Man-Enviinmenf Man-environment students were hit with an academic punch this week, when they went to preregister and found that ten courses will not be offered next year. The department was also hit with a $20,000 budget cut. This effectively’ means that “one faculty member who is leaving will not be replaced’ ’ , stated _ George Priddle,
chairperson of the department of man-environment. Alarmed by the incidents, and the “possible eroding” of the program, man-environment student John Debrone organized a meeting of the students and faculty of the department to discuss the most recent cutbacks. About 45 people crowded into
dropS 70 couises -
the man-environment lounge Wednesday afternoon, only to be told that it costs more to educate students in man-environment than students in either planning or geography, and the department could no longer justify higher costs. J.G. Nelson, dean of the faculty of environmental studies, stated that the department will just have
University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario volume 7, number 22 friday, march 7 7, 7977
o-ste This week was marked by further political pirouettes from federation president Doug Thompson. Last week Thompson began negotiations with the chevron staff to reach a solution to the chevron/federation affair. Then in the middle of the negotiations he led a gang of 12 into the chevron offices and forcibly evicted two staff members. This week Thompson came to staff with a signed proposal offering to reopen the paper and pay all outstanding debts, legal costs incurred, and back pay for the two chevron editors whose positions were eliminated by students’ council when the paper was closed Sept. 30, 1976. The proposal originated from a conversation between chevron staffer Phil Cramer and Thompson last Friday. The two then wrote the offer based on the counter proposal the chevron staff made to Thompson’s last offer (reprinted in chevron Feb. 25). The new president brought the proposal to the staff occupying the office late Friday night. He assured staff on several occasions then, and later, prior to a special staff meeting Monday, that it was a serious attempt to resolve the dispute. The staff discussed the proposal in lengthy meetings Monday and Tuesday. A motion was passed accepting it as a serious basis for negotiations and some changes were made. It was expected that the staff would take the revised version back to Thompson and that any differences would be worked out in negotiation. But at the students’ council meeting Tuesday evening, it became apparent that Thompson was not serious. During the question period, math councillor R.A.G. White,, and Renison councillor Larry Smylie extracted an admission’ from Thompson that his
reinstate-investigate proposal had not been made in good faith. Somewhat nervously, Thompson conceded that he had never considered the document to be binding upon himself or council. Even though he signed the document, he never committed himself to the proposal, he said, and described his role as merely to “facilitate communication between the two parties’ ’ . The proposal, he added, was just “an effort to clarify for this council the position of the free chevron”. Thompson’s remarks raised strong protests from Cramer and science co-op councillor Stephen Coates, who reminded Thompson that in discussion with them he had expressed support forthe proposal. Said Thompson: “My- position has changed. ’ ’ When he was asked why he’d proposed reinstate-investigate if he had no intention of voting for it, Thompson snapped: “How I vote is my bloody business.” He insisted that he made the proposal merely because some councillors had “expressed a desire to see the free chevron question brought to council for a vote”. It was suggested that Thompson had “,buckled under pressure” from the Campus Reform Group. who oppose reinstatement of the chevron. (Thompson is the leader of the group which controls about six seats on council.) Thompson conceded that he had hoped the CRG would support the proposal, and implied that they had succeeded in making him change his mind. Thompson then recommended that council strike a negotiating committee of three persons to “conduct communication between council and the chevron staff’ on the question of reinstatement and investigation. This proposal, however, met
with strong opposition from Smylie, who had a motion cominging up next for an investigation into the chevron-federation conflict. Thompson then withdrew his motion from the floor, and spoke in favour of Smylie’s motion. In contradiction to both his reinstate-investigate proposal and his recommendation for a negotiating committee, Thompson declared that Smylie’s proposal was a good idea because an investigation would “determine whether due process was indeed violated or not ,” when the chevron was. closed.
to give more to the faculty as a whole. ‘ ‘ People in here are-not providing enough. ’ ’ Debrone began the meeting by stating that he “has beenwitnessing a lot of things happening to man-environment” in the last few years. He was concerned that ‘ ‘ man-environment was eroding to the point where it would no longer exist.” But Priddle responded that Debrone made the scene look worse than it actually was. As Priddle saw it, the university received an increase of 10.5’ per cent in their global budget for this year. However, when the university allocated funds, math and science ended up with increases in their budgets, while the other faculties remained the same as last year. But Nelson has divided the budget differently this year. He questioned the differential cost in educating students in manenvironment ($2,080 per student) as opposed to planning (approximately $1,800 per student) and geography (approximately $1,400 per student). Feeling the difference unjustifiable, he chopped the budget for man-environment and expanded that of geography to equalize the departments’ budgets. Priddle stated that the increased costs for the man-environment students are due to the smaller and more intensive learning situations. Man-environment is a liberal arts course, he said, and students expected unstructured courses and learning situations. Therefore, when he was forced to cut down on the number of courses offered, he tout out those courses that were structured and left those courses that offered independent research, seminars and workshops. “The recent cutbacks”, stated Priddle , “doesn’t mean the department is eroding. If I didn’t feel it was viable I’d be gone.” Priddle was quite receptive to feedback from the students and faculty on those courses that he had chosen to cut. Nelson was adamant about the department remaining in the faculty. He stated that the faculty was making every effort to continue the program. However; as it stands now, “Man-environment offers too many things”, both unstructured and structured types of courses and “it was necessary to cut down on some of the pieces”. The faculty were encouraged to teach courses to a larger number of students and co-ordinate their efforts more with other faculty members. There “will have to be much
Young Canada Even though a new student employment program has been launched by the federal govern-merit, it appears that it may be swamped by its inability to help a federation president Doug Thompsubstantial number of students. son visited the chevron offices last The Young Canada Works progFriday night to introduce his signed ram, founded by the federal govproposal which evidently was not a ernment, has been formulated to signed proposal. provide employment for students But the motion was tabled, and this summer. With finances of $26 Smylie resigned, shouting that the million, the program is expected to council had “turned over the fed- employ approximately 2 1,000 stueration to the free chevron.” dents across Canada. Thompson completed the reverHowever, it has been estimated sal of his position with the issue of a that in Ontario alone there will be press release Wednesday evening. 750,000 students looking for work. In it he stated: “Eviction of the free Of the original expenditure of $26 chevron and the establishment of a million, six million dollars is being new paper? It looks like it will come spent in Ontario. The K-W area has down to that”, saying that he has been alloted $95,000 which is good found it impossible to negotiate for approximately 42 jobs. (This is with the chevron st.aff. based on the information that the A special council meeting is average project will employ three planned for Sunday to deal with the people, full-time, for fourteen dispute. There are -. only two items weeks, at a cost of $7000.) Continued Fn page 2 To receive a grant to run a pro-
larger classes”, stated Nelson, “just have to be.” “Anyways, why should they (the professors) be telling their message to only a few people when they could be telling it to a whole group of students?” A student later questioned this view, rejecting Nelson’s notion that professors could be telling their messages to larger groups of students instead of just a few, forcing students unnecessarily into larger classes. Nelson replied that the statement did not necessarily imply the end of small classes, just that more classes would have to be combined. Apparently, the question of budget cutbacks goes beyond Nelson to the higher echelons of university administrative planning. Nelson stated that there was an expected upsurge of student enrolment in 1980 but a sharp decline in enrolment was expected in 1986. “The problem”, stated Nelson, “is how to plan for the rise and then cut it off in 1986.” At the meeting, Debrone offered no practical solutions to the cutbacks. Rather, he was interested in getting all of the pertinent information out and having a good discussion among the students, faculty, Priddle and Nelson. “We owe it to man-environment, if we lose the department, we’ll lose a lot - a helluva lot. If we go, let’s go down fighting”. -heather
Cutbacks are not unique to Canada. A recent article in the Canadian University Press News Service reported that the Danish government is planning to limit enrolment and direct students towards shorter, more technical programs similar to those offered in Canadian community colleges. There will be severe cuts in the fields of psychology, medicinL, and teacher’s college, but scientific and technological areas will be allowed some increase in enrollment. The government cites high graduate unemployment and high dropout rates as the reasons for its actions. A prime reason for the dropout rate is seen to be the changes in _ student aid two years ago. The system of interest-free loans was changed to loans at the bank rate of twelve percent.
works? ject for the new program,any community organization or business submits an application for approval to an eleven person committee, set up by the local MP. The projects must provide a service, create new jobs, be nonprofit, aimed at student abilities, and can’t create a dependence on themselves by the community. The number of projects accepted is dependent on the amount of money allotted to each area, and the length of each project must run a minimum of six weeks, employing at least three people full-time. All of the hiring for the projects is to be done through the Student Manpower Centre located at 29 Duke St. East. But a spokesperson at Manpower said the Young Canada Works program “is not a solution by any means, but is designed to help the situation.” - doug hamilton
the free chevron
friday, Contini” Opt 347A, 7:30pm sored .by WJSA and BOED. h
CC Pub: opens 12 noon, $1 after 7pm. “The Presidents” 9-l am. SCH Pub: doors open 8pm. “Sara Hamilton” Stu. $1.50, others $2
CC Pub: opens 7pm. Adm. $1 “The Presidents” 9-l am. Chinese Students Semi-Formal: Green Hall Vl, 8pm. Couple $7.50, Single $4, at door $450/person Fed Flicks: see Friday Photo Lecture Series: clinics & seminars. Students $5, others $7. Preregister at fed Office.
‘Chinese Students General Election MC2065 Meeting 8330-l 1pm. Choral-Orchestral Concert: Mozart Requiem, director Alfred Kunz. 8pm. Theatre of the Arts. Stu/Seniors e$;$$800thers $2.50. Contact . Agora Tea House: 8-12pm, CC110 conversation, music, tea and munchies sponsored by WCF. Fed Flicks: “One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest” with Jack Nicholson. AL1 16, 8pm. Feds $1, others $1.50
Sunday Folk Dancing: International 7-10:30pm 310 Charles St. E. Info: Mary Bish 744-4983. Fed Flicks: see Friday CC Coffeehouse: opens 8pm. Adm $1 “Melissa Peterson & Peter Mathieson” entertainment 8:30pm. Photo Lecture Series: see Saturday AIA Weekly Forum: “The Nature of the Canadian State”. MarxistLeninist literature will be on sale. AL211 at 8pm.
Stratford Arena, March 19 tickets $3.50
Crib Tournament: $.25 entry fee, sign up at the turnkey desk. 7pm CC Great Hall. All welcome. CC Pub: opens 12 noon, $.74 after 7pm. “Michael Hasek” 9-l am. Free Movie: “Zorba the Greek” WLU rm2C8,7 & 9:30pm. Sponsored by the Chaplaincy Free Movie: “The Fixer”, 7:30pm Opt. 347A. Sponsored by WJSA and BOED
Tuesday CC Pub: see Monday Plays: “Good God Darling, Not in the Nude” & “Leonie’s Jumped the Gun” by George Feydeau. Humanities Theatre 8pm. Contact 8854280. Presented by Waterloo Drama Group. \
Ascent of Man Part 5: “Music Spheres”, ,3:30pm. EL105
“Holocaust”, :6’;$47Ag .
Children of of Zion”, “Bondage”, 7:3Opm sponsored by WJSA & “Four
CC Pub: see Monday Plays: see Tuesday Fed Flicks: “Animal Crackers“ starring the Marx Brothers AL116 8pm. Feds $1, others $1.50 SCH Pub: doors open 8pm. “Lavender Hill Mob”. Students $1.50, others $2.00. Lecture on Judaism: CC135, 12:30pm.
Coffeehouse: 8:30pm. CC1 10, sponsored by Gay Lib. CC Pub: see Monday Plays: see Tuesday Free Movie: “Deliverance”, Burt ,Reynolds, Campus Centre Great Hall 9:30pm. Free concert & clinic: “Stratford Festival Ensemble” featuring wood-wind instruments. 12 noon, Theatre of the Arts. WJSA Kosher Luncheon: CC 113, 11:30am Ascent of Man: Part 6 “Starry Messenger”, Part 11 “Knowledge of Certainty”. 3:30-5:30 EL.105 Free Movies: “War on Yom Kippur”, “The Dreyfus Affair”, “Ben-Gurion “In Search of Zion” Remembers”, Opt- 347A 7:30pm, sponsored by WJSA and BOED.
