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INFORMATION REPORT NO. 22 REVIEW OF FORESTRY LEGISLATION, POLICY AND FOREST MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES and THE CURRENT STATUS OF PROVINCIAL FORESTRY LEGISLATION AND POLICY WITH REFERENCE TO EASTERN ONTARIO

Prepared by Clarence Coons R. P. F. Coons Agroforestry Consulting R. R.# 5 Kemptville Ontario K0G 1J0

Prepared for Eastern Ontario Model Forest P.O. Bag 2111, Kemptville Ontario K0G 1J0

February 1996 Printed August 1996

"A forest for seven generations”


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to acknowledge the effort of the Steering Committee in the development of the project proposal which was the basis of this study and for their assistance and advice throughout the project. In particular I would like to thank the Project Steering Committee Chair. Dave Chapeskie, R.P.F. Agroforestry Extension Advisor, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture Food and Rural Affairs of Kemptville, who provided much time and assistance throughout the study. Special thanks to all whose who returned the Questionnaires which formed an essential part of this study. Your opinions and the information you provided are greatly appreciated. Also my thanks to Shirley Newell for her assistance with the formatting and word processing. Finally, I would like to thank the members of the Board of Directors of the Eastern Ontario Forest Group who made this study possible through their support.

Clarence F. Coons February 1, 1996


TABLE OF CONTENTS i ii

Introduction and Objectives Methodology

Chapter 1 A. B.

History and Development of Forest Management Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 for Private Land in Ontario Brief History of Forest Management Legislation for Ontario's . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Crown Lands

Chapter 2 Summary of Questionnaire "Review of Forestry Legislation, Policy and Management Guidelines" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 A. B. C.

Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Management Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Chapter 3 The Current Status of Provincial Legislation and Policy with Reference to Eastern Ontario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 1. 2. 3 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Managed Forest Tax Reduction Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agreement Forests Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Status of Nursery Stock Production and Provincial Tree Nurseries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ontario's Agroforestry Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private Forests Sustainability Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forest Extension - Advisory and Assistance Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conservation Authorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conservation Land Tax Reduction Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conservation Reserves on Public Lands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Crown Forest Sustainability Act 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning Act Reform in Ontario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Closure of the Major Forest Research Facilities in Eastern Ontario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74 75 77 79 80 82 82 83 84 84 85 87

Chapter 4 Constraints to Sustainable Forest Resource Management and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89


Appendix 1.

List of the Current Provincial Statutes Pertinent to the Practice of Forestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

2. 3.

Summary of the Managed Forest Tax Reduction Program in Ontario . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Nursery Stock Distribution from Provincial Tree Nurseries to Private Land in Ontario 1905 - 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

4.

Nursery Stock Distributed to the Private Sector in the Eastern Ontario Model Forest Area from Provincial Nurseries 1986 - 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

5.

Contacts for Ontario's Agroforestry Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

6.

Stewardship Coordinators - Private Forests Sustainability Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

7.

Agreement Forests in Ontario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

8.

Commonly used Forest Management Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

9.

Publication Sources for Forest Resource Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124


Some highlights of the study are as follows: 1.

2.

Programs in Forest Resource Management have been greatly reduced primarily due to provincial budget cuts and funding constraints. Government, industry and representatives of private forest owners organizations should meet to plan means and ways to provide field services necessary to achieve sustainable forestry. Many Forest Resource Managers do not fully understand how various legislation impacts on their forest management activities and many were not aware of pending changes in provincial legislation that would impact on their forest management activities.

3.

In 1992 the Managed Forest Tax Reduction Program was cancelled due to budget constraints, however both the Farm Tax Reduction Program and the Conservation Land Tax Reduction Program remain. To be fair to forest owners, the Managed Forest Tax Reduction Program should be reinstated until tax reform, providing for fair taxation of private forest lands in keeping with the productive capability of these lands, is achieved.

4.

Tree cutting bylaws in the Eastern Ontario Model Forest Area are found only in Lanark and Ottawa-Carleton. Many Forest Resource Managers see the need for tree cutting bylaws in all counties which are enforced as a minimum level of control on harvesting and necessary for achieving sustainable forestry.

5.

Many Forest Resource Managers have ideas concerning Forest Management Policies that should be developed to further support them in their forest management activities, but there is no forum for dealing with their ideas and concerns.

6.

The Agreement Forest Program and the Woodlands Improvement Act program have been two very extensive, productive and important Forest Management Programs in the Eastern Ontario Model Forest Area. Current budget cuts and future policy directing the management of these forested lands is of considerable concern to Forest Resource Managers who aim to achieve the goal of sustainable forestry.

7.

The closure of the G.H. Ferguson Provincial Nursery will impact on the extent of reforestation and limit Forest Manager's ability to achieve sustainable forestry within the Eastern Ontario Model Forest area.

8.

The closure of the two major forest research facilities in eastern Ontario will significantly reduce forest research conducted in the area and will impact on reaching the goal of sustainable forestry within the eastern Ontario model forest area. In 1994, the Ottawa laboratory of Forentec Canada was transferred to Ste. Foy, Quebec and this year Petawawa National Forestry Institute will cease to operate as an Institute and most research and support staff will be laid off or transferred to other federal government


Forest Research Stations across Canada. 9.

The history and development of Forest Management legislation, policies and programs for private forest land clearly illustrates the important and extensive role of the provincial government in planning and funding of Forest Management from Confederation.

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES Forest Resource Managers throughout Canada are being challenged to ensure the long-term sustainability of forest ecosystems. Innovative forestry initiatives must be introduced to achieve the goal of sustainable forests. This study is a review of Forestry Legislation, Forest Policy and Forest Management Guidelines as well as an update of the current status of Provincial Forestry legislation and policy and other important factors affecting forest management in Eastern Ontario. Arriving at workable forestry principles suitable for the Eastern Ontario Model Forest area is a prerequisite to achieving the goal of sustainable forests. The first phase of forestry principles and forestry practice standards for the Eastern Ontario Model Forest area are under development. This involves establishing forestry principles and forestry practice standards which will be practical to apply and reasonable to expect to achieve within the area.

This study summarizes background information, details the current status of forest resource management, identifies constraints to sustainable forest resource management and complements the above mentioned forestry principles and forestry practice standards initiative. The objectives of this study are as follows: 1.

To summarize legislation (including proposed legislation) policy (including proposed policy) and Forest Management Guidelines (including guidelines under development) which are currently available to Forest Resource Managers in eastern Ontario.

2.

To determine the level to which legislation, policy and management guidelines influence management of forests on the ground.

3.

To detail the current status of Forest Resource Management in eastern Ontario.

4.

To document identified constraints to sustainable Forest Resource Management including gaps in information or the formatting of information.

To assist in providing information for these objectives, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to many Forest Resource Managers working in the Eastern Ontario Model Forest area. A total of 20 questionnaires were returned yielding much useful information.


The information from this study will contribute to the refinement and implementation of forestry principles and practice standards for the Eastern Ontario Model Forest Area. METHODOLOGY The Eastern Ontario Model Forest Area consists of the eight most eastern counties of Ontario namely: Glengarry, Prescott, Russell, Storrnont, Dundas, Grenville, Leeds, Lanark, and the Regional Municipality of Ottawa Carleton. The total area is 1,534,115 hectares. Productive forest lands occupy a very significant percentage of this area. Thirty-eight percent of the area (558,915 hectares) is classed, as such, and 88 percent of this area is privately owned. To accomplish the project objectives the following activities were carried out. 1.

A review of the history and development of forestry legislation for both Crown and private land was conducted.

2.

A three part questionnaire was developed and distributed to approximately 30 Forest Resource Managers and completed by 20 of them. The Questionnaire consisted of three main parts: Part 1 Legislation Part 2 Policy Part 3 Management Guidelines Information from the questionnaire and interviews was used to determine the extent to which legislation, policy and management guidelines influence the management of forests on the ground, and to document constraints to Sustainable Forest Resource Management.

3.

A review of the current status of Provincial Forestry Legislation and Policy as well as other important factors affecting forest management in Eastern Ontario was carried out.


CHAPTER 1 A. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF FOREST MANAGEMENT LEGISLATION FOR PRIVATE LAND IN ONTARIO It is interesting to note that legislation in Ontario relating to trees was first introduced only four years after Confederation in 1871. Soon after the turn of the century the taxation of farm woodlands became an issue, which resulted in legislation providing some tax exemption on them in 1906. About the same time, the government began providing free nursery stock for planting on wastelands on Ontario farms. This chapter details the important legislation concerning trees and woodlands and serves to emphasize the expanding role and involvement of the provincial government in private forest resource development from Confederation until the 1990's, when budget cuts and changes in policy reduced or eliminated many programs which were important in achieving the goal of sustainable forestry. It is therefore important to review the past in order to plan for the future, as new and innovative legislation and policy must be developed to ensure means and ways to achieve this important goal. First Tree Planting Act, 1871, 34 Vic, Ch. 3 1. The earliest legislation in Ontario regarding trees was passed in 1871. This legislation entitled "An Act to encourage the planting of trees upon highways in this province and to give the right of property in such trees to the owners of the soil adjacent to such highway". Municipal councils were given control over the removal of the trees, and when necessary, a penalty of $25.00 was imposed for the injury or destruction of roadside trees. The Ontario Tree Planting Act, 1883, 46 Vic, Ch. 26. Following a recommendation of a Provincial Committee appointed to attend the American Forestry Congress meetings in 1882 at Cincinnati, Ohio and Montreal, Quebec, "The Ontario Tree Planting Act 1883" was passed. The objective of this new Act was to encourage the planting and care of trees for the purposes of shade and ornament along public highways and along boundary lines of adjoining farms. The Act provided that any person owning land adjacent to any highway, street, lane, alley, place or square, may plant trees on the portion contiguous to his land, provided they do not become a nuisance or obstruct travel and that any owner of a farm or lot may, with the consent of the owner of the adjoining property, plant trees on the boundary line. Trees set out on the highway were declared to be the property of the owner of the adjoining lands, and those planted on the boundaries of farms or lots are the common property of the owners. For the first time, this Act provided that the council of any municipality may pass a by-law for paying out of municipal funds, up to twenty five cents per tree for specified species of trees with the cost shared one-


half with the province. Landowners were paid three years after planting if the trees were healthy. The province set aside $50,000 for payment of its share of the program. Since there were no trees available from government nurseries the trees were obtained largely from in and around woodlands. The $50,000 appropriated by the province was known as "The Ontario Tree Planting Fund". By 1894 only $4,808.00 of this fund had been paid out. Many municipalities did not take part in the program. Therefore in 1896 the Ontario Legislature repealed the Ontario Tree Planting Act of 1883 with amendments replacing it with "An Act Revising and Consolidating the Acts to Encourage the Planting and Growing of Trees" cited as The Ontario Tree Planting Act 1896. This Act did not provide for further cost share by the Province for tree planting. Also property owners rights giving adjoining owners rights of ownership of trees grown along the highway, were maintained and made applicable irrespective of Municipal action, but subject to the provisions of the Municipal Act in that respect which gives municipalities power to regulate and control the planting of trees. While the 19th century legislation in Ontario did not focus on rural woodlands it did get many landowners and politicians thinking about trees and their values. Woodland Tax Exemption Part of the resolution presented to the government in 1903 by the Experimental Union, called for "considering some means of adjusting taxation as to encourage the preservation of farmers' woodlots". Later in 1906 the government passed "an act providing for the Exemption of Woodlands from Taxation, 6 EDW VI 1, Ch 42. The Act provided that the council of any township may pass a bylaw exempting woodlands in whole or in part from municipal taxation, including school rates, provided that not more than one acre in ten of such woodlands, up to a total of twenty-five, are exempted. Forest landowners receiving tax exemption were not permitted to graze livestock in their woodlands. Violators were required to pay the full amount of taxes remitted during the five years preceding. By 1927 the exemption of woodlands from taxation came under the Assessment Act R. S.O. 1927, Ch. 238. The Act was the first major attempt by government to provide an incentive which would help conserve woodlands. Later the Woodland Tax Exemption was revised so that an owner could secure an exemption from taxation of one acre in ten, to a maximum of twenty acres. Furthermore, land which was reforested would not be assessed at a greater value by reason of tree planting. The overall effect of the tax exemption was not great, as it amounted to only a few dollars on a ten-acre woodlot, but a major indirect benefit was that there were many discussions in municipal circles on the


value of woodlots and how they should be managed. The Counties Reforestation Act, 1911, Ch. 74. At the Annual Meeting of the Experimental Union in 1902 the following important resolutions were passed, and forwarded to the Ontario Government: "The Experimental Union recognizing the urgent necessity for action in the reforesting of the wastelands throughout old Ontario would recommend that the Department of Crown lands be requested to provide material sufficient to reforest areas sufficiently large to provide forest conditions in typical situations throughout Ontario, the Union undertaking to supervise the distribution." A year later part of a further resolution strongly urged the Government of Ontario to: "Undertake the practical reforestation of areas sufficiently large to afford forest conditions as a demonstration of the utility of the work on these lands which from their surroundings enjoy practical immunity from fire." After reviewing the resolution of the Experimental Union the Hon John Dryden, Minister of Agriculture, took immediate steps towards starting a forest tree nursery at the Agricultural College in Guelph. He placed Edmund J. Zavitz in charge of the work for the summer of 1904. The nursery at Guelph was two acres in extent and in the spring of 1905 the first two cooperative planting projects on private land were planted using 10,000 trees. Trees numbering up to 3500 were distributed free to farmers. However, by 1910 only 11/4 million trees had been distributed. In an effort to speed up the planting of wastelands by doing it on a larger scale, the government passed the Counties Reforestation Act in 1911. The Act provided that the Municipal Council of a county could pass bylaws for acquiring by purchase or lease, lands that they deemed suitable for reforestation purposes. The Act provided for the planting of land and for preserving and protecting timber. The bylaws required approval by the Minister of Agriculture. This legislation failed to accomplish its objectives and therefore in 1921 the act was amended to enable the province to enter into agreements for the management and development of lands acquired by municipalities. This led to the establishment of several agreement forests, the first being Simcoe County in 1922. Reforestation and Conservation Acts Reforestation was further promoted with the passing of the Reforestation Act in 192 1. This Act authorized the Minister of Lands and Forests to acquire by lease or purchase, lands for reforestation purposes within the province, enabling the purchase of large areas to be utilized as forest nurseries and forest stations. This Act was amended in 1923 to provide for the expropriation of land deemed necessary for reforestation


purposes. At this time forest stations and nurseries were established at Orono and Midhurst and a tree seed plant was completed at Angus. The Reforestation Act of 1921 also provided for the establishment of demonstration forests on lands owned by municipalities, where reforestation of non agricultural lands could be demonstrated. When the demonstration area had been purchased and fenced, the government supplied suitable nursery stock for planting, paid the transportation cost of the trees, and sent experienced men to oversee the planting. Men from the community were paid by the government to do the planting. The program was quite successful and by 1927 at least 40 demonstration forests had been established, including one at Kemptville Agricultural College. Also, in 1927 the Reforestation Act 1921 and the Reforestation Act 1923 were both repealed with the passing of "The Forestry Act, 1927", in April that year. The Act was the first to provide for the expropriation of land in Ontario for forestry purposes, as earlier legislation provided for expropriation of lands for reforestation purposes. The Act provided for forestry agreements with individuals, firms, corporations or municipal corporations. The Act also provided for the employment of staff to carry out the provisions of the act. It also provided that any lands acquired under this act could be set apart as a Crown Forest Reserve under the Forest Reserves Act. The Act also provided for the creation of a board to be known as the Forestry Board for the purpose of carrying on research work in connection with the forestry lands of the Province of Ontario and to study all questions in connection with the planting, growth, development marketing and reproduction of pulpwood. Thus the first provision for research work vital to the management of Ontario's forested lands was offered. The Counties Reforestation Act was amended in 1927 to transfer the approval authority from the Minister of Agriculture to the Minister of Lands and Forests. In 1939 The Counties Reforestation Amendment Act was passed, which amended the Counties Reforestation Act as follows: 1.

The Municipal Council of any Township may enter into agreement with the owners of land located in such township for: a) the reforestation of portions of such lands; b) the entry and planting of trees upon such portions by servants or agents of the council; c) the fencing of such portions and conservation of all growing trees thereon by the owner.

In 1945 the Municipal Reforestation Amendment Act was passed which replaced the word county in the act with "Municipal".


Concern over improper cutting and clear cutting of woodlands had long been a concern of municipalities, landowners and foresters. In the nineteenth century rapid destruction of woodlands continued unchecked for several decades. Clearing for agriculture, grazing of woodlands by livestock and indiscriminate cutting for timber and fuelwood were main causes of woodlot reduction and degradation. In 1929 the Ontario government placed I.C. Marritt in charge of private woodlot forest extension work. In 1938 he was successful in starting a Demonstration Woodlot Program which continued in parts of Ontario into the 1960's. It was not until 1946 however, that legislation was passed that would influence tree cutting and provide for protection of woodlands from clearing and premature cutting. The Trees Conservation Act 1946, Ch. 102, was an act to provide for the Control of the Cutting of Trees. The Act gave the county or township councils the right to pass bylaws for restricting and regulating the cutting of trees in any part of the county or township. The act provided that the county or township could appoint officers to enforce the provisions of the bylaw. In other words, enforcement of the bylaws would be the responsibility of the municipality. Wellington County was the first county to pass a bylaw to control cutting. The bylaw was passed at the June session in 1946. A minimum diameter at ten inches for all trees except cedar, which was five inches, was set. Later in 1947 the diameter limit was raised to twelve inches. In 1920 Arthur H. Richardson, a graduate of McMaster University and Harvard School of Forestry, was hired by the Forestry Branch. Richardson was the central figure in efforts to expand and improve conservation in Ontario, leading to the passing of The Conservation Authorities Act in 1946. In 1936 a severe drought had occurred in Ontario adversely affecting crop production. An article entitled "A New Reforestation Policy for Ontario" was published in the Farmer's Advocate, September 10, 1936. Watson Porter, the Editor, wrote: "Ontario needs a new reforestation policy broadened out to include conservation of moisture and restoration of the countryside. Ontario needs a crusader who will awaken the Municipal Councils of this Province to the greatest need of the times and show municipal officers that conservation is a fundamental and highly important duty which they are evading almost 100 percent. Dwindling rivers, dried up streams, failing wells, denuded hillsides, dust storms, drifts of blow sand, patched areas, drought and crop failure are all due in part to a wasteful ill advised policy of cutting trees, draining swamps and destroying every natural means of conserving moisture."


