. The faculty cares about the progress of its students and it’s invested in our successes and futures. My fellow classmates have pushed me to study harder and become more involved in the program. I love the challenges presented by this department and the encouragement to succeed that is found in the faculty, staff, and students. I couldn’t be more thankful for the opportunity to work alongside this impressive group,” said Lauren.

In addition to enology, Lauren also has a talent and passion for the sport of three-day eventing which is a competitive genre of equestrian competition. As a result she joined the Puerto Rican Eventing Team and rode for them in 2011 in the Pan American Games in Guadalajara, Mexico and in various international competitions throughout the United States. Lauren’s immediate plans are to pursue her passion in equestrian competition but may consider returning to graduate school in the new few years. For now she has an opportunity to compete in a series of international competitions in the upcoming Olympic cycle for 2016.

Congratulations to Lauren for her academic achievements and leadership in our department.

Link to YouTube video interview with Lauren



Pa r t n e r i n g w i t h C A RT This spring, Eli Carlo, a teacher from the Center for Advanced Research and Technology (CART) in Clovis, California contacted Dr. Susan Rodriguez, director of the Department of Viticulture and Enology’s Sensory Lab, about working with some of his students on a project involving the influence of perception. CART is a state-of-the-art research and technology facility where eleventh and twelfth grade students from the Clovis and Fresno Unified School Districts attend high school. CART students are selected into this rigorous educational program that includes learning plans, individualized attention, and a coordinated sequence of projects. Students must ultimately design and complete projects in collaboration with partners from the local, national, and international community. Courses are taught in four career clusters by teams of instructors. Mr. Carlo is a teacher in the Psychology and Human Behavior cluster.

Two students on the CART team give a presentation at Fresno State to Dr. Susan Rodriguez and her sensory team.

The Influence of Perception: Impact on Color of Wine tion: Impact of Color on Wine.” These students, of course, were not allowed to come in contact with the wine, but were responsible for all other aspects of the study.

“Four of Eli Carlo’s students were interested in designing a perception test based on a very complicated study by noted University of Bordeaux professor, Denis Dubourdieu. In researching this project, the students learned about our Wine Sensory Lab at Fresno State and wanted to partner with us on their study,” said Dr. Rodriguez.

The students began with an interest in knowing whether color can change one’s perception of taste. This particular subject has also been an area of interest and study for members of the grape and wine industry. In fact there has been much industry debate over the power of perception, and the influence of sight, smell, and taste on the human brain when evaluating wine. According to Dubourdieu, “The wine’s color appears to provide significant sensory information, which misleads the subjects’ ability to judge flavor.”

Rodriguez and her team were very impressed with the four students and their teacher, and agreed to run the tests for them in the Sensory Lab this spring. CART students Aaron Caldwell, Chloe Campos, Emiley Flores, and Rebecca Nelson chose the following title for their project, “Influence of Percep-


Rodriguez’s team regularly conducts blind tastings in the Sensory Lab at Fresno State—where information about the wine, including items such as variety, color, label are withheld from the evaluator. In fact, her team often uses black wine glasses in their studies and training exercises to mask the color of the wine that is being presented to tasters. For the CART study, two glasses of white wine were used. Rodriguez’s team used food dye in white wine to make it appear as red wine before presenting the wines to the participants in a blind study. After compiling the data, the students were responsible for writing a final report and presenting their findings at a research symposium at CART in April.

Rodriguez’s sensory team gets the “red wine” ready to give to participants to sample

Rodriguez indicated that it was a great experience working with these talented high school students. “I hope that we contributed to their project in a way that helped them learn and build their skills,” she said. The department hopes this recent collaboration will lead to future partnerships with CART. “We’d love to be able to work with and attract top-notch high school students like this to the Department of Viticulture and Enology at Fresno State, and to the grape and wine industry,” said Jim Kennedy, Department Chair.