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from page 1
on the agenda: Smylie’s investigation and something called ‘the free chevron proposal for a resolution’. Thompson, who wrote the agenda, admitted to the chevron Wednesday that this was “a misstatement, or a lie if you want to call it that”. It is his original proposal that will be presented to council. The chevron staff, however, is hoping that council will accept the creation of a negotiating committee, which was previously suggested. Also planned is an informal meeting of council members Tuesday as guests of the free chevron. The staff plans to clarify their position for the councillors before there is a decision on any proposal. - lorne gershuny
APO WY The new federation treasurer’s name was spelled incorrectly in last week’s issue of the free chevron. Instead of Kutz, it should have been ‘Coutts. Please accept the apology of the staff, Martha Coutts.
Thursday Film and Discussion: “Mon Oncle Antoine”. Speaker Prof. P. Socken Dept. of French, UW. 7-9pm. AL113. CC Pub: see Monday Plays: see Tuesday Free Concert: “Music Four”, noon, CC Great Hall. Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship Supper and Meeting: 4:30pm. HH161. All welcome. St. Patrick’s Day Pub: g-lam. Vl Green Dining Hall. Adm. $.50 Door prize and dance contests. All students welcome! Free Movie: “Garden of the Finzi-
I People to take any useable’clothing or donations for Zimbabwe Childrens’ Relief to GRC-TV at 48 Preston St. in Kitchener. Cheques may be made out to Zimbabwe Relief Fund and sent to Box 141, Main Post Office* Kitchener.
Will do light moving with a small truck. Reasonable rates. Call Jeff, 8846430. Job Avai,ab,e Looking for student taking ‘77-‘78 school vear off to assume duties as chauffeur and aide to local couple. Position is full-time and live-in, Aug. 1, ‘77 - Sept. 1, ‘78. To arrange interview, phone Mrs. Connell at 579-1337 between 3 and 5 pm.
Personal Gay Lib Office Campus Centre rm. 217C. Open Monday-Thursday 7-10pm. some afternoons-counselPhone ling and information. 8851211, ext 2372.
Pregnant & Distressed? The Birth Control Centre is an information and referral centre for birth control, VD, unplanned pregnancy, & sexuality. For all the alternatives phone 885-1211 ext. 3446 (rm. 206, campus centre) or for emergency numbers 884-8770. WHAT ARE YOU DOING EASTER WEEK? (April 4-l 1) A warm welcome and unique week await you in CUBA - colonial cities, industrial developments, new schools, factories, plantations, the sun, a beach, entertainment - what more could you ask for???? $379.00 all inclusive. To join the AOSC group, contact Canadian Universities Travel Service, 44 St. George St., Toronto, Ont. M5S 2E4, Tel. (416) 979-2604.
7 7, 7977
the free chevr&
ds his own recahf Outraged when council voted to table his motion, Renison councillor Larry Smylie resigned Tuesday night shouting “council is letting Neil Docherty take over the federation”. On Wednesday the chevron discovered Smylie had-taken the unusual step of preparing a petition for his own recall “in case council does not accept my resignation”. (Several councillors scoffed at that idea, however, saying they do not think Smylie is serious about resigning.) Tuesday night’s dramatic scene revolved around a motion proposed by Smylie for an investigation into the chevron-federation dispute. The motion called on council to “establish itself as a commission of and would require the enquiry” federation exective and the chevron staff to “prepare and present evidence and witnesses .*. .” with regard to the events surrounding the six-month-old conflict. The motion met with opposition by grad rep. Dave Carter. He pointed out that due process had been violated - the chevron had
The federation’s newspaper, the Real Chevron, now has six paid positions attached to it. Michael (Mad Dog) Dillon, who assumed editorship in the week of Feb. 18, is paid $80 per week as are Wolfgang Nagy, Pattijoy Armoogan and past editor, Bruce Burton. Brian Burke is ‘in charge of distributing the paper, at $40 per week. Ad Manager Brenda Wilson continues to receive full salary, working on the Real Chevron. Dillon was picked to be editor by Thompson after the latter offered the position to free chevron photographer Loris Gervasio at $2OO/week. The paid positions (excluding ad manager), and the people who fill them, have never passed students’ council. When Burton was editor he held the sole salaried position at the full $160 per week. -randy
not been given a fair hearing before it was closed, and should thus be reinstated before any investigation. Smylie, however, responded that the September 30 council meeting had been-an investigation of sorts. Supporting Smylie’s Xrotion were math councillor J. J. Long and federation president Doug Thompson. The situation was further complicated when several councillors stated that a negotiating committee should be struck, rather than an investigation launched, before reinstatement. Following a 2 l/2 hour discussion on the motion, council voted to table it until its next meeting. At this point Smylie exploded, shouting that he was “disgusted with council”.and that they should all resign because they were “abdicating their responsibility”. He declared that coundil was letting a “small group of people led by Neil Docherty control the federation’ ’ . Councillors’ “ inability to make a decision” and refusal to face a vote on his motion indicated “irresponsibility” on their part. As a result of this, he was resigning immediately. He then stormed-out of the room. Later he said he would contact the K-W Record and CKKW “to expose the irresponsibility of this council”.
On Wednesday Smylie submitted a letter of resignation in which he criticized both the chevron staff and the federation for their refusal to conduct and/or participate in investigations. In addition to the letter of resignation, Smylie drew up a petition that begins: “I, L. Smylie, student councillor for Renison College, request my own recall by my student constituents.” On Wednesday afternoon he said he had been asked to hold his resignation and the recall petition until after the next council meeting Sunday, March 13. His motion comes up again then. This is not the first time Smylie has spoken of resignation. After being acclaimed to the Renison seat last month, Smylie was informed that another Renison student was interested in the position. Smylie then announced that since he believed “she should be given the opportunity to run for offree’ ’ , he would resign at the new council’s first meeting March 1 so that a by-election would be held. He did not resign, however. For this reason, some councillors are viewing Tuesday night’s resignation with skepticism. “He pulled a temper tantrum when he didn’t get his way”, said one councillor. “He’s not serious about resigning.” . val
The Push could raise about $700 for the community. People sponsored the pushers per l/2 mile, and $36 were gathered along the route. Dr. George Soulis represented the Dean of Engineering on the bus. He was accompanied by some little sisters. The engineers managed to pull off the Push with the help of the twin cities’ councils and the police. Many companies sponsored the event and the free lunch which followed it. The engineering week also saw 24 teams participate in a pub rally
Greater Vancouver Regional District, and George Rich representing the “Stop the Dam Coinmittee”, an ad hoc citizens’ group opposing the West Montrose Dam, spoke on citizen participation on the regional and municipal levels. After a brief presentation by Goudge, there were several questions from the audience. One question in particular, emphasized the political nature of the Mat kenzie Valley Pipeline, s tressing that it was possible for citizens’ groups to become lost in the
where the driver stayed sober. There was a toboggan race around the campus and through the campus centre. The students beat the
faculty 8-5 in a hockey game, while some attended the two ski trips to Bar-r-ie and Collingwood. -randy barkman
About sixty intrepid engineers pushed this bus nearly three and a half miles last Saturday, but still couldn’t get it to start. So they struck out on foot for Market Square to get some jumper cab/es. Somehow they got sidetracked into a free lunch. If you see an abandoned school bus in the city, don’t worry.I Next )/ear they plan to push it back. -photo by Enginews I
at last weeks
Pair to chair board Tuesday night’s council meeting was a dramatic experience for new councillors and observers. Federation president Doug Thompson was subjected to a gruelling questioning session a la Perry Mason.
Planners discuss citizens “Stephen Goudge, assistant commissioner for the B.erger Commission, was one of the many guest speakers at last weekend’s planning conference. Speaking on the history and the novelties of the citizen participation scheme of the Berger Commission, Goudge’s presentation was one of three case studies in the conference designed “to explore the means and mechanisms of citizen involvement in a tri-level governmental system”. ’ Harry Lash, first director of the
Big Push raises money Sixty engineers pushed and pulled a bus down King Street for the Big Brothers and Big Sisters last Saturday. This colossal feat was all part of Engineering Weekend II. The trek went 3.4 miles, fro’m the university. to Water Street in Kitchener. These pushy people abandoned their lame bus here (since the parade permit only went so far) and continued to Market Square. The entourage was led by the engineering band, the Rigid Ensemble. According to Peter Boltais, the organizer of the Big Push, the engineers’ enthusiasm moved the bus faster than he could walk. Kitchener-Waterloo aldermen were supposed to greet the pushers, but didn’t get the chance, since the event ended far ahead of schedule .
Renison council/or general meeting.
process of perhaps become overoptimistic about the possible outcomes of citizen influence in the decision-making process. Goudge agreed that it was possible, but was very optimistic about the findings of the Berger Commission and the way the investigation had been carried out. “ Berger was very clear to all participants that his recommendations were not the final decision,” stated Goudge. The theme of Lash’s presentation was that language was an extremely important tool in citizen participation schemes. He emphasized that planning “jargon” seemed to confuse and sometimes discourage anxious citizens from getting involved in planning issues. He touched briefly on the plurality of citizens’ groups and the conceivable frustration, when decisions necessarily have to be comprised of a series of proposals from various citizens’ groups. A film produced by ManEnvironment student Kevin O’Leary on the West Montrose Dam preceded Rich’s presentation. Rich stated that one of the most difficult problems with ad hoc citizens’ groups was the lack of a substantial and consistent source of funding. He used the example of the “,Stop the Dam Committee”. The committee, when it was applying to the Ontario government for a grant, was forced to “twist and distort” its own mandate in order to meet the requirements stipulated by the government, to receive the grant. It was suggested to Rich that this was a method of co-optation. Rich agreed that this was a possible method, but that it did not occur in the case of this particular committee. This year’s conference was generally more successful than last year’ s . This is the second planning conference organized by undergraduate and graduate students at the school of planning at UW. -heather
Renison councillor Larry Smylie flew into a rage and resigned from council when-his motion was tabled. And speaker ‘Mauro Mavernac ruled math councillor R.A.G. White out of order “for ethical considerations” - to the obvious delight of almost everyone present. This controversy arose from an amendment calling for Randy Barkman and Michael Dillon to co-chair the board of publications. Several councillors, notably White, opposed a cochairpersonship because of the wide differences between the two applicants. When it was put to a vote, the amendment went 9 in favor and 9 opposed, with two abstentions. Speaker Mavernac broke the tie, and the motion was carried. White, however, insisted on a revote. After considerable discussion, it was carried out. This time the vote was 10 in favor and 10 against. Again the speaker broke the tie in favor of the amendment. White then called for division. When his demand was rejected, White challenged the chair. Mavernac decided White was hindering and disrupting business and ruled him out of order. “I am thinking of ethical considerations”, explained Mavernac to accompanying applause. The chair’s ruling was upheld 12-2-5. The main motion was carried 12-6- 1, making Barkman and Dillon co-chairpersons of the board of publications. Later, Arts councillor Doug Hamilton said of the speaker: “Although I didn’t agree with everything he said and did, I think he has been fair to both sides. And he’s definitely an improvement over the last speaker” (R.A.G. White). In other council business, a motion to strike a by-law revision committee was carried overwhelmingly. Math councillor J. J. Long was elected over Arts councillor Brian Bymes as chairperson of the committee, by a vote of 11-8. Long will nominate six undergraduate students to sit on the committee, and they will be ratified at the next council meeting.’ Council ended its meeting Tuesday night with a vote to extend executive privilege cards to November. The motion passed 8-6-4. -
the free chevron
12:OO am Mon Pays/My
Ttik Eugene O’Reilly, 426 St. Germain M5M lW7. (416) 789-3217
David Rea. 8:30 pm Music Winwood-Shreve.
6:00 pm Radio Waterloo News 6:15 pm Perspectives - This programme examines the organization and structure of the United Nations.
pm Radio Waterloo
5:30 pm The Titans
9:30 pm Live from the CC Coffeehouse - Pending permission we
the Dam Committee - This is an interview with a representative of a group opposed to the construction of a flood control dam near the small village of West Montrose. 500 pm People in Captivity - A panel discussion. A representative of the British Columbia Prisoner Rights Commission, Alan Welsh from the John Howard Society in Alberta, and Burt Barker, a professor of law at the University of Alberta discuss the rights and problems of people in captivity ranging from penal to mental institutions.
into something useful, rewarding and Christian. We?e helped by a decent education. By intelligence, empathy and a sense of humour. By developing a tough and gentle spirit. By having as a well-spring a rock-like faith in Christ. Come help us help others to help themselves. It’s an extraordinary life for the right kind of man. Think about it. Then, if you’d like to hear more, write or call us.
