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Contents Field Editorials  Nuclear deterrence is overrated  The importance of the outsider  A task only half finished  Watching the watchmen  The untold story from Uttarakhand  India of 2013 is not the India of 1991  Playing with fire  Keep the pause button on GM pressed  India’s Mars Mission  National Food Security Act – Debate (The Hindu)  Balancing the Juvenile Act Political Watch Economy Watch Techno Watch World Watch Enviro Watch Society Watch

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EDITORIAL‘s

Nuclear deterrence is overrated  The Indian Navy has figured in three recent global items,

 INS Vikrant  Indigenously developed aircraft carrier,  Operational by 2018,  It makes India 5th nation to have such facility after US, Russia, UK, France.  INS Sindhurakshak  A diesel electric submarine,  Recently caught fired and exploded.

     

 INS Arihant  Nuclear powered submarine with underwater ballistic launch facility,  Also known as “Slayer of Enemies”. The strategic rationale is to acquire and consolidate the three legs of land, air and sea based nuclear weapons to underpin the policy of nuclear deterrence. Reasons for the need of nuclear weapons:  To overcome the reigning nuclear risks and dangers. India’s Nuclear policy:  No first use of nuclear weapon,  Nuclear weapons are used only for defensive defence purpose. NPT (Non-Proliferation Treaty):  This treaty bargains non-proliferation, disarmament and peaceful uses of nuclear power is under strain. Core Advantage of nuclear weapons:  It buy immunity for small states against attack by the powerful supreme. (Ex: North Korea against US). Core Disadvantage of nuclear weapons:  It is an inhumane weapon.  It does not help to combat India‘s real threats of Maoist insurgency, terrorism, poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition and corruption. Disinvention thoughts.  Like chemical and biological weapon of mass destruction nuclear weapons too cannot be disinvented. But like them nuclear weapon could be controlled, regulated, restricted and out-lawed under international regime.

Quotes:

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of us‖ – Margaret Thatcher. “The threat of nuclear weapons maintains world peace”.

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 ―A world without nuclear weapons would be less stable and more dangerous for all


The importance of the outsider  The proposed Judicial Appointments Commission, in which judges will be

marginally outnumbered, which makes the selection system more transparent and help to assess professional merit in better way.  The commission will be presided over by Chief Justice of India, two Supreme Court judges. The “non-judges” will be the Prime Minister, the Law Minister, two eminent persons (nominated by the leader of opposition in either house of parliament) and the Justice Secretary (Member Secretary).  Thus all organs of state and citizenry will be represented,  Checks () and Balances ():  Senior bar leaders: The independence of judiciary will be compromised by ―outsider‖ participation,  Bar Council of India (Chairman): we are totally against this National Judicial Appointments Commission Bill, we don‘t want any interference from outsider including executive.  Supreme Court bar association (President): Loading the commission with more members from the executive would curtail the independence of judiciary.  Veteran Judicial suggestion: The collegium system can be improved by making methods of selection more transparent.

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 First reason for the escarpment of collegium system is “the Constitution of India functions under Checks and Balances”,  Judges of superior courts are given the power to strike down laws of Parliament and State legislatures, which in their view violate constitution,  Judiciary also given power to annul amendments to the constitution if they violates the ―Basic Structure‖ (Kesavananda Bharati, 1973),  It is completely undemocratic if the selection of such powerful institution is to be left entirely to a body of men and women concededly learned in the law.  Other democratic nation has the system of “Participatory appointments” except India,  Another reason for the relevancy of outsider is to stabilize the tenure of judges, because several judges like Justice G.B. Pattnaik, Justice J.C. Shah occupied the office for the period of 41 days and as few as 18 days in the case of Justice K.N. Singh.  Quote: “Independence is nice, but with accountability, it is better”.


A task only half finished

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 It is a historic step to amend IPC (Indian Penal Code), to provide for new offences of rape causing death or a vegetative state, sexual intercourse of a person in authority, gang rape, acid attacks, sexual harassment, use of criminal force against women with intent to disrobe, voyeurism and stalking and repeat offences.  More importantly the act also amends IPC to criminalise the failure of public servant to obey directions under law;  It also made the non-treatment of a rape victim by any public or private hospital an offence.  The act also provide amendments to CrPC (Code of Criminal Procedure) like,  To provide for a women officer to record evidence from a woman against whom certain offences have been committed,  If the victim of such offences has been mentally or physically disabled then the women officer must record the evidence at the victim‘s residence or victims place of choice,  Areas to be looked in,.  The Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System (CCTNS) an ambitious Rs.2000 crore project under Home ministry, which would enable the efiling of FIR is expected to be implemented by 2015,  Fast track courts, the trial of offences that were mentioned above must be completed within 2 months from the date of filing the charge sheet,  Another main issue is protecting good Samaritans and jurisdiction.  Model Police Act (2006):  It was drafted by Police Act Drafting Committee (PADC) constituted by Home ministry; the drafting committee was chaired by Mr. Soli Sorabjee,  This act was intended to replace the archaic Indian Police Act (1861),  Aim: To meet challenges of policing by fulfilling the democratic aspirations of modern society.  Key Concepts of Model police act:  Functional autonomy  To remove nexus between police and politicians who treat the police as their personal security service, it also proposes a panel to receive complaints from police officers of pressure from higher officials to commit illegal or unconstitutional acts.  It also proposed a fixed tenure of 2 years to avoid transfers arbitrarily.  Encouraging professionalism  PADC recommends abolition of the rank of constable and replacing it with primary rank of Grade II civil police officer,  Also the lowest level of police officer must have a bachelor degree.  Accountability  Police act proposes criminal penalties for police as such nonregistration of FIRs, unlawful arrest, detention, search and seizure.

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 The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013:


 Jurisdiction  It‘s the underpinning of police act that the notion of police officers should be duty-bound to assist victims irrespective of crime jurisdiction.

Watching the Watchmen The appointment of Defence Secretary Shashi Kant Sharma as the next CAG creates a conflict of interest as he will sit in judgment on his accountability in military procurements made during his tenure

 Union Defence Secretary Shashi Kant Sharma has been appointed the

Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG), replacing Vinod Rai,  While Mr. Sharma is an officer of the highest integrity who enjoys the confidence of the government,  His choice causes deep misgivings about the continued independence of the CAG and the motivations of a government that has been repeatedly chastised by the Supreme Court for failing to respect the autonomy of independent institutions. Perception of impartiality

 Appointing Mr. Sharma as the CAG creates an inevitable conflict of interest and adversely impacts the perception of impartiality.  Nemo judex in causa sua, i.e. no person shall be a judge in his own cause, is a fundamental principle of administrative law that governs conflicts of interest.  Though the CAG is not a judge in law, his task of auditing government accounts, as a matter of principle, requires independence from the government analogous to that enjoyed by a judicial officer. Independence of CAG

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desideratum that influenced the drafters of the Constitution.  Specifically, Dr. Ambedkar felt that the CAG ―is probably the most important officer in the Constitution of India‖ (Constituent Assembly, 30 May 1949).  As the chief enforcer of financial accountability of the government, it was imperative for the CAG to remain independent of the political executive and for the Constitution to demonstrate as such.  This was guaranteed by provisions protecting the salary, tenure and pensions, prohibition on his removal save by impeachment and a bar on post-retirement employment.

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 That the CAG should not just be impartial but be seen to be so was a key


An anomaly

 Since the lack of appointment criteria has meant that the position has led to a turf

war between the Indian Audits and Accounts Service (IAAS) and the Indian Administrative Service (IAS).  Since other independent institutions such as the judiciary and the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) have seen the executive being divested of its unfettered power of appointment. Anachronistic practice

 The government‘s selection of the CAG and the method adopted demonstrate a

concerted pushback to the progressive discourse of accountability that has developed in India today.  Accountability demands that not only must processes of government be transparent; equally the government must publicly justify its decisions.  The appointment of the CAG was a test of the government‘s intentions toward the autonomy of independent institutions — would it respect this autonomy, or continue a long and reprehensible tradition of wrecking them for narrow personal or political gains. Quote: ―To any sensible person, there is only one right answer and it is now obvious.‖

The untold story from Uttarakhand While the focus is on pilgrims, nobody is talking about the fate of boys and men who came from their villages in the Mandakini valley to earn during the yatri season.

 Worst flash floods resulting from extremely intense rainfall swept away

 

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mountainsides, villages and towns, thousands of people, animals, agricultural fields, irrigation canals, domestic water sources, dams, roads, bridges, and buildings — anything that stood in the way. The deluge spread far beyond the Char Dhams — Yamunotri, Gangotri, Kedarnath and Badrinath — to cover the entire State. The catchments of many smaller rivers also witnessed flash floods but the media has yet to report on the destruction there. Official agencies and voluntary organisations have reported devastation from more than 200 villages so far and more affected villages are being reported every day. Villagers whose homes, lands and animals have been swept away by the floods are in a state of shock trying to imagine day-to-day survival without their basic livelihood assets.


Distorted coverage

 The national media‘s focus on the plight of tourists has grossly distorted the true nature of the tragedy even in the Char Dham area. It has not reported on the fate of the thousands — almost all male — who come from the villages in these valleys (and elsewhere) to earn a major part of their families’ annual income on the yatra routes during the tourist season.  Local residents tell of village after village in the Mandakini valley below Kedarnath resounding with wails from homes whose boys and men have not yet returned and are now feared dead.  The tragedy of the families dependent on religious tourism for much of their annual income is compounded by the fact that the yatra season is over for the year, Several thousand Char Dham valley families will now fall below the poverty line.  The media focus almost exclusively on the fate of pilgrims, the scenes of the deluge and its aftermath will linger on in public memory, making the revival of tourism doubtful in the foreseeable future. Not a ‘freak’ incident

 It is important to understand the nature of the rainfall that deluged the State.  Already several voices are arguing that the deluge is a random, ‗freak‘ event.

Odisha’s super cyclone in 1999, torrential rains in Mumbai in 2005, and now the Uttarakhand downpour constitute three clear weather related events in less than 15 years, each causing massive destruction or dislocation in India.  The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have repeatedly warned that extreme weather incidents will become more frequent with global warming. We are already riding the global warming curve. Quote: ―Eco-sensitive development may mean a slower monetary growth rate but a more sustainable and equitable one.‖

India of 2013 is not the India of 1991

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rupee caused by persistent inflation of the past few years and the high current account deficit (CAD) of about $85 billion (4.5 per cent of GDP)  ―Some well known economists on the far right prefer to describe the external sector situation as worse than the 1991 economic crisis India had faced.‖  This section believes that the present crisis may be worse than that of 1991 but the government this time round is much more complacent, and less inclined to implement drastic reforms to revive growth.

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 India‘s present economic woes marked by a rapid fall in the value of the


Then and now

 The world was very different in 1991 when western economies were still strong and   

       

looking outward, trying to deepen the process of economic globalisation. Today, major OECD economies are looking much more inward than before, trying to fix their own domestic economy and polity. Emerging economies like India, which managed to avoid until 2011 the negative impact of the global financial crisis, began to dramatically slowdown after 2011. After 2010, excess global liquidity flowing from the West, the consequent high international oil and commodity prices fed seamlessly into India‘s domestic mismanagement of the supply of key resources such as land, coal, iron ore and critical food items to create a potent cocktail of high inflation and low growth, and a bulging CAD. The key difference between 1991 and 2013 is the availability of global financial flows. In 1991, western finance capital had not significantly penetrated India. Now, a substantial part of western capital is tied to India and other emerging economies where OECD companies have developed a long-term stake. Indeed, some experienced watchers of the global economic scene have said that a recovery in the U.S. will eventually be beneficial for the emerging economies. This basic logic will sink into the financial markets in due course. At present, the prospect of the U.S. Federal Reserve withdrawing some of the liquidity it had poured into the global marketplace is causing emerging market currencies to sharply depreciate. The depreciation of 15 to 20 per cent this year of the currencies in Brazil, South Africa, Turkey, Indonesia and India can be seen partially as a knee-jerk reaction to the smart recovery of the housing market in the U.S. But eventually, a fuller recovery in the U.S. will mean better economic health globally. The U.S. Federal Reserve balance sheet was roughly $890 billion in 2007. It has ballooned to a little over $3 trillion today simply by printing more dollars. Such massive liquidity injection by printing dollars in such a short period is probably unprecedented in American history. This is also unsustainable because sooner rather than later, such excess liquidity could send both inflation and interest rates shooting up in the U.S. — which again may not be good for the rest of the financially connected world.

So what should India learn from the current situation? One, it needs to understand that cheap, finance capital flowing in from the West is a double-edged weapon. If not used judiciously to enhance productivity in the domestic economy, such finance will tend to become an external debt trap. Using natural resources

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allowing higher coal and iron ore production from its large reserves. Our annual coal imports have gone up from roughly $7 billion five years ago to about $18 billion now.  The increased dollar outflow was largely avoidable because India has among the largest coal reserves in Asia.

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 The government can easily generate $20 billion or one per cent of GDP by


 The government must, under a specially regulated dispensation, maybe under the

Supreme Court‘s watch, revive the export of iron ore from Karnataka and Goa where much of the mining has stopped following judicial intervention.

Food security mechanism A more rounded food security mechanism can help insulate the poor from rising food inflation. This can free up the Reserve Bank of India to then look at the manufacturing inflation as a dominant basis for making monetary policy and help ease interest rates for industry. Impacts on Capitalist

 Many big business houses thought they could use cheap, global money to create

financial, not real wealth.  All such companies are today quoting at 80 per cent below their peak values seen in 2010 when the economy was still doing well.  These companies today are in a huge debt trap and their interest payments far exceed their earnings annually. Quote: ―Excessively cheap global money is an illusion which gets shattered in a business downcycle.‖

Playing with fire

   

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because of the sizeable presence in the State of three critical demographic segments — Muslims, Dalits and caste Hindus. It takes but a small incident to start a skirmish, which, depending on the extent of political support, either sputters to a swift end or turns into a full-blown conflagration. Prima facie, the mob frenzy in Muzaffarnagar, which has already claimed over two dozen lives and left hundreds homeless, appears to be a textbook case of engineered violence. The pattern is familiar. Ground reports suggest that the current disturbance has its roots in an August 27 Jat-Muslim clash in Kawal village over a spate of killings involving both communities. This spark developed into a fire, thanks to police inaction, political manipulation and a poisonous video calculatedly pressed into circulation by suspected Hindutva elements. Predictably enough, large-scale violence erupted. And equally predictably, the video turned out to be fake, what was circulated as the actual clip of the August 27 killings was most probably footage shot in Pakistan.

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 Uttar Pradesh has always been vulnerable to communal and caste tensions


 But this is exactly how vested interests, and sometimes even mainstream parties,

operate. A hate-filled VCD had formed part of the BJP’s official campaign material ahead of the 2007 Assembly election.

 The disc, which portrayed Muslims as nation-breakers, and implored Hindus to vote the BJP or find themselves sporting beards and wearing burqas, was withdrawn following an FIR registered by the Election Commission.

 That election was saved by the ECI‘s hawk-like watch over communal and caste

miscreants, leading to the formation of the first majority government in 16 years by the Bahujan Samaj Party.

 In the February 2012 Assembly election, fresh hope came in the form of Akhilesh Yadav who seemed sincere enough with his promise to practise principled politics.

 The promise stands betrayed as can be seen from the Samajwadi Party government‘s admission to at least 27 communal incidents since March 2012.

 As 2014 nears, rival political efforts to fuel and play on the insecurity and fears of Muslims and Hindus are likely to be intensified. The good sense of Uttar Pradesh‘s people will be severely tested in the months ahead.

Keep the pause button on GM pressed Questioning a technology, especially of the kind that has serious unknowns and lacks clear social benefits, is not an attack on science

 Jairam Ramesh, former Environment Minister for India, made the brave decision

in 2010 to tell his then apex regulator of genetically modified organisms (GEAC) that it had failed to properly use available science to determine the safety — to human health and the environment — of Bt brinjal, created using genetic modification (GM). His decision followed careful evaluation of the science.  This decision was validated by the esteemed scientists that made up the Supreme Court Technical Expert Committee who have advised the Court on the need for better research and better process before continuing to release GM crops into the environment or using them as food. Creating confusion

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assault on science. He confuses science with technology. ―Science is the process of knowledge creation (or discovery) whereas technology is the means of knowledge application‖.