Participants in the study sample the “white wine” and use a list of descriptors to describe what the wine tasted like

CART is the Center for Advanced Research Technology As stated on their web site, “The Center for Advanced Research and Technology (CART) is the most comprehensive, state-of-the-art education reform effort at the secondary level to date. The CART combines rigorous academics with technical, design, process, entrepreneurial, and critical thinking skills.” For more information, visit Watch the students’ debriefing video on YouTube!


V. E . Pe t r u c c i L i b r a r y

From the Collection In the mid-nineteenth century, Europe was From this battle emerged three prominent groups: captivated by popular and scientific biological and the sulpharistes, those who believed in chemical botanical study. Efficiencies in travel control; “submersionists,” who thought and communication allowed upper and flooding could eradicate the louse; and upper-middle class people, including the “Americanists,” who saw salvation women, to participate in the study of through grafting French vines onto plants. Innovation in transportation of resistant American rootstock. Centered plants also allowed these enthusiasts, as at the Montpellier School of Agriculture, well as growers, universities, and or La Gaillarde, the Americanists included research agencies to send for plants Jules Planchon, who was central in around the world. Without modern proving the viability of grafted vines. The plant trafficking regulations, it is likely transition to grafted vines wasn’t easy: that phylloxera first arrived in Europe many American rootstock varieties via vines from the East Coast of the struggled in the calcareous soil of France United States shipped without thought (not to mention the prejudice French American Vines: Their for the potential harm to indigenous wine drinkers had in associating Adaptation, Culture, Grafting plants. The arrival of this tiny pest was American varieties with a “foxy” flavor). and Propagation to have a major impact on the history Pierre Viala was selected by the Minister By P. Viala, L. Ravaz of wine. of Agriculture to travel to America to Complete Translation by Raymond Dubois, Edmund H. Twight investigate varieties with grafting Reports of phylloxera were first noted Press of Freygang-Leary Co., potential that would flourish in France. in French vineyards in 1863, and San Francisco, 1903. isolated and sporadic mentions Viala found these vines in the chalky hills continued through the 1860s. The yellow of Texas at the direction of American botanist phylloxera louse was first linked to the red galls on Thomas Munson, who was later awarded the Chevalier dying vines by a government commission in 1868, du Merite Agricole of the Legion d’Honneur for his work but received little attention. Everything from overwith Viala. Viala returned to Paris, and with student pruning to God’s wrath was proposed as the source Louis Ravaz, began educating French growers on how of the destruction sweeping France’s vineyards: the to work with American vine rootstocks, as well as louse itself was even known for a time as Phylloxera other rootstocks under development in France. vastatrix, or the devastator. With vines increasingly Ironically, as France reassembled their wine industry effected, French wine production fell from 84.5 through the help of American vines, American vines million/hl in 1875 to 23.4 million/hl in 1889, and a began failing-- phylloxera had reached California. As prize of 300,000 francs (nearly $2.5 million in acres of vineyards in Napa, Sonoma, and the central today’s US dollar) was offered for a solution. Of San Joaquin Valley fell to the louse, the Agricultural the 696 ideas proposed nearly half were tested, and Experiment Station at the University of California only a few controlled, but not cured, the spread of turned to France for answers. phylloxera. 24

The publishing of new phylloxera management information in France was an event: Viala’s major work on American vine grafting, Une Mission viticole en Amérique, was an instant best-seller.

Viala and Ravaz’s 1892 guidebook for French growers, Les Vignes Americaines: Adapation, Culture, Greffage, Pepiniéres was one solution. The second edition, released in 1896, contained the latest science related to managing phylloxera through grafting. Edmund H. Twight, Assistant Professor of

Much has been written on the impact of phylloxera on the wine industry: from the perspective of a

