Page 1

P A R T II -

VICTORIA

GATE

COMPARTMENTS


Foreword Unpacking the work, the structure is key, the reader is introduced with a short summary bridging from Part I, before the programmatic arrangement, territory and site investigations are presented, followed by a more closely focused look at the various elements of the proposal and their evolution. The work concludes with two more particularly focused chapters. The first assesses the constructional issues involved in the proposal and evaluates the project with a narrative focused on the technological and environmental concerns of the design. The final chapter explains the project in relation to some of the studies undertaken for the RIBA Part II exam.


Introduction, pg.7 Chapter 8: Archive’s of the Knight’s, pg.11

COMPARTMENTS

Part II - CONTENTS:

Chapter 10 - Sultan’s Gardens, pg.37

GATE

Chapter 9: Neptune’s Gardens, pg.29

Chapter 12 - Architectural practice, law and management, pg.87 Bibliography, pg.101

VICTORIA

Chapter 11 - Technological and environmental design development, pg.51

P A R T II -

Appendix I-III, pg.105


above: Aerial photo with trafic and green space study overlay

above: Lascaris bastion past (below) and present (top)


Part II : The Victoria Gate Compartments

Introduction cultural context communication programme

The South Western Vallettian shoreline, facing the Grand Harbour, as modelled in the Vallettian cabinet is a complex amalgamation of cuts and hinges working to contain early documentation of the work in what came to be known as, the ‘Victoria Gate compartments’. The studies, which attempted to cut through the deep stratfification of numerous layers of historical and cultural complexities that have resulted in the material makeup of the fabric of this area of the city as it stands today, helped develop the idea that programmatically the interventions take form as Archive repositories aiming to help to store and display some of the artefacts of the collections of the Knights. The proposal also has the task of dealing with the current situation where, having been remodeled to enhance traffic circulation during the British occupation, the site is unpopular with pedestrians, except for a few locals who offer tourist’s horse driven cab rides, the place is usually desolate. The spaces left over by the road, are littered with parked cars by day, and left empty at night creating uncomfortable spatial voids. Despite its comand of fine views and rich history oppressively high walls and many buildings in the process of becoming derelict help to create an uneasy no-mans land condition, in this area between the boundary conditions of the sea and fortification.

historical context

above: Fisheries past (top) and present (below)

above: sultans gardens past (below) and present (top)







Part II : the Victoria Gate Compartments

Introduction cultural context Top of St.Anthony Street

communication

Stair down to Lascaris Bastion

programme

Our Lady of Liesse

The urban arrangement of the Archives, concerned with public space and the city entrance condition, aims to tackle the congestion problems of Valletta’s fortified heart in three broad moves:

historical context

-Providing a taxi-boat service to alleviate congestion and ameliorate connection to the geographically close Three Cities - Offering new ambulatory links reanimating the cleared sites of neptunes fountain and the sultans gardens with public garden space, providing a closer ecological link to the lower Barracca gardens and better abilitating the south western side-entrance of the city. - Opening up existing punctures in the fortification to create new connections to the Upper Barracca gardens and war-rooms beneath, linking to the site of the cartographical facility and gardens at the main gate of the city and onto Manderagio at the other side of the city (See ‘The Vallettian cabinet, Manderagio compartments’ by Lukas Cheah Phin and ‘The Vallettian cabinet, Main gate compartments’ by Xuan Zuo).

Munitions tunnel War rooms

The proposal, accessed along these links which form part of the public circulation through the buildings, spatially developed to be akin to the park or pathway from which it feeds allowing passers by connection with the artefacts held inside the exhibiton galleries and encouraging participation through the provision of public spaces, gardens, terraces, chess tables, benches, public toilets and outreach mini-programmes including a public internet facility, kiosk, crèche and on-sea café. above: Drawing showing tunnels within St.Paul’s Bastion, below the Upper Barracca Gardens 9


Plans showing site (in red)


Chapter 8 - Archives

of the Knight’s


woodcut map of malta by Lugduni in 1536, befoe the construction of Valletta

A brief history of the Knight’s. The Order of St. John was founded before the taking of Jerusalem in 1099 by the armies of the First Crusade. It began as a monastic community, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, which administered a hospice-infirmary for pilgrims to the Holy Land. On the 15th of February 1113, the Bull of Pope Paschal II approved the confraternity of the Hospital of St. John, placed it under the protection of the Holy See, and ensured its right of freely electing its heads without any interference from any other ecclesiastical or any law authority, in virtue of this Bull and of subsequent Papal acts, the Hospital became an exempt Order of the Church. Due to the frail position of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, in order to continue its hospitallier activity, obsequium pauperum (service of the poor), the order was obliged to pursue its other aim, the defence of Christendom : tuitio fidei (protection of the Faith). Accordingly, the Order of the Hospital of St. John acquired the additional character of an Order of Knighthood. However, in 1291, Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land was lost forcing the Order to settle temporarily in Cyprus before occupying Rhodes in 1310. Here the Order came to possess a powerful fleet engaging in many renowned battles including the crusades in Syria, Egypt and the Christian Kingdom of Armenia (Cilicia). From the beginning of the fourteenth century the members of the Order, who came from all over Europe, were grouped according to the languages they spoke. The high offices of the Order were attributed to representatives of different Langues; and the seat of the Order, the Convent, was in effect composed of a number of national religious houses. On Christmas Eve of 1522, Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent attacked Rhodes forcing the Knight’s to capitulate and, on the 1st of January 1523, they left Rhodes. The growing threat of the Ottoman empire to western Europe caused Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, to give Malta to the Knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in 1526, for a yearly rent of a Maltese falcon. In October of 1530 the Knights entered Malta’s main harbour on board the great carrack Santa Anna- the first ever armour-plated vessel. Vallettas harbours were bereft of their fortifications, except for Fort St. Angelo, where the Order took up abode. The Knights , whose service was on the sea, and who had accepted Malta only because of its fine natural harbours, preferred to settle in the small fishing village of Birgu, just inside the Grand Harbour.

Illumination of Grandmaster Juan Fernandez Heredia from the Grant Cornica de Espanya, Heredia was one of the first grandmasters to collect literature. (pg 42 Knights of Malta)

Etching of the grandharbour from university server

Grandmaster Pinto’s Galley, ‘The Knights of Malta’ H.J.A Sire, pg.92

Sea battle ‘The Last of the Crusaders, The Knights of St. John and Malta in the Eighteenth Century’ Cavaliero, pg.57


Chapter 8:

Archive’s of the Knight’s The Victoria Gate compartments, face the Grand Harbour, an area steeped in history. It welcomed the first Grand Master in 1530, and bid farewell to the last of the line in 1798, when Napoleon briefly took over before Lord Nelson took possession of the island’s in 1800. During the Crimean War in 1854, it served as an important military station and a supply depot of feedstuffs and ammunition, as a repairing yard, and as a base hospital. these facilities helped shape history when they were used later by the Mediterranean fleets and Air Forces of the British and Allies during World War II. With this rich history in mind, the notion developed that the site is idealy situated to recount the story of the founders of the city. Programmatically the intervention took form as an Archive repository aiming to help to store and display some of the artefacts of the collections of the Knights, currently stored in the depths of the National Library which has now unfortunately over reached its capacity and is unable to accommodate modern facilities usually associated with such typologies, as Cavaliero explains: “In the Royal Malta Library in Valletta are stored thousands of manuscript volumes that compose the Archives of the Order, together with thousands more of related interest. When all the other great manuscript collections have been thoroughly rifled for their secrets, it is to be hoped that those students in search of a subject for their Ph.D. will begin to think of Malta with its complete collection of documents, its friendly people and agreeable climate. They will thus assist the small team of devoted local antiquarians whose means so often tire before their zeal.” Roderick Cavaliero ‘The Last of the Crusaders, The Knights of St. John and Malta in the Eighteenth Century’,1960, pgV

historical context philosophical approach programme cultural context Valletta, Three Cities and Sliema

right: Maltese National Library, though collections of books date back much earlier it was not until 1796 that the Knights built the biblotheca, only a couple of years later, the Order lost Malta to Napoleon, his landing pictured above.

13


The capital of Malta, The city of knights, Valletta came into existence after 1565 when the Turks besieged Malta for four months causing horrific losses on both sides. That the island held out led the pope to send his own architect and Michelangelo’s assistant, Francesco Laparelli, to help build a defensible city capable of resisting another Turkish siege. On March 28th, the new city was officially born. Named after its founder, Grand Master Jean Parisot de la Valletta. The navy of the Order of St. John became one of the most powerful in the Mediterranean and took part in the final destruction of the Ottoman naval might in the great battle of Lepanto in 1571. In 1607 and again in 1620, the dignity of Grand Master was conjoined with the title of Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and in 1630 with the rank equal to the dignity of a Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church with the style of Eminence. In 1798, Bonaparte, engaged in a campaign against Egypt, occupied the island of Malta and drove out the Order. The Emperor Paul I of Russia, was proclaimed Grand Master by a handful of Knights then in Russia, in place of the Grand Master Fra’ Ferdinand von Hompesch who had been obliged to abandon to the French. This proclamation of a married non-Catholic as head of a Catholic religious order was wholly illegal and void, and never recognised by the Holy See (a necessary condotion for legitimacy). Alexander I helped the Order to return to legitimate rule; and in 1803 Fra’ Giovanni Battista Tommasi was elected Grand Master. The British had meantime occupied Malta and though the Treaty of Amiens (1802) recognised the Order’s sovereign rights over the island, it has never come back under their control.

above: Nicolas Beatrizet siege of 1565 below: Depiction of siege of 1565. from ‘L’ordre de la Malte en Mediterranée’ Enge, pg.58

Today the order continue to serve the poor in numerous charitable capacities all over the world and have a headquarters in St.John’s Cavalier, Valletta.


Chapter 8:

Archive’s of the Knight’s historical context

Programmatic arrangement of the Archive of the Knight’s of the Order of St. John The storage compartments of the cabinet had allready taken on archival duties for our work but they also went some way to inspire the arrangement of the various Knight’s archives/ public park/taxi boat terminal programmes, by highlighting places of neglected historical and cultural interest (see Chapter 5 - Cabinet Morphology). Through the strategic positioning of walls, roofs, floors, cuts, hinges, draws and other mechanisms within the city fabric the proposal seeks to weave a garden link from the Upper Barracca gardens to the lower Barracca gardens.

philosophical approach programme cultural context

15


St.John’s CoCathedral

Reprographics facility

St. Paul’s Shipwreck church

Sultans Gardens

Repository

Ferry terminal Above: Initial arrangement


Initially investigations looked to exploit the spaces created when the cabinet was opened as seams remapped onto the city. These seams then took physical shape, As mimetic doppelgangers of the cabinet at a new scale, that of the site.The work developed with a game played through placement, arrangement and rearrangement of the cabinet and its components, which took on the differing programmatic aspects of the proposal, within the city fabric allowing a multiplicity of scenarios to be considered in an effort that the proposal enhance the integrity of the wider context. The fisheries, are lowered through a jack which is connected to manderagio through a pivot, this connective quality led the attribution of a public transport infrastructural programme to this piece

The war rooms and munition tunnels as described in the cabinet are apaces concerned with security and safety, these qualities led the pieces to be representative of strongrooms.