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 The evaluation of Bt brinjal and now extending to other kinds of GM plants is an


 There is much knowledge discovered or to be discovered that cannot be applied

wisely — at least not now.  GM plants are among the technologies that have both serious scientific unknowns and lack a clear social benefit — at least for now.  GM has been promised to produce plants that will resist the stresses of drought, heavy metals and salt, that will increase yield, reduce the use of toxic pesticides and even fix their own nitrogen.  GM is an attempt to use ―genetics to overcome the environment.‖ A symptom

 GM products attract the strictest intellectual property (IP) rights instruments possible in agriculture (e.g., process patents).  The use of those instruments concentrates investment and drives out simple but even more effective technologies.  “The gain in agriculture is not as good at making intellectual property, but better for growing food.”  To properly support India‘s mainly small holder farming requires removing the penalties and incentives on the public scientist to develop primarily technologies that bring direct revenue to their institutions. No missed opportunities

 India is not missing out on the benefits of GM. So far, there haven‘t been any

proven to exist, or proven to be sustainable.  GM crops are not designed to increase intrinsic yield and the largest scale and longest term studies bear out that they don‘t yield more.  The cost of GM seeds is the fastest growing expense for U.S. farmers who are simultaneously suffering from weeds resistant to the herbicides excessively used on GM crops and pests resistant to the insecticides over-used in Bt crops.  The science needed to establish their safety exists and is affordable but it must be applied dispassionately and transparently.

 Ignorance, anti-science, ideology and hypocrisy are the insults used to counter

questions about the safety of GM crops coming from scientists and the public.  Pause so that all voices can be heard. Reflect on what the problems are and whether technologies solve them or mask them for a time, or even make them worse later.

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Quote: “Sow the wind, reap a storm” – G. Padmanaban


India’s Mars Mission – PSLV-C25 Slated to be launched by Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C25)

 India‘s launch preparations for the ambitious Rs 450 crore Mars orbiter mission

achieved a major milestone with the successful thermo-vacuum test of the spacecraft with its payloads (scientific instruments).

 It extensively tested the spacecraft under simulated space environment. The spacecraft would now undergo vibration and acoustic tests before being transported from here by month-end to the spaceport of Sriharikota, where the launch campaign has already commenced.

 The spacecraft is slated to be launched by Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLVC25) during October 21-November 19.

 The first stage of PSLV-C25 with strap-ons has already been assembled, with the rocket ready for satellite integration by October 10,

 ISRO said the primary objectives of the mission are ―to demonstrate India’s technological capability to send a satellite to orbit around Mars and conduct meaningful experiments such as looking for signs of life, take pictures of the red planet and study Martian environment”.

 The satellite will carry compact science experiments, totalling a mass of 15 kg.

There will be five instruments to study Martian surface, atmosphere and mineralogy.

 After leaving earth orbit in November, the spacecraft will cruise in deep space for 10 months using its own propulsion system and will reach Mars (Martian transfer trajectory) in September 2014.

 The 1350 kg spacecraft subsequently is planned to enter into a 372 km by 80,000 km elliptical orbit around Mars.

 “We want to look at environment of Mars for various elements like

Deuterium-Hydrogen ratio. We also want to look at other constituents — neutral constituents”, ISRO Chairman K. Radhakrishnan told PTI recently.

 ―There are several things which Mars will tells us, this is what the scientific community thinks about the life on Mars‖, he had said.

 ―Our (Mars mission) experiments are planned in such a way that you can decide

have the ability to look at Mars. In future, certainly, there will be synergy between

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 ―If we succeed (in the mission), it positions India into group of countries who will

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when you want to put on each of these systems,‖ Mr. Radhakrishnan had said.


various countries in such exploration. That‘s taking place. That time India will be a country to be counted‖, he said.

National Food Security Act – Debate (The Hindu)  The National Food Security Bill (NFSB) was originally introduced in Parliament in

December 2011.  The bill was cleared by a parliamentary committee in January.  Lok Sabha on 8th May 2013 failed to pass because of opposite party not supporting the much-hyped National Food Security Bill Aim and Objective of NFSB

 This bill seeks to ensure access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices to people.

 “Food security means the easy availability and access of food at all times in

sufficient quantity in a safe and nutritious form to meet the dietary requirements and food preferences for an active, healthy and productive life.”

PROS:

   

 

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right over subsidised foodgrain to 67 per cent of the population. The bill provide uniform allocation of 5 kg foodgrain (per person) at fixed rate of Rs. 3 (rice), Rs. 2 (wheat) and Rs. 1 (coarse grains) per kg to 75 per cent of the rural population and 50 per cent of the poor in urban India – about 800 million people. Continuance of Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) – Protection to 2.43 crore poorest of poor families under the Antodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) to supply of 35 kg foodgrains per month per family would continue. Nutritional support to pregnant women without limitation are among other changes proposed in the bill. The bill will extend subsidized food to pregnant women and children under the age of 16. It is positive that it is including those who really need nutritious food The Bill proposes meal entitlements to specific groups. These include: pregnant women and lactating mothers, children between the ages of six months and 14 years, malnourished children, disaster affected persons, and destitute, homeless and starving persons. For children in the age group of 6 months to 6 years, the Bill guarantees an ageappropriate meal, free of charge, through the local anganwadi. For children aged 6-14 years, one free mid-day meal shall be provided every day (except on school holidays) in all schools run by local bodies, government and government aided schools, up to Class VIII. For children below six months, ―exclusive breastfeeding shall be promoted‖. Endevours to empower woman- The eldest woman in the household shall be entitled to secure food from the PDS for the entire household.

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 Right to food to become a legal right- The proposed bill aims to provide legal


 Bill seeks to utilize already existing infrastructures like PDS and

aganwadi’s. This has prevented further wastage of money to develop the infrastructures.

CONS:

 Credibility of PDS system- The government intends to use the Public Distribution System for delivering subsidies to the poor. The PDS is already used to deliver food subsidies to the poor but around 51% of the food delivered that way is currently lost to leakages. It is sold on the open market for a higher price.  The government is also considering using Direct Cash Transfers. In cases where the government is not able to make food available in the PDS then they will give cash payments to be used for food directly into people‘s bank accounts. I think here bill is deviating from its purpose. Bill is to provide access to food not money in lieu of food.

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provide subsidized food to 70% Indian population?  What are we going to do in a drought or a flood? The production of rice and wheat might come down dramatically. If we are entering the global market then the global price would shoot up along with the subsidy bill. If this situation prevails and climate change takes, place what is going to happen?  Effect on farmers and producers- The very low prices of the subsidized food will distort the market and farmers who can‘t sell to the government-assured program will lose out on the open market because prices will be forced down. Hence the person who are not poor at present but will become poor in days to come.  How to be implemented? Things are not very clear how it will be initiated. Every district will have a grievance officer who will deal with complaints about implementation at the local level. We don‘t know how that will function but they have the authority to punish people who are not giving out the food. Still the commission under this bill is yet to be set.  Failure to define the beneficiaries are some of the shortcomings of the bill. Also, the scheme does not define the beneficiaries properly. The bill says that States will provide the list of the poor but they have no such records. So, whether it will reach the right persons is hypothetical.  Division among three groups – priority, general and excluded – and adopting a complex, impractical and politically contentious ‗inclusive‘ criteria that too to be provided at later stage.  Not enough resources- Moreover, to implement this scheme, the total estimated annual food grains requirements will be 61.23 million tones and is likely to cost Rs.1,24,724 crore. Given the rising costs of the scheme and rising population, its sustainability is under question. This is a mega program and will require a huge food subsidy. The cost of it will go up from 0.8% of Gross Domestic Product to around 1.1% of GDP. This is a serious increase in a situation where the government does not have enough resources as it is.  Based on schemes which are itself in trial stages- It will be linked to the Aadhar scheme which provides every citizen with a unique identification number that‘s linked to a database that includes the biometrics of all card-holders. Aadhar

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 The cost of food grains is rising globally then how would government be able to


scheme and direct cash transfer both are in their trial stages. So burdening an still developing programme will lead to total failure.  Implementing this bill could widen the already swollen budget deficit next year, increasing the risk to its coveted investment-grade status. The government has already budgeted 900 billion rupees for the scheme in the current fiscal year ending March 2014. If the bill is passed, it will need to come up with as much as 1.3 trillion rupees in 2014/15, adding to a total subsidy burden that already eats up about 2.4 percent of gross domestic product.  Critics say the food bill is little more than an attempt to help Congress, reeling from corruption scandals, win re-election in a vote expected by next May.  Critics argue that eradication of malnutrition needs more than just removal of hunger. Food security is necessary but not sufficient for nutrition security. Suggestions:

 We should have learned lessons from the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural

   

Employment Guarantee Act (which provides 100 days of work to the poor at 100 rupees a day) and strengthened it to make it more effective to help the very poorest. Those who are part of that program should be targeted for this subsidy. Or we could link it to education as they did in Bangladesh where school children and their families were given access to subsidized food. The bill should have included subsidized rates for pulses which for many of the poorest are their only source of protein and highly nutritious. The price of pulses has gone up, making them out of reach for many. We need to reduce the leakages from the distribution system and make it transparent. This bill has transparency provisions but do not provide how this transparency shall be achieved. Community based agricultural programs and teaching about sustainable farming shall enhance production in the country. And this in turn would bring down the prices of various essential commodities and people can be self sufficient themselves. Relieance on government programs would reduce and this would give people a feeling of security and not fear of dependence. For reducing loopholes in PDS system government must take lessons from Chattisgarh government where after the delivery is made to PDS branch, all the beneficiaries get a message though mobiles about the same, so they know about it and reach to PDS branch on time.

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Conclusion- The UPA government is likely to roll out its two flagship initiatives — food security bill and land acquisition, rehabilitation and resettlement bill — through the ordinance route, within this month. One plan is to bring the food bill ordinance next week and the other one between May 22 and 24. This bill is a good initiative but not a sufficient measure. A better food security bill can be there. But still something is better than nothing.


Balancing the Juvenile Act “Young offenders above a certain age who commit violent crimes should be prosecuted as adults”.- Its the voice throughout the nation before quarter year.

 Recently the Juvenile Justice Board (JJB) ordered that the boy who raped Nirbhaya, brutalised her with an iron rod, would go virtually free by sentencing him to only 28 months in a remand home as eight months of the total 36 months’ sentence had already been served.  This order is subject to review by the JJB based on the behaviour of the juvenile during crime, Underlying principle

 The JJ Act was passed in 2000 with the purpose of incorporating into domestic

law India‘s obligations under international law as a signatory of..  The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child of 1989,  The U.N. Standard Minimum Rules for Administration of Juvenile Justice (1985) (known as the ―Beijing Rules‖) and  The U.N. Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty (1990).  These international texts is the legal philosophy that juveniles lack the physical and mental maturity to take responsibility for their crimes, and because their character is not fully developed, they still have the possibility of being rehabilitated.  The JJA creates a juvenile justice system in which persons up to the age of 18 who commit an offence punishable under any law are not subject to imprisonment in the adult justice system but instead will be subject to advice/admonition, counselling, community service, payment of a fine or, at the most, be sent to a remand home for three years.  As per the reports of the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) entitled ―Crime in India 2012‖ records that the total number of rapes committed by juveniles more than doubled from 485 in 2002 to 1149 in 2011. ‘Get tough’ approach

  

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the U.N. Convention, have also faced an increase in violent crimes by juveniles but, unlike India, they have taken action to amend their laws. Most States in the U.S. have enacted a juvenile code of which the main objective is rehabilitation and not punishment. Juveniles appear in juvenile court and not in adult court. Juvenile courts do not have the power to impose punishment and can impose only rehabilitative measures or assistance by government programmes. In most U.S. States, the jurisdiction of juvenile courts is automatically waived when a juvenile above a certain age, usually 13 or 15, commits a violent or other serious crime, and the case is automatically transferred to adult court.  For example, in Indiana, South Dakota and Vermont, children as young as 10 can be tried as adults.

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 Several other countries such as the U.S. and the U.K., which are both signatories to


Youth Court

 Similarly, in the U.K., persons under 18 are tried by a ―Youth Court‖ which is a      

special type of magistrate‘s court for those aged 10-18 years. The Youth Court can issue community sentences, behavioural programmes, reparation orders, youth detention and rehabilitation programmes which last three years. However, for serious crimes like murder or rape, the case starts in Youth Court but is transferred to a Crown Court which is the same as a Sessions Court. The Crown Court can sentence the child for offences of murder committed when the offender was a youth as well as for ―grave crimes‖ including sexual assault and sentence the child to ―indeterminate detention for public protection.‖ The Crown Court can also give ―extended sentence‖ to a minor. In UK if a youth is jointly charged with an adult, the charge is heard and tried by a regular court. Therefore, in both the U.S. and the U.K., juveniles who commit violent crimes such as rape are prosecuted in the same manner as adults.

U.N. convention rules

 U.N. Convention do not prohibit subjecting children/juveniles to the regular criminal justice system under certain circumstances. (below 18 years)  In accordance with the U.N. Convention, the JJ Act could have established an age limit, such as 14 or 16, below which a person could not be deemed to have the capacity to commit an offence. Beijing Rules

 Beijing rules provides that the reaction shall be in proportion to the circumstances and the gravity of the offence as well as the circumstances and needs of the juvenile as well as the needs of society.  Furthermore, personal liberty may be deprived if the juvenile is adjudicated guilty of a serious offence involving violence against another person or persistence in committing other serious offences.  Unlike the U.N. Convention, the Beijing Rules do not fix 18 as the age of a juvenile.  Instead, the Beijing Rules provide for rules applicable to persons between the age of 7 and 18.

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Therefore, India‘s international legal obligations do not prohibit it from amending the JJ Act to provide that persons between the age of 16-18 who are accused of rape, kidnapping and abduction of women and girls will be exempted from the jurisdiction of the JJB and tried in the adult criminal justice system.


 Those in jail to contest elections POLITICAL WATCH

The individuals to whom this scheme will be meant for will be identified by the States using the criteria prescribed by the Union government. An individual under this program will be entitled to 5 kg of rice, wheat or coarse cereals at Rs. 3, Rs. 2 and Re. 1 per kg a month, respectively.

Rajya Sabha passes Representation of the People (Amendment and Validation) Bill, 2013 Contravening Supreme Court order, Rajya Sabha approved a proposal to maintain the right of those in jail to contest polls. The Representation of the People (Amendment and Validation) Bill, 2013, attempts to add a provision to subsection (2) section 62 of the Representation of the People (RP Act) to state that a person cannot cease to be a voter while in detention as his/ her right is only temporarily suspended. The Union Cabinet proposals which will allow

agreed

two

retain their membership during the pendency of their appeals even as they will be barred from voting or drawing a salary.

The two proposals were approved in the form of amendments to the Representation of the People Act. Why this Cabinet?

move

by

the

Union

The move is targeted to negate the two Supreme Court’s verdicts which barred convicted persons and those in jail from contesting elections. The two proposed amendments to Representation of the People Act:

 An MP, MLA or MLC cannot be

disqualified after conviction if he or she files an appeal within 90 days from the date of conviction and such a conviction is stayed by the court. As per the draft bill, a provision added to sub-section (4) of section 8 of the RP Act makes it clear that the convicted member shall continue to take part in proceedings of Parliament or State legislature but he or she shall neither be entitled to vote nor draw a salary and allowances till the appeal or revision is finally decided by the court.

 It adds a provision to sub-section

(2) of section 62 of the RP Act to state that a person cannot cease to

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After a daylong debate, the Lok Sabha finally passed the National Food Security Bill, 2013 that will legitimately entitle 67 % or two-third of India’s population (including 75 % rural and 50 % urban) to get to subsidized grains under the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS).

 Allow convicted MPs and MLAs to

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Food Security Bill 2013 passed in Lok Sabha


be a voter while in detention as his or her right is only temporarily suspended. It further states that as the name of the jailed person continues to be on the electoral rolls he or she also continues to be an elector and can file his nomination for an election. However the Supreme Court of India has accepted to review its own verdict in this regard leaving it to the legislature to fill the lacunae.