Meetings were subsequently held at London and Guelph, Bowmanville and Kemptville which led to the formation in 1937 of the Ontario Conservation and Reforestation Association. Southern Ontario was divided up into five zones with county committees in each setting up an executive of their own. Between 1936 and 1954 when the Association was active, it was instrumental in bringing about many improvements regarding the management of natural resources in Southern Ontario. The main method used was by conducting many well-planned field days and tours throughout Southern Ontario. From its beginning A.H. Richardson was an ardent supporter of the Ontario Conservation and Reforestation Association. Conservation Authorities Act The combined efforts of the Ontario Conservation and Reforestation Association and the Federation of Ontario Naturalists led to a conference at Guelph on April 25, 1941. The proposals made at the conference resulted in a survey of the Ganaraska Watershed in 1942. Following the conference early in 1942 Richardson was appointed by the Honourable N.O. Hipel, Minister of Lands and Forests, as full-time chairman of the Interdepartmental Committee on Conservation and Rehabilitation which organized and carried out the Ganaraska survey. On November 1, 1944, Richardson became the head of the newly-established Conservation Branch of the Department of Planning and Development. On April 5th 1946, The Conservation Authorities Act, 10 Geo VI, Ch. 11 was passed. This Act provides for the Establishment of Conservation Authorities for the purposes of the Conservation, Restoration and Development of Natural Resources other than Gas, Oil, Coal and Minerals and for the Prevention of Floods and Water Pollution. Following government approval, Conservation Authorities were given the following power for the purposes of carrying out a scheme: a) To study and investigate the watershed itself or by its engineers or other employees or representatives, and to determine a scheme whereby the natural resources of the watershed may be conserved, restored and developed and the waterscontrolled in order to prevent floods and pollution or any such matters; b) Subject to the provisions of The Lakes and Rivers Improvement Act to erect works, structures and create reservoirs by the construction of dams or otherwise; c) To purchase or acquire and without the consent of the owner enter upon, take and expropriate any land which it may require and sell or otherwise deal with such land or other property;


d) e)

To purchase or acquire any personal property which it may require and sell or otherwise deal therewith; To enter into such agreements for the purchase of materials, employment of labour and such other purposes as may be necessary for the due carrying out of any scheme;

f)

To determine the proportion of the total benefit afforded to all the participating municipalities which is afforded to each of them; g) To use lands which are owned or controlled by the authority for such purposes, not inconsistent with its objects, as it deems proper; h) To collaborate with departments and agencies of government, municipal councils and local boards and other organizations; i) To plant and produce trees on public lands with the consent of the Minister of Lands and Forests, and on private lands with the consent of the owner, for any purpose; j) To cause research to be done; and k) Generally to do all such acts as are necessary for the due carrying out of any scheme.

Trees Act and Forestry Act Consolidations The Trees Act R.S.O. 1950, Ch. 399 consolidated important legislation from several Acts. Three main items were covered in this Act, namely, Trees on Boundary Lines, Trees Conservation and Municipal Reforestation. This was followed by the Trees Amendment Act, 1952, Ch. 108. The Forestry Act R.S.O. 1950, Ch. 147 continued to provide authority for the Ministry of Lands and Forests to enter into agreements for reforesting, developing and managing for forestry purposes lands held by other persons, firms corporations or municipal corporations. The Act also provided for an advisory committee to advise the Minister of Lands and Forests on forest policy. The Forestry Act 1952, Ch. 32 consolidated legislation from several previous Acts. It included sections to deal with Agreement Forests, private forest reserves and the establishment and provision of nursery stock. The Nursery Stock Act, The Private Forest Reserves Act and The Private Forest Reserves Amendment Act 1951 were repealed. A year later the Forestry Amendment Act 1953, Ch. 39 authorized the furnishing of nursery stock to any public authority, association, board, institute, society or other organization for educational or scientific purposes, upon such terms and conditions that the Minister of Lands and Forests deems proper. Woodlands Improvement Act


The most important legislation regarding private land forestry was the Woodlands Improvement Act S.O. 1966, Ch. 161. This legislation would provide for the most extensive and productive private forestry program ever achieved in the Province of Ontario. The Royal Commission Report on Forestry of 1947, prepared by Major Kennedy, recommended that certain steps be taken on Crown land and on private land. Since the Province had jurisdiction on 90% of the forest land, the Crown land situation was given first priority. The first important step to deal with the private land situation arose at a meeting in Lindsay in 1961. At the meeting, Department of Lands and Forests, Forester E.F. Johnson proposed a plan for assistance to private landowners by establishing tree plantations on patented land. He envisaged that crews of trained planters would actually do the necessary planting for the private landowner. His vision to be implemented with the passing of the Woodlands Improvement Act in 1966 would result in the most extensive and successful tree planting program in Ontario. By 1995 216,830,660 trees had been planted in this program. In April 1962, a meeting of Department of Lands and Forests forestry staff was held in Toronto to discuss Private Land Forestry. It was felt that efforts by the Department of Lands and Forests, in its private land extension work, had not achieved satisfactory results with regards to the extent of the forestry program on private lands. At the meeting the Hon. J.W. Spooner, Minister of Lands and Forests, related: "I believe that for private land forest policies we must choose to lead the way by developing policies that are suitable for our people and our conditions and giving them strong leadership. We have had a public relations programme directed towards private forest owners in Ontario going back for over 50 years. It has achieved excellent results. Most landowners and Municipal officers are aware of the need for reforestation in a general way. Our fine agreement forests and the level of private planting are good indications of the selling job that has been done. Unfortunately municipalities and river valley authorities are not able to buy forest land fast enough even when they are helped by Government grants. Nor have private investors, particularly larger corporate investors, shown a willingness to spend money on reforestation. As a result lands are idle that should be contributing to the economy of Ontario. We must try to solve this problem." He also went on to mention the need for improved management of existing woodlands. In 1962, Joe Mennill was assigned to investigate the private land forestry situation. He compiled a comprehensive report on the situation and made a number of recommendations for improvement in September 1962. Contributing to this work were extension plans prepared by the prepared by the 8 southern districts in 1962.


Mennill's major recommendations included planting up idle lands by developing a planting assistance program for the private owner, as well as the provision of an additional management service to private woodland owners. In November 1962 a committee was set up by Deputy Minister Frank MacDougall to study the report and recommend action. The extension plans for the southern Ontario districts indicated the following tabulation of private forest resources: 1.5 5.8

million acres of idle Forest Land requiring reforestation million acres of existing Woodland needing improved management

In August 1964 E.F. Anderson succeeded Mr. Mennill. His terms of reference were to prepare the policy and the plan of action for Private Land Forestry. Based on this data and the recommendations by the Committee and the Mennill Report, a plan of action was prepared by January 1965. The plan was presented at the Private Land Forestry Meeting on February 16, 1965. As a result a new plan of action committee was appointed with E.F. Anderson as chairman. A reassessment of the private forest resources indicated that 2.0 million acres of idle land suitable for reforestation existed in Southern Ontario. As part of a 50-year program to plant up this idle land, an assistance program for private landowners was proposed. A trial planting assistance program in 1964 and 1965 in Tiny, Tay, Flos and Medonte Townships indicated that with planting assistance the scheme increased the planting in the townships by seven times the previous annual amount. Furthermore, a woodlot improvement program was proposed. The necessary legislation to implement the assistance program was passed in 1966 as "The Woodlands Improvement Act". Farm Foresters were appointed in all 8 southern districts and in 1967 fourteen forestry technicians were appointed by the Department of Lands and Forests to do private land forestry work under the Woodlands Improvement Act. In 1970 the program was expanded to cover private land in Northern Ontario. Forest Tree Pest Control Act The Forest Tree Pest Control Act R.S.O. 1970, Ch. 180 was passed to enable the govermnent to deal more effectively with dangerous new infestations of forest insects or diseases whether they occur on private or Crown lands. It gave the government the authority to enter onto private land with or without the


authority of the owner to make an inspection of the land and the trees and forest products to detect or appraise an infestation. It also gave the government the authority to take control measures on Crown land for insect and disease infestations at the expense of the Crown. Managed Forest Tax Reduction Program Reform of the taxation for farmland in Ontario began in November 1969, with the issuance of the Report of the Committee on Farm Assessment and Taxation in Ontario. This report included the recommendation that a new system of farm assessment within the Province be adopted. From 1970 to 1972 qualifying forested properties received the farm tax rebate. The Ministry of Revenue changed the assessment policy for farm properties for the 1974 taxation year. The practice had been that land not assessed for industrial, commercial or residential purposes was considered agricultural land. The new policy was that the farm assessment category was no longer the residual class after industrial, commercial and residential uses but was specifically farm at a reduced assessment. The counties of Bruce and Grey changed to market value assessment for 1974 and they were the largest areas at that time affected by the new policy. By 1974, owners of larger forested properties were unsatisfied that their properties no longer qualified for the Farm Tax Rebate. The Government of Ontario approved Order in Council Number 1398/75 the 14th day of May 1975 which, pursuant to section 3a of the Forestry Act, provided for the Managed Forest Tax Reduction program. Initially a grant of 50 percent of the taxes for the years 1973 and 1974 was paid to private woodland owners for that portion that related to the managed forest area.

The Ontario Managed Forest Tax Rebate Program was intended to encourage the private stewardship of managed forests. It was a voluntary program which recognized the contribution of private land forests and the range of benefits they provide, by offering property tax rebates to forest landowners who agreed to manage their forests for long-term environmental benefits. In 1975 the Managed Forest Tax Rebate totalling $293,374.67 was paid on 4,835 forest properties. By 1988 the program had expanded considerably. That year 9,823 forest owners received tax rebates totalling $4,246,066.60. The percent of property tax rebated on qualifying forest lands ranged from 50 percent for the period 1973-1983 to 100 percent for the years 1987-1989 and down to 75% for the years 1990 - 1991. On April 23, 1993 the government announced that due to financial constraints the Managed Forest Tax Reduction program was cancelled, retroactive to the 1992 tax year, making 1991 the last year that rebates


were made to qualifying forest landowners. A total of $34,980,522.35 was rebated to qualifying forest owners throughout the 19 years of the program. A summary of the Managed Forest Tax Reduction Program 1973-1991 appears in Appendix 2. Review of Trees Act R.S.O. 1980 Under the Trees Act, counties and regional and district municipalities may pass bylaws, but urban municipalities may not. The purpose of this Act is to regulate and restrict the destruction of trees in a manner which ensures long-term productivity of woodlands. A Tree Bylaws Advisory Committee was established in September of 1990 as a result of a resolution passed by the county and regional section of the Association of Municipalities of Ontario (AMO) and a subsequent AMO resolution requesting the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources assistance in establishing a committee to examine tree bylaws. In 1991 this Committee recommended, "That a new Trees Act become the central vehicle for tree regulation on private property in Ontario, and that future amendments to the Planning Act and Municipal Act should be cognizant of tree issues and complement the other recommendations made by the committee". However after considerable discussion the recommendation was not implemented and the Trees Act R.S.O. 1980 remains in force.

B. BRIEF HISTORY OF FOREST MANAGEMENT LEGISLATION FOR ONTARIO'S CROWN LANDS Legislation regarding Crown forests in Ontario dates back 170 years, when a proclamation was issued on May 3rd, 1826, to enable the Government to collect revenue from private contractors. Most early legislation dealt with the disposal of timber from Crown lands with some involving Game Acts. The first legislation to promote forest management on Crown lands was legislation to protect forests from destruction from fire in 1878. This was followed in 1898 by legislation to enable the establishment of Crown Forest Reserves.

This chapter briefly details legislation relating to the history of Forest Management on Crown Lands, and is interesting, from a comparative viewpoint, with the government's approach to legislation concerning private forest lands. Timber was first offered for sale to private contractors in 1826 when Sir Peregrine Maitland, the Lieutenant Governor, issued a proclamation on May 3rd which enabled the government to collect revenue from Crown timber, for the first time, on the ungranted lands of the Ottawa region. In 1827 the first timber


licence system was offered. Following the Union of the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, instructions regarding timber licences were issued March 30, 1942, and on June 24th, 1846 new regulations were passed. Timber prices were depressed in 1847-48, due to over-production resulting from a brisk demand and high prices in the British Market in the years immediately preceding.

As a result of this problem, a Select Committee on the Lumber Trade was appointed by the Canadian Legislature of the United Province of Canada. This committee drew up the first Crown Timber Act which was passed in 1849, under the title "An Act for the Sale and Betterment of Timber Upon the Public Lands" The Act provided that the commissioner of Crown Lands might grant licences at such rates and subject to such conditions, regulations and instructions as might be established from time to time by the Governor of the Province, upon the advice of the Executive Council. The licences were granted for 12 months and provided for proper returns of timber cut. A regulation introduced in 1851 imposed Ground Rent Fees at a rate of fifty cents per square mile. In 1866 just before Confederation, Crown Timber Regulations were revised and sales by public auction were provided for. On May 28, 1869 the Crown Timber Regulations of 1866 were abrogated and new regulations were made by the Lieutenant-Govemor in Council in Ontario. To a considerable extent the old regulations were incorporated in the new with some additions. The most important change in the new regulations was the requirement of a survey, exploration and valuation of the timber limits before they were offered for sale. Timber dues and ground rent were both increased. Early legislation to promote forest management on Crown forest lands was established in 1898 with the passing of the Forest Reserves Act.

In 1897 a commission was appointed "to investigate and report upon the subject of restoring and preserving the growth of white pine and other timber trees on lands in Ontario, which were not suitable for agricultural purpose or for settlement". The legislation was intended to promote forest management on the reserves. This intention was made more specific thirty-one years later by the Provincial Forests Act which changed the name from Forest Reserves to Provincial Forests, and provided for their active management.

In 1929 the passing of the Provincial Forests Act provided for the transfer of timber sales to the Forestry


Division of the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests. This change was an important one and followed what had been done in other provinces where timber sales and reforestation and protection of timber came under the jurisdiction of one division or department. The Act also provided for the appointment of a Provincial Forester for the first time. These changes were made to ensure that Ontario received the maximum value for its timber resources, without danger of depletion through a lack of cooperation between agencies. In 1929 the passing of the Pulpwood Conservation Act was intended to ensure a sustained yield of forest crops. The principle in allocating Crown Timber areas to the pulp and paper industry was to provide a tract on which regeneration would produce raw materials in perpetuity. Shortly after the passage in 1929 of the Provincial Forests Act and the Pulpwood Conservation Act, the great depression of the thirties began, followed by World War II. Thus the whole period between 1930 and 1945 was unfavourable as far as the advance of forest management was concerned. Due to lack of funds during the depression years and later due to the war, forest inventory information was lacking. Therefore in 1946 a Forest Resources Inventory Section was set up in the Timber Management Division of the Department of Lands and Forests. This work was completed in the 1950's and covered 199,000 square miles throughout the Department's twenty-two Districts. The final report summarizing the forest resources of Ontario, as determined by forest surveys completed between 1946 and 1959, was issued in 1963. To encourage cooperation with industry the Forest Management Act was passed in 1947. Industry operating on Crown lands through agreements, supplied an inventory and formulated management plans for the sustained yield management of the timber on their licenced lands. By 1937 there were numerous Acts related to the management, protection and handling of Crown Timber. They are as follows: The Crown Timber Act R.S.O. 1937, ch. 36. The Settlers Pulpwood Protection ActR.S.O. 1937, ch. 42. The Forest Fires Prevention Act R.S.O. 1937,ch.325. The Forest Resources Regulation ActR.S.O. 1937, ch. 40. The Provincial Forests Act R.S.O. 1937, ch. 38. The Mills Licencing Act R.S.O. 1937, ch. 37. Forestry Act R.S.O. 1937, ch. 39. The Cullers Act R.S.O. 1937, ch. 240. The Pulpwood Conservation Act R.S.O. 1937, ch. 41. The Provincial Parks Act R.S.O. 1937, ch. 94. The Spruce Pulpwood Exportation Act 4 Geo VI, ch. 27. A brief description of the Acts in Ontario in 1937 of special importance in the management


of timber is as follows: (1) (2)

(3) (4)

(5)

(6) (7)

(8)

Crown Timber Act - Provides for the licensing of Crown Timber and control of cutting. R.S.O. 1937, Chapter 36. Provincial Forest Act - This act, formerly the Forest Reserves Act, allows for the setting aside of tracts of forest land which shall be handled under a system of forest management. There are eight Provincial Forests covering over 12,000,000 acres. R.S.O. 1937, Chapter 38. The Pulpwood Conservation Act - Legislation to bring about forest management under a system of regulated cutting on lands leased to pulp and paper companies. R.S.O. 1937, Chapter 41. The Provincial Parks Act - The portion of this Act dealing with timber management provides for disposition of timber within Provincial Parks under supervision directed towards maintaining scenic values and game protection. A more selective system of cutting is to be practised. R.S.O. 1937, Chapter 94 The Mills Licensing Act - This Act requires that all saw mills, pulp mills, mills operating for the production of lath, shingles, ties, veneer, cooperage, and barking or rossing pulpwood be licensed. Between 1,200 and 1,300 licenses are issued annually by the Department of Lands and Forests. R.S.O. 1937, Chapter 37. The Cullers Act - Provides for the examination, licensing and conduct of cullers or scalers measuring timber cut from Crown Lands. R.S.O. 1937, Chapter 240. The Mining Act - Affects timber management in that it specifies the rights to timber on mining lands. Lands patented prior to 1869 give to the patentee all timber - between 1869 and 1918 all timber other than Pine - since 1918 timber is all reserved to the Crown, but permission may be granted to cut for use in the development of the property. R.S.O. 1937, Chapter 47. Forest Resources Regulation Act - Provides for the more efficient and economical operation of the forest products industries. Existing leased or licensed areas may be increased or reduced in size - kinds and quantity of timber which may be cut are regulated. R.S.O. 1937, Chapter 40.

On April 16, 1946 the Ontario government appointed Major General Howard Kennedy, a Commissioner, to investigate and report on numerous forestry and conservation related matters in Ontario. His report was issued May 12, 1947. One important recommendation was a thorough revision of the forestry statutes and regulations. Major Kennedy stated, "It would be a great convenience to forest operators, forest industries and the public generally, to have those Acts which deal directly with forests and forestry matters consolidated into a single omnibus statute and to have other Acts, dealing more indirectly with the same subject matter grouped together in the statute book. He suggested that the statute might be divided into five parts as follows: Part 1 A consolidation of Statutes which provide for the administration, protection and utilization of Crown lands and forests including such Acts as: 1.

The Crown Timber Act, R.S.O. 1937, Ch. 36.


2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

The Public Lands Act, R.S.O. 1937, Ch. 33. The Forest Resources Regulation Act, R.S.O. 1937, Ch. 40. The Forestry Act, R.S.O. 1937, Ch. 39. The Cullers Act, R.S.O. 1937, Ch. 240.

The Mills Licensing Act, R.S.O. 1937, Ch. 37. The Provincial Forests Act, R.S.O. 1937, Ch. 38. The Provincial Parks Act, R.S.O. 1937, Ch. 94. The Pulpwood Conservation Act, R.S.O. 1937, Ch. 41. The Spruce Pulpwood Exportation Act, 4 Geo. VI, Ch. 27. The Woodmen's Employment Act, R.S.O. 1937, Ch. 202.

Part II A consolidation of Statutes dealing with forest protection including such Statutes as The Forest Fires Prevention Act, R.S.O. 1937, Ch. 325; The Railway Fire Charge Act, R.S.O., 1937, Ch. 326; The Fire Guardians Act, R.S.O. 1937 Ch. 327. Part III A consolidation of the Statutes dealing with the use of lakes and streams for logging purposes including The Lakes and Rivers Improvement Act, R.S.O. 1937, Ch. 45; The Bed of Navigable Waters Act, R.S.O. 1937, Ch. 44. Part IV A revision of the present Game and Fisheries Act, 10 Geo. VI, Ch. 33. Part V A consolidation of the laws relating to forestry on private and municipal lands including such Statutes as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The Municipal Reforestation Act, R.S.O. 1937, Ch. 323. The Settlers Pulpwood Protection Act, R.S.O. 1937, Ch. 42. The Private Forests Reserves Act, R.S.O. 1937, Ch. 324. The Trees Conservation Act, 10 Geo. VI, Ch. 102. The Nursery Stock Act, R.S.O. 1937, Ch. 43.

