Step Zero for Net Zero_Vinishree

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Role of design in supporting SMEs (Small & Medium Enterprise) and local businesses in their NET ZERO journey


Vinishree Solanki M.Des Design Innovation & Service Design Glasgow School of Art August 2021

I dedicate this project to my daughter, whose consistent advocacy, accompaniment and conviction in me has led me to pursue studies again at this age when numbers don’t matter. Who, I’m sure overheard and unconsciously absorbed all the conversations on zoom during my research stage and might have conceived her own narrative of net zero. This project made me aware how this burden of tomorrow is too heavy on her generation, and she must carry the beacon of hope for humans on earth. This project is my attempt to reduce one tiny hurdle in her herculean journey towards ‘living for this planet’.

I would like to thank my supervisor Zoe Prosser, whose consistent guidance & unparalleled belief in my project nudged me on. I kept reaching out to her whenever in doubt, lost or radar less, seeking her advice. This project would have been incomplete without the contributions of the people who shared their stories and lived experiences, who literally befriended me during this journey - Caro Overy, Zoe Rasbash, Nik Turner, Zoe Arnold-Bennett, Mark Holden, Katie Dickerson, Alister Reid & Guilherme Johnston. I’m grateful to Ness Wright and Cheryl McCulloch for reviewing my ideas and sharing their valuable feedback. Their insights and knowledge into the subject matter steered me to realign the outcome of the research with the industry needs. I would also like to acknowledge and thank my family and friends for all the unconditional support in this intense academic year.

Introduction As a design practitioner, I have always contemplated my positionality and my role as a single entity in contributing to this expansive realm of climate action and sustainability. This motivated me to explore the subject of environmental responsibility in this self-initiated project. I wanted to assimilate my learnings from working in the domain of sustainable architecture and product design, into a planet centric design led approach. As a future service designer, I wanted to amplify my perspective and play my role in converting the extractive economy to restorative and to a more regenerative economy. I wanted to find ways to transition from a status quo that is now deeply unsustainable to a new one that has a long-term positive impact on people and planet, through meaningful innovation combining empathy, collective collaboration and future thinking.

The climate crisis is a wicked problem, it is open with no boundaries, complex, dynamic and networked with many interdependencies.

Investigation into environmental responsibility directed me to few key drivers of change, and one of them being the role of businesses in climate action. So here I am, exploring the role of design in supporting SMEs and local businesses in their net zero journey.


Project Context


Orientation & Vision Setting


Explore Desk Research Case Studies Observation Study Interviews


Reframe Journey Map Stakeholder Map Thematic Analysis Opportunity


Create Ideation & Prototypes Personas Design Artefacts Co-design Workshop Feedback Sessions Iterate & Build


Catalyze Reimagining Net Zero Narrative Reframing Net Zero Status Quo SME’s Journey to Net Zero Step Zero for Net Zero Impact Reflections










Process Source: Systemic Design Framework proposed by Design Council UK, Beyond Net Zero publication, 2021 [1]

Connections & Relationships

Orientation & Vision Setting



Create Catalyze

Continuing the Journey

Leadership & Storytelling


Iterate & Adopt


Project Context SME & net zero

SME’s are the backbone of the UK economy as they account for the majority of the private sector. To meet UK’s target of net zero by 2050, SME’s play a pivotal role in achieving it. The workforce within these businesses are the NET ZERO enablers, they are the key drivers of change. The UK government and policy makers are aiding the SMEs with finance, up skills and knowledge to support them in their net zero journey.


Project Context net zero narrative

Term net zero is overwhelming, yet it is ubiquitous in the present times. What is net zero? How much even the climate conscious citizens understand these terminologies?


Project Context net zero narrative Scientifically, Net Zero means balancing the amount of greenhouse gases produced by human activity with an equal amount removed from the atmosphere Net Zero means including Scopes 1, 2 & 3 Scope 1 covers direct emissions from owned or controlled sources. Scope 2 covers indirect emissions from the generation of purchased electricity, steam, heating and cooling consumed by the reporting company. Scope 3 includes all other indirect emissions that occur in a company’s value chain. This direct and indirect carbon emission produced within Scope 1, 2 & 3 can be removed either by reducing, offsetting or capturing carbon.


Connections & Relationships

Orientation & Explore Vision Setting




Continuing the Journey

Orientation & Vision Setting

Leadership & Storytelling

Source: Systemic Design Framework proposed by Design Council UK, Beyond Net Zero publication, 2021 [1]


Orientation & Vision Setting It was essential for me to understand the bigger picture within which I was striving to contextualize my research. Investigating the climate crisis that is complex, dynamic and much fuzzy with no boundaries, I wanted to get a grasp of the history, societal undercurrents, economic implications, role of technology and the global response. I aligned my research approach to the Systemic Design Framework proposed by the Design Council within their publication - Beyond Net Zero. I started off by defining a hopeful vision. The set of values that guide my research are -

People & Planet Centered Inclusive & Just Transition Shared language, responsibility & relationship Equitable & driving bottom up change Towards desirable long term futures Circular & Regenerative 05

Connections & Relationships

Explore Orientation & Explore Vision Setting




Continuing the Journey

Desk Research Case Studies Observation Study Interviews

Leadership & Storytelling

Source: Systemic Design Framework proposed by Design Council UK, Beyond Net Zero publication, 2021 [1]


Explore I began the discovery phase by digging into the existing systems through desk research, analyzing case studies, investigating through observation study & conducting interviews. My intent was to look beyond the obvious and explore the invisible relationships, voices that are the loudest and as well as that are marginalized, explore the underlying belief and motivation and identify the opportunities for change. As a researcher, I was looking at gathering data and insights on an iterative and adoptive basis, being reflexive in observing, reflecting, building up an outlook and then going back into the interviews and testing it. It is reflected in the evolution of the engagement tool, over a period of interviews conducted.

The aspiration was to gather stories from various actors, learn about the fears and challenges posed by the existing system, and sense the hopes and joys of accepting the environmental responsibility. 07

Desk Research Kicking off the research with secondary findings, I filtered through the humongous amount of information available on the web on the subject of net zero. These were in the form of articles, blogs, documentaries, video content, online events, research publications, carbon calculators and technical information. Reading them helped me to gain a generic understanding of the subject, familiarity with the terminology used in the environmental sector, role of SME’s in the economy, recognizing the designers working in this sector in the UK, sustainability projects in progress and relevant research parallel and overlapping my focus area. The secondary study served as a reference point before I leaped into ethnographic research.