Agriculture at Berkeley, and Raymond Dubois, Viticulturist to the Government of Cape Colony (South Africa), undertook a translation of this work, with the assistance of Viala, who updated the text to bring it current to 1902. Published in 1903 by Freygang-Leary Co., American Vines is 299 pages, and includes a preface by Viala, an introduction by Twight and Dubois, a bibliography, a general index which functions as a detailed table of contents, an alphabetical index, 150 figures of varieties, grafting procedures, and phonological stages, and a “Glossary of Principal Scientific Terms Used in Present Volume” accompanied by the footnote, “This Glossary has been given because several viticulturists have complained that some of the terms used in previous publications were

Google Ngram Viewer tracks phrase occurrences within texts digitized by Google Books by analyzing letter combinations as found in the search term. The Viewer can track texts in multiple languages

twenty-first century library, it is interesting to examine American Vines as an exchange of information between America and France, as well as part of the larger exchange of information related to phylloxera, and its impact on the management of the disease. Had science communication existed in the form of rapid exchanges many now enjoy thanks to the internet, would the history of the wine industry look entirely different? It is impossible to remove the phylloxera outbreak from its historical context, but it is worth considering the importance of not only the scientific process, but also access to scientific information and its economic impact.

unintelligible to them.” Clothbound with an embossed title in a brown the color of rich soil and green fan-shaped leaves, this cover embellishment is perhaps a stylized version of Vitis Californica leaves, rather than the slightly lobed leaves of V. Berlandieri, a variety key in French anti-phylloxera grafting. The V.E. Petrucci Library’s copy was a personal copy donated by Professor Vincent E. Petrucci, and bears his name in blue ink on the frontispiece.

Phillips, Rod. A Short History of Wine. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 2000.

For Further Reading These and other materials are available at the V.E. Petrucci Library. For questions, please contact librarian Britt Foster at 559.278.5388, or at

Robinson, Jancis. The Oxford Companion to Wine, s.v. “Phylloxera.” Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. Viala, P., & L. Ravaz. Trans. Dubois, Raymond, & Edmund H. Twight. American Vines: Their Adaptation, Culture, Grafting and Propagation. Second ed. San Francisco: Press of Freygang-Leary Co., 1903. Digital version available at americanvinesres00vialrich. Accessed May 31, 2013.

Campbell, Christy. The Botanist and the Vintner: How Wine was Saved for the World. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 2004. Dominé, André. Wine. lagsgesellschaft mbH, 2001.

Cologne: Konemann Ver-


F r o m t h e V. E . Pe t r u c c i L i b r a r y I n n ov a t i v e A p p r o a c h e s t o G r a p e R o t A n a l y s i s The “From the V.E. Petrucci Library� feature will focus on research from the Department of Viticulture and Enology. Each article will highlight research generated by Department research teams. wineries receiving loads of berries damaged by mechanical harvesting.

As more and more grape growers harvest mechanically, wineries and growers are confronted with the challenges of identifying rot in the slush of grape and juice arriving at winery sugar stands. Drs. Roy Thornton and Susan Rodriguez, heading a team of several research assistants, are working to

Drawing on their microbiology backgrounds, Thornton and Rodriguez were interested in finding a method to objectively quantify rot, even within the slurry of juice and berries. Their approach is based on the idea that rot-causing microorganisms produce volatile compounds, which can be detected through a variety of analyses. Working with Dr. Gary Takeoka of USDA-ARS Western Regional Research Laboratory, Thornton and Rodriguez are identifying and quantifying the volatile compounds

develop a method of rot quantification that is both time- and cost-affective. Thornton and Rodriguez, who have been with the Department of Viticulture and Enology at Fresno State since 2001, began investigating methods of rot quantification in 2008 in response to industry needs. Rot present in the vineyard can cause off-odors and other negative effects in the finished wine, making elevated rot percentages a major concern for wineries. Growers are also impacted by rot, as price per ton can be influenced by rot levels-- entire loads may even be rejected for high rot levels. Rot amounts are currently estimated through visual inspection of grapes sampled from berry gondolas. The amount of rot per load is then calculated based on the percentage of rotten berries present in the sample. This visual assessment has some degree of subjectivity, and is made increasingly difficult by

