Page 1

University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario volume 16, number 28 friday, january 16, 1976

Working at Frontier College ........ The case against free trade ......... Environmental warfare ............. , Education under reyiew ............

CRTC ruling forbids

Radii Radio Waterloo, UW’s student radio station which has existed in 3ne form or another since l-965, was forced off the air this week by a ruling of the Canadian RadioTelevision Commission (CRTC). The ruling came as a surprise to Radio Waterloo, which has been seeking clarification of its status rrom the CRTC since 1970. The commission at that time informed them that they could transmit via :able until a definite policy was formulated. An application by Grand River cable to continue carrying Radio Waterloo was placed before the commission in 1972. Grand River was notified last Friday that the application has been rejected and that they must stop carrying the station. The ruling stems from the fact

.p. 11 .p. I3 .p.24 .p.26

Radio Waterloo, which has been around since 7965 when it was started as the Broadcasting Club, left the air on Tuesday afternoon. /t was a victim of a new policy statement by the Canadian Radio-Television Commission which forbids unlicenced stations from broadcasting via cable. It may be six months before the station can obtain a licence and resume broadcasting.

cable broadcast


that Radio Waterloo was not “on the air” as a licenced station, but broadcast via the Grand River Cable system to the K-W area. The new cable policy statement released by the CRTC on Dec. 16, 1975, allows only licenced stations to have their progmms carried on cable. This excludes both Radio Waterloo and Radio Laurier from cable transmission. Apparently there is some vagueness within the CRTC as to just how the new ruling is to be interpreted and applied. Udo Salewsky, general manager for Grand River Cable, said on Monday that the CRTC had denied their application which “dated back to 1972.” However, he said that he had contacted the CRTC and, “we are awaiting interpretation of the ruling.”

Loan ceiling up,* for next year I’QRONTO (CUP&Ontario students will have to borrow more money lext year under the Canada Student Loans Plan before receiving any Drovincial grants, informed sources here revealed on January 13. But the increase in the mandatory loan ceiling--from $800 this year to El000 next year-will not be publicly announced “for some time” the source said. A spokesperson for minister of colleges and universities Harry Parrot would neither confirm nor deny a possible increase in the loan ceiling, and would only state that some changes in the student aid planwould be announced “within several weeks”. There is no indication yet whether the government will reduce students’ grants at the same time, but the sources termed such a move ’ ‘likely’ ’ . The sources said the decision to raise the loan ceiling was privately announced by Harry Parrott at a closed meeting of the special advisory committee now studying the provinces student aid system. Parrott “made it perfectly clear” the decision had already been made, and instructed the members not to reveal the change until formally announced by the government, the sources said. The sources also said they doubt the government will make its official announcement prior to the province-wide student rally planned for January 2 1 in Toronto, organized by the Ontario Federation of Students .

Lanny Morry , an information officer for the CRTC, assured the chevron on Monday that Radio Waterloo would not be forced off the cable until April 1, when the regulations take effect, thus giving them three months in which to prepare and submit an application for a licence. She also said that since Radio Waterloo was an established outlet the commission “would do its best to ensure no discontinuation of service.” Nevertheless, Salewsky reported on Tuesday morning that he had been informed by Michel Arpim of the CRTC that “we must discontinue immediately” with transmission of Radio Waterloo. He said that the appeal for a period of grace to allow for application for a licence had also been rejected by Arpim. Morry agreed, when contacted, that the date of application of the ruling was “open to interpretation.” She identified Arpim as an analyst in the cable section of the broadcast programs branch of CRTC. She remarked that the discontinuation order “seems sort of heavy-handed” but that Arpim “carries weight enough” to allow him to make such a decision. Upon contacting Arpim, the chevron was told that while the regulations of the commission take effect on April 1, “the policy statement is not a regulation.” He insisted that all CRTC policy statements take effect immediately and pointed out that the opening sentence of the statement says that the policies take effect immediately. Arpim said that Salewski “was never advised that he must discontinue service (to Radio Waterloo) immediately.” When asked what would happen if Grand River continued to carry the station, however, he said that the%y would be “breaching conditions of their li-


ff air

cence and would have to face action.” Meanwhile Radio Waterloo has been off the air since 12:30 pm on Tuesday and cannot resume broadcasting until they obtain a licence. Dave Assmann, administrative coordinator for the station, said that they are exploring two alternatives with regard to licencing. The first is a “carrier current” service, while the second is low power FM transmission. The carrier current service involves setting up a series of transmitters along hydro lines and the signal is then carried along the lines and radiates out from them. The system costs in excess of $50,000 to set up because of the number of transmitters needed. (A new transmitter is needed at every transformer in the line since the transformers wipe out the signal.) Assmann pointed out that although most campus stations use a carrier current system he does not favor that here because of the high initial cost and also because it is an AM service. This means lower quality than FM and no stereo broadcasts, he said. A better bet is a low power FM licence. Assmann feels that this would require a maximum expenditure of $10,000 - $15,000 for a transmitter, lawyer’s fees and related expenses. He attributed the reasonable cost (Carleton reportedly sknd $100,000 in obtaining a carrier current licence) to the fact that Radio Waterloo has already set up studios and ‘ ‘the equipment is all there except for the transmitter.” The problem is, he said, “there are no frequency allocations in this area.” This can be solved by applying for a “drop-in” frequency, which is a narrow band between two frequencies that do not quite overlap. Indications on Wednesday were

that Radio Waterloo has decided to apply for an FM licence, to broadcast with a power of 50 watts. This should enable it to be picked up throughout the K-W area. It will also be on cable again, since CRTC regulations require cable companies to carry all local licenced FM stations. A request for money to finance the licence application and equipment purchase will be brought before Student council at its meeting on Sunday. Federation president John Shortall said that he will support the request, although “it can’t come from this year’s budget,” as all funds are already allocated. He felt that “it could be accommodated in next year’s budget.” Shortall pointed out, however, that decisions regarding next year’s budget cannot be made until the new council is installed at ths general meeting on March 2. *fie felt that Radio Waterloo might become an election issue in the upcoming council elections. Although Radio Waterloo is off the air, Assmann expects that, if anything, “this will be a busier term than usual .” First priority will be the licence application, to be presented before a public meeting of the CRTC in either May or June. They will also be searching for new sources of revenue, as licencing requires a “promise of performance” by the station. This might include carrying some commercials, although Assmann said that it is not likely that the CRTC will allow that. In addition they hope to be setting up production teams to train staff and to produce programs that will “still be relevant” when Radio Waterloo returns to the air. The programs may also be sold to other radio stations, thus producing revenue. -henry



the chevron





16, 19;

Faculty of Education University of Torodo Application forms for the B.Ed. program are now available.


A representative from the faculty will make an information visit to Waterloo campus on Thursday, January 15, from 3:304:30 pm in room iO5, Arts Lecture Bldg.

Friday Federation

Flicks The Young Frank-

enstein with Gene Wilder and Peter Boyle. 8pm. AL1 16. Feds. $1 Others $1.50.

Federation Flicks The Young Frankenstein with Gene Wilder and Peter Boyle. 8pm. AL1 16. Feds $1 Others $1.50.



Watercolours & Drawings by Ted & Phyllis Godwin. Lithographs. Art Gallery U of W. Free Admission. Mon.-Fri. 9am to 4pm. Sun. 2pm5pm.

U of W Ski Club Day Trip to Holiday Valley, Ellicotville New York. Tickets available at PAC office. $12 includes transportation and tow ticket for the day. 6:45am PAC Blue North.



Pub opens 12 noon.

~ Band from g-lam.



Band from g-lam.

China Week: 3 films. Ode to the Yee

Fishing Song

Mong Mountain; Educated Youth in the Countryside; ofthe South China Sea. 8pm. MC 2065.


Flicks The Young Frankenstein with Gene Wilder and Peter Boyle. 8pm. AL1 16. Feds $1. Others $1.50.

Sunday & Godwin


lery U of W. 2-5pm.

Art Gal-

Rm. 21:

Fair sponsored by Camp Centre Board. loam to 4pm CC Grc Hall.


& Godwin


Art GI

lery U of W. Hours: 9am-4pm.

Co-ed Bowiing

continues every Sunday. You can still join. 8:45pm. Waterloo Bowling Lanes.


Club Day hike via Grand Vailey trail to Eiora Gorge. Bring lunch. Heturn 5pm. Leave CC at 9am. For further info call Bob Breals 885-2748 or Pete Nicholson 884-0389.




Week: films; Harnessing of Haiho River; Tachai-Standard Bearer in China Agriculture; People’s China. 8pm. MC 2065.



Store opt

930-1 pm and 2pm-430pm. cc.

Crafts China




and Blues Club- “Personal Choice” by Cliff Wilson. 8pm. Kihener Public Library.

Para-legal assistance offers nonprofessional legal advice. Calf 885-0840 or come to CClO6. Hours: 1130-230 and 7-1Opm. Campus


Pub opens 12 noon.

Band fmm 91prn


Grand Valley Car Club welcomes you to our next meeting. 8pm. Waterloo County Fish & Game Protective Association. Pioneer Tower Road. Off Hwy 8 between Kitchener & Hwy 401.

China Week: Photographic

Tuesday Crafts

Fair sponsored

Centre Hall





For buying & selling used books. We pay cash for your used texts.

Open Friday & Saturday loam-5pm during renovations 12 King St. N. Waterloo

by Camp CC Grc

Pub opens 12 not


Band f mm 9-l am.



from 930-I cc.




op’ Rm. 21’

~06 & 2:00-4:30.

& Godwin



Gallery U of W. Hours: 9am4pm.


assistance offers no professional legal advice. C# 8854840 or come to CC 106. Hou lpm430pm.



Films: Kazakhstan; Child. 8pm. EL 204.



81 cultural exhibition loam-5pm C 113. Also slide shows: The Journey China; Contemporary Chinese Histc 1030-12x)0 and 1230-2:O0. CC 207

NFB movies:


For Mother



of Fear

Jesuits among the Hurons and the \n with the Iroquois. New England a New France-contest between ! Lawrence and the Atlantic-Hudsl trade system 1490-l 763. Suite 2( 659 King St. E. Kitchener. 2pm.


and Society: the technolo cal interaction” a special interest If ture by Dr. Kenneth Hare, Director the Institute of Environmental Studio U of T. 130p.m. Phys 145. All are WC come.


talk on teaching Faculty Education University of Western 0 tario 330 p.m. ML 246.


Week’ photographic displa and cultural exhibition loam-5pm. C 113.

China Week Slide shows: the Journ to China, and Contemporary Chine: History 1030-l2:OO and 12:30-2:00 f~ CC 207.

Wednesday Campus

Centre Pub opens 12 ma

Band from 9-l am,


Used book store from930-1:00&2Q0-430Rm2176~


Mathematics Professor and a Local Student from Zimbabwe TIME: Monday, Jan.lS, 8 pm PLACE: Room 347 Optometry Building Univ. of Waterloo

is Southern


Crafts fair lOam4pm

CC Great Hal

Free movie: Arsenic and Old Lac Cary Grant, Peter Lorne. lo:15 pm C Great Hall University


UW chaplains-


sponsored by ti pm SCH 218k

Chess Club meeting 730 pm CC 1: everyone


Gay Coffee House 8:30 CC1 10 Red Cross blood donor clinic Fil United Church King & William Strew Waterloo 2flO430pm and 6:00-8:: Pm Yoga

& swim classes designed f those with breathing problems WL pool 8-1Opm pre-register Waterloo R gional Lung Association 579-l 140

Careers information NH 1st floor e tended hours of operation now opt Wednesdays until 8pm






7pm r

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Gallery U of W 9am4pm.


& Goodwin




on page

jay, january

the chevron

16, 1976


against HRCS’wbg lt sure isn’t easy being a profesr in a department which could be ed if UW senators decide Mony to go ahead with the recom:ndation outlined in a task force port. Godfrey Barret-Lennard finds nself in such a position and he’s ing his best to fight a report rich calls for the closure of the .man relations and counselling * ldies department. . The report released Jan. 5 sugsts the department be phased It because of questionable ademic standards and continued rife among faculty. Barret-Lennard, who’s working ’ 1 a “counter report” to present senate on Monday, told the evron Tuesday that the report’s ial recommendation came as a ;tunning surprise” to him since tring the six-month review of the _ :partment there was never any dication of scrapping it. He added that the department akes a “unique contribution to ciety in the products of the progrn and in the scientific contribuIns by faculty.”

The UW department is “widely recognized as being an important breaking ground among interested individuals and organizations across North America and overseas countries .” Bar-ret-Lennard said. In a written statement to UW president Burt Matthews, the professor said, “That it would be a tragic and irreversible loss to the potential contributions of the university to take a decision to terminate the department; and that it would be in keeping with the university’s best traditions to nurture this virtually unique innovation.” Barret-Lennard has been with UW since 1%6 and was behind the move to set up the new department in 1972 as an off-shoot of the psychology department. The objectives of the depart-

ment included training in family and group counselling, therapeutic counselling, communications and teaching skills. “Most members of the department are interested in wide range of procedures which are not coercive in nature and which attempt to bring about social change,” Barr&-Lennard said. “Professors and students in the department are fundamentally involved in helping the members of an organization in the community to identify problems, to appreciate resources and todevelop means to achieve the goals they have identified.” While Barret-Lennard conceded there are differences among professors as to the goals of the department, he didn’t feel this internal strife “crippled the workings of .

; .