The inkwell suggests the habitation of ground space, a park programme.

right: intial card investigations into the Vallettian cabinet fabric. left:graphic play in cabinet scale top left corner: initial plan


Playfully fitting the doppelgangers around the history and current life of the site, areas requested in the schedule of accommodation were mapped, possible arrangements investigated and new routes through the city fabric explored.

19


Our Lady of Liesse church - On May the 9th the streets of Valletta are decorated with red and white banners for a parade to celebrate the feast of Our Lady of Liesse starting here and leading to an open air concert in front of St. John’s Co-Cathedral.

The old site of the ancient fountain of Neptune constructed in 1614, swings out to point towards the Three Cities, suggesting the extension of the public park, providing a ferry link to Cottonerra. This would aid congestion, as the Grand Harbour and the large industrial zone it feeds, cut off the Three Cities from Valletta. The traffic studies revealed how the roundabout directly infront of one of the more ornate baroque churches of the city, Our Lady of Liesse, facilitating entrance to the city has had a detremental effect, and its removal is proposed to be replaced with a T-juction rearranging the area left over to create public pedestrian garden space.


Section through new public route scale 1:400 approx References from the cabinet that shaped the section are highlighted Legend 1 - Top pf Lascaris Bastion level 2- roof terrace 3- Restoration workshops 4 - Creche 5 - External ramp 6 - Digital laboratories 7 - Director’s office 8 - Public external stairwell 9 - Research rooms 10 - Public Park 11 - Temporary exhibitions gallery 12 - Conference facility

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Liesse hill compartment sectional reference

Marsamextt draw sectional reference

St.John’s Co-Cathedral sectional reference


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Liesse hill compartment sectional reference

Below the site of the now redundant Sultans Gardens, to the side of Our Lady of Liesse, are the Archives and storage facilities, they inhabit the spaces that used to house shops but are now abandoned. The proposal , taking advantage of the thermal mass of the stone cuts up to the surface, with a public stair well reconnecting to whats left of the Sultan’s Gardens that used to run below St. Paul’s Bastion where the Bastion of Lascaris was built in 1853, and around Our Lady of Liesse up to Victoria Gate.

The proposal retains residential parking directly next to the flats, yet hard landscaping around the corner, leading to the odd baroque sidefaçade of Our lady of Liesse, in the form of ramps and hinging ground plates (see Chapter 2 - Appleton workdesk, the inkwell) create a public space shaded by replanted trees and then the restoration facilities, drawing out of the fortifications above. The ramping language in dialogue with the ancient church, allows the elderly inhabitants of the area to enjoy a roam or a game of chess on the plates rising high enough to form benches and seating, encouraging social encounters and community interaction. the gardens also interact with the public space below through the public internet facility embedded in the ground plates.


A schedule of accommdation forms Appendix II of this publication, Appendix III explains the manuscript collections of the island, and a list of The Archives of the Knights can be found in Appendix IV. This research revealed that the Archives are incomplete and many thousands of documents are still to be acquired. The schedule of accommodation was created, using archive precedents and estimated additional linear metres of storage required for the missing documents.

5

1 2

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Roof plan showing overall arrangement Legend

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1 - ferry terminal 2 - temporary gallery and conference facility 3 - strongrooms, digital laboratories, research rooms and restoration. 4 - Lascaris Bastion 5 - Liesse Hill Church 6 - Saluting Battery 7 - Upper Barracca Gardens


Chapter 9 - Neptune’s

Gardens


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Plan scale 1:500 approx 2m above sea level

13 12

1 2

waiting area ticket office

11 10 15

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4 16

5 6

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

walls inspired by SirJohn Soanes house London.

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life jacket temporary exhibitions reception office exhibition walls external pier shop ticket office kitchen cafĂŠ toilet staff entrance plant rainwater collector


Chapter 9:

Neptune’s Gardens Neptune, otherwise known as Poseidon in Greek mythology, took a disliking to Odyseus (in Homer’s Odyssey) for blinding his giant son, Polypheus and so had his boat shipwrecked on Gozo, where Odysseus was forced to spend seven years trying to get away from the nymph Calypso. This chapter deals with an area where a fountain was built in his honour by the knights in 1614. The arrangement of the proposal is such that alighting from the ferry, or going to catch a ferry, the traveller always passes the temporary exhibition, and public space of Neptune’s new gardens. The glazed entrance of the temprary gallery gives sight of artefacts imediately on stepping off the ferry and a hinged wall allows the same effect from Valletta side. The positioning of the waiting room and ticket office at the end of the pier, allows good views over the grandharbour, while their stone construction shelters its inhabitants from the sun, as described in chapter 11. The temporary gallery and shop/café project from the


Plan scale 1:500 approx 6m above sea level

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Delivery point, incoming storage

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external public stair

3

sorting room

4

porters office

5

strongrooms normal accessions

6

security

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cloakroom

8

strongroom items of extreme rarity

4 1 14 3

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9 10 11 12 13 14

32

staff entrance conference room office staff room staff kitchen roof terrace/ pier


ground level of the mainland, their roofs a continuation of the garden. Inside, folding metal wall plates contain ancient etchings, engravings and paintings, neatly allocated exactly matched niche spaces. Their are two routes leading onto the space of the ancient fountain of Neptune at the foot of Lascaris bastion. They have both been detailed with ramp, stair and terracing elements forming a public space, reclaiming land previously given over to the roundabout, imposing on the public space of this side of the city.


Roof terrace above shop

The Geometry of the gardens emulate the hinging character of this part of the proposal, and emphasise the link across the road to the new public stair leading up to the site of what used to be the Sultans gardens up to 1853. The terraces of the park transgress the vertical difference to road level providing seating space, aligned for views of the Three cities, the Knight’s original landing place but also allowing best views of the yearly firework festival over the grandharbour. From the highest point shards of glass paving reveal the spaces below the park, the roof of the shop/cafÊ is perceived as a continuation of the ground, ramping up to the conference facility sat on top of the temporary gallery, and linking to the pier above the ferry terminal.


Chapter 10 - Sultan’s

Gardens


Chapter 10:

Sultan’s Gardens Limestone slabs step down at kerb level and continue at the same level as the tarmac of the road, to delineate the continuation of public space into the abandoned derelict spaces cut into the wall at the side of Our Lady of Liesse church. The largest of the existing six spaces, centrally positioned, is enlarged vertically through excavation up to the surface level ten metres above, public circulation is offered within this space via an external stair and lift. The other existing spaces house the strongrooms and security control rooms, they are not linked to the public stairwell in any way apart from a hidden, monitored one way steel firedoor. Temporary storage and sorting areas are provided directly to the side of Our Lady of Liesse, a canopy provides necessary protection for the delivery of documents, the supporting columns of the canopy reach up to support the research rooms cantilevering from the edge of the wall above, denoting the programmatic continuation.

historical context philosophical approach programme cultural context

39


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Plan scale 1:500 approx

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14m above sea level 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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invigilation and enquiry point large document research room lift toilets storage plant office


The lean of the columns suggests movement, the proposal, initially envisioned as a draw, displaces its own fabric as it does the cities.


Plan scale 1:500 approx 15m above sea level

invigilation and enquiry point research room 3 lift 4 computer control 5 digital archive 6 outdoor garden space 7 creche 8 new entrance to war rooms 9 existing entrance to war rooms 10 war rooms 1

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Chapter 10:

Sultan’s Gardens After the initial flights their is a ramp reaching up to the top of Liesse hill level where once existed the Sultans Gardens. another ramp the otherway, crossing the void of the stairwell connects to the large documents research room, on the next level one can access the rest of the research facility, cross a bridge to the internet facility, or walk through the new Sultans gardens.

historical context philosophical approach programme cultural context

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Section through digital laboratories scale 1:500 approx

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existing entrance to war rooms existing national statistics offices 3 roof terrace above digital laboratories 4 ramp to top of Lascaris bastion 5 typists offices 6 public external ramp 7 creche 8 Sultan’s gardens 9 existing rainwater collector 10 Our Lady of Liesse church 1

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Inkwell as sectional reference 43


Plan scale 1:500 approx 18m above sea level

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sultans gardens, ramp up to restoration roof of creche and kids exhibits ramp down to ferry terminal and ramp up rooftop terrace above research rooms outdoor sultans gardens existing entrance to war rooms war rooms


These gardens used to have formally arranged planting and cypress trees, all cleared for the construction of the housing which now occupies half the site, it is proposed that the rest of the site, currently used for carparking, becomes the reanimated Sultans Gardens ramping up above the public internet facility. These gardens spread around the corner, where Victoria Gate punctures its entrance through the fortifications. Two more bridges are also provided leading into the public internet facility, across the chasm of the ramp,in dialogue with the side façade of Our Lady of Liesse Church, a flamboyant construction curving around a small pond.

Sultan’s Gardens

above: Historical map showing Sultans gardens after building of the Lascaris Bastion in 1853. Below: Sultans gardens as proposed

site resistance interventional fabric displacement


to Victoria Gate

2 1 3 4 5

Plan scale 1:500 approx 22m above sea level 6

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outdoor entrance point from ramp and stair restoration workshop staff tea room and lift typists directors office stairs up to top of St. Anthony Street


Lascaris bastion

The War rooms can be accessed from existing spaces within the wall of the Lascaris bastion. These spaces come through at two metres above the ground level of the gardens, one of them is currently accesed through a small ramp, the roof of the digital facility provides access to the rest of them, giving the workers of the national statistics offices beyond access to the new garden space.

47


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Plan scale 1:500 approx 26m above sea level

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external terrace entrance point from stair information and requests waiting room and lift outdoor roof terrace stairs up to top of St. Anthony Street


Plan scale 1:500 approx 36m above sea level 1

Chapter 10:

kiosk, top of St. Anthony Street

Sultan’s Gardens historical

1

The Second floor of the offices are context similarly treated with the roof of the philosophical restoration facility also being public approach terracing. The ramping public space programme carries on through the restoration facility eventually reaching the top of the bastion, where the roof plate of the directors and curators offices hinge into the lower space of the canon view cut into the wall, creating a bridge over, linking to the existing public stair cut into the wall of the saluting battery looming over the Lascaris bastion. This stair links up to the top of St. Anthony Street where another carpark currently enjoys the views offered by the space of the canon bays. On one level the masterplan link to the Cartographical archives is formed through the War rooms which cut accross into the bottom of the ditch. However the masterplan was also concerned with the linking of the Floriana multi-storey car park to the city. This link is architecturally expressed through a small kiosk, which, excavated at the foot of the upperbarracca wall, inhabiting the ground of this higher bastion space connects to the canon tunnel below the gardens, leading, across a draw-bridge to St.Peter’s bastion for which it was designed to feed munitions. The currently barren-like garden space here is reanimated and slightly landscaped to create a link to the huge, existing excavated park-and-ride complex providing a new car-free entrance to the city for the office workers that arrive every weekday morning.