REDEMPTORIST C.S.S.R., Avenue, Toronto
6:00 pm Live From the Slaughterhouse - This week we feature
2:45 pm Down to Earth Festival - Stop
Some job description, eh? Forty bucks walking around money. Spending your working hours listening to the wretched pour out their misery. Our customers cut through every stratum of society. Our territory is all over: prisons, tough bars, squalid ro.oms jammed with families of five, broadloomed suburban living rooms jammed with everything but hope. All those folk standing in their own garbage. Those are our-people. We try to help them take the garbage and re-cycle it
This programme focuses mainly on Canadian culture and intersperses comments and interviews with Canadian music; both French and English Canadian literature, music and viewpoints in national and international politics are’ reviewed.
- Medicine Blackfoot and
stories of the Crow, Cheyenne people.
2:30 pm National Sports 2:45 pm Down to Earth
Federation of Toronto Food Co-ops A discussion with Doug Holland from the federation about the organization which is a collective of southern Ontario food co-ops. 5:00 pm Fromthe Centre - Part Two A panel discussion on health and safety problems faced by workers today.
6:00 pm Radio Waterfoo News 9:00 pm Musikanda - This week fea-
tures Sylvia Tyson.
12 of Science
will be broadcasting live from the campus centre coffeehouse, where Melissa Peterson and Peter Mathieson will be performing.
David Suzuki, geneticist, gives a summary of a book he is working on with his wife entitled “The Titan’s Return--Science in the Modern Age.” The book traces the scientific development of Man from the earliest times to the present day. He contends that man’s morality and wisdom has not kept pace with his scientific development and that, in the present when ‘science is the most powerful force on earth’ it can mold and destroy culture before the forces are even understood. \
pm Radio Waterloo
2:45 pm Down to Earth Festival - Rick Phillips from Homestead about natural soaps.
4:30 pm Poetry Readings ’ 6:00 pm Radio Waterloo News 6:15 pm Heritage - The first of two programmes
on the Berger Hearings. - This week we feature Harry Chapin.
9:00 pm Visions II:45
pm Radio Waterloo
II:30 am Wildlife in an urban environment - Dr. Valerius Geist of the Environmental Design Department the University of Calgary presents innovative paper on the integration wildlife with the urban situation.
2:45 pm Down to Earth
at an of
Natural Childbirth - Margaret Hess talks about the La Voisier Method of natural childbirth. \
5:30 pm Addiction Research ation - Dr Thulman, director Addiction Research Ontario talks about foundation.
of the Foundation of the work of the
6:00 pm Radio Waterloo News 6:15 pm Research 77 9:00 pm Crawdaddy Radio II:45 pm Radio Waterloo News
am From the Centre
Can Kill You/Part
2:45 pm Down
Development Education Centre - The Development Education Centre in Toronto is a resource centre which collects, produces and distributes material on the 3rd world.
5:30 6:00 6:15 9:00
pm pm pm pm
Sports Report Radio Waterloo News Feature on Beethoven People’s Music - The prog-
ram me features
11:45 pm Radio Waterloo
?iairMyling at westmOUrlt
the free chevron
Canadian peqple’s A rally to oppose political persecution was held at UW on Thursday, March 3,1977, by the Organizing Committee to found the Canadian People’s (Citizens and Residents) Defence Committee. The rally, attended by over 30 persons, was held in response to the recent RCMP raid on the Norman Bethune Institute in Kitchener, a centre supported by the Communist Party of Canada (Marxist-Leninist), where over 17 people were arrested on February 23. Psychology professor Doug Wahlsten spoke on behalf of the Committee, and explained the facts about the raid, the-history and significance of these sorts of attacks, and what can be done about them. He explained that “a bunch of goons charged into the room carrying a sledgehammer”. They refused to show any identification, give their names, or tell the workers at NBI if they were under arrest and if so on what charges. “They engaged in various provocations at this time,” which he called, “a typical tactic used by the police to try and provoke people into resisting and then charge them with assault.” After a while, the police announced that Fred Mason, one of the people at the centre, was in Canada illegally. They then arrested everyone in the room and took them to the Kitchener jail. For over 12 hours the arrested persons were not allowed to make a phone call or even in some cases use a toilet or have a drink. The speaker concluded that “the RCMP are organizing in the manner of the gestapo - no identification, just armed violence. You have absolutely no rights when dealing with these guys.” Wahlsten also pointed out that Fred Mason was deported immediately, even before he could appear in court to face a charge of
NDP Moves The New Democratic Party Campus Association, still unrecognized by the federation of students, held a meeting Tuesday afternoon. A speaker was arranged and the group rejected a motion to congratulate Ed Ziemba, the MPP who recently leaked the names of doctors collecting more than $100,000 from OHIP last year. The association unanimously passed the motion: “Whereas, the present structure of fees already presents students from low and middle income families with an undue burden; Whereas, the proposed fee increases for foreign students constitutes blatant discrimination, particularily in light of policies of other countries with regard to foreign student access to higher education; Whereas, the existing system of loans and grants is inadequate and blocks access to higher education for students from lower and middle income households; Whereas, increases in fees, and shifts in emphasis away from grants and towards loans, will serve to worsen an already unsatisfactory situation; The W-aterloo New Democratic Party Campus Association wishes to make known its opposition to the Ontario provincial government’s policy to increase tuition and shift responsibility for a greater portion of the costs of post-secondary education towards the students, and urges that steps be taken instead to remove financial barriers to the attainment of higher education.” The next meeting, to discuss corporate donations, will be held on Tuesday in ML315 at 2:30. - mini pathria
violating the immigration act. Under the immigration act, he said, immigrants have no rights, and without committing any crime, people are carted off to jail without any right to appeal. He said that “one of the things this really showed was what the position of our citizens are in these matters.” Although several of the people arrested were Canadian citizens, they were detained because of “doubts about their citizenship”. This leads to a situation being proposed. by Robert Andras in the Green paper - that immigrants carry identification cards. If the immigrants carry identity cards to establish their immigration status, Canadian citizens would have to carry cards to prove that they’re not immigrants. The actual effect of the raid was twofold, said Wahlsten. First, “it removed everyone from the institute, giving the cops a free rein to search everything and do whatever they wanted - any kind of sabotage for 12 hours”. Second, “by depriving people of the right to make a phone call, they couldn’t notify anybody else that something was going on, so everybody else just kept walking into the trap.” The RCMP are maintaining that there are no political overtones to the raid - that it’s strictly to do with immigration, but Wahlsten regarded it as “ a straight-forward frame-up where they use various rules and regulations to attack progressive people and their organizations.” Mason was originally deported because “he was involved in a demonstration against the US invasion of Cambodia in 1970”. Meanwhile, the speaker pointed out, people who perpetrated the slaugh-
ter of the people of Cambodia, like drug-dealer General Quang, are welcomed in, Canada as distinguished guests of the Canadian govemment. Wahlsten outlined the history of attacks on CPC(M-L) beginning with the denial of citizenship to Hardial Bains, chairman of the party, in 1964, and leading up to the “Joe Burton affair” in February, 1975, where it was alleged that an FBI agent had the party. x-l,* -- infiltrated ronowing_ this was the hysteria to deport Bains in 1975 and the vandalizing of the Norman Bethune Institute in Montreal by the police on February 12, 1976. “The February 23, 1977 attack,” said the speaker, “is the latest in a long series of attacks .”
Commr’ttee rally In order to defend themselves against these sorts of attacks, the Canadian people must seek an end to political persecution and seek to establish a democratic state. “The establishment of the Canadian People’s (Citizens and Residents) Defence Committee is a small step towards the building of a democratic state.” “A genuine democratic state can only be established by the efforts of the majority of the Canadian people .”
7 Days A Week
“The Anti-Imperialist Alliance has also been attacked numerous times after its founding on October 2, 1974,” he said. “Three of its members were fired from their teaching posts because of their political views. Members were denied citizens hip. -Other people were arrested and assaulted by the police for selling PCDN.”
is a Residential and Teaching College If you are attracted to life in a small community with names and faces, where students and faculty are seeking personal and academic values within a Christian context, we invite you to apply for . dpenings in our residence for women and men for Spring term 1977 $640 for Fall or Winter term $800
On campus, for example, the people in the free chevron are being attacked because “they’ve refused to take up anti-communism” (i.e. the suppression of communists for their political views). There is a serious danger of world war and the rise of fascism in Canada, Wahlsten said. The Marxist-Leninists and others are mobilizing people against world war and fascism and are therefore being attacked by the state. “We don’t see these attacks as being attacks on isolated individuals, we see them as an attack on the entire progressive and democratic section of the Canadian people.”
Director Affairs (885-0220)
232 King N. Waterloo, Phone 885-2530 Opposite Athletic Compiex. I
It was announced at the rally that the Organizing Committee will hold a press conference at 11:30 AM on March 19, 1977, at Toronto City Hall. It is calling a founding conference for May 4. The Committee is urging all progressive and democratic people to vigourously support its work. The Organizing Committee can be contacted c/o Doug Wahlsten, P.O. Box 2305, Station ‘B’ , Kitchener, Ontario.
Conrad Grebel College
UNIVERSITY g PHARMACY Open
9AM to 11 PM I
GRADUATION PORTRAIT SPECIAL SPECIAL No.1 $56.50
phone 7458637 PACKAGE OFFERS
I - I,1 x 14.mounted 3 - 8 x 10 mounted 12 wallets 2 - 8 x 10 in Woodgrain 2 - 5 x 7 mounted 8 wallets
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the free chevron
“Excellent opportunity” read the advertisement on the bulletin board. It looked interesting, but no details of the company name or its products were given. I decided to investigate. The poster gave a phone. number “to arrange an appointment and an orientation presentation.” Ray Parsons, a former UW grad student, answered but could not be induced to name the company or give details of the “excellent opportunities” promised. He told me my questions would be far better answered at the Friday and Saturday evening special orientation sessions. I called myself George Brown to avoid possible future phone calls from these people. I find that many students have been approached by strangers promoting Bestline on buses, downtown streets, and even on campus.
in the Theatre of the Arts Saturday Students and teachers involved in also partook in dance classes and -photo by randy barkmari
Students placed at -bottom Information on daycare subsidy obtained recently shows that of 57 students in the Waterloo region receiving subsidy, only 13 are enrolled in university programs. There are presently 10 vacancies in the region’s daycare subsidy program, but graduate and parttime undergraduate students are deemed ineligible. According to Dr. G. P. A. Evans, commissioner of health and social
services in the Waterloo region, these two types of student are not excluded outright, but placed at the bottom of the “priority list” which is used to determine eligibility when there are more applications for subsidy than there are places. Evans claims that this effectively excludes such students from subsidy because there are always applicants with higher priority. However, there are no waiting
Grads clinging Lacking quorum, the Special General Meeting of the Graduate Club was unable to make a decision of graduateon the future federation relations. Only 55 of the necessary 63 voters were represented at the meeting on Thursday, March 3. The graduates, while retaining voting rights in the federation, have not been fee paying members of that organization since 1972, when the graduate club was incorporated. The meeting was called to discuss a recommendation of the Graduate board of directors, that voting rights and graduate representation on students’ council be withdrawn. As an alternative the board suggests that liaison officers
be appointed by each organization to work with the other. This aborted meeting followed by two days the Annual General Meeting of the federation, where a motion to terminate graduate voting rights was defeated by a vote of 125 to 121. , This aborted meeting followed by two days the Annual General Meeting of the federation, where a motion to terminate graduate voting rights was defeated by a vote of 125 to 121. The final decision on this matter rests with the federation since it is their bylaws which are in question. Any further decisions of the graduate club will await the next meeting of the graduate board of directors next week.
of a meeting representatives
to discuss the merits and methods of co-operation and liaison with each other and with the Graduate Club. DATE: TIME: PLACE:
Friday, March 18th, 1977. p.m. Upstairs- at the Graduate
Club. For more information, contact Alexander Forbes, president of the History Graduate Forum (room HH 101, ext. 2647).
lists for subsidy at the moment, and according to Sheila McKinnon (director of daycare in the region) the priority list is not used under the present circumstances. McKinnon said that applications from graduate or part-time students are not considered. This is a direct contradiction to Evans’ remarks. McKinnon’s statements are consistent with the motion passed by the Health and Social Services Committee last September, which resolved that graduate students would not be eligible for daycare subsidy under any circumstances. Arthur Pope, the administrator of social services for the Waterloo region, said that students’ eligibility for subsidy is strongly based on how soon they will join the work force.
In its spiel, Bestline talks about how you can make piles of money working part-time and take trips to the Bahamas. However, they NEVER name the company or its products. This secrecy attracts a surprising number of curious people. I arrived for the first meeting, at Suite 105, 659 King St. E., in Kitchener, wearing a jacket and tie, as I was instructed to do. The meeting room, in the “Bestline Ecology Centre” had a small front stage, a soap display in one corner, (ah ha! the product!), posters of the Bahamas, and framed pictures of the company president and executives in another corner. There were 50 or so well dressed people present. I felt shoddy because I hadn’t polished my shoes!