Senate to nove??? It’s still in “the realm of posbilities ,” but if you want to go to [onday’s senate meeting you’d :tter phone university secretary Ick Brown at extensions 2734 or 749 the same day to find out here the session will be held. Rumors say the meeting may be ansferred to a larger setting be&use of space constraints. Asked as to whether the meeting ill indeed be moved from Neeles Hall 3006, Brown said he’s adopting a policy of wait and see efore making any further anouncements .” On the agenda is the fate of the uman relations and counselling udies department. Students and lculty from the department say iey’ll be presenting petitions and

and five with doctorals, BarretLennard said. “The task force didn’t call on the graduates of the program to judge its ’ efficiency. ” Presently there are 14 doctoral students, 29 masters and 33 undergraduates enrolled in the department. Bar-ret-Lennard in his report to senate will be recommending the department be continued with specific guidelines. He pointed out that the task force report has “some suggestions which will be useful to the department in developing resources, effective administrative leadership and the overall betterment of the academic programs.” The professor also said he expects students will be presenting their views regarding the scrapping of the department at the senate meeting and he hopes there’ll be a “united position” between faculty and students. “In my experience and observation, the past half-year had been relatively the most productive period in three years. It is an irony and anomaly that at this time there should be a recommendation to close down the department.” -john


Wn a UW prize



I-A ..bJ ‘Sp .~“,_1 .“.L jlj,>‘.,.’

counterreports”to the meeting. if.“C.L&&d’;ll,,.I“:. >’

Pupis can drop courses without the proi% ‘okay’ The next time you drop a you won’t need the ourse, rstructor’s initials to do so. That’s what the Arts Faculty ouncil decided at its Tuesday lee ting . The council, which is the final ay in Arts, overwhelmingly felt here wasn’t any reason to require tudents dropping a course during he “drop/add period” to obtain he professor’s signature. The motion reads: “That during he three week drop/add period at he beginning of each term, stulents are no longer required to obain the signature or initials of the nstructor of any course they wish o drop.” Jack Gray, an English professor tnd an official in the upper echeons of the Faculty’s bureaucracy,

the department.” He said that since the 1972 episode, when the then chairman resigned because of faculty COUfIict, the “strains which have surfaced have been much lesser.” And “over the course of time the residual conflicts will resolve themselves ,” the professor added. “The way that faculty conflict is portrayed in the report is misleadingly generalised, unqualified and pessimistic in relation to my own experience and judgment. ” As for finances, the department has enough funds to initiate four new positions with the annual contribution from the Counselling Foundation of Canada and the departure of two professors, Barret-Lennard said. The Foundation has granted the department $300,000 which is dispersed on a year-to-year basis. He also criticized the task force for not obtaining comment from the graduates of the department. Most of these graduates are currently employed in counselling centres, community colleges, universities, high schools and a variety of human service agencies. In the three years the department has existed, about 30 students have graduated with masters

said dropping such a requirement will “save students a lot of running around .” “Students have to spend a great deal of time to get the initials of a professor to drop out of a course.” He said such a requirement was found unnecessary when the Waterloo Academic Scheduling Service heard from many undergraduate officers that most initials were forged anyway. Though most council members agreed with Gray, others felt students should at least tell professors they’re dropping out so as to facilitate course planning. “I’d appreciate it if students told me they were dropping the course,” said Judy Wubnig, a philosophy professor. Council’s chairman Fred Mac-

Rae offered his own solution: professors should use the roll call system every day to assess how many “warm bodies are around or are still warm.” In another matter, council was given a motion to consider at its February meeting which called for “the abolition of the Arts Faculty Council.” The motion was introduced by John Wilson, chairman of the political science department. Wilson said he’d back up his motion at the next council meeting as all he wanted to do at the moment was to introduce it. According to a university source, the portly political science chairman was overheard muttering afterwards that the functions of the waste council are “an inordinate of time.” The council is the final decision making body in the Faculty and is presently made up of all professors in Arts and three student representatives. The body deals mostly with academic matters such as degree requirements, new courses, course changes and policy revamping. It meets once a month to conduct business, and is open to anyone from the academic community. -john


If you have a teacher who has some human qualities such as “showing concern for, and sensi tivity to,” your needs, and you feel he/she has had a “lasting and favourable influence” on you, plus is possessed with “intellectual vigour and communication skills”, then you could nominate the person for the Distinguished Teacher Award (DTA). Those are some of the criteria which will be considered by a selection committee which will honour three UW teachers with the DTA this year. Successful innovation in teaching will also support a nomination, though the senate regulations recognise that “excellence in teaching does not necessarily require innovation’ ’ . This is the first time the university has offered such an award and it will be given in recognition of “a continued record of excellence in teaching at UW.” Academic vice-president Tom Brzustowski announced Monday that nominations are now invited for the 1976 awards. The nominations should ’ be sent to Brzustowski’s office (Needles Hall 3051).

The regulations state that a nomination should consist of a detailed statement making the case. for the award. “It should be signed by at least ten persons, of whom at _ least half should be present or former students of the nominee.” The regulations state that the nominee’s chairman and dean will be advised of the nomination and invited to provide support’ information. The nomination deadline is Feb. 15. The selection committee, appointed by senate will make its deliberations in March. The committee will be comprised of: three un-. dergraduate students , two graduate students, one representative fi-om the Alumni Association, four members of the faculty and the academic vice-president as chairman. The winners of the three awards will gain a citation and presentation at convocation. It will also be permanently noted as part of their calendar listing and $1,000 will be placed in a university discretionary account, under the recipient’s control, to be used in support of . any teaching activities . -neil




the chevron


16, 1

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For Sale Zenith,“E” SLR camera. Complete 55MM, 135MM, telephoto, 35 wideangle, flash, filters, etc. A foam-filled attache case. Exce condition. $150. Phone 578-7314 5pm.


Bass Reflex speakers, grundig tv ers & crossover, Marsland dual ( 12”. Accoustic fiberglass finish. ! pair. Phone Kevin at 884-5433.

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‘riday, january

16, 1976

the chevron

Baaad situation

with PAC



Ram bleats about lack of mace I

Super Tramp and Z.Z. Top are iust two of the acts the student federation have had to turn down because of difficulties in aquiring the PAC facilities, according to entertainment board co-chairman Art Ram. The lack of large copcerts was discussed at last Tuesday night’s board meeting. Ram complained that booking the PAC on short notice is virtu-


ally impossible. He added that this is the biggest, if not the only, reason for not having more concerts. During the meeting, Ram stated: “I predict that within one year, it will be impossible to book the PAC for concerts under the existing system.” The problem, as co-chairmen Ram and Carl Chaimovitz see it, results from a combination of a

university policy known as Policy 27 and a difficulty in finding out what times are available for bookings . Ram explained that Policy 27 gives priority for the use of the PAC to all athletic activities. This prevents rescheduling even intramural sports for concerts. Later, Ram told the chevron that it usually takes about 24 hours to find out whether the PAC is

of sexual discrimination

Salaiy levels examined The average salary of nonteaching females at UW is under $8,000 and the average salary of males is over $14,000 according t0 advisory committee report on equity of salary levels of men and women non-teaching staff. Despite the disparity between female and male staff salaries the committee says, “There is no evidence that the salary structure of the university was designed to be sex biased .” No sexual discrimination exists in UW’s salary schedule for nonteaching staff, notes the committee. “With few exceptions, in grades where there is a mixture of males and females, the rate of pay is consistent with qualifications, experience, length of service and performance evaluation,” states the committee. The committee found two cases of sex bias in the pay given two unidentified female employees and steps were taken to redress this situation. There was one discriminatory job description in the salary administration policy which has been reworded from relerring only to an employee as ‘ “he” to “he-she.” The advisory committee report was designed to “determine if there is any sex bias in the nonteaching salary structure and to determine if a sex bias exists in promotion. ” The explanation for the disparity between male and female staff salaries is accounted for by the difference in “educational qualifications required and the pool of candidates from which hiring has taken place.” In the male dominated positions qualifications are much higher than in the female dominated secretarial and clerical jobs, the committee says. Another reason for the variance in salary between women and men, the committee says, is that “the UW’s consistent salary policy has been to pay the average of rates paid in the community for similar jobs. ” “The community pays less for female dominated positions than it does for male dominated positions, and the university salary schedule reflects that fact.” To rectify this disparity the committee suggests a transfer from the community value to an internal appraisal of the work performed and the related salaries. The committee report makes recommendations aimed at ‘ ‘bleaking down the conventional view of positions as female positions or male positions D’ ’ Typewriter

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Female employees should be actively encouraged to apply for traditionally male dominated positions, the committee says. A staff handbook containing all policies and benefits should be prepared and issued to each staff member, the committee says. The committee report also recommends, “that the personnel

department consider establishing and maintaining a skills and interests inventory” as a reference resource for filling vacancies when they occur. However, the, committee notes, that the “gloomy financial outlook for the university” will make these recommendations difficult to implement. -judy


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In other business during the meeting, Ram and Chaimovitz announced they will resign as cochairmen of the board of entertainment. Ram said the resignations are the result of the added duties of their newly appointed positions as manager and assistant manager (respectively) of the Campus Centre Pub. They feel they will not have enough time for the board. The resignations are to take effeet on Jan. 24, and it will be recommended that Nigel Bradbury be appointed new chairman of the board.

the dates.

This bag of bones is just part of a collection of games assembled by Elliot Avedon, an HKLS professor. Avedon has his museurn of ancient games oil l oooooooooooooeooooooooeo.oooo :

Ram also told the chevron another problem with the PAC is that the limit on admissions the entertainment board must observe when a concert is finally approved. No more than 4,200 tickets can be sold for any one concert to be held in the gym. When asked why more poeple are allowed into athletic events, Ram could only reply: “That’s a good question.”

booked. In some cases it has taken three days to find this out. Ram said that even 24 hours*is often too long to wait since promoters usually need a decision more quickly than that. This was the case with the Z.Z. Top act which had been arranged but had to be cancelled when it was discovered that the gym had been previously booked. Ram told the board he had been informed that the only time available for concerts this term in March 27. He said, as of yet, nothing has been booked for this date. Ram expressed deep concern over the matter because *he says it is also becoming increasingly diffikult to reserve time in the Humanities Theatre and, the Theatre of the Arts. He emphasized, “we can’t wait any longer. We’re already screwed for this term.” Ram suggested that one possible solution would be to reserve eight dates one year in advance. However, he added that this presents a problem in trying to find acts to fit


the sixth floor of the math and computer collection see the chevron next week.



For a fuller story on the photo by Dave Watt


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the chevron

Teachers-to-be: ,


If you are interested in teaching as a career, this is what Harry Oikle, Faculty of Education, Queens University had to say about the courses offered there. There are two certificates offered at Queens. The EST4 (Elementary School Teaching Certificate: Standard 4), and the HSA (High School Assistant Certificate: Type A and B). These certificates are approved by the Ministry of Education. The certificates are valid for five years. During those five years a person must have two successful teaching years at which time the certificate can be made permanent. These certificates are only valid in Ontario, Oikle warned students. If a person teaches outside Ontario and then comes back and wishes to teach in Ontario, he would have to be reinstated one year at a time until he had completed two successful years of experience in Ontario. In order to teach outside Ontario a person would take his/her Bachelor of Education to the other province and they would issue a certificate for teaching in that province. Two years ago the format of the

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courses was changed to‘ enable students who weren’t sure whether they. wanted to teach elementary or secondary school to take both. A student can now get a secondary. school diploma whit h allows him to teach Grades 7 and 8 of elementary school by taking certain options. Also an elementary school diploma allowing the. student to teach Grades 9 and 10 of secondary school by taking options again. The work towards the certificate is practical as well as theoretical. There are 8 weeks of practice teaching during the year. Visiting elementary and secondary school classes are brought into the university for four weeks at a time and are taught by education stu-


Romans study, 5:15 supper, culty n~ight. CC 113


“Historical and contemporary de velopment of Chinese Science & Tech nology.” 8pm El 101


photographic displays exhibition. 1Oam-Spm




used book store 9:30-l :00

& 2:00-4:30rm


Crafts fair loam-4pm Godwin

& Godwin

CC Great Hall


Art Gal-

43 6:00 fa




U of W Art Gallery.

Fair lO:am--4pm



9:30-l :00 & 2:00-4:30

217A CC






China week: Jen Chin-kung speaks or





modern duos for recorder and flute. Pauline Durichen recorder and flute. Ron Read-lute and guitar. Free admission 12:30pm Theatre of the Arts.


Name Address _ City University


TORONTO (CUP)-The Ontario legislature, but as yet none hav, said they will send a speaker. Federation of Students expects busloads of students from “all Earlier that same day, the OF! parts of Ontario” to participate in will present its brief to the specia their rally - planned for January 21. committee now holding public hearings around the province OI The rally has been called to the question of the future o show student support for the OFS Ontario’s student aid system. demand for an abolition of tuition Although OFS says planning fo fees and an all-grant student aid the rally has gone smoothly, the system, and will be held at Convosame can’t be said for the marcl cation Hall at U of T starting at 2 :OO that was planned as part of thl pm on January 21. rallv.J Keynote speaker will be former OFS originally intended to hoh NDP member of Parliament and a march from Convocation Hall tc Ryerson president Walter Pitman. the legislature but they have nov learned that the legislature won’ According to OFS spokesman be in session that day, and are re Dale Martin, invitations have gone out to the three major parties in the considering the march.


Directorate of Recruiting & Selection National Defence Headquarters, Box 8989, Ottawa, Please send me more information about the opportunities a Combat Group.

dents. These visiting classes ar put in rooms equipped with twc way mirrors and microphones s the education students can ol: serve them. When talking about job oppor tunities in the teaching field Oikl was very confident that there ar many jobs available. He said las year 90 per cent of the students re ceived jobs and this year, he said the school can account for 95 pe cent receiving work. Oikle exp lained that the 5 per cent whr hadn’t received jobs had limiter themselves geographically. For in depth information on the contents of the courses write tc The Faculty of Education, Queen: University, Kingston.

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16, 197

take note

continued from page 2 Noon music programme

e a dilfferent kin company manager.


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offers nonprofessional legal advice call 8850840 or come to CC 106 1:30-4:30

Week: photographic display5 and cultural exhibition loam-5pm CC

207 China week:




Meeting 7:30 CC1 10


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Movie--Tanzanian Rail construction; and The




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16, 1976

the chevron


Engineers mtist master the ten tines table - _I’= Postal code , . boycott +

- 3

The metrication of all undergraduate engineering programs will be fairly well completed by about ‘1980, according to Wally McLaughlin UW’s Dean of Engineering. The Faculty of Engineering is “going metric” next fall. That means that when first year engineering students do their problem assignments and research and lab projects, they’ll make the majority of their measurements and do the majority of their computing in centimetres, litres, grams and so forth, instead of inches, gallons or pounds.

“Basically, what this means, is that the sets of problems we assign our students will be metricized,” says McLaughlin. “Of course, we can’t expect that all our textbooks will have been revised by then, so to some extent, they will still be involved in such units as inches, pounds and so on. But we will be using the metric system, and S.I. units wherever possible”. The pressure to “go metric” is so great at present, that many American engineering schools are also converting even though their government hasn’t gone along with

That’s *where . all the. money,- gobs

the metric conversion yet, states McLaughlin: He predicts , “once they do, the textbooks will change very quickly”. “It is becoming pretty\‘well accepted in business and industry that if you are involved in intemational trade in any way, you’ve got to go metric, ” says McLaughlin. ‘ ‘And as international business .moves into the metric field that puts pressure on a great many businesses that normally operate domestically.” He feels the changeover will not be too difficult for most of the engineering programs taught on the UW campus; a good deal of science is already metric and there is no problem -with mathematics. “We- have already changed our own graphics manual.” The branch of engineering that might have the most difficultv. McLaughlin feels, is his own -civil engineering. ‘ ‘The civil engineers are going to have some problems and new units will have to be designed,” he says. ‘But for most branches of engineer-1ng the changeover shouldn’t present too many difficulties. And of course many of the measurements engineers use-watts and calorie, for instance-have been ‘metric’ for ‘years, We felt it was time we madethe switch.” Dick Robertson, UW’s director of academic services, says the university will respond to the engineering faculty’s change in various ways: for instance, the library and the book store wilI be watching for new texts which will deal with a variety of engineeringrelated subjects on a metric basis.