The step has come following the death of anti-superstition activist Narendra Dabholkar. A prime supporter of the law, Dabholkar was shot dead in Pune which led to sparking outrage across the state. The Anti-Superstition Bill was first introduced in 1995 in the state legislature and was redrafted at least 29 times. Its clearance was delayed several times due to stiff opposition from various quarters’ especially Hindu groups which claimed it to be “anti-Hindu”.

RTI and Accountability Judicial Appointment Bill.

The Maharashtra government decided to promulgate an Ordinance (Article 213) to enact a long-pending bill to uproot black magic, blind faith and superstitious beliefs.

to provide governance Information response to government

A novel attempt in Election Reforms The Election Commission of India has decided to use Electronic Voting Machines (EVM) for the first time with Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) in the September, 2013 by-poll to the Noksen Assembly constituency in Nagaland.

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Anti- Superstition bill

The portal is a step greater transparency in through the Right to Act which mandates timely citizen’s requests for information.

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The Cabinet approved a bill which proposes replacing the collegium system with a Judicial Appointments Commission wherein the government will have a say in appointment of judges of the Supreme Court and the 24 high courts. The government seeks to set up a panel headed by the Chief Justice of India (CJI) to appoint and transfer senior judges. The other members of the proposed Commission would be two judges of the Supreme Court, the Law Minister, Secretary (Justice) in the Law Ministry as Member Secretary and two eminent persons as members who would be selected by a collegiums comprising prime minister, leader of the opposition and CJI.

The government has launched a portal which will facilitate citizens to file RTI applications online in all central government ministries and departments. The web address of the portal is www.rtionline.gov.in


 The VVPAT system

is a new initiative of the Election Commission of India to ensure free and fair elections.  The VVPT will enable voters to see a printout of their ballot thereby displaying the name, election symbol and serial number of the chosen candidate. However the voter will not be permitted take the printout home.  In case there is a dispute about the voting and a petition is filed, the votes can be tallied electronically and physically with the ballot slips that fall into the compartment.  The cost of each VVPAT manufactured by Bharat Electronic Ltd. (BEL) and Electronics Corporation of India (ECIL) is estimated at about Rs. 12,000. Environmental Governance As per an official data, Sikkim is India’s Greenest State with a forest cover 47.3% of its total geographical area and is more than double the national average of 21 %. The state government has fixed a target of bringing an additional 1,000 hectares of land under forest cover during the 12th Five Year Plan period (2012—17).

The National Waterway (LakhipurBhanga Stretch of the Barak River) Bill, 2013 has been passed by the Rajya Sabha. The Bill aims to develop the 121 km Barak river stretch in Assam as country’s sixth National Waterway that would particularly benefit Assam, Nagaland,Mizoram, Manipur, Trip ura and Arunachal Pradesh by facilitating cargo movement there.

Rajya Sabha passes Registration of Births and Deaths (Amendment) Bill, 2012 According to the Bill, marriages held in India irrespective of the religion of the persons getting married will have to be necessarily registered. Through this bill the Union government is providing a platform to the states which are free to frame their own rules in agreement with their requirements. The government does not favour compulsory registration in cases of live-in relations. The Bill is introduced to protect the women from unnecessary harassment in matrimonial and maintenance cases. It also seeks to provide evidentiary value in the matters of custody of children, right of children born from the wedlock of the two persons whose marriage is registered and the age of the parties to the marriage.

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What is Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail System (VVPAT)?

Infrastructure and Inclusive Growth

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The Government of India amended the Conduct of Election Rules, 1961in order to use VVPAT Systems.


Salient features of the Wildlife Protection Amendment Bill 2013:

 Spending of funds by companies for

 The amended legislation aims to 

ban the use of animal traps except under certain conditions. It also looks forward to engage gram sabhas and gram panchayats in management of protected areas, and to grant hunting rights to hunter-gatherer Scheduled Tribes of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Hunting in national parks and sanctuaries or the alteration of their boundaries should be punished with 5 to 7 years in jail and fine of Rs 5 to 25 lakh as compared to the previous 3 to 7 years in jail and Rs 10,000 fine. The punishment would be 7 years in prison and Rs 30 lakh fine for repeat offenders compared to the previous 3 to 7 years of imprisonment and Rs 25,000 fine now. The amendments are strict against crimes related to sale, purchase and transfer of animals, their parts or products listed in various schedules.

corporate social responsibility (CSR) will be mandatory. Companies are required to spend at least 2 % of their net profit on CSR. The companies will also have to give preference to the local areas of their operation. If the companies are unable to meet CSR norms, they will have to give explanations and may even face penalty. The amended legislation will help to control major source of corporate law-breaking for falsely inducing a person to enter into any agreement with bank or financial institution with a view to get credit facilities. With view of interests of employees, company will have to pay 2 years salary to employees in case it shuts operations. The appointment of auditors for five years shall be subject to ratification by members at every annual general meeting. The limit in respect of maximum number of companies in which a person may be appointed as auditor has been proposed as 20. The maximum number of directors in a private company has been increased from 12 to 15 and which can be increased further by special resolution. The financial year of any company can end only on march 31 and the only exception is for companies which are holding subsidiary of a foreign entity requiring consolidation outside India.

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The Environment and Forests Ministry introduced in the Rajya Sabha major amendments to the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 that seek heavier penalties to check wildlife-related crimes and aim to make Indian laws consistent with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild flora and fauna (CITES).

Key features of companies bill 2012

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Wildlife Protection Amendment Bill 2013 introduced in Rajya Sabha


Govt. approves draft amendments to keep parties outside the purview of RTI act The Govt. referred RTI Amendment Bill 2013 to parliamentary standing committee. Draft amendments to the right to information act (RTI) have been approved by the union cabinet in order to nullify an order of the central information commission (CIC) bringing the 6 national political parties under the ambit of the act. There is a consensus among almost all major political parties to the proposed amendments as they feel that the CIC has exceeded its jurisdiction by passing such an order.

Responding to the petitions by several RTI activists, the CIC had ruled that the national parties have to share details with RTI petitioners on issues related to their funding and the criteria on which they have selected candidates for fighting elections. Why there is opposition to the CIC order? As per the communist party of India (Marxist) on the CIC order which also echoes the sentiments of most of the parties on this issue, to apply the right to information act and demand access to the internal deliberations of the party whether it be on policy matters, organizational decisions or selection of candidates will constitute a serious infringement of inner-party functioning, confidentiality of discussions and undermine the political party system itself. on the concerns of transparency of the funding and finances of political parties, laws already exists under which all political parties are required to submit their accounts to the income tax department and the election commission. already under the rti, the statement of accounts and the finances of the parties are accessible to anyone from the election commission.

States Reorganization Telangana will be India’s 29th state. The UPA coordination committee agreed for the division of the state of Andhra Pradesh. The congress working committee

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criminal liability if they consciously or carelessly omit certain information from their reports.  It has a stipulation that keeps a check on very expensive remunerations for the board of directors and other executives of the companies. This will protect the interest of shareholders as well as employees.  The amended legislation also limits the number of companies an auditor can serve to 20 besides bringing more clarity on criminal liability of auditors.  The proposed legislation would ensure setting up of special courts for speedy trial and stronger steps for transparent corporate governance practices and curb corporate misdoings.

What was the order passed by CIC regarding RTI Act?

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 It makes auditors subject to


 The Union Govt will send the CWC

 

resolution to the state assembly to seek its views after which it will go to the union cabinet. Group of ministers under Antony Committee to address all the issues of Telangana and Seemandhra i.e. the sharing of waters, revenue, land, power, assets and liabilities — is set up. The union cabinet will then ask the union law ministry to draft a bill that will be sent to the Andhra Pradesh assembly. The union home ministry will make adequate provisions, incorporating the suggestions and then the government-approved draft bill will be sent to the president. Parliament will then have to pass the bill in both the houses by a simple majority. Finally it will go back to the president for notification.

As per article 371 (d) which provides special provisions for the state Andhra Pradesh, the union cabinet would examine whether it would remain relevant after the creation of Telangana.

Food Security Bill – Right to Food Key components: Entitles 5 kg of rice, wheat and coarse cereals per month per person at 3,

India will join the select club of nations which guarantee foodgrains to majority of its population. It will be the largest programme of its kind in the world. It is being viewed as the first step towards universalisation of Public Distribution System. It will provide free meals to all the pregnant women as well as lactating mothers during the pregnancy till six months post delivery. Maternity benefit of Rs. 6000 will also be given to pregnant women. Children till the age of 14 years will also be given free meals. The state will pay the food security allowance to the beneficiaries in the event of non-supply of the food grains.

Right to Dignified life Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulation of Street Vending) Bill, 2012 passed in Lok sabha . The bill is aimed at safeguarding rights of urban street vendors from harassment by police, municipal authorities and providing them opportunity to live with dignity. What is the objective of the Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulation of Street Vending) Bill, 2012? Aim: To protect the livelihood rights of street vendors as well as regulate street

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Process to be followed for the formation of Telangana:

2 and 1 Rupees respectively to around 67% of nation’s population.

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pronounced in a common resolution that Telangana will be the new state.


What is Parliament (Prevention of Disqualification) Act, 1959? Section 3 of the Parliament (Prevention of Disqualification) Act, 1959, which has been periodically amended, lists certain offices of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State, which do not disqualify the holders thereof for being chosen as, or for being, a Member of Parliament. Sub-clause (ii) of clause (ba) of section 3 of the Parliament (Prevention of Disqualification) Act, 1959, exempts the Chairperson of the National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes from such disqualification. What these amendments have been made?

 The National Commission for the

Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was divided into two independent Commissions i.e. (i) the National Commission for the Scheduled Castes and (ii) the National Commission for the Scheduled Tribes by the

Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Bill The Lok Sabha passed the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Bill 2012. The Bill prohibits employment of manual scavengers, manual cleaning of sewers and septic tanks without protective equipment and construction of insanitary latrines. It also seeks to

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The Lok sabha passed the Parliament (Prevention of Disqualification) Amendment Bill, 2013 for keeping the chairpersons of National Commissions for the SC and ST out of purview of office of profit.

Constitution (89th Amendment) Act, 2003.  Through this amendment Act, Article 338 of the Constitution was amended and a new article, namely, Article 338A was introduced in the Constitution. With the bifurcation of the National Commission for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, consequential amendments are required in subclause (ii) of clause (ba) of section 3 of the Parliament (Prevention of Disqualification) Act, 1959, so as to exclude the Chairperson of the National Commission for the Scheduled Castes and the Chairperson of the National Commission for the Scheduled Tribes from incurring any disqualification for being chosen as or for being a Member of Parliament.  The Constitution (89th Amendment) Act, 2003, came into force from February 19, 2004 and therefore, it is proposed to give effect to the present amendment from the same date.

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vending through demarcation of vending zones, conditions for and restrictions on street vending.


The employment of manual scavengers, the manual cleaning of sewers and septic tanks without protective equipment, and the construction of insanitary latrines is prohibited. It provides for rehabilitation of manual scavengers and their alternative employment. Each local authority, cantonment board and railway authority is responsible for surveying insanitary latrines within its jurisdiction. They shall also construct a number of sanitary community latrines. Each occupier of insanitary latrines shall be responsible for converting or demolishing the latrine at his own cost. If he fails to do so, the local authority shall convert the latrine and recover the cost from him. The implementing authorities shall be District Magistrate and the local authority. Offences under the Bill shall be cognizable and non-bailable , and may be tried summarily.

Pension Fund Development (PFRDA), 2011

Regulatory Authority

and Bill

This bill aims to regulate the New Pension System (NPS) has been passed in

Salient features: It provides subscribers a wide choice to invest their funds for assured returns by opting for government bonds as well as in other funds depending on their capacity for risk. It allows for withdrawals from the individual pension account subject to the conditions, such as, purpose, frequency and limits, as may be specified by the regulations. It makes the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority a statutory authority. Presently, it has nonstatutory status.

Aadhaar card optional, mandatory: Government

not

What is voluntary/mandatory issue with the Aadhaar cards? A number of pleas have been made in the apex court against decisions of some States to make Aadhaar cards mandatory for a range of activities including salary, Provident Fund disbursals and marriage and property registrations. However, the Centre maintains that Aadhaar Cards are voluntary and not compulsory. Despite the fact that the Aadhaar card is “voluntary� in nature, an order has been

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key points :

the Lok sabha with official amendments. The bill was introduced in the lower house in March 2011 to provide for a statutory regulatory body. Currently the PFRDA has a non-statutory status. The legislation seeks to empower PFRDA to regulate the New Pension System (NPS).

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rehabilitate manual scavengers and provide for their alternative employment.


As per petitioners, the Aadhaar scheme is complete infraction of Fundamental Rights under Articles 14 (right to equality) and 21 (right to life and liberty). Recently, the Maharashtra Government made Aadhaar mandatory for purposes such as registration of marriages and others. However, the Centre holds that the consent of an individual is indispensable for Aadhaar and it has been launched to promote inclusion and benefits of the marginalised sections of society that has no formal identity proof. The Government has been asked by the apex court not to issue the cards to illegal immigrants and not set them as a pre-condition for availing welfare schemes.

Union Cabinet approves draft policy for early childhood care and education Union Cabinet approved the draft policy of the National Early Childhood Care and Education (NECCE) which envisages for establishing guidelines for the standardisation of teaching and learning aids, trained manpower, sanitation and hygiene norms etc. in play schools and day care centres.

The new National Early Childhood Care and Education (NECCE) policy will benefit children in playschools and crèches as it provides for establishing a national council to establish guidelines for the standardisation of teaching and learning aids, trained manpower, sanitation and hygiene norms etc. in these institutions. It will lead to better regulation and monitoring the quality of care and education provided to children at play schools and crèches across the country. The move is expected to directly benefit 158.7 million children who are under the age of 6. The new policy provides for setting standards for the care givers and also set a curriculum framework. It also stipulates the minimum qualification required to be teachers at such centres, which will now have to be registered with the Government under this policy. The policy would be implemented through National and state ECCE Councils but the Union Ministry of Women and Child Development will have the authority to make necessary amendments in it.

Presidential assent to Rajiv Gandhi National Aviation University Act, 2013 The Rajiv Gandhi National Aviation University Bill, 2013 has received the assent of the President of India. It has now been published in the Gazette of India. What the Rajiv Gandhi National Aviation University Bill, 2013 is all about?

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A citizen's corcern:

How would National Early Childhood Care and Education (NECCE) benefit?

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issued by the Registrar of the Bombay High Court in pursuance of an order of the Maharashtra Government that it would be necessary for disbursal of salary of judges and staff also.


President’s assent to Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and Their Rehabilitation Bill, 2013 The Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and Their Rehabilitation Bill, 2013 has received the assent of the President of India. It has now been published in the Gazette of India on September 19, 2013. What are the key points in the bill? According to the Bill:

 The

employment of manual scavengers, the manual cleaning of sewers and septic tanks without protective equipment, and the construction of insanitary latrines is prohibited.

 

manual scavengers and their alternative employment. Each local authority, cantonment board and railway authority is responsible for surveying insanitary latrines within its jurisdiction. They shall also construct a number of sanitary community latrines. Each occupier of insanitary latrines shall be responsible for converting or demolishing the latrine at his own cost. If he fails to do so, the local authority shall convert the latrine and recover the cost from him. The implementing authorities shall be District Magistrate and the local authority. Offences under the Bill shall be cognizable and non-bailable, and may be tried summarily.

Citizens Have Right to Cast Negative Vote: Supreme Court of India The Supreme Court of India on 27 September 2013 held that citizens have the right to reject all candidates contesting an election. The Supreme Court also directed the Election Commission of India to provide none of the above options at the end of the list of candidates contesting an election in a constituency. A bench headed by Chief Justice P Sathasivam while pronouncing the judgment viewed that negative voting

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The university will be an autonomous body under administrative control of the Civil Aviation Ministry. The university would promote aviation studies, training and research and the focus would remain on the emerging areas such as aviation medicine, aviation safety and security, aviation law, aviation science and engineering, aviation history, aviation regulation and policy and aviation management. The University will also be a knowledge partner to safety and security regulators by providing required academic inputs to help them execute their enforcement responsibility better.

 It provides for rehabilitation of

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The Bill envisages to create a central university to be named as Rajiv Gandhi National Aviation University on 26 acre plot at the Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Udaan Academy Rae Bareli in Uttar Pradesh.


would foster purity and vibrancy of election.

