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Opportunities and Challenges of Clean Energy Development in China Wenliang Zhang, Weisheng Wang, Yuehui Huang, Yiguo Jiang

China Electric Power Research Institute


11

Introduction

2

Planning of Clean Energy in Chinese Power System

3

Experience and Main Challenges

4

Potential Solutions of Large Scale Intermittent Energy Integration

5

Conclusions


 Environment and climate have forced the energy supply and energy  Environment and climate have forced the energy supply and energy consumption consumption must must be be transited transited into into renewable renewable and and sustainable sustainable pattern pattern toto continue continuethe thelife lifeofofearth. earth.  Our target is that the share of non-fossil fuels in the primary energy  Our target is that the share of non-fossil fuels in the primary energy consumption consumptionwill willreach reachtoto15% 15%inin2020. 2020.

 In the next decades, clean energy, such as hydro power, nuclear power, wind  In the next decades, clean energy, such as hydro power, nuclear power, wind power, power,and andlater latersolar solarpower, power,will willtake takebig bigroles rolesininChinese Chinesepower powersystem. system.

 However, the grid are not ready for the large-scale, highly concentrated,  However, the grid are not ready for the large-scale, highly concentrated, intermittent intermittentwind windpower powerand andsolar solarpower. power.


11

Introduction

2

Planning of Clean Energy in Chinese Power System

3

Experience and Main Challenges

4

Potential Solutions of Large Scale Intermittent Energy Integration

5

Conclusions


 From 2010 – 2020, hydro power, nuclear power, wind power will be the  From 2010 – 2020, hydro power, nuclear power, wind power will be the focus focusand andsolar solarpower powerwill willbe bethe thecompensation. compensation.  After 2020, solar power generation will also be widely used for its  After 2020, solar power generation will also be widely used for its acceptable acceptablecost. cost.

Table I 2030 planning of clean energy (GW) 2009

2020

2030

Hydro

183

320-350

360-430

Nuclear

9.08

72-80

150-160

Wind

16.1

100-150

200-300

Solar

<0.2

20

60-70


Be rich of hydro power resource, in the top one place of the world.

The potential hydro power generation capacity: 524GW, annual production 2470TWh.

The west is richer than the east. The potential of southwest accounts for 66.7% of the country.

At the end of 2009, the total installation is 183GW (pumped hydro not included),only 34% of the reserves.

In 2020, the installation will reach to 320-350GW, and 430GW in 2030. Installed hydro power distribution at the end of 2009. (Unit: MW)


The reserves of uranium are over 200 million ton in China.

However, at the end of 2009, the installed nuclear power capacity is only 9.08GW.

The possible sites for nuclear power installation is about 300-400GW.

To reach the goal of 2020, the installation of nuclear power should be 72-80GW, with a total contribution of 30% of clean energy production.

For limitation of other resources along the east coast, the nuclear power should be the main new installation in these areas.


ď ľ

Wind resources are concentrated on three areas: north areas (north China, northwest, northeast), near coast areas, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau areas.

ď ľ

Both onshore and offshore consideration. Before 2020, the focus is onshore wind farms, with some offshore pilot projects. After 2020, focus will move to offshore.

Wind resource distribution in China


The installation increased rapidly, annually doubled from 2006 to 2009. At the end of 2009, the installation is 16.1GW.

In 2020, the installation will reach to 100GW-150GW and 200-300GW in 2030, mainly concentrated on the seven large wind bases.

Attractive price to encourage wind power. Feed-in tariff is based on the resources, from 0.51RMB/kWh to 0.61RMB/kWh. 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Annual and total installed wind power from 1999-2008 (10*MW).


The distribution of seven large wind bases

Potential installation capacity (Unit: MW)


Solar resource distribution in China (kWh/m2)

Solar resources are rich.

The north is better than the south. The west is better than the east.

Qinghai-Tibet Plateau areas, Gansu, north of Ningxia, south of Xinjiang, Mengxi are the most rich areas, with annual sunshine over 3000h.


The solar power installation is very small for its high cost and low efficiency at present.

At the end of 2008, the total installation of PV is only 140MW. Most of them are isolated systems.

Before 2020, solar power generation is mainly in the pilot project stage. After 2020, solar power will be expanded widely.

In the long roadmap, in 2020, the installation will reach to 20GW and 6070GW in 2030.

Large-scale gridintegrated stations will be populated after 2020, with capacity over 10MW for each in northwest desert. Annual and total installed PV capacity from 1990-2008.


11

Introduction

2

Planning of Clean Energy in Chinese Power System

3

Experience and Main Challenges

4

Potential Solutions of Large Scale Intermittent Energy Integration

5

Conclusions


Long Long distance distance transmission transmission   Most Most ofof the the resources resources are are concentrated concentrated on on the the west west and and northwest northwest areas. areas. However, the load center is located at the east coast. However, the load center is located at the east coast.   The The limited limited transmission transmission capability capability has has be be the the bottleneck bottleneck ofof large-scale large-scale development of wind power and hydro power in the west. development of wind power and hydro power in the west.