Major Kennedy further stated:


"It is not feasible to include in a general Statute or collection of Statutes, such as mentioned above, every incidental reference in the Statute books to forestry matters; for example, The Mining Act, The Assessment Act and The Municipal Act all have sections of more or less importance relating to forestry or farm woodlots, but 1 do not suggest that the proper place for these long Statutes dealing mainly with other subject matters is in a collection of forestry and public lands enactments. The consolidation which I have suggested might, however, contain a reference to particular sections of other general Statutes." Subsequently in 1949 the Ontario Legislature passed the Statutes Consolidation Act. Commissioners were appointed to consolidate and revise the public statutes in accordance with the provisions of the Act. As a result, in 1952, both the Crown Timber Act and the Forestry Act were repealed, and new acts referred to as The Crown Timber Act 1952 and The Forestry Act 1952 were assented April 10th. The new Acts incorporated recommendations from the Kennedy Report and consolidated pertinent matters and repealed others. As a result the following Acts were repealed: Rev. Stat., c. 82. Rev. Stat., c. 84. Rev. Stat., c. 145. Rev. Stat., c. 146. Rev. Stat., c. 147. Rev. Stat., c. 234. Rev. Stat., c. 297. Rev. Stat., c. 325. Rev. Stat., c. 255. Rev. Stat., c. 288. 1951 c. 68.

1. The Crown Timber Act 2. The Cullers Act 3. The Forest Management Act 4. The Forest Resources Regulation Act 5. The Forestry Act 6. The Mills Licensing Act 7. The Provincial Forests Act 8. The Pulpwood Conservation Act 9. The Nursery Stock Act 10. The Private Forest Reserves Act 11. The Private Forest Reserves Amendment Act

In 1974 the Algonquin Forest Authority Act set up the Algonquin Forest Authority to carry out its work in Algonquin Park and in respect of Crown Timber on lands adjacent to the Park. In accordance with the


Act, a Master Plan was prepared that balances the public interest in maintaining and improving the quality of Algonquin Provincial Park, for the purpose of recreation and the public interest in providing a flow of logs from Algonquin Provincial Park. The Environmental Assessment Act was passed in 1975. Its purpose is the betterment of the people, of the whole or any part of Ontario, by providing the protection, conservation and wise management in Ontario of the environment. This Act applies to enterprises or activities or proposals, plans or programs, by or on behalf of her Majesty in sight of Ontario, by a public body or a municipality, or by a major commercial or business enterprise, therefore applying to Crown land activities as well as Agreement Forests. The proponent of an undertaking to which this Act applies shall submit to the Minister and environmental assessment of the undertaking and shall not proceed with the undertaking until the environmental assessment has been accepted and approved or exempted by the Minister. The Treasurer of Ontario in the 1974 budget announced changes which doubled the provincial revenue from Crown dues. This was the first major revision of the dues since 195 1. The changes introduced in the 1974 budget were intended as an interim measure, pending a complete review of the timber resource revenue field to be conducted by a task force. As a result of their efforts and recommendations, the Crown Timber Amendment Act 1978 authorized drafting of regulations by which the Crown dues to be paid by order in Council, licencees would be indexed to commodity selling price indices. While increases in Crown dues would seem to have little to do with improved forest management, the stage was set for discussions between government and industry. During late 1977 and 1978, discussions and negotiations between the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and representatives of the forest industry in Ontario, resulted in a draft document termed Forest Management Agreement (FNIA). These agreements would be a contractual arrangement with pulp and paper companies with licences to have them undertake the implementation of forest management practices. The agreements provide for a continuous supply of forest products and ensure the forests of the agreement area are harvested and regenerated on a sustained yield basis. An Amendment to the Crown Timber Act in 1980 provided the Statutory authority for the commencement of Forest Management Agreements. Therefore, subject to the approval of the Lieutenant Governor in Council, the Minister may enter into a Forest Management Agreement with any person, for the Management of Crown Timber on a sustained yield basis, and every such agreement shall set out the silvicultural specifications that are to be observed and performed in respect of the harvesting, regeneration and tending of the forest areas that are subject to Agreement, and the standards of regeneration to be achieved on the forest areas that are subject to the Agreement.


In 1984 the Province officially recognized the Eastern White Pine as the Arboreal Emblem for Ontario with the passing of the Arboreal Emblem Act. In 1994 an Act to revise the Crown Timber Act to provide for the sustainability of Crown Forests in Ontario was passed. The purpose of this Act is to provide for the sustainability of Crown Forests, and in accordance with that objective, manage the Crown forest to meet social, economic and environmental needs of present and future generations. In the Act, sustainability means long-term Crown forest health. For the purpose of this Act and the regulations, the sustainability of a Crown forest shall be determined in accordance with the Forest Management Planning Manual. The Forest Management Planning Manual provides for determinations of the sustainability of Crown forests in a manner consistent with the following principles. 1 . Large, healthy, diverse and productive Crown forests and their associated ecological processes and biological diversity should be conserved. 2. The long-term health and vigour of Crown forests should be provided for by using forest practices that, within the limits of silvicultural requirements, emulate natural disturbances and landscape patterns while minimizing adverse affects on plant life, animal life, water, soil, air and social and economic values, including recreational values and heritage values. In addition to legislation regarding timber management, sales, and harvesting, two other significant areas of forest resource legislation were forest fire legislation and wildlife or game legislation.

Forest fire legislation has been in place in Ontario since 1878, when an Act to preserve the forest from destruction by fire was passed by the Legislature. It contained many clauses necessary to prevent the setting of fires, but it proved difficult to enforce owing to a lack of staff. Then in 1885 a fire prevention organization consisting of 39 rangers commenced. Numerous amendments in forest fire legislation have occurred since then. As a result of destructive fires in 1916, the Forest Fires and Prevention Act was passed in 1917. It provided for the appointment of a Provincial Forester to administer and enforce the Act with the aid of substantial paid staff. With this change the Ontario Forestry Branch was formed which for many years had responsibility for forest fire prevention, reforestation and tree diseases. In 1930 the Forest Fires Prevention Act of 1917 was completely revised. In 1959 the Act was amended to enable the Department to make fire control agreements, not only with municipalities, but also with timber licensees and owners or tenants of railway lands. Fish and wildlife were among the first of Ontario's natural resources to be exploited. Game Acts of 1821 and 1856 show concern for this, but there was no way to enforce them.


The oldest game legislation in Ontario is that which provides for a wolf bounty. In 1793 the Parliament of Upper Canada passed an Act to encourage the destruction of bears and wolves in different parts of the Province. It was not until 1946 that the Game and Fisheries Department was merged with the Department of Lands and Forests. The amalgamation established for the first time, a unified responsibility for the administration and control of all living natural resources on Crown Lands, thus making it possible to plan their orderly development and effective future management in the interest of the community. Early legislation was directed largely at protecting game through controlling hunting by species, seasons and limits. In 1959 the Ontario Legislature passed the Wilderness Area Act which controlled public entry to the wilderness areas. In 1971 the Endangered Species Act was passed. The Act provides that regulations can be made declaring any species of fauna or flora threatened with extinction, an endangered species. It states that no person shall willfully kill, injure, interfere with or take or attempt to kill, injure, interfere with, or take any species of fauna or flora; or destroy or interfere with or attempt to destroy or interfere with the habitat of any species of fauna or flora declared in the regulations to be threatened with extinction. The introduction of the Crown Forest Sustainability Act in 1994, provides the first real opportunity to accomplish not only the management of wildlife, but the management of entire ecosystems on a longterm sustainable basis. Previous to this, legislation was lacking to enable successful and widespread management of wildlife species, and most legislation was directed towards game species or migratory birds.

CHAPTER 2 QUESTIONNAIRE Review of Forestry Legislation Policy and Management Guidelines An important part of this study was conducting a detailed questionnaire and interviews with 20 Forest Resource Managers, located throughout the Eastern Ontario Model Forest area. The main objective of the questionnaire and interviews was to obtain information to determine the extent to which legislation, policy, and management guidelines influence the management of forests on the ground and to document constraints to Sustainable Forest Resource Management, including gaps in information and the formatting of information. The average number of years experience in Forest Management work of those completing the questionnaire was 16.75 years. A breakdown by employer for those completing the questionnaire was as follows: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources

15


Forest Industry Conservation Authority Total

4 1 20

Approximately 10 other Forest Resource Managers were approached and invited to complete the questionnaire. Most declined saying they were too busy. It is important to note that not all questions were completed, so that in the analysis of the information the totals do not necessarily add up to 20. The questionnaire consisted of three main parts as follows: Part I Part II Part III

- Legislation - Policy - Management Guidelines

For the purpose of this project Forest Resource Managers were considered to be those post secondary graduates currently involved with trees and woodlands in the rural environment, working at least part-time in the Eastern Ontario Model Forest area. The following is a detailed summary of the information provided by those respondents to the questionnaire.

Part 1

Legislation

Definitions Legislation:

a law or laws enacted by a legislative body.

Statute:

an Act which expresses the will of parliament or a Legislature. The word "law " is a broader term which embraces "Statute Law" - an Act or a Proclamation, Regulation or Order In Council made according to an Act.

Regulation:

a detailed order or rule conferred by the authority of a Statute and having the force of law.

Statutory Legislation:

includes a Statute or Statutes and the associated regulations.

Legislation may be federal or provincial and may be enforced by Regulation at the Federal and Provincial levels or bylaws at the Municipal level. Question 1


How do you learn about Legislation that impacts on your Forest Management activities?

Government circulars From your peers From your supervisor Newspapers O.P.F.A. Radio and T.V. C.I.F. S.A.F. Others

Number Responding 19 4 2 17 10 10 8 4 2 1 4

Others listed were as follows: Publications of conservation organizations O.F.I.A. Email Training Question 2 Do You feel you make a conscious effort to keep up-to-date with new or revised legislation? YES-18

NO-2

Question 3(a) Does your employer make a conscious effort to inform you offending changes or new legislation that impacts on your job? YES - 19

SOMETIMES - 1

Question 4(a) Have you ever attended a seminar/course that dealt in detail with Legislation that impacts on your Forest Management activities? YES-16

NO-4

Question 4(b) If yes, please list the last three. Seminars/courses listed were as follows:


Crown Forest Sustainability Act (1994) Environmental Bill of Rights Planning Reform in Ontario Occupational Health and Safety Training Forest Fire Prevention Ministry of Environment Pesticides Symposium Question 5 The following Provincial legislation may impact on your Forest Management activities as a Forest Manager in the Eastern Ontario Model Forest Area. Do you have a good understanding of

Does this legislation impact on your forest management activities on

Private Land YES

Crown Timber Sustainability Act Forest Fires Prevention Act Forest Tree Pest Control Act Forestry Act Trees Act Woodlands Improvement Act Conservation Authorities Act Conservation Land Act Weed Control Act Endangered Species Act Environmental Assessment Act

14 11 3 16 17 19 8 4 7 11 14

NO

5 6 11 3 2 9 10 8 7 6

YES

5 1 14 16 17 6 6 11 12 7

The best understood Provincial legislation was noted as follows: Woodlands Improvement Act Trees Act Forestry Act Crown Timber Sustainability Act Environmental Assessment Act

19 17 16 14 14

The least understood legislation was noted as follows: Forest Tree Pest Control Act Conservation Land Act Weed Control Act

3 4 7

NO

11 5 4 1 4 3 3 3

Crown Land YES

15 8 2 8 6

2 7 9 13

NO

3 2 1 2 4 4 1 1 1


Question 6 Other Provincial Legislation that may impact on your Forest Management activities. Do you have a good understanding of

YES

Abandoned Orchards Act Aggregate Resources Act Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act Beds of Navigable Waters Act Environmental Bill of Rights Environmental Protection Act Farm Practices Protection Act Game and Fish Act Mining Act Occupational Health and Safety Ontario Planning and Development Ontario Professional Foresters Act Pesticides Act Planning Act Public Lands Act Road Access Act Topsoil Prevention Act Trespass to Property Act Wilderness Areas Act Workers Compensation Act Plant Diseases Act Provincial Parks Act Line Fences Act

NO

Private Land

Crown Land

YES

YES

NO

NO

2 14 3

12 3 11

2 11 2

2 1 2

8 1

14 14 10 1 15 5 18 2 11 16 14 16 3 5 13 1 15 1 16 13

2 3 6 12 4 10 1 12 5 3 2 4 12 10 5 12 3 12 3 2

8 10 6 4 10 5 12 2 8 11 12 1

5 3 2 1 2 4 1

7 12 6 1 12 8 13

1 1 2 8

8 10 3 14

The six Acts that were most familiar were as follows: Occupational Health Safety Provincial Parks Act Public Lands Act Pesticides Act Game and Fish Act

Does this legislation impact on your forest management activities on

18 16 16 16 15

3

2

7 15

1 1 5 1 2 7 3

9 1 2 11

1 1 4 1 2 1 2 1 1 5 1

4

4 2 2 8 9 6

4 1 1 1 2


Workers Compensation Act

15

The five Acts that respondents were least familiar are as follows: Farm Practices Protection Act Wilderness Areas Act Plant Diseases Act Abandoned Orchards Act Ontario Planning and Development

1 1 1 2 2

In response to the question, "Does this legislation impact on your Forest Management activities?", it is noted that respondents were often unaware of the extent to which various legislation impacted on their Forest Management activities. Question 7 Is there any other Provincial legislation that You feel impacts on your Forest Management activities? In what way? Respondents had no knowledge of any other Provincial legislation that impacts on their Forest Management activities. Question 8(a) Are you aware of any pending changes in Provincial legislation that you feel will impact on your Forest Management activities? YES - 10

NO - 10

Some changes were noted as follows: 1. 2. 3 4. 5.

Wetlands Act. Planning Act Bill 163 Significant Woodlands. Revision of Trees Act might proceed. Possible reintroduction of the Managed Forest Tax Rebate. Changes due to the Crown Forest Sustainability Act.

Question 9(a) Is any further Provincial legislation necessary to support your Forest Management activities in achieving the goal of sustainable forestry in the Eastern Ontario Model Forest Area? YES - 12

NO - 5

Some suggestions were as follows: 1 . Revise property tax structure for private forested land.


2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Regulation of forest exploitation on private land. Protection of regeneration and immature plantings. Control of off road vehicles on Crown Land. Stronger legislation for the control and use of private forests. Private Forest Sustainability Legislation to further promote private land forestry. Tax reform - reduced taxes on land that is maintained as Healthy Forest. Wildlife Protection Act - to protect wildlife habitat. Legislation to provide tax break for woodlot owners with Registered Management Plans. New rules/policies with respect to Managed Forest Tax Rebates.

Question 10(a) Are there any tree cutting by-laws in your work area? YES - 8

NO - 12

Question 10(b) If yes please list: Lanark County Ottawa Carleton Question 10(c)

Do you see the need for additional tree cutting by-laws within your work area? YES - 9

NO - 7

Some comments on this were as follows: YES

Control needed in terms of development of forest lands for nonsustainable uses. -All counties should have by-laws as a minimum level of control. There is a need to address rural and urban concerns separately. -Recent changes to the legislation need to be acted upon by municipalities. -Should have tree cutting by-law appropriate to the geographic area in all counties. -Need mechanism to monitor where and how much cutting is occurring. -Especially along stream banks.

NO

Think cutting by-laws are counter productive and largely unenforceable. -Self regulation in addition to compliance and education is needed.

Question 11 In your opinion are tree cutting by-laws sufficiently enforced? YES - 0

NO - 12


Question 12 Do you have any suggestions regarding the improvement of by-laws to regulate the cutting of trees? 1. 2.

Let the Provincial government provide enforcement. A workable standard such as being proposed by the Eastern Ontario Model Forest Group should be constituted in Municipal Planning regulations. 3. Education - self regulation. 4. Qualified inspectors - notification requirement for all cutting operations. Licencing of loggers. 5. Ensure by-laws are logical in the first place. 6. Educate landowners about the reasons for by-laws. 7. Use volunteers for enforcement/audit. 8. Enact permit system to locate cutting on private land. 9. Provide training to by-law enforcement officers. 10. Enforce - notification clause - better management direction than by diameter limit needed. 11. The challenge is one of education of the woodland owners and society. Get rid of by-laws that aren't enforced. Question 13 Are you aware of any Federal legislation that impacts on your Forest Management activities? YES - 1

NO - 9

Comments on this question were as follows: -

International Conventions are very important eg. Migratory Birds Convention. Convention on the international trade in endangered species. Fisheries Act. Legislation controlling transportation across international borders.

Part II

Forest Policy

A policy is a course of action. It is a settled, designated approach to doing things. Policies are the principles or guidelines that individuals, companies, governments and organizations have adopted for managing and directing their affairs. It is essential for them to have policies in order to get on with doing things or to direct others who wish to do things. Forest policy includes all values related to forests, i.e. wildlife, conservation, recreation etc. Question 1 How do you learn about policy that impacts on your Forest Management activities? Government circulars

20


From your peers From your supervisor Newspapers Radio and T.V. O.P.F.A. C.I.F. S.A.F. Others

17 13 8 5 4 2 1 8

Others listed were as follows: Ontario Forestry Association Ontario Woodlot and Sawmill Operators Association Eastern Ontario Model Forest Ontario Forest Industries Association Canadian Pulp and Paper Association Publications of Conservation Groups Timber Environmental Assessment Training Ontario Maple Syrup Producers Association Question 2(a) Do You feel you make a conscious effort to keep up-to-date with new or revised policy that impacts on your Forest Management activities? YES - 19 NO - 0 SOMETIMES - 1 Question 3(a) Does your employer make a conscious effort to inform you of pending changes on new forest policy that impacts on your Forest Management activities? YES - 16

NO - 0

SOMETIMES - 4

Question 4(a) Have you ever attended a seminar or course that dealt with policy that impacts on your Forest Management activities? YES -

15

NO - 5

Question 4(b) If yes please list the last three: The following are seminars and courses listed:


Significant Woodlands Workshop Trenton Woodlot Conference Canadian Pulp and Paper Association Annual Meeting Ontario Forest Industries Association Area Meeting Planning Reform - Comprehensive Policy Statements Wetlands Policy Crown Forests Sustainability Act Private Forests Stewardship Program Seed Transfer Policy New Business Relationships Natural Heritage Policies Environmental Bill of Rights Tree Marking Certification Timber Production Policy Question 5(a) Are you aware of any pending policy changes on new policy that impacts on your Forest Management activities? YES - 9

NO - 11

Question 5(b) If yes describe briefly: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Company policy to work with independent wood suppliers. Policies on Woodlots, ravines etc. in planning reform. Policies on Guidelines with respect to the Crown Forest Sustainability Act. Private Stewardship. Ministry of Natural Resources organizational change and field operational cutbacks. New Private land Sustainable Forests Initiative. New Managed Forest Tax Rebate Program.

Question 6 Are there any policies that should be developed to further support you in your Forest Management activities? Please give details. The following policies were suggested: 1 . A green certification program - subject to field audit. 2. Minimum training/certification of Tree Markers on Crown and Private Land. 3 . Strengthen the monitoring of forest reserves. The Ministry of Natural Resources hasn't kept coordinated records since 1992.


4. 5.

Policy to make industry responsible for harvesting practices on private lands. Need policies promoting a strong Forestry Extension Service Program for private landowners.

Question 7 The following Forest Policy Guidelines are examples of many that exist. Please indicate, using a checkmark, to the left of the title, those policies you are familiar with that apply to your work within the Eastern Ontario Model Forest Area: The Forest Policy Guidelines were divided into three categories as follows: 1. 2. 3.

Provincial Forest Policy Guidelines. National and Federal Government Policy Guidelines. Forest Industry and others.

In the following summary of each category the number of respondents for each policy is indicated in the right column. Provincial Forest Policy Guidelines

Policy/Title

Source

Year Published

No. of Respondents Familiar with

1.

