Page 1


CONVENIENT HOUSES WITH

Fifty Plans for the

Housekeeper

ARCHITECT AND HOUSEWIFE — A JOURNEY THROUGH THE HOUSE — FIFTY CONVENIENT HOUSE PLANS — PRACTICAL HOUSE BUILDING FOR THE OWNER — BUSINESS POINTS IN BUILDING — HOW TO PAY FOR A HOME

BY

LOUIS

H.

GIBSON

ARCHITECT

NEW YORK: THOMAS Y. CROWELL &

CO.


CHAPTER

X.

PLUMBING ENTIRELY

COMPLETENESS IN LABOR-SAVING PLUMBING APPARATUS. PLUMBING APPARATUS. SOIL PIPE. A TRAP. SEWER CONNECTIONS. ACCIDENTS TO TRAPS. FREQUENT USE OF PLUMBING APPARATUS DESIRABLE FOR

PLUMBING.

IS

SAFE

?

WATER-CLOSETS.

SAFETY.

SIMPLICITY IN PLUMBING. DRAIN TO KEEP PLUMBING APPARATUS FROM FREEZING.

CONNECTIONS.

CISTERN WATER SUPPLY.

GREASE SINK.

FLUSHING OF DRAIN.

BATH-TUB.

IN

considering the plumbing apparatus of a house, the question

is

Are these things

often asked, "

safe

?

ger the health of the occupants of the house

Do

they not endan-

The answer

? "

is,

The plumbing apparatus may be entirely safe. That it is not always so, we all know. We hear of many cases of typhoid fever, diphtheria,

scarlet fever,

and other diseases, which are

traceable to, or aggravated by, defective plumbing.

much

sections of the country so

plumbing, that the people, as a of

The reason

all.

for this

is

is

said that

class,

have come to be suspicious

the effort to cheapen the work.

under the control of the it

is

naturally follows, "

may be

In larger cities this

government.

city

It

may be

possible so to arrange the fixtures and apparatus

appertaining to plumbing that

It

some

trouble has been caused by poor

Suffering from bad work has led to safety.

work

In

How

said that

is

It is

entirely safe.

done

good work

pensive than poor work. question of money.

this

it is

is

not a great deal more exis

one of knowledge or

64

question

?

Again, good work

the part of the plumber.

The

"

not always a inclination

on


A JOURNEY THROUGH THE HOUSE. One

moderate circumstances, who builds a house

in

from twenty-five hundred to four thousand well water or city water, and hot

and cold

There should be

sink in the kitchen. in

This

generally a wash-stand.

ratus

may be

In the attic there should is

connected with the

force-pump, or water-motor, lift

There may be an especial sink

used.

There may be wash-stands

the water to

in

in

also,

the various chambers, and

an additional w ater-closet on the r

bers of the family. fixtures

;

entirely comfortable,

and derive

all

it is

accessible to the

of the housekeeping benefits

which may be expected from such conveniences. large,

increase the

first

memThere are many ways of expending money in but, with those first mentioned, one may be

or in the cellar, located where

house be

the china-

first floor.

There may be,

plumbing

not absolutely

more elaborate houses a completer plumbing appa-

one on the

floor,

A

is

located in the kitchen or basement to

In

closet.

least a slop-hopper

at

which

to hold the cistern water,

fixtures using soft water below.

tank.

should have

cistern water in the

latter feature

necessary, as will be explained later.

may be

dollars,

to cost

In the bath-room a water-closet, a tub, and

the laundry.

be a tank

65

an increase

in

the

amount of work done

in

number of

Unless the

fixtures

would

keeping them clean, rather

than save labor. In the matter of safety, another question, which sometimes arises, is as

there

is

a vault.

sewer

to the

danger from the plumbing apparatus where

no sewer connection, or where

The

itself

or

protection the

vault.

it

has to be

against sewer-gas It

is

entirely

is

not

made with from

the

through protective

apparatus in the house, and the manner of the connection with the vault or sewer.

One may

consider the conditions of safety in plumbing ap-


CONVENIENT HOUSES.

66

workmanship

First, as to the

paratus under two general heads.

Nothing need

second, as to design or plan of the apparatus.

workmanship, excepting that the execution of

to the

be said as

the design, or the benefits to be derived from

by defective workmanship.

lost

may be

it,

work

If the

be bad irrespective of the

not properly

is

The

executed, the design need not be considered.

entirely

result will

plan.

In considering the design of the apparatus,

we

will take into

By

account the arrangement of the connections and fixtures. the

expression

latter

is

meant the

wash-bowl, and the sink, pump,

tub, the water-closet, the

The connections which

etc.

have to do with the safety of the apparatus are the traps and the waste pipes, or pipes which connect with the vault or sewer.

The main waste The soil

pipe inside the house

is

called the soil pipe.

smaller waste pipes from the fixtures connect with

pipe

is

it.

The

of cast-iron, and usually four inches in diameter on

the inside.

It

connects,

full

size,

with the water-closet.

Most

other wastes are of lead, and are usually an inch and a half in diameter.

In the soil and waste pipes there will naturally be

the odors from the vaults and sewer, or from the foul matter

which

is

in or

be means

main

in

each waste pipe, which connects a fixture with the

soil pipe,

of preventing the passage of gas or air from

into the house.

The "S" it

from

letter

The

its

trap

This is

is

the

done by means of what

commonest form;

shape, and illustrates

S and turn rio-ht

it

side or

sideways

we

its

will

left

side

is

forced

is

it

called a trap.

name is given If we take a

get the form of such a trap. directly

down toward

the

would continue upward and

connect with the fixture (see Fig. 6)

comes down and

this

construction.

end would continue

drain or soil pipe, and the

ture

Therefore, there must

passing through the pipes.

.

The water from

the

fix-

upward through the bend by the


A JOURNEY THROUGH 7HE HOUSE.