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Roof Plan scale 1:500 approx 2

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Our Lady of Liesse Lascaris Bastion Saluting Battery Upper Barracca Gardens


COMPARTMENTS GATE VICTORIA

and Environmental Design Development

P A R T II -

Chapter 11 - Technological


Chapter 11 :

Technological and Environmental Design Development 足 Introduction This chapter of the report unpacks a variety of constructional and environmental concerns influencing the design of the proposition and charters their influence in the development of the design.

Contents

structure environment construction and materials case studies and precedents

Structural method employed Design 足足足in response to Maltese Environment Material and constructional method selection Case studies and precedents

53


fig. 12.02 - Vallettian Cabinet details

fig.12.03 - Vallettian cabinet structure highlighted, inset, elevation


Chapter 11 :

Technological and Environmental Design Development Structural method employed The construction of the cabinet provided inspiration for the structure of the project, which took shape as the contemporary use of limestone in post tension. The fixing methods were aimed at allowing the Vallettian pieces to be detachable, some of the pieces are ‘set’ in a dovetail fashion into an excavated area of the previous work, while other pieces that are at differing heights to the levels of the Appleton tower concourse are attached to the base through a threaded rod that screws into a nut, embedded into the Appleton fabric. This constructional language when employed at the scale of the proposal provided the means to secure some of the intervention with minimal effect on the historic fabric, and moreover enables an ease of replacement of elements after their functional life. fig.12.04 Vallettian Cabinet Fixing details

fig.12.05 - Fixing details St John’s draw elevation

structure environment construction and materials case studies and precedents

Environmental implications, as discussed shortly led to the decision that the project should primarily be realized in the locally abundant limestone. Structurally; stone is strong under compression, yet weak under tension, these properties have been dealt with in the evolution of the arch, vault and buttress with impressive examples evident all around Valletta and other medieval city centers. Modern construction in the suburbs of Valletta, Sliema and St.Julians opts in the majority for concrete or concrete blocks to achieve multi-storey generic Mediterranean style apartments and time-shares. (e.g. Tigne point development Consultant Architect: AP Architects completion due 2007) This form of construction is expensive both in terms of energy use and cost involved in the importation of formwork and cement, as well as water; a scarcity on the island. It was seen more appropriate that the proposal use the vernacular material limestone, reinforced with modern materials, to create a more pleasingly subtle juxtaposition between the historic and contemporary fabric.

Valletta Sliema and St.Julians

fig.12.06 - Panoramic photo montage view of Sliema from Hastings Gardens, Valletta

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Steel rod screw thread at each end

Steel Anchor plate

Globigerina limestone column block

Globigerina limestone wall plate

Steel L-profile attaching plate Steel Anchor plate Tightening nut

Steel L-profile attaching plate

fig. 12.08 - Above: Diagramatic axonometric showing post tensioned column attachment detail to postensioned panel wall.

fig.07 - Above: Globigerian Limestone extraction and reuse. Maltese lime stone is extracted in the standard size of 200 x 300 x 600 mm.

The post-tensioned limestone structure that was derived consists essentially of a series of stone plates or blocks pierced by a steel rod, which is anchored on either side with steel ‘anchor’ plates. Limestone blocks are threaded into unity by the steel rods that create a skeleton frame. This frame is then clad with slabs of limestone also threaded together to allow long spans. Specifically positioned L- profile steel angles recessed into the columns and beams allow the panel wall, roof or floor modules to be hung securely to them.


fig.12.09 - Below postensioned Indiana limestone panels in storage

Chapter 11 :

Technological and Environmental Design Development structure environment construction and materials case studies and precedents

fig.12.10 - Left and directly above: Renzo Piano Building Workshop, Padre Pio Pilgrimage Church Foggia Italy 19912003. fig.12.11 - Above, right: exploded axonometric

The basic column and cantilevering beam detail allowing an open Northern façade developed in the sketch 1:50 model, pictured on the next page, was extrapolated over the whole building, as pictured above. Existing precedents of these types of postensioned structures are few, especially utilising limestone. Hugh Kluesner (‘New Stone Technology, pg.126) mentions a number of projects where India Limestone panels have been post-tensioned to span 9m (Each panel 2m high and 6 inch thickness) from column to column to carry window systems on high rise buildings in America. Arching post-tensioned stone is employed in Renzo Piano’s Building workshop for the Padre Pio, Pilgrimimage Church in Foggia, Italy, achieving up to 45m spans to support the copper clad roof. Eladio Dieste’s experimentation with post tensioning principles produced fabulous and cost effective post tensioned brick structures which seem to incomprehensibly defy gravity.

fig.12.12 - Above: Eladio Dieste structure (pg107 Innovation in Structural Art)

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Structural roof plates

Scottish Oak, representing globigerina limestone blocks

As the language developed and new considerations came into play. The structural design further evolved, with steel cables employed to hang the cantilevering beams, creating a hybrid postension system. The cable elements refer back to the gozo prototype (please refer to Part I – Chapter 6 - territories and micro-prototypes) where a staircase was hung on pulley systems lowered by the rainwater collector.

Insulated wire representing steel rods and anchor plates

dead load longterm load maximum load

fig.12.13 - Above:

1:50 maquette showing post tensioned columns and beams with non loadbearing walls.

fig.12.16 - Above: Structural connection sketches

fig.12.14 - Above: Loading diagrams for reinforced concrete beams showing compressive stress on vertical section at midspan (from ‘The way we build now’) describe the same structural behaviour as postensioned limestone. fig.12.15 Right: Loading diagrams showing evolution of proposed structure


Chapter 11 :

Technological and Environmental Design Development structure

Design in response to Maltese Environment

environment

The design of the proposal was based on the general principle of having a thick limestone wall with little or no fenestration on the South side, complemented with a thick roof providing thermal mass and a light open wall on the cooler north. This arrangement is due to the Maltese climate, which is similar to North Africa, with extremely hot, dry summers and mild winters (Average temperatures vary from 13°C in January, to 27°C in August), this calls for the inverse of environmental design that would normally be employed in the Northern conditions of places like Edinburgh, where design is concerned with avoiding heat loss. In such spirit ‘buffer zones’ of rarely habited space, such as storage rooms, toilets and plant are situated on the South side of the proposal wherever possible, soaking up the worst of the heat. Entrances have canopies or the roof plates/garden terraces above provides them with shading. Fenestration takes heed of the traditional Maltese houses, whose massive construction of rubble limestone walls are pierced only in small areas. The vernacular Maltese balconies historically made of stone, were adapted during the later period of the Knights occupation, with timber enclosures allowing more precise manipulation of light and ventilation. The large openings in the timber box allow greater ventilation, yet the small opening in the stone wall itself protects the internal spaces from the glare of the Maltese sunlight.

construction and materials case studies and precedents

traditional use of limestone in Gozo

typical Vallettian facades

fig.12.17 -Above: sketch environmental section fig.12.18 - Right: Gozo dining cabinet Pulley detail fig.12.19 - Left: Ferry terminal structural column and beam attachment details

fig.12.20 - Above left, original maltese balcony form.

Above right, Maltese balcony timber box extension

59


fig.12.21 - Prevailing wind dagram showing percentage frequency of mean wind speeds and direction yearly, based on figures from 1958 to 1987 (http:// www.maltaclimate.com.mt/112/ climate/wind.htm)

Prevailing winds throughout the year in Valletta come from the North West, however specifically affecting the archives on the Grand Harbour site is the hot sirocco wind blowing from the south. Francesco Laparelli’s grid design for the streets of Valletta allowed for fresh air from the two harbours to circulate easily in the narrow streets – a kind of city-scale air-conditioning, the layout of the proposal aims to complement this arrangement, sheltering the site from the hot Southern winds, while being open to ventilation from the cooler prevailing North Westerlies. The space created by the large stone beams of the structure between the ceiling and the roof plate is used for nightime heat purging of the stone.


Chapter 11 :

Technological and Environmental Design Development structure environment

On site harvesting of the rainwater developed a language of tilted plates, pitched to reduce demand on waterproofing. The collection of water relieves the pressure on both mains supply and sewage disposal and therefore has important macro environmental benefits. This is particularly pertinent in Malta where there are no permanent rivers and therefore little drinking water, indeed Valletta’s architect, Francesco Lapparrelli, stipulated in his codex that each house in Valletta be built on its own quarry, serving later as a cistern while the rock excavated was used to build the house. Today the expanding suburbs and tourist facilities of Sliema and St.Julian’s are causing water shortages. The desalination plants, employed for acquiring most of the fresh water in Malta are inefficient and costly. Rainfall is rare, but heavy when it comes, lasting a couple of days and usually flooding areas of the city before going straight back out to sea. With this environmental and economic rationalisation for the collection of water on site I was spurred on to calculate that with an average yearly rainfall of 533mm per square metre, the proposal at 1500 square meters total surface area would collect almost 800 cubic meters (800 000 litres) of grey water a year for flushing the toilets of the facilities. (The UK household toilet uses on average 50 liters of mains water per head of population, per day.) Other means to minimize water use on site include self stop, spring loaded or atomised spray taps, two type flush WC’s and low-flow shower-heads.

fig.12.22 - Early Plans oriented to wind direction and solar radiation. scale 1:400 Approx

construction and materials case studies and precedents

fig.12.23 - cistern below casa rocca piccola, Valletta.

61


Chapter 11 :

Technological and Environmental Design Development Initial section BB developed later with further ramping and vertical accomodation, along with a passive ventilation system based on bringing air, evaporatively cooled by the sea below the strongrooms through a passage under the park.

structure environment construction and materials case studies and precedents

fig.12.25 - early

section BB 63


fig.12.26 - Initial 1:20 (@ A0) Exploded axonometric cut through entrance of the temporary exhibitions gallery

64


Chapter 11 :

Technological and Environmental Design Development Material and constructional method selection

structure

“In Malta Masons are readily available and a stone wall is cheaper than a blockwork wall” (12a).

environment

The majority of the urban fabric in Malta is made of the locally abundant globigerina limestone, this is due to the lack of other local resources. The proposal embraces this situation, itself constituted in the vast majority of this type of limestone. Other materials are selected on a similar basis of local availabilty, this keeps the overall embodied energy and costs low as transportation distances are cut down. It was also seen fit in keeping with the programme where it may be damaging to fragile documents and artefacts having to replace elements regularly, that the durability of the materials should be high; therefore the specification seeks the highest quality grade possible in all materials.

construction and materials case studies and precedents

Walls

Weathertight limestone cladding Post-tension limestone roof slabs

Steel inner lining

Facing stone

Internal space

Seat formed from Steel inner lining

External space

Limestone floorplates Reinforced concrete pier

fig.12.27 - Sketch detail through a section of the north facing gallery wall

Most external walls are made in various types of limestone construction. South facing postensioned limestone cavity walls allow external cladding to absorb most of the heat during the day, shading and keeping the inner leaf comforatbly cool (Lower temperatures also helps conservation by slowing down the speed of chemical reaction). The outer skin is all enclosing, more or less water tight, open only for light, views and ventilation. The inner skin adds acoustic insulation, and the natural properties of the limestone mean that it absorbs and releases moisture which helps control humidity internally (Relative humidity range for documents should be of 50 - 55 (+-3). Max level of sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide pollution of 0-2µg/m³ and ozone pollution of 0-2µg/m³). A further steel internal lining, not fully covering the wall, which occasionally incorporates seating, houses the plug sockets and also hides the wiring. Doors are in the majority of steel. Window Frames and balconies akin to the lining have recycled aluminum frames and are also clad in steel. Internal partition walls are metal framed insulation or loam (a mixture of clay sand and straw) filled with Lime mortar plasterwork or steel lining finish. Rain water pipes are coated aluminum. Internal and external paint should be natural water based or boiled.