Existing Provisions Representation of People Act

It also ensures wide participation as people who are not satisfied with the candidates in the fray would also turn up to express their opinion rejecting contestants.

Under the existing provisions of Section 49(O) of the Representation of People Act, a voter who after coming to a polling booth does not want to cast his vote, has to inform the presiding officer of his intention of not voting, who in turn would make an entry in the relevant rule book after taking the signature of the said elector. It violates the concept of f secret ballot.

While pronouncing the judgment he also talked about democracy. Democracy is all about choices. So, voters will be empowered by this right of negative voting. Negative voting will send a clear signal to political parties and candidates as to what the voters think about them. The bench noted that the concept of negative voting is prevalent in 13 countries. Even in India parliamentarians are given an option to press the button for abstaining while voting takes place in the Parliament.

in

VETRII IAS STUDY CIRCLE UPSC Prelims batch starts on 10th November, Sunday. Admission going on,.

The bench also observed that right to reject candidates in elections is part of fundamental right given by the Constitution in article 19 (freedom of speech and expression).

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Hostel facilities available

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The court passed this order on a Public Interest Litigation(PIL) filed by an NGO, People's Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL), which had submitted that voters be given the right to negative voting.


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ECONOMY WATCH

Forward Markets Commission’s Administrative Control shifted to Finance Ministry

SEBI barred 34 entities of Capital Market for Fraudulent Dealings

The administrative control of Forward Markets Commission (FMC), the chief regulator of Forwards and Futures Commodity Markets in India was transferred to Ministry of Finance following the orders of Government of India.

capital market for fraudulent dealings in the shares of 12 companies.  Sunil Mehta played a key role in creation of fraudulent deals by envisaging the scheme for manipulation of prices and volumes of the selected scrip’s.  The 12 firms include Mavens Biotech, KSL & Industries, KBS Capital Management, Lotus Eye care Hospitals, Panoramic Universal, Asian Star Company, MVL Limited, Rasi Electrodes, Allcargo Global Logistics, Sat Industries, Ushdev International, and Anil Products.

The proposal to this effect was moved in August 2013 in the wake of the alleged scam in the National Spot Exchange Limited (NSEL) of 5600 crore rupees. About Forward (FMC)

   

Markets

Commission

HQ: Mumbai A statutory body Set up in 1953 Under the Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1952.  Overseen by the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, Govt. of India.  Recently, with the decision of Government of India the administrative control of FMC was shifted to Union Finance Ministry.  FMC under its ambit regulated futures trading on 21 commodity bourses that include MCX and NCDEX.

RBI Revised Gold Import Norms to Contain CAD To contain the current account deficit, RBI announced some measures to curb the demand for gold by considering one of the major reasons for widening the current account deficit.

 Supplies of the metal to special economic zones (SEZs) will not be counted as exports to qualify for further purchases from overseas.  As per the existing norms, 20 percent of every lot of imported gold has to be made exclusively available for the purpose of exports.  Gold made available by a nominated agency to units in the SEZ and export oriented units, RBI announced that entities and units in SEZs and EoUs, Premier and Star trading houses are permitted to

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With this decision, the regulators of financial sector like SEBI, RBI, IRDA and PFRDA, all have been brought under one roof and that is Ministry of Finance.

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Earlier, the FMC was under the control of the Department of Consumer Affairs under the Ministry of Food.

 SEBI barred 34 entities from the


 The Reserve Bank of India allowed

 

the Non-Resident Investors including NRIs to purchase shares on the listed entities and on recognized stock exchanges, through a registered broker, if the investor has already acquired and continues to hold control in accordance with SEBI, RBI has also cleared that the inward remittance using the normal banking channels can be used for payment of the transfer of shares to non-residents consequent to purchase. Escrow Accounts (non-interest bearing) maintained in India can also be used to debit the payment. The prices of the transfer of the shares for the non-resident shareholders would be made in accordance to the pricing guidelines mentioned under, FEMA. Till now, the FIIs (Foreign Institutional Investor), QFIs (Qualified Foreign Investors) and NRIs were eligible to invest and acquire the shares on the recognized stock exchanges of India in compliance with the FEMA (Foreign Exchange Management Act) regulations. But the NRIs were not allowed to acquire shares on exchange (bourses) under the FDI Scheme.

Reserve Bank of India has decided to open a forex swap window to meet the entire daily dollar requirements of three public sector oil marketing companies (IOC, HPCL and BPCL). The decision was taken based on the assessment of current market conditions. Under this Forex Swap Facility Reserve Bank will undertake sell/buy of USD-INR forex swaps for fixed tenor with the oil marketing companies through a designated bank. The swap facility gets operationalzed with immediate effect and will remain in place until further notice.

CCEA approved Continuation of Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs on gave its approval for continuing the Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (TUFS) during the 12th Plan period with a major focus on power-looms in accordance with the Budget announcement for the financial year 201314. The major features of the scheme are as following:

 To

promote indigenous manufacturing of the textile machinery,  Interest Reimbursement (IR) on second hand imported shuttle less looms shall be reduced from 5 percent to 2 percent.  Capital subsidy for handloom and silk sectors would be increased from 25 percent to 30 percent.  In addition to this, margin money subsidy cap would be increased from Rs.45 lakh to Rs. 75 lakh in respect of MSME and Jute sectors.

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RBI allowed the Non-Resident Investors to buy Shares under FDI Scheme

RBI introduced Forex Swap Window for Public Sector Oil Marketing Companies

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import gold exclusively for the purpose of exports.  The government aims to bring it down to USD 70 billion in 2013-14 fiscal from 88 billion US Dollar in 2012-13. Gold imports in April-July 2013 rose 87 percent to 383 tonnes.


Crucial issues covered are,.

applicable only for the spinning segment and sectoral caps for all other segments have been removed to enable balanced growth across the value chain.  These features will help induce capital investment in the textile sector to achieve growth in the fibre, yarn, fabric and garment production chain.

         

It will generate 11.5 percent annual growth in volume terms in cloth production and 15 percent in value exports by increasing domestic value addition and technological depth.

Small banks vs. large banks, Universal Banking, Continuous Authorisation, Conversion of UCBs into commercial banks, Consolidation, Presence of Foreign Banks in India, Presence of Indian Banks at International Locations, Government Ownership, Deposit Insurance and resolution, Indicative reorientation of the banking structure.

Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (TUFS) is one of the flagship schemes of the Ministry of Textiles.

RBI imposed Monetary Penalty on 6 Banks for violation of KYC Guidelines

RBI Released the Discussion Paper on ‘Banking Structure in India – The Way Forward’

The Reserve Bank of India imposed monetary penalty of 6 crore 50 lakh rupees on six banks for violation of the Know Your Customer (KYC)/Anti Money Laundering guidelines.

 The paper focuses on certain

building blocks for the reorientation of the banking structure with a view to addressing various issues such as enhancing competition, financing higher growth, providing specialised services and furthering financial inclusion.  The paper also emphasised the need to address the concerns arising out of such changes with a view to managing the trade off for ensuring financial stability.  The paper discussed that the overall thrust of the reorientation is to impart dynamism and flexibility to the evolving banking structure,

Details of Crores)

Penalty

issued:(Values

1

Allahabad Bank

0.50

2

Bank of Maharashtra

0.501

3

Corporation Bank

1.50

4

Dena Bank

2.00

5

IDBI Bank Ltd.

1.00

6

Indian Bank

1.00

in

The RBI has imposed penalties in exercise of powers vested in the Reserve Bank under the provisions of Section 47(A)(1)( c ) read with Section 46(4)(i) of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949. KYC Norms:

 Non-adherence to certain aspects of

Know Your Customer (KYC) norms and Anti Money Laundering (AML)

30

The Reserve Bank of India released the Discussion Paper on ‘Banking Structure in India – The Way Forward’.

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 Sectoral cap of 26 percent will be


 

guidelines like customer identification procedure, risk categorisation, periodical review of risk profiling of account holders and periodical KYC updation. Non-adherence of KYC norms for walk in customers including for sale of third party products, omission in filing of cash transaction reports (CTRs) in respect of some cash transactions Non-adherence to instructions on monitoring of transactions in customer accounts including walkin-customers. Non-adherence to instructions on import of gold on consignment basis. Non-adherence to instructions on permitted credits to Non-resident accounts.

The Apex Bank has however clarified that till now there is no prima facie evidence of money laundering.

What is SLR? SLR stands for Statutory Liquidity Ratio. This term is used by bankers and indicates the minimum percentage of deposits that the bank has to maintain in form of gold, cash or other approved securities. It regulates the credit growth in India. The main objectives for maintaining the SLR ratio are as following:

 To control the expansion of bank

credit. By changing the level of SLR, the Reserve Bank of India can increase or decrease bank credit expansion.  To ensure the solvency of commercial banks.  To compel the commercial banks to invest in government securities like government bonds. If any Indian bank fails to maintain the required level of Statutory Liquidity Ratio, then it becomes liable to pay penalty to Reserve Bank of India.

RBI Further relaxed SLR to provide More Funds to Banks for Lending

The Union Cabinet approved the proposal for setting up of the Tax Administration Reform Commission (TARC) to remove ambiguity and establish a stable and nonadversarial tax administration. About the commission

 The Commission will consist of a

Chairman, two full time members and four part-time members, of which at least two part-time members will be from the private sector.  The Chairman will be an eminent person having wide experience of tax administration and policy making. The two full-time members

31

further relaxed the Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) to provide more funds to banks for lending. This was in view of the losses suffered by banks in their investment portfolio.  RBI asked banks to reduce their hold-to-maturity bond holdings gradually to 23 per cent of deposits;  RBI has now allowed banks to retain those holdings at 24.5 percent.  To further ease rupee volatility, RBI will conduct open market operations of long dated government securities worth 8000 crore rupees.

Union Cabinet approved Setting up of Tax Administration Reform Commission

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 The Reserve Bank of India (RBI)


Reserve Bank of India (RBI) announced that it will sell the government bonds every Monday to check upon the volatility in the foreign exchange market. The decision of selling the bonds is also a part of the measures taken by the RBI to arrest the weakening of rupees.

Foreign Investment Promotion Board Cleared 12 FDI Proposals Worth 343 Crore Rupees The Union Government of India, cleared 12 FDI proposals worth 343 crore rupees, based on the recommendations of Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) In the meanwhile, it did not give approval to the US-based Mylan Inc's proposal for acquiring the Indian Pharma company. The decision on Mylan was kept on hold. DIPP (Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion) is working on finalising the FDI policy on the brown field pharma projects, where the transfer of control is involved.

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) permitted the premature encashment of 8 percent savings (Taxable) Bonds for individual investors who are 60 years and above in age. The facility would be available after a minimum lock-in period of three years from the date of issue of the bond. In case of joint holders, any one of the holders should fulfil the conditions of eligibility. RBI in its notification also clarified that partial encashment of amount invested on a single application will not be permitted. It also directed the Urban CoOperative Banks to stop giving donations to trusts and institutions. Russia Lifted Ban on Import of NonBasmati Rice and Oilseeds from India

 Russia lifted the ban on import of

non-basmati rice from India, which will eventually lead to an increase in the export of non-basmati rise from India.  Russia also lifted the ban on the oilseeds apart from non-basmati rice.  It is important to note that the Russian Federation had imposed ban on these commodities, because of the presence of khapra beetles pest in rice and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts. The International Grain Council (IGC) in the recent past however estimated that the rice export of India in 2013-14 would be 8.5 million tonnes. It is important to note that khapra beetle, also known as Trogoderma granarium. Khapra beetle is one of the most destructive pests of the world found in the stored products as well as seeds.

32

RBI announced Weekly Sale of Government Bonds to Check Fall in Rupee Price

RBI allowed premature encashment of 8% Savings Bonds for Investors above 60

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will be with a background in revenue service pertaining to Income Tax and Central Excise and Customs respectively. The term of the Commission will be 18 months.  The Commission will review the application of tax policies and tax laws in India and recommend measures to strengthen the capacity of the tax system in India that would reflect best global practices.  The Commission will facilitate an efficient tax administrative system that would enhance the tax base as well as tax payer base.


 

of India and Government of Japan decided to expand their bilateral currency swap arrangement from 15 billion US dollars to 50 billion US dollar till 2015. It is expected that this will contribute to the stability of financial markets. Earlier a bilateral swap agreement was signed between the Bank of Japan and the Reserve Bank of India for 15 billion US dollar. This arrangement aimed at addressing possible short-term liquidity mismatches. The currency swap deal would help the Governments of both the nations to work during emergency situation to tackle the Balance of Payments (BoP) problems. On Indian perspective, the arrangement would help in reversing the fears of Indian side in relation to the worsening situations in context of its Current Accounts Deficit (CAD).

RBI issued norms for Currency Swap Window Reserve Bank of India issued norms for currency swap window that the facility of currency swap would be made available to scheduled commercial banks (excluding regional rural banks) for fresh Foreign Currency Non-Resident Bank (FCNRB) deposits, which would be mobilized for a minimum tenure of three years. The Reserve Bank also mentioned that the deposits can be made in any permitted currency, but the swaps would be made available only in dollars.

A foreign exchange agreement between the two institutions for exchange aspects of a loan in one current for equivalent aspects of an equal in net present value loan in another currency is Currency Swap.

The Government notified GAAR (General Anti Avoidance Rules)

 The Union government of India

notified GAAR (General Anti Avoidance Rules).  It seeks to check tax avoidance by investors routing their funds through tax havens.  It will come into effect from 1 April 2016. The GAAR will apply to entities availing tax benefit of at least 3 crore rupees.  It will apply to foreign institutional investors, FIIs that have claimed benefits under any Double Tax Avoidance Agreement (DTAA). Investments made by a non-resident by way of offshore derivative instruments or P-Notes through FIIs, will not be covered by the GAAR provisions.

RBI Banned Zero Percent Interest Rate Schemes for Purchase of Consumer Goods Reserve Bank of India banned zero per cent interest rate schemes for purchase of consumer goods. The decision has taken in order to protect consumer interest. In this regard Reserve Bank of India issued a notification to all the Schedule Commercial Banks and local area banks.

33

 Government

Currency Swap

Page

Currency Swap Arrangement with Japan enhanced to 50 billion US dollar


interest is non-existent and such schemes only serve the purpose of alluring and exploiting vulnerable customers.  Banks should neither resort to any practice that would distort the interest rate structure of a product nor hide any processing fees.  The consumers should not be levied any additional charge for payments made through debit cards.  All banks must stop these practices as they violate the very principle of fair and transparent pricing of products which beholds customer rights and protection, especially, in the more vulnerable retail segment. In the zero percent EMI schemes offered on credit card outstandings, the interest element is often camouflaged and passed on to customer in the form of processing fee.

CCEA approved the Methodology for Coal Block Auction

 Cabinet Committee on Economic

Affairs (CCEA) approved the methodology for auction by competitive bidding of the coal blocks.  The methodology provides for auctioning the fully explored coal blocks and also provides for fast tracking the auction by exploration of regionally explored blocks through up gradation of geological data to a reasonable level of certainty.  The methodology approved by the Government provides for production linked payment on rupee per tonne basis, plus a basic upfront payment of 10% of the intrinsic value of the coal block.

be calculated on the basis of Net Present Value (NPV) of the block arrived at through Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) method.  To benchmark the selling price of coal, the international FoB price from the public indices like Argus/Platts will be used by adjusting it by 15% to provide for inland transport cost which would give the mine mouth price. The new policy also provides for relinquishment of the block without penalty provided, the bidder has carried out minimum work programme stipulated in the agreement. Ministry of Environment and Forest will review the details of the coal blocks and communicate its findings before the blocks are put to auction.

Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs Took Steps For Operationalisation of Infrastructure Debt Funds The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) took some steps to promote the Operationalisation of Infrastructure Debt Funds (IDFs). Steps taken by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA)

 Capping of the annual Guarantee

Fee payable to the Concession Authority at 0.05 percent per annum, of outstanding debt financed by the IDF NBFC (Non Banking Financial Companies) for the first three years of operation of the IDF NBFC.  Now Infrastructure Debt Funds (IDF) will get the status of Public Financial Institutions (PFI). Infrastructure Debt Funds are

34

 The very concept of zero per cent

 The intrinsic value of coal block will

Page

Reserve Bank of India Directives


permitted to file Shelf Prospectus under Section 60 A of the Companies Act, 1956 and access to provisions of the SARFAESI Act, including to the adjudicatory process through Debt Recovery Tribunals.  Post-successful COD PPP (commercial Operation Declaration) projects shall now be eligible for investment by Insurance Companies, Provident Funds (PFs), EPFO, Mutual Funds (MFs), etc.