67

pressure of water above, and from thence runs into the

Thus

or drain.

water

it

There

the trap.

in

trap as indicated

always water

is

the

in

S.

different forms of traps, but

constructed on the same principle

all

always a seal of

is

by the depth of the bend of the

There are hundreds of they are

be seen that there

will

pipe

soil

the

;

idea being that the gas or air from the pipe would

have to pass through the water the

The water

house.

seal

it

;

in

in

order to get into

the trap

the

called

is

seals the passage of air as stated.

There are many conditions under which a trap may

fail

to

may be rendered The trap may be siphoned by foul by the bad air in the drain. a heavy flow of water through the main drain, or it may be siphoned by a string or a rag which may readily find its way into do

its

full

duty.

the trap, and

It

may be

foul in itself, or

hang over the bend so

that

all

trap

may

dangers may be guarded against.

In

should be means which allow fresh

air to

Again, the water

out.

in the

portion of the main drain or

The means

the house.

The

pipe

soil

is

soil

ventilated

ventilated as

evaporate. the

first

All these

place,

pass through

pipe which

is

all

full

opening

at the top.

same way when

pipe or other connection.

The

The far

smaller

removed

traps should be

by H-inch or two-inch connections with the outer

shown by

that

or close to

in

air,

cut.

Frequent use of plumbing fixtures contributes It

there

by continuing up through and

drains should be ventilated in the soil

of the water will run

of accomplishing this are various.

well above the roof with a

from main

it

to

safety.

causes a large volume of water to pass through the pipes.

The

way makes them by those who have

flushing of the pipes and drains in this

cleaner and thus safer.

It is

frequently said


CONVENIENT HOUSES.

68

plumbing

fixtures in their

houses that they use them as

Nothing worse could

possible, because they are afraid of them.

The water

be done.

the traps evaporates or becomes foul,

in

and thus the gas has a

It

discharges a large volume of water into

to

keep

clean.

It

once a day, solely

is

A

free entrance to the house.

it

water-

and outside

closet helps greatly to cleanse the soil pipe

it

as

little

drain.

way

suddenly, in a

not a bad plan to use the closet at least

for the

purpose of flushing the drain.

In

houses where there are a number of wash-stands distributed

through the various chambers and neglect in using them.

The water

halls there

danger from

is

may

seal in the traps

evap-

and thus give direct sewer-air connection with the house.

orate,

Particularly

is

this

more dangerous

A

so in the guest's room.

wash-stand

any other

fixture for this reason than

in

is

a

the

house.

The tion.

water-closet problem has received a great deal of atten-

A few years

ago they were quite complicated, there being levers

and pipes, pans, springs

and weights, plexity

to a

which

caused

and great

a

great

There has since

deal of trouble.

been a return

decree of com-

to first principles

simplicity.

closet of to-day

is

The

water-

nothing more

or less than a large bowl con-

nected by means of an

"S"

trap

four inches in diameter with the soil

Wixtaout Wot_Šr- CJloae*.

pipe,

and

provided

means of flushing with

umes

of water.

Such a

In other closets there

is

closet

is

known

as the

with

large vol-

"washout

closet."

an intermediate plunger-valve separating


A JOURNEY THROUGH THE HOUSE. The plunger-valve

the hopper from the trap.

name.

It is

opening

by means of

That which makes one

own weight when

its

into

The most popular

closets,

do

flushing

is

hopper.

in the

those which have given the most

"washout"

are

By

else.

and distribution of water

meant the pouring

its

released.

closet different from another has to

more with means of flushing than anything

satisfaction,

defined by

and closes up the

a large stopper which plunges into

to the trap

is

69

closets,

made

of white

entirely

earthenware, not alone the bowl, but the trap and connecting Closets

neck.

which with

is

it

from an independent tank,

flushed

placed about seven feet above the closet and connects

by means of i|-inch

flush of water,

In the past iron

are best

which cleanses

Sometimes

closet.

It

is

best to leave

to the

There should be the

solid flap covering to the

them

to

entirely

it

open

necessary to support the flap and seat by legs,

work may be secured

allow

a strong

may be exposed.

though the modern closets are arranged so that

the opening in

it

thoroughly.

that the entire apparatus

sides, it is

it

gives

has been usual to conceal the earthenware or

it

body of the

around the

The height

pipe.

it,

all

of the wood-

upper part of the hopper or the

wooden

wall.

seat with

both of which should be hinged, so as to

be thrown back.

water-closet as a slop hopper.

should be hinged, so that

it

It is

convenient to use the

In order to do this the seat

may be thrown back

out of the

way.

One

frequently hears

it

said

by those who exercise

their

authority over household matters that they do not allow any-

thing to be put into the naturally intended for

it

;

slop water to be put into closet that cannot

be used

water-closet

meaning it.

that they

There

for this

except

is

that

which

is

do not allow the

no reason

in

this.

purpose cannot, with

The safety,


CONVENIENT HOUSES.

JO

sink

of the water-closet as a slop

not only legitimate but desirable.

is

There

a

is

movement toward

At the time

apparatus. state

The use

house.

in the

be allowed

It

flushes the drain.

simplicity in general

plumbing

the water-closets were in the complicated

mentioned, everything pertaining to plumbing was

same general

condition.

It

was thought necessary

with a wilderness of pipes and traps to have

The very complexity

tory.

it

to

fill

a house

safe or satisfac-

made

of the arrangement

in the

it

not only

unsafe but expensive to maintain.