fig.12.28 - Above, Vernacular use of limestone in Gozo 65


Chapter 11 :

Technological and Environmental Design Development Floors fig.12.29 - Opposite page:

Exploded-axonometric cut through exit of the Archives of the Fleet Legend

1 - reinforced concrete 2 - postensioned limestone panel 3 - stainless steel fixings 4 - limestone cladding plate 5 - stainless steel seat/wall lining 6 - drainage / cabinet mini plant 7 - steel cabinet base inset light 8 - sealed glass 9 - limestone floor paving slab 10 - Vent insect mesh 11 - Gutter stone 12 - limestone roof cladding 13 - stainless steel window box 14 - postensioned limestone column 15 - postensioned limestone beam 16 - pelmet mounted light 17 - vent insect mesh 18 - postension anchor plate/gutter 19 - postensioned roof slabs 20 - damp proof membrane 21 - limestone roof cladding 22 - light held within anchor plate detail 23 - capping plate/Anchor plate 24 - steel I beam spanning from postensioned stone beam anchor plates 25 - vent insect mesh 26 - timber framed windows 27 - I-beam attachment 28 - stone wall traditional mortar construction

Concrete with reclaimed aggregate was selected for the foundations of the project, waterproofed with EPDM sheet modified bitumen felt. Polished lime stone and marbles were chosen for the majority of internal floor finishes due to their qualities of being quiet, comfortable, attractive, hardwearing, light reflective and capable of taking large loads. Bathrooms and toilet floors on the other hand are of a ‘granitic terrazzo’ construction, which is poured concrete to which limestone tiles are applied, meaning that no sealant is needed. External hard paving is also lime stone, though rough cut, achieving a continuity between indoors and out. Void spaces between structural and finished flooring, are exploited to contain the buildings services, including drainage, wiring (data and telephone), gas and electricity. Access hatches to these areas are concealed by mimicking the geometry of the flooring slabs, with hidden pig nose bolts. Soil vent pipe’s would preferably be of vitrified clay, which has a cleaner production than uPVC.

structure environment construction and materials case studies and precedents

Ceilings External roofing is in the majority the same hard paving of other external spaces, creating terraces. though solar boilers also inhabit some areas. The ceilings are dressed with a taught textile sheeting, perforated with lights, where appropriate. Drawings, watercolours and tapestries need a level of lighting below 50 Lux, though in the conservation areas the need may go up to 1000 lux when exposure is limited to short periods. UV exposure can damage pigment, the maximum exposure (widely challenged) is 75µW/Lumen. UV filter films or interlayers to laminated glass are used on skylights to protect exhibition and research areas. Delivery areas are also protected through the provision of canopies.

fig.12.30 - Below: Sketch showing canopy above public, staff and delivery entrances

67


2 1

3

14 4 7

13

12

5 6 8 9 10

fig.12.31 - Above: Axonometric section, through ticket office showing structural connection of gabion wall to postensioned column and beam skeleton frame Legend

11

1 - Postensioned limestone slabs forming pier 2 - Forked clamp attachment between tension cable and postensioned anchor plate 3 - Postensioned beam 4 - Forked clamp attachment between tension cable and postensioned anchor plate 5 - Postensioned beam 6 - Postensioned limestone slabs rough cut 7 - drystone wall 8 - glazing hung on steel ‘spiders’ 9 - limestone slabs, smooth finish 10 - Postensioned beam 11 - orked clamp attachment between tension cable and reinforced concrete foundation 12 - Gabion wall 13 - Shadovoltaic louvres 14 - Postensioned corner block detail


Chapter 11 :

Technological and Environmental Design Development Environmental quality of spaces

fig.12.32 - Above: Gabion walls of Bill Dunsters Castle View at the Earth Centre, Doncaster. Smaller stones at the bottom, where the mesh is denser stop snakes nesting. Larger stones are placed on the higher areas of these walls providing ventilation

Facilities have been provided for a ticket office, waiting area and toilets, catering for the taxi boat service. This area of the proposal is frequented only temporarily by most users, except the few staff. This condition allows the walls of the waiting area to be permeable, the Southern wall consists of steel mesh which holds the rubble reused from the excavations, at a slight angle to avoid the heat of the midday sun. Similar precedents include the walls constructed by Ian Ritchie Architects, at Terrasson in France or Bill Dunster at the Earth Centre in Doncaster.

structure environment construction and materials case studies and precedents

fig.12.33 - Above: Ian Ritchie Architects Terrasson France fig.12.34 - Left: section through ticket office

69


1 2

3

fig.12.35 - Above: Shadovoltaic units

4

5

fig.12.36 - Right: Perspective detail view, showing structural connection of gabion wall to postensioned column Legend 1 - Postensioned limestone column 2 - Shadovoltaic louvres 3 - C-section steel beam 4 - Re used rubble from excavations 5 - Anchor detail 6 - Postensioned limestone beam

6


Chapter 11 :

Technological and Environmental Design Development

fig.12.37 - Below: Perspective view of pier above ferry terminal, postensioned limestone to concrete foundation connection highlighted

On the North side glazing is followed by simple dry stone walling with deliberate gaps such as in the entrance wall of Jensen & Skodvin’s Mortensrud Church in Oslo or Herzog and de Meuron’s Dominus Winery in Yountville, California, create spaces of dappled light and when seen against the sun, illuminating their construction and materiality. Elsewhere in the reprographics area near St.Paul’s church a more formal version of this wall could be made with precisely cut polished stone similar to the construction of Kengo Kuma’s plant building at the Stone museum in Nasu, Japan. Cross ventilated by the breeze, the space is also kept cool by the post tensioned globigerina limestone plates forming the roof structure, which overhang the masonry walls forming a high thermal mass shading device.

environment structure construction and materials case studies and precedents

fig.12.38 - Stone museum, Nasu, Japan, Kengo Kuma.

fig.12.39 - Dominus Winery California, Herzog and de Meuron.

fig.12.40 - Mortensrud Church, Oslo - Jensen & Skodvin Architects.

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Chapter 11 :

Technological and Environmental Design Development environment

Before stepping onto the mainland, the passer by glimpses into the gallery of temporary exhibitions hinging back out to the sea. Here the building envelope creates a controlled, but not sealed, environment manipulated by the users through the North face, which hinged and perforated with doors in dialogue with the external pier space is also shaded by the cantilevering conference facility above. The display pieces are kept in weather tight glass and steel display cases hingng from the wall, which simulate the specific environmental conditions needed for their preservation. The humidity and temperature within the gallery are maintained comfortable through the envelopes thermal mass, absorbing excesses when needed and re-diffusing them at other times. The conference room upstairs provides a window box with framed views of St. Paul’s Shipwreck Church spires, and St. Johns Co-Cathedral towers.

structure construction and materials case studies and precedents

14

13 12

2

waiting area ticket office

3

life jacket

1

11 10 15 9 16

5 6

17

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

fig.12.43 - Above, plan 2 metres above sea level fig.12.41 - Opposite page: Perspective sketch proposal of Neptune’s gardens

16 17

reception office exhibition walls external pier shop ticket office kitchen cafe toilet staff entrance plant rainwater collector passive ventilation airpasage collector

The garden space externally is an undulating landscape of stone, encouraging contact and exchange similar to the ground around Sir Norman Foster’s Parliament building in London and the entrance to Foreign Office Architect’s terminal in Yokohama though the latter is finished with timber. The park has vents embedded in the hard landscaping which cross the road and come under the strong room floors to provide air exchange sufficient to keep the documents from stagnating. The vents are lined with a special aggregate stone which dehumidifies the air and filters gaseous and particular pollution.

fig.12.44 - Below, Yokohoma Ferry terminal

73


fig.12.45 - Above: Perspective sketch of proposed Sultan’s gardens digital laboratories, restoration and research areas


Paths from the two access points of the archives lead to the strong rooms, these repositories reutilise the existing abandoned spaces pierced into the wall, next to Our Lady of Liesse church. All areas within the strong rooms potentially house very valuable, rare and fragile artefacts. The building envelope will not only have to protect them from fire, humidity. insects, rodents, burglars and excessive sunlight, but will also have to deal with the winds from the sea carrying humidity and salt, that maybe too hot or too dry. As mentioned a passive ventilation system is employed here though an active system may be needed to cope with fluctuations of humidity and heat above the passive capacity. In case of electric failure however, the building should stabilize fluctuations simply through the envelope. The space is tightly enclosed with controlled vent openings. A public stairwell and lift are cut through to the surface linking the strong rooms to the digital laboratories, research and restoration facilities, which pull out from the bastions behind. This vertical space draws hot air up, bringing air from the sea which is cooled through the subterranean passages under the repository for ventilation. the special block work in the air passage covered with a light waterpermeable paint, which absorb excess fig.12.46 - Below: axonometric strongroom details moisture or diffuse it in the lack of, is inspired from the Archives of Jersey which pass BS 5454:1989 without airconditioning (the revised BS 5454: 2000 endorses passive solutions). A weather station and other monitoring points allow the building management system to regulate the opening of vents in the strong rooms to let in fresh air streams. In addition, a perimeter heating pipe raises the temperature slightly thereby reducing humidity levels if required.

fig.12.47 - Diagram showing passive environmental tasks performed by Jersey Archive


fig.12.48 - Above: “In hot zones termites construct their highly developed structures along principles of natural ventilation, thermal storage and evaporative cooling� (12b) Klaus Daniels

7

6 10

9

8

13

14

12

11


Chapter 11 :

Technological and Environmental Design Development environment 15

structure construction and materials

1

2

5 4

fig.12.49 - Section through new public route scale 1:400 approx

Legend 1 - Top pf Lascaris Bastion level 2- roof terrace 3- Restoration workshops 4 - Creche 5 - External ramp 6 - Digital laboratories 7 - Director’s office 8 - Rainwater collector 9 - External public stair 10 - Research rooms 11 - Air passage 12 - Neptune’s gardens 13 - Conference facility 14 - Temporary exhibits 15 - St. Anthony Street

The research rooms overhanging the old fabric, supported on cantilevered post tensioned limestone beams enjoy a view up Liesse Hill at Victoria Gate and the spires of St. Paul’s 3 shipwreck church, the glazing here is specially coated to avoid UV radiation harming the documents. Further into the Archive, the space is in dialogue with the old pool and baroque façade at the South side of Our Lady of Liesse, where the digital laboratories emerge out of the ground directly facing the ancient rainwater collector. The South wall is of masonry construction, the wall is equipped with vents at the skirting level on the north wall and at ceiling level above the glazed screened façade to passively cool the space and the computers. The public stair carries on up and through the restoration facility, floating above the park, to link up to the level of the Bastion of Lascaris, where existing stairs allow ascension into the city below the upper Barracca Gardens.