Sectorial Task Force Report "Forestry"

Ontario Round Table on 1989 Environment and Economy

2

2.

Conserving Ontario's Old Growth Forests Ecosystems

Final Report on the Old Growth Forest Policy Advisory Committee

1994

12

3.

Developing A New Timber Production Policy

OMNR - Policy Development and Transfer Section

1993

6

4.

Diversity - Forests People - Communities

The Report of the Ontario Forestry Policy Panel

1993

16

5.

Manual of Implementation Guidelines for the Wetlands Policy Statement

OMNR Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs

1992

15


6.

Policy Statement - Wetlands A Statement of Ontario Government Policy issued under the Authority of Section 3 of the Planning Act 1983.

7.

Private Forests Sustainability in Southern Ontario

8.

Ontario's New Planning System

9.

OMNR Ministry of Municipal Affairs

1992

15

1994

12

Communications Branch Ministry of Municipal Affairs

1994

13

Comprehensive Set of Policy Statements

Communications Branch Ministry of Municipal Affairs

1994

13

10.

Looking Ahead - A Wildlife Strategy for Ontario

The Ontario Wildlife 1991 Working Group for OMNR

12

11.

A Proposed Action Plan for Looking Ahead - A Wildlife Strategy for Ontario

The Wildlife Strategy 1993 Action Plan Ad Hoc Committee on behalf of the Wildlife Forums for the OMNR

5

12.

Implementation Guideline For Natural Heritage and Environmental Protection Final Draft

OMNR

1995

15

13.

A Prospectus for the Mixedwood Silviculture Program at the Ontario Forest Research Institute

OMNR

1995

6

14.

Long-Term Ecological Research Program Strategic Plans

OMNR

1994

5

15.

A Strategy for Managing the Forested Ecosystems of the

OMNR

1993 Draft

10

OMNR


Southern Region 16.

Toward 2000 Trends and Implications

OMAF

1989

1

17.

Common Ground Update The Strategic Plan for the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food

OMAF

1991

2

18.

Significant Woodlands Draft Package of Implementation Guidelines

OMNR

current

12

National and Federal Government Policy Guidelines

Policy/Title

Source

Year Published

No. of Respondents Familiar with

1.

Sustainable Forests, A Canadian Commitment

Canadian Council of Forest Ministers

1992

7

2.

Environmental Stewardship in Action

Environment Canada

1993

0

3.

A National Forester Sector Strategy for Canada

Canadian Council of Forest Ministers

1987

2

4.

Toward a National Forestry Science and Technology Agenda for Canada

Natural Resources Canada Science and Sustainable Development Directorate

1993

2

5.

The State of Canada's Forests Forests, A Global Resource Fourth Report to Parliament

Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service

1993

11

6.

Forest Tenures in Canada A Framework for Policy Analysis

Forestry Canada Economics Branch

1990

2


7.

The Federal Government's Response to the Report of the Standing Committee on Natural Resources Canada: A Model Forest Nation in the Making

Natural Resources Canada

1994

1

8.

Canada - A Model Forest Nation in the Making

Standing Committee on Natural Resources

1994

2

9.

Creating Opportunity The Liberal Plan for Canada

Liberal Party of Canada

1993

1

10.

Biodiversity in Canada A Science Assessment

Biodiversity Science Assessment Team Environment Canada

1994

0

11. North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation

Government of Canada

1993

0

12. Common Ground Recommendations for Policy Reform to Integrate Wildlife Habitat Environmental and Agricultural Objectives on the Farm

by John Girt Commissioned by Wildlife Habitat Canada Environment Canada Agriculture Canada

1990

2

13. Sustainable Development and Forest Management National Forum Proceedings

Canadian Council of Forest Ministers

1990

0

14. Forest Management Decision Support Systems Strategic Plan 1992-1997

Forestry Canada

1992

0

15. Forestry Canada Preparing for the Future Our Strategic Plan

Forestry Canada

1990

2

16. The Canadian Forest Service Preparing for the Future Our Strategic Plan Update

Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service

1993

1


17. Forests of Canada The Federal Role

Second Report of the Standing Committee on Forestry and Fisheries

1990

0

18. Canadian Forestry Service Policy on Forest Pest Management

Canadian Forestry Service

1987 Reprint

1

19. Canadian Forestry Service Policy for Management of Department of National Defence Lands

Canadian Forestry Service

1987

0

20. Canadian Forestry Service Policy for Forestry Programs on Indian Lands

Canadian Forestry Service

1988

0

1990

4

21. A Wildlife Policy for Canada

Wildlife Ministers Council of Canada

22. The Federal Policy on Wetland Conservation

Government of Canada

1991

4

23. Land Use Planning and Sustainable Development in Canada By Nigel Richardson

Canadian Environmental Advisory Council

1989

0

24. Towards New Fundamentals Indicators of Ecologically Sustainable Development By H. Jack Ruitenbeek

Canadian Environmental Advisory Council

1991

1

25. Canadian Perspective on Clear cutting

Forestry Canada

1991

3

26. Canadian Perspective on Old Growth Forests

Forestry Canada

1992

27. Canadian Perspective on Reforestation

Forestry Canada

1992

2

28. Canadian Perspective on

Forestry Canada

1992

4


Forest Pesticides

Forest Policy - Forestry Industry and Others

Year Published

No. of Respondents Familiar with

Policy/Title

Source

1.

Forest Policy in Canada

Canadian Pulp and Paper1989 Industry

1

2.

Priorities for Forestry and Agroforestry Policy Research Report of an International Workshop Edited by Hans Gregersen, Peter Oram and John Spears

International Food Policy1992 Research Institute, Washington, D.C.

0

3.

Ontario Forest Industries Association Guiding Principles and Code of Forest Practices

Ontario Forest Industries1993 Association

9

4.

Guiding Principles and Code of Forest Practices First Annual Progress Report

Ontario Forest Industries 1994 Association

1

5.

Guiding Principles and Code of Forest Practices Second Progress Report

Ontario Forest Industries 1995 Association

2

6.

Guide to Sound Forest Management Practices for Private Woodlots

Federation Wood Producers of Quebec

1994

3

7.

Agroforestry for Sustainable Development - A National Strategy to Develop and Implement Agroforestry

Workshop Participants 1994 Nebraska City, Nebraska

1

8.

Agroforestry: An integrated Land Use Management System for Production and

Agroforestry Committee for USDA - SCS

1994

1


Farmland Conservation 9. Forest Round Table on Sustainable Development Edited by Steve Thompson and Allison Webb Final Report

National Round Table on The Environment and the Economy

1994

3

10. Sustainable Forestry Towards International Certification A Canadian Approach

Canadian Standards Association

1994

1

11. Guiding Principles for Forest Land Management in Canada

Canadian Pulp and Paper Association

current

3

12. Environmental Statement

Canadian Pulp and Paper Association

current

3

Statements by the Pulp and Paper Industry

Canadian Pulp and Paper Association

13. Watershed Management

Canadian Pulp and Paper Association

1992

2

14. Public Participation in Forest Management Planning

Canadian Pulp and Paper Association

1992

2

15. Forest Renewal

Canadian Pulp and Paper Association

1992

2

16. Old Growth Forests

Canadian Pulp and Paper Association

1992

2

17. Clear cutting - A Forest Regeneration Method

Canadian Pulp and Paper Association

1992

1

18. Biodiversity Conservation

Canadian Pulp and Paper Association

1992

1

19. Wetlands

Canadian Pulp and Paper Association

1992

1


20.

21.

Independent Audits of Forest Management Performance Forest Wildlife Habitat and Forest Ecosystems

Canadian Pulp and Paper Association

1992

1

Canadian Pulp and Paper Association

1992

1

22.

Acid Rain/Air Pollution Canadian Pulp and and the Canadian ForestPaper Association

1992

1

23.

Control of Competing Vegetation in Forestry

Canadian Pulp and Paper Association

1989

2

24.

Protecting the Forest From Insect Infestation

Canadian Pulp and Paper Association

1989

1

25.

Protecting the Forest From Fire

Canadian Pulp and Paper Association

1989

1

26.

The Road From Rio: Moving Forward in Forestry

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

1994

0

Question 8 Please list any other forest policies that are applicable in your work area and not previously mentioned.

Policy/Title

Source

Year Published

1.

Domtar Forest Policy Forests For All, Today and Tomorrow

Domtar

1995

2.

Natural Forest Landscape Management, A Strategy For Canada

Forestry Canada

1993

3.

Balancing Act Environmental Issues in Forestry, Sustainable

American Forest and 1994 Paper Association


Forestry Principles and Implementation Guidelines 4.

White Tailed Deer Policy

Part III

OMNR

1991

Forest Management Guidelines

Forest Management guidelines provide managers with information necessary to accomplish management objectives. Forest management for the purpose of this study means the management of forests for fiber production as well as other associated values such as food production, wildlife, recreation, aesthetics, conservation, Christmas trees etc. To assist you in responding to this section, many forest management guidelines are listed that relate to several aspects of forest management. Question 1 How do you learn about Forest Management Guidelines that impact on your Forest Management activities? Government Circulars From your peers From your supervisors O.P.F.A. Newspapers Radio and T.V. Other

19 16 10 5 2 2 4

Others listed were as follows: Workshops Information Bulletins Ontario Forest Industries Association Library Training Courses Question 2(a) Do you feel you make a conscious effort to keep up-to-date with Forest Management


Guidelines that relate to your Forest Management activities? YES - 16

NO - 2

Question 2(b) If your answer is no, please provide comments. Responses were as follows: - As guidelines tend to be specific to species or areas, I generally wait to learn about them. - I am in biology - there are many guidelines that I don't see - do not have as many contacts. Question 3(a) Does your employer make a conscious effort to inform you of pending changes or new Forest Management Guidelines that relate to your Forest Management activities? YES - 14

NO - 1

SOMETIMES - 4

Question 4(a) Have you ever attended a seminar, conference, workshop or course that dealt with Forest Management Guidelines that relate to your Forest Management activities? YES - 11

NO - 7

Question 4(b) If yes please list the last three. Respondents listed the following: Silva Tree Marking Certification Course V.M.A.P. Conference O.F.I.A. Meeting Ferric Meeting Winter Farm Woodlot Day Kemptville

Crown Forest Sustainability Act Planning Reform Private Land Forests Sustainability Wetlands Forestry/Wildlife Workshops Ecosystem Management Workshops


Habitat Management Guidelines For Deer Forest Gene Conservation Workshop Question 5(a) Do you feel that funding constraints are reducing your Forest Management field activities? YES - 16

NO - 2

Question 5(b) If yes, by how much? 5% 10% 25% 33.3% 50% 75% 100%

3 4 7 4

Question 6(a) Rank in order of significance, from most significant to least significant, those constraints that limit your Forest Management activities. Employer priorities Organization structure Lack of time Lack of information Funding constraints Other (please detail)

2 3 1

The major constraint on Forest Management activities was listed as funding, followed by employer priorities. Other constraints listed were as follows: -

Lack of direction and clarity of priorities from employer. Lack of awareness of opportunities of the markets.

Question 6(b) Briefly explain the circumstances regarding the constraints. 1.

Minimal priority by OMNR on Forest Management in the Southern Region.


2.

Have staff to coordinate Forest Management but no funds to maintain WIA Program and Crown Agreement. Forest Management - change in employer's priorities and controlled budget are stumbling blocks.

3. No money for Forest Management activities in the South. 4. OMNR cutbacks to Domtar's Eastern Ontario Development Program. 5. Worldwide deficit reduction priorities. 6. Direction of OMNR towards information, science, planning and away from "doing". 7. Reorganization and downsizing have reduced the workforce. 8. Too little money for training and science transfer. 9. No private land calls being done - staff assigned to other duties. Question 7 What guidelines have you been involved in, developing within the last five years, for Forest Management within your work area, eg. management plans, fact sheets etc. ? Respondents listed the following: Newsletters Fact Sheets Tree marking and tending on all sites including sensitive ones Guidelines/recovery plans related to rare species such as loggerhead shrike and Henslows Sparrow Extension Note Series Silvicultural Guides - Hardwoods and Cedar Regenerating Ontario's Forests G+4 Master Plan for Southern Region Operating and Management Plan for G.H. Ferguson Forest Station Guide to Weed Control for Private Landowners butternut Conservation Strategy Forest Gene Conservation Association 5 Year Plan Stock Handling Guidelines Implementing Guidelines for Wetlands Implementation Guidelines for Natural Heritage Features and Areas (Planning Reform)


Management Plans for Private Woodlots Tree Marking Manual Timber Management Plans Limerick Forest Management Plan Fact Sheets for Private Landowners Financial Aspects of Property Management Ontario Woodlot and Sawmill Operator's Code of Practice Maple Orchard Program Property Management Guidelines Question 8 To what extent do you use the Guidelines included in Question 7? Occasionally - 3

Regularly - 8

Extensively - 4

Provincial Forest Management Guidelines

Policy/Title

Source

Year Published

No. of Respondents Familiar with

1.

Design Guidelines forest Management

Hough Stanbury and Assoc. Ltd. for OMNR

circa 1980

12

2.

The Timber Resources of Ontario

Forest Management Branch

1993

5

3.

Manual of Forest Management Plan Requirements for the Province of Ontario Second Edition

1977

9

4.

Timber Management Planning Manual For Crown Lands in Ontario

OMNR

1986

11

5.

Timber Management Guidelines For The Protection of Tourism Values

OMNR Ministry of Tourism and Recreation

1987

10

6.

Environmental Guidelines For Access Roads and Water Crossings

OMNR

1990

13

7.

Interim Silvicultural

OMNR

1994

10

OMNR


Guidelines For the Eastern White Cedar, Compiled by Warren W. Schaffer Edited by Eric Boysen

STTU Brockville

8.

Management of Tolerant Hardwoods in Algonquin Provincial Park

OMNR

1983

13

9.

Managing Red Pine Plantations

OMNR

1986

15

10.

A Silvicultural Guide to the White Pine Working Group

OMNR

1983

16

11.

A Silvicultural Guide to the Aspen Working Group in Ontario

OMNR

1975

12

12. A Silvicultural Guide to the Hard Maple, Yellow Birch and Hemlock Working Group in Ontario

OMNR Forest Management Branch

1974

13

13. A Guide to the Identification of Poplar Clones in Ontario

OMNR

1984

10

14. A Grower's Guide to Hybrid Poplar

OMNR

1991

14

15. Jack Pine Working Group

OMNR

1986

8

16. A Silvicultural Guide for the Spruce Working Group in Ontario

OMNR

1988

11

17. A Silvicultural Guide for the Poplar Working Group in Ontario

OMNR

1989

13

18. A Silvicultural Guide for the White Pine and Red Pine Working Groups in Ontario

OMNR

1989

14

19. A Silvicultural Guide for the Tolerant Hardwoods Working Group in Ontario

OMNR

1990

14


By H.W. Anderson et al 20. A Tree Marking Guide for the Tolerant Hardwoods Working Group in Ontario by H.W. Anderson and J.A. Rice

OMNR

21. Growth Response of

OMNR

1993

14

1983 7

Basswood and Sugar Maple to an Intermediate Cutting. Forest Research Report #107 by G. Stroempl 22.

Red Pine Plantation Growth and Yield Tables Forest Research Report # 108 By A. Beckworth and P. Roebbelen

OMNR

1983

23.

Growth and Quality of Red Oak Planted in Red Pine Plantation Openings Forest Research Report #117 by G. Stroempl

OMNR

1987

24.

Thinning Clumps of Northern Hardwood Stump Sprouts to Produce High Quality Timber Forest Research Report # 104 by G. Stroempl

OMNR

1984

25.

Effect of Initial Seedling OMNR Morphology and Planting Practices on Field Performance of Jack Pine 6 Years After Planting Forest Research Report #130, By J.M. Paterson and Doug S. Maki

26.

Revised Site Regions of

1994

OMNR

10

6

11

4

1993

5


Ontario Concepts, Methodology and UtilityForest Research Report #129, By D. Burger 27.

Impacts of Various Levels of OMNR Biomass Removals on the Structure, Function and Productivity of Black Spruce Ecosystems: Research Protocols Forest Research Information Paper # 109, by A. G. Gordon et al

1993

3

28.

Effects of Conifer Release OMNR with Herbicides on Wildlife A Review with an emphasis on Ontario's Forests Forest Research Information Paper #111 By R.A. Lautenschlager

1993

11

29.

Provincial Ecological Land Classification Program Prospectus Forest Research Information Paper #112 By Peter W.C. Uhlig et al

OMNR

1994

11

30.

The Tolerant Conifers: Eastern Hemlock and Red Spruce, Forest Research Information Paper # 113 By H.W. Anderson and A.G. Gordon

OMNR

1994

5

31. Logging Damage: The Problems and Practical Solutions, Forest Research Information Paper #117 Edited by J.A. Rice

OMNR

1994

11

32.

OMNR

1994

1

A Survey of Mixedwood Research and Development Needs in Ontario


Forest Research Information Paper #118 By D.H. Weingartner and G.B. MacDonald 33.

Growth and Yield Masterplan for the Southern Region Technical Report TR-003 By Eric Boysen

OMNR STTU

1994

14

34.

The Autecology of Competing Non Crop Vegetation on Old Field Sites in Southern Ontario, by J.H. Louter et al

OMNR STTU

1993

15

A Review and Summary of OMNR Selected Literature on STTU Eastern White Cedar Management Technical Report TR-002 Compiled by Warren W. Schaffer

1994

11

35.

36.

Stock Handling Guidelines For Southern Region

OMNR STTU

current

12

37.

Life Science Areas of Natural and Scientific Interest in Site, District 6-10 By David J. White

OMNR STTU

1993

6

38.

The Natural Heritage of Southern Ontario's Settled Landscapes By John L. Riley and Pat Mohr

OMNR

1994

10

39.

Sugar Bush Management for Maple Syrup Producers By C.F. Coons

OMNR

1992

16

OMNR

1974

10

40.

Propagation and Selection of Sugar Maple in Ontario By W.A.G. Morsink and E.Jorgensen


41.

Prescribed Fire in the Great Lakes, St. Lawrence and Deciduous Forest of Ontario Problems and Potential, by C.E. Van Wagner

OMNR STTU

1993

6

42.

White Pine Blister Rust and White Pine Weevil Management Guidelines for White Pine in Ontario By J.C. Hodge et al

OMNR

1990

11

43.

Common Pests of Ornamental Trees and Shrubs By K.B. Turner et al

OMNR

1975

20

44.

Studies on the Design and Management of Shelterbelts and Windbreaks in Southern Ontario, by W. Andrew Kenney

University of Guelph

45.

The Farm Windbreak

1986

OMNR

6

1976 1982

16

46.

A Guide to Christmas Tree Growing in Ontario By Hugh G. McPhee

Christmas Tree Grower’s Assoc. of Ontario

15

47.

Technical Training Manual For Evaluation Significant Woodlands

OMNR

48.

Field Manual for Describing Soils in Ontario

Ontario Centre for Soil Resource Evaluation-Guelph Agricultural Centre

1993

12

current

4

49.

1995 Guide to Weed Control Publication 75

OMAFRA

1995

18

50.