Desk Research


Case Studies I came across numerous case studies of big corporate businesses like Microsoft, google, Adidas as well as more public facing services like NHS, Science Museum Group and Loch Lomond & the Trossachs. Scrutinizing them gave me a good snapshot of their Net Zero strategy and their future road map for achieving their Net Zero target. My observation revealed that most of these Net Zero plans are data driven - framed around the measurement and quantification of carbon produced and removed.

‘Beyond net zero’ by Design Council UK influenced my research the most. It’s a pragmatic framework grounded by real world learnings from sustainability and climate projects. It helps designers working on major complex challenges to place people and our planet at the heart of design. Moreover, penetrating through the publication, I could correlate my positioning with the system thinking and innovation framework proposed by the Design Council. 10

Case Studies Most of us have visited Loch Lomond, however exploring their mission zero route map and interviewing the person behind the action gave me evidences of the value based practices in this environmental organization.

NHS is aiming to be world’s first net zero National Health Service, and digging into its report helped me to understand how the estimation of carbon against the baseline year 1990 is used for projecting a net zero target of 2050.


Observation Study the ground zero response I was searching for avenues to gather practical knowledge on the field in climate action and connect with people tackling the issues around climate change on a daily basis. So I registered for a number of online and in-person events happening in Scotland, that were preceding and preparing for the COP26 planned in November 2021 in Glasgow. Participating and witnessing the proceedings of these events I heard the collective lived experiences of the participants who represented various organization and communities. There were dominant cultures and sub cultures within these groups, and I was able to capture what is said and not said by the participants; who were coming from different realms of climate action for instance some were climate activists, few others were working with local communities to inculcate sustainable ways of working, and many others were working on climate change projects within the public and third sector in Scotland. Attending these sessions, I discovered the shared meanings of net zero, climate action and sustainability that are popular within the environmental sector, as well as the language used around the present narrative against a theoretical backdrop. As a strategy of inquiry within ethnographic methodology, I observed the prevalent action within these events, and drew insights that formed the basis of my further research.

I attended the COP26 coalition meet which was a run up for planning for the COP26 climate activism events. I was able to collect stories around the climate action narrative and the role of different communities in initiating ground up change.


Observation Study the ground zero response

This was another event facilitated to help the SMEs to evaluate their businesses’ environmental impact. The participants were mostly small businesses who were keen on taking the sustainable route and were in search of guidance from experts. I also had the opportunity to represent the student community’s voice in the Greater Glasgow climate action network and learn about the greener initiates taking place at the ground zero. The participants also threw light over the challenges faced by the local organizations, their dependence on funding, and how it restrains systemic change.


Interviews Adopting the ethnographic methodology, speaking to people and collecting first hand narrative was essential for my research. I was hoping to conduct a series of informal conversation with some of the stakeholders to evaluate the possibilities of the intersection of design innovation with climate change and sustainability. I was anticipating to get a peek into their mindset regarding net zero transitions of SMEs in the UK, and then go deeper into dialogue which would help me identify the obstacles, gap in the actions, and the role of design in assisting this process.


(Small & Medium Enterprise)


Carbon Experts Designers

Outlining the people who are at the core of the context of net zero, assisted me to identify the key stakeholders. Business owners or the people working within the SMEs - tentatively narrowing down to the hospitality industry and businesses which have the maximum public engagement. Ethnographic inquiry led me to ask the question -Why is it important to them? What motivates them and their future vision of their business?

Carbon experts - the event of net zero transition involves many external actors, like the companies that help calculate carbon footprint, to government bodies that supports SMEs in their carbon assessment as a requisite for funding.

Design & Climate Experts - who are working within the environment sector. The key actor I was evaluating here is the designer and their role in engaging all stakeholders, creating the shift in the mindset and co-designing these radical transitions 14

Interviews recruitment

It was imperative for me to get in touch with the outlined stakeholders for interview. A message was required to be sent across, and what better way than to use the classical analogy of the post cards as a cultural probe. I designed a post card (as a graphical image) providing the initial prompt, in the hope that it reaches the right audience. I posted it on social media sites, one of the service design slack channels in Scotland, and sent it across to few resourceful people in my network. The response was slow but phenomenal, with lots of people responding back or sharing connections and some of them even agreeing to have a chat with me. 15

Interviews engagement tools I prepared for the interviews by designing a few engagement tools which acted as stimuli for the interviewees for sharing their experiences and recalling stories. I also prepared an unstructured list of tentative questions that I could use during the interviews.

Through the future envisioning exercise, I intended to uncover the motive behind these net zero targets. By asking “What is good for you and your business between today and 2050?”, I was hoping to get to the deep-seated mindset of the interviewee, while closely assessing if any of it is greenwashing.


Interviews engagement tools

The second one brings up the term ‘net zero’ into the conversation, through which I expected to hear some interesting interpretations of the terminology.

The next one gives a few pointers for further conversation, helping to build a relationship between net zero and their business.

Through this slide, I wished to dig deeper into the real-time factors that influence the businesses. The idea was to have an open discussion of what they believe, and how they perceive the influence of external factors. 17

Interviews engagement tools

These are additional conversation starters that I used while speaking to the carbon experts and which acted as cues for further questioning. These also speculatively covered the initially emerging values I was probing in search of evidence during my interviews.


Interviews individual narratives Conversing with my participants, I deduced that Net Zero is still in its nascent state with the Government, policy makers, energy & transportation industry, interlinked services, academia and the designers working to plug the loopholes within the framework of transition, so that it can be implemented efficiently and widely. This gave me the assurance that my research held the credibility in this realm of uncertainty and might help in Identifying leverage points and unmet needs.

Investigating the context of net zero by interviewing people opened up the Pandora’s Box. 19

Interviews individual narratives

Caro Overy is an expert in carbon management and highly instrumental in supporting SME’s in the cultural sector with their carbon planning, assessment and evaluation. She helped me to get an overview of her role, tools and methods she uses while supporting these businesses and the challenges within and outside her scope of work. I also learned about the ways of calculating carbon footprint and the need for updating its parameters every year in compliance with the changing specification of factors like energy.


Interviews individual narratives

Mark is the director of a chain of pubs and inn, and was part of the notable group of SMEs that were invited to meet the PM as part of the government’s latest drive to support businesses going green. He gave immense insights into the progress his business has made towards converting to green solutions as well as the real-time challenges faced by him and his team. He expressed his concern regarding the lack of policies and paucity of resources around electric vehicles, installation of solar panels and switching to green energy supplies.