Dr. Susan Rodriguez, Ph.D. Director, Wine Sensory Lab & Lecturer

Students analyze rot in Chardonnay and Zinfandel grape samples at Fresno State


total of 42 moldy and sound samples (31 Zinfandel and 11 Chardonnay), Drs. Thornton and Rodriguez are now analyzing the berries to create a predictive model for field samples. The goal is to take this method to the sugar stand for harvest 2013 on a trial basis.

produced by common molds found in San Joaquin Valley vineyards: Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium italicum. Using berries inoculated with these molds as well as a complex of yeast and bacterial populations similar to microbial conditions found in vineyards, Dr. Thornton and Dr. Rodriguez investigated samples using five spectroscopy approaches to determine the most effective method for analysis: near infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Fourier Transform infrared, and Raman. Near infrared results were inconclusive, and visible and ultraviolet methods weren’t as precise as the results offered by Fourier Transform and Raman. Raman results were aligned significantly with rot content of grapes. However, results also indicated that each vineyard would need to be calibrated for

Dr. Roy Thornton, Ph.D. Professor of Enology the Raman spectra to be conclusive. This being a barrier in terms of cost and time needed to analyze rot in a practical situation, Thornton and Rodriguez have moved forward to analyze samples using Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

Fresno State students analyze samples using five spectroscopy methods

From 2009 to 2011, Thornton and Rodriguez ran 500 Chardonnay and 170 Zinfandel berry samples at a 0- 10% rot content through FTIR analysis. Using the approximately 2000 data points yielded in the spectrum of each sample, a multivariate data analysis method (partial least square regression) was applied to develop a percentage rot prediction model. As data sets grow through addition of samples harvest after harvest, the method’s accuracy also increases. Says Dr. Roy Thornton, “The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics offers the best solution in the last 30 years to the problem of quantification of rot in wine grapes.” In 2012, Thornton and Rodriguez took this method to the field. Visiting over 95 vineyards and taking a


Fe a t u re

The Importance of Xiphinema index in California Vineyards Introduction

be transmitted by nematodes (Taylor & Brown, 1997).

The dagger nematode, Xiphinema index (X. index), is considered a major pest in grape growing countries. Grapevines have been moved between countries and continents, following human migration and settlement, and have been imported

Symptoms of Xiphinema index Feeding Xiphinema index feeding initially causes a swollen club -like gall on root tips, which varies in size with the size and vigor of the root (Figure 1). The feeding wound becomes reddish brown to black and forms slightly sunken lesions on the roots (Wyss, 1978). Infested root systems are stunted and have a witch’s broom appearance after successive rounds of new roots branching and being damaged from behind the original damaged root tip (Pearson & Goheen, 1988). Extensive root damage results in reduced shoot growth and yield. Nematode feeding damage induces

and cultivated in numerous countries. These events have increased the incidence and spread of injurious pests and diseases (Esmenjaud & Bouquet, 2009). These pests damage roots, leading to their decay, the prevention of new root development and may result in vine decline and eventual death. (De Klerk & Loubser, 1988). Nematodes associated with vine damage are root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), citrus nematodes (Tylenchulus semipenetrans), root-lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus vulnus) and dagger nematodes (Xiphinema spp.) (Nicholas et al., 2007).

Sonet Van Zyl, Ph.D. Professor of Viticulture

Dagger nematodes are considered major pests (Brown et al., 1995), because they are often associated with specific viruses, which they carry from plant to plant through feeding. Dagger nematodes are found in all soil types and more than 92% of all nematodes are found in the 0 to 300 mm zone where most vine roots occur (De Klerk & Loubser, 1988). Light to medium textured soils with a pH between 6.5 and 7.5 seem to be preferred (Siddiqi, 1974). Xiphinema index is even more important as a vineyard pest because of its ability to transmit grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV). Grapevine fanleaf virus is a member of the nepovirus that have isometric particles of about 28 nm in diameter. One-third of the viruses in this group are known to