. Despite sharp reductions in the worked out with respect to a conbudgets of many federatiop spon.ference on aging. If the conference sored educational events on camreceives an anticipated grant from pus. in 1976, the student the federal secretary of state, no federation’s education board will request for funds will be forwarded still be flat broke for the remainder to the federation. of the winter term. However, if this grant is not At a meeting held on Monday forthcoming, up to $575 is being the board’s entire budget of almost reserved for. the conference. The $6,500 was all ocated to 20 different precise sum to be allocated also projects. depends on’ revenue from other 3. Shane Roberts, chairman of the sources. board, reported that the Chinese The Progressive Cultural Club Student’s Association requested “tentatively” got $150 for an uponly $350 fbr this January’s China coming film series. However, this Week, a drop of $850fi-om last money will not be released until year’s request. ’ the Club submits the titles of films The African people’s symto be shown, in addition to a list of posium will receive only $100, the Club’s officers and members. The board also warned the Club whereas last year they were given $1,200. However, the Symposium that if any of its members are party will be considered a major priority to disruption of any federatidnsponsored events, the grant will be inaccess to the board’s emergency funds. . “reconsidered”. The remainder of the expendiAlmost half the budget* was spent on two conferences on na- tures are as follows: Ontario Conference on Local Governtional issues. A symposium on ment-$250; Day Care Suburban issues in Canada to be held sidization Campaign--$lOO; Winon Feb. 14-15 was given $1,500 for ter Housing for ’ Students transportation, publicity , and honoraritrm purposes. The symposium - Survey-$200; Young People in Legal Difficulty-$50 ; Student Aid will bring together resource perHearings-$240;. Referendum on sons from across the country. Union of StudNational The same amount of money ‘was ents-$200; Latin American Stubudgeted for “Tandi”, a symdents Association-$150; Rally posium on native peoples hosted Against Racist Activity at by the Conrad Grebel Student UW-$100; K-W Probe (Court Caucus booked for January 20-22. Costs on the Elora Gorge Much of this money‘will be spent Issue)-$50; Frontier College on some rather high honorara for -$25. speakers. -mike ura However, Flora Conroy, one of the organizers, stated after the meeting that “Indian people share whatever they have with others. If someone is paid $650, you can be sure that $600 of that will go to various projects and people in need.” Women’s issues got $440 to spend this term. Out of this allocation, $200 will be going to the Wages for Housework Collective to help organize an off-campus meeting to be addressed by Selma James. James is a prominent theoretician of radical feminist strategies, and has been writing on the position of women in an industrial social system long before the women’s liberation movement became widely publicized. Another $240 was allocated to a series of conferences on rape held by the Rape Distress Centre. The Ingmar Bergman film “The Virgin Spring” will be shown at each meeting. Alex Jigerof, a noted criminologist who has specialized in the personality of rapists and othe’i-sexual offenders, will be featured at one of the meetings. The meetings will be held at WLU on Jan. 19, UW on Jan. 27, Kitchener Public Library on Feb. 2, and Cambridge Public Library on Feb. 10. An agreement between the 745-6211 board and Renison College, and 50 kestmount Rd. other church colleges has been



More bodies behind pensOntario univetiities report a 5.4 percent increase in full-time student enrolment for 1975-76. The preliminary figures were announced last December by Harry Parrott, minister of colleges and universities. ~ Enrolment of full-time students at ‘universities and affiliated institutions is expected to reach 158,358 this year, compared to an actual enrolment of 150,176 in 1974-75. This includes 15,138 fulltime -graduate students, a 4.6 per cent increase. Enrolment of part-time under‘graduate students in the fall and winter sessions is expected to increase by 5.6 per cent. The university figures include

estimates of enrolment at Ryerson Polyteehnical Institute and the Ontario College of Art. ’ At Ontario’s 22 community colleges, a total of 58,236 full-time students have enroled, a 5.8 per cent increase. At UW the expected emolment‘ for 1975-76 is 17,361, an increase of 4.4 per cent over 1974-75. College figures are compiled by a simple head count ti of October 15,1975 whereas university figures are based on a- head count mod:ified by -an estimate of expected changes up to December 1, 1975. Actual enrolment figures usually differ slightly from preliminary es9 timates.


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is stil.1in effect OTTAWA (CUP)-The postal code boycott is still on, at least until the National Executive Board of the Canadian Union of Postal Workers (CUPW) decides what to do about it. The boycott campaign was started two years ago to show public support for the postal workers, who were demanding job protection from the effects of automation as well as a share in the benefits it produced, According to CUPW representative Paul Mitchell, the boycott was a success and forced the government to include protection from automation clauses in the recently signed contract. But although little resistance was shown on providing basic protection, Mitchell said the government used the boycott to deny the workers any share in the benefits. He quoted post-master general Bryce Mackasey as saying the boycott was “100 per cent effective” and then arguing there weren’t any benefits for the workers to share. If the boycott is continued, and Mitchell said a final decision has not yet been made, the emphasis would have to be changed, stressing the need for a share in the benefits of automation. But changing emphasis would not be the only problem facing a renewed postal boycott campaign. Last October the government changed the Post Office Act making the use of the code on 85 per cent of any second, third or fourth class mail mandatory. Mail which is not coded would pay first class postal rates, thereby economically penalizing those who would continue to support the boycott. Mitchell said he is not certain -when the National Executive Board will meet to reconsider the boycott, but when asked if the union still had large stocks of boycott buttons, tee-shirts and other campaign materials he said “there’s not much left.”

14 - If Waterloo


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the chevron


for Zmbabwe on haircuts from Willie or Candie

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In the last year the African political situation has seen many irnportant changes as the last vestiges of Portuguese colonialism were swept from the continent by liberation movements. And this year may also witness yet ,another startling development with the name of Rhodesia being replaced by Zimbabwe, the African title for that country rich in farmland and mineral wealth. The racist Rhodesian governinent which subjugates the overwhelming black majority of the country is in the process of being swept aside by a liberation movement led by the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) and its armed detachments in the Zimbabwe Africari National Liberation Army (ZANLA). The liberation of Zimbabwe will have profound effects on African politics, since not only will the Zimbabwean people have won the right to control their own destiny but in so doing they will have destroyed the main ally of South Africa on .the continent. On Monday, the university community will have an extraordinary opportunity to hear a first hand report of the situation in


FEDERATION OF STUDENTS NOTICE 0-F STUDENTS’ COUNCIL ELECTIONS for the academic year 1976-77 Nominations for the positions of representatives to Students’ Council for the academic year 1976-77 open on THURSDAY, JANUARY 22, 1976 and .close on THURSDAY, JANUARY 29 at 4:30.p.m. The distribution of Council seats is as follows: .

Arts: Engineering:

4 seats 3 seats 2 seats

winter term spring term ‘\ Environmental Studies: u 2 seats . regular co-op terms 1 seat I- seat Integrated Studies: , regular 2 seats Mathematics: co-op winter term 2 seats co-op spring term 1 seat H.K.L.S.: 1 seat . regular co-op winter term 1 seat co-op spring term 1 seat Science: regular -3 seats co-op terms 1 seat 1 seat St. Jerome’s: 1 seat Renison: 2 seats Graduate Studies: Engineering, H.K.L.S. and Mathematics spring term co-operative students will elect their repia resentatives in June 1976. Nomination forms are available from Helga Petz in the Federation office located in the Campus Centre Room 235, and must be returned to that office by 4:30 p.m. January 29. Election Committee


southern Africa, and specifically on the war being waged against the white minority Smith regime in Zimbabwe. Michael Mawema, a leading figure in the liberation struggle will address a meeting in the amphitheatre (rm 347) of the optometry building on the north side of Columbia Street at 8 p.m. Mawema is a member of the national executive of ZANU and its national organizing secretary. The following information, culled from a recent article by Mawema, should provide those attending the meeting with some background, particularly on the most recent developments. ZANU has been in struggle with the Smith regime since it was formed under the leadership of Ndabningi Sithole in 1%4. The decision to take up armed struggle came as a last resort following years of fruitless negotiation. In 1974 ZANLA forces were within 60 kilometres of the Rhodesian capital, Salsbury . It was this pressure, says Mawema, which forced South Africa and Rhodesia to float a policy of detente, and to suggest that the Zimbabwean people could solve their problem by dialogue. In an effort to show the world it was not a “war monger” ZANU formed a united front with other political groups under the umbrella of the African National Congress and agreed to talk with Smith last August. But when the leaders met with Smith on the bridge over the Victoria Falls, the Rhodesian Prime minister refused to negotiate in good faith. He has since chosen to talk only with Joshua Nkomo who is committed to a constitutional deal which would place him as a minister in the Rhodesian Front govemment. Nkomo has been expelled from the ANC for selling out the interests of the Zimbabwean people, Mawema explains ddetente as a diplomatic manoeuver designed to suggest to the world that Smith and Vorster (the South African prime minister) were holding meaningful talks with a black leader. But its main objective, he

16, 1976


says, was to sow confusion among African nationalists and the liberation forces and so to destroy the ZANU offensive. To some extent it was successful, says Mawema, and splits did appear among African nationalist leaders with some refusing to accept that Smith would make any real concessions from a bargaining table, while a reformist trend surfaced among others who began to believe in dialogue. This reformism resulted in the ZANU military command being arrested and incarcerated in Zambia. And so detente saved Salsbury from the ZANLA offensive. Smith and Vorster’s latest tactic is the offer of large interest fi-ee loans to those governments who will support, at the Organization of African Unity and the United Nations, any deal worked out between Smith and Nkomo. But despite all these ploys and the arrest of the ZANU leaders Mawema reports that recruits are flooding into guerilla training camps and that ZANU now has more young people willing to fight for the liberation of their country than it can train. He declares : “The war of liberation will. be won in the next few months, or it will suffer a few more tempory setbacks as the auctioneering of our people is international&d by the Nkomo-Smith constitutional deal .” In an effort to assist the liberation movement Mawema will appeal on Monday for both moral and material support. Mawema has been involved in African politics for much of his life. He is anoutstanding figure in both his own country and on the continent. He has come to realise that the only way his country will be freed is by chimurenga (armed struggle). He has known the torture of Rhodesia’s gaols for one seven year stint and; many shorter periods, and like many thousands of others he has devoted his life to the liberation of Zimbabwe. When he says liberation is near it cannot be viewed as an idle boast. --neil


- Queen’s University at Kingston

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Representatives from the Queen’s School of Business will be on campus to provide information about the MBA program.

1:30-4:00 p.m. Room 1021 First Floor Needles Hall . Wed., January 21,19X GRADUAXlNGi STUDENTS in ALL FACULTIES are invited to drop in any time. If you are bnable io attend, write to the Queen’s School of Business for further information.

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hits 1honor roll’

UW’s ‘WATFIV was recently named to the Datapro Software Honor Roll as one of the top 25 software packages of 1,400 rated by more than 5,000 users. Watfiv? What’s that? WATFIV is the university’s major export and it is used throughout the world by 66 commercial organizations and 225 educational institutions . In a nutshell, it’s a scientific computer language developed by the campus computing centre with very good debugging (error finding) capabilities. It’s a more sophisticated version of WATFIV which was developed at UW years ago as a handy compiler for FORTRAN, which was

the original IBM-developed scientific computer language. WATFIV isn’t sold on a competitive or commercial basis, and it’s available to anyone (with a computer) for a modest fee. Datapro, a firm which acts as”a cataloguing consultant for software (i.e. language) and hardware (i.e. computer memory bank etc. ..), sends out yearly a questionnaire to 26,000 data processing executives asking them to summarize their experience with specific software packages. In 1975, the firm received a 20 percent response and over 1,400 different software packages were rated by these users. Of these, the 25 packages that earned an average rating of excel-

Students denounce -mm&tee OTTAWA (CUP)-One hundred placard-carrying students from Carleton University told a special provincial committee investigating student aid to resign, and then walked out en masse, at public hearings held Dec. 5 at the Rideau campus of Algonquin College. The Carleton students, led by student president Dave Dunn and organizers from the Ontario Federation of Students (OFS), said the committee should abandon its investigation because the recent release of the Henderson Report “has turned the committee into a sham”, Dunn said. The Henderson Report recommended the provincial government raise tuition fees by 65 per cent for college and university students, the elimination of OS AP grants, and the establishment of an allloan student aid system. Dunn said the government will place more weight on the recommendations of the Henderson Report than those which the special committee will produce, and claimed the committee and its hearings will create a false impression that genuine public discussion and debate preceded “changes in student aid which are against student interests, but which the government intends to make anyway.” In response to a question from committee chairman J. Stephan Dupre whether the committee should resign, Scott Mullin of the

Carleton student council replied “Yes” amid cheers from the students. Dupre said he would record that in the committee’s minutes. A student member of the special committee, Tim Doyle of Windsor, claimed. he did not intend to “we’ve already resign because done a lot of work and there’s a lot left to do.” When it became apparent that neither Doyle nor Dupre, who receive $105 per day as members of the committee, intended to consider resignation, the Carleton students rose and walked out of the auditorium. The committee members, after sitting silently for a few moments, resumed the hearing of briefs from the small audience still in attendance. The Carleton students, meanwhile, are planning to charter buses to attend a province-wide rally in Toronto on Jan. 21, when OFS is scheduled to present its brief to the special committee. The OFS brief calls for the abolition of tuition fees and the establishment of an all-grant student aid system to promote greater accessibility to post-secondary education. . University and college administrators, as well as government officials, have recently called for increased tuition fees, more loans, and the abolition of OSAP grants, as outlined in the Henderson Report.

lent in overall user satisfaction and met certain other qualifying criteria were named to the honor roll. The complete results of Datapro’s 1975 software user survey are contained in a 36-page report, “User Ratings of Proprietary Software’ ’ , available from Datapro research corporation for $10 per copy. Write to the corporation in Deltran, New Jersey, 1805 Underwood Blvd. F& the record, the honor roll packages and their suppliers are: ALLTAX, Management Information Service; ASAP, Universal Software, Inc.; Disk Utility System (formerly called Dump/Restore/Copy and Virtual Disk Utilities), Westinghouse Electric Corporation ; DY L-250, Dylakor Software Systems, Inc. ; EPAT, Software Design, Inc.; Fast Dump/Restore, Innovation Data Processing, Inc. ; FORESIGHT, Foresight Systems Inc.; 1130/FORTRAN, DNA Systerns, Inc. ; GRASP, Software Design, Inc. ; IMSL, International Mathematical dz Statistical Libraries , Inc. ; KOMAND/DAS, PACE Applied Tee hnology , Inc. ; The LIBRARIAN, Applied Data Research, Inc. ; OPTIMIZER II, Capex Corporation; PAN*SORT, Pansophic Systems, Inc.; PANVALET, Pansophic Systems, Inc. ; PPE, Boole & Babbage, Inc. ; QUIKJOB I, II, & III, System Support Software, Inc. ; RELOPLUS, Universal Software, Inc. ; RPG II for System/360 and 370, IBM Corporation; 1130/SORT, DNA Systems, Inc.; SYNCSORT, Whitlow Computer Systems, Inc. ; UCC ONE, University Computing Company; UCC TWO, University Computing Company; WATFIV, University of Waterloo (Canada); and WEST1 (Westinghouse Teleprocessing Interface System), Westinghouse Electric Corporation. -john


OSAP shatfs co-op students Without the existence of cooperatib-e programs which enable students to work every four months, a university education would be inaccessible to many. Most of these students expect to cover well over half of their educational costs through co-operative work term earnings, according to a recent student federation survey conducted by field worker Paul Morrissey . However, it isn’t easy for these co-op students to get a student loan for the rest of their costs, and they seldom obtain grants. Each work term the Ontario Student Aid Program (OSAP) requires co-op students to contribute a portion of their earnings toward their education. This figure is based on a “ typical” student income; not on the applicant’s real earnings and expenses. Although OSAP was created, supposedly, to provide everyone with equal access to higher education, its shortcomings are apparent when the work term expenses of co-op students are compared to their net earnings. These students are faced with extra expenses such as the necessity to relocate every four months. Last term, almost 20 per cent of co-op students moved from 300 to 1000 miles away from Waterloo. Besides the travel costs in-


volved, the frequency of relocation usually forces students to rent furnished apartments which usually cost more. Another expense neglected by OSAP is the cost of work clothing which many co-op students must pure hase . On average, these students reported expenditures of about $150 annually on clothing for work, while others spent up to $550. Co-op students, like many other students, need cars for transportation to and from work. Yet, if a student owns a car, OSAP levies a penalty-regardless of whether or not it is used during the academic term. A “typical” student who earns a “typical” income and incurs “typical” expenses simply does not exist, the survey says. OSAP must be changed to reflect the real incomes and expenses of students, both co-op and regular. At noon, on Wednesday Jan.21, buses will be leaving the Campus Centre for the OSAP hearings in Toronto. The student federation will be presenting a brief on co-op students as an addition to the Ontario Federation of Students brief which has been endorsed. “Your support is needed to fight for a better student aid program,” the survev , urges. v 4ionyx




gal Assist needs erience


Meeting for old and new members


Jan. 18

mpus Centre 7:30 pm.