Interviews individual narratives

Zoe Rasbash is a user researcher at Watershed and her research is aimed towards creating a framework for climate action for the creative industry. A lot of our research overlapped, so it was great to exchange notes and insights with her. Interaction with her revealed the impact of societal response to climate activism on the changing perspectives of businesses and the redefined ideologies of business owners. 22

Interviews individual narratives

Speaking to Katie Dickerson from Scottish Enterprise gave me evidence of the challenges faced by SMEs to grasp the complex terminology around net zero, and the reasons why these businesses don’t consider net zero as a priority. These insights converged towards the requirement of these business owners to figure out the economic viability of net zero. 23

Interviews individual narratives

Alister Reid from Meal Makers, has volunteered for the role of net zero facilitators within his business and found himself struggling to access information about carbon calculators, case studies, and network that can act as peer support. Discussing his needs gave me an overview of the struggles and uncertainty faced by the SMEs who are keen to join hands to move forward, but lack the initial nudge and guidance. 24

Interviews individual narratives

Zoe Arnold-Bennett Business Owner Shed 1 Distillery, Cumbria

Guilherme Johnston Head of Global Partnerships Connected Places Catapult

Nik Turner Steering Group, Mission Zero Loch Lomond & The Trossachs

I spread these interviews with a frequency of 1 or 2 each week, spanning along the different stages of the project. As I progressed into the stage of sense-making, I was able to collect further evidences into the emotional journey that the businesses goes through at each carbon reduction stage, a glimpse into the perspective of the internal team members and the wider external dependencies that influence the decision making crossroads. Speaking to Zoe and Nik, opened up a whole new discussion of what are the value based practices that many businesses and organizations are following, leading the way through examples.


Connections & Relationships

Reframe Orientation & Explore Vision Setting




Continuing the Journey

Journey Map Stakeholder Map Thematic Analysis Opportunity

Leadership & Storytelling

Source: Systemic Design Framework proposed by Design Council UK, Beyond Net Zero publication, 2021 [1]


Reframe Earlier, in the discovery phase my intention was to dig deeper into the mental models of the businesses and look underneath the sheaths of what was stated by the people I had interviewed. By this stage in the project, my initial hypothesis was reframed with better awareness of the problem and the gaps within the system. Siphoning through the vast range of information and coding them, I realized I was sitting on a repository of rich insights. However, I was up against the mammoth task of mapping these complexities, synthesizing the findings, identifying the leverage points and opportunities for change. Mapping these learnings about people & the businesses, patterns of their individual needs as well as the organization’s requirements appeared. I was able to trace the relationships between and beyond them, and could see the emergence of some obvious and some invisible connections.

In this phase I captured what they said, what I saw and what it meant. It was a process where I converged to define the problem and structure my findings into emerging themes. 27

Journey Map Drawing the inklings from the conversations I had with the interviewees, I illustrated the SME’s journey as a broader road map to visualize an archetypal flow. I captured the ambiguity of each phase as free flowing forms, symbolic of the wider, intangible and inexplicit attributes of each of these steps and their interconnectedness. Signposting a typical journey of a small business aiming towards net zero, I established the major stages. It would start with deciding to take the sustainability route, planning & strategizing for it, taking actions, and evaluating the progress. It ends up being a cyclic process, with each stage merging into one another. However, my findings revealed that it is always not so straight forward, some SMEs directly jump into action and then evaluate, and some find themselves already following the green strategies which they have never quantified. Elaborating each of these stages further and analyzing it at the granular level, I pursued ahead to identify areas of stress and delight in the existing journey. The insights were mapped under the headings of interaction, experience, time and impact. 28

Journey Map Expanding the interaction taking place between the stakeholders within the process gave me an overview of the interdependencies of the internal team members within the business, external stakeholders and the dynamics between them. Mapping the positive and negative experiences revealed the collective emotional turmoil within an organizational framework. The time frame of a single project/attempt within the Net Zero plan might range from one month to 1.5 years depending on the context. For instance, a simpler project of changing all the light bulbs to LED may take only a month or two, from the point of deciding to implementing, and evaluating its impact. Decisions like change of packaging or buying an electric vehicle may take much longer. Embedding the findings further into this map, I was able to identify the positive and negative impacts each of these interactions have on the values within the process, on the planet and the society. 29

Stakeholder Map Here’s a visual representation outlining the people, groups or organizations involved in the functioning of the business, who either have the power to affect, or are affected, or influenced both internally and externally within the larger ecosystem. Bringing together the stakeholders that are directly and indirectly associated with the SME led me to contextualize the larger picture. Representing the inter-dependencies of one of the business I can across during my interviews, I was able to map their connections with their stakeholders. They were importing plant based botanics from across the world for their distillery. They were devising ways of reducing their carbon footprint of their international import by finding local growers and reusing the unused parts of the other fruits to handle their food waste. A visualization of this interaction over the stakeholder map revealed the relational synergy of the different actors and biodiversity within the larger ecosystem. This also revealed how much the location and the context within which the business is situated plays a key role in their functioning. This insight was expanded in the next stages and its essence embedded in the solution.


Thematic Analysis Going over the transcripts of the interviews and re-watching the recorded videos was a daunting task. I started off by coding all the pragmatic and intriguing bits of the conversation I had with the interviewees. By grouping insights and ideas into similar clusters, I created an affinity map for each of these interviews (illustrated in the interview section). I moved ahead with a thematic analysis combining the previously prepared affinity maps of all interviews and events. By sorting and grouping based on broader themes, I could see some patterns emerging across the multiple datasets.


Thematic Analysis STEEEPLE cards I elaborated these themes into STEEEPLE cards to capture the wider trends and influences encompassing net zero. It gave an overview of the insights collected so far at a macro level, with each of these STEEEPLE cards offering the description of the findings and their indicators along with a visual that captures the essence of it. STEEEPLE Card is an analytical tool and it is an acronym for Social, Technological, Economic, Ethical, Educational, Political, Legal, and, Ecological. It is used for scanning developments in the contextual macro environment under each of these headings.

The Social cards highlight the influence of societal values as an impetus for encouraging environmental responsibility.

Technological cards depict the current issues and future trends in transport, energy and travel.


Thematic Analysis STEEEPLE cards

Economic cards describe the changing focus of the businesses, financial pressure, and funding opportunities.

Ethical cards cover values ranging from individual to community driven, as a vital force to reckon social equity. 33

Thematic Analysis STEEEPLE cards

Educational cards cover the latest trends in training, future of green jobs and need for a shared language.