All students are at the bottom of the region’s priority list, and students in extended educational programs, for example university or nursing, are “bottom of the barrel’ ’ . Students who have completed three years of post-secondary education (undergraduates in the final year -of a four year program and graduate students, for example) are considered sufficiently educated to find a job, and are ineligible for subsidy. Part-time students who do not hold a full-time job are ineligible because of the extended duration of their programs. -
Approximately twenty new recruits sat in the front three rows, while those already belonging to the organisation occupied the other seats. The soothing muzac ceased, and Ray Parsons went on stage. Most of the new people still did not know what the company was about.
The University of Waterloo has yet to take a public stand on the attitude of the region towards students. When asked to make a statement on behalf of graduate students who are denied daycare subsidy, both Dean Watt and President -Matthews refused on the grounds that they might jeopardize the chances of changing regional policy by putting the politicians on the defensive. Dean Watt has also said that he sympathizes with the region’s policies. However, there are moves afoot to try to change Matthews’ position by pressure from within UW. At a meeting of the President’s Advisory Committee on Equal Rights (PACER) last Monday, Nick Redding put the case for UW taking a public stand on the daycare issue. Redding pointed out that the politicians justify their actions against students by referring to public opinion, which they claim is against state support of students; if the universities remain silent when these arguments are used, sanctions against students such as denial of daycare subsidy will continue. The decision of PACER was that their terms of reference do not permit them to issue a formal statement to Matthews on this subject. However, PACER will write to Matthews, explaining that they have discussed the issue, and urging him to make a statement. -
7 I, 7977
soap - sell-
finding the -biology job market somewhat depressed, fourth year biology student Christopher Dufault decided to check oul other lines of work. He attended two introductory meetings of Bestline Products, a pyramid-sales company actively recruiting on campus and found their sales pitch to be rather like a religious revival meeting!
The Renaissance dancers are pjctured participating in a presentation of works afternoon. This was part of the dance conference held here this past weekend. dance at various Ontario universities such as Windsor, Guelph, and Toronto, workshops during the three day conference.
Parsons introduced himself as a General Distributor for Bestline Products and told the audience that he could show us how to earn hundreds or thousands of dollars on a part-time or full-time basis. He demonstrated two of their products, “ZIF”, the all-purpose cleaner, and “pink people soap”, saying these were high-quality products, but that the distribution and marketing programme equally important.
The audience, especially the back rows, laughed at his little jokes and seemed to love his presentation.
At this point he introduced another General Distributor, Marty MacDonald. Ray ran off the stage, accompanied by enthusiastic cheering and applause (again mostly from the back rows), and Marty ran on. Marty described how he had come to a meeting on the invitation of a friend who had become quite successful. This friend, Brian Seibert, used to teach transcendental meditation at UW, but had recently taken to driving a new Corvette Sting Ray, wearing flashy clothes, and taking trips to the Bahamas. Marty described how he had doubts at first and had thought “that’s got to be dope, not soap!” when he saw how much income potential there was.
He said he made only $18,000 a year working in construction, but now made much more working for Bestline. Talking enthusiastically about his new Chrysler Cordoba, his planned purchase of a Cadillac Eldorado, and his holidays in the Bahamas on company “training sessions”, he said he wanted to show us how we could make $20,000 a year, part-time. To top off the spiel he said of Rudy Revak, the company president, “He does it not for the money, but for the love of people!” Marty described a complicated hierarchy, with four levels, ranging from Local Distributor up to General Distributor. Each succeeding level involves a higher profit due to percentage shares in the investments made at lower levels and commissions for attracting new members. Marty said that it may seem that the company is creating too many management positions but that they were an expanding organisation and needed more management people to move into new areas. In time they would switch emphasis to sales. He drew a crude graph to illustrate the increase in sales’ people expected over ten years. The meeting’closed with Marty telling us of the family night to be held on the Sunday evening. Here we would be able to see how happy-these people were in business. He said, “If you’re not there tomorrow, it’s just like rip, ping up a thousand dollar bill.” Ray asked me what I wanted most if I joined Bestline. I said, “A Rolls-Royce”. I was assured that this goal was not beyond my grasp. Just as I was about to get to the best part, a voice from behind said “Hi, Chris”. My cover was blown. I made a hasty exit. I suppose you think I’m “ripping up a thousand dollar bill’ ’ .
No need to get cleaned! The Pyramid Sales Act of Ontario provides the public with some protection from this kind of operation. The Registrar of this act says Bestline was required to file a prospectus with the government. As well, they are required to build up a trust fund with money in escrow. Many people may not be aware that pyramid sales companies must reimburse dissatisfied investors to the tune of 75 per cent of their initial investment. Enquiries may be directed to: The Registrar, Pyramid Sales Act, Minister of Consumer and Commercial Relations, 555 Yonge St., Toronto, Ont. M4Y lY7 -chris x5
7 7, 7977
the free chevron
OFSvotesnot to harassMPPs By Mike Excalibur
to the free
There will be a “mass lobby” of provincial MPPs by Ontario students some time next month following a decision reached at the Ontario Federation of Students conference held at Sudbury’s Laurentian University last weekend. Arising from a workshop discussion of strategy to oppose government post-secondary education policies, OFS members voted to send a “reasonably sized” group of representatives to Queen’s Park on the first business day of the next session to ask MPPs “straight auestions on tuition fees, student aid and summer employment”. Steve Shalhoun from McMaster University said, “I think this action will force MPPs to take a stand on educational issues which we can remind them of during the next election campaign’ ’ . Some delegates expressed the 1
-. fear that “if too many students” attend the lobby, the MPPs might feel harassed. Peter Meisenheimer, President of the Guelph University Student Union said “ I feel I’m being harassed when ‘they raise my tuition fees,, . During the three day conference delegates attended workshops on _- -_--commuity-Gii&ges and the student press as well as the strategy session. Delegates also attended an information session on education funding and a debate between a representative of OFS and the government on “the economics of post-secondary education”. The conference concluded with the Sunday plenary. At the final plenary of the OFS members also voted to expand both local and central efforts to gain support and endorsements for their campaign to roll back tuition hikes and seek reform in the student aid program as well as the necessity for student summer employment.
u WHY CAN’TYOU EVER F’UBU6HANY 6ootl NEWSAWUT%f& RCJMNJEM&E?”
on railtiays The need for free enterprise as opposed to more government control of railways was the gist of the keynote speech given to the inaugural dinner of the Sir Sanford Fleming Foundation last Monday night. Keith Campbell, a vice-president of CP Ltd. and the senior executive officer of CP Rail, spoke on: “Crossrtiads . . .Is there a future for Canada’s railways?“, and took direct aim at the federal government’s present railway policy. Speaking to an audience of students, professors, and engineers from the community, he made some preliminary remarks lauding the accomplishments of the company’s first chief engineer, Sir Sandford Fleming. - He then turned to the main subject of his address. He remarked that although he had been asked to speak on the next one hundred years of Canada’s railways, he often found it difficult to predict the future one year in advance. He said that if he had been asked in January about the future of the Canadian railways, he would have replied that he was cautious but very optimistic. But now he says he is merely cautious. The reason for this change is the intention of the government to make railways an instrument of national policy, as evidenced by the introduction in parliament, on January 27, of Bill C-33. This bill, charged Campbell, would set up a cumbersome regulatory body to administer the railways, allow more government control (which would tend to make railway decisions political), and pave the way to ‘formula freight rates’. Since 1967, the railways have been allowed to operate and set
rates in accordance with free market principles, with a few exceptions - notably, grain transport for export, and areas where a monopoly on transportation exists. This, claimed Campbell, has worked well, as evidenced by new technology and innovations such as containerized freight and piggy back cars. But the government wants to replace this with set rates related to the railway’s costs, against the wishes of the railway and the vast majority of shippers, ’ the railway’s customers. Campbell pointed out that formula freight-rates imposed in Britain contributed to the bankruptcy and subsequent nationalization of its railways, that they were tried in France and abandoned within ten years, and that they are partially responsible for the current problems in the northeastern United States. He also stated that because of current government regualtion, the railway loses $100 million annually carrying grain for export at rates set about the turn of the century, and on unprofitable passenger and commuter runs. At present the company is not reimbursed for these losses and as a result, the profit for the 1976 year will probably not exceed 6 per cent. This rate of return is ndt sufficient to justify the capital required to maintain the present facilities, let alone expand them. Campbell concluded that, although railways are inherently more efficient with their use of land and energy than highways and air craft, the next few years would be critical in determining the health and future of the railway industry in Canada. Also at the dinner, students were honoured for winning scholarships, and others were awarded with prizes won for their work reports. -frank
This involved seeking support from groups such as school boards, community groups and labour unions. It was also decided to form election preparedness committees on all campuses in anticipation of a provincial election. Anticipating a spring election, the delegates felt the election committees could play a role in getting students enumerated and “gathering” the positions of all local candidates on issues, especially education. A motion asking the Ontario government to clarify its position on the controversial OLANG report on student aid was also passed. Delegates also voted to make the position of OFS chairperson a
--full-time one. It was felt b$ the executive that under the current arrangement the chairperson was unable to do a complete job because, as well as . fulfilling OFS duties, the chairperson aisohad responsibilities on his or her own campus. The motion for a full-time chairperson krought with it a complicated voting procedure which, according to OFS chairperson Murray Miskin-was designed to assure that no person would be elected to the post that would alienate any member institutions. Miskin felt that because the position of fulltime chairperson was politically sensitive, candidates must be strictly screened. Before the vote for chairperson, a poll would be conducted of delegates in which they would indicate which candidates they found ac-
ceptable or unacceptable. Any candidate not receiving a twothirds accepted vote would not be put on the ballot. It would then take a simple majority vote to be elected chairperson. In a motion arising out of the workshop on the student press, the OFS delegates voted in favour of the principle Ff an autonomous student press with independent funding from the student councils. The delegates agreed to work with ( the Ontario Region of the Canadian University Press to draw up models under which the student councils would no longer act as publishers of the campus newspapers as they do . at some institutions. The federation also voted to join in a petition campaign already started in Toronto to urge the Ontario government to continue the provincial rent review program.