Fig.1. Feeding damage (galling) caused by X. index on roots of St. George, a highly susceptible variety.


water and nutrient stress, which in turn reduces vine vigor and yield. History and Symptoms of Grapevine Fanleaf Virus Grapevine fanleaf virus is one of the oldest viruses of V. vinifera (Pearson & Goheen, 1988) and is still one of the most economically impacting pathogens (Vigne et al., 2005). Vines infected with GFLV are generally seen in patches within a vineyard (Nicholas et al., 2007) and are normally smaller than healthy vines (Golino et al., 1992). In 1954 Hewitt documented the symptoms and the use of indicator plants for GFLV. The impact of GFLV varies with the tolerance of the cultivar and more tolerant cultivars can still produce good crops

Fig. 2a. Grapevine leaves showing the fan-like symptoms of the GFLV.

(Pearson & Goheen, 1988). The disease is characterized by three distinct symptoms: 

Infected leaves exhibit widely open petiolar sinuses and abnormally gathered primary veins causing a fan-like shape (Figure 2a). Bunches are fewer and smaller than usual with shot berries and irregular ripening (Figure 2b) (Pearson & Goheen, 1988). The GFLV can cause up to 80% reduction in fruit set (Nicholas et al., 2007). Affected vines show yellow vein banding along the main veins of mature leaves (Figure 2c) and discolored leaves show little malformation (Pearson & Goheen, 1988).

Fig. 2b. Vines infected with GFLV show smaller, fewer bunches per vine with a high number of shot berries

Management Strategies Each disease and pest requires a different control strategy. Nematodes are primarily spread by the movement of contaminated soil or infested plant material (Nicolas et al., 2007). Preventative measures for controlling X. index and GFLV are usually the best and the most effective way to overcome nematode problems is to use resistant rootstocks. Crop rotation and long fallow periods are not practical for grape growers and soil fumigation are highly restricted due to its toxicity. It is advisable to plant only certified planting stock (Golino, 1993), but studies have shown that even 29

Fig. 2c. Late-summer yellow vein-banding symptoms of vines infected with GFLV.

Xiphinema index in California Vineyards Continued Pearson, R.C. & Goheen, A.C., 1988. Compendium of grape diseases. American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul, Minnesota. 93pp.

healthy grapevines can become infected with GFLV within three years after planting (Hewitt et al., 1962). Literature Cited

Siddiqi, M.R., 1974. Xiphinema index. CIH Descriptions

Brown DJF, Dalmasso A, Trudgill DL. 1995. Nematode pests of soft fruits and vines. In Plant parasitic nematodes in temperate agriculture. Editor(s): K. Evans, D. L., Trudgill & M. Webster J. M. CAB, Oxon, UK, pp. 427-462.

of Plant Parasitic Nematodes. Set 3, No. 45. Taylor, C.E. & Brown, D.J.F., (eds.) 1997. Nematode vectors of plant viruses. CAB International, Wallingford. Oxon, UK. 286pp. Vigne, E., Demangeat, G., Komar, V. & Fuchs, M., 2005. Characterization of a naturally occurring recombinant isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus. Arch. Virol. 150, 2241-2255.

De Klerk, C.A. & Loubser, J.T., 1988. Relationship between grapevine roots and soil-borne pests. In: The grapevine root and its environment. J.L. van Zyl, (ed.). South African Department of Agriculture and Water Supply. pp. 88-105.

Wyss, U., 1978. Root and cell response to feeding by Xiphinema index. Nematologica 24, 159-166.

Esmenjaud, D. & Bouquet, A., 2009. Selection and application of resistant germplasm for grapevine nematodes management. In: Integrated management of fruit crops and forest nematodes. A. Ciancio & K.G. Mukerji, (eds.). Springer Science+Business Media B.V. pp. 195-214.

For access to these and other articles regarding grapevine fanleaf virus, please contact the V. E. Petrucci Library.