Political cards touched upon the gaps in commitment and lack of direction of the political actors within the wider scope.


Thematic Analysis STEEEPLE cards

Legal cards highlight the need for extensive law making, regulation and policies. In the current scenario, the SMEs are working around these problems, trying to find a middle ground through internal negotiations.

Ecological cards depict the scientific and business approach towards addressing carbon and its management.


Thematic Analysis STEEEPLE timeline

STEEEPLE helped me to gain an understanding of the past, current and future developments of the macro level patterns influencing net zero framework. Mapping these STEEEPLE cards on a timeline helped me pinpoint the prevailing conditions and future expectations of the stakeholders. This exploration at a granular level was a highly constructive groundwork that led me to see how the panorama of innovation may unfold in the wider societal ecosystem and where the blockers or acceleration points are likely to be.


Opportunity iceberg model

I applied the Iceberg model as the systems thinking approach for connecting the various elements of my research within net zero framework. It augmented my perspective to see beyond the immediate events and uncover the root causes. Deciphering the mental models, I deep dived into how various elements within the system influence one another.

SME’s Journey NET ZERO futures Patterns influencing SME’s decision making process • • •

• • •

Survival mode Invisible end goal Varied needs of the SMEs due to their positioning & context Uncertain process Continuously evolving net zero strategies Complex Net Zero narrative

Mental models impacting SME’s decision making for net zero How much of it is my responsibility? What happens if business continues as usual? How will it benefit my business?

Decision making & planning Future of their business from the net zero lens

Structure dominating NET ZERO futures • • • • • • •

Peer Action Community Interest Societal response to climate change Government regulations & policies Changing business focus Voices within & outside Challenges with fixed assets (EVs, green energy, heating, travel, waste)


Opportunity iceberg model I began with the main event – SME’s journey towards net zero future, wherein I’m addressing the initial phase of decision making and planning the roadmap for the future of their business from the lens of net zero.

Next I looked at the patterns that are hindering this event – The SME’s at present are in the survival mode and recovering from the impact of the pandemic. The end goal of net zero appears to be invisible with no concrete evidence of how it will unfold itself by 2050. The varied needs of the SMEs due to their positioning & context require a customized approach rather than a standard set of guidelines. The process of transition is still in its nascent stage, marked with uncertainty at each touchpoint. Continuously evolving net zero strategies across different sectors like energy, travel, transport & infrastructure is hindering the ease of transition. The complex Net Zero narrative, its terminology and taxonomy is a major bottleneck, burdening the organizations with its theoretical weight.

SME’s Journey NET ZERO futures Decision making & planning Future of their business from the net zero lens

Patterns influencing SME’s decision making process • Survival mode • Invisible end goal • Varied needs of the SMEs due to their positioning & context • Uncertain process • Continuously evolving net zero strategies • Complex Net Zero narrative 38

Opportunity iceberg model What are the underlying structures that are influencing the patterns? Peer action and community interest are compelling forces persuading the business owners within their circle to change their attitudes towards environmental responsibility. The overarching societal response to climate change is also leading to shift in the mindset and behaviors of the consumers. Government regulations and funding are also swaying these companies to take substantial step to reduce their carbon footprint. The repercussion of pandemic and Brexit has led the businesses to realign their focus towards meaningful transformations, with economic viability still being their main concern. This has also influenced the workforce ethos, with environmental values being openly voiced. The SMEs are still evaluating the benefits and challenges of changeover to EVs, green energy, better insulation for heating, reduced travel, zero waste etcetera.

Evaluating the belief systems and mental models that are allowing these structure, I’m looking at leveraging it to uncover the hidden abstractions within the system. It is all directing towards the ‘whys’ the business owners are asking. Many believe that it is not their responsibility and questioning why they should commit to net zero. The apprehension of economic liability of net zero strategies is raised by them and they need to understand how it will benefit their business.

Structure dominating NET ZERO futures • Peer Action • Community Interest • Societal response to climate change • Government regulations & policies • Changing business focus • Voices within & outside • Challenges with fixed assets (EVs, green energy, heating, travel, waste) Mental models impacting SME’s decision making for net zero How much of it is my responsibility? What happens if business continues as usual? How will it benefit my business? 39

Opportunity leverage points Few key findings emerged which led me to frame the problem and define the boundary conditions. These statements emerged out of the sense-making exercise I went through during the synthesis process which I will be using as guidelines in developing my ideas.

Businesses have contextual micro level needs & service reach of macro level Transforming individual behaviors to organizational values for net zero

Engage with the net zero commitment as a desirable long term future for the business Environmental responsibility is collective & personal


Opportunity user needs Defining the user needs statements helped me to further narrow down the unmet needs and identify the focus areas for ideation. It turned out to be a productive exercise during my reframing stage as these user needs were developed into personas in the next stage and accompanied me throughout.

As a business owner who is leading the business out of the recovery mode (post COVID) I need to reframe the business focus towards sustainable values and align it to the future needs of the market. In order to plan the business goals for growth and desirable long term future

As an employee who follows the organization’s objectives and is responsible for functioning of the business I need to be involved in more value based practices within my role In order to deliver towards the organization’s net zero future

As a designer/facilitator who is part of the steering/action team for net zero transition I need to address the qualitative aspect of net zero as well as quantitative In order to engage all stakeholders in an inclusive, achievable and defined net zero journey


Connections & Relationships

Create Orientation & Explore Vision Setting




Leadership & Storytelling

Continuing the Journey

Ideation & Prototypes Personas Design Artefacts Co-design Workshop Feedback Sessions Iterate & Build

Source: Systemic Design Framework proposed by Design Council UK, Beyond Net Zero publication, 2021 [1]


Create The focus up till now was to understand the problem and the root cause of stress, delight, inhibition and motivation. It was time now to immerse into the findings and connect all the dots. The project required me to think broad, diverge into generating ideas that addressed the unmet needs at various levels, as potential points of intervention. This process was iterative, as I found myself generating ideas and then discussing them during the ongoing interviews. It gave me the opportunity to build upon the feedbacks. The artefacts designed during this stage were used as triggers in the co-design workshop which helped me mold the ideas into a more tangible solution.