case studies and precedents

fig.12.50 - Below: perspective sketch of proposal as seen from St.Anthony Street

77


National statistics offices

flue

Process of construction of harbour and excavation The area at the side of Our lady of Liesse would have to be surveyed thoroughly before and during excavation, the presence of a flue down to the existing spaces 10 meters below, leads me to believe it may be partially hollow already, the investigations would not only find out the reality of the situation but also whether the excavations would affect the footings of the foundations of nearby structures. Structural Engineers would then be employed to work up drawings showing how to shore up the existing fabric until the erection of the postensioned retaining walls columns and beams. The excavation can proceed in stages, the ramp down, excavated first, provides a route for lorries transporting the excavated material, the most dangerous part of the excavations, when the existing hollow space is about to be reached will demand special attention to avoid people/material falling through. The existing wall to be retained will also have to be protected from the damaging vibrations and airborne pollution of construction. All waste should be separated for maximum re-use in foundation concrete aggregate, gravel/landscape, gabion or dry stone walls. Work would then focus on the park space replacing the roundabout, closer to shore. The

Our Lady of Liesse Ferry terminal

Temporary exhibitions gallery Research rooms Restoration and digital laboratories Lascaris Bastion Kiosk and subterranean link to St.Peters bastion


fig.12.51 - Excavation and shoring methods

Chapter 11 :

Technological and Environmental Design Development environment structure Excavations for the lift ,ramp and stair. Existing wall shored.

construction and materials case studies and precedents

Foundations and retaining walls constructed Recoonstruction of roundabout Pier: reinforced concrete poured into steel coffer formwork supporting the archives of the fleet

fig.12.52 - Constructional sequence step 1

first crane would help placing the 1500mm diametre recycled steel pipes, burrowed into the sea bed where the pier draws out of the city; these would then be filled with concrete reusing excavated material, to form the foundations for the ferry terminal and Archive of the Fleet. Arching postensioned limestone beams that traverse the space between the piers, can

79


Post tension globigerian limestone beams and columns craned in and bolted in place

Post tension globigerian limestone beams and columns of the archive of the fleet bolted down to concrete pier

Steel bridge hung from postension limestone beam

Post tension globigerian limestone beams and columns of the ferry terminal bolted down to concrete pier

then be craned in, allowing the columns of the skeleton frame and the floor plates to be bolted on, as they include the drainage pipes and other services, electricity, gas, telephone lines, it should be made sure the builders have the latest plans approved by the M&E Engineers. After the roof beams are hung the construction takes a more conventional schedule, the walls are fixed, roof plates attached, sealed and finished, the various trades (plumbers,

fig.12.53 - Constructional sequence step 2


Chapter 11 :

Technological and Environmental Design Development environment

Post tensioned limestone slab roof and walls hung onto beams and columns

structure construction and materials case studies and precedents

Post tensioned limestone slab roof and walls of the Archive of the fleet hung onto beams and columns

Post tensioned limestone slab roof of the ferry terminal hung onto beams and columns

electricians, plasterers, glazers, joiners etc) can then come in and do the final fit out, before a snagging schedule is drawn up. Upon rectification of all snags a practical completion certificate can be issued, allowing the contractors to collect the last of their pay.

fig.12.54 -Constructional sequence step 3

81


fig.12.55 - Right, principal elevation of Farsons Brewery Malta (pg.70 New Stone Architecture - Dernie) fig.12.56 - Left, Internal v iew and summer day and night response diagram (Architecture today, Jan 91, pg.39)

fig.12.57 - Above Edouardo Souto de Moura and Humberto Vieira architects of the Santa Maria do Bouro Convent conversion show interest in the juxtaposition of old with new.


Chapter 11 :

Technological and Environmental Design Development Case studies and precedents

environment

structure Peake Short and Partners - The Farson’s Brewery Malta This limestone building is an example of good use of thermal mass, being “the largest passively cooled building in Europe” (12c) Windows on the North side keep daylight adequate through the construction and deep plan. “The new process hall exploits the characteristic of such thermally massive buildings materials and uses local limestone, which was more economic than concrete “ (12d). The process hall is case studies enclosed in a jacket of buffer space from which it can be sealed, this buffer space absorbs heat and precedents in its mass and lets hot air out through its towers. The heat stored in the thermal mass is reradiated at night time to keep temperature fluctuations to a minimum. The jacket also reflects enough light into the hall to not have to use artificial lighting during the day, without having the unwanted glare of southern fenestration.

A precedent for the moving features of the proposal such as the retractable bridges, in Valletta is the balcony box that AP architects redesigned for the Marks and Spencers store, where the installation of hinging mechanisms, allows the small width of the typical Vallettian street to be spanned by an enclosed ‘drawbridge’ element created by the hinging of the facades of the window boxes.

fig.12.58 - Marks and Spencers, Valletta, AP Architects

Maltese Vernacular Malta’s soft globigerina limestone is the only vernacular stone suitable for construction; Malta’s type of clay expands, shrinks and cracks in response to seasonal temperature fluctuations and the upper coralline limestone is an unworkably hard mineral. Globigerina limestone weathers elegantly to the colour of natural sandstone, and its plasticity allows it to be sculpted down to hairpin detail. It bakes hard when exposed to the sun, but remains malleable and easy to carve under the surface. The thermal mass of this indigenous material has been exploited since the prehistoric settlements of the Fifth Century BC. By the Third Century BC. In open countryside, peasants lived in the girna, an oval hut built of rubble and resembling the shape of an igloo but with a more pointed roof. In later centuries the girnas, which retain a cool and constant air temperature, were used to store vegetables.

fig.12.59 - weathered limestone 83


fig.12.60 - Above Eric Parry Architects use of limestone at no. 27-30 Finsbury Square, London fig.12.61 - Right Eric Parrys angled stone needle part of restructuring of Southwark Gateway London

The traditional farmhouses of Malta were designed for the Mediterranean climate and having a combination of Sicilian and Arabic influences they are cube-shaped, around a courtyard, they face south for maximum sun exposure, and their loggias are backed by a corridor through which the rooms branches off. The corridor traps an insulating buffer of air so that the room temperature is as constant as possible through seasonal fluctuations, while small chinks penetrate the walls to provide a measure of ventilation.

fig.12.62 - traditional arabic townhouse arrangement


London 2002

Bibliography (Technological and environmental) There follows a brief list of the most influential resources, which helped shape the environmental and technical aspects of the thesis:

‘The way we build now – form, scale and technique’ Andrew Orton E&FN Spon London 1994

Books ‘The Idea of Building - thought and action in the design and production of buildings’ Stephen Groak E & FN SPON London 1992 ‘New Stone technology, Design and construction for exterior wall systems’ Barry Donaldson editor American Society for Testing and Materials Special technical publication; 996 Baltimore 1988 ‘Simplified design of masonry structures’ James Ambrose John Wiley & Sons New York 1991 ‘New Stone Architecture ‘ David Dernie Laurence King publishing London 2003 ‘Stone in Building: its use and potential today’ John Ashurst and Francis G Dimes The architectural Press Ltd. London 1977 W&J Mackay Ltd Chatham ‘Eladio Dieste Innovation in Structural Art’ Stanford Anderson Princeton Architectural press NewYork 2004 ‘The Engineer’s Contribution to Contemporary Architecture’ Eladio Dieste Remo Pedreschi Thomas Telford publishing London 2000 ‘Eric Parry Architects’ Black Dog Publishing

‘The Technology of Ecological Building – basic principles, measures and ideas’ Klaus Daniels Birkhauser Berlin 1997 ‘Big & Green, towards sustainable Architecture in the 21st Century’ David Gissen Princeton Architretural Press New York 2002 ‘Eco-tech sustainable architecture and high techgnology’ Catrherine Slessor Thames & Hudson London 1997 ‘Structural Design for Architecture Angus. J. Macdonald Architectural Press Butterwork-Heineman Oxford 1998 ‘Quentin Hughes the building of Malta 1530-1795’ Alec Tiranti Ltd London 1956


Journals Architects Journal, 20th September 2002 Architecture Today - January 1991 ‘The art of energy: Peake Short & Partners in Malta pg 34-41 Detail 2004 11 Entrances and foyers pg.1313 Journal of the Society of Archivists, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2001 Pg.125 Defining an Archive: the Jersey experience Denise Williams

Other British Standards Institution, British Standard Recommendations for Storage and Exhibition of Archival Documents, BS 5454: 1989 (London, 1989). The second edition of the standard was published in 2000.

List of Illustrations where photos of models are refered to models and photos are both produced by the author Title page illustration, sketch by author fig. 12.01 - detail shots of the Vallettian Cabinet model, by author fig. 12.02 - Photographs of Vallettian Cabinet model details by author fig.12.03 - Photo montage of Vallettian Cabinet model by author fig.12.04 - Photographs of Vallettian Cabinet model details by author fig.12.05 - Photographs of Vallettian Cabinet model by author fig.12.06 - Panoramic photo montage by author fig.12.07 - Photo of quarry from ‘Malta this month Nov 2004, the in-flight magazine of Air Malta’, photo of mason from www.dundee.ac.uk montage by author fig. 12.08 - Axonometric sketch by author fig.12.09 - pg 124 New Stone technology - Hugh Kluesner fig.12.10 - pg.158 New Stone Architecture - David Dernie fig.12.11 - Axonometric drawing by author fig.12.12 - pg107 Innovation in Structural Art fig.12.13 - photo of model by author fig.12.14 - from ‘The way we build now – form, scale and technique‘ Andrew Orton, pg.68 fig.12.15 - diagrams by author fig.12.16 - sketches by author fig.12.17 - sketches by author fig.12.18 - photograph by author fig.12.19 - sketches by author fig.12.20 - photo montage by author fig.12.21 - prevailing wind diagram from malta website fig.12.22 - Plan drawing by author fig12.23 - Photo by colleague fig.12.24 - photo of model by author fig.12.25 - drawing by author

fig.12.59 - photo by author fig.12.60 - pg.204 Dernie fig.12.61 - pg.169 New Stone Architecture - Dernie fig.12.62 - traditional arabic townhouse arrangement from student resources

References

(12a) - pg.40 Architecture today Jan 91 (12b) - ‘pg. 216 The Technology of Ecological Building – basic principles, measures and ideas’ Klaus Daniels (12c) - pg34 Architecture Today January 1991 (12d) - pg.70 New Stone Architecture - David Dernie fig.12.26 - drawing by author fig.12.27 - sketch by author fig.12.28 - photos by author fig.12.29 - drawing by author fig.12.30 - sketch by author fig.12.31 - sketch by author fig.12.32 - pg.53 New Stone Architecture - Dernie fig.12.33 - pg.72 New Stone Architecture - Dernie fig.12.34 - sketch by author fig.12.35 - ‘The Technology of Ecological Building – basic principles, measures and ideas’ Klaus Daniels. pg. 216 fig.12.36 - sketch by author fig.12.37 - sketch by author fig.12.38 - pg.130 New Stone Architecture - Dernie fig.12.39 - pg.54 New Stone Architecture - Dernie fig.12.40 - pg.123 New Stone Architecture - Dernie fig.12.41 - sketch by author fig12.43 - drawing by author fig.12.44 - Architects Journal 20th September 2002 Pg.30 fig.12.45 - Sketch by author fig.12.46 - drawing by Author fig.12.47 - Pg.131, Journal of the society of Archivists ; Defining an Archive fig.12.48 - The Technology of Ecological Building – basic principles, measures and ideas’ Klaus Daniels fig.12.49 - section sketch by author fig.12.50 - sketch by author fig.12.51 - photos from various sources on the web fig.12.52 - sketch by author fig.12.53 - sketch by author fig.12.54 - sketch by author fig.12.55 - pg.70 New Stone Architecture - Dernie fig.12.56 - Architecture today, Jan 91, pg.39 fig.12.57 - pg34 New Stone Architecture - Dernie fig.12.58 - photos by author and colleagues