Intrasport Repoft \ plied for Optometry. Team Alufawhore closed out their season by downing the Canucks 3-l and remaining undefeated. The game was a very chippy affair with 15 penalities being assessed during the match. Dave Benson led the way for the Men’s Competitive Basketball Alufawhores with two goals, while This week saw some excellent linemate Mike Dempster added the basketball Play as the regular sea- third Alufawhore marker. Brian son drew to a-close. These games Watson scored the only goal for the were, however, overshadowed by Canucks. . the strong play shown in the first A League hockey action came to round of playoffs. a close on February 28, when Bad In what was considered bY many Company defeated Medicine 5-2. to be an upset, The Mists showed B. Sarazin scored twice for Bad theirbestformofthe seasonindeCompany, with singles going to D. feating the PreviouslY unbeaten Bamoski, H. Kantor, and D. MarEast 5 Selects. East 5 was seriously shman. Connell and Reid scored undermanned from the start, field- for Medicine. ing only six players, and showed A League playoffs got underway their weariness late in the second on March 2, with West Atilla meethalf. ing Optometry A, and West Alumni The Mists managed to dominate versus Math. the strong-rebounding East 5 team Optometry A ’ defeated West and stole more than one basket. A Atilla4-3 in an overtime thriller that line game throughout, tempers saw Optometry A tie the game with flared on several occasions and the one second remaining in the final game became extremely physical. period and then go on to victory in The final score: 27-3 1, Mists over overtime, East 5. G. Leinweber proved to be the In other B league playoff games, hero for the Optometrists as he the Ball Hogs showed theni’selves fired the winning goal at the 2:55 to be a team capable of going all the mark of the overtime session. M. way by destroying the Nuts and , Falke picked up two goals for the Bolts 45 to 3 1. Although starting off winners while R. Moore scored as a close game, the Ball Hogs pul- once. S. Johnston, P. Bromley, and led away to a large lead in the set- Clarke scored for West Atilla. ond half and won the race. In the other A League playoff Sunday saw no less than 3 de- game on March 2, West Alumni faulted playoff games including one dropped Math 4-2. Gary Fick popin A league. We can only conclude ped in two goals for West with D. that these teams were unable to be Bourgeois and J. Bobette scoring reached by phone, while at the one apiece. S. Sutton and E. Lebar same time neglecting to check with replied for the Mathies. the intramural office for a playoff In the other first*round action on schedule. March 6, St. Jerome’s overpowAt any rate, the one A league ered Medicine 6-2, and Bad Complayoff game between Firehouse pany squeaked by V2 South 3-2 in and the Tiny Toddlers was well overtime. 3layed, although extremely Aldwinkle picked up two goals roughly, and ended in a 59-52 win for St. Jerome’s with singles going ?or the Toddlers. This places the to Dawling, Orsini, Elliot, and Toddlers in the position of having Field..Graham and Stark replied for ;o defeat the unbeaten Waterloo Medicine. Wizards who seem destined for the D. Bamoski snapped a 2-2 deadeague final, it should prove to be lock between Bad Company and quite a game. V2 South with an overtime goal and With East 5 out of the race in B enabled Bad Company to advance eague, it could almost be anyone’s to second round playoff action. championship, but I lean toward Bob Ballantyne and B. Nielson he Mists or Ball Hogs for a berth in scored one each for Bad Company, :he final, facing almost anyone of while Mannilla and Sanderson con.he four remaining teams successtributed one goal apiece for the Vil‘ully. At any rate, both league finals lagers. ire in the main gym at 7: 00 and 9: 15 In the second round play, West )rn on Monday, March 15. If you want to see some of the best in- Alumni will ,go against Optometry A and Bad Company will meet St. .ramural basketball of the year, Jerome%. >lan to be there. Bad Company is slightly Men’s Competitive Hockey favoured over St. Jerome’s by virRegular season play in B Lea&e tue of their undefeated season, came to an end on March 1. while West Alumni has a small edge On February 28, the Rideau Im- over Optometry, also because of an ports ended their season on a win- undefeated se&on. ning note by edging Optometry B, Conrad Grebel rolled to an easy 3-2. R. Russell, L. Groulx and J. 6-2 win over Optometry B on Stearns scored for the Imports, March 3, with Franzen, Millar, while D. Gote and B. Robinson re- Lofthouse, Dick, Filion and Block I
scoring for the-winners. Robinson and Gote picked up one goal each for the Optometrists. In other playoff action on March 3, the Rockers defeated V 1 East 4-3 in a game decided on penalty shots after overtime failed to settle the stalemate. Thrasher proved to be the hero for the Rockers when he cashed in on his penalty shot. Other scoreers for the winners were Holroyd with two, and Harris with one. Hammill and Mockler scored for Vl East. On March 4, VI South edged the Rideau Imports 3-2 to advance to second roun! play. Farquhar scored twice for South, with Clarke picking up a single. J. Handy and P. Bill scored one each for the losers. V 1 West nosed out St. Paul’s 2- 1 on March 4, with McCormick and Joslin scoring for West, while Bowery picked up the only St. Paul’s goal. In second round play, Co-op will meet the Rockers, East A plays Conrad Grebel, Coca’s Nuts goes against Vl South, and team Alufawhore will tangle with Vl West. L Co-op and Conrad Grebel are favoured to advance to the semifinals, while Team Alufawhore and Coca’s Nuts should meet in the other semi-finals. The finals for both A and B leagues will be played on Friday, March 11, at Moses Springer with -the B league final getting underway at 2:00 pm followed by the A league final.
West Alumni defeated Optometry on Monday Night 5-2 to enter the finals in A league. Mark Richer had 3 goals and Ted “Jethro” Sanders had 2 for the winners. The A final is 3: 30 pm this Friday.
Hockey: Friday, March 11 - B league at 2:00 pm and A league at 3:30 pm. Both games played at Moses Springer Arena. Look for thegame “A” West Alumni and Bad Company or St. Jerome’ s. Floor Hockey: Thursday, March 17, 5:00 pm at Seagrams Basketball (Men’s Competitive): Monday, March 17 at 7:00 pm in the main gym. Women’s Basketball: Monday, March 14 at 6:00 pm and 8:15 Pm* Broomball Tourney: Friday, March 11 from 12:00 noon - 3100 pm at Moses Springer and McCormick arenas. Tournaments ‘Table Tennis: Final entry date is Friday, March II,2040 PAC by 4:30 pm. Tourney starts Wednesday, March 16? 5:00 - 11:00 nm yx11. Mixed Volleyball: Final entry date, Friday, March 11,204O PAC by 4:30 pm. T ourney: Tourney starts Tuesda.y, March 15, 5:00 - lo:45 pm.
the free chevron
I I, 1977
In the “Rites
UW dance group alluring
at 161 King
Music forms becoming space, the cube of stage space being stretched, made sensuous, bodies drawing lines of force, melody line and rhythms becoming visible, emotion becoming movement. Music, space, movement being celebrated in the “Rites of Spring”. Spring birth following a winter of hard work for the UW Repertory Dance Company and Carousel Performing Group. Last Friday night, Vicky Galea’s unfortunate absence reduced the number of dances on the program to an unlucky thirteen, but no disasters ensued. A temporary loss of sound in the final number set one member of the company to dancing without music. That improvisation was one sign of the fine, unpretentious pleasure in dancing which was evident all through the performance. If I had expected to see. professionals dancing, I would have been disturbed by the occasional moments of shakiness and tension on stage. However, the dance was competent and several of the dancers were clearly at ease with their techniques. I was surprised to find that more than half of the numbers were choreographed by students. Also, it was a pleasure to see in action Carousel, a group of children and university students, created to give young artists a forum for their work and to present concerts to young audiences. The most exciting points of the show for me were “Dune Altar’s” and ‘ ‘ Fiasco” , works choreog-
2 SHOWS NIGHTLY 7 &X25 PM MATINEE SAT. & SUN. 2 PM
Market Square Eati .-Y
raphed respectively by Diana Taplin and Judy Jarvis. In both dances, the dancers moved in assymetrical, seemingly organic patterns. The effect created was more like the beaaty of long, sun-bleached hair in the wind than the glossy perfection of a beauty parlour coiffure. In “Dune Altar’s” the movements were exotic, stirringly brave, the dancers demonstrating how bodies can make meaning. The dancers’ interrelationships in “Fiasco” were oddly assexual, unsentimental and, I suspect, rather difficult to create. The., precision of their interdepen’ dance was often comic in the same way the hair-breadth escapes of a farce are comic - the audience identified with the dancers, first feeling suspense and then pleasure as the movements created surprising patterns. The poetry which accompanied ‘ ‘ Fiasco’ ’ was difficult to grasp simultaneously with the dance. In many of the dances, though, it was exciting to see the form of the music created in space. Chris Bauman’s solo to Godspell, Looker and Levy’s dance to Vivaldi and the “Suite for Two” to Bach all succeeded in filling the form of the music. “Night Sprite”, choreographed by Paulette Bibeau to a Chick Corea tune, never quite captured the admittedly complex patterns of the music. Whereas Corea’s music was demanding, the music of the BeeG’ees was too colourless to provide interesting support for Gabby Miceli’s choreography in “ Subway”.
Laura McKillop deserves praise for her competent performance of a physically demanding ballet solo. Following the witty and surprising Jarvis number, her dance seemed almost ludicrously conventional and the audience response was unfortunately cool. “Double Trouble”, with its Chaplin pas de deux, and the tapdance, “Ragtime Rendezvous’ ’, were typical recital pieces, but suitably amusing. The final number, “Quebecois”, was an odd mixture of gloss, charm and mediocrity. Until the children of Carousel burst on the scene with reels and circle dances, the audience was exposed to movements which were little more than a formalized gym class in habitant costumes. I expected a dance called “Quebecois” to offer more< than sentimentalized peasoup. Perhaps a better title might have been “Les Habitants.” But a folk dance by any name is a great way to transform the exuberance of children into dance, and in accomplishing that alchemy, “Quebecois” was attractive. While “Rites of Spring” was not performed by professionals, the quality of the show was surprising to some and certainly enjoyed by many. To the UW dance department go my congratulations for this year’s work and the community’s thanks for their sharing the results of their learning in a fine evening’s entertainment. I, for one, will be a return customer next year. -Shirley
COLUMBIAPICTURESPresents A TED KOTCHEFFFilm
ED McMAHON 2 SHOWS MATINEE
NIGHTLY 7 & 9 PM SAT. & SUN. 2 PM
NOMINATIONS On every street in every city in this country there’s a nob& who dmuns of being somebody. He’s a lonefy forgotten man . desperate to prove that he’s ah.
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Every Wednesday is Singles Night IN THE CROWN ROOM
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Friday NING: VIOLENCE THEATRES
PLUS 2ND HIT “SHAMPOO”
CONTAINS SOME SCENES AND COARSE LANGUAGE BRANCH, ONTARIO
ONE COMPLETE MATINEE
St. N. - 744-3511
SHOW ‘NIGHTLY 7130 PM SAT. & SUN. 1:30 PM
xDOWNCHILD . . ,’ BLUES BAND All Next Week
NEVER GIVE A SUCKER AN EVEN BREAK Mar 10-I 2 Thurs-Sat 7:00 PM
STORY OF ADELE/ H.
Mar IO-13 Thurs-Sun 9-00 PM . . . . . . . a.00
A STREETCAR NAMED DESIRE Mar
A NIGHT AT THE OPERA Mar
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2 SHOWS NIGHTLY 7 & 9:15 PM MATINEE SUNDAY 2 PM
David Wilcox Amateur
14-16 Mon-Wed 8:ObPM
17-19 Thurs-Sat 7:30PM
A CLOCKWORK ORANGE Mar 17-20 Thurs-Sun 9:30PM
the free chevron
7 7, 7977
The stage was much too cluttered. Wiggling fish, a skyscraper, jukeboxes, and a stagecoach complete with a team of fine brown horses were among the jumble on stage - in the theatre of the mind.
Peter Gabriel left Genesis to expand himself musically, experiment with new genres of musical expression, and prove himself as a solo artist. That’s a reasonable excuse. Many groups have split over less noble. ideals (add here the Beatles).
The stage of the Humanities Theatre last Saturday night was empty save the hints and suggestions made by the Paul Gaulin Mime Company in their production “ Mime for All Seasons”. Yet to the mesmerized audience it was acurately and splendidly full.
But all that raises the question of why does monsieur Gabriel’s first ~010 effort sound so much like “Lamb Lies Down On Broadway”, or “Selling England By The Pound’ ’ , or in short Genesis.
For that reason I get the feeling that this album has thrown right over home plate to all of Gabriel’s old Genesis fans, most likely to the applause of his auditors. But that’s not to say that this album is to be avoided. All in all Gabriel has made a pleasant album that will give its owner many hours of enjoyment and companionship, though Peter has gone a bit too much into the middle of the road for personal comfort at times. This is shown by his being too cute by doing a barbershop quartet, on the first side, called “Excuse Me”. The novelty of this particular song has worn off by the time the second voice goes ‘ ‘hummmmm’ ’ . Gabriel attempts to pose as a For The blues singer on “Waiting Big One”, a commendable effort that he negates by insisting on swearing in the intro. Now really, Peter, do you think by showing us your adeptness with the venacular, that we will believe that you’re some dead end kid who,‘s just on the brink of taking the big plunge?