By this stage in the project, my mind was brimful of ideas and heart was bursting with empathy towards people I had made connection with. 43

Ideation & Prototypes I started off by extrapolating the keywords from the defined user needs into visuals and mapping them out. Sketch notes being the favorite part of ideation, my right brain was working at full throttle at this point while sketching them out. Generating ideas by putting down my thoughts on paper encouraged me to articulate various facets of the journey of the business towards net zero. The concepts revolved around the various nuances of carbon planning through different lenses of motivation, engagement, and envisioning, with collaborative mindset being the vital element. The first level of ideation sketches touched upon various concepts, from a public facing online portal, to an open source toolkit for the businesses and even an in-house training kit. These were like building blocks leading me forward, and I kept on refining these ideas as sketches, visual maps on miro (online collaborative platform) and some basic paper prototypes. These simulations helped me to visualize the ideas into more defined artefacts which I planned to further test during the interviews, iterate and build upon.


Ideation & Prototypes


Ideation & Prototypes


Personas Ideating around the user needs, three archetypes emerged within which were embedded the inherent characteristics of human response to climate change. These personas are representations of the conspicuous environmental ethos of my stakeholders as well as their context and positioning within the society. The climate personalities which they personified were climate negative, climate neutral & climate positive. They epitomized ones’ motivation towards sustainability values and familiarity with net zero strategies. Their roles emerged from the different user needs identified earlier, who were either directly involved or influenced by the business’s commitment towards net zero. The business owner who is concerned with the growth aspect of the business, a typical employee who is responsible for the day-to-day functioning of the business and the facilitator within the team who is burdened with the role of directing the business towards environmental action.


Design Artefacts A potential idea was developed further, which emerged as a layered canvas for business model. The first draft involved embedding three layers of value, place and time alongside the quantitative data sets of carbon assessment. These new layers materialized from the insights gathered during the interview wherein people expressed how they pursued various value based practices like educating others, sharing and supporting other businesses, finding new sustainable ways for their day-today activities. Many of these fragments of practice were an elemental aspect of environmental responsibility, and formed the core of their action points. However, there is still no scale that can measure the environmental impact of these intangible practices. My concept involved emphasizing these qualitative facets and structuring them as tangible evaluation parameters for net zero.


Co-design Workshop At this stage I had many design artefacts which framed the three layered net zero canvas. I needed to involve my stakeholders as active participants in idea generation and build upon the initial concepts that I had created so far. I planned a co-design workshop, inviting the people who I had interviewed before. Since they were aware about my project, they were thus excited to see how their narratives have been translated from insights to probable solutions. I again set myself the task of creating engagement exercises for the co-design session to get informed inputs from my participants. I planned a session with 3 participants for an hour, and divided the session into four phases: Narrative exercise, Mapping, Engaging & Evaluating. The success of co-design sessions depends on the planning that goes behind it. Having a generative set of tools helps to structure it well, the sequencing of activities to arrive at the outcome is also helpful, and inviting the right set of stakeholders for these workshops is critical. I organized a dry run of this co-design session that I had planned, with my colleagues Martyna Sykta and Ana Guerrero. This internal session helped me collectively improve the exercises, simplify it and time it within an hour.

My participants were Zoe Rasbash (User Researcher working on supporting creative organizations in their net zero transition), Zoe Arnold-Bennett (Owner of a net zero business), Nik Turner (Steering team of Mission Zero for Loch Lomond). Since my participants were coming with extensive knowledge in this domain, so through this co-design session I was aiming for multiple perspectives to form a comprehensive and objective critique of net zero status quo and generate ideas to reframe it through tangible design solutions. 49

Co-design Workshop Narrate: I kicked off the session by showing two different net zero frameworks as triggers to share their opinion and lived experiences. I also introduced the personas, overview of the idea, its benefits and how it will be used. The participants contributed whole-heartedly through their ideas and stories, which helped me to enrich the new framework of net zero and reaffirm the questions I was raising.

Create: Here I introduced the three layers of Value, Place and Time with few prompt questions to generate ideas and map them. The intention was to evolve these three layers further to capture the essence of value based practices, place based requirements and time bound speculative end goals. 50

Co-design Workshop Engage: This exercise was valuable to explore, as I was proposing to create a customized road map for the businesses using the three horizon framework. I was expecting my participants to engage with the different touchpoints within this framework and share their opinion. I was not satisfied with the outcome, as a workshop involving the 3 horizon framework requires a longer period of time. Another unfavorable factor was that it was devised for an internal team of an organization, and my participants belonged from different business backgrounds.

Contextualize & evaluate: The last exercise showcased the unification of the three layers and here I questioned my participants to share their opinion on – “How can this decision-making toolkit changes people’s values and mindsets” and “How do you think it can influence the wider societal ecosystems beyond the business?”


Feedback Sessions I needed to validate the concept and evaluate my academic approach with the industry practices. I got an incredible opportunity to share my project with two professionals with design and business expertise who have been involved in extensive work in the environmental sector in the UK at various capacities.

Cheryl McCulloch, from Circular Glasgow appreciated how I had covered various aspects of net zero strategy and gave many feedbacks which helped me enhance my solution. For the value based canvas, she suggested to outline the unintended consequences of the services in addition to what I had proposed. During the discussion of place based canvas, she proposed to develop it further into a mapping exercise where different community groups could come together. Going over my solution, she gave references of various initiatives of Glasgow City Council and Glasgow Chamber of Commerce, as well as UK’s growth plan of ‘Build Back Better’ for the businesses. The discussion around the new green job roles and the changing workforce ethos validated my reimagined net zero narrative. 52

Feedback Sessions

Ness Wright, co-founder of #designandclimate network and senior service designer at Snook liked my approach and suggested ways of enriching my solution. Her feedback were highly valuable as they led me to refine my concept and reframe my deliverable as a workshop using the three canvases. She shared various theories and research models which I could refer for developing my solution. Her advice of focusing on the early and late adopters during this project led me to refine my personas. Her insights into the value based canvas and the reference of a research which links the intrinsic and extrinsic values to environmental responsibility, led me iterate and refine it further. Interaction with Ness not only reinforced my concept but also hugely boosted my confidence.


Iterate & Build Journey Map The ideas and feedbacks gathered during the co-design workshop and feedback session were converged and assimilated together into a final iteration which I am proposing here as my solution. The journey map depicts various touch points before and after the Step Zero for Net Zero workshop. >> It illustrates the uncertainty within the team of a SME when they are unsure about the next steps >> They meet the team of Step Zero for Net Zero at an industry event >> The business signs up for the workshop >> Both the teams meet up to identify businesses’ needs >> Preparation required from the business side >> Onboarding of the workshop >> Series of 4 workshops >> Take away from the workshop, solutions identified and implemented by the business >> Both the teams meet again to evaluate the progress 54

Iterate & Build Onboarding Story board

The storyboard formalizes the onboarding process for the workshop, with key steps depicted to capture the endto-end experience. Frame by frame it helps to envision the process by which the participants will consume the information and engage with the facilitating team and amongst themselves during the entire course of time during the workshop.