Chapter 12 - Architectural

Management, Practice and Law


Chapter 12 : Architectural Practice, Management and Law planning implications building regulations Design for disability Health and Safety Cost drivers

Introduction This chapter of the report also acts as a stand alone essay for the RIBA Part II, Architectural Management Practice and Law course and exam, undertaken halfway through the second year of the thesis and involving a comprehensive lecture programme covering many aspects of the subject including; planning, professionalism, business management, health and safety, disability, legal frameworks, management skills, construction forms of contract, economic context, value management, financial management, architectural briefing and information handling. The word limit imposed on this section of the report however does not allow for a full account of the topics covered in the course, but instead the work aims to communicate the design issues raised by the most relevant. In the spirit of the topics this chapter presents the proposal as a reality that is about to undergo the statutory necessities prior to construction, for educational purposes however, and reflecting the studies conducted, the proposal operates in the majority under British regulations. For the uninitiated reader, the project consists of a set of Archives of the collections of the Knight’s of St.John, situated in the South Western area of Valletta, Malta’s capital city. Procurement As the Knights collection are currently under municipal care, and the proposal is seen as an extension of these existing facilities, the client is perceived to be the municipality of Valletta and the Three Cities. Preferably the client would employ architectural services under the SFA 2000, Standard Form of Architects Appointment. The client would then choose a contractor from a specific selection to whom tender drawings may have been sent and estimates for the works quoted. The partnership would then, preferably, be sealed with a Standard Form of Contract such as the JCT 2005 with quantities and sub contracts for specialist contractors, within which the architect would assume responsibility of contract administrator between the parties.

fig.14.01 - Below and opposite: Cottonera developments.

88


Chapter 12 : Architectural Practice, Management and Law planning implications

Planning implications

fig.14.02 - Above Location plan and area designated World Heritage site.

S26, of the Town and country planning (Scotland) Act 1997, stipulates “any material change in the use of any buildings or other land�(14a) is considered as development, requiring a planning permission. Without approval a structure is deemed unauthorised and failure to take action when given a notice holds a maximum penalty of twenty thousand pounds. Due to the size of the proposal I would see it appropriate to have a preapplication discussion with the planning department, simply to assert whether the proposal is feasible and if so, to ascertain any key particularities of the area which the planning officers are keen to fashion or dissuade. As the proposal exists within the boundary of the World Heritage site which includes the whole of Valletta and the Three Cities, I would expect planning conditions and constraints, though the precedents of the cottonerra developments and the shopping mall on Lucia street would lead me to believe consent is possible, of course an architect is never in a position to guarantee approval.

building regulations Design for disability Health and Safety Cost drivers

89


fig.14.03 - Above: sketch elevation from Three Cities, repeated page after next with photographic contextual overlay.


Chapter 12 : Architectural Practice, Management and Law The application would argue that the sensitivity of the site is made up for in the benevolent intentions of the development, offering outreach programmes to involve the community (public internet facility, ferry service) and not only creating long term skilled employment but also investment in the area. The redevelopment of abandoned building stock, offering the reanimation of public space and the production of new gardens along with the creation of a new pedestrian route all looking to maintain the integrity of the historic fabric and enhance it. In the UK planners look at a wide variety of material considerations in reaching their decision, a major priority is the development plan; however the right to develop is always in the application, at the discretion of the planner in accordance with an indicative policy framework. The development plan is derived from national policy guidance developed at a broad scale and concerned with nationwide organisation of space, it is interpreted for whole regions or cities, to create plans which are again interpreted by local councils for specific sites. These plans include areas where there is scope for development, areas to be protected, requirements for density and infrastructural provisions. Some areas are designated conservation areas, development here follows stricter guidelines to achieve approval, other areas are designated as green belts so as to stop any further development on them. The plan goes through a public enquiry and is reviewed and updated to achieve clarity and transparency as it aims for public involvement. Other factors the planners take into account when considering an application include access to the site and the affect the use of the site would have on existing infrastructure including traffic safety, water supply, drainage and parking issues etc. They also take into account the views of objectors, statutory and other consultees, though they are not obliged to listen to them. Increasingly planners are obliged to look at the environmental impact of the proposals. Here the proposal may be welcomed as it puts in place a precedent for the use of roof tops as garden spaces, creating ecological connectivity between the few green spaces in the city, the passive ventilation systems employed and use of local material would also help in this aspect of the application.

planning implications building regulations Design for disability Health and Safety Cost drivers

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Chapter 12 : Architectural Practice, Management and Law Design guidance exists but is not prescriptive, the planners request the application should include 1:100 plans, sections and elevations, giving details of external materials and colours, along with a location plan and site layout. In conservation areas planners are often keen to protect the character of the area, the proposal respects the eave heights and materials of neighbouring buildings. The Redevelopment of existing abandoned space touches lightly on the visible wall, while having more extensive effect on the ground behind, existing drainage would have to be double checked with the planners and an archaeologist may be employed here by the local authority, should they see fit. The Restoration facility, though hovering over the ground, only exceeds the height of existing neighbouring buildings, where the ramp reaches up to the top of Lascaris Bastion. The choice of limestone cladding fits the surrounding fabric, though the contemporary aesthetic iterates its twenty first century origin.


Chapter 12 : Architectural Practice, Management and Law

fig.14.04 - Left: Perspective sketch view from mezzanine level outside large document research room

planning implications building regulations Design for disability

Building Regulations

Health and Safety

Once the proposal achieves Cost drivers planning consent, more detailed drawings can be produced to be examined by Building Control and the Fire services, so as to confirm they meet the Building Standards. The principles of the building regulations are concerned with the design of safe space, and ensure projects meet basic building standards, providing adequate means of escape from fire, thermal and acoustic performance, adequate sanitary provisions, accessibility of services etc. If a Building Control officer, upon inspection of the construction finds the standards are not met, the unsatisfactory elements have to be removed and replaced or rebuilt and the construction re-inspected for it to achieve a building warrant. The architect is held responsible if his/her drawings and specifications do not meet the standards, even if they had allready been approved by Building Control. The regulations are a very detailed, comprehensive and extensive guide dealing with the various issues of construction. They specify minimum drainage pipe dimensions according to length, minimum door width according to purpose, number of urinals and cubicles according to occupancy, the list goes on. The project has taken on the principal themes of the regulations, for instance in the specific dimensions of stair risers, handrail heights and balustrading density. As mentioned later in the cost section, ‘BS 5454: 2000, recommendations for the storage and exhibition of archival materials’ has also been taken into account as has, ‘BS: 6399: Part 1, 1984 ‘ which sets out the British loading allowances for museums and galleries, the temporary exhibition gallery over water would have to support up to 10kN/m. All the strongrooms are situated at ground level, and therefore easily meet the demand of 7.5 kn/m² for compact storage units.

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Chapter 12 : Architectural Practice, Management and Law The thermal performance section of the standards aims for British buildings to avoid heat loss through insulation, this is inappropriate in Malta where the climate is different, the thermal mass of the indigineous limestone is used within the proposal to absorb excess heat, on the roof and south side of the buildings, while the Northern side is openable for ventilation.

planning implications building regulations

The linear arrangement of the proposal, being spatially long, thin and having roof terraces allows egress within immediate reach of all parts of the building. Due to the proposals demand for trolley friendly corridors and doors, the escape routes are of ample width especially when considering the quite small number of people the building would usually house. The limestone construction of most of the floors along with the steel doors allows containment of fire within most areas, other than risers which would require special fireproofing details between walling/flooring/ceiling, providing a minimum of half or one hour fire rating. The standards also specify the provision of clearly marking escape routes and the satisfactory placement of smoke detectors, break glass alarms, emergency lights and various types of fire extinguishers within any part of the building, due to the fragililty of some of the documents, and unacceptable risk of sprinkler head failure, “pre-action� systems should be used in archives in preference to drypipe sprinklers.

Design for disability Health and Safety Cost drivers

5 4 3 2 1

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fig.14.05 - Plan at restoration level legend 1 - Director’s office 2 - Typists 3 - staff room and lift 4 - external foyer 5 - Restoration workshop


Approved Document M provides designs for disabled toilets and stipulates means of emergency egress for the disabled. However the Disability Discrimination Act 2005, requires desktop access audits, and asserts that compliance with the Approved Document M is not enough to fully cater for disabled needs. Initial costs of disabled friendly design are much cheaper than retrospective action, considering that on average twenty percent of people in any given population have a disability its essential to avoid excluding or discriminating against them. Ramps have been provided throughout the proposal, both to ease wheelchair user’s circulation and people with prams or trolleys containing documents. Steps and entrances are clearly demarcated in consideration of the visually impaired, this is done through a material flooring change from the rough cut external limestone paving though a transitory etched and patterned plate onto a smooth internal limestone floor finish. (According to Design guidance ‘BS 8300: 2001, design of buildings and approaches to meet the needs of disabled people’). Reception desks also have a lower surface than is usually considered normal for the comfort of a smaller or wheel chair bound person.

fig.14.06 - Below perspective view of proposal Legend 1- ramp down to lift for access to ferry terminal 2- ramp up to access top of Lascaris Bastion 3- ramp down to access ferry terminal 4- ramp up to access conference facility 5- sea side ramp down to cafe

2 4

3

1

5

fig.14.07 - Above: Extract from Approved Document M


Chapter 12 : Architectural Practice, Management and Law planning implications building regulations Design for disability Health and Safety Cost drivers

fig.14.08 - Above extract from government guidelines ‘be safe and shore’ Other statutory regulations Health and safety at work Act 1974 Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 Construction (Design and Management) regulations 1994 Construction (Health, Safety & Welfare) Regulations 1996 The management of Health and safety at work regulations 1999 Health and safety & Workplace regulations 2003 Work at height regulations 2005 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSSHH)

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Under the Construction (Design and Management) regulations 1994 a planning supervisor has to be appointed by the client, to coordinate the health and safety effort, and the main contractor has to be named. Architects must ensure: -he/she has designed out foreseeable risks to the Health and Safety of constructors, or maintainers, or cleaners, now and in the future, to the users and the public. -the design includes adequate information on any aspect that may affect people, -co-operation with the planning supervisor and other designers -provision of adequate information about the Health and Safety risks of the design, (though the contractor is presumed competent i.e. knows working on the roof for example is hazardous). The main risks in the construction of the proposal include the excavation, starting with the ramp down, the hole can be dug fairly safely until reaching the existing wall. This wall would then need shoring up, the perimeter of the hole would need fences and lorries/heavy storage kept well away. During its lifetime the structural postensioned system would need surveillance and maintenance to avoid the corrossive effects of the salty sea air corrupting the components. Building economics and cost control General cost drivers. The cost of the building is affected by numerous things including its, size, shape, location, use, accommodational requirements, occupation target date, availability of materials, level of specification, quality of finish, number of storeys, size of site, access to site, planning constraints, problems with ground condition, public utilities. Site specific cost drivers. Excavation of existing fabric may hold time/financially consuming surprises, such as drainage or unforeseen ground condition issues. Limestone is readily available, it can easily be lorry delivered or by boat from the various quarries on the Island, the government of Malta is searching for contracts to keep the shipyards running these local facilities could be employed to recycle steel for the doors, the postensioning members of the structures and the glazing structures, however some of the more precisely engineered cable attachments may require specialist production elsewhere, in this case shipping times would have to be considered to avoid delays in the critical construction time path.