The Ministry of Transport approved Grouncl School course will be held’each Wed. evening (11 nights) Room 3007, M & C, 7 iOpm, commencing Jan. 21. Registration fee $20.00-maps & books $25.00




the chevron


16, 1976

Forum on Chinese sci One of the highlights of China graduate, obtained his BSc., Week which starts tommorrow is M.Sc., and Ph.D., respectively likely to be a speech on “Historifrom MIT, California and Harcal and Contemporary developvard. He was an elected member ment of Chinese science and techof Academia Siniea in Taiwan and nology” to be given by Dr. Chihis currently an Associate Director .kung Jen. of the Applied Physics Research Jen comes to UW at the joint inCentre in John Hopkins Univervitation of the Chinese student as- sity, U.S.A. sociations of UW, Toronto, Besides having a professional inMcGill, and Ottawa universities. terest in micro-wave physics, Dr. He is scheduled to speak on Jen also devotes much of his time Thursday in EL 101. to the studies of China and has Jen, a Tsing Hua physics _ published several articles based on


his two visits to the country in 1972 and his intensive research into the fields of education, science and technology of contemporary China. The UW Chinese students association has organised many activities for the week. They include several movies and documentary films plus pictorial displays and cultural exhibitions. Pictorial displays will include the following topics: economic development, education, people’s communes 4 rural health care and the national minorities of the new China. Slide shows have also been arranged, The first one is one hour in length called “The Journey to China” which was taken by a ErouD of students during their trips Lo t6e country. The s&ond one, half an hour, is called ‘“Contemporary Chinese History”, mainly on the history of the last fifty years. I




Even if you can’t keep all the other promises you made . . . there’s one you can. Give her a diamond! One fiery jewe! to express the love that is yours. Symbol of love and devotion . . . and all that is yet to be. . . a brilliance to be cherished forever.

Wed. Jan. 2%12:30 pm Noon Music Programme MODERN DUOS FOR RECORDER, FLUTE, LU?E AND GUITAR Pauline Durichen - Recorder Ron Read - hute and guitar

MONTREAL (CUP)-Thirty-four French-language student newspapers in Quebec have recently formed a press service similar to Canadian University Press. The Presse Etudiante Nationale (PEN), founded at a November congress in Quebec City, is presently co-operating with the Association Nationale des Etudiants du Quebec (ANEQ) to produce Le Jo.anal de la Major& formerly ANEQ’s national newspaper. ANEQ represents 70,000 students in post-secondary institutions in Quebec. PEN will soon publish a news service and information e!xc hange and will eventually provide a telex news service to its membership. According to a PEN representative, there are good relations between ANEQ and PEN because they are both part of the student movement and have the same goals. According to PEN’s secretarygeneral Jean-Paul Bedard, “Its main purpose is to keep the student body informed of the activities of the student movement. “In addition, PEN, through the papers that it serves, must be the

The case began in 1974 when the women’s bureau of the Saskatchewan labour department took up the cause of women cleaners at the University of Saskatchewan. The women were being paid $155 per month less than their male counterparts.

Thatsame year the U of S was split into two different institutions-the IJ of Regina and the U of Saskatchewan-and the charges of unfair employment was continued against both. The U of S conceded that the positions of men and women cleaners were similar enough to warrant equal pay, and paid its women cleaners retroactive to July 1973, when the equal pay legislation was passed. The U of R refused to reclassify the women cleaners on its campus, and an investigation was ordered by the Human Rights Commission. It ruled that the positions required equal pay. The U of R appealed this ruling, and after two years in the courts, lost its appeal.

The Big Weekend:


Feb. 13,14

A one act play by Peter Routis-

directed by David Archambault Tues. Jan. 27-II:30 am Wed. Jan. 28-12:30 pm Thurs. Jan. 29.II:30 am Fri. Jan. 30-12:30 pm Theatre of the Arts Free Admission Creative Arts Board, Federation of Students

ART GALLERY, University of Waterlog Jan. 15Feb. 8 GODWIN & GODWIN

& 15

Two nights at the Universal Motel (Quebec City) 4 to a room Buses leave Thursday 12th Feb. arrive in Quebec City Friday morning. Leave for home Sunday evening.

and drawings


MON. JAN. 19-l :30 pm Public Lecture by Ted Theatre of the Arts Free Admission

Come to French Canada and a new experience!


Mon. Jan. 19-2 130 pm MEET THE ARTISTS ART GALLERY, University of Waterloo Free Admission Gallery Hours: 9 am-4 pm Sundays - 2-5 pm Free Admission For further information contact Marlene Gallery Administrator ext. 2126.


- $7cLOO

Make your reservation at the Federation Office now! -Co-op






REGINA (CUP)-The University of Regina has been found guilty of sex discrimination in jobs and has been forced to pay 31 women cleaners the same rates as their male counterparts-caretakers I. But the long process of appeals used by the University in an attempt to overturn the original ruling of the Saskatchewan Human Rights Commission exempted the University from paying a full ,year of retroactive pay adjustments.

bet Wi

Noon dram-a - THE RATS

by Ted and Phyllis


and flute

Theatre of the Arts Fre,e Admission’ Creative Arts Board, Federation of Students Fri. Jan. 23-8 pm Sat. Jan. 24-SOLD OUT LOS INDIOS TABAJAR& Theatre of the Arts Admission $5.00, students 8aseniors $2.50 Box Office ext. 2126

Watercolours, lithographs

catalyst and an organizer of the student movement. Thus, PEN must relate any one subject of mobilization to all past and upcoming subjects of mobilization.”

of Students

in co-operation

with Canada



. ay, january


16, T976

>id you know that you and rman Bethune might have nething in common? n 1911, Bethune worked as a ourer in a lumbering camp at age Lake, in Northern Ontario. lile his work-mates lay in their lks, recuperating from the exIsting travails of the oppressive nditions of the day, Bethune lght them the rudiments of read-? ; and writing. He was a lourer-teacher, who had been igned to the camp by Frontier llege, an institution founded in p9, and which still exists today. I’owards the end of his life, thune credited Frontier College th teaching him that you have to Irk with people in order to work * people. He died in China dur; World War II doing just that, er four years of acting as doctor d medical instructor to anticist forces in Spain and Asia. ’ FrOIltkr COlkge~WaS founded in 39 when Alf Fitzpatrick, a lay tivist with the Methodist lurch, discovered that illiteracy 1s the major barrier to commicating with workers in ‘lumring shanties in Algoma. .’ The first, batch of teachers sent t came back insisting that work; would only trust those who Irked as hard and as long as they 1. Since then, all teachers with : college are assigned jobs doing ecisely the same work as the Jourers they teach. They are excted ts survive on the wages id them ,for their labour, and tch in their spare time. The avTge term of, appointment lasts pm 4-8 months. The only money


the chevron

they receive for their teaching is a $50 honorarium. Tom Morrissey, a federation employee who spent two sixmonth terms with the college, claims that working alongside the people you teach is a far more efl fective way ,of getting in touch with them on a personal level. “If you sit inside an office and wait for them to walk in, they just won’t open up. But when you sit down with them after a morning of work for a few minutes, that’s when the guys mind,$ start talking about what’s on their . \ In the past, the-practice of working in out of the way locations prein that there * sented a problem, were not many-openings for women volunteers. Recently however, the, college has been looking for placements in such job-sites as Government cut off its subsidy, 28% of the colleges funds came from their homes and culture. fishing processing plants, where from government sources. Thus, it They were severely punished for upon which the college depended. women have traditionally been has, been possible to devise speaking their ._native language, As a result, the college had to disemployed. In addition, the college continue its degree granting progstrategies of future growth \without and not submitting to white author- . has struck a blow-for equal imp- ramme. I depending on the policies of the ity. 1,oyment opportunities state. In Tasu, a copper mining Furthermore, many workers in for women. In 1970, the federal government The first women workers in northreduced its grant from $10,000 to town in B C., a volunteer started many isolated locations have to em lumbering and mining profes$5,000. Due to widespread protest, discussions on politics and civil depend on their employers or the sions were college volunteers. volunteers government for information; Minhowever, the Department of M.&n- F.rights. ‘Newfoundland helped lobby for day-care centres. The college’s relationship with power and Immigration reinstated imal literacy can help them turn to government bureaucracies has the grant, and upped it to $25,000 ,- Volunteers in many locations have other sources for basic knowledge been somewhat rocky. In 1914, it in 1972. _ helped work rs write up grieabout their rights, and lack of 7 was incorporated by Ontario-as a ,The college also depended on an vances. them. Perhaps the conceptof adult provincial college. In 1922 the fedOFY grant of $46,636 in the same In the first two weeks of Febyear. However, due to the recent education may Seem too “liberal” ruary, representatives of Frontier era1 government passed an act givfederal government massacre of for self-proclaimed radicals. HowCollege will be on campus to intering Frontier College the right to OFY, ,LIP, and other social serever, there are implicitly sweeping view candidates for labourergrant degrees. In the late 20’s, the implications of change involved in Ontario government objected to vice projects, the college is turning teacher positions. Anyone insuch programmes. For years, the this act which it claimed was an more and more to non-government terested in more information may only alternative to such educainfringement of provincial jurisdicfunding of its services. contact either D. Robinson at the . ’ The above experiences tional programmes for native peo- . Career reveal Informatio’n Centre in tion under the British North school, a Needles Hall, or Frontier College, America Act. When the college red the advantages of work of this na- ple was the missionary church-run institution to which fused to stop granting degrees ture being carried out by, non31 Jackes Ave., Toronto. government bodies. In 1973, only children were sent miles away ymike ura under its charter, the Ontario

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16, 1976 .

ternational Harvester. Prices fell substantially. ’ - There is, however, one se&or of. the Canadian : But the challenge by Ford did not succeed. economy where free trade has been in effect for thirty International’s introduction of the power-take-off, with , years: the farm machinery industry. ’ the accessory ma@nery was a very s@rifi&nt tech-, At the time the Mackenzie King government inaugunological change to which Food fa&l to respond. rated this policy the Canadian fafm machinery industry By 1928 International re-emerged as first in tractor was one sector of the Canadian economy where technolsales. Henry Ford withdrew t& Fordson&om the market * 1% ogy and enterprise were very high. rather thanbe second. Thexompanydid not manu&cture Canadian-made products, particularly combines, were / again until 1939. recognized as among the best and most advanced in the ‘/ tractor . ’ world. It was also one of the few manufacturing industries the The earti Canadian industry where Canadian ownership and control was strong. . Many people feel that-&e history of this industry proIn the 19th *ntury, most Canadian manufacturers provides a good example of what would happen if free trade . ’ dpced farm machinery under licence from the larger were adopted as a policy for the economy as a whole. American firms- Research and development was mncenEarlier this year the Ecopomic Council of Canada re-’ hated south of the border. -. leased a major study, Looking’btward; A New Trade Under this system, American firms obtained large \ The growth of monopoly Strategy fty Canada. . royalties while avoiding the need to pay Cam&an duties They found that after a hundred years of protection, , Inthe mid-19th century, the farm machinery industry in - or to build branch plants. The Can&an manufacturers Canada “has remained by and large anexporter of natural both the United States and Canada wa&haracterized by , ’ also prospered. \resources and an importer of more highly manufactured a proliferation of small firms with a great deal of competiIn 1890 the t&F on farm machinery was set at 35%. products.” ’ tion on the retail level. . ’ This was modified in If897 by the Laurier government; the _ What did they prescribe? “A totally free trade situation Canadian firms flourished, protected by-the distance reciprocal arrangement with Great BriW which later behas tg be seen as. the best answer to Canada’s industrial Tom other manufacturers, lower labour costs and the came known as the Britih preferential system. $1 , concerns .” tariff. --% While the Liberals in opposition were committed t0 : A move towards free trade should preferably involve a However, by 1847 U.S. manufacturers began to estabfreer trade in office they were more amenable to the deprocess of mutual reduction of tariffs with other trade lish branch plants in Canada. For the most part, these mar& of manufacturing interizsts. A s~ond change of blocs. But if necessary, a unilateral policy should be procwere selling agenci?s only, dumping excess U.S. produc. policy occured in 1904 when they introduced a dumping \ laimed, as it would be better than the present situation. tion here. duty. The authors, mainly academic economists, believe that Between 190$) and 1915, the industry in the United All of these pdicies were designed not only to protect States began to move towards concentration.‘In 1902 the the present system of protection “has contributed to a qnerging Canadian manufacturing but aIs0 to / deterioration of this country’s capacity for sustained, five biggest U.S. firms merged and formed’ the ‘?f”rnaforeign corporations to invest in Canada. dynamic, autonomous growth.” 5 tional Harvester Company. This was true ofthe fzum~machinery area, even though The new firm controlled % of the market for grain In the face of competition from the new trade blocs, we political pressures from Canadian farmers had resulted in need a policy which &ll “encourage the development of binders and 80% of tKe market for mowers. With finar@al a lowering of the v. more’canadian-based multinational enterprises.” connections to the empires of J.P. Morgan and John D. ,As a first stmtegy, International Harvester ‘tried to The ECC argues that “markedly freer trade would reRockefeller, they were able to develop’s monopoly posi-&&ase~the Mdssey-Harris firm. This faEled. duce the tariff incentive to foreign investment in Canation in the United States. --As an alternative, .they established a branch-plant in dian industry, make more domestic capital available for In 1923 the U.S. federal government began an investig@nada in 1903. Th& ,oxiginal investment was otiy $1 development of our own enterprises, and in other ways &ion of :the company, and an indictment followed under million; however, with an aggressive takeover policy, improve the autonomy of our economic life.” This view the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. they quicjkly emerged as the largyt firm in the Cadadian _ But times had changed. The muckrakers were out of market. L is advanced without hesitation: favour-and Coolidge Prosperity was dominant. The We do not think that this country can afford to take any During the 19th century, l&s&y-Harris ,was thq doother action. Such a step is inevitable if Canada is to company was cleared by the courts in 1927, in spite of the minant firm in the farm machinery field with over 50% of rem’ain one of the w’orld’s advanced economic powers , 3 fact that it had 75% of the retail market for farm machintotal Canadian .+es. During the 1920’s and 1930’s, this and a’t the same time satisfy its other national objectives. ery! dropped to around 2056, but with International the two Deere & Co. yas formed in 1837. By 1900 it had firms controlled around 60% of the Canad&n market. Freer trade, according to the Council’s appraisal of the emerged as the largest producer of plows, and by l-918 it International Harvester, by far the largest ma&&cCanadian situation, is the policy mosblikely to contribute to a vitql, dyiiamic, and growing economy in a country had developed a full line of farm machinery and ranked turer of farm machinery in the world, v therecognized that remains politically autonomous and intern$ly unsecond-in sales in the United States. p&e leader in both Canada and the Uhited States. * The Harr-Parr Co. (which later merged with Oliver) ited. The third largest mam$Wurer of fsrm machinery was was the ‘early leader in the manufacture of farm tractors. The goal of free trade was immediately endorsed by the dockshutt PIok Company, Canadian-owned and conML Trudeau and other spokesmen for the-federal govHowever, by 1911 they were surpassed by International bplled. By the 1930’s it was a fuIi-line company, holding ernment. Some were more skeptical. Harvester, aroundll%oftheCaIMianmarket. After all, the study was issued at the s&me. time that International’s leadership in this area was bhallenged The fourth Ml4iue firm in the Geld in the 1920’s and Statistics Canada was reporting the largest trade#deficit in by Henry Ford m 1917..The Fordson tractor followed the 1930’s was John Deere, a wholly-owned subsidiary of - , , fears, and manufacturing in Canada was going through a. company strategy of mass production and sales at low in Car&da but im1 Deere & Co. It did not manuf&ure crisis period of recession and inability to compete with prices. ,. W ported all its farm machinery from the United S&es. ’ i foreign imports. i \ I In one year the Fordson surpassed&a&or sales by In4tenthued on page 14 ,

Free trade: is it a realistic economic goal or merely an acaderijic economists pi+ dream? The following feature takes a look at one case in which principles of free-trade were applied, the Canadian farm implements-industry, and “The policy of free trade has resu1te.d in a concludes that: steady decline of thd industry in Canada.. . . Canaqa’s share of the world market and the North American market in technolhas steadily declined. . . . Canada’s leadership ogy has been large/y destroyed. . . .” The..article also looks at the monopolies which now dominate industv,and the price-fixing which has resulted. /t was written by john Warnock and appeared in This Magazine.