Connections & Relationships

Catalyze Orientation & Explore Vision Setting




Leadership & Storytelling

Continuing the Journey

Reimagining Net Zero Narrative Reframing Net Zero Status Quo SME’s Journey to Net Zero Step Zero for Net Zero Impact Reflections

Source: Systemic Design Framework proposed by Design Council UK, Beyond Net Zero publication, 2021 [1]


Catalyze During this stage, I focused on illustrating the idea into a tangible proposal, structuring and designing all the details. The concept of a workshop as a deliverable sounded simple, but the complexity lied in the outcome it was trying to achieve. It was essential for me to package it well, create an effective pitch, and maintain enthusiasm and delight throughout the sessions. The workshop needed to be purposeful and conclusive. I set myself to prototyping the workshop, sequencing and creating the right set of generative toolkits for bringing different mindset together in a room to help them to collaboratively generate ideas and find solution.

The workshop embodies in itself, the idea of net zero transition from a state of uncertainty to positivity. It is rooted within my proposal which urges the environmental sector to reimagine the net zero narrative and reframe its status quo. 57

Reimagining Net Zero Narrative


Reimagining Net Zero Narrative The existing framework reveals the emphasis on carbon assessment through measuring the carbon footprint of the business within Scope 1, 2 & 3. Quantifying the Greenhouse gases (GHGs) produced within Scope 1 or 2, and comparing it against a pre identified baseline year, aids in extrapolating it for the coming decades. It acts as a benchmark against which areas of intervention are established for carbon reduction. However, the other side of the coin is indicative of the social & ethical forces impacting the emergent behaviors, it is centered on the needs of people and planet, envisioning an inclusive and fair society which takes on the environmental responsibility for building a regenerative and circular economy for preferable long term vision.

My proposal urges the environmental sector to reimagine the NET ZERO narrative that upholds the values of the three pillars of sustainability - Economic Viability, Environmental Responsibility and Social Equity [3]. This informed narrative encourages dialogue using a shared language, taking shared responsibility and through a medium that reduces the dependency on quantitative tools and merges it with value driven practices. 59

Reframing Net Zero Status Quo


Reframing Net Zero Status Quo The findings all point towards a skewed net zero framework. The juxtaposition of present and future carbon footprint with the baseline year as the reference point can be misrepresented. The external dependencies during the baseline year are highly dynamic and interdependent on many socio-economic factors. Measuring the environmental cost and benefit through quantitative methods may get fudged due to reasons beyond the scope/capacity of the organizations. Carbon offsetting is yet another ambiguous and debatable subject. Interlinked is the idea of carbon market and its nuances which are lingering as the unspoken unintended consequences that can further curtail the progress made so far. Technical knowledge for carbon assessment is not accessible by all small and medium businesses, with some of them not having the bandwidth and expertise to leap in to the computational exercise. Ethnographic inquiry led me connect with people and experts working in the environmental sector. Attending events, conducting Interviews, co-design workshops and feedback sessions helped me to map the net zero status quo. Their strong voices and opinions all directed towards the need for designled systemic change for reframing the policies, mobilizing transformative innovation, and building a climate positive mindset. Carbon assessment starts with the business model, figuring out whether the product or service is valuable to people and planet or not. SME’s need to espouse these values, to be truly net zero.

The emerging insights nudged me to question and critique the quantitative methodology of measuring the environmental cost and benefit. It urged me to reframe the net zero status quo which can be scaled across different sectors, and is always focused towards a reducing mindset. My proposal elevates value driven practices and eco-centric ethos, engages with time bound move through strategic transformations, and a place based response grounded within the social construct. 61

SME’s Journey to Net Zero These ideas are catalyzed into a tangible proposal through a structured workshop for the businesses facing uncertainty and lack of guidance about net zero transition.

Step Zero For Net Zero Introduction: This workshop equips and empowers SME and their team with a decision - making canvas for a climate positive mindset. It aims to influence the wider societal ecosystem beyond the business for a preferable long term future.


Step Zero for Net Zero Workshop On-boarding

Step Zero for Net Zero are a team of design & climate enthusiasts working in collaboration with Government and private bodies, to support business in their decision making & planning phase for net zero.

Businesses can sign up for the workshop through this link. They can also find more information about Step Zero for Net Zero at the Government and industry events and their websites.


Step Zero for Net Zero Workshop On-boarding Participants: The team attending the workshop represent every department of the SME’s business and would have either volunteered or have been identified by the management of the business. These archetypes are shown as examples who personify the mindset, role and motivation towards participating in this workshop.

Andy is the business owner, his concerns are more towards the navigating his business from survival mode towards a growth path.

John represent all those employees who are responsible for the day-to-day functioning of the business.

Susie is the service designer responsible for net zero plan for the business. 64

Step Zero for Net Zero Workshop On-boarding The workshops are spaced apart with minimum 1 week gap between each. The objective is to provide enough time for the participants to go back to their job roles and contemplate the outcome of each workshop, weigh the impact and challenges of each idea generated during the session, and reflect on the ethical values each idea upholds. They are online and in-person sessions. Online tool : Online workshop will be held through zoom and using the online collaboration tool Miro. The physical kit will also be sent out to the SME’s office to be distributed to its employees attending the workshop. The participant can use either their physical kit for the activities or engage online. They can click pictures of their physical outcome and upload on the miro board. In person workshop tool – Kit with physical artefacts, maps, post its, sharpies


Step Zero for Net Zero Workshop On-boarding Success Stories: Sharing success stories as part of the onboarding process that endorses the expectations and outcome of the workshop

The past workshops have empowered businesses to look up from the quantitative data sets to engage in co-creating eco-centric organizational values.

It has helped businesses in designing the net zero roadmap tailored to the needs of their business model and service delivery.


Step Zero for Net Zero Workshop On-boarding

It has assisted in building the company’s workforce ethos for a climate positive mindset.

The businesses have shifted from short term planning to visualizing a long term preferable future.


Step Zero for Net Zero Workshop 1 - Value Based Canvas

The first workshop is for the internal team of the SME Café Glasgow. During the 2 hours, the participants will co-design a value based framework of their business. The team attending the workshop represent every department of the business and have volunteered or have been identified by the management of the company.