We

have

heard a great deal about the expense of main-

all

taining a plumbing plant,

why

reason It

to

there

pleasant to

is

if

it

may be

should be constant repairs and

know

that additional

arrangement, general excellence

which go

to

is

is

no

expense.

not necessary

idea of simplicity in

the fixtures, material, and

in

form the completed work, has to be borne

The arrangement

mind.

expense

The

secure immunity from trouble.

labor,

There

so called.

in

of the plumbing apparatus has to be

planned with the same care and thoughtfulness as the other parts of the house. It

should be remembered that

position

where the temperature

degrees the water gested that

all

in

is

if

the pipes are placed in a

liable to fall

the pipes will freeze.

below thirty-two

Thus

pipes should be on an inside wall,

next to the kitchen

flue,

— and

that there

—

it

if

is

sug-

possible,

be here arranged

an especial pipe duct of wood to ventilate the kitchen, and, at the

same

warm

air

time,

which

keep the pipes from freezing by means of the will

pass through

it.

This duct should be cov-

ered on the face with a wide board, which can be readily removed

by taking out a few screws.

Thus the pipes may be exposed

at

any time desirable. If the

hot-water boiler in the kitchen

is

surrounded by an


A JOURNEY THROUGH THE HOUSE.

J

enclosure which has an opening in the bottom, and which con-

from above with

nects

duct previously described,

pipe

the

warm air passing upward through the The pipe duct as long as there is warm water in the boiler. water in the boiler will be warm long after everything else is This will insure safety from freezing when other helps fail. cold. there will be a current of

The

cistern water

supplied to the bath-room, and to the

is

hot-water reservoir, by means of a tank placed

above the highest

least

fixture.

may be prevented by

which connects with which

is,

heat

it

attic floor

air

will

the

All

pipe

This confines

from the duct mentioned, so that as long as there always be

sewer or vault.

in this enclosure.

the vault or sewer,

entrance to the

its

In such cases, this trap should have a connec-

tion with the outer air,

Sometimes

and on the side of the trap towards the outer-air connection

this

water spout from the roof

;

but this

is

to destroy the

Again,

spout.

may

contaminate the

pass near a window, and air

in

the house.

lating connection should

be

into the

It

is

almost certain

is

may come

spout

this

made

is

not proper, for the reason

that the sewer gas, or the gas from the vault,

a dormer, or

or at

with a large box or canvas covering

it,

The outside drain, which connects with in some instances, trapped previous to

house.

freezes.

tank, and

enclosing the

six or eight inches larger than the tank.

warm

the is

is

attic,

sometimes happens that the

It

supply pipe from the tank above the this

the

in

in

out near

either case

may

better that this venti-

in the yard, at

some distance from

the house, or, better yet, that there should be a long iron pipe

extending well above the ground. this

should be understood that

vent has no direct connection with the sewer, but merely

with the of

It

it

soil

which

is

pipe and drain back of the trap nearest

to,

and

in,

the house.

;

with that part


CONVENIENT HOUSES.

72

Sometimes

sewer connection

;

down spouts

necessary to run the

is

it

such a case one should be certain that

in

not near the dormers, and that

the down-spout openings are

they have no connection whatever with the cistern.

mon

to

latter is

have a switch or cut-off

may be connected

While

very bad practice.

in the

it

is

down spout

with the cistern, the water

is

in

is

On

its

the roof.

Thus

is

in the

there

upward through the

is

soil

the house

largely dependent

is

is

and the

or

soil

air

connection.

pipe can draw

its

then the

;

a fresh air inlet through the drain, and

pipe of the house.

Such a connection it

The water passing through supply of

no upward vent of the

which connect therewith

is

house should continue upward through

air

soil

will

gives an the drain

from the upward

rather than through the traps which contain water. is

soil pipe.

trapped as described, there

prevents the possibility of siphoning the traps, as

outward

all

being connected

connection through the vent before the trap

pipe which

This

contaminated with

ventilation of the drain

In the case of a drain which

soil

spout, so that the

poisoned.

Immunity from sewer gas

air

com-

connected with the sewer or

the foulness of the air of the drain.

upon the flushing and

down

It is

either with the cistern or sewer.

with the drain pipe, the

an

into the

soil vent,

When

there

or drain, the water in the traps

be drawn out by the passage of

water through the drain where fixtures are used.

There are those who maintain in

that there should

be no trap

the yard or adjacent to the house, but that there should be

a straight run from the soil pipe to the sewer or vault, and

upward through the roof and above the house.

It

is

good

practice to use the trap as described for sewer connections, but

not for open vault connections.

A

grease sink

is

frequently placed in the drain to intercept


A JOURNEY 1HR0UGH THE HOUSE. the passage of grease into the vault.

It is

7$

so placed and con-

nected that only the water from the kitchen sink, or other

where the water contains grease, may enter

tures

of brick, and

is

usually of six or eight barrels capacity.

inch pipe connects sink

It is

it.

with the kitchen waste, and

it

fix-

made

A

four-

the grease

if

placed adjacent to the main drain, there can be a similar

is

connection between

and the main

it

sink will

siphon connection, so that the before

it

When

discharges.

drain.

It

should be a

become nearly

full

discharges through the siphon

it

the water will go out with a rush and leave the grease in the

This makes an intermittent discharge into the main drain,

sink.

which flushes or cleanses a constant

it

thoroughly and

small flow of water.

cleaned from time to time.

much

is

better than

This grease sink must be

Small cast-iron grease sinks are

sometimes placed under kitchen sinks

in

very large dwellings or

in

regard to wash-stands

hotels.

Nothing particular need be said

more than has been

said, excepting, possibly,

that the

should be trapped, ventilated, and connected with the also that there should be a lead safe or safety

under the wash-stand when they are enclosed

;

pan on the it

It

has been

connect

It

is

it

safe with

should be useful

the

soil

pipe.

withstanding the fact that there be a trap drain,

it

floor

common

to

only intended that

cases of accidental overflow

in

pipe

preferable

is

that they should remain unenclosed. this

soil

drain

;

in the safe

but, not-

waste or

would be empty most of the time, because of the evap-

oration of the water.

It

is

proper to make direct connection

with the cellar or kitchen sink.