Golino, D.A., Uyemoto, J.K. & Goheen, A.C., 1992. Grape virus diseases. In: Grape pest management, 2nd ed. D.L. Flaherty, L.P. Christensen, W.T. Lanini, J.J. Marois, P.A. Phillips & L.J. Wilson (eds.). University of California Division of Agriculture & Natural Resources. Publication 3393. pp. 101-109. Golino, D.A., 1993. Potential interactions between rootstocks and grapevine latent viruses. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 44, 148-152. Hewitt, W.B., Goheen, A.C., Raski, D.J. & Gooding Jr., G.V., 1962. Studies on virus diseases of the grapevine in California. Vitis 3, 57-83. Nicholas, P., Magarey, P. & Wachtel, M., (eds.) 2007. Grape Production Series Nr. 1: Diseases and Pests. Winetitles, Adelaide, Australia. 106pp.


E ve n t s

On the Road—Disseminating Research Results In addition to training future leaders of the grape and wine industry in the classroom, faculty in the Department of Viticulture and Enology also conduct solution-driven research for the grape and wine industry. As part of our mission, our faculty are busy throughout the year managing research teams and practical research projects that will benefit grape growers and winemakers in the central valley and other regions throughout the state. Many of our students are able to enhance their academic careers by working under the direction of the department’s many faculty research scientists. Industry funded student research assistantships provide funding to to hire students to perform hands-on field and/or laboratory tasks.

Left to right: Department of Viticulture and Enology graduate students, Brodie McCarthy, Sean Pinnell, and Dave Terry at last year’s Annual Meeting of the American Society for Enology and Viticulture, June, 2012

Jennifer A. Barak, Enology—Tannins Session (Part II) - June 27: Analysis of Tannins in Wine Based on Thermodynamics of Interaction—ASEV

Research results are disseminated to the grape and wine industry in many ways, including publications

Kaan Kurtural, Ph.D. Poster Session: Pruning Systems and Canopy Management Practices Interact on the Yield and Fruit Composition 64th American Society of Enology & Viticulture National Conference of Syrah—ASEV and presentations meetings.





Lindsay C. Mate, Poster Session: Variation in Concentration and Composition of California Cabernet Sauvignon Tannins—ASEV

This summer, Fresno State’s viticulture and enology program will be well-represented at two professional meetings hosted by the American Society of Enology and Viticulture (ASEV) and the American Society of Horticultural Science (ASHS). The ASEV conference will be held in Monterey, California on June 24-28, 2013 and the ASHS conference will take place in Palm Desert, California on July 22-25, 2013. Several Fresno State faculty, students, and alumni will travel to present their findings through oral and poster presentations.

Jim Kennedy, Ph.D. Tannin Symposium June 28: Speaker and organizing committee member. Jim Kennedy also holds the office of 1st Vice President for ASEV. The following Fresno State alumni will also be presenters at the ASEV conference this year: Nick Dokoozlian, Ph.D. (E & J Gallo), Rootstock Symposium, June 25: Speaker and organizing committee member—ASEV

Kaan Kurtural, Viticulture General Session—June 26: Mechanical Canopy Management Reduces Labor Costs and Maintains Fruit Composition in Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Production—ASEV

Zoran Ljepovic (Constellation Brands), Bottling Line Sanitation, June 26: Speaker—ASEV


E ve n t s

On the Road—Disseminating Research Results Attendance at professional conferences gives our faculty and staff the opportunity to network with peers, disseminate research, and meet with old and new colleagues. It also gives our students who work in our research program a great opportunity to get out in front of our industry while representing Fresno State.

Kaan Kurtural, Ph.D. & Geoff Dervishian— July 22: Mechanical Canopy Management Reduces Labor Costs and Maintains Fruit Composition in Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Production –ASHS Kaan Kurtural, Ph.D.—July 22: Pruning Systems and Canopy Management Practice Interact on the Yield, and Fruit Composition of Syrah—ASHS

It is gratifying for our faculty to guide students as they prepare for presentations at conferences like ASEV and ASHS This professional development experience not only helps the department disseminate important research results to the industry, but it prepares our students for careers in the real world.

