Page 1


T H E VEGAN SOCIETY Founded. November,

1944

A D V O C A T E S t h a t man's food should be derived from fruits, nuts, vegetables and grains, a n d E N C O U R A G E S the use gf alternatives to all products of animal origin.

Minimum

subscription,

6d. per a n n u m , which includes " T h e Life Membership, £7 7s. Od.

Honorary HILDA

Secretary

:

HONEYSETT,

Ewell.

Honorary

Treasurer

Surrey.

:

EVE ROWLAND.

. T o r q u a y . Devon.

THE VEGAN JOURNAL OF THE VEGAN Editor:

SOCIETY

VERA STANLEY A L D E R ,

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London,

S.W.I.

Manager : Mr. JACK SANDERSON, S.W.10.

LOCAL V E G A N LONDON—Mr.

Donald

YORKSHIRE.—Miss N r . Leeds. MIDLANDS.—Mr. War. BRISTOL.—Mrs.

Vegan."

GROUPS AND

Cross,

Stella

. London,

SECRETARIES Hatch

Rex.

.

Hughes,

,

M A N C H E S T E R . — M i s s . A n n E. O w e n s , SCOTTISH SECTION—Miss Liberton, E d i n b u r g h . 9.

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Knowle,

Bristol

4

, Northenden Sutherland,

(Please communicate with your nearest G r o u p

Secretary).


T H E

V E G A N

Journal Vol. VIII.

of The Vegan

Society

SPRING, 1952

No. 1

EASTER MESSAGE T ^ A S T E R T I D E holds before us the mysteries of rebirth, resurrec'' tion and renewal. But we cannot enjoy these experiences without first meeting with death—or the elimination of that which is outworn. So Easter also symbolises the importance of death in our lives. It has been said that one cannot truly live until one knows how to die every moment. This seems to emphasise the need for the capacity for " letting go for learning not to cling to any crutches in the form • of habits of thought or habits of living. As soon as we have the courage and the understanding to free ourselves from our habitual ruts, something new can happen to us. W e can receive a new vision, a new desire, and a new energy. W e can take a deep new spiritual breath. Only that which is emptied can be refilled. All life is in a constantly fluidic state of change and renewal. It is only the materialistic minds of men which often demonstrate a rigid crystallisation into outworn ideas and monotonous repetitions. That is why it has been said that " the mind is the enemy of the real Let us, therefore, be adventurous, escaping from our ruts, suffering the death from moment to moment of all our pet mental crutches, so that there shall be a constant renewal and rebirth within us, a constant resurrection of that inner reality which we have submerged under materialistic encrustations. So shall we keep the spirit of Easter with us always. So, as we watch the divine reality emerging on all sides in the green bud of the tree, and the egg of bird and insect, shall we feel it moving to life also within our own hearts. This state of living renewal is surely of particular importance to vegans, who are involved in the great adventure of the rebirth in purer form of every cell in their bodies. This must take place concurrently with rebirth in every one of their mind cells, too! Our intriguing task is to see that this dual resurrection is carried forward as one whole procedure, thereby avoiding those strains, stresses and disharmonies within the personality which produce disease, and are


1

THE VEGAN 15.

due to unequal development of the various parts of man. For the bodily cells are the exteriorisation of the mind cells ; and the quality of the mind cells depends, does it not, upon how much the ego leans towards the spiritual (or noble) side of life. For it is the spirit within all things which disintegrates the old forms in order to bring forth the new. So that, next to its more sacred meanings, V.S.A. Easter symbolises Progress.

EDITORIAL S your new Editor, I would like to make my bow to you, and give you the reasons why it seems to me a privilege to serve you all. The first reason is my admiration for pioneers who live their beliefs, which is surely what the vegans are bravely trying to do! There are many groups who preach and teach about the good life, but shy away when faced with the issues involved. The vegans are not like this. W i t h considerable personal sacrifice and patient application they are intending to demonstrate their faith and put it to the proof. And I say : " God bless them and may they triumph! The second reason why I recognise the importance of veganism is that I am one of those who can foresee what will be its impact upon the outworn attitude towards the world food problem and world economies which is holding up progress at this time. Surely the vegans, with their motto of " LIVING W I T H O U T EXPLOITATION hold the key to a new and " golden " age ? It seems to me that the vegan principle is nothing more nor less than the expression of real spirituality-in-action, demonstrating that true harmlessness which is advocated by all the great religions. Surely it embodies the very essence of religion, shorn of sect, creed or orthodoxy, a reality-in-living instead of a theory. To-day the great principle of the new age is emerging—the principle of UNITY, and of synthesis. Progressive people must be able to tune in to this principle and move with the times. W e should recognise that veganism is but one rung on the long ladder of progress, and that vegans must learn to merge with and support the rung above and the rung below. Let us remember that all life is in a state of flux, that even mathematics are not constant, that all evolutionary phases overlap, and that if veganism is to become a living organism in the World Body, it must be ever-changing, blending and progressing. Therefore, do not let us be " tolerant " of those who are on a different rung of the ladder to ourselves. The very word is an impertinence ! Let us accept all unquestioningly as a necessary part of the divine pattern, and be concerned only with our own realisation. Realisation is more important than action. If realisation is right and permanent, action will look after itself. That is why we are told


THE VEGAN 15.

to " seek first the Kingdom of Heaven If we keep our high goal enthroned in our hearts, all outer details will then be taken care of in their own good time. Let me give you my own pet personal vision! I believe that when man stops slaughtering, trapping and exploiting animals, the mental vibration with which he enwraps the earth will undergo a radical change. I believe that the animals, which absorb and use these vibrations to build their own embryonic minds, will then cease to prey upon each other. In a world thus freed from danger, the birthrate of both animal and man will adjust itself to a high-grade minimum, because the law of survival of the fittest will no longer hold sway. When man ceases to be a beast of prey, and becomes instead the Lord of Creation, he will exercise his guardianship over all the kingdoms, studying nature's wonderful plan, in order to restore the widespread damage and confusion which he has hitherto caused. This will entail the world-wide cure of soil erosion through the planting of trees, which, in its turn, will give to the world a more clement climate, and the possibility of living in radiant health through the bounty of that lord of the plant kingdom, the tree. For the tree can supply practically all of mans needs, and produces the fertile soil and the suspended moisture which are the fundamental foundations for life on earth. Therefore it seems to me that the first thing for a practical vegan to become is tree-conscious. I wonder if you agree with me ? If you do, then let us join hands with all like-minded people in a thrilling adventure of reclothing mother Earth with her natural prolific covering of trees. Let us be the P E A C E M A K E R S in the true sense of the word. Men cannot make peace with each other, so long as they are making war on the other kingdoms of nature. Let us cease our warfare against the soil, against the trees, against the animals! Let us proclaim the G R E A T PEACE with Nature herself. YOUR

Our

EDITOR.