The bath-tub should have tion

as

the wash-stand

diameter, trapped.

The

;

that

the same-sized is,

drain

connec-

one and one-half inch

in

overflows from both the wash-stand


CONVENIENT HOUSES.

74

and tub should be flushed with hot water quite frequently, avoid It

the

often

soap smells which are so

happens

that

less

to

bath-rooms.

who have bath-rooms in their smell sewer gas, when it is nothing

those

houses imagine that they

more or

common

to

than the smell of rancid soap.


CHAPTER

XXXIII.

WOOD-WORK FOR PLUMBER. EXCAVATING WATER DISTRIBUTION. OUTSIDE FIXTURES.

PRACTICAL PLUMBING.

FOR PLUMBER. SUPPLY.

SINK.

CELLAR SINK.

IN

SOIL

a previous chapter

this chapter

it

way

;

assuming that

INSIDE

PIPE.

HOT-

SUPPLY.

KITCHEN

FIXTURES.

plumbing was considered from a

and the conditions of safety

tary standpoint,

practical

SOFT-WATER

STREET- WASHERS.

HYDRANTS.

WATER

sani-

In

set forth.

remains to consider plumbing work

in

to consider

execution,

it

is

with reference to

it

desired to reach

means, primarily, good work

the

best

its

a

more This

results.

then good work with the least

;

expenditure of money.

The carpenter plumber.

for the

usually

provides

all

necessary wood-work

This means boards and runs on which pipes

and other wood

are to be placed, the pipe duct

finish.

best that the carpenter should do this in order that well done.

There should be specified

exactly what he basis.

All

is

to do, so that

he

in

may

is

may be

the carpenter's contract calculate

on a

definite

of the cutting work, where cutting

is

necessary,

The plumber

is

not usually

should be done by the carpenter.

supplied with tools of the right kind for doing liable to

it

It

this,

and

is

as

botch carpenter work as a carpenter would be to botch

the plumbing work.

The plumber should do includes

house.

trenches

for

pipes

all

of his

of

all

own

kinds

excavating. to

and

from

This the

After the pipes and drains have been placed therein, 247


CONVENIENT HOUSES.

248 he should make

and thoroughly tamp the earth so as

fills

restore the surface to

done by putting

ming

by

a

settle

artificial

little

there

is

be

it.

Even

after this

with a slight crown, as the

left

more than

it

is

possible to

make

it

lot.

Plumber's excavating If

to

best

Superfluous earth should be removed from

means.

the building and

may be

a small quantity of earth at a time, ram-

in

space should

earth will

This

original condition.

down and then pouring water on

it

drain

the

its

is

not included in the general contract.

any superfluous earth

connection with his work, he,

in

and not the general contractor, should remove

methods are explained

in

it.

Contracting

another section of the book.

WATER DISTRIBUTION. Lead should be used to

view and where they come

common

purposes where pipes are exposed

for all

in contact

fittings are

used where they are exposed to

Brass makes very beautiful and satisfactory work.

view.

and

pipe, galvanized inside

work.

It

out,

does not look as

vanized iron pipe view, and where

is

well,

however, as lead pipe.

also frequently used

is

does not come

it

to this

doing lead work.

In

hospitals

iron or brass pipe

is

work

to

contact with the earth.

where the best work

is

done

However, the use of lead pipe where

exposed to view and where

beautiful

where not exposed

used, and lead pipe and connections are

entirely dispensed with.

for

in

Gal-

by plumbers who are used to

made all

Iron

occasionally used for exposed

Objections will be

pipe galvanized

is

Sometimes, however, brass or planished

practice.

copper pipes and

iron

This

with the earth.

in

contact with the earth, and iron

other places, makes

for dwelling-houses.

and lead pipe should be of

brass.

most excellent and

The connections between


PRACTICAL HOUSE-BUILDING. The water works pressure mains.

pounds

is

many cities and towns are from directcommon for such pressure to be forty

much

is

Therefore,

greater.

which connect with a tank

may be medium

strong.

all

fire

direct-pressure pipes

Tank- pressure pipes, those

of lead should be extra strong.

dium

A

the square inch under ordinary conditions.

to

pressure

It

of

249

in the attic or

The terms

above a water-closet,

" extra

"

strong

"

and

me-

strong," as here used, are definite in their meaning, and

apply to regular grades of pipe.

The

of an

interior fixtures

ordinary dwelling-house are supplied with lead pipe five-eighths of an inch in diameter, or iron pipe three-quarters of an inch in In the above will be found

diameter.

all

that applies in general

terms to an ordinary specification for water distribution. Special

mention

will

be made

later.

Stop-cocks should be provided sufficient entirely to disconnect and drain

all

pipes, fixtures,

"

and connections.

Stop-and-

waste" cocks should be provided at the bottom of risers

where they cannot otherwise be drained.

waste

''

cock

one which shuts

is

off the supply

and drains the water from pipes above, so that receptacle provided for that purpose.

allowed to run to a sink on the cellar in

In

A

its

source,

passes out to a

it

or

main

" stop-and-

from

some

floor,

all

it

instances

it is

may be taken

a bucket.

The erally

city

water-supply for an ordinary dwelling-house

is

gen-

through five-eighths-inch extra strong lead pipe, and

is

provided with a stop-box so that the water can be turned off

from the house

at the street.

OUTSIDE FIXTURES. Outside fixtures which connect with the street- washer

and a hydrant.

The

city

water are a

street- washer

is

usually


CONVENIENT HOUSES.