RBI Announced Committee to Frame Vision for Financial Inclusion The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on 23 September 2013 announced the appointment of a Committee on Comprehensive Financial Services for Small Businesses and Low-Income Households under the Chairmanship of Nachiket Mor, who is a Member on the Central Board of Directors of RBI. Objectives of the Committee

 The 15-member committee has been

can be sponsored by commercial banks and NBFCs in India in which domestic/offshore institutional investors, specially insurance and pension funds can invest through units and bonds issued by the IDFs.  IDFs would essentially act as vehicles for refinancing existing debt of infrastructure companies, thereby creating fresh headroom for banks to lend to fresh infrastructure projects. IDF-NBFCs would take over loans extended to infrastructure projects which are created through the Public Private Partnership (PPP) route and have successfully completed one year of commercial production. Such take-over of loans from banks would be covered by a Tripartite Agreement between the IDF, Concessionaire and the Project Authority for ensuring a compulsory buyout with termination payment in the event of default in repayment by the Concessionaire.

Foundation of MEMU Coach Factory was laid at Bhilwara The foundation stone of Mainline Electrical Multiple Unit (MEMU) Coach Factory was laid on 22 September 2013 at near Rupaheli Station, Bhilwara District, Rajasthan.

35

 IDFs are investment vehicles which

Page

About Infrastructure Debt Funds (IDF)

asked to frame a clear and detailed vision for financial inclusion and financial deepening in India. Committee is to lay down a set of design principles that will guide the development of institutional frameworks and regulation for achieving financial inclusion and financial deepening in India.  Committee will review existing strategies and develop new ones that address specific barriers to progress, and that encourage participants to work swiftly towards achieving full inclusion and financial deepening, consistent with the design principles.  Further, Committee is to develop a comprehensive monitoring framework to track the progress of the financial inclusion and deepening efforts on a nationwide basis.  The committee has been asked to submit its final report by 31 December 2013.


Once operational, this factory will meet the demand of MEMU Coaches on Indian Railways to a large extent. Besides, it will generate direct and indirect employment & give thrust to area development. With establishment of the factory Bhilwara will now have a new identity that of MEMU Coach Factory, besides being a textile city. Entire cost of this factory will be incurred by BHEL. Presently the only source manufacturing of the MEMU coaches is Rail Coach Factory (RCF), Kapurthala of Indian Railways, which has been manufacturing about 112 coaches per year. The new factory in Bhilwara will further facilitate the supply of additional MEMU coaches required by Indian Railways. MEMU Trains MEMU trains are very popular in non suburban sections. These trains are usually used by local commuters to commute from nearby rural areas and small towns to bigger cities for work. They have higher carrying capacity. MEMU trains ensure a better and economical mode of transport for people to commute daily for the livelihood. These trains are more powerful and have faster acceleration and deceleration as compared to conventional trains. This results in less running time resulting in saving of 30

RBI Increased the Repo Rate by 25 Basis Points, MSF Rate Brought Down The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on 20 September 2013 increased the repo rate or the short term lending rate by 25 basis points to 7.5 per cent from 7.25 per cent with immediate effect. This means that the Repo rate has been increased by 0.25 percent. The Governor of RBI, Raghuram Rajan while reviewing the monetary policy for the first time as a Governor, however, brought down the marginal standing facility (MSF) rate by 0.75 per cent to 9.5 per cent. The MSF rate is the one at which the other banks can borrow from the Central Bank. The cash reserve ratio (CRR) remained unchanged at 4 percent. The cash reserve ratio (CRR) is the portion of the deposits which the banks need to maintain in cash with the RBI. The RBI, in the meanwhile, also brought down the minimum daily maintenance of CRR from 99 percent of the requirement to 95 percent with effect from 21 September 2013. All these changes were a part of the monetary policy review for September 2013. The next monetary policy review of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is scheduled for 29 October 2013.

RBI liberalised norms for banks to open branches in Tier I cities Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on 19 September 2013 announced that banks can open their branches in tier 1 centres without taking its permission in each case

36

This factory is a joint effort of Indian Railways, Government of Rajasthan and BHEL. MOU between Ministry of Railways and BHEL was signed for setting up for this factory on 25 February 2013. MOU between Ministry of Railways and Government of Rajasthan for providing 518 acres of land free of cost for setting up for this factory was signed on 21 September 2013.

percent in energy consumption. These trains are equipped with toilet and are vestibuled for greater passenger comfort.

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MEMU Coach Factory had been approved in the Rail Budget 2013-14 at an estimated cost of 800 crore rupees.


by

Reserve

 Banks should open 25 percent of

their branches in a financial year in Un-banked tier-V and tier-VI centers as earlier.  Total number of branches in tier –I center’s can’t exceed the number of branches opened in tier-2 to tier-6 centers during a year.  If the banks are unable to open all tier – 1 branches during that year, they can carry it over for next two years  If the banks unable to open requisite branches in tier- II to tierVI centers for some reason, it should necessary rectify the shortfall in the next financial year. India and Latvia signed agreement on Double Tax Avoidance Agreement The Government of India on 18 September 2013 signed an agreement with Latvia on Double Tax Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income. Latvia is the third Baltic country with which DTAA has been signed by India. Earlier DTAAs were signed with Lithuania and Estonia. The DTAA provides that business profits will be taxable in the source if the activities of an enterprise constitute a permanent establishment (PE) in the source state. The Agreement provides for fixed place of permanent establishment (PE), building site, construction or assembly PE, service PE, Off-shore exploration/exploitation PE and agency PE.

 Dividends, interest and royalties

and fees for technical services income will be taxed both in the country of residence and in the country of source. The low level of withholding rates of taxation for dividend, interest and royalties and fees for technical services (10 percent) will promote greater investments, flow of technology and technical services between India and Latvia.  The Agreement incorporates provisions for effective exchange of information between tax authorities of the two countries in line with latest international standards, including exchange of banking information and supplying of information without recourse to domestic interest.  The Agreement included an article on assistance in collection of taxes. This article also included provision for taking measures of conservancy .The Agreement incorporates antiabuse (limitation of benefits) provisions to ensure that the benefits of the Agreements are availed of by the genuine residents of India and Latvia.  The Agreement will provide tax stability to the residents of India and Latvia. It will also facilitate mutual economic cooperation between India and Latvia. About Double Tax Agreement (DTAA)

Avoidance

Double Tax Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) is a bilateral agreement between two countries. The main objective of DTAA is to avoid taxation of income in both countries (means double taxation of same income).

37

Conditions Imposed Bank of India (RBI)

Double Tax Avoidance Agreement contains following provisions

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.But RBI imposed some conditions to open branches. According to 2011 census Tier I center are those with population above 1 lakh.


The import duty on Silver was also increased from 10 percent to 15 percent. Before the hike in import duty, Reserve Bank of India (RBI) took several steps to limit the imports to meet genuine domestic demands for jewellery and export purposes. Gold jewellery imported during 2012-13 stood at 5.04 billion US Dollar. In the April-June quarter of the current financial year 2012-13, it was 112 million US Dollar. Value of the gold imports decreased to 650 million US Dollar in August 2013 in comparison to 2.2 billion US Dollar in July 2013. The government hiked the import duty on gold August 2013 for the third time in 2013 as a part of the measures to contain the widening current account deficit. The duty on silver and platinum were also increased to 10 per cent in August 2013.Earlier the import duty on gold was hiked from 4 percent to 6 percent in January 2013. India is the largest importer of gold in the world, which is mainly utilised to meet demand from the jewellery industry. Import of gold is mainly responsible for the rise in Current Account Deficit (CAD) and impacts the foreign exchange reserves of the country as well as the value of rupee. Current Account Deficit (CAD) touched a high of 4.8 per cent of GDP in the 2012-13.

Current Account Deficit occurs when a country's total imports of goods, services and transfers are greater than the country's total export of goods, services and transfers.

RBI appealed garlands

against

currency

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on 11 September 2013 appealed the public not to use bank notes for making garlands, decorating pandals and places of worship or for showering on personalities in social events etc. RBI while issuing the appeal explained that using notes in these activities deface the banknotes and shorten their life. Banknotes should be respected as the symbol of the Sovereign and public should not misuse them. People should help in increasing the life span of banknotes. The Reserve Bank of India is taking all measures to supply clean banknotes across the country and urged the members of public to contribute their mite to its efforts in pursuing a clean note policy for the country. There is no specific provision under the Banking Regulation Act, 1949, or under RBI Act, 1934 to check or prevent such misuse of currency notes.

SEBI relaxed KYC norms for foreign investors Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) on 12 September 2013 issued the new Guideline to make Know Your Client requirements (KYC) easy for foreign investors. These guidelines related to registration and disclosure norms for low risk foreign investors.

38

The Union Government of India on 17 September 2013 hiked the import duty on gold from 10 percent to 15 percent. The hike is aimed at protecting the domestic industry.

What is Current Account Deficit?

Page

Union Government of India Hiked the Import Duty on Gold


SEBI classified foreign investors into three categories depending on their risk profile like category I, category II and category III. Category I Category I includes Government and Government related foreign investors such as Foreign Central Banks, Governmental Agencies, Sovereign Wealth Funds, International, Multilateral Organizations and Agencies.

submit proof of identity, proof of address and photographs, submission of the list, identity proof, address proof and photographs for their ultimate beneficial owners. SEBI decision to reclassify foreign investors as per their risk profiles was recommended by a committee headed by former Cabinet secretary K M Chandrasekhar.

Category II Category II includes

 Regulated broad based funds such

  

as Mutual Funds, Investment Trusts, Insurance / Reinsurance Companies. Appropriately regulated entities such as Banks, Asset Management Companies, Investment Managers/ Advisors, Portfolio Managers. Broad based funds whose investment manager is appropriately regulated. University Funds and Pension Funds University related Endowments already registered with SEBI as FII/Sub Account .

Category III Category III includes

 All other eligible foreign investors

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Category I investors have been exempted from submission of documents like financial statements and board resolution papers. Their top management, partners, directors, trustees and authorised signatories would not be required to

39

investing in India under PIS route not eligible under Category I and II such as Endowments, Charitable Societies/Trust, Foundations,  Corporate Bodies, Trusts, Individuals, Family Offices.


TECHNO WATCH

ageing works through a special set of genes that everyone has, the rDNA genes.  The international team found that if we improve the stability of the rDNA genes, which are quite unstable, the lifespan of baker's yeast could be extended. It could help in studying cell ageing.  The scientists tried to understand how the Sir2 gene reduces aging in yeast. Sir2 genes gained prominence as potential human anti-ageing genes with the discovery that resveratrol, a component found in red wine, activates them.  These new results suggest that finding a way to artificially improve rDNA gene stability may delay the ageing process in humans too. Tuberculosis Originated in Humans; Not Animals: Research An international team of researchers led by Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) revealed that the origins of human tuberculosis traced back to the African hunter-gatherers who lived around 70000 years ago. It is important to note that TB is one of the deadliest infectious diseases of humans and it kills 50 percent of the individuals who are left untreated.

The comparison of the genomes of 259 mycobacterium indicated that TB mycobacteria originated around 70000 years ago in Africa. The phylogenetic trees of humans and the TB bacteria had a lot of similarity. The evolutionary paths of TB a well as humans had a striking similarity. The researchers explained that TB bacteria and humans did not emerge in same region of the world but they migrated outside Africa together. Both these, thereafter, expanded across the world. Human expansion is also known as Neolithic Demographic Transition (NDT) period. This NDT is combined with the new human lifestyles which lived in the larger groups as well as village-like structures, which in turn would have created the conditions for human-tohuman transmission of TB.

GSAT–7, India's First Defence Satellite, Successfully Placed in the Geosynchronous Orbit

 India’s

advanced multi-band communication satellite GSAT-7, launched from Kourou, French Guiana, was successfully placed in the Geosynchronous Orbit with an altitude of about 36000 km above Earth’s surface.

40

 A new scientific study showed that

In the developing countries, it is found that even today, TB leads to 1-2 million deaths. The major threat in fighting against the disease is multidrug-resistance.

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Scientists identified Genes Key to Human Longevity


About GSAT–7

 It is an advanced communication satellite that will help by providing low bit rate voice to high bit rate data communication.  Payload of the GSAT–7 is designed to provide communication capabilities to users in distant oceanic regions.  Its solar arrays generate 2900 W of electrical power. What is Geosynchronous Orbit? Geosynchronous Orbit is also abbreviated as GSO. It is the orbit around Earth which has the orbital period of one sidereal day or around 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds. This sidereal day matches the Earth's sidereal rotation period.

Increased Summer:

Researchers revealed that the cardiovascular risks increase in the cold weather. The new multinational study was based on the cross-sectional data of ten studies from more than seven countries. The deaths occurring from cardiovascular disease are more in winter and much lower in summer. The study was therefore undertaken to study the seasonal patterns of the cardiovascular risks. Risk Factors that cardiovascular diseases

lead

to

The researchers, during the study made a comparison of the factors such as waist circumference, BMI, glucose, lipids as well as blood pressure for every season. The entire data was adjusted on the basis of smoking, gender and age. Certain data such as glucose, lipids and BP, were adjusted for the BMI or on whether the patient was on some medication or not. The research team found out that various risk factors were more during January and February, i.e., during the winter season. The systolic blood pressure levels were around 3.5 mmHg lower in the summer months than in the winter on an average. Air Pollution as a factor In yet another related study, it was found out about what relation air pollution had with the heart attacks. Scientists explained that there were no direct links between these two.

41

region of France on the North Atlantic coast of South America.  GSAT-7 was placed in the Geosynchronous Orbit after successfully completing the last of the three orbit-raising manoeuvres commanded from ISRO’s Master Control Facility (MCF) at Hassan.  Later, on the same day, the communication antennae of GSAT7, including the UHF Helix antenna, were deployed successfully. (UHF Ultra High Frequency).  The GSAT-7 Satellite would reach its assigned orbital slot of 74 degree East longitude in the Geostationary Orbit within the next 10 days. It is planned that the communication transponders in UHF, S, C and Ku bands will be switched on.

Cardiovascular Risks During Winter than Research

Page

 French Guiana is an overseas


 Researchers revealed that the way whales reacted to sunlight explained about the ageing process of humans.  Some of the whale species reacted to the sunlight by getting darker in UV exposure, a process which is similar to the way human tans.  Other whales have the capability of protecting themselves from getting tanned by turning their genes on and off.  The research can help in the creation of new anti-ageing treatments in humans. Research on the Blue Whales Blue Whales are biggest creatures that have lived on the Earth. They react to the Sun by enhancing quantity of pigment in the skin, in the same way like humans do. Therefore, the blue whales get tanned in a same way like the human beings do. It is this tan that gives them protection from the sun-burnt DNA.

Scientists discovered new SuperHeavy Element with Atomic Number 115, Ununpentium Scientists from Lund University, Sweden discovered a new super-heavy

The atomic number of the super-heavy element is 115 and is made by combining atoms of calcium americium. The scientists have not named it yet but for time being it will be referred as, Ununpentium. Process of Creation Scientists shot a beam of calcium (with 20 protons) into a thin strip of americium (with 95 protons), for creation of the element, scientists will refer it as Ununpentium (a Greek and Latin combination of the words that represents atomic number of an element, one-onefive). Ununpentium belongs to the group of manmade elements. In 2011, scientists approved three new elements for being added into the Periodic Table with their atomic numbers 110, 111 and 112. and were named Darmstadtium (Ds), Roentgenium (Rg) and Copernicium (Cn), respectively.

NASA Lunar Science Institute Detected the Evidence of Water on Lunar Surface NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI) unveiled about the evidence of water which was locked in the mineral grains on the surface of the moon from unknown source that was present beneath the surface of the Moon. The scientists remotely detected about the presence of magmatic water, using the data from NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument aboard the

42

Sun Burn Response in Whales Can Give Clues to Anti Ageing in Humans: Research

chemical element, which can be a part of the periodic table in the coming future.