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And if that isn’t bad enough Gabriel then changes into intellectual, churning out a tune called “Down The Dolce Vita”. This song comes complete with the London Symphony Orchestra, who plays something that sounds like Wagner’s “Flight of the Valkieries” between snatches of disco-tempo rock. The best part of the tune was probably the end. But that’s not to say that there aren’t any good songs to be found on this piece of acetate. In fact you could easily put at least four of the album’s nine songs against anything that Genesis has ever done. In particular “Solsbury Hill”, ‘ ‘ Humdrum’ ’ , ‘ ‘ Slowburn’ ’ , and “Here Comes The Flood” are all excellent songs. The basic problem with this record is that Gabriel seems to not have sense of musical direction, and so has spread himself in several directions at once, while still retaining his old habits to give the album a slight coherence. Sometimes he hits the mark, but other times he is miles off. This makes his first album too uneven, and unfortunately a bit repetetive. Perhaps Gabriel can find out where he wants to go musically and can then channel his efforts that way. For as Harry Nilson said on his record The Point, years ago, “A point in every direction is the same as no point at all.” -doug
Poor Casanova Contrary to popular preconception, Fellini’s “Casanova” is not a high-class porn film. It is just a poor film. Once again Fellini is dedicated to depicting decadence on the silver screen. If you enjoyed “Satyricon’ ’ , you’ll love ‘ ‘Casanova’ ’ ; otherwise you should save your / money. “Casanova” is a series of episodes “drawn freely” from his book, and strung together somewhat haphazardly to form Fellini’s film. Fellini’s intention was to deplore the emptiness of Casanova’s life, which, as his book indicates, consisted mostly of bed-hopping strange adventures. and Casanova’s final feelings on fulfillment are of a clockwork mannikin who dances and makes love. The biggest problem with “Casanova” is that it is too fragmentary. The movie jumps suddenly from episode to episode with a minimum of unity or cohesiveness. It adheres to the theory of Impressionism, where the parts combine to give a greater appreciation of the whole. The theory is better applied to painting than to cinema, as “Casanova” readily proves. Next, the acting was uniformly unconvincing. Donald Sutherland (playing Casanova) seemed to be reading his banal lines off placards. It seems that Sutherland made the mistake of allowing Fellini to con-
“Mime for ali seasons”
Perhaps the reason is the familiarity of his voice has tricked me into thinking I’m just hearing some out-takes from some Genesis sessions, or maybe Peter is one step ahead of us all. After all, if something worked for you last year there’s little reason to believe it won’t work this year.
trol him entirely. If given more freedom and a good script, he is capable of much better: one is reminded of another film he starred in in Venice. “Don’t Look Now” is an off-beat low-budget thriller he did with Julie Christie (?) a few years back, which gives a clearer impression of Sutherland’s possibilities. I just hope “Casanova” won’t be a black mark against him. Unfortunately I can’t complain about everything in the movie. Several of the scenes were very engrossing and well-composed. The continuous reappearance of Casanova’s clockwork music-box and dancing eagle during his love scenes (if you go, would you count them for me? I lost track while I was watching) provides constant allusion to the mechanical dummy he later meets. There were even repeated attempts at humour - Fellini poking fun at Casanova’s claim to fame, while his more scholarly attributes took a back seat. On the whole, though, the power of the good scenes was dissipated by the lack of such common, mundane things as plot or continuity. It also destroyed the effect of the surrealism scattered throughout the movie. Perhaps this reflects a hint of irony in one of Casanova’s lines: “I prefer travelling in the real world. “‘*( * *Capitol I) - Oscar ,- m nierstrasz
Certainly the ears weren’t, for as is the custom in mime, it was performed in silence. What musical accompaniment and sound3 effects there were must have seemed a relief to those used to other theatre
forms in which music and voice drown out that impetuously growling stomach. Paul Gaulin did present some experimental works which were completely accompanied to music. Along with the abandonment of conventional mime gesture they questioned the line between pantomime and dance. “Wax Works”, for example, depicted the languishly slow melting of a candle through the descent of a man and woman in a tall pose to the tight curled position on the floor of melted wax. Part of the group’s- success can be attributed to the physical sensitivity present between the three members of the company - Paul Gaulin, Nicki Tyrell, and Terry =Burke. They interact so harmoni-
ously that it sometimes becomes difficult to distinguish them as separate entities, rather they become molded into one. In “Wax Works”, “ The Window Washer”, and “Fog” their creation of one living form out of many is particularily startling. To most the performance was provoking in its ability to tell witty, complex and beautiful things without words or props. But to the experienced mime-goer and the followers of the Paul Gaulin Mime Company, there were mistakes, incompleted actions and a tendency towards repetition. Those of us who were too mesmerized to notice can only ask, “What does it matter when oh, the horses were so beautii ful.” -
The damne Here we go again with another all-star movie “based on a true incident”. “The Voyage of the Damned” is about 937 Jews travelling from Hamburg to Havana in 1939. When they get to Cuba, however, they find their visas and landing permits have been declared null and void due to the growing antiSemitism there. The United States also refuses them, so the ship is doomed to return to Europe. We find out later that the ship was never intended to let off her passengers, but the explanation for the voyage taking place at all is vague and only half-convincing. One is inevitably reminded of ‘ ‘ Ship of Fools’ ’ . Both movies have all star casts which include Oskar Werner, but in “Voyage:’ he has been promoted to the passenger list. Other “stars” include Faye Dunaway as Professor Kreisler’s (Oskar Werner’s) wife, Lee Grant, Ben Gazzarra as passengers, and
Social ‘77 Tomorrow night there will be a social, with live entertainment in honour of the graduates of 1977. Entertainment will include “Full H’ouse” and admission will be $7.50 per couple or $4.00 per person. This social will be held at Village I and anyone interested in this semiformal should contact Rex Auyeung at 884-4869, or obtain tickets at MC 6081 or EL 3508. Among the numerous sponsors of this event are the International Students Association (UW), the Chinese Students’ Association of Wilfred Laurier University, and the Canton Restaurant. All proceeds will go to charity. --ghih
Max von Sydow and Malcolm McDowell as the captain and his steward. They wheeled out Orson Welles to play a Cuban industrialist, and Fernando .Rey, James Mason and Jose Ferrer each played corrupt Cuban bigwigs. The performances were all good, but unfortunately very sketchy due to the limitations of the script. “Voyage” isn’t as ambitious as “Ship” was, but it is less successful in capturing character essentials. More versatile and concise dialogue would have remedied this. I can’t understand why “Voyage” is up for best screenplay. It is only a fair attempt - nothing great. Max von Sydow does an excellent bit part as the captain who neither wishes to get involved with the passengers, but sympathisizes more with them than the Nazi Party chief on board who actively jewbaits on board. Malcolm McDowell is given a
disappointingly dinky role after such great films as “0 Lucky Man’ ’ and “A Clockwork Orange”. Nobody seems to want to give him a juicy leading part any more (he was in “Royal Flash” in 1975, but it was a weak farce that had little to recommend it). Orson Welles is adequately pompous, and the rest of the cast seemed to do the best it could with the script. The director, Stuart Rosenberg, has avoided a good many old movie cliches, but too many still remain, and he has not replaced them with anything particularly innovative. As a sentimental tearjerker, “Voyage” is not especially moving. As a tragedy, it is anticlimactic. As a suspense film, it is far from exciting. If “The Voyage ofthe Damned” does not fit into any ready-made category, then it fails to create a satisfactory one of its own. (* * l/2 Odeon Hyland) - Oscar m njerstrasz
POEMS WANTED The Natiofial Society of Published Poets is compiling a book of poems. If you have written a poem/and would like our society to consider it for publication, send your poem and a selfaddressed, stamped envelope to: NATIONAL OF PUBLISHED
P. 0. Box 1976 Riverview, Florida, U. S. A. 33569
Recently we have been receiving several very long letters. While we are keen to facilitate maximum discussion, due to space limitations we feel we must re-affirm our policy that, “letters should not be longer than 1200 words”. Also we would like to remind our readers that all letters should be typed, double-spaced, on a 32 or 64 character line.
Discussr’ons - fall short Dear Douglas Wahlsten, It was delightful to read your letter published in the “free” chevron on Feb. 25. “Barrage of slanders”, “rotten tactic”, “admit that you lied”, “fraudulent”, “sheer stupidity” - isn’t it beautiful? What depth of thought, clarity of expression, force of argument! You must be a real revolutionary leader! Lysenko, in the meantime, somehow fell out from the discussion. Who cares, Lysenko was not worth a dime anyhow. I only hoped that you would be able to present some new, interesting evidence. You obviously cannot. If you don’t know, in the last issue of La Recherche (Vol. 8, p. 186, 1977) there is a paper entitled: Lysenko - a “scientist” made to order. Maybe this will revitalize your revolutionary zeal. There was however, a bait in my letter to you, and you swallowed it just beautifully. You say “Reinis accuses the AIA and myself of advocating a political system which amounts to a fascist dictatorship. I publicly challenge Reinis to demonstrate . . .where, such a thing is promoted. No, Wahlsten, I do not accuse you of fascism. You said that, not me. I wanted to discuss with you the theory and praxis of communism. Now, I have only a few hours before Tuesday noon, but be patient, you will get what you want. Because, you know, I spent six years in Nazi Germany, about , eighteen years in Stalin’s 1 Kruschev’s Brezhnev’s Czechoslovakia and three years in one military dictatorship. Twenty-seven years in different distasteful systems. I am not a saloon revolutionary, a guy from a good family who at the moment plays a role of a communist leader. And it is just time to expose these people. Some time ago, I had a discussion with a self-confessed member of your party. He did not know too much, and in no time, he _ started to yell something about fascists, racists, revisionists and Zionists. Then, he ran away from my arguments and drove off in his brand-new Porsche. How much is a Porsche these days? This is what I mean by a saloon communist. And why am I doing it? Because after all these years of life in oppression I fell in love . with this country. I want it to be a homeland for my children and their children. And, my dear, I don’t want you to spoil it. I found peace here, and I want Canada to stay peaceful. In the meantime, enjoy the enclosed picture. . . . . . and one to Mr. Kang: What do you know about Lysenko and Stalin? Tell us. Stanislav
PSI grads -
As graduates of Psi courses, we would like to voice our support of the work undertaken by Psi Mind Development Institute Ltd. in making available, through their courses, knowledge, some of which is unavailable through other sources. Unfortunately, there will always by a very few people who choose not to understand what the course represents, and instead will go to great lengths to justify to themselves
that their lack of success or progress in life is the fault of some group or organization anybody but themselves. The most tragic thing is that the very things they need most - respect, happiness, and even love -escape them as long as they blame others, are constantly seeking to be the centre of attention, and even try to discredit others to inflate their own selfimportance. Only by stopping and looking at themselves will they begin to achieve things in their own lives. And this is what Psi is all about - People Searching Inside. That Psi is successful in what they teach is obvious. Even some of the strongest critics, and here we can make reference to the “Open Letter” published on the free chevron, state: “The organization attracts lost and lonely people and gives them a direction and purpose in life, a sense of identity and value, a measure of self-confidence, and possibly even love. If this is what you are looking for, we can assure you of satisfaction.” We are sure that you would find considerable disagreement among graduates that they were “lost and lonely, people” before joining Psi. The remainder of the statement is one of the greatest tributes-we could imagine. If all that could be obtained from Psi courses -a direction and purpose in life -a sense of identity and value -a measure of self-confidence -possibly even love - then this would be the most’ priceless knowledge available. It is our desire that this will clarify how the great majority of us feel towards Psi. We anticipate that the two gentlemen involved will make some response, and we only hope that they take the time instead to discover some truths about their own lives. With love, (all graduate students) Tom Howe Jim Kotebs William J. McCrea Ricarda McDonald Robert McCrea Lois Lipton
Bruno Maruzzo Neil Anthec Brian Kershaw Edward R. Viscay Suzanne Capreol ’ Dave Hunsburger