Policy

hope to make this Magazine so interesting that it will spread the vegan principles far and wide. With this in view we will try to bring out our issues in the following way : — W e plan for the Easter number to come out well before Easter, so that those who like to help can give further copies away to their friends as Easter greetings. The summer number will be a " holiday number " and will contain much of value for the holiday season, giving news from abroad, and hospitality information for vegans everywhere. W e hope this number especially will link friends up around the world.


4

THE VEGAN 15.

The autumn issue will be the harvest number. W e will try to give you much information about harvesting, drying and storing the fruits of the earth, making wines and cordials. The winter issue will be our Christmas number. It will concentrate more on indoor occupations and interesting handicrafts. W e hope it will be used as a fitting Christmas and New Year's greeting gift. In this way our Magazine can become a little living messenger, spreading the vegan ideal in a quiet, friendly way, and we know we can count on you all to speed the little messenger far and wide.

TREE PEN FRIENDSHIPS T F we are to ask ourselves what is the most practical and necessary activity needed in the world to-day, surely the answer would be the P L A N T I N G OF TREES ? To the vegans especially, who are working to inspire the future generations towards right living, it should be part of that task to ensure that when the next generation is ready the trees will be there! There is no time to be lost. As we have just pointed out, from the tree we can obtain practically all our needs: food, drink, clothes, medicine, building material, a clement climate and the cure of soil erosion. Surely there is a call here for a thrilling campaign in which we can all join ? No one who cares need be left out. All can share in the magical and entrancing work of growing trees. Those living in towns can grow baby fruit and nut trees in their window boxes, or even in pots, giving them every personal care. W h e n old enough the tiny trees can be sent to pen friends in the country who have a garden ready to receive them. In this way we can all plan for every garden to have its walnut tree, its sweet chestnut, its peach and its cherry, its fig and its vine. If the garden is too small for the bigger trees, then we can plant them in the roads. Let us plant so many that there will be enough provender for the animals, the birds, the insects and ourselves! Will those of you who can join in this simple crusade let us have your addresses, mentioning whether you have a window sill or a garden! And what pen friendships you would like, and we will do the best we can. W e will also give information in future issues as to tree culture. Let us see how many new trees we can offer, to future vegans as the years go by.

SUBSCRIPTION

RENEWAL

In order to simplify the records, all subscriptions are now due on January 1st. (A prompt response is urgently requested.)


15.

THE VEGAN

Easter

Triumph

TTSTHEN first the world began, * * How happy that first man, W h o lived on fruit and nuts and took his ease ; He delved whilst mild Eve span ; With neither pot nor pan They ate the food that fell from swaying trees. All creatures there were brother T o man and to each other, No beast of prey devoured the hapless lamb ; Until, to please his palate, Man fashioned a rough mallet, And slew the first amazed and frightened ram. T w a s thus man fell from grace, And hid his cruel face From God, who walked with him and gave him breath. From out that garden fair Angels with flaming hair Evicted him towards the place of death. Now, how can he regain Lost Paradise ? None slain Must ever lay his death at his dark door ; With song and laughter then, Both animals and men May climb together back to that fair shore. The way may seem too hard. And failure may retard, And many may despise a bloodless creed ; But Heav'n will blossom round Its children newly found. Whose key to Paradise is Love in deed. So once again man tends His garden midst his friends, Whilst Eve sits weaving, clad in clothes she span ; And in each creature's eyes, Joyful he there espies The God who walks once more with guilt'free man. MARION REID.


6

THE VEGAN 15.

OUR

NEW

PRESIDENT

SPEAKS

"\ylTE stood in silence at the Annual General Meeting to dedicate * » ourselves anew to the great cause of veganism, in which we all, together with those who have passed on, so fervently believe. Economists, dietitians and others are becoming more and more interested in the vegan diet on account of the world food situation. All who study the vegan philosophy of life know that ethically veganism is unassailable, but the diet must be scientifically proven for it to be of value. Vegans throughout the world (for the Vegan Society is international as well as national) are helping to send in authentic data for our Health Council to work upon. Our Health Council, which is formed of doctors, dietitians and scientists, are combining their knowledge and experiences. They hope to have much of interest to report at the next Health Conference. W e vegans remember that true health comes with harmony in the whole man, body, mind and spirit, and as we think upon this fact, gradually we will note that the exploitation of animals is ceasing, and that our way of life is understood by many more who hear of it. Here is a thought from EDWARD C A R P E N T E R : — " Do not hurry, have faith. A little shelter from the storm, A stack of fuel, for the winter, A few handfuls of grain and fruit, And Lo! the glory of all the earth is ours." E L S I E B . SHRIGLEY.

THE VEGAN SOCIETY ANNUAL

T

GENERAL

MEETING

H I S M e e t i n g was held at F r i e n d s ' H o u s e , L o n d o n , on N o v e m b e r 10th, 1 9 5 1 , w i t h forty-four m e m b e r s present a n d M r s . E. B. Shrigley in t h e Chair. A t t h e b e g i n n i n g , M e m b e r s stood in silence as a tribute to the m e m o r y of M r . F r a n k M a y o , late P r e s i d e n t of t h e Society, a n d M r s . A m y Little, a l a t e active M e m b e r of t h e C o m m i t t e e , and dedicated themselves t o carry on t h e w o n d e r f u l w o r k they h a d d o n e f o r t h e f u r t h e r a n c e of the V e g a n W a y of Life. T h e R e p o r t o n the year's work a n d t h e F i n a n c e R e p o r t were a p p r o v e d , T h e financial y e a r will n o w end on S e p t e m b e r 30th instead of O c t o b e r 31st. T h e f o l l o w i n g officers (all h o n o r a r y ) w e r e e l e c t e d : — President—Mrs. Elsie B. Shrigley. V i c e President—Mrs. Muriel Drake. Treasurer—Mrs. Eve Rowland. Secretary—Mrs. Hilda Honeysett. Editor—Miss Vera Stanley A l d e r . Committee—Mrs. Jeanne Arnaldi, Mr. Don Burton, Mrs. Constance C r o s s ( A u d i t o r ) , M r . D o n a l d Cross, D r . L. Cameron-James, M r . E d g a r H e w l e t t , M r s . Kathleen M a y o , M r . A l e c M a r t i n , Miss Mabel Simmons, M r . Jack Sanderson.