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It is important to note that temperature changes as well as air pollution are most reported environmental factors which are responsible for Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI).


The previous studies had shown existence of the magmatic water in the lunar samples which were brought on the Earth by the Apollo program. M3 instrument imaged the lunar impact crater Bullialdus. The Bullialdus lies near lunar equator. The scientists wanted to study this particular area because it would have enabled them to quantify the amount of water in the rocks, in a better form. The central peak of Bullialdus is composed of the kind of rock which forms deep inside the lunar crust and mantle when magma is captured underground. In comparison with its surroundings, it was found that central portion of Bullialdus contained considerable amount of hydroxyl (-OH) - a molecule consisting of one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom. This proved that the rocks in the Bullialdus contained water which had the source somewhere beneath the surface of the Moon. M3 had provided the first mineralogical map of the lunar surface. It had also discovered the water molecules in polar areas of the Moon.

 Surfers Against Sewage (SAS), the charity organisation, with the financial aid of the Environment Agency of UK created an application which allows the surfers and the bathers to get realtime warnings regarding the pollution incidents on the beaches.  This is the free service which enables the user to get the text messages or the alerts regarding the discharge of the storm or the sewage water at around 250 beaches of Wales and England.  The application was created in the backdrop of rising concerns about the sewage spills which can be the major cause of illness for the beachgoers.  The application is available for free download on the Android smartphones as well as iPhone.

Face book and Six other Tech Giants to Launch 'Internet.Org' Social networking giant Facebook joined forces with six other technology giants to launch Internet.org with an aim to make Internet access affordable for people across the globe. Internet.org is an initiative of Facebook and six other technology giants, namely Ericsson, MediaTek, Nokia, Opera, Qualcomm and Samsung. Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook Founder and CEO, will head the partnership that

43

Magmatic water is the water which has the source of origin from within the interior of the moon or on the surface of Moon. The findings represented the first detection of this form of water on the Moon.

Pollution Warning Application for Swimmers and Surfers Launched in UK

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Indian Space Research Organization's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft.


 The inititiave will see the partners

 

 

collaborate on developing lowercost, higher-quality smartphones and deploying Internet access in underserved communities. Internet.org brings together a global partnership that will work to overcome current challenges, The founding members of Internet.org will develop joint projects, share knowledge, and mobilise industry and governments to bring the world online. The partners will focus on developing technologies that make mobile connectivity more affordable and decrease the cost of delivering data to people worldwide. The partners will also work on ways to use less data by improving the efficiency of the apps built. Potential projects include developing data compression tools, enhancing network capabilities to more efficiently handle data, building systems to cache data efficiently and creating frameworks for apps to reduce data usage.

NASA Spacecraft, WISE to be Reactivated to Hunt for Asteroids NASA announced that it’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) will return back to service for three more years in September 2013.

WISE will be brought back to service to help the agency in its efforts to identify the population of potentially hazardous NearEarth objects (NEOs), Aim behind Reactivation of Wise As per the agency a 16 inch telescope along with infrared cameras will be fixed to WISE, which will allow it to study the 150 previously unknown NEOs and characterize their size, albedo and thermal properties. Earlier, WISE mission achieved its mission goals and as NEOWISE extended the science even further in its survey of asteroids. NASA's asteroid initiative will be the first mission to identify, capture and relocate an asteroid. It represents NASA's science, technology and human exploration efforts to achieve President Obama's goal of sending humans to an asteroid by 2025. History of WISE WISE was launched for the first time in December 2009 to look for the glow of celestial heat sources from asteroids, stars and galaxies. During its mission, WISE made about 7500 images every day during its primary mission, this project called NEOWISE, The WISE prime mission was to scan the entire celestial sky in infrared light. It captured objects in space, ranging from

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About Internet.org

WISE is the same spacecraft of NASA, which was placed in hibernation after discovering and characterizing tens of thousands of asteroids throughout the solar system.

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aims to make Internet access available to the next 5 billion people.


Most

The scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology revealed that they created the most precise clock of the world. The ticking rate of this clock varies less than two parts in one quintillion, or ten times better than any clock in the world. Features of the most precise clock of the world

 The clock is made up of the element ytterbium. This element can be used for technological advancements beyond the timekeeping.  The clock can be used for various purposes such as checking temperature, navigation systems as well as magnetic fields.  The co-author of the study which revealed the clock of highperformance timekeeping. Mechanism of the clock

 The mechanical clocks, make use of the pendulum movement in order to keep the time.  The atomic clocks, on the other hand, make use of an electromagnetic signal of light which is emitted at exact frequency, which in turn moves the electrons in cesium atoms.  The scientists built the ytterbium clocks by making use of around 10000 rare-earth atoms which were cooled to 10 microkelvin (10

India's First Marine Eco-Sensitive Zone declared in Gulf of Kutch The Ministry of Environment and Forest declared India's first marine ecosensitive zone around Marine National Park in Gulf of Kutch, Gujarat. This decision prohibits any industrial activity in the area. It will apply stringent environmental regulations in the region for developmental works in 36 villages and 31 rivers flowing into the Arabian Sea. The notification says that land use for recreational, commercial or industrial development will not be permitted in the area except for residential purpose. Mining, including fresh water mining, and release of polluted water and waste will also be prohibited. The ministry even disallowed fishing by trawlers. The ministry has also directed the government to prepare a zonal ecology conservation master after consulting the inhabitants of these 36 villages.

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US Scientists Created the Precise Clock of the World

millionths of a degree above absolute zero). These atoms were then trapped in the optical lattice made out of laser light.  The higher level of stability and precision of the clock is because of the presence of larger numbers of atoms.  In order to extract best performance of any clock, the technicians need to average the current US civilian time standard.

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galaxies faraway to asteroids and comets much closer to Earth.


  

discovered a vast canyon under the ice sheet of Greenland, which was previously unknown. The latest discovered canyon stretches in an area of over 750 kilometers and it up to 800 meters deep. The canyon was discovered by the scientists using an air borne radar data, The hidden valley is longer than the Grand Canyon in Arizona. The canyon spreads from the centre of Greenland up to the northern coastline.

About Greenland Greenland is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Although it is a part of the continent of North America, but politically and culturally it has been associated with Europe (specifically Norway and later Denmark) for more than a millennium. Greenland is a home of one of the Earth’s two major ice sheets, the other one lies in Antarctica. A three-dimensional picture of the bedrock of Greenland was developed by the glaciologists. About Grand Canyon of Arizona The Grand Canyon is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in

The Grand Canyon is 446 km long and up to 29 km wide and attains a depth of over 1800 meters.

Need more study on CO2 effect on Marine Fauna: Researchers

 Researchers highlighted the need of conducting more research on the response of ocean and ocean fauna to the anthropogenic climate change.  As per the research studies, oceans acting as a carbon dioxide sink absorbs a quarter of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, resulting in the formation of Carbonic Acid (H2CO3).  The amount of CO2 observed by the ocean is directly proportional to the increase in the amount of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, leading to formation of more H2CO3, which in turn results in acidification of the ocean. The Three Study Reports 1. The level of adaptability in different organisms and reported that corals and echinoderms (like starfish) faces fear of extinction over a period of time, may be by 2100. Effects on About Corals Calcium Carbonate secreted by these corals helps in creation of the coral reefs (most productive ecosystem). Higher acidification of the ocean and regular warming of climate may harm the

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 Scientists unveiled that they have

the Colorado Plateau of the United States in the State of Arizona.

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Valley wider than Grand Canyon discovered beneath Ice Sheet in Greenland


3. The amount of biogenic emissions of Sulphur compounds like dimethylsulphide. Dimethylsulphide generally plays a major role in cooling the atmosphere as it reduces the amount of solar energy that reaches to earth’s surface and its reduction would increase ocean acidification directly. About Carbonic Acid (H2CO3) and its Role in Ocean Chemistry

 Carbonic acid is the chemical compound with the formula H2CO3.  It is also a name sometimes given to solutions of carbon dioxide in water (carbonated water).  H2CO3 plays an important role in acidification of the ocean water and has lead to shift the pH value of the ocean by about 0.1 units from the pre-industrial levels. Formation of Carbonic Acid

 CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 Carbonic acid is a weak acid and forms two kinds of salts, the carbonates and the bicarbonates.

risk Hills

of of

Scientists from the National Geophysical Research Institute discovered a significantly different structural feature in Uttarakhand hills, which may lead to major earthquake in the region. It is one among the many possibilities of released a stored energy. Government Guidelines Management of Earthquakes

for

Guidelines related to management of risk factors in the areas marked as high seismic zone has been issued by the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). The issued guidelines include:

 Development of new structures in compliance of earthquake resistant building codes,  Planning of new towns as per laws,  Indian standards for earthquake resistant designs have been issued by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Loss of Arctic Sea Leading Greening of the Arctic: Research

to

 Researchers from the University of Alaska Fairbanks's Geophysical Institute, revealed that loss of the Arctic sea was leading to greening of the Arctic.  The declining sea ices as well as warming trends are the factors leading to change of vegetation in the Arctic coastal areas.  Uma Bhatt, a scientist explained that the researchers wanted to find out if the depleting sea ice was the

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2. The ocean worms have developed genetic responses against the climatic change. Response of polychaete worms was studied, which lives around the carbon dioxide-rich volcanic vents off the southern coast of Italy. The study displayed a different genotype (this is the first time that the genetic adaptation of a complex animal species has been figured following its response to climate change).

Scientists identified Earthquake in the Uttarakhand

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formation of the reefs, leading to its extinction over a period of time.


NCAR Report: Australia's Unique Influence on Global Sea Level in 2010–2011 A study titled Australia's Unique Influence on Global Sea Level in 2010– 2011conducted by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) revealed that the world’s ocean level has dropped measurably, due to the excessive

The excessive perspiration was the result coming together of the three atmospheric patterns over the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Whereas, the soil and topographical conditions of Australia prevents running off of almost all perspiration into the ocean. As per the report, the long term trend of rise in the sea-levels due to rise in temperature resulting in melting of ice sheets at poles was temporarily halted during 2010-11. Apart from this, at present more rain is falling over the tropical oceans as a result of which the seas are rising and this has happened due to the snapping back of the atmospheric patterns. Recent trend of Rise in Ocean Water As per the latest reports, the warming of earth has caused rise in the level of ocean water by 3 millimeter annually in past few decades. The rise in the level of sea was caused due to two reasons (a) heat causes water to expand, and (b) water runoff from retreating glaciers and ice sheets. Another reason is the increased rainfall over the tropical continents. They credited La Nina, an atmospheric oscillation as a reason for suppressed rainfall. La Niña cooled tropical surface waters in the eastern Pacific and suppressed rainfall in the region. It also enhanced it over other portions of the tropical Pacific, Africa, South America, and Australia.

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precipitation over Australia in 2010 and 2011.

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factor contributing to greening of the tundra along the coastal areas. This was relatively the new idea. The findings of the study revealed that the loss of sea ice was changing the terrestrial food chain as well as marine food chain. It is also important to note that the disappearance of the sea ice also means that there was a loss of sea ice algae, which in turn meant that there was underpinning of the marine food web. The researchers also explained that the larger planktons were flourishing and that these were more nutrient dense planktons. Above the water level, the loss of sea ice has also destroyed the old ways of animal migration all across the sea. In the meanwhile, it has also opened the new pathways for the marine animals in the other seas. The researchers explained that the depleting sea ice will cause more isolation to the plants and the animals. In case of the farthest north and coldest parts of the Arctic, all of the biomes would be lost without the presence of cooling effects of disappearing summer sea ice.


To measure the difference the researchers used three state-of-the-art instruments for observation, those were:

 NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites: it helped in making detailed measurements of the Earth’s gravitational field and enabled them to monitor changes in the mass of continents.  To measure the temperature and salinity of the upper 6000 feet of ocean the Argo global array of 3000 free-drifting floats was used  To subtract the seasonal variations and estimate the sea level changes globally, satellite-based altimeters were used. These altimeters are calibrated against a network of tide gauges. Seagrass Can be Used for Fighting Climate Change: Study Scientists from the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) explained that seagrass can play a crucial role in fighting against the climate change because the plant is 35 times better in locking the carbon than the rainforests. It is important to note that seagrass meadows used to wrap the coastline of Australia at some point of time.

Scientists also explained that in case the amount of carbon dioxide in atmosphere reach 450 parts per million, then there will only be 50 percent chance for human beings to avoid drought, widespread species extinction as well as famine. Seagrass helps by capturing and storing the carbon by the process of photosynthesis. Seagrass also traps the particles in the water column. Famous seagrass species- Posidonia australis. Seagrass is under threat because of nutrient runoff as well as coastal development. New South Wales alone lost 50 percent of the seagrass, which can cause repercussions for the climate.

Olinguito, a New Mammal Species discovered

 Scientists

of Smithsonian Institution of US have announced a rare discovery of a new species of mammal called the Olinguito.  Olinguito is a reddish-brown animal and is about 14-inches long with an equally long tail and weighs about 2 pounds (0.9 Kg)  Scientists discovered this new animal in the cloud forests of Colombia and Ecuador.  It has been named olinguito and it is the first new species of carnivore to be identified in the Western

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Southern Annular Mode (a climate pattern) coaxed the moisture into interiors of Australia, which caused widespread flooding across the continent.

The seagrass also served as food for turtles and dugongs, habitat for the fish to breed as well as various other ecosystem services like sediment stabilisation and nutrient recycling.

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Earlier, La Nina played a role of cooling the surface waters in the eastern Pacific Ocean and pushing moisture towards the west.


Researchers revealed that one of the most endangered bird species of the world, Puerto Rican parrot, made a comeback in the Puerto Rico territory of the US.

The Mauna Loa in Hawaii was the previous largest volcano on Earth. The massif is located some 2km below the sea. It is located on an underwater plateau known as the Shatsky Rise, about 1600km east of Japan.

The researchers found the wild nest with the eggs of Puerto Rican parrot, the first discovery of this kind in 42 years.

3000 Years Old Stone Shields Excavated by Archeologists from Xinjiang

Though the eggs did not hatch, but it was nothing unusual and it indicated that the captive parrots were procreating in the wild and building nests.

Archeologists from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, excavated a set of stone shields which were used in the sacrifices by nomads in China around 3000 years ago.

Characteristics parrots

of

Puerto

Rican

 The Puerto Rican parrots have red foreheads and turquoise feathers under the wings.  These parrots can grow to around one foot in length.  These parrots are known for their secrecy and mate usually for the life, thereby reproducing just once in a year. Scientists discovered the Single Largest Volcano beneath the Pacific Ocean Scientists discovered the single largest volcano in the world, a dead colossus deep beneath the Pacific Ocean. The single largest volcano is called Tamu Massif. It is 310000 square kilometers in area and can be compared with Mars’ vast

These shields were excavated in the northwest Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The researchers believe that this is a breakthrough for researching the life of ancient nomads.

Urdu Ghazals written by Veer Savarkar during his Jail Term in Andaman found Two Ghazals in Urdu written by freedom fighter, Veer Savarkar during the days of his 11-year imprisonment, in the Andaman Cellular Jail has been discovered by a Dadar based Institute. The ghazals are a part of the notebook kept by Savarkar in the prison and are patriotic in nature. The Ghazals are written in the sublime form of the Urdu Poetry and are written in fluent Urdu.

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Most Endangered Bird Species, Puerto Rican Parrot Made a Comeback in Puerto Rico

Olymus Mons volcano, the largest in the Solar System.

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hemisphere (American continent) in 35 years.