A/A in pvonderland The letter of the Anti-Imperialist Alliance on the Zionism-racism issue (Feb. 18, 1977) is a text-book study of faulty and irresponsible analysis which should be required reading for every journalism course in the world, so obvious and facile are the errors contained therein. These flaws fall fairly readily into two categories - those of a substantive nature and those of technique. In substance, the article is further evidence of the complete misconception of both terms as espoused by the enemies of Israel. The AIA has made an attempt to define racism, but, like Lewis Carroll’s Humpty Dumpty , choose their own meaning to suit their purpose. Webster’s Dictionary, a neutral and certainly more reliable source, defines racism as “a belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits andcapacities and that racial differences produce .an inherent superiority of a particular . race.” Zionism bears no relation to this concept whatsoever. The mantle of Zionism falls not upon followers by birth, but upon adherents by belief. There is a singular absence of racial exclusiveness or superiority - the movement for Jewish survival and selfdetermination, the true goals of today’s Zionism, embraces converts to Judaism of any race in addition to Jews from around the world. Yet Zionism is equated with racism on unexplained grounds, cloaked with the venerability of a time-honoured dictum, and leveled upon Zionists on the flimsiest pretense. Particular substantive errors result from this misconception. The statement, for example, that “Zionism and anti-Semitism are in identical’ ’ , is a self-evident contradiction terms. Something which is in essence inimical to a belief cannot, by definition, be equated with that belief. Furthermore,
Zionism today does not subscribe to a single one of the AIA’s list of “beliefs”. Aside from the fact that certain other statements in the letter are reprehensible and patently anti-Semitic (eg. “The Zionists have to create Zionist ghettos where the blood and money of people of Jewish background had fed the Zionist leeches for so many years”), the letter is seriously flawed in its technique, to the point of irrelevance. Anyone possessing even a rudimentary knowledge of debate and argumentative analysis can see through these errors. The AIA consistently bases its argument on partial quotations which are takexrcompletely out of context with regard to time and circumstances. If Ben-Gurion was alive today he could surely explain why Aliyah (the move to Israel) was so crucial to the fledgling state of Israel. Yet on the basis of the quotations in the letter he surely would have no need to. The life of every Jew is incomplete unless he goes to Israel to reaffirm his hei-itage; this ideal is value-free, in the same sense. that any holy land possesses spiritual qualities. -The concept of “our government” representing the-Israeli government to Jews in Americaand South Africa is a meaningless generalization, entirely too selective in its orientation for the purposes of establishing an argumentative basis. In gddition, this example, like virtually every other in the letter, is completely anachronistic. What was relevant in Ben-Gurion’s eyes in 1953 is clearly not of controlling significance 24 years later, under entirely different circumstances. What Golda Meir stated in 1965 may not be remotely close to her beliefs in today’s contest. But she is quoted in the former case to substantiate the AIA’s argument. Instead, these examples discredit their entire approach. Former Prime Ministers, obscure rabbis, the 1938 Jewish Congress (?), the George Washington Law Review ( !) and “one of the main Zionist theoreticians” (according to whom?) are all eagerly cited as the voices of authority, espousing “accepted” Zionist doctrines. Such a notion is as absurd as suggesting that John ‘A. MacDonald’s notions of Canadian nationhood determine today’s standards and policies, or the beliefs of any so-called “representative individuals”. We are not in Wonderland here - this is the real world of today. An argument seemingly- . based on quoted references looks extremely impressive. But the argument remains illusory-and quixotic when faulty information and techniques are employed. To even the most dispassionate reader the letter of the AIA is worthless. Eric Vernon
The AIA says that Zionism and antiSemitism are identical because they both agree that: 1)“racism is natural and eternal’ ’ ; and both 2) believe in “the fiction of the international Jewish ‘race-nation’ “; and both agree 3) with “the idea that people of Jewish-background are aliens in their own homeland and should, therefore, get out and go to Israel.” In response to the first charge, it is true that some Jews believe anti-semitism will always be present. This doesn’t mean they agree with it, but that they are pessimistic. History seems to back up their belief as the persecution of Jews has been with us since time immemorial. Other Jews believe we can eventually wipe out anti-Semitism. The answer to the second charge is that the Jews are certainly not a race, but by all reasonable definitions, a people. The reason it is so important to the AIA to deny that we are a people is so that they can deny our right to cultural self-determination, just as the Russians are doing at the present time. The Jewish concept of “peoplehood” is not based on a racist ideology but on a cultural and ethnic reality. Furthermore, antiSemitism says that Jews are not a race, but Lastly, antiare a “pariah-people”. Semitism doesn’t contend that all Jews go to Israel, but suggests instead that the Jews be
7 7. 7977
exterminated. The majority of Jews believe, and the majority of Zionists believe as well, that it would be foolish for all Jews to emigrate to Israel. Superficially, some Jews think “it would be too easy to wipe us out.” But more realistically, Israel would find it difficult to survive if no Jews in the Diaspora were able to give any substantive support. I ask the AIA how could the Zionists continue to create “Zionist ghettos where the blood and money of Jewish background have fed the Zionist leeches all these years” if all the Jews of the world emigrated to Israel? _ The AIA has given me an impossible task. It is my responsibility to serve as a deflator of an almost unending stream of lies, inaccuracies., and distortions. Next week, I will discuss a book, quoted widely in the “Zionism is Racism” pamphlet, Moishe Menuhin’s “The decadence of Judaism’ ’ . I will also provide some background information on Hafiz El-Saad’s authority, Israel Shahak, who was quoted in the previous “free chevron”. I find it ironic to note that in the same issue as the AIA response was a letter written by me in which I was critical of the tendency of my opponents to quote second-hand sources and not doing their own research. A further example of this: Theodore Herzl, a Zionist leader of the late 19th century, was quoted from page 39 of “Zionism is Racism”, not from his own writings. Yes, gentlemen, someone apparently cannot read - but it is not me. Phillip
Negotiation Queries In my personal opinion, your response to Doug Thompson’s investigation proposal was, on the whole, quite reasonable. I do not agree that there ought necessarily to be one investigation instead of two, although that’s not to say that there ought necessarily to be two. There may well be reasonable differences of opinion on this point, but it does not seem to me, to be the most serious stumbling block to negotiated solution. A much more serious obstacle is the vehement insistence, on the part of some, that the budget of the chevron never be returned to the control of the free chevron staff, a position which, I understand is completely unacceptable to the free chevron. Since it seems that no accomodation can be reached on this point, I doubt that there is any point in discussing other roadblocks to negotiation, except that it might be of interest to those of us who are not actively involved in “the struggle”. In this spirit, I suggestthat your counterproposal with respect to the investigating committee would inevitably be troublesome. You propose that each member should have to be acceptable to both sides. In effect, this gives each side a veto over any person nominated to the committee. I wonder how many people there are on this campus who would not be vetoed by one side- or the other. To give me - and perhaps others as well - a clearer understanding of your position, could you please answer the following questions: 1) How many members do you feel the investigating committee should have? _ 2) What criteria would you use in deciding that an individual is unacceptable as a member of the investigating committee? 3) Are there any individuals whom you know in advance you would have to reject?
If so, how many?
4) Would you veto an individual be-cause of his association with a specific group? If so, what specific groups name) would render their members eligible in your eyes?
5) Would I be acceptable the investigating
as a member of
Mike Kubasiewicz -1ettitot All of these points are negotiable. The details have to be worked out between the two parties, so at this point we cannot add to what we said in our counter-proposal (feb 25 page 15 of the free chevron).
the free chevron
1 I, 7977
Sept 24 minutes FEDERATION
Minutes of a special September 24, 1976
EXECUTIVE meeting of 3:20 p.m.
Members Present Doug Antoine Ralph Torrie Franz Klingender Also
Ralph announced of the Chevron, already heard. this
This special ca ions of YJlbi.
Board held Friday, the Campus Centre.
Aho given past occasions on campus of 'theft, property damage, and physical occupation of office space by political groups, the executive was also concerned about the protection of the CHEVRON office area. Without a knowledge of who may have obtained keys for the offices, the locks on the CHEVRON offices were changed and the area considered clcsed (Friday at 7:30 after the staff had finished working) until Students' Council could make a decision on the paper.
Doug Thompson -Bruce Rorrison
accept Ralph Torrie's resignation as chairPublications, with regrets. The Executive efforts in behalf of the Board since his especially for his excellent work on the hand-
meeting was.called to Rodway's resignation
meeting. deal with the as editor-in
resignation shows that something is obviously.wrong When the working conditions prevent good relationships staff, volunteer recruitment drive will be affected. the quality of the paper will deteriorate.
there iS the concern that *freedom of the press" the freedom of a small group to dominate the paper as a propoganda organ for their own
The following acceptance:
a special Council in Needles Hall
meeting on Sunday, Room 3006.
from what they had seen t at a minority bloc of exerting pressure on the
Indeed, during August there was a move by a minority of the CHEVRON staff to oust the .editor. Prominent in this group were Larry Hnnnant (a U. of Waterloo qraduate,studcntl and Neil Docherty ("proluctron manager” for the CHEVRON - a full-time salaried position). in And,
But this CHEVRON
stopped at the
by an overwhelming meeting.
To close the Chevron office at 4:30 p.m. Friday, September 24, until such time as Council gives further direction on the question of editorial control and production of the Chevron. To give notice of motion to discharge the two remaining members of the editoria 1s taff (news editor and production tditor). To call a General Meeting to wnsider a new by-law to allow the establishing of an editorial board with the following suggested preliminary draft of membership and powers and duties:
Alliance. of the CHEVRON , A lot of hopes had been resting with the appointment to the editorship of the CHEVRON. (The only full-time the 3 editcrial staffers who had been a UW studorit).
Members of the Federation Executive and heard of relationships in the paper -9e individuals within the CHEVRON had been editor for some months.
Although the Chevron is supposted to be run democratically by all "staff members", there is a lack of formal procedure to protect democratic decision-making, e.g., no quorum is specified. There also a fear that an organisation with unpublished membership is conlpiring to take control of the Chevron. Generally,
possible niigh‘t.Thirway CHEVRON the
The verbal reports of the resignation of Adrian Rodway from the editorship of the CHEVRON weke followed late in the afterncJn by a one-sentence letter from P.odway to P.alph Torrie dated September There were no reascos given in the resignation letter for why he was quitting.
Shane explained that over the last few months,there have been complaints f om some Students' Council members‘and members of the Chevron a iFiout treatment they received from certain other staff members of the paper. The editor's the Chevron. among paid of course,
To deal with the situation by as democra~=me~sas emergency meeting of Council was called for Sunday if Council wanted to try to continue publishing the office could be opened Monday morning. Pressuwon
MZNUTES the Chevron immediately.
Within 'the aftcrncon a Federation.Executive meeting-was organised. The Chairman of Tublications, Ralph Torrie handed in his resignation at the start of the meeting and left. Wm.pe-clearly rcsponsible,for the Chevron an the state of affairs in the were uncertain as to what would happen to the paper during the comng week.
that Adrian Rodway was resigning as editor-in&chief confirming that two other executive members had (Adrian's written resignation was later received.1 Ralph
Don Orth .Shane Roberts
ROBERTS/THOMPSON: To person of 'the Board of commends Ralph for his appointment, and most book. CARRIED
the Executive in Room 233
STATENENT ACCOMPANYING THE EXECUTIVE afternoon Friday 24 ,,we received reports that had announced ghat he was resigning effective
On the editor
the issues of debate about the Chevron have been suspicions the paper and senior, salaried members*of.the editorial staff either wittingly or unwittingly being used to promote the viewof a particular political group.
Part of the basis of concern ib that this group, ALliance, is a private organisation whereas the the student body, a "publicly" funded newspaper.
One is exclude to deal variety especially
the Anti-Imperialist CHEVRON is, within
the lack of the Students' with broad and purpose important
Discussion of course brings paper and the
some on-campus student body of people (if we Council) distinct frcn the staff of ths paper or specific questions of the editcrial balance, of the paper. The need for some body is when there are complaints about the stafff. i a body outside of the writing staff@ of the CHEVRON of us to the questions o f the present functioning of the role of the staff.
While the By-law for the Board o f Publications posits the responsibility of the editorial policv with the Editor-in-chief, for some years it has been accepted practice (within the CHEVRGN) that this rsst with the staff as a whole.