15.

THE VEGAN

T h e M e e t i n g was followed by a tea a n d social which b e g a n w i t h a v e r y e n j o y a b l e classical concert with cello a n d violin solos, a n d songs a r r a n g e d by Miss A d n a R y e r s o n . M r s . K a t h l e e n M a y o gave an inspiring t a l k o n V e g a n i s m , a n d a f t e r t h e excellent salad s u p p e r M r s . Lily N e w n h a m r e d t e d a n d M r . a n d M r s . A r n a l d i g a v e a d e m o n s t r a t i o n of ballroom d a n c i n g . Our t h a n k s go to all w h o c o n t r i b u t e d t o a very h a p p y evening. REPORTS

FOR

THE

YEAR

ENDING

THE SECRETARY'S

OCTOBER

31st,

1951

REPORT

L o n d o n has been t h e scene of f o u r out of t h e five C o m m i t t e e M e e t i n g s held this year. M r . a n d M r s . A r n a l d i v e r y k i n d l y lent t h e i r flat in S t . J o h n ' s W o o d f o r all t h e L o n d o n M e e t i n g s , which e n a b l e d t h e C o m m i t t e e to m e e t very c o m f o r t a b l y . W e a r e very g r a t e f u l for their kindness. T h e J a n u a r y M e e t i n g saw a l u l l C o m m i t t e e with M r . F r a n k K. M a y o i n t h e C h a i r . T h e n e w H o n . Sec. r e p o r t e d receipt of all properties, in o r d e r , f r o m M r . Bruce Litten, w h o laid d o w n his office early in t h e n e w y e a r . H e a n d M r s . Litten remain active in t h e Society as A d v e r t i s e m e n t M a n a g e r s . M r s . Sheila J o h n s t o n e accepted t h e office of E d i t o r of The Vegan at t h i s .first Committee M e e t i n g . T h e whole Society a p p r e c i a t e d t h e S p r i n g , 1 9 5 1 , Vegan. M r . Frank K. M a y o was in t h e C h a i r for t h e M e e t i n g held o n A p r i l 7 t h . M r s . R o w l a n d , by letter, accepted t h e office of H o n . T r e a s u r e r . W i t h i n a w e e k of t h e A p r i l M e e t i n g , M r . F r a n k K. M a y o w a s d e a d . H e , with M r s . K a t h l e e n M a y o a n d their t w o children, h a d settled in Gloucestershire, w h e r e h e i n t e n d e d to c o n t i n u e research in soil a n d v a r i o u s 'Crops. T h e appreciations in t h e A u t u m n , 1951, V e g a n give a glimpse of t h e -esteem in which vegans held o u r late President. A n e m e r g e n c y m e t i n g was called f o r M a y 9 t h . It was well a t t e n d e d a n d a l l b u s i n e s s duly settled. O n J u l y 7th, t h e C o m m i t t e e h e a r d of t h e sickness in M r s . J o h n s t o n e ' s h o m e , she asked should she c o n t i n u e in office, or would t h e C o m m i t t e e p r e f e r t o n a m e s o m e o n e t o w h o m she should h a n d over. T h e C o m m i t t e e , n o t h a v i n g a n o t h e r E d i t o r in view at t h a t time, asked her to carry o n . T h e meeting o n S e p t e m b e r 15th was held at C o o m b e L o d g e , W o t t o n tunder-Edge, b y k i n d invitation of M r s . Kathleen M a y o . I n g r e a t peace, a n d s u r r o u n d e d b y m u c h beauty, t h e C o m m i t t e e spent all S a t u r d a y a n d a big bit of S u n d a y p l a n n i n g well o u r work. M r . D o n a l d Cross was in t h e C h a i r w h e n a letter rrom M r . Leslie Cross was read. H e has been very sick a n d n o w k n o w s t h a t only complete rest will' enable him t o be c u r e d , so he desires t o lay d o w n h i s office. M r s . Sheila J o h n s t o n e asked t o h a v e a t e l e p h o n e c o m m u n i c a t i o n with t h e C o m m i t t e e t h r o u g h M r . D o n a l d Cross, w h i c h was -arranged at n i n e o'clock o n t h e e v e n i n g of S e p t e m b e r 15th, at C o o m b e L o d g e . M r s . Sheila J o h n s t o n e resigned a n d D r . C a m e r o n - J a m e s accepted to b e t e m p o r a r y E d i t o r of The Vegan. H e asked t h e Secretary t o see t o t h e final stages of this n e x t issue, which she did gladly. A l l t h e various activities of t h e Society have c o n t i n u e d as usual a n d t h e V e g a n D i e t G r o u p f o r m e d in t h e s u m m e r with Fay K. H e n d e r s o n o n its C o m m i t t e e a n d D r . C a m e r o n James as its Secretary is b r i n g i n g us m u c h light on this i m p o r t a n t subject. T h e varied experiences of t h e year have b r o u g h t t h e V e g a n Society steadfastly t o t h e e n d of t h e year a n d we are even m o r e assured of o u r policy as we e n t e r u p o n a n o t h e r stretch of our road. THE TREASURER'S

REPORT

O u r financial position at t h e end of O c t o b e r is better t h a n at t h e e n d of O c t o b e r last year. A t t h a t time, o u r E x p e n d i t u r e over I n c o m e was ÂŁ 1 5 5 .


THE VEGAN 15. T h i s year, there is an Excess of Income over E x p e n d i t u r e of £6/11/0. This h a s b e e n accomplished by several economies t h r o u g h o u t t h e Society. By the Society r u n n i n g on an h o n o r a r y basis, t h e issue of only two magazines in t h e year, t h e p a y m e n t of their own expenses by t h e Committee Members, a n d t h e use of members' rooms and their hospitality for Committee Meetings, w i t h o u t charge. A l t h o u g h w e are solvent and have ended t h e financial year with £19 in h a n d , t h e r e is not enough margin to enable t h e Society to launch out in any w a y : r e p r i n t i n g booklets and publishing new ones, more advertising and m o r e meetings, a n d so on. A t t h e A . G . M . , 1950, it was decided t h a t all subscriptions should be p a y a b l e on J a n u a r y 1st irrespective of the date of joining t h e Society. An a n n o u n c e m e n t t o this effect was made in the spring, 1951, number of The V e g a n , b u t t h e r e was very little response, until reminders were sent out in A u g u s t . T h e appeal brought 74 replies ( £ 4 4 / 1 0 / 0 ) , most members generously p a y i n g m o r e t h a n the 7 / 6 minimum. It is felt t h a t in t h e main, members did n o t notice t h e announcement of t h e altered subscription date, or if they did, t h e y t h o u g h t it applied as from January, 1952.