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page 13

The move to free trade




The tariff succeeded and American firms expanded into Canada. While the major Canadian corporations experienced greater competition, they were large enough to survive. But Canadian farmers were not satisfied. The industry was dominated by four firms, with International Harvester setting prices at a very high level. The economists, with their faith in free enterprise and comparative advantage in trade, convinced the farmers that the abolition of the tariff would bring better products at the lowest possible prices. Under increased political pressure, in 1925 the federal government reduced the tariff to 6%. In 1944 it was completely removed by the Mackenzie King Government. The new policy was a unilateral decision. The Mackenzie King Government did not negotiate reciprocal tariff reductions with other countries. As a result, farm machinery produced in Canada faced competition in sales with machinery produced in Europe and the United States. But because the other countries retained their tariffs, Canadian sales abroad were greatly hindered. To bypass tariff restrictions, Massey-Harris, the only Canadian firm of significance to survive foreign competition, began to acquire plants abroad. Under pressure from American farmers, the U.S. government had abolished the tariff on farm machinery in 1913. The U.S. corporations, by far the largest, most powerful, and technologically advanced in the world, had little to fear from foreign competition. Massey-Harris acquired its first plant outside Canada in 1910. It was hoped that it would offset losses that they expected if the campaign for reciprocity succeeded. The flood of imports came after the removal of the Canadian tariff in 1944. From the point of view of the agricultural industry in Canada, the removal of the tariff has proven to be a disaster. In 1941 imports were around 50% of the total sales in Canada (see Table I). By 1947 this had risen to 72%; by the 1%0’s, imports accounted for over 80% of total Canadian sales. The policy of free trade encouraged exports, but not to the same extent. In ;942, exports were 7% of total production. This rose to 51% by 1952. However,_exports were only around one-half of the value of imports. Furthermore, there has been a steady decline of exports in relation to imports throughout the 1960’s (see Table II). Canada’s share of world exports of farm machinery steadily declined from 12.4% in 1952 to 8.5% in 1966. In 1966 Canada was the largest single importer of farm machinery in the world; the net deficit in imports over exports was $177 million. This was larger than the deficit total for all Latin American, all Asia and all Africa (see Table III). Furthermore, under the free trade policy, Canada became more \and more integrated into the U.S. market. In 1945, around 50% of all Canada’s exports went to the United States; by the 1960’s this had risen to over % (see Table II). In the 1940’s, around 50% of all farm machinery imported came from the United States; by the 1960’s this had risen to over 70% (see Table I). Within the North American market, Canada’s share of production was declining. In 1910 Canada had around 12% of North American production; by 1963 this had fallen to 7.5%. According to the Royal Commision on Agricul-


Year A verages

To ta1 Exports

To The U.S. -.

1900-03 1910-14 1922-25 1926-30 1937-39 1945-47 1948-52 1953-57 1958-62 1963-67

1.9 5.9 5.7 16.2 8.2 32.7 95.8 71.6 95.7 159.5

.O .l -3.8 1.o 2.5 17.8 73.9 56.6 88.2 146.8

Total Canadian Sales


% To U.S. r

Total a/I others

1‘.4 1.7 16.3 23.0 30.2 52.1 76.9 79.2 92.0 91.8

1.9 5.8 4.8 12.4 5.7 14.9 21.9 15.0 7.5 12.7

% to all others

The Rc on f;

98.6 98.3 - 83.7 77.0 69.8 47.9 23.1 20.8 8.0 8.2


tural Machinery (1971), between 1955 and 1967 plant capacity was increased by only 7% in Canada while plant capacity was increased by 40% in the United States. In Canada research and development expenditures amounted to only 1% of sales; in the United States it ranged between 2.5% and 4% of sales.

The growth of American ownership and control The relative destruction of the farm machinery industry in Canada is not due solely to the Canadian free trade policy. It also parallels the foreign takeover of the existing Canadian industry. Of the eight major machinery manufacturers in Canada, six are 100% American owned and controlled (see Table IV). The two Canadian-controlled firms, MasseyFerguson and Versatile, have only around 20% of the sales of these eight fiims. Cockshutt, the second largest Canadian firm, found that it could not sell Canadian-made tractors or combines in the U.S market. American farmers were too nationalistic. After several unsuccessful marketing arrangements, the corporation sold out to the White Motor Company of Cleveland. Today, White imports all tractors sold in Canada and has an arrangement whereby Fiat manufactures small tractors for sale in North America. Bythe 1950’s none of the major farm implement firms manufactured tractors in Canada. International Harvester of Canada imported all tractors sold in Canada, as well as all combines. Massey-Ferguson shifted small tractor production to the United States. John Deere imported all tractors and combines sold in Canada. Neither J.I. Case, Ford, nor Allis-Chambers manufactured tractors or combines in Canada. But foreign ownership and control also extends to the more specialized manufactures, whose total sales in Canada do not approach those of the fullline companies. New Holland is a division of Sperry-Rand Corporation. Allied Farm Equipment,-based in Chicago,


Total Imports


SOURCE: Royal Commission on Farm Machinery, Final Report. Ottawa: The Queen’s Printer, I97 I, Table 15.2, p. 280.

. (Selected Years, CS Millions) Years


( Selected Years, C$ Millions)



Imports as a % of Total Sales

Imports from the U.S.

19.2 1938 42.8 20.9 47.4 30.7 1941 61.6 31.0 50.3 71.9 40.6 56.5 40.5 1944 104.6 1947 145.7 105.4 72.3 248.0 65.2 152.6 1950 161.6 202.8 1953 269.9 209.1 77.5 114.6 226.7 1956 202.6 232.1 254.9 1959 251.1 273.8 109.0 211.1 1962 282.7 x 234.3 82.9 1965 427.0 354.4 83.0 329.0 442.1 312.5 1968 353.2 79.9 SOURCE. Royal Commission on Farm Machinery, Final Report. Ottawa: &TheQueen’s Printer, 197I, Table A.6, p. 583.

U. S. Imports

as a % of To ta I Sal&s 44.9 49.8 56.3 71.8 61.5 75.1 111.9 101.5 74.7 77.0 70.7

has roughly 75% of its sales in Canada. New Idea Farm Equipment, now owned by Avco Corporation of New York, does not manufacture in Canada. The same is true of British Leyland Motor Corporation, which produces small tractors; Renault, whose tractors have been distributed in Canada by Co-operative F&de&e de Quebec; and David Brown, a British firm which builds small tractors and which was recently bought out by J.I. Case. The only Canadian-owned medium-sized firm is Canadian Co-operative Implements Ltd., which builds pull-type combines in Winnipeg. However, T.4BLE WORLD

Income concludec been “very stab1 over. the years.” Using the year index, they fount prices had increa prices of fully or c as a whole.



The most thorol has been the Roy; et-y. As is so often Commission was c by farmers over p‘ By the late 19( Canada were mad These small tracto prices substantial1 when farmers erg; ers in England, tlcorporations. The were facing an into The Royal Corn vidual studies. 0 the Special Repot-1 1969. The Final R ence Barber in 197 After a thoroug cords, the Commit was the price leadl U.S. prices establi Barber reported ing of price than Canada during the gests that John Dee of instances been 1 price change durin These prices we by the other mam brella under which less of their own c III OF FARM


(In U.S. % Millions) EXPORTS Country


United States Great Britain West Germany CANADA France Belgium-Lux. Italy Sweden Denmark The Netherlands IS others

628.5 397.4 224.5 160.8 93.2 86.4 81.4 48.9 29.3 24.1 119.6

% Total

Country/ A rea

33.2 21.o Il.9 8.5 4.9 4.6 4.3 2.6 I.5 1.2 6.3

European Economic Community* CANADA European Free Trade Assoc.* United States Other Western Europe Africa Asia Australia & New Zealand Middle East *Includes internal trade within this economic group of countries. SOURCE: Royal Commission on Farm Machinery, Final Report. Ottawa: The Q pp. 260- I and Table 14.2, pp 262.

CCIL imports self-propelled combines and tractors from Volvo of Sweden and Deutz tractors from West Germany.



Clearly, Canada as a whole has not benefitted from the free trade policy in farm machinery. The industry has stagnated. Employment has dropped. Canada’s technological leadership has disappeared. But Canadian farmers were supposed to-benefit through better products at lower prices. Have they? Manufacturers of farm machinery argue that price elasticity is low: in times of over-production, farmers will not buy more machinery if the prices are lowered. Farm machinery sales in Canada have been very sensitive to the availability of cash on the farm. When times are tough, and farmers are short of cash, machinery sales drop off substantially. The manufacturers have traditionally met this problem by cutting back production rather than reducing prices. In periods of low sales, they take a loss; in return, they make very high profits when farmers have cash and are buying machinery. Nevertheless, all the evidence over the years, from government investigations, indicates that the prices set by the manufacturers in North America are high enough to ensure very healthy profits over the long run. This was the conclusion of the inquiries by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission in 1938 and in 1948. In Canada, in 1937 the House of Commons Special Committee on Implement Prices found price leadership by International Harvester was fully recognized by the other firms and that prices on comparative equipment were virtually identical. In 1961 the House of Commons Committee on Agriculture found that little had changed. In 1969 the Ontario Special Committee on Farm

Clearly, the remc the farmer greater Canadian farmers, liberal economists ments, chose to o\ century combines, have replaced fi-ec world.

lndustl The Barber Ro! North American Europe. They four tion, and the strut duced a grossly in higher costs to Car At the prevailing tory which produc( yield an annual retu However, in con American plants 20,000-unit tractor 1 investors equity at Corporations likt White Motor Corpo with annual plant o tors . As a result, majt (like Ford and M: super-profits by prc then selling them i established here by This was possibll was a substantially 1 tivity in the United Because of the a America, even met turers, like Deutz c Volvo in Sweden compete in North P

, I


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. rinery prices had isen consistently



base for a price farm machinery than the average ured metal goods

lssion lery


n of the industry on farm machininada, the Royal g popular protest s. ’ tractors sold in ~tly in England. ght in England at in Canada. Yet rectly from deal: blocked by the idence that they 1. 2 number of indit important was sed in December ten by ‘Dr. Clar-

FARM MAkINERY Combany International Harvester John Deere Massey-Ferguson Ford Motor Co. ’ White Motor Co. J. I. Case Versatile Manufacturing Allis-Chalmers Canada


( $278,929,00089,04 I ,000 69,000,OOO 886, IoO,ooo l2l,ooo,ooo 43,6f%ooo 19.687.925 26600,000

Farm Machinery Sales - f89250,OOO 75,500$00 48,800,IIOO 44,350,OOO 30,000,000 j 24,000,OOO 19.687.925 7,000,OOO



Parent Cornpan?


Owiership and/or Cqntrol

International Harvester - 100% U.S. Deere &Co. -100% U.S. Massey-Ferguson Ltd.-75% Canada Ford Motor Co.-87.9% U.S. White Motor Co.- 100% U.S. Tenneco -- 100% U.S. Versatile Manufacturing100% Canada Allis-Chalmers Inc.- \ 100% U .S,

a ..

N.OTE: international Harvester, John Deere and Ford do not break down company sales by product; estimates are based on figures presented to the Royal Commi&ion on Farm -Machinery in 1967. White, J. 1. Case and AllisChalmers provide no figures on their Canadian operations. Estimates are from other sources. _ -_ SOLIKES: Royal Commission on Farm Machinery, Final Report. Ottawa: The ‘Queen’s Printer, 1971.Annual Reports of the corporations. Financial Post, Survey oj /ndu.vtrial.v 1974. Toronto: Mat Lean-Hunter, 1974. Statistics Canada. Inier-Corporate Ownership. Ottawa: The Oueen’s Printer, 1969 edition. Department of Consumer and Corporate Affairs, filings by federally-incorporated foreign-owned corporations. Duir and / Bradstreet qf Canada, 1974 edition. .


Tractors made in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, where plants were long-line and very efficient, could be sold in Canada at a whopping profit. Profit .margins were also greater on the larger of company re- ’ tractors for which there was no foreign competi. tion. Because of this, the smaller manufacturers (by the Deere & Co. volume) have been able to make .a good return on 1 States, and that investment even though their costs were 13% to Canada. 14% higher that the larger firms with longer producnation of the timtion lines. product lines in A good example of this is Versatile, the small 963 to 1968 sugcompany manufacturing farm machinery in Win:he great majority nipeg and Fargo. Their return on investment has ny to announce a been consistently higher than the major farm season.” machinery corporations, yet their run in 1965 was similar increases only 500 tractors, and their price was 25% below acted as an umcomparable units by the other firms! operated, regardThe company concentrates on the manufacture of the large, high horsepower tractors used on the prairies, selling for between $25,000 and $28,000. Similar inefficiencies were fourrrd in the production of combines, the second largest item in farm machinery sales. The largest plant in the capitalist world, the Class plant in West Germany, produced 20,000 units in 1965. The Rostov plant in the Soviet Union produced 80,000 units in the same year. 96 Total Yet Deere and Co. produced only 13,550 combines; International Harvester 9,500; and Allis: 24. I Chalmers 8,500. Massey-Fergusonproduced -_ -_--21,000 units, but at five different plants in five different 19.8 ’ 13.2 countries. The other major combine producers in North Il.0 America operated 15 plants, all producing less than 9.8 -5000 units per year. Only artificially high prices set by the North American cartel permits such ineffi7.2 cient operations. 6.1 5.0


try: it is a branch-plant industry dominated by large American corporations. The only significant Canadian-owned company is, Massey-Ferguson. But around 90% of its sales and manufacturing are outside Canada. Its main headquarters are in Des Moines, Iowa. Its top management is drawn from U.. S. corporations. It trades its stock on the New York Stock Exchange and issues its annual reports in American dollars. It is Canadian in name only. ’ The policy of free trade has resulted in a steady ’ decline of the industry in Canada. Production of machinery first shifted to the United States and is now going abroad. Canada’s share of the world market, and the North American market, has steadily declined. Employment in Canada in the industry has steadily declined, on a relative basis. Canada’s leadership in technology has been largely destroyed by the free trade -policy and foreign -ownership. This is dramaticahy illustrated by the fact that Romania, until only recently a peasant society, and with only a few years of manufacturing tractors, has recently. received large government subsidies to establish a branch-plant tractor assembly operation in Saskatchewan. The farm machinery industry in North America is an oligopoly. The major firms co-operate on an international level to maintain artificially high

Chaos at the retail level

The other major inefficiency in the industry is retail distribution. The Barber Royal Commission concluded that three plants could easily supply all ‘I. Table 14.1, the annual requirements for tractors 1% North America. The same holds true for combines. X The entire output for the capitalist world could be produced in two or three plants. Instead, farf has not brought . mers in North America face a grossly inefficient nd lower prices. industry with aproliferation’of firms, each trying to logical allies, the maintain a separate system of retail distribution and ities and governservicing. t that in the 20th Dealerships are mainly concentrated in larger price leadership” centres. Farmers must travel significant distances in the capitalist to get parts and service. Because of the multinational system of production, the farmer often ncies -. must wait for days (sometimes weeks) for parts to . be flown in from somewhere in the United States or In compared the Europe. hat in Western - In 1965 there were 3070 dealers in Canada, with ence of competiaverage sales of around $100,000. Only about 10% leadership, prohad sales of over $200,000. Only one-third of all ry with resulting dealers had sales of over $100,000 which accounted lerican) farmers. for better than 70% of all sales. :an prices, a fatThe high level of industry concentration also vic3 per year would timizes local dealers. The machinery is received at investors equity. pricesfixed by the corporation, and these prices are:an plants, North exists is at the ly short run. A . raised at will. What competition local level, and the dealer must absorb any “dis:ld only 11.8% on count” off the “suggested retail price.” The local is. margin is eroded by the price that must be paid for lis-Chalmers and trade-ins of used machinery. * and make a profit While the large corporations can weather the than 20,000 tracregular shortages of farmers’ cash, and greatly re’ duced sales, many dealers cannot and bankruptcies i-actor producers are quite high. n) could ‘realize rs in Europe and ’ Conclusion -’ . ica at the prices The farm implement industry is quite different from other manufacturing industries. It deals with a ie fact that there wide variety of complex machinery, on relatively If worker producshort lines of production. The farm machinery market is not a very large prices in North market, especially when compared to the auropean manufactomobile market, Sales vary widely from year to ny, Fiat in Italy, year, depending on cash available to farmers. n France, could avourable basis. , ‘The- industry in Canada is not a Canadian indus.. . ..‘_.._ .* . ..‘.. \ . . . . . . .