Production Recommendations for Nursery and Landscape Plants, Publication 383

OMAFRA

1994

7

51. Best Management Practices A First Look - Practical Solutions For Soil and Water Problems

OMAFRA Agriculture Canada

current

15


52. Best Management Practices Farm Forestry and Habitat Management

OMAF Agriculture Canada

current

20

53. Best Management Practices Soil Management

OMAF Agriculture Canada

current

15

54. Best Management Practices Water Management

OMAF Agriculture Canada

current

55. Caring For Your Land A Stewardship Handbook for Niagara Escarpment Landowners By Stewart Hilts and Peter Mitchell

University of Guelph Centre for Land and Water Stewardship

1994

8

56. White Tailed Deer Habitat in Ontario - Background to Guidelines By Dennis R. Voigt

OMNR

1992

12

57. Vegetation Management for Wildlife in Ontario By David Euler

OMNR

1979

16

58. Timber Management Guidelines for the Protection of Fish Habitat

OMNR

1988

14

59. Cutting Plans for Deer and Timber in Cedar Swamps By P.C. Smith and E.L. Borczon

OMNR

1981

11

60. Rare Species and Values Field Guide By Saskia Koning and Michael Madeira

OMNR

1991

10

61. Timber Management Guidelines for the Protection of Moose Habitat

OMNR

1988

10

62. Timber Management Guidelines for the Protection of Cultural Heritage Resources

OMNR

current

14

6


63. Guidelines for Implementation of IRM on Forest Stations

OMNR

current

3

64. Aerial Spraying for Forest Management - An Operational Manual

OMNR

1981

6

65. Resource Access Roads Policy and Implementation Strategies and Guidelines

OMNR

1985

8

66. Prescribed Bum Planning Manual

OMNR

1988

8

67. Code of Practice for Timber Management Operations in Riparian Areas

OMNR

1991

10

68. Class Environmental Assessment for Small Scale MNR Projects Field Environmental Planning Procedures for MNR Class Environmental Assessment Projects Part 2, 11-34 pp

OMNR

current

4

69. Bald Eagle Habitat Management Guidelines

OMNR Wildlife Branch

1987

6

70. Golden Eagle Habitat Management Guidelines

OMNR Wildlife Branch

1987

6

71.

Peregrine Falcon Habitat Management Guidelines

OMNR Wildlife Branch

72.

Management Guidelines and Recommendations for Osprey in Ontario By B. Penak

OMNR Wildlife Branch

Habitat Management for Ontario Forest Nesting Accipiters, Buteos, Eagles

OMNR Wildlife Branch Royal Ontario Museum

73.

1987

1983

6

6

1984

9


By R. James 74.

Habitat Management Guidelines for Cavity Nesting Birds By. R. James

OMNR Wildlife Branch Royal Ontario Museum

1984

8

75.

Management Guidelines for Heronries By L. Bowman and J. Siderius

OMNR Wildlife Branch

1984

8

76.

Habitat Management Guidelines for Birds of Ontario Wetlands (excl. waterfowl) By R. James

OMNR Wildlife Branch Royal Ontario Museum

1985

6

77.

Habitat Management Guidelines for Warblers of Ontario's Northern Coniferous Forests, Mixed Forests or Southern Hardwood Forests By. R. James

Royal Ontario Museum

78.

Habitat Management Guidelines for Bats in Ontario By H. Gerson

OMNR Wildlife Branch

1984

5

79.

Timer Management Guidelines for the provision of Pine Marten Habitat

OMNR

Current

2

80.

Timber Management Guidelines for the Provision of Pileated Woodpecker Habitat

OMNR

Current

2

OMNR

current

4

81.

Environmental Guidelines for Timber Management Activities

1984

6


National and Federal Government Forest Management Guidelines

Policy/Title

Source

Year Published

No. of Respondents Familiar with

1.

Silvicultural Terms in Canada

Forestry Canada Policy and Economics Directorate

1992

2

2.

Successful Forestry A Guide to Private Forest Management

Canadian Forestry Service Sainte-Foy, Quebec

1988

10

3.

Canada's Forest Inventory 1991

Natural Resources Canada Petawawa National Forestry Institute

1994

0

4.

A Study in Single Tree Selection for Tolerant Hardwoods By A.B. Berry

Canadian Forest Service Petawawa National Forestry Institute

1981

6

5.

Summary of the Proceedings of the Hardwood Establishment and Management Symposium By R.A. Craig et al

Joint Publication Forestry Canada Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources

1991

9

6.

The Autecology of Major Tree Species in the North Central Region of Ontario By R.A. Sims et al

Joint Publication Forestry Canada Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources

1990

4

7.

Hardwood Planting on Abandoned Farmland in Southern Ontario Revised Guide By F.W. von Althen

Forestry Canada

1990

18

8.

A Source book for the Management of the Gypsy Moth By V.G. Nealis and S. Erb

Forestry Canada Ontario Region

1993

6

9.

Observations on the

Forestry Canada

1992

0


Evolution of Damage by Pissodes Strobi, Peck and Characterization of Young White Pine Plantations Affected by this Weevil By Andre Lavallee

10. Regeneration in a Tolerant

Canadian Forestry Service

1985

3

Canadian Forestry Service

1981

4

Hardwood Stand Managed Under Single Tree Selection By G. LaRocque 11. Metric Form-Class Volume Tables By A.B. Berry 12.

Insects of Eastern Pines By A. H. Rose and O.H. Lindquist

Canadian Forestry Service

1983

16

13.

Insects of Eastern Hardwood Trees By A.H. Rose and O.H. Lindquist

Canadian Forestry Service

1982

16

14.

Insects of Eastern Spruces, Fir and Hemlock By A.H. Rose and O.H. Lindquist

Canadian Forestry Service

1977

15

15.

Insects of Eastern Larch, Cedar and Juniper By A.H. Rose and O.H. Lindquist

Canadian Forestry Service

1980

14

16.

Cone and Seed Insects of North American Conifers By Alan F. Hedlin et al

Canadian Forestry Service United States Forest Service

1980

5

17.

Effects of White Pine Weevil Damage on Tree Height, Volume, Lumber Recovery and Lumber Value of Eastern White Pine By L.G. Brace

Canadian Forestry Service

1971

1


18.

Pruning and Sawing Eastern White Pine By W.W. Calvert and L.G. Brace

Canadian Forestry Service

1969

1

19.

The Canadian System of Soil Classification

Agriculture Canada

1978

8

20.

Glossary of Terms in Soil Science

Agriculture Canada

1976

7

21.

Management of Insect Pests of Cones in Seed Orchards in Eastern Canada By Jean J. Turgeon and P. De Groot

Forestry Canada

1992

6

American Forest Management Guidelines

Policy/Title

Source USDA Forest Service

Year Published 1993

No. of Respondents Familiar with

1.

Crop Tree Management in Eastern Hardwoods By Arlyn W. Perkley, Brenda Wilkins and H. Clay Smith

9

2.

Silvicultural Guidelines for Forest Stands Threatened by the Gypsy Moth By Kurk W. Gottschalk

USDA Forest Service

1993

2

3.

Whole Tree Clearcutting in New England: Managers Guide To Impacts On Soils, Streams and Regeneration By Robert S. Pierce et al

USDA Forest Service

1993

0

4.

Ecology of Red Maple Swamps in the Glaciated Northeast: A Community Profile By Francis G. Golet et al

U.S. Department of Interior 1993 Fish and Wildlife Service

1


5.

Managing Cavity Trees for Wildlife in the Northeast By Richard M. DeGraaf and Alex Shigo

USDA Forest Service

1985

4

6.

Managing Black Ash in the Lake States By Gayne G. Erdmann et al

USDA Forest Service

1987

2

7.

Ecology and Management of Northern Hardwood Forests in New England By James W. Hornbeck and Williain B. Leak

USDA Forest Service

1991

2

8.

Cutting and Cultural Methods for Managing Northern Hardwoods in the Northeastern United States By Stanley M. Filip

USDA Forest Service

1973

4

USDA Forest Service

1973

2

Privately Published

1969

5

11. Jack Pine in the North Central United States General Technical Report NC-32

1977

5

12. Red Pine in the North Central States General Technical Report NC-33

1977

4

13.

Northern White Cedar in the North Central States General Technical Report NC-35

1977

5

14.

Black Spruce in the Northern Central States General Technical Report NC-34

1977

4

9.

A Silvicultural Guide for Spruce-fir in the Northeast By Robert M. Frank and John C. Bjorkbom

10. Planted Larch in New York By Dave Cook Managers Handbook Series

USDA Forestry Service North Central Forest Experiment Station


15.

Balsam Fir in the North Central States General Technical Report NC- 111

1986

2

16.

Aspen in the North Central States General Technical Report NC-36

1977

2

17.

Oaks in the North Central States General Technical Report NC-37

1977

3

18. Black Walnut General Technical Report NC-38

1977

3

19. Northern Hardwoods in the North Central States General Technical Report NC-39

1977

3

20. Elm - Ash - Cottonwood in the North Central States General Technical Report NC-98

1984

2

21. A Silvicultural Guide for White Pine in the Northeast By Kenneth F. Lancaster and William B. Leak

USDA Forest Service

1978

8

22. A Silvicultural Guide for Northern Hardwoods in the Northeast By William B. Leak et al

USDA Forest Service

1969

4

23. A Guide to Logging Aesthetics Practical Tips for Loggers, Foresters and Landowners

Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service

1993

4

24. Prescribing Silvicultural Treatments in Hardwood Stands of the Alleghenies (Revised) By David Marquis et al

USDA Forest Service

1992

9

25. Crown Release Increases Growth of Crop Trees By Neil Lamson et al

USDA Forest Service

1990

4

26. Forest Cover Types of

Society of American

1980

6


the United States and Canada By F.H. Eyre, Editor

Foresters

27.

Permanent Logging Roads for Better Woodlot Management By Richard F. Haussman and Emerson W. Pruett

USDA Forest Service

28.

Returns from Unrestricted Growth of Pruned Eastern White Pines By Alan C. Page and David M. Smith

Yale University School of Forestry

1994

0

29.

Timber Management for Small Woodlands By Gary R. Goff et al

Cornell University Extension

1984

11

30.

The Influence of Stand Density and Structure on Growth of Northern Hardwoods in New England By Dale S. Solomon

USDA Forestry Service

1977

1

31.

Converting Hardwoods on Poor Sites to White Pine By Planting and Direct Seeding

32.

A Discriminant - Function Approach to Ecological Site Classification in Northern New England By James Fincher and Mary Louise Smith

USDA Forestry Service

1994

2

33.

Silvicultural Systems for Major Forest Types of the United States

USDA Forestry Service

1973

3

34.

Defects in Hardwood Timber By Roswell D. Carpenter

USDA Forestry Service

1989

3

USDA Forestry Service

1973

0

1971

3


et al 35.

Field Identification of Birdseye in Sugar Maple By Don C. Bragg and Douglas D. Stokke

USDA Forestry Service

1994

4

36.

Investment in Precommercial Thinning of Northern Hardwoods By Orris D. McCauley and David A. Marquis

USDA Forestry Service

1972

0

37. Marking Guides for Northern Hardwoods under the Selection System By Carl Arbogast Jr.

USDA Forestry Service

1957

4

38.

Tree Defects - A Photo Guide By Alex Shigo

USDA Forest Service

1983

4

39.

Stress Triggered Tree Diseases, The Diebacks and Declines By David R. Houston

USDA Forest Service

1981

10

40.

Decay Losses in Woodlots By T. Craig Weidensaul et al

Ohio State University

1977

3

41.

Sugar Bush Management By Robert R. Morrow

New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

1981

4

42.

Maple Syrup Producers Manual By C.O. Willits and Claude H. Mills

USDA Agricultural Research Service

1976

6

43.

Sugar Maple Research Sap Production, Processing and Marketing of Maple Syrup

USDA Forest Service

1982

3

44.

Sugarbush Management "A Guide to Maintaining Tree Health"

USDA Forest Service

1990

10


By David R. Houston et al 45.

A Silvicultural Guide for USDA Forest Service Developing A Sugarbush By Kenneth F. Lancaster et al

1974

2

46.

Windbreaks and Shade Trees Their Use in Home Energy Conservation

Pennsylvania State University

1978

0

47.

Ohio Christmas Tree Producers Manual Bulletin 670 By James H. Brown et al

Ohio State University

1985

1

48.

Christmas Tree Production and Marketing By Alex Dickson and Fred W. Winch Jr.

New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

1976

5

49.

Christmas Tree Pest Manual By Janine M. Benyus

USDA Forest Service

1983

6

50.

New England Wildlife Management of Forested Habitats By Richard M. DeGraff et al

USDA Forest Service

1992

7

51.

New England Wildlife Habitat, Natural History and Distribution By Richard M. DeGraff and D. Rudis

USDA Forest Service

52.

Wetland Planting Guide for the Northeastern United States By Gwendolyn A. Thunhorst

Environmental Concern Inc.

1993

2

53.

Guide to Wildlife Tree Management in New England Northern Hardwoods By Carl H. Tubbs et al

USDA Forest Service

1987

6

54.

Conservation Tree and Shrub Cultivars in the United States By J.R. Carlson et al

USDA Soil Conservation Service

1991

0

1992

6


55.

56.

Silvicultural Guide for Northern Hardwood Types in the Northeast (revised) By William B. Leak et al Northern Hardwood Notes

USDA Forest Service

1987

1

USDA Forest Service

1989

4

57.

Silvics of North America Volume I -Conifers Volume 2-Hardwoods

USDA Forest Service

1990

5

58.

Epicormic Branching on Hardwood Trees Bordering Forest Openings

USDA Forest Service

1973

1

59.

A Quality Classification System for Young Hardwood Trees - The First Step in Predicting Future Products By David L. Sondennan and Robert L. Brisbin

USDA Forest Service

1978

2

60.

Sampling the Quality of Hardwood Trees By Adrian M. Gilbert

USDA Forest Service

1959

0

Question 10 Please list any other Forest Management Guidelines that You find useful. Title 1. Ontario Weeds

Source (Author/Publisher) OMAFRA

2. Growers Guide to Hybrid Poplar 3. 4.

VMAP Reports Silvn H

5.

Ecology and Management of Northern Hardwood Forests in New England

6.

Best Management Practices in South Carolina

Year Published 1992

OMNR Ontario Forest Research Institute United States Dep’t of Agriculture Forest Service

3 times/year

USDA Forest Service

1992

1993


7.

Erosion and Sediment Control Handbook for Maine Timber Harvesting Operations Best Management Practices

Maine Forest Service

8.

Science Beauty and Other Values of Red and White Old Growth Forests Report #4

Ontario Forest Research Institute

1991

9.

Understanding Old Growth Red and White Pine Dominated Forests Report #2

Ontario Forest Research Institute

10.

Practical Guide to Private Canadian Forest Service Forest Management, Plantation Quebec Region Maintenance

1987

11.

A Practical Guide to Private Forest Management Planting Containerized Seedlings

Canadian Forest Service Quebec Region

1985

12.

Strip Clear Cutting in Black Spruce

Forestry Canada

1993

13.

Canada's Timber Resources Information Report PIX- 101

Forestry Canada

14.

Canada's Timber Supply Current Status and Outlook Information Report Ex 45

Forestry Canada Maritimes Region

15.

Compendium of Canadian Forestry Statistics National Forestry Database

Canadian Council of Forest Ministers

1973

16.

Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in Canada 1990

Forestry Canada

1990 Annual Publication

17.

A Guide to Common Insects USDA Forest Service and Diseases of Forest Trees in North Eastern United States Forest Insect and Disease Management NA - FR-4

1979

18.

Silvicultural Systems for the Major Forest Types of the

1973

USDA Forest Service


United States Agricultural Handbook 445 19.

Forest Inventory Terms in Canada, 3rd Edition

Petawawa National Forestry Institute

20.

Guidelines for Tree Seed Crop Forecasting

OMNR

1984

21.

Wood - Take a Stand and Make it Better

OMNR

1991

22.

Guidelines for CFSA and Bill 163

1995

23.

Regenerating Conifer in Deer Yards Proceedings of a Workshop Technical Report No. 28 Central Ontario Forest TDU

Oct. 1992

24.

Shrub and Vines for North Eastern Wildlife

1988

USDA Forest Service

1974

1981

25.

Enhancement of Wildlife Habitation Private Lands Information Bulletin 181

Cornell University, Ithaca NY

26.

Managing Small Woodlands for Wildlife Bulletin 157

Cornell University

27.

Care of Wild Apple Trees

USDA Forest Service

28.

Wildlife and Timber From Cornell University Private Lands, A Landowner's Guide to Planning Information Bulletin 193

1983

29.

Summary of Research on Human Tolerance of Wildlife Damage, Natural Resources Research and Extension Series No. 25

Cornell University

1986

30.

Model Habitat Management Guidelines for Deer, Bear

Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department

1986


Hare, Grouse, Turkey, Woodcock and Non Game Wildlife 31.

Landscaping for Wildlife

OMNR

1990

32.

Wildlife Land Management For Ontario Landowners

OMNR

1973

33.

Rehabilitation of Pits and Quarries for Fish and Wildlife

OMNR

1987

34.

Trees and Shrubs For the Improvement and Rehabilitation of Pits and Quarries in Ontario

OMNR

1979

35.

Pasture Grasses Identified

OMAF

1988

36.

Diagnosing Injury to Eastern Forest Trees

USDA

1987

37.

The Hidden Enemy - Root Rot -

OMNR

1988

38.

Helping Wildlife

Colorado State

1977

39.

Timber Management For Small Woodlots

Cornell University

Question 11 Are you familiar with any Forest Management Guidelines that are currently in preparation? Please list below.

Title

Source (Author/Publisher)

1. Ecological Land Classification for Southern Ontario

OMNR STTU

2. Silvicultural Guidelines Under the Crown Forests Sustainability Act Forest Planning Manual

OMNR

Question 12

Expected date of Publication 1995


Are there any additional Forest Management Guidelines that should be developed to assist you in your Forest Management activities? Please be brief and specific. Subject Area

Details

Landscape Level Managers Guidelines Restoration

Manual on the planning and implementation of restoring (a) degraded forests, (b) restoring forest on agricultural lands

Silvicultural Guidelines for Species Groups in Southern Ontario

This is a current proposal in the Forest Health Fund

Question 13 The following are a few publication distribution lists and bibliographies that can assist you in locating Forest Management information. Please indicate with a checkmark if you are familiar with them.

Bibliographies

Yes

No

1.

Ontario Forest Research Institute Publications 1980-1991. An Annotated Bibliography (OMNR)

12

3

2.

OTIFBI and Mensuration Unit Report on the Great Lakes St. Lawrence Forest Bibliography. Central Ontario Forest Technology Development Unit. (OMNR)

5

5

3.

Catalogue of Ecological Reports for Southern Region Southern Region Science and Technology Transfer Unit. (ONWR)

5

4

4.

Ontario Tree Improvement and Forest Biomass Institute Publications 1980-1985. An Annotated Bibliography. Forest Research Report #114 (OMNR)

4

4

5.

A Bibliography of Agriculture and Wildlife Interactions in Ontario. Southern Region Science and Technology Transfer United Information Report. IR-003 (OMNR)

6.

A Bibliography on Competition, Tree Seedling Characteristics and Related Topics. Forest Research Information Paper #108 (OMNR)

3

3

2

4

Publication Distribution Lists 7.

Publications Digest Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service

7

3

8.

Recent Publications List Natural Resources Canada Petawawa National Forestry Institute

7

3

9.

Recent Publications List Natural Resources Canada Canadian

11

4


Forest Service Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario

10. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (FAO)

0

5

11. United States Government Printing Office Superintendent of Documents Trees, Forest Products and Forest Management

0

3

12.

3

3

FAO Forestry Papers

New From North Central - Publications USDA Forest Service North Central Experiment Station

13.

Dividends From Wood Research Recent Publications USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory

1

14.