S t a t e m e n t of Accounts for t h e year ended 31st October, 1951 RECEIPTS £ s. d. 72 1 9 158 11 35 18 26 17 12 4 1 5 2 6

C a s h in h a n d a n d at Bank, 1 / 1 1 / 5 0 Subscriptions a n d Donations A d v e r t i s e m e n t s in The V e g a n Sale of L i t e r a t u r e B r i n g - a n d ' B u y Sale, November, 1950 Collection at November, 1950, Social B a n k Interest ( 1 9 5 0 and 1951) on Deposit A c c o u n t

£309

4

2

104 40 24 46 5 9 78

0 13 11 10 2 6 19

7 8 14 o 8 4 H

4

2

PAYMENTS

P r i n t i n g The V e g a n P r i n t i n g , Stationery and Advertisements Postages, Carriage, Telephone, etc. E x - S e c r e t a r y ' s Salary, November 1 9 5 0 / F e b r u a r y 1951 Secretary's Travelling Expenses ( f o r year) A n n u a l G e n e r a l Meetings (1950 6? 1951), Expenses, Sundries C a s h in h a n d and at Bank, 3 1 / 1 0 / 5 1

£i09 Subject t o Audit E.

ROWLAND

Nettles "Most people know the young green tops of nettles (stinging) as a vegetable; but a very good cbth may also be woven from the fibres, which in the form of sheets or table-cloths is more durable than linen." Miss V. C. Cuthbert, from an old Herb Book.


15.

THE VEGAN

Notes and Sweden

News

1953

Many vegans are interested in this International Conference. Are you ? Delegates will be chosen at the A.G.M. in November, 1952.

London The London Vegan Letter always brings interesting news with their programme for the next few weeks. They had their Annual General Meeting on March 22nd, which was followed by Tea and a Health Conference, in which nearly all present took part, bringing illumination to the whole Society.

Yorkshire Here is a small group with a glowing heart. They meet once a month for a walk (and much talk and discussion). They receive a newsletter from their Secretary each month. They feel that " The Vegan " improves with each issue.

Midlands Rambles have been organised each month since last October, and visits have been made to the Lickey Hilld, Leamington Spa and Stratford-on-Avon. On January 13th, a most enjoyable evening was spent at the home of Miss Worrall, their second Annual Social. On January 22nd, an interesting demonstration was given at Messrs. Winters Stores, Birmingham, by Lily Newnham, on " Dishes for Health and Sickness " (Vegan).

Bristol,

Manchester

and the Scottish

Section

Are also active. W e hope to share with you some of their findings and occupations in our next issue.

The Animal

Fair

The Committee gave Mrs. Muriel Drake a hearty vote of thanks for her great success at the Fair. The final balance is ÂŁ 3 0 : 1 0 : 0 . Great credit is due to Muriel Drake and all her helpers, not least being her own two children, Pamela 11, and Maurice 9, who worked hard for weeks before the fair, promoting various schemes to raise money, and used it to buy material from which to make useful articles to sell, themselves, at the Fair. " Well done, Pamela and Maurice."

F.R.H.S.

i

Our hearty congratulations go to Mrs. Kathleen Mayo on her recently receiving this degree. All who have seen her delightful four acre orchard and garden at Wotton-under-Edge in Gloucestershire will confirm that this honour is well deserved. Single-handed she is carrying out the cultivation of the fruit farm which she and her


THE VEGAN 15.

10

husband had planned to do together. May success continue to crown her efforts.

Health

Council

This Council met at " Coombe Lodge early in March by kind invitation of Mrs. Kathleen Mayo, who is on this council. Mrs. Kathleen Mayo and Dr. Bonchholtz, a doctor living near her, are in the midst of a most interesting study of Health in their district. All present shared their findings and hope to take part in the Health Conference to be planned later in the year by the Vegan Society.

BOOK REVIEW H U M A N I T Y C O M E S O F A G E , by Vera Stanley Alder. A n d r e w D a k e r s Limited, at 8s. 6d.

Published

by

H e r e is a book for o u r deep interest and study. T h e first part, " t h e V i s i o n " gives us t h e wide base for world order; and t h e second part " t h e P r e p a r a t i o n , " shows how, u p o n t h e foundations of this knowledge, there can be built an entirely n e w way of life, which will produce the final p a t t e r n of a sane and successful world civilization, and bring a Golden A g e into manifestation. " A b a n d of adventurers, a multitude of crusaders, is arising from the r a n k s of m a n k i n d , who are prepared to sacrifice, who are ready to adventure, i n t o u t t e r l y new ways and learn to think along quite new lines." " G o d has a plan for m a n as f o r all creation. It is M a n ' s first duty to e n d e a v o u r by prayer, meditation and aspiration to acquaint himself with the p l a n , as well as he can, a n d to perform all t h e acts of his life in accordance with it." A l l parts of life are brought into the p i c t u r e : Economics, T o w n and C o u n t r y planning, Education, T h e Spiritual Life, Planetary Psychology and so on. T h e chapter on Agriculture and Industry will specially interest Vegans. T h e E a r t h , looked upon as a living entity in a certain sense of the word, shows t h a t t h e evils of soil erosion and the large-scale cutting down of trees calls for instant attention. Fruit a n d nuts are the true food of men, declares t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t , and man will gradually manifest this fact. Telepathy will play a big part in all life. " C l o s e co-operation between agriculture and industry will be the rule. It will be so arranged t h a t no person spends his whole time on any one job, b u t t h a t he works partly in t h e open air and partly in the factory or office, a n d partly in the home. T h e necessity for only quite short hours of l a b o u r will allow for this." " W o r k will be approached with joy, pride and an intense interest." " I n t h e f u t u r e it will be impossible to d r a w the line between the work of scientist, healer, and teacher. T h e j r findings will synthesize ever more closely." T h e qualities which will be looked for in the leaders of t h e race will be wisdom, knowledge, faith, healing, miracles, prophesy, and the gift of tongues. W e will gradually acquire soul-faculties and begin to function w i t h t h e m in t h e spiritual world, of which these faculties are the organs. T h e r e f o r e let us begin n o w to think u p o n this new life of hope and joy a n d help it manifest in o u r own world. HILDA

HONEYSETT.