250

may be attached to it for sprinkThere are many standard grades of streetling purposes. washers carried in stock by all plumbers. The hydrant has about the same lower connections as the street-washer. The placed in front, so that a hose -

hose connection and opening stand well above the It

usually placed in the back yard

is

may have purposes

Where

The

or stable.

a hose coupling, and thus be

lot grade.

used for sprinkling

the back part of the lot or otherwise, as desired.

in

there are no hydrants,

it is

common

to run

an iron pipe

Thus

along the ground to connect the front and back yard. is

The

not necessary to have so large a supply of hose.

thus used

outlet

three-quarters of an inch in diameter.

is

It

expensive than rubber hose, and does not deteriorate.

have a short hose connection

in front,

It

is

it

pipe less

should

and hose coupling

at the

back.

SOFT-WATER SUPPLY.

many

In

much it

is

cities

the water from the public pipes contains too

lime to be used for bathing or washing.

In such a case

This

necessary to supply cistern water for that purpose.

is

done by connecting the

in

the

attic,

this a force

or

some

pump

to use are those

is

in

the yard with a tank

To do

place above the highest fixture.

placed in

known

der force pumps.

cistern

the

kitchen.

The

best

kind

as double-acting, horizontal, brass-cylin-

They may be screwed

to the floor,

and the

handle come up next to the sink or between the drain-board and the dry-board.

When

not

A

the wall and out of the way.

pump.

It

is

motor may be used

in lieu of a

placed over the kitchen sink, and has connection

with city water works. attic,

be next to

use, this handle can

in

When

one can turn on the

it is

city

desired to

pump

water to the

water at the cock and

let

it

run.


PRACTICAL HOUSE-BUILDING. Thus

the city pressure

water to the

The

with.

The

pump

exerted through the motor to

is

I

and the labor of pumping entirely done away

attic,

cost

25

about

is

suction of such a

fifteen dollars

pump

half-inch strong lead pipe,

more than

good pump.

a

or motor should be one-and-one-

and the supply

to tank in attic one-

and-one-quarter-inch lead or iron pipe where not exposed to view.

Where the pump or motor to pump water directly to

placed as indicated,

is

the kitchen sink, and

Of

best that such an arrangement be made.

be drawn from the tank to so arrange

it

done,

is

it is

The

unnecessary.

means of

may have

sink

a direct

generally

is

it

may

course, water it is

desired

pump

necessary to

of the cold water used in the kitchen to the

all

may be used

in the attic to this sink, if

but where this

;

it

pump

This

attic.

is

connection by

a five-eighths-inch strong lead pipe which connects

with the tank supply.

On

the end of this lead pipe

When

brass or nickel compression cock over the sink.

desired to

pump

only connection

water into the tank this cock is

The common

is

may be

closed,

it

a is

and the

with the tank above. size

for

tank

is

eight barrels capacity.

It

should be constructed of inch-and-three-quarters ploughed and

tongued material with two three-eighths inch rods, with bolts

and nuts dle.

that

The is,

at

each end, and cleats across top and bottom

in

mid-

inside should be lined with four-pound sheet lead

sheet lead which weighs four pounds to the foot.

should be an inch

tell-tale

one-half inch

where the tank

in

is

There

pipe of galvanized iron which connects

with the sink nearest the pump.

runs to the roof

;

Sometimes an overflow which

used, in which case a smaller

diameter, will

in the attic is

serve.

say

There are instances

connected with a special gutter on

the roof, above the line of the tank.

with a large overflow so that

tell-tale,

it

may

Then

the tank

not cause trouble.

is

provided

However,


CONVENIENT HOUSES.

252 this

a

is

little

The tank

risky.

is

connected with the hot and

cold water system and fixtures subsequently named.

The hot-water system

as simple as

is

it is

Usually

efficient.

a heavyipressure galvanized-iron boiler, of from twenty-four to sixty-two gallons capacity,

is

located in the kitchen.

It is

con-

nected with the tank by means of five-eighths-inch lead or three•quarters-inch iron pipe,

and with

as being supplied with

hot water

water

heated

is

in the

named The same manner.

fixtures subsequently

the

in

range by means of a water back or water

front placed in the fire-box of the range.

the boiler by

means of

One

inch iron pipe.

pipe from the lower part of the boiler

The

other carries

notice,

is

used

is

not so great.

in a stove in lieu of a

same purpose, though

usually answers the is

It is

its

The

such that the back soon becomes

is

from the

city

filled,

and

water works, the supply

therefrom rather than from a tank

uncommon

to

water supply

is

is

in the attic.

have a tank supply

in

It

heating surface

little

is

is

it is

much more

When

the hot

usually directly

However,

it is

not

the house where public-

taken to the exclusion of

a better system, though a reservoir

water back.

incrustation from the lime

expensive to replace than one made of pipe. water

Sometimes a

best to use a pipe back where the boiler

not connected with soft water. is

boiler of this kind,

always warmer than the bottom.

wrought-iron pipe

for

Any one may

boiler.

by passing the hand up and down a is

to the top of

The hot-water supply

drawn from the top of the

that the top

it

water naturally going to the bottom and

the hot water passing to the top. fixtures

and three-quarters-

five-eighths-inch lead

takes the water to the back.

the boiler, the cold

connected with

It is

all

more expensive.

other,

The

and

it

is

hot-water

usually placed on an iron stand near the stove.

It

should be provided with a draining connection for the purpose


PRACTICAL HOUSE-BUILDING. of drawing out

all

the water

when

from the reservoir to the tank

in

A

desired.

is

vent connection the event of no

attic, or, in

tank being used, to the roof above,

253

common

as a guard

against extra steam pressure.

SOIL PIPE. Before considering other inside fixtures and pipe should be mentioned.

when

it is

It is

the soil

fittings,

of cast-iron, light weight, and,

connected with a water-closet, should be four inches

diameter on the inside, and japanned inside and out.

in

made

are

at the hubs,

Connections with proper

size,

therewith.

and should be leaded and well calked. should be

this pipe

depending on the

The

Joints

made by means

size of the drain

of Y's of

which connects

pipe should continue upward and through

soil

the roof to a point at least four feet above the nearest ridge.