Canadian Wildlife Service Publications, June 1992 Environment Canada

3

4

3

Question 14 Would you please list other publication distribution lists and bibliographies that you use in connection with your Forest Management activities. Please give the addresses where they can be obtained. Source/Author/Published Studying Successional Pathways in Forest Communities:OMNR Ontario Forest An Annotated Bibliography Research Institute Stewardship Reference Library

Landowner Resource Centre

OMAFRA Publications List Cornell Cooperative Extension Service Whole Water Catalog

Renouf - Publishing - Ottawa Ontario Agri-Food Network - Guelph

Regional Municipality Of Ottawa Carleton


CHAPTER 3 THE CURRENT STATUS OF PROVINCIAL LEGISLATION AND POLICY WITH REFERENCE TO EASTERN ONTARIO Since 1990 there have been changing governments, revised fiscal policies, a Ministry of Natural Resources reorganization and severe budget cuts that have all impacted on forest resource manager's field activities. Forest resource managers have expressed considerable concern with respect to severe cutbacks in programs such as the Woodlands Improvement Act Assistance and Advisory services to private landowners. They have also expressed major concern regarding the future of provincial production of forest tree nursery stock and the planned closure of the G.H. Ferguson Provincial Nursery at Kemptville in April 1996. There is also concern that new programs such as the Private Forest Sustainability Program have already experienced a major cut in provincial funding. This section deals with the current status of Provincial legislation and policy in a number of important areas in relation to forest management activities which impact on achieving the goal of sustainable forests. 1. Managed Forest Tax Reduction Program Just before the cancellation of the Managed Forest Tax Reduction Program on April 23, 1993, a series of meetings was held in March with forest landowners to discuss changes in the program, including a requirement that recipients of the tax rebate have a certified forest management plan. The management plan was intended to improve the program's effectiveness in fulfilling its objective of encouraging good management of private woodlands, and thus active management of the woodlands. The management plan requirement would also fulfill the government's direction that tangible and beneficial results would be realized from the program, and that there was value resulting from the expenditure of public funds. The cancellation announcement came as a shock to participants, especially those who were committed to manage their woodlands in compliance with the new Forest Management Plan qualification. The Ontario Forestry Association has been active in opposing the cancellation and conducted a series of 14 community meetings across Ontario in 1995. The current government has indicated its intention to bring back the Managed Forest Tax Reduction program as an interim program, until a more equitable tax system is developed. 2. Agreement Forests As of March 31, 1989 there were 55 Agreement Forests in Ontario, covering 118,926 hectares (293,747 acres). These Agreement Forests are categorized in the table below.


Agreement Forests In Ontario No. of

Ownership Categories

Owners

Hectares

Area in

1 22 7 19 5 1 Total

55

Government of Canada (National Capital Commission) Conservation Authorities Townships Counties Regional Municipalities Industry, (Domtar Inc.)

2,747.57 40,746.27 1,231.95 61,085.88 11,517.88 1,596.52 118,926107

In accordance with the Agreements, when signed, the owner had three options at the termination of the Agreement. 1.

Pay the Minister all net costs charged against the forest without interest and assume management of the forests.

2.

Sell the forest to the Crown for the purchase price paid by the owner for the lands in the forest area.

3.

The owner may elect to extend the Agreement for an additional period of not less than 20 years, and not more than 50 years.

The Ministry of Natural Resources, due to budget cuts and a subsequent change in management philosophy, is now exploring ways and means by which Agreement Forest owners might assume management and operational responsibilities for their forests. A new set of guiding principles has been developed for those Agreement Forests which are not in debt and a pilot project has been established with Long Point Region Conservation Authority. The Ministry of Natural Resources mission is to ensure that Agreement Forests are managed through a new relationship with Agreement Forest partners. In the new relationship, MNR's role focusses on advice/consultation and the owner assumes full operational responsibility for the management of the forest. Most Agreement Forest owners are still in debt and options must be considered to ensure the fair and just transfer of responsibilities, including the debt. Information regarding this is not available at this time. A summary of all Agreement Forests in Ontario is found in Appendix 7. The future of the Agreement Forests programme is important to Eastern Ontario, since 12 Agreement Forests totalling 92,277 acres (37,357.33 ha) are located in the Eastern Ontario Model Forest zone. These forests


constitute 31 percent of the entire Agreement Forest area in Ontario. The participants in the Agreement Forest Program located in the Eastern Ontario Model Forest Area, and the area of each Agreement Forest are included in the following chart. Agreement Forests - Eastern Ontario Model Forest Area* Owner

Area in hectares

Area in Acres

3,241.73

8,007.07

Raison Region

137.59

339.85

Lanark County

4,427.92

10,936.96

Leeds and Grenville

5,802.18

14,331.38

Prescott and Russell

10,436.31

25,777.68

Ottawa Carleton

7,918.05

19,557.58

Charlottenburgh

77.70

191.92

Cumberland

598.30

1,477.80

West Carleton

174.34

430.62

Williamsburg

201.12

496.77

National Capital Commission

2,747.57

6,786.50

Domtar Inc.

1,596.52

3,943.40

Total Area

37,359.33

92,277.53

South Nation Conservation Authority

*OMNR statistics 1988-89 3. Status of Nursery Stock Production and the Provincial Tree Nurseries Until 1993 four provincial nurseries in Southern Ontario supplied the bulk of the forest tree nursery stock for private and Crown use in that area. In addition, six provincial nurseries in the North produced stock largely for the Crown and large private owners in Northern Ontario. Financial constraints in 1993 led to the closure of four provincial nurseries, namely Midhurst, Thunder Bay, Gogama and Chapleau. This was followed by an announcement in October 1995 that three more nurseries


would be closed, following the spring harvest in 1996 as part of government wide expenditure reductions aimed at reducing the deficit. The nurseries to be closed are at Kemptville, Orono and Thessalon. It is expected that the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources will continue to operate nurseries at Swastika, Dryden and St. Williams, as well as their tree seed plant at Angus. The cost of nursery stock to private owners for the 1996 season will remain at $0.10 per seedling. Beginning with the 1997 planting season, stock will be available only from nurseries at Swastika, Dryden and St. Williams. It will take several years for these nurseries to produce seedlings from Eastern Ontario seed sources. Landowners in Eastern Ontario are concerned with the inconvenience and high cost of shipping stock for three hundred miles or more from the nearest nursery at St. Williams. The future of forest tree nursery stock production at Kemptville Nursery is unknown and efforts to look at privatization are being considered. The province first supplied nursery stock to landowners from Kemptville College of Agricultural Technology in 1923, when transplant beds were established there. In 1992, there were 4,175,000 trees planted in the Eastern Ontario Model Forest area. A complete summary by county is shown in the following chart. Summary of Tree Planting by County for the 1992 Planting Year No. of Trees (000's) COUNTY

OTC

WIA

Other

Total

%

Leeds & Grenville

550

310

105

965

23

Stormont, Dundas, Glengarry

480

175

115.00

770

18

Prescott, Russell

795

235

125

1155

28

Ottawa-Carleton

510

80

115

705

17

Lanark

310

140

60

580

14

2715

940

520

4175

100

TOTAL

The total distribution of Nursery Stock to private lands in Ontario from 1905 to 1995 was 986,895,843 trees. This includes over the counter stock, Woodlands Improvement Act stock and stock supplied for special partnership programs. An annual breakdown of nursery stock distributed by year from 1905-1995 for private land use is found in appendix 3. 4. Ontario's Agroforestry Program


Ontario's Agroforestry program began in 1984 when the author was seconded from the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources to work with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, as Agroforestry Coordinator. Agroforestry extension and education services were established at Ridgetown, Kemptville and Guelph. Later Agroforestry research projects were intensified with funds provided through the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food's Land Stewardship Program from 1987-1990. In 1988 the first Winter Woodlot Conference was held at Kemptville College of Agricultural Technology, which proved very successful. It became an annual event, and on February 15, 1996 the 9th conference will be held. The immediate success of the Kemptville Conferences has led to similar sessions being held elsewhere in the Province, including two very successful woodlot conferences held annually in Trenton since 1991 in November, and Lindsay since 1994 in February. Another is planned for Renfrew County in 1996-97. In August 1989 the first conference on Agroforestry in North America was held at the University of Guelph. This was followed by the 2nd International Symposium for Windbreaks and Agroforestry, hosted by the Province of Ontario, at Ridgetown Conference in June 199 1. This conference was attended by 200 professionals from around the world. In 1991-1992 the University of Guelph developed two student manuals in agroforestry for use at Ontario's Colleges of Agricultural Technology for both undergraduate and continuing education courses. These manuals "Introduction to Agroforestry" and "Advanced Agroforestry" are currently in use at the colleges. In 1988-89 an Interministerial Committee, chaired by Ralph Shaw, Director, Plant Industry Branch 0~. recommended further development and expansion of Ontario's Agroforestry Program with OMNR, taking the lead role and providing for the staffing of the Program. The Committee recommended that six positions be provided for Agroforestry Extension Education, to be located at Ontario's Agricultural Colleges. In 1992 a memorandum of Agreement was prepared and signed for Ontario's Agroforestry Agenda between the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, covering a five year period ending in 1997. In 1993 Agroforestry Extension and Education advisors were selected for Ridgetown, Kemptville and Guelph. Information for contacting persons working in Ontario's Agroforestry program is found in Appendix 5. Another major accomplishment for the Agroforestry program was the opening of a new Agroforestry Centre at Kemptville College of Agricultural Technology in October 1993. The Agroforestry program reports, through the Ontario Agricultural Services Coordinating Committee, which is a provincial advisory body whose responsibility is to review, assess and make recommendations regarding agri-food research and services in Ontario. It does this via the Agroforestry Research and Services Committee, which is a sub-committee of the Ontario Horticultural Crops Research and Services Committee. In 1962, the Agricultural Research Institute of Ontario (ARIO) was established by an Act of the Provincial Legislature. ARIO reviews proposals and assumes responsibility for the Ministry of Agriculture and Food and Rural Affairs expenditures in research including Agroforestry.


5. Private Forests Sustainability Program In 1993 the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources announced the Private Forests Sustainability Program. To facilitate the implementation of the program the Ministry assigned 31 Stewardship Coordinators to aid in the establishment of Stewardship Councils. For a list of these coordinators see Appendix 6. The Stewardship Coordinator's duties are as follows: C C C C C C

Building the necessary partnerships Working collaboratively with agencies and associations Pursuing funding through non traditional sources Providing a window to science and information Acting as spokesperson for the Stewardship Council Building a network of contacts in the community and province.

The Community Stewardship Councils are formed as a mechanism for delivering the Private Forest Sustainability Program. Each council is made up of 8-15 individuals from the community who recognize and can influence community involvement and interest in private land stewardship. The councils are apolitical and non partisan. They provide a means to foster stewardship, influence responsible land management, and to seek funding opportunities to support their initiatives. This program is not a program controlled by government, but it is a program based on influence, involvement and interest at the community level. To assist with the program, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources established a Private Forest Sustainability Fund which is accessible only through the Stewardship Councils and coordinators. The money is used to lever additional funding and/or resources to carry out the stewardship initiatives of each council. Initially, a fund of two million dollars was established by the government for the fiscal year 1995-96. In November 1995 this fund was reduced to one million dollars as part of the governments cost cutting measures. By November 30 1995, nine stewardship councils had been formed, as well as 16 founding committees. At that time the following Resource Stewardship issues had been identified: 1. Development Pressures 2. Drainage Maintenance 3 Education - Landowner 4. Education - Public 5. Government Roles 6. Landowner Rights 7. Logging Practices 8. Rehabilitation 9. Tax Reform


10. 11. 12. 13.

Waste Management Water Quality and Quantity Wildlife Habitat Woodlot Management

A number of projects are currently being planned in the areas of conservation, landowner education, public education, rehabilitation, wildlife management and woodlot management. The name of this initiative has recently been changed to the Private Land Stewardship Program. 6. Forest Extension - Advisory and Assistance Programs Since 1990 there has been numerous reductions in extension and advisory programs. Direct funding for the Woodlands Improvement Act, tree planting and woodlot management programs have been withdrawn. Staff reductions, budget cuts and changing priorities in the Ministry of Natural Resources have resulted in only a very limited number of site inspections for tree planting and woodlot management. Ministry Tree Marking programs for private landowners have been withdrawn, except at the Ministry's Carleton Place office. It is expected that budget cuts to Conservation Authorities will reduce site inspections and field forest management activities similarly. In recognition of the importance of forest extension, Domtar Inc. is proposing to expand on advisory and assistance programs, however at this time no details are available. 7. Conservation Authorities There are 38 Conservation Authorities across Ontario. Most have active Forest Management programs and many provide assistance to private forest landowners. On November 29th, 1995 the Ontario government announced severe cutbacks in Provincial funding to all authorities, which will result in scaling back Provincial funding of $34 million per year to $17 million in the next fiscal year, and to just $ 10 million by the fiscal year 1997-98. The Province has redefined its interests in the case of the Conservation Authorities. The government has announced that once budget cuts take effect the provincial funding to Conservation Authorities will focus on two areas, namely, flood control issues and provincially significant conservation lands. Flood control problems will receive $8 million and $2 million will go for the preservation of significant conservation lands. It appears that Conservation Authority forest management and private land management assistance programs could be cut back severely as a result of that measure, but the extent of the cutbacks will depend largely on the availability of funding from municipalities or special funding acquired from other sources to continue such work. The mechanism and intensity of future management for the 22 Agreement Forests owned by Conservation Authorities, is a matter of major concern. These managed forest lands are extensive and in 1989 composed 40,746 hectares (100,643 acres), mostly located in Southern Ontario8. The Conservation Land Tax Reduction Program


The Conservation Land Act, Ch 28, provides the legislative framework for the Conservation Land Tax Reduction Program. This program is intended to ease the property tax burden that threatens the preservation of land that is vital to Ontario's natural heritage. The Act provides as follows: - It enables the Minister of Natural Resources to establish programs to recognize, encourage and support stewardship of conservation land. - It provides for the payment of grants to the owners of identified conservation land. This program provides a tax rebate of 100 percent on taxes paid since January 1, 1987 to owners of identified conservation land. The aim of the program is to provide a tax incentive that will recognize, encourage and support private landowners who practice good stewardship by maintaining, in a natural state lands that contribute to provincial conservation and natural heritage objectives. In all, 372,000 hectares (918,840 acres) of land, mostly in Southern Ontario, were identified as conservation land.

Lands that contribute to provincial conservation and natural heritage objectives include: -

class 1, 2 and 3 wetlands provincially significant Areas of Natural and Scientific Interest (ANSI's) areas within the Niagara Escarpment Planning Non-Revenue producing Conservation Authority Area Lands other conservation land owned by non profit organizations that contribute through their management to provincial conservation and natural heritage objectives, but do not fit specifically into one of the above categories

The minimum land area eligible for a rebate is 0.2 hectares (one-half acre). The minimum rebate is $20.00 and the maximum is $25,000 per property owner, excluding Conservation Authorities. Rebates are paid only within these limits for identified conservation lands. Recently non-revenue producing Conservation Authority lands have been removed from the eligibility list for tax rebates. 9. Conservation Reserves on Public Lands Conservation Reserve is a new category of protected area established in December 1994 under Ontario's Public Lands Act. Conservation Reserves are dedicated to the protection of natural heritage on public lands. A draft policy was circulated early in 1995 for comments. About 80-90 responses were received. Since then the policy has been reworked by Ministry of Natural Resources staff and should be released early in 1996. Conservation Reserves were proposed as an alternative to provincial parks for protection of Ontario's natural heritage areas. They are managed to protect important national features on public land while permitting traditional land uses and activities such as trapping, hunting and snowmobiling to continue. However, road


construction in Conservation Reserves will be limited and commercial logging, mining and hydro-electric development will not be permitted. Reserves are selected through a planning process that includes the systematic inventory of Ontario's biological and geological diversity, the identification of potential areas that represent samples of diversity, and choosing the best potential areas available for protection. The planning process also includes consultation with the public concerning potential areas for conservation reserves. Maps are prepared for recommended Conservation Reserves and they become the basis to establish a Conservation Reserve by regulation under the Public Lands Act. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources is responsible for the management of Conservation Reserves. Unlike the Managed Forest Tax Reduction Program this program was not withdrawn due to financial constraints. 10. The Crown Forest Sustainability Act 1994 Bill 171, an Act to revise the Crown Timber Act to provide for the Sustainability of Crown Forests in Ontario, received Royal assent December 4th, 1994 and came into force on April 1st, 1995. The new Act will significantly change Forest Management practices throughout Ontario's Crown forests. In this Act, "sustainability" means long-term Crown forest health and for the purpose of this Act and the regulations, the sustainability of a Crown forest shall be determined in accordance with a Forest Management Planning Manual. This manual provides for determinations of the sustainability of Crown Forests in a manner consistent with three principles, listed as follows: 1. 2.

Large, healthy, diverse and productive Crown Forests and their associated ecological processes and biological diversity should be conserved. The long-term health and vigour of Crown Forests should be provided for by using forest practices that, within the limits of silvicultural requirements, emulate natural disturbances and landscape patterns while minimizing adverse effects on plant life, animal life, water, soil, air and social and economic values, including recreational values and heritage values.

Thus the new Act requires development of improved standards for forest sustainability. Forest Management plans, work schedules and harvesting schedules, renewal and maintenance plans are required of companies before forest operations begin. New compliance mechanisms and stiffer penalties to enforce operations that range from 2.000 to one million dollars. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources began training sessions in September, 1995 in anticipation of the implementation of Ontario's new Forest Management Planning Manual and the preparation of new plans. Forest Management Planning teams will begin preparing plans in January, 1996 for approval in March, 1998. The manual depends on over three dozen guidelines. Currently some of these guidelines are out of print or hard to obtain, while others are in draft form. 11. Planning Act Reform in Ontario The Commission on Planning and Development Reform in Ontario was appointed by the Minister of Municipal


Affairs in 199 1. This Commission, chaired by John Sewell, was given a broad mandate to recommend changes to the Planning Act and related policy that would restore integrity to the land use planning process, and support environmental, economic, agricultural and other public interests, making the land use planning process more fair, open and accountable. The Commission's Final Report was submitted to the Minister of Municipal Affairs in June, 1993. The result of this collaborative and open process was a set of 98 recommendations by the Commission, for an improved land use planning system that integrates a wide range of interests in land use planning. A comprehensive set of policy statements and implementation guidelines were developed. Topics which relate to natural resource management include, significant woodlands, significant wildlife habitat, significant corridors, areas of natural and scientific interest, significant ravine, valley, river and stream corridors, shorelines of lakes, rivers and streams, and significant portions of the habitat of endangered, threatened and vulnerable species. The policy statements provide direction regarding the province's interest in planning and the implementation guidelines provide information on policy background, explanation and implementation. The implementation guidelines came into effect on March 28, 1995. Following a change in Government in June, a revised set of policy statements and implementation guidelines have been developed. The new guidelines are less detailed and less imposing. The Ontario government wants to make it easier for developers to have their projects approved, while giving municipalities more say in how they plan their communities. On November 16, 1995, the government announced several changes to Bill 163, including scrapping of a recent requirement that planning decisions "be consistent with provincial policies". The government will revert to the old requirement that decisions "have regard to" provincial policies. It is expected that planning act amendments will be passed in the spring of 1996. In January 1996, the government announced new rules which will permit development on sensitive environmental areas, as well as on prime agricultural land.

These new rules permit development in significant woodlands, valley and wildlife areas, and in significant areas of natural and scientific interest, provided the development "will not negatively impact the natural features or the ecological functions" of the area. In addition, development of significant wetlands will be permitted within the Canadian Shield. The goal of the new policy statements is to outline the results the province wants the municipalities to aim for, rather than to tell them how they must do it.