2013 American Society of Horticultural Science Conference Kaan Kurtural, Ph.D. & Joseph Geller—July 22: Mechanical Canopy and Crop Load Management of Pinot Gris in a Warm Climate—ASHS Xiaofan Zhao, Sonet Van Zyl, Ph.D, Joseph Smilanick (USDA) and Jan Narcisco (USDA)—July 23: Chlorine Dioxide Sachets for the Control of Postharvest Decay of ‘Crimson Seedless’ Table Grapes—ASHS

If you are planning to attend ASEV or ASHS this year, be sure to look for us! For more information about the ASEV and ASHS conferences, visit: or

Sijie Zhu, Sonet Van Zyl, Ph.D. Joseph Smilanick (USDA), David Obenland (USDA), Franka Gabler (CA Table Grape Commission) - July 23: The Influence of Post-Veraison Foliar Potassium Applications on Table Grape Berry Quality—ASHS Victoria Towers, Sonet Van Zyl, Ph.D. —July 23: The Evaluation of Different Cultural Practices on Scarlet Royal Table Grapes to Determine Post Harvest Quality—ASHS

ASEV Scholarship News One of our students was awarded a prestigious ASEV scholarship this year. Michael Cook will be joining us in June from Texas A & M. Congratulations!


E ve n t s

Spring Highlights What’s Been Going On….. This spring has a been a busy one, filled with teaching, research, faculty and staff searches, and outreach activities. In January, many of our faculty, staff, and students travelled to Sacramento to attend the Unified Wine and Grape Symposium. In conjunction with this event, we also hosted our Annual Alumni and Friends Reunion. Thanks again to the Viticulture and Enology Alumni Association (VEAA) for providing financial support for our reunion. We always enjoy the time we get to spend with our alumni and industry friends and feel our presence at the symposium and reunion continues to be productive. The first issue of the Catch Wire newsletter was also a big hit at Unified. The feedback we received on our new look was positive and we look forward to sharing our stories with you in this and future issues.

Greeting alumni and industry colleagues at Fresno State’s booth at Unified 2013

A few other spring highlights include our participation at the WiVi Central Coast Symposium in Paso Robles where Dr. Jim Kennedy participated on a panel with viticulture and enology program heads from Cal Poly San Luis Obispo and UC Davis. In April, the Fresno State Winery opened its doors to the community for Vino Italiano—a tasting of Fresno State’s Italian varietals—and also held a special event to release the 2012 President’s Reserve Classic Chardonnay called Legacy, honoring retiring President John Welty. As summer approaches, we are preparing for another busy summer and harvest season and are making plans for several workshops and conferences. Be sure to read our e-news updates for details.

Students introduce themselves to potential employers at our Viticulture and Enology Career Fair in February 2013

In February, the Department of Viticulture and Enology was able to bring together students and several potential employers at its annual Internship and Career Fair. We appreciate the industry’s interest in our students and hope that this event continues to grow each year. Registration for next year’s Career Fair will begin in the fall 2013.

Viticulture and enology students help at Vino Italiano on April 18


E ve n t s

Calendar 

June 2 A Celebration of Wine tasting/fundraiser for V. E. Petrucci Library, Madera, CA - Hosted by the Viticulture & Enology Alumni Association

June 24-28 ASEV Annual Meeting of the American Society of Enology & Viticulture, Monterey, California

July 10 Fresno State Jordan College of Ag North Bay Alumni & Friends Dinner, Windsor, CA

July 22-25 American Horticultural Sciences and Technology Annual Meeting, Palm Desert, CA

Winter 2013—Grower workshop at Fresno State

2014—Plans are underway for more grower and winemaker workshops and conferences for the grape and wine industry