THE VEGAN

15.

VEGAN ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL PRODUCTS BY M U R I E L E. D R A K E

M

O S T people who become interested in veganism for the first time will naturally a s k : " W h a t do you eat in place of all these things which we have come to consider as necessities?" It is a perfectly sensible question, and requires a comprehensive answer, which 1 will attempt t o give in this article. T h e following list of animal products with vegan alternatives may prove helpful to show at a glance how the change can be made, and a few remarks at the end may be beneficial in elucidating certain points. Animal

Products

f l e s h , fish, fowl

M e a t and fish pastes Soups (flavoured with meat stock) M e a t extracts (Bovril, O x o , etc.) for flavouring or drinks Animal gelatine and packet jellies Eggs (in cooking) Animal cooking fat and lard Suet Dairy butter "Special" Margarine animal ingredients) Dairy cream Cow's milk

(containing

Vegan Alternative (Obtainable from Health Food Stores) Uncooked nuts ; nutmeats (already packed); home-made nut roasts and other nut savouries ; peas, beans, lentils and other pulses ; soya products: mushrooms. N u t pastes and sandwich spreads (in jars) ; home-made savoury spreads made from nuts, lentils, etc. Home-made vegetable soups flavoured with Marmite, Yeastrel or Vesop. Yeastrel, Marmite, Vecon, Vesop. Gelozone, Carrageen, A g a r A g a r . Gelozone, Carrageen or cornflour where necessary for binding. Soya flour for nutriment. Nutter. Suenut, O l n u t . Cashew N u t Butter, Soya Butter, Peanut Butter. Vegetarian Margarine. Mapleton's or Granose N u t Cream; home-made cream from cashew nuts. Vitesoy; diluted N u t Cream; homemade milk from cashew nuts. Soyamalt. Home-made cheeses from Soya flour. C u r r a n t Sugar.

Milk drinks, e.g., Horlick's Dairy cheese Honey From the above list it is obvious that no one need go without the " b a r e necessities of life" in adopting a vegan diet, as there are alternatives in plenty t o the animal products. O n e may "miss" certain things at first, and as most vegan foods contain v e r y little commercial salt, the first impression in many cases is that the diet is tasteless. This is merely the result of an u n n a t u r a l taste caused by years of a heavily salted and seasoned diet. W h e n one learns to appreciate the true and delicate flavours of natural foods, one's taste becomes so much more sensitive that it is delightful t o be able to eat a plateful of food without smothering t h e real flavour with salt, pepper, etc. T h e r e is an abundance of vitamin salts in vegetables, which are far more wholesome and less h a r m f u l than the usual "refined" salt, but the vegetables must be used whole, and the outside skins left on to avoid the loss of the valuable vitamin salts which lie just underneath.


THE VEGAN 15.

12

I s h o u l d like to stress h e r e that veganism is a way of life, and n o t a p l a y t h i n g t o be t r e a t e d lightly. It involves n o t only a physical change, but a m e n t a l a n d spiritual one as well, and if o n e is n o t prepared to consider all aspects t o g e t h e r , it is far better not to a t t e m p t the change-over; the results of t h e i n n e r discord can be t o o drastic. If, however, one does feel the urge t o b e c o m e a v e g a n , the c h a n g e should be m a d e very gradually, to enable t h e b o d y mechanism to a d j u s t itself to the different diet, and it should be d o n e w i t h very great thought, and with u n d e r s t a n d i n g of certain difficulties w h i c h are b o u n d to be i n v o l v e d — f o r instance, with social contacts. It m a y be t h o u g h t that it is impossible to mix with others to any great e x t e n t w h e n on a vegan diet, b u t n o t h i n g is f a r t h e r f r o m the t r u t h . When o n e has the real principle at heart, it is possible to do anything if one's c o u r a g e does n o t falter. W h y should we always do exactly as everyone else does? N a t u r a l l y , if o n e is always going to consider " w h a t other people •will t h i n k " it is better not t o take t h e plunge. T h e approach must be made in a totally different way, a n d with the full courage of one's convictions. T h e n , a n d t h e n only, will veganism have its full meaning for the individual.

Hospitality R I T C H I E offers caravan residence in her garden in return for help in the garden. Eleven miles fiiom Bury St. Edmunds. D O N O V A N BURTON would be pleased to welcome couple—or man— during summer months at his own bungalow near Stratfordon-Avon. N E L L I E HEWARD, and the brother, welcome all callers near Wrexham. EDGAR B . H E W L E T T welcomes all callers to his cottage, 14 miles from Leominster, 28 from Hereford. M U R I E L DRAKE, who has a guest house at Bromley, Kent, offers hospitality, with residence, to anyone able to offer assistance, in the various duties of the household. All communications in the first instance to be sent care of the Vegan Secretary, 38 Stane Way, Evvell, Surrey.

MARGUERITE

First

Steps

in Keeping

Fit

1.—The quality of your life depends on the motive behind it. Therefore, upon awakening each morning remind yourself of what you are living for—of what kind of person you wish to BE. Avoid thinking of what you don't want to be or do. Be positive—and joyful. 2.—Our life is as supple as our spine. Every morning stretch gently and completely in every direction. 3.—In controlling your life and health control of your breathing comes first. Vi/atch your breathing! It must become slower, deeper, more even and more gentle. 4.—If possible, never eat when you are unhappy, hurried or very fatigued.


THE VEGAN

15.