As first part, the notebook includes the pictures of Rama, Krishna, Jesus Christ, Buddha, Shivaji, Lokmanya Tilak, Swami Vivekananda and Mahatma Gandhi, which is just like a scrapbook and the cover used is taken from cover-page of Marathi magazine Chitramay Jagat. About Veer Savarkar

 Vinayak Damodar Savarkar born

on 28 May 1883 in village Bhagur, near Nashik, Maharashtra was a freedom fighter. He was commonly known as Swatantryaveer Savarkar He also was an eminent social reformer, writer, dramatist, poet, historian, political leader and philosopher. He was a pioneer of the movement for religious reform in Hindu culture by doing away the caste system prevalent within it. He coined the term Hindutva. He was the founder of the student societies that included Abhinav Bharat Society and the Free India Society. His published work the Indian War of Independence about the Indian rebellion of 1857 was banned by British authorities. Due to his connection with the revolutionary group India House, he was arrested in 1910, after which he

Voyager-1 Space Probe left the Solar System and entered into Interstellar Space NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft officially became the first human-made object to venture into interstellar space. The 36year-old probe is about 12 billion miles (19 billion kilometers) from our sun. During its journey Voyager 1 has travelled through plasma or ionized gas, present in the space between stars for about one year. At present the Voyager is in the transition region, outside of the solar bubble. This transition region still has evidences of the effects of the sun. A radio signal sent from the voyager takes 17 long hours to reach its receivers on the earth. Launched in 1977, Voyager was sent initially to study the outer planets, but then just kept on going. For the first time, the increased pressure of the interstellar space on the heliosphere (the bubble of charged particles surrounding the sun that reaches far beyond the outer planets) was detected by the Voyager 1 in 2004. Due to the lack of working plasma sensor on Voyager 1 scientists took the

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The notebook is a handmade and its cover has been designed by sticking the jail records together.

was sentenced with two life terms of imprisonment that totalled to fifty years, and was moved to the Cellular Jail in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.  In 1921 after renouncing the revolutionary activities he was released under restrictions after signing a plea for clemency.  The airport at Port Blair the capital of Andaman and Nicobar's has been named as Veer Savarkar International Airport.

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Savarkar was imprisoned from 1910 to 1921, in the Andamans. The notebook that contains, the Urdu Ghazal also includes two Hindi poems


This exceptional oscillations provided clues that the spacecraft was bathed in plasma more than 40 times denser than what they had encountered in the outer layer of the heliosphere. Density of this sort is to be expected in interstellar space. Voyager mission controllers still talk to or receive data from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 every day, though the emitted signals are currently very dim, at about 23 watts - the power of a refrigerator light bulb. History Voyager 1 and its twin, Voyager 2, were launched 16 days apart in 1977. Both spacecraft flew by Jupiter and Saturn. Voyager 2 also flew by Uranus and Neptune. Voyager 2, launched before Voyager 1, is the longest continuously operated spacecraft. It is about 9.5 billion miles (15 billion kilometers) away from our sun. Important Terms to be remembered Interstellar Space: The Interstellar Medium exists in the space and it is a matter that lies between the star systems in a galaxy. This is made up of gas in ionic forms, atomic form and molecular form as well as the dust and cosmic rays. Solar Bubble: It is also termed as the heliosphere and it is the region that has the effect of the sun and acts in the space as a

Solar wind: It is a stream of charged particles that is blown away from the sun and it travels at the Supersonic Speeds like White Arrows. Termination shock: Termination shocks are felt in the space in the areas where sun begin to slow and clash with matter from deep space.

Biocon signed a Pact with CytoSorbents for Sepsis Treatment Therapy Biotechnology major Biocon inked a pact with CytoSorbents Corporation, under which the Bangalore-based firm will have the exclusive commercialization rights for CytoSorb, a novel therapy for the treatment of sepsis, in India and some emerging markets. CytoSorb is a first-in-class therapy that can provide an effective solution to physicians to treat critically ill patients suffering from sepsis.

MoU Signed for Setting up a Centre of Excellence and Ethics at Ajmer A Memorandum of Understanding was signed among three Professional Institutes of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs- the Institute of Company Secretaries of India, the Institute of Cost Accountants of India and the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. The MoU was signed for setting up a Centre of Excellence and Ethics at Ajmer, Rajasthan. Objectives and Purposes of the MoU

ď ƒ Conducting Research and outreach

programmes on Investors Education and Protection, Corporate Governance and the best practices globally followed in the areas of

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After spacecraft's interstellar arrival the plasma around the spacecraft started vibrating like the strings of the violin and the pitch of the oscillations helped the scientists to determine the density of the plasma.

charged particle bubble across the solar system.

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support of the coronal mass ejection (massive burst of solar wind and magnetic fields) that erupted from sun in March 2012 to measure the spacecraft's plasma environment to make a definitive determination of its location.


 

      

Accounting, Cost Management and Corporate Governance. Creating a Knowledge hub Organising of programmes aimed at capacity building through financial literacy and accounting education for the benefit of local population. Student Activities Members Activities Professional Development Activities Research Activities Outreach Activities Workshops and Seminars Other activities in furtherance of the professions of the Professional Institutes. IRNSS

disaster management, tracking of vehicles, guiding hikers and travellers, and visualvoice navigation for drivers. Some of the features of the IRNSS-1A are two solar panels with ultra triple junction solar cells that can generate about 1,660 watts of electrical power, Sun and star sensors as well as gyroscopes to provide orientation. It also carries Corner Cube Retro Reflectors for laser imaging and is endowed with a highly accurate Rubidium atomic clock.

China Launched First Ever Deep UV Laser Device

 The Chinese Academy of Sciences

The PSLV-C22 has placed the IRNSS1A into a sub geosynchronous transfer orbit with a 284-km perigee (nearest point to the Earth) and 20,650 km apogee (farthest point from the Earth). The significance of IRNSS-1A launch With the successful launch, India had entered a new era in space applications. The IRNSS-1A is the first of the proposed seven satellites in the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System, GAGAN. Apart from India, its benefits would extend to a range of 1,500 km in the region. With a mission life of 10 years, it will deliver applications ranging across terrestrial, aerial and marine navigation,

About Deep UV laser device A DUV wave refers to the light wave whose wavelength is shorter than 200nm. Synchrotron radiation and gas discharge are among the main non-coherent light sources to produce DUV lasers. Potassium beryllium fluoro borate (KBBF) is a non-linear optical crystal that can transform laser light into DUV for use in solid state lasers.

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The launch vehicle was a four stage rocket PSLV-C22, and it was launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota.

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India’s first dedicated navigation satellite, the IRNSS-1A, developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation, was successfully put in orbit on July 01, 2013.

(CAS) launched a Deep UltraViolet (DUV) solid-state laser device.  The Deep UV Laser Device would help to detect the biological, chemical agents and explosives.  The device marks the world's firstever output of 1064-nanometer's 6 harmonic frequency multiplication, wavelength to 177.3 nm.  China is the first-ever country in the world to possess such technology.


Deep

UV

Laser

 Improved detection of airborne     

chemical and biological agents. Enhanced detection of explosives and explosive residuals. Significant improvement in the ability to inspect microchips with solid state metrology. Advanced research and development of new semiconductor materials and applications. Deep ultraviolet (UV) light can be used to sterilise bacteria and viruses, To decontaminate drinking water and in fluorescence sensors to detect chemicals.

Karnataka Pharmacist Devised a Ring for Protecting Women against Sexual Assualt Imran Khan, the Karnataka pharmacist devised a protective ring which stings the women assaulter like a honey bee. The new ring is known as Sting Bee silver ring. Imran khan explained that the safety ring can be worn by the women in their right index finger in order to defend themselves from a potential rapist or killer. Features of the Sting Bee silver ring

 The Sting Bee silver ring is said to be a reliable device for self defense.  It has liquid chemical compound (Capsaicin) in the head of the ring, which is released from the micro tank and weakens the offender. It then halts the offender from

 

attacking or assaulting any woman or girl. The ring also has RFID (radio frequency identification) tag on the top most side as well as dual lock mechanism. The dual lock mechanism prevents the misuse of the ring and it can be made out of any safe metal. Imran Khan explained that the device is easily operational as well as tamper-proof. The micro tank which has 0.2ml of the drug (Capsaicin) has the capability of being injected into even 5 people at the same time by unlocking it. It is important to note that trials have been conducted to study the safety of the device on the one who wears the ring and the one on whom it is used. Barring pain, itching, burning sensation and inflammation, the chemical used in the ring is not life-threatening.

What is Capsaicin? Capsaicin is four times hotter than Bhut Jolokia (pepper) and 300 times spicier than Guntur red chillis (from Andhra Pradesh). The Capsaicin stimulates the chemoreceptor nerve endings in skin and then leds to shooting pain which lasts for 45-60 minutes when injected into someone’s body from the micro tank of the ring. Impact of the Device in India Imran Khan, the creator of the device agreed that a ring alone cannot stop the rising crime against women, but it was one of the means for preventing the

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Applications Device


depleted oxygen, leading to suffocating marine life. About the newly developed battery

 Battery is in the size of the D-cell.  The battery comprises of two

village in Hiriyur taluk of Chitradurga district, about 230km from Bangalore.  He is a qualified pharmacist.  He set up IOS (India Operating System) Group with various business interests that also include hospitality.

electrodes, one negative and one positive, and it is pushed into the bottle of wastewater which is filled with the bacteria.  As and when the organic material is consumed by the bacteria, all the microbes accumulate around the electrode which is negative, thereby throwing off the electrons, which are captured by the positive electrode. This process is called fishing for electrons.

US Scientists Developed Battery that Uses Microbes for Turning Sewage into Energy

Craig Criddle, one of the lead authors of the study explained that one can see the microbes making the nanowires in order to dispose off their excess electrons.

 Imran Khan hails from Babbur

A team of US scientists from Stanford University developed a new and better method of making use of the microbes for harnessing the electricity from the wastewater. The US scientists created a new battery for this purpose. The new study revealed that the scientists discovered a new methodology for producing clean energy by making use of the dirty water. The US scientists explained that their new technique can be used at the wastewater treatment facilities as well as for breaking down the organic pollutants in dead zones of the lakes and oceans where the fertilizer runoff has caused

Scientists since a long time have knonw about the microbes, which are also known as exoelectrogenic. These microbes live in the environments which are airless and are also capable of breathing the oxide materials than the oxygen, in order to generate the energy. In the past as well, various research groups have made their efforts for trying various kinds of approaches in order to transform the microbes into biogenerators. However, it has always proven very difficult to harness the energy absolutely freely. The US scientists therefore explained that their new battery model is very simple and

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Who is Imran Khan?

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mishap, primarily in the metro cities such as Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Bangalore. In order to make use of the drug in the ring, a license was secured in the fruit category. At the same time, an application for patenting of the innovative device was filed in India as well as abroad.


But the process still has an added advantage that it can clean the water. This implies that the method can be used for the offsetting some energy which is consumed for treating the wastewater.

The scientists discovered those who avoided severe illness had more CD8 T cells in their blood at the start of the pandemic. What are CD8T cells?

 CD8T cells are a type of virus 

 Scientists of Indian Origin discovered Universal Flu Vaccine A team led by a scientist of Indian origin made a roadmap to develop universal flu vaccine. The influenza virus that causes flu is considered to be one of the world's most rapidly changing organisms. Flu vaccines tend to be ineffective after every season and can’t cure cough, cold and other complications. Therefore, scientists planned new vaccines with new strains of the virus each year. A team led by professor Ajit Lalvani from the National Heart and Lung Institute at Imperial College London used a 2009 pandemic virus strain to analyse why some people appear to resist severe illness, to create the world's first universal flu vaccine. The volunteers were asked to donate blood samples just as the swine flu pandemic was in progress so that their

killing immune cell. A vaccine that stimulates the body to produce more of these cells could be effective at preventing flu viruses, including new strains that infect humans from birds and pigs. The immune system produces these CD8 T cells while responding to usual seasonal flu. Unlike antibodies, they target the core of the virus, which doesn't change, even in new pandemic strains. This provided the blueprint for developing a universal flu vaccine. Scientists planned to stimulate the immune system to make CD8 T cells by vaccination.

The flu vaccines make the immune system produce antibodies that identify structures on the surface of the virus to stop infection with the most common circulating strains. However they have to be replaced each year as new viruses with different surface structures evolve.

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However, the scientists explained that there is less energy potential in the wastewater in comparison to the sun’s rays.

response could be analysed over the next two flu seasons.

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yet very efficient. It can harness around 30 percent of potential energy in wastewater, which is approximately the same rate like the solar panels that are commercially available.


  

of September 2013 that prescribed anti-depressants were associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The researchers analysed the medical studies and concluded that the evidences revealed a connection between the anti-depressants and Type 2 diabetes. Though the two were not directly associated, but it was found in the research that anti-depressants led to an increase in the weight, which in turn was a factor responsible for increased Type 2 diabetes risk. Diabetes is very easily diagnosable with a simple blood test. It is also preventable if a person remains physically active and takes a proper diet. In UK alone, there are around three million people who are diabetic and most of these cases are Type 2 diabetes.

Dextrose Gel Treatment Can Help Reverse Hypoglycaemia in Premature Babies: Research Researchers revealed in the last week of September 2013 that the dose of sugar in the form of gel can help premature babies against the risk of brain damage. This is known as Dextrose gel treatment.

The cost of Dextrose gel treatment is merely 1 Pound per baby and is also simple to administer in comparison with the glucose through the drip. However, there are a lot of babies who need to be admitted in the intensive care as well as given the intravenous glucose. This is done because their blood sugar level remains very low. This condition is medically known as hypoglycaemia. However, despite showing the early positive signs of benefit to the premature babies with low blood sugar level, it is important to note that further research was required for implementation of the treatment.

Nano Medicine for Blood Cancer Developed by Amrita Centre for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine The Kochi-based Amrita Centre for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine on 22 September 2013 announced it’s newly developed a nano-medicine for drugresistant blood cancer. This invention expected to dramatically improve the treatment of drug-resistant Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML), when used in

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 Researchers revealed in the month

It is important to note that around one out of every ten premature baby faces the risk of low blood sugar level, which eventually affects them. If left untreated, it can lead to permanent harm.

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Taking Anti-Depressants Lead to Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Research

The sugar gel should be rubbed in the inside of cheeks and this is proven as the effective and cheapest possible way.


combination with Imatinib, the standard drug for the disease.

The key features of Rajin are as following:

In another significant invention, the institute has devised a mechanism that can effectively prevent recurrence of glioma or brain tumour. This deadly disease affects about four out of every 100000 people in India. The life expectancy of high-grade glioma patients is about one to two years.

 It has 57000 processing cores

Australia unveiled its most powerful super computer Raijin in Canberra on 31 July 2013. Raijin, is named after the Japanese God of thunder and rain. It did cost 45.2 million US dollars to build and will cost 10.85 million US dollars a year to run. Raijin is considered the 27th most powerful computer in the world. The supercomputer can perform the same number of calculations in one hour that 7 billion people with calculators could perform in 20 years. Raijin forms a part of the new National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) facility at the campus. The computer itself is bigger than the size of a house.

A team of doctors at Melbourne IVF and The Royal Melbourne Hospital, in the first week of September 2013, managed to help an infertile woman conceive with the world’s first IVF technology where new eggs were grown in the ovarian tissue and transplanted in woman’s abdomen. The doctors declared that the treatment will revolutionise the fertility treatment. The woman called Vali is now 26 weeks pregnant. Vali was earlier rendered as infertile after her treatment for the ovarian cancer. The team of doctors helped the woman in growing egg follicles and producing two healthy eggs after transplanting her own frozen ovarian tissue into her abdomen. It is important to note that earlier only one baby was born in Australia after the ovarian tissue transplant. Less than 30 babies have been grown like this across the world, but it is for the first time that the tissue was successfully transplanted at a completely different site in a body to where

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Australia unveiled its Most Powerful Super Computer called Raijin

Team of Australian Doctors Created IVF History With Ovarian Tissue Transplant

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Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (a form of blood cancer) annually affects approximately two out of every 100000 Indians. Almost 40 per cent of these cases are resistant to Imatinib. For such patients, treatment options are extremely limited.

which is something like 15000 ordinary personal computers.  It has 160 terabytes of memory which is equal to memory of 40000 ordinary PCs together.  It has 10000 terabytes of disk which is like 10000 ordinary PCs.


it was taken from. Gab Kovacs, the international medical director of Monash IVF, which did first successful Australian ovarian tissue transplant explained that this was a breakthrough treatment. The sample of the ovarian tissue of Vali was extracted from her cancer-free ovary through keyhole surgery. It was then frozen. After seven years, the tissue was grafted on the left and right sides of the front wall of her abdomen. The tissue started functioning after a few months and also produced follicles and two single eggs with the mild dose of hormone treatment. Both these eggs were fertilised, implanted as well as became viable pregnancies.