Load Load Following Following  The operation of the system has to change a lot to accommodate the  The operation of the system has to change a lot to accommodate the fluctuant fluctuantpower powersupplies. supplies.  The inherent composition of the power supplies in the system limit the  The inherent composition of the power supplies in the system limit the flexibility flexibilityofofthe thesystem. system.Over Over70% 70%ofofthe theinstallation installationisiscoal coalpowered poweredplants plantsinin Chinese Chinesepower powersystem. system. Installation composition at the end of 2008


Voltage Voltage control control & & reactive reactive power power  With the increase of output power of the wind farm, the loss of the  With the increase of output power of the wind farm, the loss of the transmission transmissionlines linesincreases, increases,especially especiallyfor forlong longtransmission transmissionline lineatatremote remote areas. areas.  The voltage level of the bus line decreases if the plant can not provide  The voltage level of the bus line decreases if the plant can not provide enough enoughreactive reactivepower powersupply. supply. 235

Voltage variation of a bus line

Voltage (kV)

230

225

220

215

210 07:40

2 7:50

4 8:00

6 8:10

8 8:20

10 8:30


Frequency Frequency control control  The output of wind farms can not droop with the increase of system  The output of wind farms can not droop with the increase of system frequency frequency automatically. automatically. For For sudden sudden decreasing decreasing ofof much much power, power, the the frequency frequencymay maybe beunstable. unstable.  Most of the wind turbines without low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability.  Most of the wind turbines without low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability. AAmass massofofwind windturbines turbineswill willcut cutoff offunder underfault faultconditions. conditions.

Standardization Standardization and and authentication authentication   The The technical technical rules rules should should update update with with the the wind wind power power technology technology and and installation installation scale. scale. Some Some ofof the the troubles troubles will will be be released released with with proper proper requirements of wind farms. requirements of wind farms.   The The authentication authentication and and certification certification isis also also necessary necessary toto ensure ensure the the compliance between the grid and the farms. compliance between the grid and the farms.


11

Introduction

2

Planning of Clean Energy in Chinese Power System

3

Experience and Main Challenges

4

Potential Solutions of Large Scale Intermittent Energy Integration

5

Conclusions


Strengthen Strengthen grid grid & & Smart Smart grid grid  By strengthen the connection of provincial grids, the wind power can be  By strengthen the connection of provincial grids, the wind power can be balanced balanced inin aa large large area. area. The The constructed constructed ultra-high ultra-high voltage voltage grid grid will will definitely play big roles on interregional transmission. definitely play big roles on interregional transmission.  The smart grid is very important for renewable energy integration.  The smart grid is very important for renewable energy integration.

R&D R&D standards standards development development   The Theexpected expectedwind windfarms farmsare arecontrollable, controllable,predictable, predictable,dispatchable. dispatchable.   The The updated updated national national standard standard for for wind wind power power integration integration will will be be available available soon. Other related standards are under revision and/or formulation. soon. Other related standards are under revision and/or formulation.


Storage Storage & & flexible flexible power power supplies supplies  Various energy storage methods can be used to balance the fluctuation of  Various energy storage methods can be used to balance the fluctuation of renewable renewableenergy. energy.  Using pumped hydro system to release load following pressures.  Using pumped hydro system to release load following pressures.  Using storage system to control the active power of wind farms to some  Using storage system to control the active power of wind farms to some extend. extend.  Using electrical vehicle to increase the flexibility of the system.  Using electrical vehicle to increase the flexibility of the system.  Fast response power supplies, like gas powered plant, will be planned as  Fast response power supplies, like gas powered plant, will be planned as well wellas aswind windpower. power.


11

Introduction

2

Planning of Clean Energy in Chinese Power System

3

Experience and Main Challenges

4

Potential Solutions of Large Scale Intermittent Energy Integration

5

Conclusions


 The clean energy will be the mainstream for newly installed plants in the next  The clean energy will be the mainstream for newly installed plants in the next decades. decades. The The impact impact ofof increasing increasing ofof wind wind power power will will be be significant, significant, which which brings big challenges to Chinese grid. brings big challenges to Chinese grid.  The load following, voltage dip and mass wind turbines cutting out are  The load following, voltage dip and mass wind turbines cutting out are occurred occurredininour ourexperience. experience.Transmission Transmissionlimitation limitationand andother otherchallenges challengesare are faced with large-scale wind power integration. faced with large-scale wind power integration.  To release the troubles, more strict integration requirements will be put on the  To release the troubles, more strict integration requirements will be put on the wind wind farms. farms. The The wind wind farms farms should should be be as as controllable, controllable, predictable predictable and and dispatchable as conventional plants for significant penetration. dispatchable as conventional plants for significant penetration.  Also, the grid needs to be updated to connect more wind power. Moreover,  Also, the grid needs to be updated to connect more wind power. Moreover, the the system system should should be be very very flexible flexible toto accommodate accommodate the the quick quick fluctuation fluctuation ofof wind windpower. power.


Thank you for your attention!

Clean Energy  

Opportunities and Challenges of Clean Energy Development in China