_- L?I .m ~.

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prices and profits in an inefficient industry. The industry has considerable excess capacity, even in good years. The system of price leadership permits grossly inefficient firms to continue to exist at both the production and retail level. ’ There is, of course, a clear alternative to the present situation: One Canadian corporation.. A socially owned corporation should be created to consolidate and rationalize all the farm machinery production in Canada. This is the only way to deal with the diffused branch-plant system as it now exists. The first goal should be to recapture the Canadian market for the Canadian manufacturer-. This would probably mean, as a first step, the reintroduction of a tariff, probably on the scale of that which now exists in Europe. However, with a rationalized, single corporation, under public ownership, farmers would be buying machinery at prices substantially below those in existence today. A utilitarian industry, Farm machinery would be designed and built according to-utility. By having only one producer, under public and democratic controls, the cost of the unnecessary annual style and design changes would be eliminated. These are almost entirely associated with the present sales promotion system. This would also reduce costs to farmers. Retail distribution. The retail system of distribution of new machinery, repair parts and servicing would be reorganized. The widespread duplication of outlets and services would be eliminated. Farmers would be able to acquire service and parts at dealers near to their farms. With an integrated machinery system, spare parts would be readily available. Again, this would bring farmers a significant reduction in costs. . Revival of the Canadian indusky. ‘The Canadian economy would benefit from the revival of the farm machinery industry in Canada. More people would be employed. The deficit in trade would be eliminated. Canada’s technological leadership could be restored. There is every reason to believe that Canada’s exports would once again rise, perhaps not to the level of the United States, but most probably to the level .of the European countries. There is, of course, just one small problem. Such a programme will never be advanced or implemented by a Liberal government. And there is no other political party today, including the New Democratic Party, which is willing to.advocate such a change. . *



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F /


16, 1976

7 Friday & Saturday

H.O. Gaae All Next Week






Club Hours

Mon-Thurs 9-1 am Fri & Sat 8:30-l am


off! with

in Toronto


a foot touching

the ground

the UW track

team are seen here in training.

The next meet is

photo by george



even score atI RADIO WATERLOO NEEDS YOUR SUPPORT Although we will not be broadcasting via cable for the next few months, We nee student support more than ever before for the following projects:

1) Final Studio Renovations (Ebztronics & Carpentry)


2) Production work (Producing, programs now that will be aired in the future) 3) Preparation of an FM license application 4) Rev,enue Projects (4 track recording, Whiplash, n) n


If you would like to assist us in these ‘projects. please give us a call at 884-4390 or drop by to see us at the Bauer Warehouse.

The Warriors evened up their OUAA conference record-at 1-l with an 89-78 victory over the McMaster Mauruders last §aturday. After losing 91-76 to Laurier in a dismal performance last Wednesday, the Warriors turned things around and showed glimpses of the defensive team form which showed itself at the Klondike Classic during the Christmas break. The Warriors started very slowly and once again fell behind 12-4 in the first 3 minutes due to poor o’rganization offensively and trailed the fired up McMaster squad by as many as 1’1 points through most the half. However, some strong defense by the Warriors and excellent perimeter shooting by Mike Visser cut the McMaster lead to 2 and the Warriors left the court at half time down 44-42. The Warriors overtook McMaster in the second half with about 15 minutes remaining, moving-ahead 55-54 and gradually expanded their lead to as many as 12 points. Aggressive defense by P-hi1 Schlote

and Mike Visser combined with strong offensive rebounding by Jamie Russell and Trevor Briggs helped the Warriors toward their first league vie tory. Leading scorers for the Warriors were Mike Visser with 22, Jamie Russell with 19, Phil Schlote and Trevor Sriggs had 17 apiece and Seymour Hayden had 10 points. In other action around the league, Brock is 2-0, a shaky start after beating Windsor in overtime and Western 89-66. Guelph is also 2-O after beating Western at the buzzer and Laurier 72-71. Chuck Chambliss got the boot for fighting with 10 minutes left in the second half. Laurier got close but missed 2 field goal attempts in the final 10 seconds and they. now have a l-l record o It appears as if the league isn’t going to be a run-away for anyone this year. Warriors home their annual tough game against Windsor on Wednesday and that game minimizes the preparation opportunities for the Moser Memorial Night game against Manitoba.

Swimming :

Friday, January 16 Waterloo Warriors Swim Team vs. Toronto Varsity Blues. PAC Pool, 7:OO pm, admission free. Wednesday, January 21 Waterloo Athenas and Warriors Swim Team vs. McMaster. PAC Pool, 6:00 pm, admission free. Saturday, January 24 Women’s International Invitational Swim Meet. PAC Pool, Heats 1O:OO am, Finals 7:00 pm admission free. Sunday, January 25 Women’s International Invitational Swim Meet. PAC Pool, Heats 9:00 am, Finals 6:00 pm admission free.


Bauer Daoust Jelinek CCM Factory seconds; clearouts of name brands Good supply of used skates

743-3835 Cycle and Sports Ltd. 98 King St. N., Waterloo

riday, january

the chevron

16, 1976


Warriors triumph ‘in Klondike Classic The Warriors finished their preLeason schedule with a victory in .he Klondike Classic in Edmon.on. The tournament was spon;ored by the University of Alberta )ver a four day period and this {ear the participants included the Laurentian Voyageurs , the Monana Tech Orediggers, the host -earn, the University of Alberta 3olden Bears and the Warriors. Opening night saw the Warriors )aired with the Montana Tech ;eam and it soon became obvious :hat the Americans couldn’t reJound with the Warriors and Waterloo pulled to a 44-32 half:ime lead. Jamie Russel! led the ;eam with 12 points, Trevor Briggs lad 10 at the break. The second half saw the War-iors start to pull away and then segin to falter. Turnovers and )oor shots allowed Montana to close the gap to within two points. However, clutch shooting by lamie Russell and Phil Schlote combined with some stingy defence in the closing moments prevented Montana from scoring in :he final four minutes and Waterloo salvaged a 65-60 win., The second game was Alberta and Waterloo in the feature game 2nd the hometown fans came away happy as Alberta out-hustled the Warriors on their way to an 86-82 win. Gdod floor play by Jeff Scott and Don Larman helped keep the game close all the way to the finish. Alberta led 48-40 at the half but three quick baskets by Mike Visser at the top of the second half brought the Warriors to within 2 of the Bears. The game remained close with the lead never more than four points for either team. Trevor Briggs amazed the crowd with clutch baskets down the

stretch but Alberta’s shooting was a touch better as they held on to win by four. Jamie Russell led all scorers with 32 points and 12 rebounds followed by Trevor Briggs with 22 points and 15 rebounds and Mike Visser with 16 points and 9 rebounds. Monday night dthe Warriors played Laurentian in a game that the Warriors had to win by 10 or more to ‘qualify for a chance to play in the championship game. Laurentian coming into this game was 2-O and had come within 2 points of defeating the Warriors in the championship game of their own home tournament less than 3 weeks before. It appeared to be a very close contest until the opening tap. The Warriors showed a dramatic reversal in attitude and ability to play defence. Intensive defense and powerful rebounding limited Laurentian to 35 points in the first half while allowing Waterloo to score 52. The second half was no different than the first and Waterloo demoralized the Voyageurs 103-70. Jamie Russell finished with 36 points, 13 rebounds and Trevor Briggs who had 19 points and 11 rebounds. Mike Visser had one of his best games as a Warrior; his statistics were lo-14 from the floor, 5 for 6 from the line for 25 points and picked up 10 rebounds. The most noticeable change in the Warriors seemed to be in attitude. The entire team played “psyched up” for an entire game with both veterans and first year men playing hard from the opening whistle to the final buzzer. According to the formula used in the tournament, the Warriors and the Golden Bears were to meet in the final. Alberta packed the gym for the

final, thanks to a cancellation of a scheduled hockey game between the Bears and a Finnish team. The fans might have been better off at home because Alberta was outclassed from the beginning and the game was over at half-time. Jamie Russell hit for 18 points in the opening half, Phil Schlote and Trevor Briggs each got 11 and everyone on the Warriors got into the defence and held Alberta to just 21 points. The remainder of the game was an exercise in frustration for Alberta and provided some floor time for the first year Warriors. They acquitted themselves well, displaying the same pressure defence and hustle that the game began with. Steve Garrett and Ron Graham showed ample muscle on the backboards with Doug Vance and Kevin Lohr showing their potential both as rebounders and scorers . High scorers for the Warriors were Jamie Russell who hit for 24, Trevor Briggs had 21 9Mike Visser had 15 and Phil Schlote with 11. Overall the Warriors simply ran over the Golden Bears and won 90-54 leaving no doubt as to who was the best team in the tournament. Jamie Russell was the MVP of the tournament and Trevor Briggs was selected as an all-star. Special mention should go to Mike Visser who is coming into his own and is showing why he was an allstar at Laurentian. The Warriors play the Laurier Golden Hawks Wednesday, January 7 and McMaster on Saturday, January 10. The first home appearance in 1976 will be January 17 against Manitoba in the Mike Moser Memorial game. Tickets are $1 .OO and will go on sale Monday, January 12.

Track and field teams 1 indoors The varsity men’s and women’s track and field teams competed in their first meet of the indoor season on Saturday at the CNE in Toronto. Many of the athletes performed extremely well considering that they have not been able to train on an indoor track. Mike Lanigan with a gutsy finish in the second seeded section of the 1500 metres was able to win the event overall with a time of 3:54.0 defeating over a hundred entrants. Mike was very elated with his placing since he was not seeded in the fastest section and he was competing against athletes that regularly train on an indoor track. Ted McKeigan, who normally runs a longer distance also’ fared well in the 1500. He placed 3rd in his heat with a time of 3:57 .O. Player-coach Gord Robertson markedly improved his last season’s 50 metre hurdles time while placing second to former U. of W. star George Neeland, who is also the defending Canadian champion. Gord was a half second ahead of the rest of the opposition with a time of 7 seconds flat. First in his heat but 4th overall Scott Margison, frequently hampered by ankle injuries, posted a quick 51.6 second 400 metres time. Scott has been unable to compete at this distance for some time but it looks like he is ready to tear up the track now. Don McQueen who ran in the same heat improved on his best outdoor time of last seas& coming in with a 53.8 second effort. The Warriors’ sprinters are developing into the major force behind the team this year. In one sec-

tion of the 50 metres dash, Doug Denike nosed out Steve Keating to place 5th overall. Both athletes were timed in 6.0. They were followed closely by Clive McKenzie and Jeff Mohun at 6.2 seconds. In another section, Scott, after stumbling out of.the blocks, was able to overtake Frank Kolnick at the tape running a time of 6.1. Frank who prefers the 200 metres ran the event in 6.2 seconds. Mike In pentathlon style Noonan took part in the 50 dash, 50 hurdles, 4OOm, long jump, and


high jump. His highest placing came in the high jump event, a 3rd with a jump of 5’10”. Sandra Ford, the only female &ember of the team ran in a crowded 400m race posting a time of 64.7 seconds. Hopefully, more women will join her for next week’s meet in Toronto. Athletes that are interested in competing this season should contact Gord Robertson (MC 6075 J ext. 3865) or come to a practice. Practices are in the gym 3:30 - 4:30 Tuesday to Thursday.


King St. W., Kitchener,



No. 2




%eisiUt? zodge Tm is pleased

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such U.S. schools as Arizona State, Cincinnati, Michigan State, Ball U. and Clarion as well as university teams from across the province. Last year the Waterloo Athenas finished well ahead of the other Canadian teams, placing fourth in the meet behind Bowling Green, Michigan State and Clarion. The ‘Waterloo Swimmin’ Women’ with an even stronger team than last year, are capable of being the first Canadian team to win the meet. Come out to the PAC pool and cheer on the Athenas to victory. Admission is free.


rtra No. 1

The University of Waterloo Women’s Swimming and Diving Team is hosting the 7th Annual International Invitational Meet for College Women. The two day competition will be held in the Uniwat Pool on Saturday, January 24, with the heats starting at 10:00 a.m. and the finals at 7:00 p.m. and on Sunday, January 25, the heats at 9:00 a.m. and the finals at 6:00 p.m. This meet attracts some of the top competitors in the American womens college swimming and diving scene. The defending champions, Bowling Green University, will be returning to compete with



splash to held at Uniwat

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KEN HOLLIS NEXT,WEEK Wednesday-Friday January 21-23

MIKE LEH !Lodge Tm Speedville Ave., (Preston) Cambridge



the chevron




16, 1976

A thenas sport


The curling season is well under way now and it finds the Athena team preparing to recapture the OWIAA Championships to which they were runners-up last year. This year’s team consists of Rookie Vicki Bauman-lead, Dayle Bower-Second, Gayle Bower-Vice and Pat Munroe -Skip. They started off last Saturday at the Kitchener-Waterloo Granite Bonspiel by taking first place, winning their games 5-4, 5-3 and 14-5. With a start like that we can expect to see a good season.

We’re looking . . .


for people who want fun and good times in the relaxed, enjoyable atmosphere of the Caribob Lounge. Once inside, you’ll forget everything else except the friendly people and comfortable surioundings. W&e also added a Saturday Matinee (3 - 6 p.m.) Come, see for yourself!




This weekend the team travels to the London Ivanhoe Bonspiel. The OWIAA playdowns start the weekend of January 31st at Guelph, continuing the next weekend, February 6th at Galt (hosted by Waterloo) and the finals at Western on February 13th. Only the top six teams from the playdowns advance to this last weekend to compete for the title.

Get those limbs in gear won’t



On behalf of the Intramural Department, a welcome back to all of those who took part in last terms events and also those students who have just returned to campus from their co-op placements. Again this term, there seem to be lots of activities in which one can get involved. Since all activities have deadlines for entry dates, there will be postings in the PAC with all necessary info as well as in this paper. If at any time you have any questions concerning the program, please get in touch with someone in the Intramural Office (Room 2040) in the PAC. Get involved and have a good term!!