12. Closure of the Major Forest Facilities in Eastern Ontario Forintek Canada Corp. Forintek Canada Corp. was established in 1979. This private non-profit corporation was formed to do research for Canada's wood products industry. Forintek is dedicated to keeping Canada's wood products industry healthy and competitive through focussed technology. It operates the former forest products laboratory in Vancouver and until 1994 a laboratory in Ottawa. Research work at Forintek in Ottawa included Lumber Manufacturing Technology, Resource Utilization, Expanded Uses for Wood Products, composite wood products and ensuring wood products are adequately recognized in codes and standards. Forintek also provided technology transfer and technical services, The transfer of the Eastern Laboratory and staff to Ste. Foy, Quebec in 1994, has resulted in the removal of an important forestry research institution and will impact on Resource Managers in the Eastern Ontario Model Forest Area who relied on the convenience of their services within the area. The Petawawa National Forestry Institute The Petawawa National Forestry Institute is the closest major Federal Forest Research installation. It was started in 1917 as a field camp to manage and protect the forests of the surrounding Petawawa Military reserve. This institute covers an area of 98 square kilometres, and over the years has continued to cooperate with the Petawawa Canadian Forces Base, by providing fire protection for the adjacent 260 square kilometres of military land. Petawawa was one of only two national forestry institutes in Canada, the other being the Forest Pest Management Institute at Sault Ste Marie, Ontario. The forest research at the institute was conducted by approximately 125 people, including Research Scientists, Technicians and Communication Specialists who, along with students, formed a research and information centre that was both a national and international leader in forestry. That was until a year ago, when federal cost cutting measures resulted in a decision to close the institute in 1996. Many of the research and support staff have been transferred to other federal forest research facilities and others have been or will be laid off in the near future. The loss of this institute is immeasurable to Eastern Ontario and Canada at large. A few people will remain behind to maintain some aspects of the work on the property. Forintek and the Petawawa National Forestry Institute were the two major forest research facilities in Eastern Ontario, and their closure will result in a significant reduction in forest research which will impact on the goal for achieving sustainable forestry throughout the Eastern Ontario Model Forest Area.


CHAPTER 4 CONSTRAINTS TO SUSTAINABLE FOREST RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND RECOMMENDATIONS Legislation and Policy 1.

Gap

Provincial legislation and Policy impacting on Forest Management activities is not always known or understood by Forest Resource Managers, Questionnaire respondents indicated they had no knowledge of any Provincial legislation that impacted on their Forest Management activities, beyond those noted in the questionnaire, yet there are many other Provincial Acts that impact on their work. Half the respondents were not aware of pending changes in Provincial legislation that would impact on their Forest Management activities, yet most respondents felt they have made a conscious effort in keeping up-to-date with new or revised legislation. Recommendation #1 The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources should take greater measures to ensure that the 160 Forest Resource Managers who work in the Eastern Ontario Model Forest area, receive information concerning current and revised legislation and policy that impacts on Forest Resource Managers' activities. This should be done by more widespread distribution of information to all Forest Resource Managers, and by arranging for meetings and seminars to present information concerning both provincial and federal changes to all Forest Resource Managers. 2.

Gap

Several Forest Managers indicated that Tax Reform was needed to provide fairer taxation for private woodlands that would in turn provide incentive for private landowners to manage their forested lands, in a way that would contribute to the goal of Sustainable Forestry. Recommendation #2 The Provincial Government should reinstate the Managed Forest Tax Reduction Program as an interim measure, until tax reform in Ontario can provide for taxation of private forest lands in keeping with their productivity. 3.

Gap

Tree Cutting Bylaws are found only in Lanark County and Ottawa/Carleton within the Eastern Ontario Model Forest area. Many Forest Managers feel that Tree Cutting Bylaws are necessary in all counties as a minimum level of control on harvesting, and that these bylaws are necessary in achieving sustainable forestry. Recommendation #3


The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources should encourage other municipalities to pass Tree Cutting Bylaws through an expanded information and education program on the subject and provide training to bylaw enforcement officers to ensure that bylaws are properly enforced. Education for forest landowners on tree cutting should be expanded to encourage self regulation and improved cutting practices.

4.

Gap

Many forest managers have ideas concerning policies that should be developed to further support them in their forest management activities, but there is no forum for dealing with their ideas and concerns. Recommendation #4 A Legislative and Policy Committee consisting of Forest Resource Managers from the Federal and Provincial governments, the forest industry and private consultants from Eastern Ontario, should be formed to provide a forum for discussion on legislative and policy matters as it concerns them, and to direct recommendations to appropriate concerns. Forest Management Guidelines 5.

Gap

Several Forest Resource Managers have never attended a seminar, conference, workshop or course that dealt with Forest Management Guidelines and related to their Forest Management activities. Many Forest Resource Managers have been involved in producing Forest Management Guidelines over the past 5 years, but there is little coordination between Resource Managers in setting priorities for production of Guidelines and minimizing duplication. Many Guidelines produced in Ontario are prepared for Forest Management on Crown lands and result from government legislation and regulation. Recommendation #5 Greater attention should be given to the production of Forest Management Guidelines appropriate for use on private lands, specifically in Eastern Ontario. These efforts should be coordinated by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 6.

Gap

Most Forest Resource Managers feel that funding constraints have reduced their Forest Management field activities by 50% or greater and some Forest Managers have had their field management activities eliminated due to funding constraints. Recommendation #6 Government, industry and representatives of private forest owner organizations in Eastern Ontario should meet to assess means and ways to provide field services necessary to achieve sustainable forestry.


7.

Gap

Many Forest Resource Managers are not familiar with many publication lists and bibliographies that could assist them in locating Forest Management information. Recommendation # 7 Forest Resource Managers should take greater advantage of potential sources of Forest Management information from sources such as: The Ontario Professional Foresters Association, The Canadian Institute of Forestry, The Society of American Foresters, The Science and Technology Units of the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, The Ontario Forest Research Institute, and The Canadian Forest Service Offices.

APPENDIX 1 LIST OF THE CURRENT PROVINCIAL STATUTES OF ONTARIO PERTINENT TO THE PRACTICE OF FORESTRY* Abandoned Orchards Act Aggregate Resources Act Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act Algonquin Forestry Authority Act Animals for Research Act Arboreal Emblem Act Archives Act Assessment Act Beds of Navigable Waters Act Bees Act Bridges Act Building Code Act Conservation Authorities Act Conservation Land Act Crop Insurance Act Crown Timber Act Dead Animal Disposal Act Discriminatory Business Practices Act Dog Owners Liability Act Drainage Act Endangered Species Act Environmental Assessment Act Environmental Bill of Rights Environmental Protection Act Escheats Act Farm Practices Protection Act Farm Products Grades and Sales Act Farm Products Marketing Act


Farm Products Payments Act Flag Act Floral Emblem Act *Unpublished Report. Forest Conservation Legislation, - A Digest of the Statutes of Ontario, by Paul L. Aird, 1994. Forestry Act Forestry Workers Employment Act Forestry Workers Lien for Wages Act Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act French Languages Services Act Fur Farms Act Game and Fish Act Historical Parks Act Human Rights Code Act Hunter Damage Compensation Act Interpretation Act Lakes and Rivers Improvement Act Line Fences Act Mineral Emblem Act Mining Act Ministry of the Environment Act Ministry of Natural Resources Act Ministry of Northern Development and Mines Act Ministry of Tourism and Recreation Act Motorized Snow Vehicles Act Municipal Act Niagara Escarpment Planning and Development Act Niagara Parks Act Non-resident Agricultural Land Interests Registration Act Northern Ontario Heritage Fund Act Occupational Health and Safety Act Occupiers' Liability Act Official Notices Publication Act Off-Road Vehicles Act Ombudsman Act Ontario Geographic Names Board Act Ontario Heritage Act Ontario Planning and Development Act Ontario Professional Foresters Act Ontario Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act Ontario Water Resources Act Parks Assistance Act Parkway Belt Planning and Development Act Pesticides Act Planning Act Planning Statute Law Amendment Act


Plant Diseases Act Provincial Land Tax Act Provincial Parks Act Public Lands Act Public Parks Act Public Transportation and Highway Improvement Act Regional Municipalities Act Regulations Act Road Access Act Science North Act Settlers' Pulpwood Protection Act Snow Roads and Fences Act Spruce Pulpwood Exportation Act Statutes Act St. Clair Parkway Commission Act St. Lawrence Parks Commission Act Topsoil Preservation Act Toronto Atmospheric Fund Act Tourism Act Transboundary Pollution Reciprocal Access Act Trees Act Trespass to Property Act Waterfront Regeneration Trust Agency Act Weed Control Wild Rice Harvesting Act Wilderness Areas Act Woodlands Improvement Act Workers' Compensation Act

APPENDIX 2 SUMMARY OF THE MANAGED FOREST TAX REDUCTION PROGRAM IN ONTARIO

Program Year

No. of Properties Paid

No. of Property Owners Receiving Rebates

Percent Subsidy

Amount Paid in Dollars

Acreage Average Paid Amount Paid per Acre in Dollars

Amount of Subsidy per Property

1973/74

5064

50

422,852.05

440,000

0.96

86.89

1975

4835

50

293,374.67

548,000

0.54

60.67


1976

5035

50

335,410.69

592,000

0.56

66.62

1977

5456

50

385,956.18

603,000

0.64

70.74

1978

5760

50

433,698.06

561,000

0.77

75.29

1979

5962

50

516,660.32

610,000

0.85

86.66

1980

6834

50

703,217.99

550,000

1.27

102.90

1981

5675

50

819,335.78

537,005

1.52

144.38

1982

6479

50

969,411.43

612,915

1.58

149.62

1983

7045

50

1,223,371.10

666,965

1.83

173.65

1984

7681

60

1,736,317.82

771,702

2.25

229.55

1985

8073

60

1,901,185.46

766,086

2.48

235.50

1986

7151

60

1,822,847.73

676,589

2.69

254.91

1987

9232

100

3,784,885.33

847,769

4.46

409.97

1988

10268

100

4,246,066.60

922,385

4.60

413.52

1989

10689

100

4,885,660.06

934,472

5.23

457.07

1990

16971

75

5,557,027.68

1,407,783

3.94

328.22

1991

17959

75

4,943,243.40

1,504,926

3.29

275.25

9823

8202


APPENDIX 3 NURSERY STOCK DISTRIBUTION FROM PROVINCIAL TREE NURSERY TO PRIVATE LAND IN ONTARIO 1905 - 1995 OVER COUNTER PRIVATE LAND NURSERY STOCK DISTRIBUTION IN ONTARIO 1905 - 1995 Year

Number of Trees

1905

Running Totals

Year

Number of Trees

10,000

1925

5,277,237

1906

80,000

1926

2,790,549

1907

200,000

1927

4,176,205

1908

375,000

1928

7,777,600

1909

380,000

1929

6,549,642

1910

200,000

1930

5,822,650

1911

350,000

1931

5,220,946

1912

350,000

1932

8,352,939

1913

400,000

1933

7,817,312

1914

400,000

1934

6,416,030

1915

325,000

1935

7,444,897

1916

130,000

1936

7,318,783

1917

100,000

1937

8,360,067

1918

100,000

1938

8,506,019

1919

40,000

1939

11,391,462

1920

130,000

1940

11,311,157

1921

291,769

1941

8,360,319

1922

327,732

1942

8,059,219

1,045,000

2,745,000

3,440,000

Running Totals

33,415,023

67,044,900

110,066,128


1923

699,618 1,954,671

Year

Number of Trees

6,843,790

Running Totals

1943

7,334,194

1944

7,826,008

152,957,025

Number of Trees

Running Totals

Year

1945

7,056,936

1971

15,666,207

1946

9,215,124

1972

17,907,113

1947

6,895,252

1973

10,201,430

1948

7,732,554

1974

9,886,524

1949

11,089,554

1975

8,593,424

1950

12,669,636

1976

7,647,726

1951

12,353,019

1977

7,634,143

1952

13,167,286

1978

9,405,081

1953

14,188,800

1979

13,026,690

1954

14,559,040

1980

14,948,610

1955

16,254,270

1981

13,449,912

1956

14,421,330

1982

12,032,896

1957

12,523,099

1983

14,184,100

1958

12,986,865

1984

12,120,000

1959

13,809,125

1985

14,526,000

1960

13,708,050

1986

13,367,000

1961

11,505,775

1987

14,683,118

1962

9,597,300

1988

15,584,166

183,856,891

247,325,186

318,069,790

560,084,496

614,700,014


1963

9,016,400

1964

375,706,440

1989

11,739,198

10,791,980

1990

10,398,945

1965

11,312,900

1991

11,144,557

1966

9,542,325

1992

19,300,000

1967

10,219,517

1993

10,800,000

1968

11,956,165

1994

7,071,420

1969

14,246,964

1995

9,342,763

1970

16,339,867 GRAND TOTAL

748,362,998

764,777,181

NUMBER OF TREES PLANTED ON WIA AGREEMENTS* BY YEAR 1966 - 1995 Year

Trees

Year

Trees

1966

1,300,000

1981

9,522,782

1967

5,500,000

1982

9,182,277

1968

7,100,000

1983

8,922,250

1969

7,000,000

1984

7,516,000

1970

6,400,000

1985

7,789,000

1971

8,000,000

1986

8,115,000

1972

8,700,000

1987

7,976,315

1973

8,500,000

1988

8,789,435

1974

7,950,000

1989

8,843,676

1975

10,700,000

1990

8,298,069

1976

8,200,000

1991

8,123,663

1977

7,405,150

1992

5,300,000


1978

8,086,049

1993

3,600,000

1979

9,287,870

1994

584,375

1980

9,3355244

Ll 995

803,505

GRAND TOTAL

216,830,660

WIA = Woodland Improvement Act Agreements with Private landowners in Ontario.

NUMBER OF TREES DISTRIBUTED TO SPECIAL PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMS Year

Trees

1992

850,000

1993

1,500,000

1994

1,368,750

1995

1,569,252 GRAND TOTAL

5,288,002

APPENDIX 4 PRIVATE NURSERY STOCK DISTRIBUTED TO THE EASTERN ONTARIO MODEL FOREST AREA FROM PROVINCIAL NURSERIES 1986 - 1995 (000'S) Year

Over the Counter

WIA*

Other Private

Totals

1986

1792.0

2722.7

4514.7

1987

1353.2

2743.0

4095.2

1988

1138.3

2267.5

3405.8

1989

984.7

2906.1

3890.8


1990

1378.4

2869.1

4247.5

1991

1536.4

2269.6

5342.4

1992

2715.0

940.0

520.0

1993

1470.3

N/A

N/A

1994

1118.1

N/A

N/A

1995

1608.2

61.8

N/A

*Woodlands Improvement Act Program planting stock APPENDIX 5 CONTACTS FOR ONTARIO'S AGROFORESTRY PROGRAM OMAFRA Agroforestry Advisors Chris Nanni Ridgetown College of Agricultural Technology Ridgetown, Ontario NOP 2C0

Tel: Fax:

(519) 674-5456 (519) 674-1515

Todd Leuty Edmund Bovey Building University of Guelph Guelph, Ontario NIG 2WI Dave Chapeskie Provincial Government Building Fax: Kemptville College of Agricultural Technology Box 2004 Kemptville, Ontario K0G 1J0

Tel: (519) 824-412 ext. 8957 Fax: (519) 821-7569

Tel: (613) 258-8302 (613) 258-8392

Agroforestry Program Coordination Annette Anderson Program Manager Greenhouse, Agroforestry & Specialty Crops OMAFRA, Crop Technology P.O. Box 1030, Guelph Agriculture Centre Guelph, Ontario N1H 6N1

Tel: Fax:

(519) 767-3190 (519) 837-3049

4175.0


Alec Denys Agroforestry Coordinator Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Suite 400 Roberta Bondar Place 70 Foster Drive Sault Ste. Marie P6A 6V5

Tel: Fax:

(705) 945-6618 (705) 945-9450

John Gardner Tel: Crop Technology Fax: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture Food and Rural Affairs 1 00 Enterprise Drive, Unit #7 Komoka, Ontario N0L 1R0

(519) 473-6480 (519) 473-6431

Other Agroforestry Contacts

John Butler Tel: (705) 725-7288 Maple Syrup Specialist Fax: (705) 725-7296 Ontario Ministry of Agriculture Food and Rural Affairs 449 Dunlop St. W. Barrie, Ontario L4N 1C3 Peter Williams Department of Environmental Biology University of Guelph Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1

Tel: (519) 824-4120 ext. 3488 Fax: (519) 837-0441

Andrew Gordon Department of Environmental Biology University of Guelph Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1

Tel: (519) 824-4120 ext. 2415 Fax: (519) 837-0442

APPENDIX 6 STEWARDSHIP COORDINATORS - PRIVATE FORESTS SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM S. C. Area

Stewardship Coordinator

Address

Phone/Fax


Essex/ Kent Counties

Jim Boothby

c/o MNR 1023 Richmond St. W. Box 1168 Chatham N7M 5L8

P (519) 354-7340 F (519) 354-0313

Huron County

Steve Bowers

c/o MNR R.R. #5 Wingham N0G 2W0

P (519) 357-3131 F (519) 357-1292

Oxford County

Jim Collins

c/o OMAFRA Box 666 Woodstock N4S 7Z5

P (519) 537-3455 F (519) 537-3456

Elgin County

Bret Colman

c/o MNR 353 Talbot St. W. Aylmer N5H 2S8

P (519) 773-4739 F (519) 773-9014

Frontenac County

Cindy Davey

c/o MNR 1 Richmond Blvd Napanee K7R 3M8

P (613) 354-8104 F (613) 354-4714

Simcoe County North

Earl Dertinger

c/o MNR Midhurst L0L 1X0

P (705) 725-7557 F (705) 725-7584

Halton/ Peel Reg. Mun.

Robert Fancy

c/o MNR Box 7400 10401 Dufferin St. Maple L6A 1S9

P (905) 832-7559 F (905) 832-7561

Grey County

Jim Faught

c/o MNR 61 1 Ninth Ave. East Owen Sound N4K 3E4

P (519) 376-3860 F (519) 372-3305

Carleton County

Jamie Fortune

c/o MNR 1 0 Findlay Ave. Carleton Place K7C 3Z6

P (613) 257-5735 F (613) 257-5269

Stormont/

Jim Hendry

c/o MNR

P (613) 933-1774


Dundas Glengarry Counties

P.O. Box 1749 113 Amelia Street Cornwall K6H 5V7

F (613) 932-8973

Renfrew County

Bruce Hood

c/o MNR P.O. Box 220 Riverside Drive Pembroke K8A 6X4

P (613) 732-3661 F (613) 732-2972

Grenville County

Jack Henry

c/o MNR P.O. Box 605 10 Oxford Avenue Brockville K6V 5Y8

P (613) 342-8524 F (613) 342-7544

Waterloo Reg. Mun.

John Irwin

Reg. Mun. Waterloo Dept. of Planning and Culture 5th Floor 150 Frederick St. Kitchener N2G 4J3

P (519) 575-4528 F (519) 575-4449

Lambton County

Ron Ludolph

c/o MNR 1023 Richmond St. W. Chatham N7M 5L8

P (519) 354-7340 F (519) 354-0313

Perth County

Ken Maronets

c/o MNR R.R. #5 Wingham N0G 2W0

P (519) 357-3131 F (519) 357-1292

Northumberland County

Glenn McLeod

c/o MNR 322 Kent St. West Lindsay K9V 4T7

P (705) 324-6121 F (705) 324-7619

Peterborough County

Kazia Milian

c/o MNR 322 Kent St. West Lindsay K9V 4T7

P (705) 324-6121 F (705) 324-7619

Leeds County

Gary Nielsen

c/o MNR P.O. Box 605 Oxford Avenue

P (613) 498-9609 F (613) 342-7544


Brockville K6V 5Y8 Hastings/ Prince Edward Counties

John Oatway

c/o MNR 1 Richmond Blvd Napanee K7R 3M8

P (613) 354-8131 F (613) 354-4714

Durham Reg. Mun.