July 30 2 Sweet and Fortified Wine Association Meeting, Fresno State

GLOBAL OPPORTUNITIES The Department of Viticulture and Enology is pleased to announce that one of its students, Doris Michue, was awarded the ACI-Cork 2013 Award of Excellence. Doris will receive an

Fresno State’s Department of Viticulture and Enology is committed to providing students with a global perspective of the grape and wine industry through study abroad programs. One such program that is currently

all-expenses paid trip from ACI-Cork to travel with company representatives for one week beginning June 21 to learn about cork production. “Experiencing Portugal through a cultural lens is nothing less than exciting. My curiosity about their cork production, winemaking practices and styles is only the tip of the icePORTUGAL berg….I will enjoy returning with new cultural perspectives, as well as the knowledge of cork production, to share with our faculty, staff, and students,” said Doris.

accepting registrations is the 2014 Global Wine Industry Internship on the island of Hvar in Croatia on May 25-July 12, 2014.

The Department of Viticulture and Enology is grateful to ACI-Cork for providing this global opportunity to our students. ACI-Cork is located in Fairfield, CA.


This program is open to Fresno State students and other North American colleges and universities and is cross-disciplinary in nature. All internship placements will be customized based on each student’s area of study or interest and can include vineyards, wineries, wine stores, tasting rooms, wine and tourism associations, and other related companies or organizations. Viticulture, enology, business, marketing, hospitality management students, and others will want to check out the details online. The registration fee includes six units of credit through Fresno State’s Division of Continuing and Global Education. Visit the department’s web site to find out more about this exciting educational opportunity.


In Memoriam

D r. Ke i t h Pa t t e r s o n


eith Patterson, a former viticulture research scientist at Fresno State’s Viticulture and Enology Research Center (1986-1988), passed away this spring in Santa Margarita, California, after a battle with cancer. While at Fresno State, Keith was the principal investigator on several research projects including color properties of wine grapes, trellising, training and canopy management practices, irrigation scheduling, and new inspection methods of raisins. Keith was a native of Arkansas. In 1988 he relocated to the mid-west before returning to California and Cal Poly San Luis Obispo where he taught viticulture and integrated pest management for many years. Throughout his career, he remained a good friend and industry colleague. In 2012, Keith retired from Cal Poly when his health declined. Keith loved working with students and made many contributions and friends wherever he lived and worked. Fresno State was fortunate to have had him on our viticulture team, even if only for a few years. The grape and wine industry and his students were fortunate to have known him. Keith leaves behind two daughters, and many family members and friends who miss him dearly.

Earl Rocca


arl Rocca, an alumnus, long-time farmer, and supporter of Fresno State’s viticulture program passed away on March 31, 2013 in Fresno, California. Earl graduated from high school in 1945 before serving as a paratrooper in the Army. He studied viticulture at Fresno State, and graduated with a B.S. degree. He began farming in the Central Valley with his father in 1951. Over the years, Earl became a mechanical raisin harvesting pioneer and a well-respected leader in the raisin industry. Anyone who knew Earl knows that he was a passionate individual who unselfishly gave of his time and energy. His service areas included the Sun-Maid Board of Directors, Fresno-Madera Farm Credit Board, Fresno County Farm Bureau, and Fresno State’s Viticulture Alumni Association. For many years, Earl volunteered as the chairman for the “A Celebration of Wine” fundraising event, helping generate thousands of dollars to support the V. E. Petrucci Library in the Department of Viticulture and Enology. This dedication, leadership, and genuine concern for the viticulture students at Fresno State set him apart from so many. During many field trips to view his mechanical raisin harvester, our students were able to experience his passion for farming and his strong work ethic. His friendship, and his contributions to the university and viticulture program will not be forgotten. He leaves behind his wife of 54 years, Sandy, three sons and their families, his foreman, and many family and friends.



The Catch Wire  

Vol. 1, Issue 2, May 2013. Fresno State Department of Viticulture and Enology Newsletter.

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