Upcoming It was never my intention to lean on the commercial aspect of our business in this series, However, at several recent public colour printing demonstrations a very blunt question has been asked. “Why is Durst equipment so much more expensive than other brands? ” To fully appreciate the reasons for price difference we must refresh our understanding of the t-rue function of an enlarger. Any enlarger performs one major function: that of taking a small negative or slide and magnifying it into a’ print of the required size. This may be anything from album-size to a wall mural. Print quality depends on efficiency of the lighting system and correct alignment of negative carrier and lens system. When these two all-important components function poorly the end result suffers. The question is, what do you look for to make sure that every possible enlarger benefit is working for you. Notice that I use the word benefit, not feature. If you analyze a “feature” list, many of the facts listed mean nothing at all when translated to terms of what they do to create a better enlargment. First, is the enlarger steady? Is the column rigid enough to support the head steadily, and designed to allow turning of the head to project on a wall or even the floor when you want a bigger print than can be done on the baseboard. Is the elevating mechanism firm enough to p’ermit easy raising and lowering yet hold the head in a fixed position during printing? As to the lamphouse itself, how is it constructed? On a Durst it will be either a onepiece casting or stamped rigid metal. If the unit has bellows are they plate-riveted in place or only glued? Are the lamphouse and mounting plate held together securely? Is the negative carrier an integral part of the lamphouse assuring perfect alignment with the light path? Can you adjust the lamp ver-

tically and horizontally to compensate for flaws within the bulb itself? While we’re on”the lamp, with Cibachrome taking its place in the amateur darkroom the need for bright, efficient illumination becomes more important as this superb material is slower than presently existing colour printing paper. Thinking colour automatically raises the question of a colourhead. Two of our lower priced units do not accept this, but all Durst enlargers have a filter drawer as standard equipment. Can you change negative formats quickly and easily? Are accessory negative carriers and condensors available? Is the lensmount standard? Do you need a compact unit that disassembles easily? The “takeapart” unit for portability and easy storage was created many years ago by Durst.

TERMPAPERS: SERVICE(Reg’d.) papers on file $3.00 per page

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Athenas host tough tourney-

The Waterloo Athena’s are hosting their 9th Annual Invitational Volleyball Tournament this Friday and Saturday (January 16 & 17j. This invitational is considered the best tournament of its kind, bringing together teams from, across Canada and the United States. The twelve teams will be: Brockport College, Lakehead, Laval, McMaster, Manitoba, McGill, Michigan State, Queen’s, Waterloo, Western, Windsor and York. In the history of the tourney, this one is shaping up to be the strongest. Every game will be tough, physically and mentally. Western are the defending

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champions, but in regular season play they have been beaten by York. York was defeated bv Waterloo. Early in the fall, thk Athenas were downed by Michigan State. Manitoba will probably represent the Great Plains at the CWIAU. McGill and Lava1 will fight to represent Quebec at the CWIAU. Queen’s McMaster and Windsor always give teams trouble. Brockport and Lakehead are strong as well. The volleyball finals, beginning at 5:30 p.m. on the new intemational court, will be the preliminary to the Mike Moser Benefit Game. Spectators will see, in this basketball game, a rematch between last year’s CIAU finalists, the Warriors and the Manitoba Bisons. The schedule of play is: Friday (today) l :OO-4:45 p.m., 5:45-8:30 p.m. Saturday 9:30-12: 15 p.m., 1:15-7:00 p.m. with semis at 3 :00 p.m., and finals at 5:30 p.m. Come out and sbpport the Athenas, you won’t want to miss it. . . .noodles





Tie Athena Badminton team travelled to Laurier last weekend to complete their pre-Christmas seeding tournament for the OWIAA finals. All of the 6 Water100 girls advance to the “A” flight division. First singles Cathie Wake had a perfect day to win all 5 of her singles matches while the 2nd doubles team of Brenda McDonald and Mary Kiviste defeated all their opponents. The team as a whole finished second behind a strong Western team who leads the league. After Christmas the team will play only the strongest teams and perhaps close the gap, Team Standings to Date Western 74 Queen’s 65 Toronto 58 Waterloo 57 Guelph 52 McMas ter 39 Brock 28 Ryerson 14 Ottawa 9 Laurier . 7



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Special Note

Change in Pool times-revised schedule is as follows: Monday-Friday 11:30am-1:20pm 8:30pm-10:30pm Tuesday 8:20am-9:20am Wednesday & Thursday 3 : 30pm-4: 20pm Saturday 10:30am-12:30pm Sunday 1 :OOpm-3 :45pm (Family Swim) 8:30pm-9:30pm


In a nutshell, look for an enlarger designed with top quality printing in mind. Don’t be sidetracked by fancy design and”gimmicks”. For a preview of the Durst enlarger family drop me a line. My nine-step Darkroom Chart will show you how easy it is to be a blow-up expert; and you’ll also receive a brochure on darkroom accessories by the Paterson people,, who also believe

Dates to Remember

Fridav. Januarv 16 -Last chance to enter the Co-ed Innertube Waterpolo League. Friday, January 23 -Last day to enter both the Men’s Snooker Tourney and Co-ed Volleyball league.

All entries must be submitted to the Intramural Office in the PAIC.



pregnancy clinic

FRI. JAN. 23 - 8 pm


SAT. JAN. 24 - SOLDnUT Theatre of the Arts Admission $5.00, students & seniors $2.50 Reserved Seats Box Office \ext. 2126








members of Abortion Coalition of Michigan-A selfregulating group of abortion-centre people dedicated to the practice of sound care in the field of

lay, january

the chevron

16, 1976

rriors rr

‘arriors basketbaIl oser, a Kitchener

campus was s team died of a heart attack brought on by a blood clot while the team was on tour in Florida. native, was considered one of the best players ever to line up for the Warriors.


Tomorrow night the first Mike Moser Memorial Night will be held. Its function is to raise funds for the growing grant foundation which was organized to commemorate Mike Moser, the athlete, student and person. During the half time ceremonies, a student from Forest Heights Collegiate Institute in Kitchener (Mike Moser’s High School) will receive ba grant from that school’s commemorative fund. An accompanying presentation will occur from the University’s Moser fund to the first recipient. The entertainment for the evening commences at 5:30 p.m. with the championship game of the Athena’s Volleyball Invitational tournament. The field for this tournament covers a large part of the country and part of the United States. There will be two entries fi-om south of the border, two entries from the Great Plains area and six entries from the QWIAA. The participating teams are: Brockport, N .Y., Michigan State, Lava1 Uni versi ty , MC Gill University , University of Manitoba, Lakehead University, University of Western Ontario, Queen’s University, University of Windsor, “McMaster University, York University, Athenas. The Manitoba Bisons will meet the U of W Warriors at 7:30 p.m. Prior to tip off of this game, the

winners of the aforementioned volleyball game will be recognized. How many remember last year’s CIAU Basketball Championship? If you were here at the game, you’ll recall that most of the seats in the house were filled by 11:30 a.m. for a game that was not to start until 290 p.m. We could have the same type of rush for seats on the night of the Mike Moser Memorial Game. The same two teams will be playing and the attraction should be just as entertaining. Steps have been taken to assure that all persons attending the game will have a seat, as a limited number of tickets will be placed on sale. The Mike Moser Memorial Game is not included in your season ticket. The admission to the game is only $1.00. ~ The participants in the Mike Moser Memorial Game, the Warriors and the University of Manitoba Bisons are currently rated number one and number two in the Nation. Those ratings could change before the Big Game but everyone knows that they are two of the strongest, if not the strongest, teams in the country. The Mike Moser Memorial Game will commence at 7:30 p.m. This is earlier than our ordinary starting time of 8:15 p.m.


URS., JANUARYe22nd, 10 p. NITIES THEATR U TIX: $2 STUDENTS (50 cents


more at the door)

ADVANCE TICKETS AT USUAL OUTLETS;, there will also be a 7:00 p.m. show if ticket sales warrant it.











the chevron


16, 19;


‘VVe are our own liberators’ ’ can

In Defence of a Birthright by Ndabaningi Sithole published by the Norman Bethune Institute, 1975

Crucial speeches and documents arising from the Zimbabwean people’s struggle for national liberation have been collected in a new book, In Defence of a Birthright, by Ndabaningi Sithole. Sithole is a leading spokesman for the liberation movement, as president of the Zimbabwe African Union, ZANU, and a commander-in-chief of the people’s liberation army, ZANLA. The book begins-with a brief history of the people’s struggle, written by a Zimbabwe patriot, and with Sithole’s address at the founding of ZANU in 1964. The texts emphasize that the current struggle must be seen in the context of the people’s resistance to Portugese invasion as early as 1652, and resistance to British colonial rule in 1893 and 1896-7. In his speech to the inaugural congress of ZANU, Sithole argues against those who would look to some outside force, say the U.N. or the Afro-Asian bloc, to bring liberation to Zimbabwe. “No one





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speech, Sithole was held in dete; tion by Smith’s Rhodesia Fro? Government. The liberation arn ZANLA grew in strength, and 1 1974 it posed a serious threat 1 minority rule. Sithole was r( leased. The rest of the book deals wil the very recent period of negoti, tions for a united front in the Afr can National Council, tt treachery of the Smith regime du ing a ceasefire, and the renewe armed struggle. Reproduced in full are doct ments relating to the redetentic of Sithole in March 1975, aftc only three months with his people Released once more, and acre! the border into Tanzania, Sitho writes: “I shall not return t Rhodesia, but I shall as soon 2 possible return to Zimbabwe. An if I ever meet Ian Smith in Zin ’ babwe, I shall detain him.” This book is distributed by tl National Publications Centre, Bo 727, Adelaide Stn., Toronto Copies may be ordered (at cos from the author of this review Maths dz Computer Bldg. rooi 5131. -henry


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Nobody could dream him up. His incredible bank robbery is all the more bizarre.. . because f!!llh!ma it’s true. (p&&g.& -RNalmm, I8 11MS

liberate another. Independence is not ours unless we liberate ourselves ,” he says, and he gives the call which has become the cornerstone of ZANU policy: “We are our own liberators.” He stakes out a totally independent position for the movement: “We refuse to be used as pawns in the international power struggle between the West and the East.” Thus we see, at the beginnings, the creation of a force for the complete independence of Zimbabwe ‘from colonial rule, minority government, and superpower hegemony. He sums up the spirit for and the protracted nature of this armed struggle, known as Chimurenga: “I do not promise any of you that you will not suffer if you champion our cause. I do not promise any of you comfort. You will be imprisoned. You will be deprived of your employment. You will be de: tained. You will be tom away from your families. In some cases some of us may be shot dead. But this is the price all human beings must pay for their freedom. We must pay the price or remain unfree.” For ten years follo.wing that


Pub music Paul Languille . . . One of the hardest things for a solo act playing in the C.C. Pub, is to keep the crowd’s attention. Or at least some semblance of interest. When Paul Languille first appeared on this campus, his style of playing and singing was somewhat fresh, a Poor Man’s Stephen Stills. This time around the freshness is gone and it seems that now all Paul is doing is fulfdling the function of a glorified Pub Muzak Machine. . . Turn himon... Turn him off... When the tape deck is turned on between sets, the difference is barely noticable. Not that Paul Languille isn’t talented. He’s as good as he was when I first saw him. Maybe that’s the problem. --ha!



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DAY OF TtiE LOCUST Thurs-Sat Jan 22-24 7&9:45pm ,


l .e~*@eoooooooiooo.~ admission


ticides, smokes, and various then photographs of houseplants. This ical sprays. A suggestion of a moi alone would make it a very noted dictionary. organic means is in order here an However, there are many more there are many good texts avail aspects of this book that make it a ble on this subject. An entire chapter on cacti ac collector’s item. succulents follows. This is an e: The introduction deals with all cellent beginning for the peopl aspects of plant growing in the who are interested in any aspect ( home. raising cacti. Propagation is one of the secIt dwells on such issues as cult tions dealt with in the chapter. It vation and propagation with discusses methods such as seed, cuttings, air layering, division and -- generous illustrated section on tl grafting of cacti. transplanting as well. It gives expThe dictionary which follow licit instructions and suggests varthe colour plates is convenient1 ious plants suited to each way. Ilarranged in alphabetical order b accompany the lustrations genus, with various species liste methods. in this same order beneath. Th Cultivation deals with potting, family home is given as well. repotting, staking and the condiDescription of the plants ar tions considered most conducive given, but also it outlines the COI to raising plants in the home. This chapter also has instructions on ditions best for this plant. Humic an growing bulbs ‘indoors as well as ity, soil content, temperature best time for propagation as we hints on feeding and watering. Varas flowering periods, are discusse ious types of green houses and here. Suggestions for best uses c ways of heating them are also disthis plant are also given. cussed. Symbols for such things as a The section on pests and distractive flowers or interesting fru eases in this chapter is the book’s also add to these vivid descrir only downfall. It does describe tions . these in detail so you can identify This book is excellent for th the problem, and this means the experienced as well as the inel problem is half solved. However, perienced indoor plant cultivator the treatments suggested in most -diane ritz cases are such things as insec-

By eastern standards Lu ChihMing is just another artist struggling to make a living among millions on the over-crowded island of Taiwan. But to the naive western eye his superior dance technique thrusts him high among the ranks of genius in the performing arts world and makes him a top boxoffice attraction. We will have the opportunity to see Lu Chih-Ming demonstrate and hear him explain some of the principles involved in the acting style of classical Chinese theatre, sometimes called “Peking Opera’ ’ , when he performs at McMaster campus on January 32m.A L31U.

Ming is on his second year of North American touring under the auspices of aRockefeller grant. He came in hopes of finding an audience for his talent and the chance to pursue his artistic career in less desperate circumstances. Highly acclaimed by critics all over the

U.S. he has received numerous ol fers from many major dance corn panties.

His superior gymnastic skill can be attributed to the ancien Chinese philosophy of the I Ching A performer’s training focuses o an energy flow from the centre c the human body to its outer ex tremities. Without revealing muc effort he can leap 10 to 15 feet hig in the air and land in total contrc of his rate of descent never bendin his knees.

Beyond the mere spectacle c his art, Ming affords us a rare ir sight into the potential of a.pei former with a superior power c concentration. As a truly integ rated artist, his art is a reflection c his life-style. To any student c movement, whether dancer o actor or athlete, Lu Chih-Ming i an injection of new vitality into th ailing status of sincere dedication as a means of attaining artistic ex cellence. -myles


ay, januaty


the chevron

16, 1976

the society column

,A S, *

Garfield are coming back I

A five round Swiss Tournament is being set up by the UW Chess Club. The Tournament starts at 7:30 p.m. on Wednesday Jan. 21 in Room 135 of the Campus Centre. The remaining four rounds will be played on the four following Wednesdays at the same time and place. The entry fee is $5 and this money will go exclusively for prizes. In addition to those for the overall top players, there will be prizes for the top players in the B, C, and D Classes so all entrants will have a reasonable chance of winning a prize. Unfortunately for the three who submitted the ridiculous letter in last week’s chevron, there are no prizes for the worse players. Entrants should have CFC (Chess Federation of Canada) memberships and the Tournamentwill be rated. The scheduled match between the UW No. 1 “B” Chess Team and the Hamilton “B” Chess team set for January 11 was postponed due to bad weather. The UW No. 1 “B” Chess team should have excellent chances of making the semifinals if it can achive a 2 l/2 or better score out of the remaining three matches. So as there have been no recent tournament games played by members of the UW Chess Club, I have elected to print the game Dlayed by Peter Nurmi against A. Pablo in the 1975 World Junior Championship. Nurmi was the Canadian contender and placed Tinth in a field of 48. The game was originally published in the November-December issue of the CFC Bulletin.