Programme specific cost drivers. The ferry link and conferencing facilities will help generate revenue for the programme, which as it would be municipally run, may seem costly on the public wallet. Tourism also represents a large revenue for the Island’s, the government which is keen to ‘upgrade’ the tourist clientele from the younger ‘backpacker’ market to the more profitable, mature ‘cultural-tourist’ market, would see benefits in the development. The costs of the archive programme lies in its spatial requirements including display, storage, accommodation for shipping, receiving, cataloguing, conservation, restoration and research and digital laboratories, and the requirements for specific environmental controls within these areas. Collections are vulnerable to damage caused by humidity, airborne pollution, temperature fluctuation or light. Overcoming these problems by installing close-control air-conditioning involves greatly increased capital and running costs. Few UK museums and galleries possess full air-conditioning, these only contribute to preventative conservation if they are running and properly maintained constantly. Considerable efforts have been made to devise passive design solutions (please refer to Chapter 13 - Technological and environmental design development, case study- New Jersey archives) “BS 5454: 2000, recommendations for the storage and exhibition of archival materials… provides guidance on the parameters for temperature and relative humidity, this latest revision places greater emphasis on the role for passive design and use of construction materials for the maintenance of stable environmental conditions, rather than a presumption in favour of air-conditioning” (14b) Theft and damage of artefacts are major risks, the facilities will be equipped with fully addressable alarm systems, barriers, secure shutters, special display cabinets (e.g. archive of the fleet hinging steel and glass cabinets on walls individually serviced with mini-plants), intruder detection to external openings, deadlocks and non-removable hinges to external doors, infra red movement detectors and a close circuit TV system. The digital laboratories will need flexibility in It installation in crucial areas such as data networks, including ISDN systems, designed to cope with future needs. Cost reduction Some efforts at cost reduction have been implemented in the design, the use of local material, costly structural elements needed to deal with the large floor loads associated with storage, have been avoided through arrangement of the strongrooms at low level. M&E costs for the strongrooms have been offset by the passive ventilation system. Reducing the level of specification, might mean reduced durability and therefore not prove cost effective in the long run. Value engineering, where each component of each element of the building fabric is analysed and compared with similar products to test whether any other component could perform the same job or better at less cost, could be employed to reduce costs of components. A scale change to a smaller proposal, or the reduction of excavated ramp/public spaces could also offer immediate cost reduction, though I would argue this would corrupt the design intentions, and in the long run provide less footfall on which the programme feeds. Cost Model Cost models are used to predict the cost of a building through a comparison to similar precedents and their costs. The cost model Davis & Langdon Quantity Surveyors have for this building type on their website is based upon the River & Rowing museum at Henley on Thames, designed by David Chipperfield Architects in 1997. At 2359 sqm it is slightly smaller in size to the development, which has approximately 3000 sqm of floor space, the various patent glass roof lights are similar to the proposal in Malta, though structurally it differs using steel and concrete, however the lack of examples of post tensioned limestone structural systems coupled with the fact that the costs of the local limestone in Malta are comparable, if not less, than a similar concrete construction, lead me to believe this model to be relatively accurate.

fig.14. 09 - River and Rowing museum David Chipperfield Architects


Chapter 12 : Architectural Practice, Management and Law planning implications building regulations Design for disability Health and Safety Cost drivers

The large deviation in cost from this model is the excavation costs and creation of a new pier, the foundations for the Yokohama pier by Foreign Office Architects cost £48.35 per square metre, total £21 190 000 or 16.4% of the total cost (Architects Journal 12 the Sept 2002 pg 31), as a pose to less than 6 % in the cost model below. Foster and partner’s city hall in London 2000, has a similar outdoor landscaping involving excavation and retaining walls for the space below the entrance plaza as the proposals gardens, here the substructure costs were £112 per square meter, 4.4 % of the total cost (50 million). (Architects Journal 18th July 2002 pg.30)

fig.14.10 - City Hall, Southwark, London, Foster

Summary of cost breakdown: Substructure: 5.85 % of total cost Frame: 5.85% of total cost Upper floors: 2.97 % of total cost Roof: 9.60 % of total cost Stairs: 1.56 % of total cost External Walls: 4.18 % of total cost Windows and External doors: 7.69 % of total cost Internal walls and partitions: 1.72 % of total cost Internal doors: 3.29 % of total cost Wall finishes: 0.89 % of total cost Floor finishes: 6.52 % of total cost Ceiling finishes: 1.61 % of total cost Furniture and fittings: 4.64 % of total cost Sanitary fittings: 0.42 % of total cost Kitchen Equipment: 1.83 % of total cost Disposal installation: 0.22 % of total cost Water installations: 0.93 % of total cost Space heating and air treatment: 13.52 % of total cost Electrical installation: 8.40 % of total cost Lift Installation: 0.68 % of total cost Protective installation: 0.68 % of total cost Communications: 1.13 % of total cost Special installations: 0.99 % of total cost Preliminaries and contingencies: 16.67 of total cost

Total cost £ 3 558 700 1508.56 £/m²gfa 98

fig.14.11 - Yokohoma Ferry terminal Foreign Office Architects


Bibliography (Law and Management)

Architects Journal 12th September 2002 pg.24 Architects Journal 18th July 2002 pg.30 Building Services Journal 06/04 pg.24 Approved Document M 1st May 2004 S26 Town and country planning (Scotland) Act 1997 www.davislangdon.com www.ti-onestop.co.uk www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Planning-Building/Planning www.odpm.gov.uk/planning www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1996/1996053.htm. www.hse.gov.uk health and safety executive

Illustrations Title page - sketch by author fig.14.01 - Photographs by author fig.14.02 - Plan by author fig.14.03 - Elevational sketch by author fig.14.04 - Perspective sketch by author fig.14.05 - Plan sketch by author fig.14.06 - Perspective sketch by author fig.14.07 - Extracts from Approved Document M, 1st May 2004 fig.14.08 - Extract from a HSE document from www.ti-onestop.co.uk fig. 14.09 - Photo from www.davidchipperfieldarchitects.com fig. 14.10 - Section of City Hall, Southwark, London from Architects Journal 18th July 2002 pg.24 fig.14.11 - Photo from Architects Journal 12th September 2002 pg.24

References (14a) - S26 Town and country planning (Scotland) Act 1997 (14b) - Building services Journal June 2004. Pg. 24


Journal of the Society of Archivists, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2001 Pg.125 Defining an Archive: the Jersey experience Denise Williams

References

Other British Standards Institution, British Standard Recommendations for Storage and Exhibition of Archival Documents, BS 5454: 1989 (London, 1989). The second edition of the standard was published in 2000.

(12a) - pg.40 Architecture today Jan 91 (12b) - ‘pg. 216 The Technology of Ecological Building – basic principles, measures and ideas’ Klaus Daniels (12c) - pg34 Architecture Today January 1991 (12d) - pg.70 New Stone Architecture - David Dernie

List of Illustrations where photos of models are refered to models and photos are both produced by the author Title page illustration, sketch by author fig. 12.01 - detail shots of the Vallettian Cabinet model, by author fig. 12.02 - Photographs of Vallettian Cabinet model details by author fig.12.03 - Photo montage of Vallettian Cabinet model by author fig.12.04 - Photographs of Vallettian Cabinet model details by author fig.12.05 - Photographs of Vallettian Cabinet model by author fig.12.06 - Panoramic photo montage by author fig.12.07 - Photo of quarry from ‘Malta this month Nov 2004, the in-flight magazine of Air Malta’, photo of mason from www.dundee.ac.uk montage by author fig. 12.08 - Axonometric sketch by author fig.12.09 - pg 124 New Stone technology - Hugh Kluesner fig.12.10 - pg.158 New Stone Architecture - David Dernie fig.12.11 - Axonometric drawing by author fig.12.12 - pg107 Innovation in Structural Art fig.12.13 - photo of model by author fig.12.14 - from ‘The way we build now – form, scale and technique‘ Andrew Orton, pg.68 fig.12.15 - diagrams by author fig.12.16 - sketches by author fig.12.17 - sketches by author fig.12.18 - photograph by author fig.12.19 - sketches by author fig.12.20 - photo montage by author fig.12.21 - prevailing wind diagram from malta website fig.12.22 - Plan drawing by author fig12.23 - Photo by colleague fig.12.24 - photo of model by author fig.12.25 - drawing by author fig.12.26 - drawing by author fig.12.27 - sketch by author fig.12.28 - photos by author fig.12.29 - drawing by author fig.12.30 - sketch by author

fig.12.31 - sketch by author fig.12.32 - pg.53 New Stone Architecture - Dernie fig.12.33 - pg.72 New Stone Architecture - Dernie fig.12.34 - sketch by author fig.12.35 - ‘The Technology of Ecological Building – basic principles, measures and ideas’ Klaus Daniels. pg. 216 fig.12.36 - sketch by author fig.12.37 - sketch by author fig.12.38 - pg.130 New Stone Architecture - Dernie fig.12.39 - pg.54 New Stone Architecture - Dernie fig.12.40 - pg.123 New Stone Architecture - Dernie fig.12.41 - sketch by author fig12.43 - drawing by author fig.12.44 - Architects Journal 20th September 2002 Pg.30 fig.12.45 - Sketch by author fig.12.46 - drawing by Author fig.12.47 - Pg.131, Journal of the society of Archivists ; Defining an Archive fig.12.48 - The Technology of Ecological Building – basic principles, measures and ideas’ Klaus Daniels fig.12.49 - section sketch by author fig.12.50 - sketch by author fig.12.51 - photos from various sources on the web fig.12.52 - sketch by author fig.12.53 - sketch by author fig.12.54 - sketch by author fig.12.55 - pg.70 New Stone Architecture - Dernie fig.12.56 - Architecture today, Jan 91, pg.39 fig.12.57 - pg34 New Stone Architecture - Dernie fig.12.58 - photos by author and colleagues fig.12.59 - photo by author fig.12.60 - pg.204 Dernie fig.12.61 - pg.169 New Stone Architecture - Dernie fig.12.62 - traditional arabic townhouse arrangement from student resources


The Vallettian cabinet, Victoria Gate compartments:

Bibliography

For ease of reference the bibliography is split by topic, as follows: Valletta and cabinets

Valletta and cabinets

The cultures of collecting Ed John Elsner and Roger Cardinal Reakton Books London 1994 Valletta Yesteryear damals Joseph bonnici, Michael Cassar Book Distributors Ltd Gueternberg Press, Gudja, Malta. 2001 Cabinets of Curiosity Patrick Mauries Thames and Hudson London 2002 Sir John Soane’s Museum, London Stefan Buzas Ernst Wasmuth Verlag Berlin 1994 ‘The Knights of Malta’ H.J.A Sire Yale University Press New Haven and London 1994 ‘The Building of Malta 15390-1795’ Quentin Hughes Alec Tiranti Ltd London 1956 ‘L’ordre de la Malte en Mediterranée’ Claire-Eliane Enge Rocher Monaco 1957

technology and environment Fictional island territories The fortifications of malta by the order of St.John 1530-1798 Allison Hoppen Scottish Academic Press Edinburgh 1979

journals and internet

The Last of the Crusaders, The Knights of St. John and Malta in the Eighteenth Century Roderick Cavaliero Hollis and Carter London 1960 Rules statutes and customs of the hospitallers, 1099-1310 Colonel E.J.King Methuen & co, London 1934 Latin Greece the hospitalliers and the crusades 1291 -1440 Anthony Luttrell Variorum reprint London 1982 The hospitalliers in Cyprus, Rhodes Greece and the West1291 -1440 Anthony Luttrell Variorum reprint London 1978

101


The Vallettian cabinet, Victoria Gate compartments:

Bibliography Valletta and cabinets technology and environment Fictional island territories journals and internet

The Idea of Building-thought and action in the design and production of buildings Stephen Groak E & FN SPON London 1992 New Stone technology, Design and construction for exterior Wall systems Barry Donaldson American Society for Testing and Materials - Special technical publication; 996 Baltimore 1988 Simplified design of masonry structures James Ambrose John Wiley & Sons New York 1991 New Stone Architecture David Dernie Laurence King publishing London 2003 Stone in Building: It’s use and potential today John Ashurst and Francis G Dimes The architectural Press Ltd. W&J Mackay Ltd Chatham London 1977 Eladio Dieste Innovation in Structural Art Stanford Anderson Princeton Architectural press NewYork 2004 The Engineer’s Contribution to Contemporary Architecture Eladio Dieste Remo Pedreschi Thomas Telford publishing London 2000

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The way we build now – form, scale and technique Andrew Orton E&FN Spon London 1994 The Technology of Ecological Building – basic principles, measures and ideas’ Klaus Daniels Birkhauser Berlin 1997 Big & Green, towards sustainable Architecture in the 21st Century David Gissen Princeton Architretural Press New York 2002 Eco-tech sustainable architecture and high techgnology Catrherine Slessor Thames & Hudson London1997 Structural Design for Architecture Angus. J. Macdonald Architectural Press Butterwork-Heineman Oxford 1998 Handbook of sustainable building- an environmental preference method for selection of materials for use in construction and refurbishment David Anink, Chiel Boonstra, John Mak James & James (Science Publishers) London 1996 Smart Architecture Ed Vanlinte, Neelen, Vink, Voolard 010 Publishers Rotterdam 2003


The Vallettian cabinet, Victoria Gate compartments:

Appendix I Francois Rabelais Gargantua and pantagruel David Campbel Publishers Ltd London 1994 The Island of the day before Umberto Eco Vintage Milan 1998

Valletta and cabinets technology and environment Fictional island territories journals and internet

Utopia Thomas More Penguin books London 2003 The odyssey Homer Penguin book London 2003 Treasure Island Robert Louis Stevenson Penguin Books London 1984 Lord of the flies William Golding Faber and Faber London 1993 Gullivers travels Jonathan Swift Penguin Books London 1994 Metis urban cartographies Mark Dorrian and Adrian Hawker Black dog publishing European union 2002

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The Vallettian cabinet, Victoria Gate compartments:

Bibliography Valletta and cabinets technology and environment Fictional island territories journals and internet

Journals Architecture Today - January 1991 ‘The art of energy: Peake Short & Partners in Malta pg 34-41 Architects Journal 12th September 2002 pg.24 Architects Journal 18th July 2002 pg.30 Detail 2004 11 Entrances and foyers pg.1313 Journal of the Society of Archivists, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2001 Pg.125 Defining an Archive: the Jersey experience Denise Williams Other British Standards Institution, British Standard Recommendations for Storage and Exhibition of Archival Documents, BS 5454: 1989 (London, 1989). The second edition of the standard was published in 2000. Internet

http://www.trp.dundee.ac.uk/images/gallery/Malta/2004/ panoramas.html http://www.orderofmalta.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knights_Hospitaller http://www.maltatoday.com.mt/2004/09/26/opinion3.html

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The Vallettian cabinet, Victoria Gate compartments:

Appendix I schedule of accommodation National library manuscripts

(a) Areas from which the public is to be excluded: - Delivery point for incoming documents/covered loading bay 10 sqm - Reception room (temporary storage) 15 sqm - Isolation/drying room 15 sqm - Sorting room 15 sqm - Permanent storage area/strongrooms area, 200 sqm. - for normal accessions - for outsize documents - for any items requiring special environmental controls (film, magnetic tape etc) - for any items requiring extra security on grounds of value or sensitivity - Temporary storage for documents reserved overnight 10 sqm - Conservation workshop(s) and staff facilities 60 sqm - Reprography workroom(s) and staff facilities 30 sqm - Storage for packing, conservation and reprographic materials, stationery etc 10 sqm - Storage for cleaner’s equipment 3 sqm - Office(s) for professional and ancillary staff 20 sqm - Staff library and common room 15 sqm - Staff WCs and shower(s) 20 sqm - Staff kitchen facilities 10 sqm - Staff restroom 8 sqm - Typist(s) 12 sqm - Plant rooms (fuel, water, air conditioning, fire control) 10 sqm - Rainwater tanks 100 sqm - Computer control room 15 sqm - Security control room 10 sqm

(b) Areas to which the public will be admitted

Archives of the Knights

- Public reception areas 4 x 9 sqm - Cloakroom for deposit of coats and bags 6 sqm - WCs 20 sqm - Sales counter/shop cafe 60 sqm - Exhibition areas 165 sqm - Search rooms 250 sqm, with provision for:- reference books - catalogues - microforms - computer terminals - document tables - large documents - typing and audio-visual facilities - ultra violet lamp(s) - document production counter - invigilation and enquiry point(s) - Conference room 120 sqm - creche 12 sqm - kiosk 15 sqm

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The Vallettian cabinet, Victoria Gate compartments:

Appendix II schedule of accommodation National library manuscripts Archives of the Knights

n important collection at the National Library is that of the Library manuscripts made up of almost 1600 volumes. The manuscripts have been acquired by the Library through donations, bequest or purchase. Most of them are of particular relevance to various aspects of Maltese history. A series of twenty-four manuscripts known as Stromata Melitense, formerly belonging to Ignazio Saverio Mifsud (1722-1773), contain material covering various aspects of local history. Another important item consists of two volumes comprising 88 watercolours by the nineteenth-century Danish artist, Charles de Brockdorff. The watercolours depict views of Malta and Gozo. These manuscripts treat the most diverse topics, ranging from literature, music, art, history, geography to mathematics, physics, chemistry, geometry and accountancy. Other manuscripts worthy of note include diaries as well as the catalogues of the original collections of Cardinal Portocarrero and of Bailiff de Tencin, which formed the nucleus of the Bibliotheca Tanseana. Naturally, the Library manuscript collection is ongoing thanks to the acquisition of new manuscripts by the Library from various sources. The initial section of the Library manuscripts is made up of fourteenth and fifteenth century codices, the first of which (Cod. I) is the precious manuscript depicting the life of St. Anthony Abbot in 196 miniature paintings, produced in 1426. This beautifully illuminated manuscript on parchment, which came to belong to the Library through the merging of the library of the French Order of St. Antoine de Vienne with that of the Order of St. John in 1776, is undoubtedly one of the most treasured possessions of the National Library. Cod. VI, which belonged to the collection of the Bailli de Breteüil, is an exquisite Book of Hours also carrying miniature illuminations. Fra’ Jacques-Laure Le Tonnellier de Breteüil (1723-1785), a French knight, was a keen collector of manuscripts and rare books. Also part of his collection is the outstanding Cod. XIV, worth noting also for its binding. Among the Library manuscripts, we find two bindings à la Grecque, one (Lib. Ms. 470) being a 16th century Psalter written in Old Slavonic in Cyrillic characters. The other one (Lib. Ms. 504), a liturgical book belonging to the Greek Byzantine church, is known as the ‘Parakliti’ or the Book of Eight Tones and is attributed to St. John Damascene. The collection also includes Turkish and Maghrebian manuscripts.

Arabic illuminated manuscripts were forbiden actual depictions of life scenes and are intricately embelished with geometrical patterns instead

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The Vallettian cabinet, Victoria Gate compartments:

Appendix I Appendix III – The Knights archives (N.B. The following part of the appendix is based on information provided by the National Library of Malta’s website, http://www.hmml.org/centers/malta/class/Class2.htm] The archives of the Knights of Malta consist of the papers and documents issued by the master and central convent of the order. The series are: Section I (Archive 1-72): Original documents Section II (Archive 73-254): The Books of the Council Section III (Archive 255-279): The Books of the Council of State Section IV (Archive 280-315): The Chapter General Section V (Archive 316-633): Magisterial Bulls Section VI (Archive 634-1120): The Treasury Section VII (Archive 1126-1181): Papal Bulls and Briefs Section VIII (Archive 1182-1199): Suppliche Section IX (Archive 1200-1648): Correspondence Section X (Archive 1649-1712): Statutes and Ordinances Section XI (Archive 1713-1758): The Hospital Section XII (Archive 1759-1934): The Navy Section XIII (Archive 1934-2034b): The Conventual Church Section XIV (Archive 2085-2240): Langues Section XV (Archive 2241-5258): Proofs of Nobility Section XVI (Archive 5259-6382): Terriers, General Visits, and Improvements Section XVII (Archive 6383-6575): Miscellaneous, 1530-1804 There are additional sections of the archives: The Università Treasury Series A Treasury Series B Their archives cover the history of the Order from the following periods: Syria and Palestine (1103-1291) Section 1, Original Documents Section 7, Papal bulls Section 10, Statutes and Ordinances Rhodes 1320-1522 No archival series dates from this period of the Order’s history. In addition to materials in Section 1, 7, and 10, the household of the master preserved several important archival series during this period: Section 2, Liber conciliorum (this series begins in the year 1459) Section 4, Meetings of the Chapter General (first recorded meeting was in 1330) Section 5, Liber bullarum (magisterial bulls) (begins with the year 1346)

schedule of accommodation National library manuscripts Archives of the Knights

A complete list of the contents of the archives and missing documents can be found on the website.

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M(Arch) Thesis Report, The Valletian Cabinet Part 2  

This is the 'Valletian cabinet, Victoria Gate compartments' Part 2 of my thesis study for Valletta, the capital city of Malta.

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