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Over 1300 women are diagnosed with the ovarian cancer every year in Australia. Of these, 39 percent are under the age of 60 years.


WORLD WATCH

Mr.Karzai’s decision has come after law makers declined to reserve a special seat for Hindus and Sikh through law. The Afghan President has the power to issue legislative decrees when Parliament is on vacation. National Assembly of Afghanistan is bicameral body comprising of two chambers. 1. Wolesi Jirga - House of People (Lower House) - 250 members including designated seat 2. Meshrano Jirga - House of Elders (Upper House) - 102 members The New seat of government has been constructed with Indian Assistance.

Bangladesh cabinet bars 1971 war criminals from voting: Bangladesh cabinet has approved an amendment to the Electoral Poll Act under which war-criminals under the International Crimes Tribunal Act 1973 and the Bangladesh Collaborators Act1972 will be de-franchised with their names dropped from National Voter Diet.

United States has launched an Investigation into Indian Trade Policy: A Federal Agency of United States launched an investigation into the trade policy of India. As the agency has alleged that the Indian Trade Policy has discriminated American Trade and Investment sector A joint senate committee on Finance and the House committee on ways and means requested for investigation named Trade, Investment and Industrial Policies in India, effect on the U.S. Economy USITC will report on policies and measures in India that affect us exports and investment and evaluate the effects of such barriers on US firm and the economy. Process A sample of US firms would be surveyed by the USITC for measurement of the sensitivity if Indian Policies and its impact on US firms. The results of the survey would be based on quantitative

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Afghan President Hamid Karzai issued a historical legislative decree reserving a special seat for minority Sikh and Hindu Afghan nationals in the Lower House of Parliament.

The amendment will be introduced in the forthcoming parliamentary session. Trial of war crimes have been going on in two war crimes Tribunal have so far convicted six war criminals. The Bangladesh Home Minister has also received a list of names of 47 collaborators of Pakistani Army during 1971 Bangladeshi Liberation War.

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Seats for Hindus, Sikhs in lower house of Afghan Parliament:


analysis trade policy effects, investment and US economy.

Joint Border Working Group India - Myanmar.

India announced an aid of 500 crores rupees to Bhutan

India on 28 August 2013 suggested Myanmar to setup a Joint Border Working to address the issues of demarcation of border between the two countries.

Shaheen (Eagle - 2) The Chinese and Pakistani air forces on 28 August 2013 decided to hold a joint exercise in region bordering Pakistan occupied Kashmir. The joint drill will be hold during September 2013 in China’s Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Shaheen - I drill was conducted in Pakistan on March 2011. The Shaheen (Eagle - 2) drill between two close allies is being held ahead of an India-China military exercise planned for November2013. The exercise is codenamed Handin-Hand is expected to field about 150 troops each for the exercise, which is likely to focus on anti terrorism manoeuvres.

IBSA statement on the Middle East Peace Process The Foreign Ministers of India, Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) after consultation agreed on the following statement. IBSA reaffirms that the IsraeliPalestinian conflict remains an urgent and key issue for the Foreign Ministers of India, Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) after consultation agreed on the following statement. IBSA reaffirms that the IsraeliPalestinian conflict remains an urgent and key issue for the international community, the resolution of which is a pre requisite for building a sustainable and lasting peace in Middle East region. They support the mediation efforts undertaken by the US Secretary of State John Kerry and welcomed the announcement of the resumption of direct final status negotiation between Palestinians & Israelis. They hope this renewed efforts will lead to the full and

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During this meet, India announced an aid of 5000 crores rupees. The aid includes economic stimulus package of 500 crores rupees. India also ensured its commitment to install an additional 1000 mega watt of power generating capacity in Bhutan. At present three Indian projects are under process in Bhutan.

This decision was taken following the attempt of construction of a defence post near an un-demarcated border pillar by Myanmar’s Army. -to continue-

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The Bhutanese Prime Minister was on 6 day visit to India. During visit, issues related to political security, development assistance and matters of mutual concern was discussed to strengthen bilateral relations.


Bangladesh developed World’s First Zinc-enriched Rice Variety: Bangladesh government released the world first zinc-enriched rice variety capable of fighting diarrhoea and pneumonia-induced childhood deaths and stunted growth. The Zinc enriched variety named BRRI Dhan-62 is developed by a principle scientific officer at the plant breeding division of Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) It is expected to bring relief to an estimated 44% of Bangladeshi children under five who are at risk of zinc deficiency and consequent stunted growth.

Social security Agreement between Indian & Canada Approved: The Union Cabinet of India approved the social security agreement with Canada. The Agreement will benefit 40 thousand person of Indian Origin in Qubec Province. The Agreement was signed between the two countries in November last year and will come into force in 2014 after completing their legislative procedure.

The government of Brazil liberalized issuing short term work visas. This moves from Brazil government will enable the IT professionals from India to take up their work assignments in Brazil. The government of Brazil announced that anyone who applies for the short term work visas will no longer be required to get clearance from Brazil Labour Ministry. Initially, the person who wanted to work in Brazil for short term had to apply for short term work visa, which in turn allows a person to remain in Brazil for up to 90 days. This short term work visa had to get a note from Brazilian Labour Ministry before being processed. The clearances from this ministry eventually required two months time. With formation of this new law for short term visa, a person can get it in around 10 day in case all documents are perfect.

UAE central Bank issued Advisory regarding the Indian currency: UAE central bank issued Advisory to the banks and money Exchanges in the country to stick to the limits prescribed by the Indian laws regarding the Indian currency to be carried by those who travelling to India. It has also warned that in case of non compliance, penalties including prosecution. Confiscation of money and imprisonment will be enforced

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IBSA also expressed our firm belief that the council should provide sustained support to the peace process and work towards its full and satisfactory completion.

The government of Brazil Liberalized Issuing Short Term Work Visas:

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overdue realization of a two state solution based on 1967 borders.


As per notification issued under the customs and excise act only those people who are residents of India can bring back Indian currency, up to the ceiling of 7500 rupees when returning to India. Others even those Indian Nationals who are not resident of India are prohibited under Indian law to either take any amount of Indian currency from India or to bring it into India. The moves comes close to the heels of counterfeit rupee being seized in UAE and also in Oman.

World Politics

Hun Sen re-elected Minister of Cambodia:

as

Prime

The Prime Minister Hun Sen (61) has ruled the country for 28 years. With this win, his rule has extended for period of another five years in the country.

Election

Julian Assange failed to get elected to Senate after running in Victoria with his Wiki leaks Party garnering just 0.62% of popular Vote. In election campaign main issues were how to tackle economic slowdown, whether to keep tax on Carbon emissions and how to reduce the number of Asylum seeker by boats (refugees).

Australian Procedure:

The ruling Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) of incumbent Prime Minister Hun Sen was re-elected to power after winning the Parliamentary Elections.

Parliamentary Australia:

country and succession of Kevin Rudd of the Labour Party.

Parliamentary

The constitution provides that every member of the House of Representatives, before taking his or her seat, must make and subscribe an oath or affirmation of allegiance before the Governor-General or some person authorized by the Governor-General (who is appointed directly by the Queen on the advice of the respective government).

in

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With this win, Tony Abbott, the leader of the Liberal National Coalition will become the Prime Minister of the

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Australian Liberal Party won the 44th Parliamentary elections. Liberal Party defeated the in Power Labour Party in general elections.


ENVIRO WATCH

World’s largest solar power plant in Rajasthan The Government of indial finalised the project in Rajasthan to have world’s largest solar power plant to generate 4000 MW near sambhar lake in Rajasthan. The proposed project capacity is three times india’s total solar power capacity and run by ajoint venhire of five PSUs BHEL, power Grid Corporation of india, solar energy corporation of india Hidustan salts Limited and Rajasthan Electonics & Instruments Ltd. The first phase of the project which would be 1000 MW is expected to be commissioned in 2016.

India’s First marine Eco-Sensitive zone declared around Marine National Park in Gulf of Kutch

Rajasthan Government get approval to construct wells and draw water from sanctuary The Government of Rajasthan got approval from national board for wildlife (NBWL) to draw waters and to constuct wells in national chamber Gharial sanctuary after assurance from the chief minister, ensuring its conservation The sanctuary spread across 3 stares. Rajasthan, uttar pradesh. It is the home for fish eating gharial a kind of crocodile which lives only in clean waters and used as aritically endangered species. The sanctuary is also home for gangetic dolphins, indian skimmers. The Government approved the initiative to provide free generic Medicines in Government Hospitals. The Government of indian approved free supply of essential

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Alipore zoological garden, formally the oldest zoological park in india, launched a scheme through which zoo animals can be adopted. This is done to create awarness and love for wildlife among the people. By this scheme general public can adopt any zoo animal by paying a specific amount for a year and their names will be enclaved in the zoo

The union Ministry of Environment and forest declared the area of Gulf of Kutch as Marine Eco-sensitive zone and prohibits any insdustrial activity . It will apply stict regulations in the region in 36 villages and 31 rivers flowing into the Arabian sea. It also declared 313 Sq. Km aound the park as and eco-sensitive zone compromising 208 Sq.km land area and remaining in seaside.

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Alipore Zoological garden, Kolkata launched a scheme for adoption of 200 animals.


Indian scientist indentified risk of Earthquake in Uttarkhand due to different structural feature of the area and may hold strain stored energy

Committee recommended compulsory licensing for cancer drugs Committee recommended to Department of Industrial Policy and promotion for compulsary licensing for BMS company’s anti-cancer drug DASATINIB. The drug is used for treating chronic myeloid leukamia. Earlie the committee recommended the same for BAYER’S AG Nexavar an anticancer drug for cheeper prices. WTO’s trade related Aspects of Intellectual properity rights (TRIPS) allows a country to issue compulsory license withour the consent of the innovator for public interest. The cost of Dsannib could reduce form Rs. 1.6 lach to Rs.8000 for a month’s medicine

Most Endangered Bired Species Puerto Rican parrot made a come back in puerto Rican Earlier it was 13, and now around 400 birds by capitive breeding programme. Indian stands at 135th position aming 176 countries by survey conducted by world vision in indicating the gap between health-rich and health poor. Very devesting gap contibuting to the deaths of thousands of children the gap between those who have access to good health and those who dont using four indicators life expect out of pocket expenses health services adoplsent feritling rate and coverage of health sevices india’s neighbours positions are better – Srilank

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Risk of Earthquake in the hills of Uttarkhand

New wildlife Resue Centre AntiDepredation and Disaster Management in Anamalai Tiger Reserve, TamilNadu.

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medecines under the 12th five year plan. Its is to promote rational use of medicines by reducing the consumption of inessential medicines. The scheme is based on TamilNadu model of free medicines produced in bulk directly from manufacture and supplied through it enabled management system.


SOCIETY WATCH

Juvenile Justice act “Exemplary punishment” to Juveniles (those below 18 years of age) involved in heinous crimes, such as rape & murder by amending Juvenile Justice act ( care and profection of children) act,2000 Criminal Amendment Act, 2013:It is the first step in the Long Journey to Ending Voilence against women in India through a criminal Law, police reforms to criminal procedure chnge the mentality of the future generations. Act introduced: 1. Causing grievous hurt through acid attacks. 2. Secual harassment, gangrape 3. Use of Criminal force on a woman crith intent to disrobe. 4. Voyeurism 5. Stalking. The Crime & Criminal tracking Network & System (CCTNS) an ambitions Rs. 2000 crore project of the home ministry Sec.376(rape) Sec.376 A-D

2. Sexual intercourse by a person in authority & gangrape Asaram Supporters beat up TV Crew. Supporters of Asaram Bapu attached a television Crew in Jodhpur, injuring a reporters & Cameraman. The IBN News Crew was trying to film their arrival when they were beaten up. The Indian Journalist union (IJU) Condemned the attach. In a Statement issued in New Delhi, IJU president S.N.Sinha & Secretary general D.Amar Said Unprovoked and brutal assault on Journalist was meant to scare the media and amounted to attack on the freedon of press.

Need to end all acts of Voilence against women Sonia Gandhi said making laws for their empowerment is not enough as they will have to be implemented properly on ground. She said while addressing a gathering at the Launch of the Ahimsa messager Scheme, Under which Volunteers will be Created to spend awareness on Women‟s issue. It is the collective responsibility of all women to initialte this precess of giving equal status to women rights from their homes. Girls too have a right to get education, development and Emplyment as that of the boy in the family.

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The Victim‟s family demands nothing less than Capital punishment. Having been convicted for murder, the statate provides a minimum of life sentence and maximum of death penalty.

1. Covering punishment for causing death/ resulting in persistent Vegetative state of the Victim.

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Delhi gangrape: All four accused Sentenced to death.


Helath Care facilities

Subclaus ‘C’:-

India ready to use mobiles to bridge health care Access gap.

Any email / message causing annoyance or inconvenience is pushable with imprisonment was 2-3 years recommended by committee.

States:- Tamil Nadu, Adhra, Gujarat, Wetsbengal & Chattisgarh. 22% in rural areas were not aware of sms facility. 24% unaware of using this Sevice. Ensuring utilisation, however it would not be possible withour education, empowerment and building trust with the end users. Unequal Status tells on Women’s Nutrition:Indian men growing taller three times as fast as Indian Women (Deator) Younger daughter -in-law in rural joint families have Lower body mass Index and Shorter on Average. Reason: 1. poor sanitation 2. open defacation

Jilted youth held for Creating fake facebook profile of women:Censorship of cyberspace especially Social Media:Major tool was used, Information Technology act, It was recommended by the standing committee on Information Technology in the year 2007 inserted subclause „c‟

- 2008

The Act was amended on the year

Major Recommendatins is, Offences made under the act is cognizible (Police may arrest withour warrant). Not Easy to get bail. Art 19(1)(a) Confers Speech & Expression. Art 19(2)

freedom

of

Reasonable restriction.

Manual Scavenging Central Legislation has provision which only Justify the age-old abominable Practice. Most of them died were Workers in 30months (asphyxiated) when they entered Septic tanks & Sewage Systems. Defecation in open spaces in the absence of toilet facilities has increased the burden of Conservancy workers who are made to clear human waste. But they Continue to live in pathetic conditions. In case of asphyxiation, FiR were reg under 174 of CrPc (death under Suspiciour Circumstances)

Open-defecation (Excretion/Expurgation):It is a String predictor of Child Stunding Poor sanitation is a better predictor of child stunting than calorie consumption. Both sanitation and

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55% (Urban/rural) showed a very strong intent to use mHealth.

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Survey on Mhealth POTENTIAL IN INDIA.


calorie consumption Contribute in different ways to health and well being.

 Nearly 50% people in open

defecation.  According to National family health survey.  It collects data on Underveight Stunted children & adults.  An 10% increase in open defecation is associated with 0.7% increase in stunting. By Census 2011:Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka 40 -50% In India, toilet with flush

In India, Nearly 31% of people doesn‟t have proper sanitation. Each day nearly 1/10th death cause due to poor sanitation. Nearly 450000 death due to diahhorea. (88% childrens) Government spending on health:Nearly India have 6.3% GDP Losses for spending Medial facilities nearly 2 trillion & spending for health. (of total GDP, only 5% for health & Education. Schemes:-

Connected to a piped woter system 10% In Bangladesh, < 10% (open defecate)

(1) Rajive Awas Yojana (RAY) & National Urban Livelihood Mission (NULM)

SANITATION:

-Ministry of housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation

“One gram of faeces potentially contain 10 million Virus, 1 million bacteria, 1000 parasites and 100 warm Eggs.”

Legal empowerment by giving Longterm lease hold right to slum dwellers.

In additiona, the poorest 20% of households living in urvan areas bore the highest per capita economic impacts of inadequate sanitation Govt. Initiate Programme:Central Rural sanitation programme started in 1986. It was renamed as total sanitation program in 1999. It covers, Individual household Latrines, Anganwadi toilets, &

Urban poor enabled to get subsidied credit for housing through Rajive Rin Youjan (RRY). Access to Employement through skill development and subsidied credit. (2) Rajive Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY) A Programme to bridge the urban rural gap & Provide reliable & Quality Power to rural india.

hygiene

Community sanitary complex.

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sanitation

house

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School education,

Capital subsidy for sonstruction in selected slums.


Current affairs Sep 2013 - Vetrii IAS Study Circle