SALUTE TO A PIONEER "DROFESSOR Arnold Ehret was one of those brave experimenters of the last cenfeury whose work has probably directly or indirectly encouraged many of the present generation to have faith in the Vegetarian and Vegan ways of life. He came from a medical family and was born in 1866 in Central Europe, where he was known as a scholar and linguist of great ability.. As a young man he suffered from an illness pronounced incurable by leading physicians of his day. While thus under sentence of death he persevered with wonderful determination and enterprise until he completely cured himself. He then enjoyed such, remarkable health that he was almost mobbed by sick neighbours who had witnessed his cure and who beseeched his help. He spent all his life in helping and teaching his newly discovered System. Thousands were healed at his Sanatorium, most of them from so-called incurable ailments. Professor Ehret later condensed his great knowledge into sets of lessons and booklets which are still obtainable (in England, from J. Regan, 'Onaway', Downend Park, Horfield, Bristol 7). Mr. Regan is a member of the American Naturopathic Association, and of course the Professor is revered as one of the fathers of the Nature Cure movement. Perhaps his best book is entitled " T H E MUCUSLESS DIET HEALING SYSTEM." This fully explains his proven theory that ill health is largely due to wrong feeding, and to the fact that the average diet, whether vegetarian or not, is one in which mucus-forming (catarrh-forming) foods predominate, and that this mucus causes chronic constipation or clogging of all the tissues in the body. Every fever and disease is produced, he says, by the body in an effort to clear up this condition. Even those who are not visibly ill are incapable of realising true good health, as since childhood they have been in this clogged condition. Ehret's System gradually cleanses the body of its accumulations by careful intermittent fasts, and a diet which changes step by step to the ideal one in which finally the patient is able to live permanently on foods which are non-mucus forming. Needless to say, this diet comprises fruits, green salads and vegetables, with a very little grain food and nuts. Emphasis is laid upon the extreme danger of too rapid a change to such a diet by one whose body is deeply impregnated with a life-long accumulation of drugs and toxins. Even fasting, which is an essential part of the cure, must be undertaken as a gradual process, in order that too much poison is not set free from the tissues into the blood stream too suddenly, thus causing a serious crisis. The teaching of Ehret should surely be of great value to Vegans, throwing light on many of their difficulties from a progressive anglewhich has not yet been reached by the medical world of to-day. V.S.A.


THE VEGAN 15.

14

THE VEGAN BABY BUREAU By

KATHLEEN

MAYO

A T the beginning of 1948, questionnaires were sent out with the Vegan, and many vegan parents filled them in with details of their children's diets and health. These results were reported fully in the summer issue, 1948, of the Vegan. This year all those parents have been written to, and some more very interesting replies have been received. Some children have not been able to keep to the diet for various reasons. Sometimes it is because one or other of the parents are not vegan, and frustration is caused in the child's mind with the two opposing loyalties. One or two families have changed for economic reasons. It is .generally agreed that where a family have to purchase all their fruit and vegetables from shops, a vegan food reform diet can appear very expensive. This is one reason why I suggest that whenever possible it is best to grow one's own fruit and vegetables. Several vegan families have lately moved into the country to have a large garden •specially to grow their own produce. Another reason why it is preferable to grow one's own food is that one can be sure it is compost-grown food without any artificial fertilisers being put on the soil, and also the vegetables can be picked just before being served if grown in one's own garden. These two items are very important, and it would appear that children who are given fresh home-grown vegetables daily have better health and vitality than those fed on bought vegetables. W i t h regard to fruit, if soft fruits are grown and partaken of during the summer and apples stored in plenty, then it can be worked that the apples keep until the soft fruits are in season again, and so it is possible to have uncooked fresh fruit daily throughout the year that is home grown. Many parents believe that the vegan diet is the ideal diet ethically, but just haven't been able to put it into practice. It is to these parents that the Vegan Baby Bureau wishes to give help. It has been found that vegan youngsters, fed on an almost raw diet, although they appear to have great energy and vitality, do become very irritable. This is partly caused by their increased sensitivity. Claire Lowenfeld says that she has noticed that a change in diet will alter not only the child physically, but also mentally, and wrote in her Arnold Hills Memorial Lecture: " Raw food taken over too long a period makes a child tired and irritable, and I have found that children seem much happier having some cooked meals at middays than always raw salads. A good varied diet for winter would be: —


THE VEGAN

15-

Breakfast Bircher Benner Muesli, W h o l e m e a l toast and Yeastrel or Muesli to consist o f : 1 dessertspoonful of flaked oats. 1 tablespoonful of water. 2 large apples, grated. 1 dessertspoonful of n u t cream or grated coconut 1 teaspoonful of B a r b a d o s sugar. Juice from J of a lemon.

marmalade.

cream.

Lunch Vegetable soup or casserole of vegetables. M i x e d salad with nut or pulse protein. Baked potato. Baked apple or gelazone f r u i t jelly.

Tea Muesli. W h o l e m e a l sandwiches made from home-made bread m a d e from, compost-grown wheat. Suggested sandwich fillings: 1 . — C h o p p e d dates and cashew butter. 2.—Celery mayonnaise made from 1 dessertspoonful of olive oil i dessertspoonful of lemon juice, pinch of paprika. All shaken u p well together and poured over t w o grated celery hearts. 3 . — H e r b butter made f r o m finely chopped parsley a n d chives, and mint mixed with grated kosher margarine. 4 . — L e t t u c e leaves and marmite. •5.—Thin slices of cooked beetroot with herb b u t t e r as above. 6.—Sieved tomatoes with g r o u n d hazel nuts. 7 . — T o m a t o k e t c h u p with grated cashews.

HOW CAN VEGANS BEST MAINTAIN HEALTH AND HAPPINESS? B y DOROTHY M A T T H E W S

^ V N E of the essentials for health and happiness for all vegans, ^ it seems to me, is belief in our cause. When we doubt or wonder, we set at work the currents of thought and feeling that disturb the physical side; whereas the confident belief releases the healthy stream of life, making it possible for the vegan diet to bring its full benefits. W e can only grow into this central belief gradually. It has been said that vegans become very sensitive, and I think that this is true, but sensitiveness is a vital quality for understanding and wishing to help in the problems of the world. It is through an increase in sensitiveness that we can hope to get peace. It is right to develop the sensitiveness but it must be accompanied, I believe, by a spiritual hold on life, for otherwise we are swayed


16

THE VEGAN 15.