John Osmok

c/o MNR Box 7400 10401 Dufferin St. Maple L6A 1S9

P (905) 832-7232 P (905) 473-2160 F (905) 473-6360

York Region

Brian Peterkin

c/o MNR Box 7400 10401 Dufferin St. Maple L6A 1S9

P (905) 832-7174 F (905) 832-7561

Lennox & Addington Counties

Steve Pitt

c/o MNR 1 Richmond Blvd Napanee K7R 3S3

P (613) 354-8135 F (613) 354-4714

Victoria County

Dave Pridham

c/o MNR 322 Kent St. West Lindsay K9V 4T7

P (705) 324-6121 F (705) 324-7619

Norfolk County

David Reid

c/o MNR 548 Queensway West Box 706 Simcoe

P (519) 426-7650 F (519) 426-6041

Ottawa

Mike Rosen

c/o MNR Box 599 Manotick K4M 1A5

P (613) 692-2390 F (613) 692-0831

London/ North Middlesex Counties

Dan Schaefer

c/o MNR 353 Talbot St. West Aylmer N5H 2S8

P (519) 773-4751 F (519) 773-9014

c/o OMAFRA Box 129 Cayuga

P (519) 586-4021 F (519) 586-7445

Haldimand

Ron Thayer


N0A 1E0 Brant County

Rob Wallis

c/o MNR Box 21048 605 Beaverdale Rd Cambridge N3C 2W1

P (519) 658-9355 F (519) 658-6290

P (613) 267-4200 F (613) 267-2969

Lanark County

Jeff Ward

c/o Lanark County P.O. Box 37 Sunset Boulevard Perth K7H 3E2

Dufferin/ South Simcoe

Joe Watson

c/o MNR Midhurst L0L 1X0

P (705) 725-7561 F (705) 725-7584

Bancroft District

Steve Wilkins

c/o MNR P.O. Box 500 Bancroft K0L 1C0

P (613) 332-3940 F (613) 332-0608

APPENDIX 7 AGREEMENT FORESTS IN ONTARIO* Agreement Holder

Term of Agreement

Area in Hectares

GOVERNMENT OF CANADA National Capital Commission

Apr. 1961- Mar. 2011

2,747.57

CONSERVATION AUTHORITIES Ausable Bayfield

Jan. 1983- Mar. 2004

1,955.26

Cataraqui Region

Apr. 1971 - Mar. 1996

342.31

Catfish Creek

Apr. 1962 - Mar. 2002

255.56

Crowe Valley

Jan. 1963 - Dec. 2003

80.94

Ganaraska Region

Apr. 1977 - Mar. 2002

4,261.54


Grand River

Apr. 1961 - Mar. 2000

1,657.43

Grey Sauble

Jan. 1985 - Mar. 2005

4,495.55

Lakehead Region

May 1958 - Apr. 2008

670.85

Long Point Region

Apr. 1982 - Mar. 2000

2,763.25

Lower Thames Valley

Apr. 1984 - Mar. 2004

121.41

Maitland Valley

Apr. 1955 - Mar. 2005

343.58

Metropolitan Toronto & Region

Apr. 1975 - Mar. 2000

785.38

Moira River

Apr. 1978 - Mar. 2000

6,766.66

Napanee Region

Oct.

1954 - Oct. 2004

2,732.44

Niagara Peninsula

Jun.

1963 - Mar. 2003

95.52

Otonobee Region

Apr.

1976 - Mar. 2002

1,497.42

Raison Region

Apr.

1971 - Mar. 2001

137.59

Saugeen Valley

Jun.

1985 - May 2005

7,053.86

Sault Ste. Marie Region

Apr. 1987-Mar.2007

64.00

South Nation River

Apr. 1975-Mar. 2000

3,241.73

ST. Clair Region

May 1985-Apr. 2005

60.70

Upper Thames River

Apr. 1961-Mar.2001

1,363,29

TOWNSHIPS Charlottenburgh

Apr. 1975-Mar. 1995

77.70

Cramahe

Apr. 1963 - Mar. 2003

65.56

Cumberland

Jul. 1980 - Jun. 2030

598.30

Darlington

Apr. 1971 - Mar. 1991

56.66

Machar

Terminated Dec. 1988

Mosa

Apr. 1963 - Mar. 2003

58.27


West Carleton

Apr. 1963-Mar. 2003

174.34

Williamsburg

Apr. 1962-Mar. 2002

201.12

Brant

Apr.1960-Mar. 2000

40.19

Bruce

Apr. 1962-Mar. 2002

6,106.03

Dufferin

Apr. 1971-Mar. 1991

1,019.21

Grey

Apr. 1960-Mar.2000

3,303.13

Huron

Apr. 1960 - Mar. 2000

662.30

Kent

Apr. 1960 - Mar. 2000

30.51

Lanark

Apr. 1980-Mar.2000

4,427.92

Leeds and Grenville

Apr. 1975 - Mar. 1995

5,802.18

Lennox and Addington

Apr. 1960 - Mar. 2000

Middlesex

Apr. 1960-Mar.2000

1,012.96

Northumberland

Apr. 1981-Mar. 2001

2,641.59

Oxford

Apr. 1961-Mar.2000

342.06

Peterborough

Apr. 1981-Mar.2000

80.94

Prescott and Russell

Apr. 1983-Mar. 2001

10,436.31

Renfrew

Apr. 1983-Mar.2003

6,431.98

Simcoe

Apr. 1960-Mar.2000

10,696.90

Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry

Apr. 1975-Mar.2000

3,262.88

Victoria

Nov. 1976-Mar.2000

3,794.31

Wellington

Apr. 1963-Mar.2003

521.44

May 1980-Apr. 2000

589.82

COUNTIES

473.04

REGIONAL MUNICIPALITIES Durham


Halton

Apr. 1976-Mar.2000

632.14

Ottawa/Carleton

Apr. 1976-Mar.2004

7,918.05

Waterloo

Apr. 1976-Mar.2001

347.39

York

Apr. 1977-Mar.2027

2,030.48

INDUSTRY Domtar Inc.

Apr. 1974-Mar.1999

1,596.52

TOTAL AREA

118,926.07

* OMNR Statistics 1988-89

APPENDIX 8 COMMONLY USED FOREST MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES The twelve Forest Management Guidelines for each category that respondents in the questionnaire were most familiar with and using. Provincial Forest Management Guidelines Title

1

Best Management Practices, Farm Forestry

Source

OMAF Agriculture

Year Published

current

No. of Respondents familiar with 20


and Habitat Management

Canada

2

Common Pests of Ornamental Trees and Shrubs by K.B. Turner et al

OMNR

1975

20

3

1995

OMAFRA

1995

18

4

Vegetation Management for Wildlife in Ontario by David Euler

OMNR

1979

16

5

The Farm Windbreak

OMNR

1976

16

6

Sugar Bush Management for Maple Syrup Producers by C.F. Coons

1992

16

7

A Silvicultural Guide to the White Pine and Red Pine Working Groups

OMNR

1990

16

8

Managing Red Pine Plantations

OMNR

1986

15

9

The Autecology of Competing Non Crop Vegetation on Old Field Sites in Southern Ontario by J.H. Louter et al

OMNR STTU

1993

15

10

A Guide to Christmas Tree Growing in Ontario by Hugh G. McPhee

Christmas 1982 Tree Growers Assoc. Of Ont.

15

OMNR

11

Best Management Practices A First Look Practical Solutions for Soil and Water Problems

OMAFRA Agriculture Canada

current

12

Best Management Practices Soil Management

OMAF Agriculture Canada

current

National and Federal Government Forest Management Guidelines

15

15


Title

Source

Year Published

Number of Respondents familiar with

1.

Hardwood Planting on Abandoned Farmland in Southern Ontario Revised Guide by F.W. Von Althen

Forestry Canada

1990

18

2.

Insects of Eastern Pines by A.H. Rose and O.H. Lindquist

Canadian Forestry Service

1983

16

3

Insects of Eastern Hardwood Trees by A.H. Rose and O.H. Lindquist

Canadian Forestry Service

1982

16

4

Insects of Eastern Spruce, Fir and Hemlock by A.H. Rose and O.H. Lindquist

Canadian Forestry Service

1977

15

5

Insects of Eastern Larch, Cedar and Juniper by A.H. Rose and O.H. Lindquist

Canadian Forestry Service

1980

14

6

Successful Forestry, A Guide to Private Forest Management

Canadian Forestry Service SteFoy, Que.

1988

10

7

Summary of the Proceedings of the Hardwood Establishment and Management Symposium by R.A. Craig et al

Joint Publication Forestry Canada OMNR

1991

9

8

The Canadian System of Soil Classification

Agriculture Canada

1978

8

9

Glossary of Terms in Soil Science

Agriculture Canada

1976

7

10

Management of Insect

Forestry

1992

6


11

12

Pests of Cones in Seed Orchards in Eastern Canada by Jean J. Turgeon and P. De Groot

Canada

A Study in Single Tree Selection for Tolerant Hardwoods by A.B. Berry

Canadian Forest Service Petawawa National Forestry Institute

A Source Book for the Management of the Gypsy Moth by V.G. Nealis and S. Erb

Forestry Canada Ontario Region

1981

6

1993

6

American Forest Management Guidelines Title

Source

Year Published

No. of Respondents familiar with

1

Timber Management for Small Woodlands by Gary R. Goff et al

Comell University Extension

1984

11

2

Sugarbush Management A Guide To Maintaining Tree Health by David R. Houston et al

USDA Forest Service

1990

10

3

Stress Triggered Tree Diseases, The Diebacks and Declines by David R. Houston

USDA Forest Service

1981

10

4

Crop Tree Management in Eastern Hardwoods by Arlyn W. Perkley and William B. Leak

USDA Forest Service

1993

9

5

Prescribing Silvicultural Treatments in Hardwood Stands of the Alleghenies (Revised) by

USDA Forest Service

1992

9


David Marquis et al

ilvicultural Guide for White Pine in the Northeast by Kenneth F. Lancaster et al

USDA Forest Service

1978

8

7

New England Wildlife Management of Forested Habitats by Richard M. DeGraff et al

USDA Forest Service

1992

7

8

Guide to Wildlife Tree Management in New England - Northern Hardwoods by Carl H. Tubbs et al

USDA Forest Service

1987

6

9

Christmas Tree Pest Manual by Janine M. Benyus

USDA Forest Service

1983

6

10

New England Wildlife Habitat, Natural History and Distribution by Richard M. DeGraff and D. Rudis

USDA Forest Service

1992

6

11

Maple Syrup Producers Manual by C.O. Willits and Claude H. Mills

USDA Agricultural Research Service

1976

6

12

Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada by F.H. Eyre, Editor

Society of American Foresters

1980

6


APPENDIX 9 PUBLICATION SOURCES FOR FOREST RESOURCE MANAGERS The following are sources of management, scientific and technical publications useful for forest resource managers. Many provide publication lists periodically and many publications can be acquired free of charge. PROVINCE OF ONTARIO Publications Ontario 50 Grosvenor Street 1st Floor Toronto, Ontario M7A 1N8 Tel: (416) 326-5300 1-800-668-9938 Information Centre Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs 801 Bay St., 1st Floor Toronto, Ontario M7A 2B2 Tel: (416) 326-3400 1-800-567-8898 Fax: (416) 326-3409 Public Information Centre Environment Ontario 135 St. Clair Ave. W. Toronto, Ontario M4V 1P5 Tel: (416) 323-4321 1-800-565-4923 Fax: (416) 323-4564 ONTARIO MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES The Ontario Forest Research Institute P.O. Box 969, 1235 Queen St. East Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario P6A 5N5 Tel: (705) 946-2981 Fax: (705) 946-2030 Science and Technology Transfer Unit R.R.#2 Bloomington Rd. W. Aurora, Ontario


L4G 3G8 Tel: (905) 713-7121 Fax: (905) 713-7456 Science Unit West-London 659 Exeter Rd London, Ontario N6A 4L6 Tel: (519) 661-2747 Fax: (519) 661-2809 Science Unit East - Brockville P.O. Box, 605 Oxford Ave. Brockville, Ontario K6V 5Y8 Tel: (613) 342-8524 Fax: (613) 342-7544 Northwest Region Science and Technology R.R.#1, 25th Side Rd Thunder Bay, Ontario P7C 4T9 Tel: (705) 360-8205 Fax: (807) 939-1841 Central Ontario Forest Technology Development Unit P.O. Box 3070 North Bay, Ontario PIB 8K7 Tel: (705) 474-5550 Fax: (705) 472-0905 Science and Technology P.O. Box 3000, 140 4th Ave. Cochrane, Ontario POL ICO Tel: (705) 272-7035 Fax: (705) 272-2894 Northeast Science and Technology Unit 2nd Floor, 60 Wilson Ave. Timmins, Ontario P4N 2S7 Tel: (705) 360-8205 Fax: (705) 267-3626 FEDERAL GOVERNMENT


CANADIAN FOREST SERVICE* Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service Newfoundland and Labrador Region Building 304, Pleasantville, P.O. Box 6028 St. John's, Newfoundland A1C 5X8 Tel: (709) 772-4672 Fax: (709) 772-2576

C

Canadian Forest Service publications must be ordered by mail, fax, phone from the research establishment that publishes them because publication services are decentralized. A Publications Digest is prepared periodically and is available at the Ottawa Headquarters address noted on page 120.

Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service Maritimes Region P.O. Box 4000 Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5P7 Tel: (506) 452-3500 Fax: (506) 452-3525 Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service Quebec Region 1055, rue du P.E.P.S., C.P. 3800 Sainte-Foy, Quebec GIV 4C7 Tel: (418) 648-5788 Fax: (418) 648-5849 Natural Resources Canada (closing 1996) Canadian Forest Service Petawawa National Forestry Institute Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1J0 Tel: (613) 589-2880 Fax: (613) 589-2275 Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service Ontario Region


P.O. Box 490 1219 Queen St. East Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario P6A 5M7 Tel: (705) 949-9461 Fax: (705) 759-5700 Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service Forest Pest Management Institute P.O. Box 490 1219 Queen St. East Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario P6A 5M7 Tel: (705) 949-9461 Fax: (705) 759-5700 Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service Northwest Region 5320-122nd Street Edmonton, Alberta T6H 3S5 Tel: (403) 435-7210 Fax: (403) 435-7359 Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service Pacific and Yukon Region 506 West Bumside Road Victoria, British Columbia V8Z 1M5 Tel: (604) 363-0600 Fax: (604) 363-0775 Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service Headquarters Public Information Officer Ottawa, Ontario KIA IG5 Tel: (819) 997-1107 Fax: (819) 953-2104 OTHER FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Canada Communications Group


Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0S9 Tel: (819) 956-4800 Fax: (819) 994-1498 (Publish weekly check list of all new Federal Government publications issued) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 930 Carling Ave. Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C5 Enquiry Centre Environment Canada Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 Tel: 1-800-668-6767 Fax: 1-819-953-2225 WILDLIFE Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters P.O. Box 2800 Peterborough, Ontario K9J8L5 Tel: (705) 748-6324 Fax: (705) 748-9577 United States Department of Interior Fish and Wildlife Service OTE/Publications Unit Washington, D.C., USA 20240 Tel: (703) 358-1711 Fax: (703) 358-2314 Publications Canadian Wildlife Service Environment Canada Ottawa, Ontario KIA 0H3 Tel: (819) 997-1095 Canadian Wildlife Federation 2740 Queensview Drive Ottawa, Ontario K2B 1A2 Tel: (613) 721-2286


OTHER Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada, FERIC 143 Place Frontenac Pointe-Claire, Quebec H9R 4Z7 Tel: (514) 694-1140 Fax: (514) 694-4351 The Forest Shop Ltd. P.O. Box 550 25 Main St. Brighton, Ontario K0K 1H0 Tel: (613) 475-4755 Fax: (613) 475-4646

Ontario Forestry Association Suite 502 150 Consumers Road Willowdale, Ontario M2J 1P9 Tel: (416) 493-4565 Forintek Canada Eastern Laboratory 319 rue Franquet Ste-Foy, Quebec GIV 4C7 Tel: (418) 659-2647 Landowner Resource Centre Box 599, Dickinson Street Manotick, Ontario K4M 1A5 Tel: (613) 692-2390 1-800-387-5304 Fax: (613) 692-0831 REFERENCES Aird, P.L. Forest Conservation Legislation. A Digest of Statutes of Ontario. Unpublished report. 1994. 105 pp.


Borczon, E.L. Evergreen Challenge. The Agreement Forest Story. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Undated. 60 pp. Brodie, J.A. Timber Management in Ontario. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests 1951. 19 pp. Coons, C.F. Reforestation on Private Lands in Ontario. Forest Group, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1981. 31 pp. Dixon R.M. The Forest Resources of Ontario. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests. Toronto. 1963. 107 pp. Foster, W.T. and Turner, K.B. Forest Protection in Ontario. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests. 1960. 24 pp. Kennedy, H. Report of the Ontario Royal Commission on Forestry 1947. Published by Baptist Johnston. 1947. 196 pp. Kirkwood, A. Papers and Reports Upon Forestry, Forest Schools, Forest Administration and Management in Europe, America, and the British Possessions. Warwick and Sons, Toronto. 1893. 261 pp. Lambert, R.S. and Pross, P. Renewing Natures Wealth "A Centennial History of Public Management of Lands, Forests and Wildlife in Ontario 1763 - 1967." The Hunter Rose Company. 1967. 630 pp.

Legislative Assembly of Ontario. Statutes of Ontario and Revised Statutes of Ontario. 18671995. Leslie, A.P. Forest Research in Ontario. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests. 1952. 23 pp. Ontario Department of Agriculture - Annual Reports 1905 - 1912. Ontario Department of Planning and Development. Conservation in Eastern Ontario. Papers and Proceedings of the Conference on Conservation in Eastern Ontario. February 2nd and 3rd 1945. 1946. 132 pp. Ontario Economic Council. A Forest Policy for Ontario. 1970. 38 pp. Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs. A New Approach to Land Use Planning - A Consultation Paper. 1993. 22 pp. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Private Land Forests A Public Resource. 1982. 161 pp. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Predecessors. Annual and Statistical Reports. 1905 - 1991.


Richardson, A.H. Forest Tree Planting. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, Toronto. 1924. 71 pp. Richardson, A.H. Municipal Forests. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, Toronto. 1927. 19 pp. Richardson, A.H. The Woodlot. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, Toronto. 1933. 37 pp. Richardson, A.H. Conservation by the People: the history of the Conservation movement in Ontario to 1970. University of Toronto Press. 1974. 154 pp. Strobl, S. Significant Woodlands Workshop Proceedings. Southern Region Science and Technology Transfer Unit Workshop Proceeding WP - 003. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1993. 47 pp. Tree Bylaws Advisory Committee. Final Report of the Tree Bylaws Advisory Committee. 1991. 12 pp. Zavitz, E.J. Fifty Years Reforestation in Ontario. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests. Undated. 58 pp. Zavitz, E.J. Reforestation in Ontario. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests. 1947. 28 pp.

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