Below,

it

should continue outside of the foundation wall to con-

Where

nect with the drain.

there

is

pipe should be below the cellar

soil

a sink in the cellar, the

floor.

Vitrified or earthen-

ware drain pipe should never be used inside the walls of a house.

INSIDE FIXTURES.

The

kitchen sink

of light cast-iron.

may be

considered

first.

Sometimes they are of pressed

they are of cast-iron with an interior porcelain

mon

cast-iron sink

ideal sink, the It

They

is

are usually

steel

finish.

painted, the paint soon wears

one which

is

the best in every way,

is

Any

again,

If a off.

com-

The

of porcelain.

has the white, glazed surface of a fine dish, and

cleaned.

;

is

easily

kitchen sink should be eighteen inches wide, six

inches deep, and from twenty-four to thirty-six inches in length.

Thirty or thirty-six strainer in

is

the

the bottom, and

best.

They

are

provided with

have one-and-one-half-inch

a

light


CONVENIENT HOUSES.

254 lead

"S"

trap connection with soil pipe or grease sink, subse-

Where

quently considered.

city

water

is

at

hand, the

sink

should be supplied through a five-eighths-inch brass or nickel-

Where

plated self-closing cock.

the city water

hard, hot and

is

cold cistern water in addition to city water should be supplied

through five-eighths-inch brass or nickel-plated compression cocks.

If

hot water

the

be used.

self-closing cock should to a soldered nipple,

lead pipe.

not in

in

In this way,

it is

A

use excepting

cellar sink

directly to the

not necessary to wipe a joint every smaller sink, size as desired,

in

the

may

Such a sink

the china-closet or butler's pantry.

common

The

All cocks should be screwed

and not "wiped" or joined

time the cock gives out.

be used

from the public water works, a

is

is

more expensive houses.

should be sixteen by sixteen inches, ten inches

deep, and should be provided with strainer, and an inch-and-ahalf light lead

only

is

"S"

desired,

trap connection with soil pipe.

may be had through five-eighths-inch brass Where connection is made with cistern, it

it

self-closine cock.

may be by means if pitcher pump ;

of one-and-one-half inch pipe and a cast-iron

not

similarly connected cellar sink is the

this sink is

this,

a well, driven or otherwise,

by means of a pitcher or

lift

may be

pump.

.This

may be used in connection with the Where stationary tubs are used, described.

kind that

laundry previously

supply

If city

not necessary.


CHAPTER XXXIV. WORK

PLUMBING

CONTINUED.

FOOT-TUBS.

LAUNDRY

BATH-TUBS.

WATER-CLOSETS.

SAFES.

WASH-STANDS.

OUTSIDE

SET TUBS.

FITTINGS.

BATH-SPRINKLERS.

GREASE

DRAINS.

NICKEL FITTINGS.

SINKS.

THE

fittings of kitchen

Chapter

V.,

is

is

the rim and

fully

considered

in

which has to do with kitchens and pantries. however, that the only visible wood-work

sufficient to say,

It

and other sinks are

wooden

legs,

which support the sink proper, and

the splash-boards at the side tables as described.

BATH-TUBS.

A

great deal might be said on this subject, which must be

The

unsaid for the want of space.

left

every way

the most satisfactory,

which

in

same

as the sinks described.

easily

cleaned,

they are

is

and

expensive.

They

tance.

for

expensive

The

iron

of wood.

An

iron

They

one of copper.

are

not of great impor-

is

They

more expensive

are

porcelain-lined

than solid porcelain, and

is

and porcelain tubs do not require

They stand

about

is

and cast-iron tubs, painted,

are used occasionally in dwellings.

less

However,

For the tub alone the cost

Cast-iron, porcelain-lined,

than the copper tubs.

of porcelain,

satisfactory.

houses where the matter of cost

in

made

is

one

are beautiful in appearance,

altogether very

one hundred dollars more than used

ideal bath-tub, the

clear of wall

and

tub

is

much

very satisfactory.

side or

floor.

end casings

As

is

known,

tubs are of varying sizes and forms, the usual length being from 2 55


CONVENIENT HOUSES.

256

The

four and one-half to six feet.

commonly

pattern are

known

tubs

as the " French

four and one-half feet long, and deeper

and wider than the ordinary copper

The weight

tub.

copper varies from nine to sixteen ounces to the foot teen-ounce copper tubs are pattern of tub in

is

coming

in

into

the best class of work.

most general

stated before,

much water

pattern.

It

depth

the shorter tub as in one that

cares to

necessary

The

down

lie ;

in

four-

;

more general use than the others

As

does not require

of the

The French

use.

is

it

wider and

common

deeper, though shorter than the old six-foot tub of the

in

"

as-

is

is

in

same

As no one

longer.

the bath-tub, six feet

four and one-half feet

to get the

length

is

not

ample.

ordinary fixtures which go with a bath-tub of moderate

cost are the combination bath-cock with rubber hose and sprinkler,

and a plug and chain.

All the metal

work

is

A

nickel-plated.

combination bath-cock connection with hot and cold water mixes the water as

it

passes into the tub, so that the proper tempera-

may be secured by the adjustment The most objectionable feature to

ture

struction

is

of the valves. the tub of general con-

the overflow which connects with the waste.

It is

simply a tube which has a single opening below the bath-cock to the waste pipe.

This soon becomes

Arrangements are provided which connect

directly

may be

readily

These prevent the passage of water

By

a

movement

be opened below

many

away with

kind of

with the outlet, and which

use.

Various ingenious this

devices have been arranged for doing overflow.

foul.

removed and cleaned.

to the drain

when

tub

of a handle in the top the passage

to allow the water to pass out.

devices constructed on this principle.

In

is

in

may

There are

some

instances

they add only two or three dollars to the cost of the plumbing outfit,

and are certainly worth the extra expense.