about by feeling, by our very sympathy, by discouragement, by criticism, and so on. The spiritual hold can keep us firm and strong to meet all the challenges that come and to turn them into a means of growth. The Vegan cause, like all new causes, is bound to have plenty of difficulties. These come partly because it is new ground that is being broken, and partly in order that we may gain strength by meeting them courageously and effectively. W e don't need to be discouraged that there haa been some illness among a few of our members. That is part of the challenge of the point at which we have arrived. Some of the very staunch pioneers of our movement probably bore almost too great a burden of the beginning stages. But the cause is established now, and they can be released from that sense of intensity which nearly always seems to have to be experienced by a few in order to help the cause to be set upon its feet, as it were, as a new living growth. I believe that we have come into a new and very encouraging phase in our movement, where we can take it for granted that the Vegan way of life is a sound, sane, practicable way of living. It is widely accepted as such, even by people who do not themselves want to become vegans. Some even, while criticising it, still acknowledge that it is " the next step." It's not surprising that vegans are not all perfectly healthy. Many of them, are still struggling from the effects of earlier wrong diet and the ways of living. It is clear, however, that without veganism they would not have come as far as they have come in finding complete healing. Very many vegans, of course, are far better in health and vitality than they have ever been before. Adopting vegan fare, it seems to me, is something like undergoing a fast or a period on restricted diet in its long-term effects. It causes many of the impurities to be thrown off, and we must be prepared for this to happen. W e can then welcome such a cleansing and remember that as we go forward with it in this spirit, we are gradually building up a more and more stable and complete health pattern. It may be that some of the illness in our movement has been due to just that cause, and so far from being, discouraged we may be stirred to stronger faith and renewed belief in it. Such a renewed belief certainly helps any amongst us who are suffering from health or other difficulties, and the courage with which they are meeting them helps the cause to a greater vitality and robustness. I think the comparatively few cases of illness amongst us have become much exaggerated in people's minds, because we are such a small body that these few are quoted without names again and again, until we get the impression that it is a very large number instead of just a very few.


THE VEGAN

15.

W e mustn't forget the psychological factor in health, either. Even though we have perfect diet and real faith in our cause, if we are allowing a wrong personal relationship to continue in our lives, without working forward gradually to get it to change, there is very likely to be some effect on health, and so we must keep that side of things moving very faithfully. (To be continued.)

Arts

and

Crafts

T 11HE first thing that happens to people who free themselves from outworn, ruts of thought and habit is that their own natural creative powers and energies come to life. In these periods in history when people were living on food which, although partly carnivorous, was mostly home-made and unadulterated, they found time, energy and inspiration for the finest art and handicraft work. They made many of their garments of such lasting and beautiful quality that they were handed down from generation to generation as part of the family heirlooms. It took more than one generation to wear out a beautiful Chinese kimono, a Dutch lace head-dress, or an English pair of decorated shoes. W e are now ruled like slaves by the " gods of fashion " and by the factory magnates. W e are persuaded to buy a constant stream of third-rate perishable goods, pouring our money away and losing our cultural sense. The idea that any of our clothes could be handed down with pride to our descendants seems crazy to-day. But why ? Are we not capable of as much artistry and good handicraft as our forefathers ? Should we submit to degeneration instead of improvement ? Certainly those people who are poisoned and choked to death on white starch and meat can have no longer sufficient energy and inspiration to improve upon the lovely creative powers of their ancestors, as the present situation shows. But what about those many hundreds who are now treading the path of return to sane and radiant and harmless living ? The dormant fires of creation must be already moving within them and they will soon experience the ecstasy of inspired self-expression. Let us look ahead and be ready to collaborate with future inspiration. There is so much to be done. W e need so many well-designed garments and utensils of all kinds which are made free of exploitation of the animal kingdom. Perhaps shoes are the most important things we wear. So much of our physical fitness depends upon the condition of our feet, does it not ? The nerves of our eyes and our ears are connected with the,, feet, and suffer if the latter are improperly cared for. The feet contain millions of pores which allow for the escape of acids and gases, which nature intended should return into the earth. In exchange, the feet should draw in the magnetic energies from the soil itself. All this should be considered in designing the


18

THE VEGAN 15.

ideal shoe. It must not be insulating. It should surely be washable. The sole should allow as much play as possible for the muscles of the foot, and as much support for the arch as possible. The flat foot on a flat manufactured pavement is unnatural. The foot in nature arches over rough ground. Wet weather shoes could be raised from the ground upon high studs. Here is an opportunity for all of us to get our inspiration to work. The Vegan Society, therefore, is offering prizes for the best designs for shoes for all purposes submitted during this year. The completed shoe should be accompanied by its pattern and instructions for making. W e will also welcome and print any information as to new materials, etc., suitable for use in this experiment.

V.S.A.

A VEGAN MEAL B y MABEL

SIMMONS

For two people, made on a gas ring, in a three-tier steamer. Menu GRAPEFRUIT STEAMED SAVOURY STEAMED CARROTS, POTATOES, CAULIFLOWER, GRAVY A P P L E SALAD OR STEAMED ORANGE PUDDING

Steamed Savoury 2 oz. lentils. 2 oz. b r o w n bread-crumbs fresh. 1 onion.

1 oz. margarine. 1 small parsnip. Seasoning, c h o p p e d

parsley.

Method.—Cook lentils in sufficient water to cover, stirring continually. Cut onion finely, fry golden brown, grate parsnip. Mix all ingredients together. Put mixture into a small greased basin and steam for half an hour. Steam carrots and potatoes in their jackets.

Apple Salad Method.—Take 2 large cooking apples, 6 dates, and £ oz. Barbados sugar. Cut the apples in small pieces, add sugar. Cook very gently for ten minutes, do not let them boil. When cool place in a glass dish, grate half the peel of an orange over the apples and decorate the whole with dates.

Steamed Orange or Lemon Pudding 1 lb. b r o w n bread-crumbs. 2 oz. W h o l e m e a l flour.

1 o r a n g e or lemon. 1 oz. b r o w n sugar. 2 oz. vegetable margarine.

Method.—Rub margarine into flour, add bread-crumbs, sugar, grated rind of orange. Mix with juice of orange (fairly stiff). Steam for three-quarters of an hour, in a greased basin. Serve with orange sauce.


THE VEGAN

MISCELLANEOUS (Two

15.

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lines 5 / - : extra lines 2 / - each; 20% allou/ed on / o u r consecutive

issues.)