The first exercise is mapping one’s intrinsic values as an individual. The participants will answer questions like - What is your inspiration for today? What feels good? What you enjoy doing? What is the best part of the day? They need to reflect on their individual behaviors and their ethical values.


Step Zero for Net Zero Workshop 1 - Value Based Canvas

The second exercise encourages the participants to write down their extrinsic values. The participants will answer questions like - What reward makes you happy? How do you want to be recognized? What do you love sharing? This part of the workshop expects them to confront their internal conscious and unconscious biases.

This exercise calls for a collective reasoning. As a group exercise they need to collectively think about ways their business can co-exist with nature, creativity & technology. They need to also map the unintended consequences of their service and how can they reduce the negative impact?


Step Zero for Net Zero Workshop 1 - Value Based Canvas

The final exercise is again a group work and the participants collectively generate ideas and answer the question - How do we inspire our internal team towards a ‘reducing’ mindset and what changes in the processes can be made to achieve that?

Outcome: There has been a lot of research which proposes that motivation for bigger-than-self problems like climate change arises from people expressing their intrinsic and extrinsic values [4]. This workshop was geared towards building up the individual motivation and collectively harnessing it to nudge the actors for ethical decision making at each step. This workshop aims for a cohesive organizational agreement on value based practices for their business, for instance finding ways they can reduce the waste, or share the surplus with another business. The outcome may result in value creation opportunities like moving away from plastic packaging to sustainable options, or meat based menu to vegetarian recipes. 70

Step Zero for Net Zero Workshop 2 - Place Based Canvas

The second workshop takes place after a gap of 2 weeks. There are 5 or more people from three different businesses and together they will map a place based framework through knowledge exchange.

During the first exercise, the mixed teams will map the locational hotspots, probing the possibilities within the extended neighborhood. Here they will answer questions like - What are the networking opportunities? What are our local employees and customers involved in? What are the community driven activities in the locality? 71

Step Zero for Net Zero Workshop 2 - Place Based Canvas

Next, they will highlight the territorial challenges faced within their region, and how others are responding to them. The teams will talk about their struggles and the dead ends. They will share the problems faced by them around the physical assets that they own in terms of building and it’s heating, transportation and even the energy supply.

And finally the teams will together brainstorm on the local resources that will help them build a reservoir of social and natural capital for making their region more sustainable.

Outcome: Collaboratively the teams build a peer network of likeminded locals, empowering the SMEs to generate accountability, shared purposes and belonging within the geographical positioning. The maps developed in this session are the first step towards peer action and knowledge exchange. 72

Step Zero for Net Zero Workshop 3 - Time Based Canvas

The third workshop takes place after a gap of few days. The internal team of the SME from workshop 1 is back again and they will co-design a time based framework of their business.

This is based on the Three Horizons framework by Bill Sharpe and inspired by Kate Raworth’s version [5] to frame the transition to a regenerative and distributive economy. Three Horizons is a simple and intuitive tool for thinking about the future. It helps groups explore systemic patterns to identify which of the dominant patterns are no longer fit for purpose, how the emerging trends can shape the future, and what visionary action is needed to collectively move us towards a viable future.[6] 73

Step Zero for Net Zero Workshop 3 - Time Based Canvas

The red line H1 denotes how business might decline if they continue as usual. The participants need to respond in their businesses’ context. They will map their thoughts on question at A &B. A -Why is the Business as usual not fit for purpose to continue? B - Is there anything valuable about your business that you would like to retain rather than loose?

The Green line H3 describes regenerative cultures capable of constant learning and transformation. Responding to C & D, the participants with capture the notion of the ideal scenario of net zero. C - How this Utopian year 2050 of net zero look? D - What are the seeds of this net zero future visible in the present?


Step Zero for Net Zero Workshop 3 - Time Based Canvas

The Blue H2 perspective sees opportunities in the shortcomings of H1 and aims to ground the visionary possibilities of H3 with some practical next steps. This mapping exercise seeks to inspire the participants to generate out of the box ideas around their service and dayto-day activities. E - What is being disruptive presently and how can it be harnessed? F - If you are that disruptive actor, what realistic milestones will you set for yourself to get to that Utopian year?

Outcome: Designers and economists have been using this framework to facilitate complex workshop subjects. This exercise will create a shared vision of the future of their business with a hopeful blueprint for the next few years using the resources, finance and skills available with the SME. By the end of the session, the team will have an extensive layout of disruptive innovation strategies, possibilities of value creation within their business and defining a visible end goal for their business for 2050. This blueprint will be used by them for backcasting to set realistic milestones to get to the Utopian year.


Step Zero for Net Zero Workshop 4 - Net Zero Canvas

The final workshop consolidates the outcome of the previous 3 workshops and constructs the net zero canvas for the SME. This session is attended by the core team within the organization which is set up the management of the SME.

This is a prerequisite which the SME’s core team have to prepare in advance. This is the business model canvas that captures the existing business structure and service delivery.

The three conceived layers of value, place and time are embedded alongside the existing business model canvas. 76

Step Zero for Net Zero Workshop 4 - Net Zero Canvas

The emerging net zero canvas formalizes the value creation opportunities, back casting the transformative innovations and defining the workforce ethos. The core team then together outlines a hierarchy for the tasks for maximizing environmental and social impact of their business. It will help them in prioritizing decisions for instance, what has more environmental impact in their businesses’ context, their food waste or the packaging?

The workshop ends with a discussion on what are the key takeaways from the sessions and do they feel more empowered to take their step 1 towards net zero.

Outcome: The SMEs own a decision making canvas and a blueprint of next steps tailored to their needs. It has been co-designed by them and steers their team towards a climate positive mindset through collaboration, ethical evaluation and including every voice within their team. 77

Impact Transcending from uncertainty to positivity, Step Zero for Net Zero Workshop will empower the SME’s to take the leap towards net zero, amplifying the impact across the wider societal ecosystem.



Reinforcing climate action with a design-led systemic change for reframing the policies, mobilizing transformative innovation, and building a climate positive mindset.






? ? ? ? ? SME ? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? Uncertainty




+ + + + + Peer +



+ + + + + Peer+


+ +SME + + + +SME + + + + + + + + + ++ + + + + ++ + + + + + + ++ + ++ + + + +SME + ++ + + + + + + + + Peer + + +SME + + + ++ + + +++ + + ++ + Positivity + 78

Reflections The process I followed through this project was iterative and adoptive. Every progress made was through informed insights that I collected through speaking with people and building upon the feedback. The next step is to refine this workshop and run live sessions with few businesses. I aim to initiate these dialogue and actions within the businesses which can be scaled up from step zero to net zero.