There are


PRACTICAL HOUSE-BUILDING. arrangements where the

finish

more complete, and the cost

The same

named. iron,

elaborate, the details

largely in excess of the figure here

device applies to the various tubs, porcelain,

Formerly

or copper.

more

is

257

it

was common

have a large

to

sprinkler connected with hot and cold water above the tub is

now

unusual.

It

ler is a

its

to use this sprinkler without

However, the sprink-

place in ordinary work.

very good thing, though

the hose attachment

is

it is

not put in excepting where

also supplied.

Another modern arrangement which has sprinkler

is

a surrounding rubber curtain, which

when

a plated ring on a level with one's head

to

do with the

is

supported by

ments on

is

thus deflected into the tub.

principle, looking to hot or

this

They surround

been devised.

fined space surrounding the body.

goes against

Various arrange-

steam baths, have

end of the tub

warm water

This

the place of hot and steam baths. is

In

is

some

fitted

into the con-

a makeshift to take

One may

space and use the shower as with the curtain.

are sometimes

or needle bath

made is

to this arrangement,

provided.

It

is

one-

instances,

with a copper-lined

enclosure on three sides, with shower at top. in this

It

the person bathing, leaving only

the head exposed, and discharge the

third of the foot

This

standing.

prevents the splashing of water out of the tub. the curtain, and

this

For that reason the hose and sprinkler has

wetting the head. largely taken

was impossible

;

stand

Additions

wherein the side spray

so called from the needle size

of the streams, which are emitted from certain pipes.

All of

these showers are connected with regulating valves, sS that any desired

temperature of water

adjustment.

In

some very

may be maintained by proper

elaborate bath-rooms showers

provided at the side of the room where there

and marble wall

surface.

is

are

a marble floor

These things are arranged with a


CONVENIENT HOUSES.

258

showing the ingenuity of people who have

multiplicity of detail,

given these matters

much

study,

made

fully

con-

Foot-tubs, with hot and cold water

sidered in this connection.

connections, are

and which cannot be

same material

of the

that

is

used

in

bath-

tubs, but are not considered in the plans furnished in this book,

though they may be used

As

same general purpose. hot and cold water

means is

;

The bath-tub

at will.

connect with

stated, the bath-tubs

they connect with

of one-and-one-half-inch

trapped by means of an " S

"

pipe or drain by

soil

light lead

serve the

will

waste pipe, which

or other trap.

SAFES.

A

safe

simply a lead pan which

is

may be

placed under the

bath-tub, or other enclosed fixture, to guard against accidents

from overflow or leakage.

They

are

made

of

four-pound

sheet lead, and are usually turned up from two to four inches all

around.

The

lead

is

formed

to a bevelled strip at the sides

and end, the

size of the

pan being that of the extreme outside of

the fixture.

There

usually an inch waste connection to the

is

cellar or kitchen sink.

It

would be highly improper

a safe with the drain, trapped or otherwise, as

circumstances

be

in

will

its

to connect

use under any

be occasional, and any water that there might

the trap would be certain to evaporate, and in that

the safe waste would be the

of the drain with the house.

way

means of connecting the foulness Therefore,

it

is

right

and proper

floor.

In that

way, any "discharge therefrom would be readily noticed.

Wastes

that

it

should connect with the sink or the cellar

are frequently placed stands,

modern entirely.

when they

under bath-tubs, generally under wash-

are enclosed, but rarely or never under a

water-closet.

They

are

frequently

dispensed

with


PRACTICAL HOUSE-BUILDING.

259

WATER-CLOSETS. Fig.

7,

page 68,

indicates, in perspective

more common form of water-closet now

The

nothing better has been devised.

nection and general form of the closet flushing It is

and

in section, the

details of the valve conitself,

and the means of

are various, but the general principle

it,

than which

use,

in

is

the same.

nothing more or less than a large bowl having an "

connection with lain ware, in

and

closet,

soil pipe.

one piece.

is

tion with public water service

The

roof.

seat of the closet

at the back,

buffers,

and

rests

provided from a tank above.

is

air

above the

usually supported from the wall

is

on the body of the porcelain, on rubber

which prevent the

of breakage or noise,

liability

Under any circumstances,

falls.

Usually a connec-

connected with the outer

is

trap

The bowl and trap are of white porceThe form, as here shown, is a washout

the one in most general use.

Trap vent, as shown,

S"

if it

water-closets should never be

enclosed.

WASH-STANDS. It

has been said that wash-stands are the most dangerous

fixtures that

go

into a house,

and

for that reason the greatest

The only mate-

care should be observed in their construction. rial

of which

the

should be made

is

bowl proper,

various forms.

The

porcelain.

about fourteen inches

The

for

in diameter.

use

made which have

as

the

bath-tub

circular,

and

However, they are made

in

the

same

It is

"

been named.

Bowls

patent" overflow arrangements

that

have been considered and

usual, however, to use a rubber plug

The top and back of the wash-stand should be of The top should be one and one-eighth inch thick,

and chain. marble.

is

details of their construction differ as greatly

overflows

described elsewhere.

a dwelling-house,

usual form

as those of the other fixtures which have are

in


CONVENIENT HOUSES.

260

counter-sunk, so that the splashed water cannot run from the floor

;

it

to

the back need be only seven-eighths inch thick, and

generally not

more than ten inches

Sometimes

high.

it

may be

The hot and cold water fixtures are nickel-plated usually It is they are made self-closing, to prevent the waste of water. less.

;

necessary that they should be so where city water is

part of the city regulations that

be

self-closinÂŁ.

marble top

is

used.

It

connections of this kind

all

The turned wooden

Wash-stands need not be enclosed below.

may be supported on

iron brackets or

Traps and other drain connections can be

legs of hard wood.

neatly arranged so that their appearance

not in any sense

is

The wash-stand

objectionable in the bath-room or other place.

should have one-and-one-half-inch light lead trapped connection with the drain or

soil pipe.