S P E A K I N G 6? W R I T I N G lessons (correspondence, visit) 5/-, classes 1 / 6 — Dorothy Matthews, B.A., , London, N . W . 3 . PRImrose 5686. " O R G A N I C H U S B A N D R Y — A S y m p o s i u m , " compiled by J o h n S. Blackburn. 2 / 9 d . post free from T h e Secretary, 38 Stane W a y , Ewell, Surrey. LESLIE CAMERON-JAMES, N.D., M.G.N.O., D.O., Nature-cure Practitioner. Consultations by a p p o i n t m e n t . C o u n t r y patients visited. Comprehensive postal service. Heathstock, Stockland, H o n i t o n , D e v o n . S O I L F E R T I L I T Y . — N o w is the time to restore lost and absent minerals and organic life to your soil with Activated Bacterised Milled Dried Sewage as top dressing or activator for compost heaps. Delivered to your gates 1 2 / 6 d . per cwt. Quotation for larger quantities. Entirely organic contains no added chemicals. Clean and hygienic in use—as advocated by late Sir A l b e r t H o w a r d . Postcard for Leaflet to W . M . Rowe, M.P.S., F.R.H.S., Brighton, Sussex. N A T U R A L Grown Dried Bilberries (Whinberries). Rich and valuable nutritional source of organic minerals, potassium, iron, magnesium, etc., etc. A truly organically grown f o o d ; grows only wild on hills and mountain sides. A delicious fruit cooked or uncooked. .Trial package 2 / 3 d . post free. Central Health Stores, 4 Clarence Street, Brighton, Sussex. R O O M T O L E T with share of kitchen and possibly garden. moderate rent if willing to give some help and companionship. Gentry, , C h e a m , Surrey. V E G A N requires unfurnished or furnished room London district.

Very Miss Marie

B A C H E L O R desires contact with active member for inexpensive v Paris, Easter, Marseille Spanish frontier, September. Burton, Stratford-on-Avon. L A D Y early forties wishes to contact someone appreciative of right living and healing.—Box. No. 10, 38 Stane W a y , Ewell, Surrey.

E S T A B L I S H M E N T S C A T E R I N G FOR V E G A N S LAKE DISTRICT. Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest house for invigorating, refreshing holidays.—Write Isabel James. Tel. 134. P E N A R T H — " V e g e t a r i a n Guest H o u s e , " Rectory R d . Rest, change, relaxation. Ideal situation. Pleasant holiday resort. Overlooking sea. Attractive, generous catering. Sun Lounge. H . & C. Send for new Brochure. ST.

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K E S W I C K . — H i g h f i e l d Vegetarian Guest House, T h e Heads, offers beautiful views; varied f6od and friendly a t m o s p h e r e . — W r i t e A n n e H o r n e r . Tel. 508. K E N T , W E S T G A T E - O N - S E A . — E n t i r e l y V e g a n . N o Smoking. Accommodation 2 to 3£ gns., with full catering 4 to 5£ gns. All rooms H . & C. and electric fires. Excellent position and bathing from house. Sandy beach. Mr. 6? Mrs. Arnaldi, "Libra," 74 C u t h b e r t Road. Tel. 342.


EIghty

atomWHEAT GERM

. . . the life-centre of the wheat grain is a dynamic health force. F R O M E N T it prepared entirely f r o m it ! This is the wheat e m b r y o ' w h i c h provides the protein for the repair and renewal of bodily r e s e r v e s . It is the r i c h e s t natural s o u r c e of Vitamin Bi — vital to t h e brain, nervous system, digestion, and bowel activity.

N CARTONS 3/- (16ozs.) 1/71 (7 ozs.) Obtainable f r o m all Health Food Stores and Chemists

H r^'-jfri f e

F R O M E N T ' S fascinating flavour makes it an agreeable addition to breakfast foods, etc. and if added to a hot drink before retiring m a k e s a delightful nightcap.

FROMENT

Sofe Manufacturers: JOHN H. HERON LIMITED Hook Road Mills . Goole . Yorks.

'ram Health Food Stores and I tad i 11$ Grocers MAPLHTON S NUT P O O D CO. LTD. (Dept. V.15). GARSTON. LIVERPOOL. 19.


flaMj

your meals with VESOP CONCENTRATED L I Q U I D E X T R A C T OF P U R E V E G E T A B L E O R I G I N . It intensifies the taste of cooked food. A most appetising addition to soups, stews, vegetables, gravies, etc. Season your salads with a few drops of VESOP. Vegetarians and Vegans everywhere, ask your Health Food Store for VESOP. 1 / 8 per bottle, net weight 8 oz. (Recipe Book on request J

VESOP PRODUCTS L T D . 498 Hortisey Road, London, N.19 Telephone: ARChway 2457

THE

NATURE CURE HOME I HEALTH HYDRO

THE

NATURE CURE CLINIC 13, Oldbury Place, W . I (Off

Treatments include: Fasting, Dietetics. Colonic Irrigation, Spinal Manipulation, Massage, Bergonie Therapy. Radiant Light and Heat. Baths, ctc.

Marylebone High WELbeck 2787

For persons of lirpited means. D i a g n o s i s by f u l l y q u a l i f i e d p r a c t i tioners. Treatments include all Natural Therapeutics and Food R e f o r m , and exclude all based o n vivisectional research.

Dieting is 011 non-flesh foixi reform lines sympathetic towards Vegan principles

A p p o i n t m e n t s only: M o n . to Fri. (Self-addressed envelope for reply, please)

VECETARIAN A fully qualified physician in residence

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LITERATURE AVAILABLE " A n A d d r e s s on Veganism " By Donald W a t s o n " Vegan Viewpoint" By Fay K. H e n d e r s o n " Vegetarian Recipes without Dairy Produce " By Margaret B. Rawls ( N e w Edition) ' A i d s t o a Vegan Diet for Children " By Kathleen V . M a y o ' M a n and Nature " By Leslie J. Cross ' Is Milk a Curse? " By James A . Goodfellow, M.B., C . M . ' M a n ' s N a t u r a l Food ** By D r . Sydney M . W h i t a k e r ' T h e Vegan "* Complete Sets for 1947, 1948, 1949 or 1950

From

Hilda

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Honorary Secretary, Ewell, Surrey.

6d. post free 6d. 6d. 1/2d. 3d. 7d. :/-

38, Stane

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NEORAN

On

Tablets Liquid Ointment Suppositories Emollient Rheumatic Balm Veterinary Liquid for internal and external complaints are the heirs to this achievement.

h

M r . Pierce A. Arnold proudly brought home from the laboratory the first garlic preparation which did not convey the odour of garlic to the partaker. PIERCE A. A R N O L D , F.C.S. Pollard Road, Morden, Surrey Please Hunted

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THE

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The Vegan Spring 1952  

The journal of The Vegan Society

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