Iterative & Adoptive

Workshop as a Service

Challenges Research during the pandemic times comes with its own pros and cons. The interviews and co-design workshop that I conducted were remote and thus quick ice-breaking was crucial to get the conversation going. Lack of observation study at the location of the SME was one missing link which might have added a lot more value to my findings. However, I did get a chance to attend one of the climate activism events in Glasgow which provided significant insights. For a broad project like this, absence of a team was missed. Working alone I missed the diverse perspective and was always conscious to avoid any biases seeping in. Resolutions I used the remote working to my advantage, by connecting with people across the UK. I always strived to put myself in others’ shoes and look at the problem from their perspective. I also made it a point to discuss the project with a lot of people outside the sphere of my work, as it was important to get more minds together. Learnings The project was expansive in the beginning, with mind-boggling information, making me climate anxious at times. What I learnt through this project was to believe in the process, and inculcate the virtue of perseverance. Iterating throughout the project, gave me the opportunity to reflect on the vital elements. Documenting and synthesizing information at every step, made the journey easier. 79

Reflections Connections & Relationships

Orientation & Explore Vision Setting




Continuing the Journey

The project gave me the opportunity to build many connections and a space to develop relationships with like-minded people. The more I learned about this subject, more I realized how important it was to talk about it, and tell the stories far and wide. Climate action has become embodied in my thinking and symbolizes my values. Empathy for people and planet is the virtue that I will carry from hereon.

Leadership & Storytelling

Source: Systemic Design Framework proposed by Design Council UK, Beyond Net Zero publication, 2021 [1]


Glossary Eco-centric places value and importance on the entire environment and all life in it, not just the parts that are useful to humans Eco-metric quantitative analysis of economic, environmental, and societal systems Climate Negative people who aren’t motivated to address climate change Climate Neutral people who are concerned, but lack motivation to take action to address climate change Climate Positive people who are highly motivated to take action to address climate change Value Based instills a mindset where everyone in the business learns to prioritize decisions based on their understanding of what is more beneficial for the environment Place Based instills a person-centered, bottom-up approach within the business to meet the unique needs of people in one given location by working together to use the best available resources and collaborate to gain local knowledge and provide peer support Time Based instills the relevance of time in creating the blueprint of the preferable long term net zero vision, considering ‘today’ as the pivotal starting point 81

References [1] Design Council UK. (2021). Beyond Net Zero, A Systemic Design Approach [2] UK SME Data, Stats & Charts, Merchant Savvy. Available at: [3] Huda, Z. (2021). The 3 Pillars of Sustainability: What Are They and Why Do They Matter? Available at: https://planetshine. com/3-pillars-of-sustainability/ [4] Common Cause Research. (2012). Communicating Bigger-than-self Problems to Extrinsically-oriented Audiences. Available at: [5] Raworth, K. Doughnut Economics Action Lab - Three Horizons Framework - a quick introduction. Available at: https://www. [6] Three Horizons. Available at:


Bibliography Books & Journals Berners-Lee, M. (2021). There is No Planet B. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wallace-Wells, D. (2019). The Uninhabitable World, Life After Warming. Newyork: Tim Duggan Books. Abbing, E. (2019). Service innovation in 21st century cities, Livework Insight on service innovation Christian, D., Wahl. (2016). Designing Regenerative Cultures. Axminster: Triarchy Press Elizabeth, A and Wilkinson, K. (2020). All We Can Save - Truth, Courage and Solution for the Climate Crisis. United States: One World Prendeville, S and Bocken, N. (2016). Sustainable Business Models through Service Design. Research Gate. Available at: https://www. Raworth, K. (2017). Doughnut Economics Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist. London: Random House Business Books. Thackara, J. (2015). How to thrive in the next economy. London: Thanmes & Hudson.


Bibliography Electronic Resources Cristian, D. (2017). The Three Horizons of innovation and culture change. Available at: the-three-horizons-of-innovation-and-culture-change-d9681b0e0b0f Mission Zero Route Map, Loch Lomond & The Trossachs National Park Authority. Available at: https://www.lochlomond-trossachs. org/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/Mission-Zero-Route-Map.pdf SME Climate Hub. Available at: Snook. (2018). Our world is getting warmer, Snook. Available at: Canella, A. (2020). Service Design for the climate emergency, Futuregov. Available at: Abbing, E. (2020). Designing for sustainable futures, Liveworks Studio. Available at: NHS England and NHS Improvement. (2020). Delivering a ‘Net Zero’ National Health Service. Available at: https://www.england.nhs. uk/greenernhs/wp-content/uploads/sites/51/2020/10/delivering-a-net-zero-national-health-service.pdf Irwin, T. (2018). The Emerging Transition Design Approach, Research Gate. Available at: (PDF) The Emerging Transition Design Approach ( UN Sustainable Development Goals. Available at: Patterson, C. (2021). Adapting our Culture, A toolkit for cultural organisations planning for a climate changed future. Available at: Zero Waste Scotland, Green Champions Training - Introduction. Available at: 84

Bibliography Electronic Resources Creative Carbon Scotland. Carbon Management Tools & Resources. Available at: Gorman, S. and Robinson, R. (2021). 20 minute Neighbourhoods in a Scottish context. Available at: uk/research/projects/20-minute-neighbourhoods-in-a-scottish-context/ Towards Net Zero, Science Museum Group. Available at: System Thinking Resources, The Donella Meadows Project, Academy of Systems Change. Available at: systems-thinking-resources/# Toolkits, Nesta. Available at: Service Design Tools. Available at: 18F Methods. Available at: Carbon Footprint. Available at: Embodied Carbon Assessment, Circular Ecology. Available at: Summary of Innovation Adoption Curve of Rogers. Abstract. Available at: Race to Zero Campaign, United Nations Climate Change. Available at: Rasbash, Z. Climate Justice & The Creative Sector. Available at:


Appendix As part of ethical practice in research and following Glasgow School of Arts protocol, I shared the Project Information Letter and the Consent Form with each of my participants who I interviewed. Project Information Letter

Sample Signed Consent Form

Project Links: Online work: Consent forms, Recordings & Presentation video:


Step Zero for Net Zero By Vinishree Solanki

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