Generally speaking, ventilated, unless soil

pipe or drain.

and

if

not necessary for the trap to be

is

it

so happen that

it

The

the wash-stand

is

some

it is

distance from the

we know, is always ventilated, some distance from it, it should

soil pipe,

situated

have a direct communication with the outer

Sometimes a pitcher-cock

is

air

above the

placed on the wash-stand

the bath-room to enable the drawing of drinking water

other connections are with the cistern,

it

The

pitcher-cock

is

it

for the

is

in

the

in this

used

for

simply one with a long

neck which extends above the bowl, and pitcher being placed under

when

being assumed

instance that only the water from public water works

drinking purposes.

roof.

is

directed into

purpose of

it,

the

filling.

LAUNDRY FITTINGS. The into a

where.

fittings

for a

simple laundry apparatus, that would go

house of very moderate In this instance

we

will

cost,

have been described

else-

consider only the more elaborate


PRACTICAL HOUSE-BUILDING.

26

They may be

arrangements which have to do with set tubs.

of porcelain or plain cast-iron, of cast-iron porcelain-lined, or

The

of brown glazed earthenware.

porcelain

of the same

is

general character as that mentioned for the bath-tub and sinks,

and

is

The

an expensive and very elegant material.

lined iron tubs are in

more general

are less expensive than those of

porcelain-

use, for the reason that they

all

Brown earthen-

porcelain.

ware tubs are coming to be favorably considered, and are every way satisfactory. material,

Tubs made

where they are

in

of wood,

The

usually have

wooden

with covers, though used, and

porcelain or

and are generally

tubs,

brown earthenware tubs

Sometimes these tubs are provided

rims. it is

usual and preferable that covers be not

The hot

that the water be supplied from above.

and cold water

fixtures

compression cocks,

are nickel-plated

which connect with hot and cold water sources. speaking,

it is

apparatus

for

best,

or other

several pieces, are objectionable.

Those mentioned above are one-piece set three together.

slate,

in

where

set tubs are used, that

heating water be

water heater, of which there are

provided

many

;

Generally

an independent

that

a laundry

is,

and which

different kinds,

are constructed

on the same general principle as the arrange-

ment mentioned

in

heating apparatus.

connection with the kitchen and other waterIt

is

entirely possible, however, to

make

connections with the water-heating apparatus of the kitchen.

The

drain connections are of one-and-one-half-inch light lead,

and are independently trapped main

drain, connecting with

for

They

each tub.

sewer or

lead to the

vault.

OUTSIDE DRAINS. Drains outside of the house should be of earthenware pipe,

laid

below the action of

vitrified

frost,

or glazed

with proper


CONVENIENT HOUSES.

262 slant.

They should be

The

joints.

need be very

slant

eighty feet or less

bedded and have smoothly cemented

well

may be

used.

eighteen

slight,

It

inches

in

especially desirable that

is

the joints be thoroughly cemented, and that they be smooth on the inside, so that the foul matter passing

through the interior

The

any projections.

not lodge against

will

or ends of

surface

the pipe should never be clipped or cut for

connections; " Y's" or " T's

ing-house is

usually

are

or

five

inches

six

diameter.

in

It

quite as important that they be not too large as that they

be large enough.

Where

enough water

bottom

in the

here given will drain

is

common

make

pipe

a to

keep

clear this

it

point.

it is

large,

A

there

The

clean.

not

is

illustration

and eight inch

six

shown with the same quantity of water

in each.

It is

cases of drain connection with a vault that no trap in

in

made, a

and

too

is

the drain or soil pipe itself be used. is

are used for

Drain pipes from a dwell-

connections with other drains.

all

"

vitrified

trap of the

same

Where sewer

connection

size as the drain

is

used;

provided with a trap vent connection with the outer

by means of

vitrified

air

vent and grate opening at the top.

may be made with the main sewer, be made between the house and the trap

Storm-water connections but

it

is

best that they

of main drain.

In this

way

there

is

no danger of the sewer

having connection with the down spouts evaporation connection.

of

the

water

The modern

have independent service connections.

in

the

trap

in

of

the event of the

the

plan of city sewer for

storm-water

systems

is

to

storm water and house drain


PRACTICAL HOUSE-BUILDING.

263

GREASE SINKS.

The grease

sink

is

five barrels capacity. is

lined with brick, It

is

and

is

usually of four or

cemented the same as the

cistern,

generally twenty or twenty-five feet away from the house, and

has a four-inch

drain connection with the waste from

vitrified

may be

the kitchen sink or other sink in which greasy water deposited.

The

main drain or

sink itself has a siphon connection with the

being provided with an iron top, the

vault, and,

deposit of grease or other material In

some instances

may be removed

a sink of this kind

is

if

necessary.

required to be used to

collect all solid matter before the drainage connection passes

from the property.

The

"

S

"

trap only has

been

distinctly

There

mentioned. (

are hundreds of others, principle.

Some

all

constructed upon the same general

are provided with mechanical

means of closing

the opening leading to the source of supply, and, in addition to this,

they are provided with a seal of water depending upon

some form or condition of the "S"

trap.

This principle

invariable in the construction of traps.

No

trap should be used

is

unless provided with a trap screw of the same size as the drain itself, is

not

which

will

admit of

uncommon

its

being opened when necessary.

It

that rings or other jewelry get into the waste

of wash-stand or bath-tub

out the trap screw. clogged, the matter

;

they

may be

recovered by taking

Again, should the trap become fouled or

may be removed

in the

same way.

NICKEL FITTINGS. For the kitchen

sink, nickel fittings are preferable to brass,

because they are more easily cleaned.

1889 Builders Handbook - Plumbing  

Traditional plumbing techniques from an historic 1889 builders’ handbook. 30 pages. 

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