Yet the CHEVRON a to ackihg in the normal means of assuring ..ay+J de;nocratic decrsioh-ma ing. Prom'what we-know for staff meetings (at which editorial decisions are made) there is no quorum or no policy on giving nnotice of meeting" to staff members. This leaves .the paper exposed to disproportionate influence of paid staffers (e.g., Docherty or Hess) on a close-knit group (o.g., the A.I.A.) l Production >Sanager, Niel Docherty News Editor, Henry Hess_._.__ _- .-.- -__-. --
It is time that we looked back at the events surrounding the closing of the paper on September 30, 1976. As we did on September 28, we again reprint the minutes of the federation executive meeting which originally made the decision to close the paper. It is clear from these minutes that the federation did not act on the basis of facts, but rather on the basis of rumours and allegations. The Chevron staff has, for five and a half months now, stood for fair democratic process. We have consistently called for reinstatement and then investigation of the whole conflict. Since there was no investigation of the paper, and nothing that could seriously be called a trial, the paper should first be reinstated. We are innocent until proven guilty. Since there is obviously confusion surrounding the operation of the paper before September 30, we then call for a full, open, and student-controlled investigation into the whole affair following reinstatement. Since the paper was closed, representatives of the federation executive have consistently held to the position that a student government has the right to close a paper if it suspects something is wrong. We have always stated that actions should not be taken on the basis of suspicions, allegations and rumours. We have backed up this democratic principle with quotes from the Statement of Principles of the Canadian University Press regarding the right of a student press to be “free from and that ‘ ‘no holdup, decrease, or discontinuing of funds pressure by student governments”, should be made by financial administrators unless the paper desires such changes”. Adherence to these principles is written into the federation bylaws. We have always been fully open to all who want to do their own independent investigation of our operations. It seems we have finally made our point clear. But now the federation has adopted a new tactic. It no longer says it has the right to close a paper without an investigation. Doug Thompson now has the gall to say that the September 30 council meeting constituted a fair trial. In a recent press release, Thompson states: “Was the closure legal? Was the due process followed? Our lawyers say yes. The free chevron says no.” How can he say this? Did the chevron have a chance to defend itself? The paper wasn’t even informed of all the charges made against it. Henry Hess, the fired news editor, wasn’t even given a chance to defend himself. Was this an unbiased tribunal? No! The student council, which constituted one side of the dispute, was the plaintiff, jury, and judge all wrapped up in one. Was the council free from intimidation? No! The whole federation executive threatened to A resign if the motions for closure and firing were not passed. Were facts presented to back up all the charges? No! The case for the federation executive on September 30 was substantially the same as the c.ase presented in the minutes of the federation executive meeting of September 24. To clarify this matter we submit to you these minutes. We ask you to read these minutes critically, taking particular note of the underlined sections. These are the same charges that have been made over and over again, ever since the closing. Every charge that is made is qualified with such words as ‘appears’, ‘believed’, ‘could be ‘possible implications’, ‘as it is, these suspicions may be mistaken and unbecoming’, founded’, etc. Does this constitute proof or is it mere allegations and rumours? These are not facts. Nothing that can be called a trial has been held. We state Again:
reinstate the paper as it was. We are innocent until proven guilty. Tha;m hold a fair hearing, investigate. In Thompson’s press release of March 9, he states that we have rejbcted five investigations. This is true, and we will continue to reject investigations until dS.le process is recognized. Another proposed investigation will be submitted to council on Sunday evening. Again, if it is passed, we will refuse to cooperate with it. Instead, we offer negotiation, but not negotiation with Thompson. @e clearly showed what contempt he yhad for such proceedings when he and his gang of thugs attacked the chevron office one day after we had opened up negotiations with him, and his latest shenanigans (see page 1). We call upon students’ council to negotiate with us over the terms of reinstatement and investigation. We call upon students’ council to defeat any attempts to approach this whole affair ass backwards. To lay the groundwork for these deliberations we have invited all members of students’ council to meet with us Tuesday evening. We want a chance to present our case to them and then have an open and frank discussion without having to work around points of order, points of personal privilege, calls to question, and all the other paraphernalia which, when used by some in council, are nothing less than obstruction. s The chevron staff want a fair and just solution, and nothing less. -the
A member of the Canadian University Press, the free chevron is, produced and published by the chevron staff and is typeset by Dumont Press Graphix. The free chevron is produced from Room 140, Campus Centre, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario. it’s 5:30 in the morning and larry’s not back yet. hamilton said to put in a plug for him, telling everybody out there how wonderful he is . . .gord graham from cup says to say that hamilton k the mainstay of the paper . . .that may be so, but this paper is so democratic that we’re all mainstays . .well anyway, thanks and applause thls week go to randy barkman, mini pathria, courtland, peter, peter, frank morrison, heather robertson, val moghadam, salah bachlr, jules grajower, doug wahlsten, jonathan coles, t. alex (come to my arms my) beamish (boy, oh frabjous day, calloo, callay), Oscar nlerstrasz, shlrley tlllotson, mike hazell, evb and cvb, dave carter, tom cody, neil docherty (heather wants us to especially thank him for working (unbelievably) harder than ever), iorne gershuny, mart shafroth, jayne poliock, dianne chapltis, rob taylor, doug goodfgllow (not at all like that doug badfellow from upstairs), scott barron (who got a little loaded earlier), mark wills, mike hollet, nick redding,chrls dufault, shih k’ang tl . . .and all the wonderful folks down at dumont . . .cvb . p.s. we would have had sixteen pages this week but we wasted a day discussing doug thompson’s “proposal”, thinking that he was serious . . .jc
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The Warriors may not be the. number one team in the CIAU, but they are one of the most exciting and explosive teams in the country, _and . certainly the most resilient, as they demonstrated in their third place CIAU finish. The Warriors provided the Halifax crowd and a national -TV audience with two, spectacular games, decided by one ,andtwo point margins. In their fmal game of the season, the Warriors were left to battle for third place with the McGill Redmen. The Warriors lost to Acadia ‘in a thrilling 6260 game on Friday night. The Axemen won the CIAU final with a 72-63 victory which they
posted over the Lakehead Nor’westers . . and Waterloo won third place, beating McGill 80-79. In the McGill game the Warriors started slowly. Still upset by their loss of the previous day, they dropped behind early in the game. They trailed by 13 points at the half and -were down by the same margin with 11 minutes to play. With 1.42 left to play, the Warriors managed to tie it up at 75-75. They took the lead at 78-79 with 30 seconds left. In the last 7 seconds, McGill’s 6’9” center, Galbraith, scored to put the Redmen up by one! Coach McCrae called a time out at this point - when the players returned to the floor, they did ex-
Center Lou -Nelson and swing forward M-ike Visser were the Warriors’ top guns with 2l and 18 points respectively. Nelson seemed to peak for the three day tournament, and put in outstanding o*ensive and defensive performances. mantes. Nelson was subsequently voted to the tournament’s all star squad. Acadia’s Ed Shannon was named as the tournament’s Most Valuable Player.
As soon as March starts the days grow longer and. slowly, one byone, the various sports finish their competitive seasons. Basketball is normally the last to go and once the dribblers stop practising,_attendance in the, PAC drops off considerably. Athletes who have sweated and toiled for months at their respecti-ve sports take a few weeks off to crarri for exams and catch up on essays which theyhave forgotten about- in the midst of competition. - This is not only a time forstudy, but also a time- for celebration, as the athletic department holds its Annual Awards - Banquet .-where varsity and intramural competitors alike, can reap the benefit of their sports. The athletic department has a vast array of awards. The most prestigious award is the Totzke, which is awarded to the male athlete who distinguishes himself with high level .of athletic skill, sportsmanship, citizenship and academic proficiency and makes an outstanding contribution to the athletic pr\ogramme at UW. M.V.P.,and Rookie ofthe Year awards will be made for Basketball, Cross Country, Football, Hockey,. Rugby; Soccer, Track‘ and Field. Varsity athletes are also eligible for Warrior plaques if they haveaccumulated 7 to 9 points in their ath. letic careers and have made outstanding contributions to athletics. Medallions will be awarded for those with 6 pts, and Honour W’s for 4 pts. Varsity jackets may be. worn by athletes with 2 pts. Championship plaques ‘will be awarded to the Basketball team for winning OUAA Championships. Five major awardsare given *for intramurals: The Dr, K. D. Fryer Trophy for the competitive unit with the greatest number of points in scheduled competition.
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championship. Claude Corm& The Waterloo mee’t victory ended a four year reign by the Uniand Steve Brooks chalked up 51 points in the diving competition. versity of Toronto. Waterloo beat the Blues by a mere 6.5 points, 369 - -Toronto had no divers entered in to 362.5. the-competition. ’ .T Toronto might have beaten the Ron- Campbell, Brian Harvey, Boris Jacyszm and Tim Wilson Warriors; had not Geoff Brown, their best back stroker, been dismade an impressive first place qualified in the 100 yard back= finish in the men.s4OOmedley relay stroke when he failed to touch the- in a time of 3.33.12. tThat was 3.9 seconds better than the previous end of the pool on a power turn. university record. Waterloo’s diving won them the ‘ , John H&buck of Waterloo finished-third in a gruelling 1,650 yard freestyle race behind Cam McGavin of Manitoba and Rick’ Madge- of/ Toronto.
Ron Campbell, a 19yea.r old UW swimmer, led his team to a’Canadian University Swimming Championship by shattering two Canadian f\ records. Campbell- set a Canadian record in the 100 yard breast stroke on Saturday night and turned it into a double barrelled victory when he shaved a second off the 200 yard breast -‘stroke, finishing the race in
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actly what hmto be done. Hadwen faked a 25 foot jump shot and then passed to a driving Mike Visser, who sank a last second lay-up ,and the final 2 points of his university career.
-( Waterloo 2mmm.e-n .wn .
The Universitgtif Waterloo W&rior’s firiished third &he Canadian Nation& Basketball Finals last weekend in Halifax. Warriors defeated McGill in their final game to clinch the bronze. Warriors above (in black) defeated the University of Alberta before losing to the Champion Acadia Axemen by only two pin-&. e photo by W’krrior Band
Track rookies fare well- - \
The Whileside Award to the male student who emplifies the highest degree of excellence in skill and participation in men’s inThe rookie contingent of the was the class of the field. She sonal best of 2.OOm or 6’6 l/2”. tramurals. Bosgoed had a heel injury-before The Bra-wnie Award ‘for the inUniversity of Waterloo men’s and coasted to an easy victo<ry in the w’omen’s track teams ’ fared very 50m ‘with a time of 6.3, but was the meet but was still able to give - tramural unit which accumulates unable to defeat veteran Jean Sparlhis best. the most participation and champ- _ well last Saturday at the OUAAing of Toronto in the 300m. Their The men’s 15OOm event was one ionship points in a year. OW-IAA Championships held at the of the most exciting events since The Robert Allan McCormick CNE grounds in Toronto. ‘The times were 40.1 -and 40.2, respecTerry Goodenough of Toronto set women brought back singlegold tively . , Trophy is given to the Most Valuand silver medals, as well as a relay Blackwood -was followed by a CanadianJunior record of 3:47.2. able -Athlete in men’s athletics. Marg Lesperance’ of Waterloo, e This is equivalent to a 4:04.2 mile Women athletes are also eligible bronze and an overall third place time, Even so, he was hard pressed for M.V.P. awardsin their respecshowing (out of eight teams). The who placed 7th overall in the 300m men won one gold and two bronze with a time of 44.1. Both rookie to win over Bob McCormack of tive sports, as well as Athena pins, medallions for fourth spot in the Queen’s, .who clocked the same rings, and. plaques. Pins are women then teamed up with vetetime. awarded first, after 8 @s. rings are overall team.ascoring (out of thirran Athenas Pat Sparling and Third place went to Howard teen teams). Sandra Ford to run in the 4 by 200m awarded, and for 12 pts. plaques. The overall women’s championrelay. They were third in 1:47.0, Saunders’of Waterloo with a perThe Award Banquet will be held sonal best time of 256.2. He was on Thursday, March 17, at the -ship went $0 the University ‘of behind the winning time of 1:43.3. followed by teammate Gary CrosConcordia Club at 6 p. m . If you are Western Ontario with 129 points, . Rob Town was another rookie followed by-the University of To- gold medallist for Waterloo, winsley of Elmira, who ran 3:59.2, interested in attending, tickets are ronto with 56, and Waterloo with Later, Alan Baig%t and Doug available from the receptionist in ning the shot put event with a perran with Crossley and the PAC for $2:00 and include the 28. This was the first year that a sonal best put of 15.08m, two feet Downing trophy was again awarded to the ahead of his nearest opponent. Saunders, in order, in the Distance price of the meal and dancing. Medley Relay (800,400, 1200, and The athletic depertment and inUniversity of Toronto who amasTown,,a decathlete in the summer, tercollegiate councils, with the insed a total of 141 points. They were also competed in the high jump, 1600), placing fourth overall. followed by Western with 114, placing seventh behindthe winning s Baigent also managed a fifth in tramural council, will be subsidizthe fOOOm in a closely packed field. ing the-cost of these tickets. It Queen’s University with, 110, and jump of 2.03m. ’ should be a fun evening. Make sure Waterloo a distant-fourth with 35. ~’ John Bosgoed, a bronze medalHis time of 2:30.9 was only 1.8 secyou purchase your tickets in ad’ Faye Blackwood, Waterloo’s list at last year’s OFSAA champonds behind the winner, Mike Housley of York. vance, since they will not be availbronze. medallist at the National ionships, was also a surprise third In the women’s lOOOm, Rena able at the door. Championships in the 50m dash, in the high- jump, attaining his perKlevering also.placed fifth, running the event for the first time. In addition, she was seventh inthe 600 in 1:38.4, behind a winning time of 1:32.2 for Janet Ames of Western. Other Waterloo performances: Pat Sparling-5th long jump, 4.81. Men’s 4 by 200h 5th, 1:35.3. Men’s t 4 by 400, 6th, 3:35.3. Paul Barron, ‘/th, 5000m, 14:56.8. Doug Downing, 7th, 600m. 1:22.9. Jim Nishikawa, 7th, triple jump, 12.40,-arid 8th long jump, 5.86.
-.--.-. -.--.- ..-. -.. - -. ._ - -.. - - ..- ---.-..l-.l.-~ University 6% Waterloo’s john Bosgoed clears a personal best height ofr2.00 meters, 6 feet 6 7/2 inches for a surprise bronze metal in the high jump at the OUAA and OWIAA Track and Field Meet held Saturday in Toronto at the CI\;IE . i grounds. . .
Steve Keating, Jeff Mohun, and Mike Steele all advanced to the 50m semi-finals but failed to advance to the finals. They ran times of 6.0, 6.1, and 6.2 respectively. Sandra Ford, 9th, 6OOm, personal best of 1:41.0. The team is a very young ‘team and should be much stronger next year. It should be noted that only a few athletes will be graduating and there was a total of ten seventh or eighth place finishings which are bound to be sixth or better next year. , -