Sicilian’ Defence

Black: A. Pablo P. Nurmi P-QB4 P-K4 N-KB3 P-Q3 PXP P-Q4 N-KB3 NXP N-QB3 . P-QR3 B-KN5 White introduces th/e Richter Attack with his last move which prevents 6. . ., P-K4 on account of 7 N-B5 and White’s grip on his vital Q5 square will be a significant factor; and 6. . ., P-KN3 since 7 BXN! results in a poor pawn formation for Black. P-K3 6 A 7 P:KB4 !’ B-K2 Q-B2 8 Q-B3 White posts his forces for action on the King-side while Black prepares for Queen-side counteraction. Black’s last move is better than 8.. ., QN-Q2 which allows White to aggressively post his King Bishop on QB4 and consequently develop a powerful attack that is difficult to meet. 9 o-o-o 10 B-Q3 P-KR3 11 P-KR4!? White tries an interesting sa&cial idea. Black does best to decline the Bishop for reasons that will soon become clear. Probably Black should play 11 . . ., P-QN4 or 11 . . ., N-N3. 11 . . . PXB?! *. 12 RPXP RXR 13 RXR For his sacrifice White controls the only open file and has numerous tactical chances. For example 13 . . ., N-KNI ? turns out badly after 14 R-R8, K-B1 (virtually forced): 15 Q-R5 threatening 16 Q-R7. .*& N-B1 13 . . . 14 N-B5! Instead of stopping to regain his ‘sacrificed piece, White offers another one! White’s offer is solidly based for if-1 4 ti . ., PXN; then 15 PXN, BXP; 16 N-Q5, QR4; 17 PXP, K-Q1 ; 18 P-B3 leaves White with a winning attack against Black’s disorganized position. N/KB3-Q2 14.. . K-Q1 15 NXNPch . 16 Q-R5 . Black is smothering to death. ‘White’s far advanced King-side pawns are more than adequate compensation for the piece and Black’s cramped position offers few resources. N-B4’ , 16...#. 17 QXP Q-Q2 18 R-R8 P-QN4 19 P-N6 The beginning of the end. ” ’ P-N5 19 . . . 20 RXNch * BXR K-B2 21 .QXBch K-N3 22 N-K8ch PXN 23 P-N7

White: 1 2 3 4 5

24 P-N8/Q 25 PXN 26 KXP Obviously future


NXBch PXPch Resigns is futile.

Note: In last week’s game 34 RXP should be 34 RXB. Also in the note to White’s 29th move Black can stave off the immediate mate after 29$ R-N8ch! with 29 . . ., B-Kl, but he then might as well resign as White mops up on the King-side. -robert inkol

OnThursday January 22 the Garfield Band will perform in the University of Waterloo’s Humanities Theatre. At present there is only one show scheduled, for 10:00 PM. However, if ticket sales warrant it a second show will precede this one, at 790 pm. I hope that we will see two shows. The band certainly deserves it. The Garfield Band is that group of seven musicians, headed by singer/composer/guitarist/pianist Ron Garfield, who played U.W.‘s pub for a week last term. They met with such positive response that in the week after leaving they performed a special concert in the Humanities Theatre. I saw Garfield’s last night in the pub, and it was the best night of music that I have ever heard in such an establishment. What struck me though was the idea that this band should not be playing university pubs. Their music, and the execution of it, is in a calibre much higher than that of “bar band”. Waterloo was certainly glad to have had the Garfield Band here, and we let them know it. So much so that the band is taking off an evening from their “indefinite” engagement at Toronto’s Chimney and are coming here to give us another special performance. The music of the Garf%ld Band combines a wide variety of instruments and vocals, creating a “complete band” sound. The songs flow in their creation, often made orchestral by the use of the mellotron and distorted guitar work, along with the beautiful vocals of Ron Garfield and his backups. The music can also be rock like, carried by the power-f@ beat of


Ron’s brother on drums, and the mixture of electric guitar and flute, as on “Sundown”, perhaps the group’s most powerful song. The flautist is often entrenched in the sounds of fantasy, as well as weaving whatever melody is necessary throughout the music. In the end I have always enjoyed the softer sensitive acoustic ballads best. Perhaps the most powerful in this group is “Nanny’s Song”, an emotional tune that has certainly become a favourite of people at Waterloo. Ron’s lyrics and vocals am-always as powerful as the bands music. They reveal a man who has become sensitively tuned to him-.. self, and the world around him. They also reveal a man who has been and is going through much turmoil. He often cries out in a voice filled with pain. Yet this is the only possible way to put his ideas. For the life of a sensitive person is often painful and intense. I refer to songs such as “Eyes”, where Ron reveals an intuition that few of us can lay claim to. He’s an amazing man who plays each tune as if it was his most important one: with his right leg vibrating at an incredible frequency, and his face and voice putting out some of the most honest raw emotion that I have ever seen. It is a powerful sight to see. Over the holidays, I attended an evening at the Chimney, which confirmed my respect for the band. The club is quite small, so Garfield’s seven members and equipment must crowd themselves in, and make do the best that they can. Their music suffered nothing from the conditions, and Toronto is now being treated to some of the best music that they have ever


is available to you who live at the S Villages or Church Colleges For more information




heard. From the response of the people there, Torontonians think so also. I talked to a few of the band members that evening, and we have been promised some treats for the U.W. concerts. First is some new music. A couple of new songs were included in the evening that I heard, and it is certainly as good as what we have come to expect from the Garfield Band. This music. tended to be a bit mellower than Garfield’s older music, stressing easy flowing vocals, and somewhat tuned down instrumentals. It makes for a good range and variety in the bands repertoire. Also mentioned was that there may be some stage theatrics introduced into the set. The HumanitiesTheatre stage will allow the band to spread out; and with this increase in space for each member there may be a bit of a rock show along with the music. Certainly we’ll see a variety of lighting, compared to the Campus Centre Pub. -bill


Time to

mcike up YOU

mind You’re ready to take on the world. Looking around for the right spot. And ’ you want to be sure in your own mind that you’re making the .best decision. We’re looking for people who can make decisions; who like to tackle problems and come up with the right answers. And we want people who like people. We’re growing fast, in Canada and throughout the world. And our people grow with us. We’ll give you advanced training in modern banking operations, with an interesting range of future career options. We believe a job well done deserves good pay and we pay for performance. Come and talk with us. Our representative will be on campus on January 29. See the Placement Office for more details.








the chevron

FASS is - for you



Just a few more pertinent comments on the subject of the heritability of intelligence. Did you realize that over 76 per cent of the people who attend FASS every year inherit some form of intelligence, usually from their children? Did you know that 96.3 per cent of all undergraduate students who have seen FASS at some time in the past receive uncommonly large OSAP grants and are automatically qualified for unemployment insurance? Did you know that FASS helps build strong bodies 7 ways and you can use it every night without the worry of split ends? Or, if you prefer, -with the worry of split _ ends? So go see FASS, new from K-Tel with fingertip control, only $5.98, &track tape $7.98. Satisfaction guaranteed or your money withheld cheerfully. Joe Fais

Like It Is? The recent banning of the student directed magazine, Like It Is, from campus wide circulation and the further all publication ban by the Federation of Students has left me most indignant. Why the administration seems to have given powers of campus wide censorship to the federation is a mystery to me considering the large population of non-federation members such as staff, faculty and graduate students on campus. That past publications which have en; joyed campus distribution (even the Gazette?) along with new arrivals such as Like It Is will now have to be “approved” by what amounts to a board of censors, the federation, to determine whether the poor defenceless “captive student audience” will be corrupted by them, is a great responsibility to be placed in the hands of a seemingly power tripping federation. I believe I am more capable of judging my reading repertoire. If the Chevron or CUP is particularily

worried about loss of advertising revenue let th!Ziii hustle their asses for it like all other publications. A campus wide ban of competition seems ’ a most underhanded if not illegal means to achieve financial stability. Grad.

M. Gourgon Engineering

Fed position explained ‘M. Gourgon, a graduate engineer student, seems to have misunderstood the situation regarding distribution of materials on campus. The university board of governors has authority over the use of the campus in practically all facets. The campus is private property and as such, is subject to the decisions of the Board as to it’s use. The board has determined that on campus groups or organizations may normally produce and distribute publications and post promotional material. All publications are subject to the iaws of the land regarding libel and slander. The only other requirement is that revenue must be obtained to cover the costs of publication. In the case of the Gazette, the graduate news and many of the undergraduate society papers, no advertising is necessary as these publications are fully supported by the sponsoring group. The Chevron, on the other hand, is partially funded by the federation but depends to a large extent on advertising revenues. This is a common phenomena on university campuses and forty years ago, student newspapers formed an association called the Canadian University Press, (CUP). This organization facilitates communication among the newspapers and distributes a news service to it’s members. In the early seventies, CUP formed a collective advertising bureau, Youthstream, which solicits national and regional advertising for student newspapers at rates established by the CUP plenary. What we have then, is that each democratically controlled student organization and only the student organizations, benefit

from the existance of a student market and no one,’ with the exception of advertising agencies who solicit the ads, takes personal profit from it. This is a general policy of this university in many areas. The university runs, on a non-profit’ basis, food services, the bookstore, graphic services and the university residences as a monopoly. No individual or organization may operate in these areas on the campus without approval from the university. The federation in the same way operates various services and any profit earned by the federation is allocated to other areas by students’ council. In the case of promotional material (i.e. posters) university policy decrees that all posted material must be on bulletin boards (with the exception of student election material) . The bulletin boards are in turn the responsibility of the department they are assigned to. On the federation controlled bulletin boards, only recognized clubs and societies may post notices. Others must receive permission from the federation for postings. LIKE IT IS is a magazine published by Gary Price under the guise of the Student Enterprise and Assistance League. The magazine has sold its advertising space on the basis that it will be distributed free to all post-secondary students. Although it has published for a year, it has only recently applied to the university for permission to distribute on campus. The Federation of Students motion was to “prohibit free unauthorized commercial advertising on this campus”. We are saying that we have no objection to the distribution of material that does not contain commercial advertising or to the sale of materials which do contain commercial advertising. The emphasis on authorization implies that any individual or group which wishes to distribute material. containing commercial advertising will, by their application for approval, initiate consultation between the affected on campus group or groups and the administration. We are now participating in that process. Our position regarding LIKE IT IS, is that we are opposed to its free distribution on this campus. It is not a “student directed” publication any more than Time or




16, 19:

Reader’s Digest is Canadian directed. T publisher solicits copy from. variol sources, some of whom are students. It this non-student who determines magazil content. The publisher has solicited advertising I the false premise that he has distribution ( all post-secondary campuses. Each camp has the right, indeed the responsibility, decide on the publication’s distribution. The last point is, I think, the critical on Who has the opportunity to profit from t university market? The federation believes that studen should act as a collective to benefit thei selves. We have always attempted to elin nate exploitation of the student mark through the establishment of non-profit se vices. We see no need to change this polic The competition provided by LIKE IT for the limited advertising budget of’ COI parries would increase the cost of stude publications by decreasing advertising r venues and allow an individual to prol from a group to whom he does not answ directly. John Federation

Shorta Presider of Studen

Chess column response On perusing the letter submitted in tl Feedback section of the Chevron (Jan. pg. 22) pertaining to my Chess Column, came to half expect to find that it was wr ten by Fischer in one of his more peculi, moments. However, I was relieved to find upc checking the ratings of the authors of th letter that they have nothing in commc with Fischer, at least in Chess playing ab ity. I am the first to admit that I occasional make errors. Doesn’t everybody? Anyor familiar “with Chess publications will agrc that errors in notation can almost invariab be found in them. The game referred to d. have several .errors, which is more thz usual, but in view of the circumstances prl vailing this is hardly surprising. There al numerous opportunities for errors to ari5 continued

on page 2

day, january

the chevron

16, 1976

Any department is bound’ to encounter growing pains when it begins and I believe that through the public awareness generated by the report improvements can be achieved. Yet it is my opinion that the criticism manifested by the report reflected an element of bias of the members who comprised To any smokers who have been removing the task force. r defacing the new no-smoking signs: Stop! While in attendance at one of the ou are not helping your own situation by committee’s public meetings that was held estroying property in this way. Please for interested individuals, I received the Uow me to explain why. impression from the‘chairperson that he and President Matthews is committed to posthis colleagues had already reached their delg no,-smoking signs in places ‘where the cision. Their questions seemed to be K7 policy applies, cf. his memo in October searching for answers that would further ) all staff, faculty, and students, on the validate their decision rather than establish ack of which is reproduced the current r a position from which a decision could be noking policy of the University. There are formulated. Their criticism could be less, ver 500 locations on the campus where condemning and more positively oriented in gns would be appropriate. the form of constructive recommendations Physical Resources had considered postthat would aid in the realization of the polg permanent signs, made of plastic and tential that the department possesses. :rewed into the walls, at a cost of someIn no way do I care to generalize my rhere over five dollars apiece. However, it comments to the entire department. As an undergraduate, I would like to specifically as decided to try to save money by printconcern myself with a number of issues tg the signs on adhesive-backed paper. raised by the report which pertain to my area lso, the’paper signs might be considered a ttle less offensive to smokers than the plasof the department. For example, on pg. 13 of c signs. the report is a statement that: “it was less It stands to reason that if you,tear down clear that they were achieving substantial academic objectives.” (‘They’ in the previiese no-smoking signs, they will probably e replaced by more paper signs. If you ous quotation refers to courses offered in the undergraduate program.) antinue to-remove the paper signs, the adIn my own case, I was not only less clear ministration will have no choice other than on what this statement meant, I was totally ) put up signs which cannot be tom down, unclear: The reader is never provided with t a cost of two thousand dollars at least. I criteria pertaining to what is meant by ‘subersonally would blame smokers for this stantial academic objectives .’ Also appearxpense, presuming that non-smokers ing on page 13 of the report are statements rould have no reason to remove the signs; I that “there was always a great deal of stunagine that the administration would do dent participation” and “it was clear that ie same. If you accept this assumption, the students felt they were deriving some ien it follows that if you remove the signs, benefit of .a personal nature from these ou will only get the administration angry at courses .” ou and in the future they will be more I see nothing wrong with such kely to regard smoking as a real menace. they will be more likely to phenomena as the foregoing. In fact, most onsequently, offer rake life more difficult for you by adding to other courses within the university courses that are similar in style. It is comte list of places where smoking is not almon for such courses to provide a concepiwed, by’ removing cigarette vending tual; text-book oriented session and commachines, et cetera. bine an experiential laboratory or tutorial Recently I heard about a company in session. Iinnesota that concluded that they were Ising so much money on account of smokRather than conducting experiments in a rs (things like cleaning bills, excess sick science laboratory, those in human relame) that they are now paying every emptions and counselling studies participate in )yee $365.00 a year not to smoke. I hope group settings which provide the person rat sometime soon the University will add with the opportunity to gain knowledge p its losses caused by smokers. For when about interpersonal dynamics and comrat happens, I imagine that the amount will munication processes. The latter approach e so large that the University will start should not be condemned because humans oing everything possible to discourage are involved, rather than chemicals as in the moking. So, smokers, if you would like to former. I might add that a crucial prerequisreserve the status quo, then it makes sense ite to helping and understanding others is Jr you not to add more thousands of dollars that an individual possess some self) the smoking deficit. awareness and insight. I stated earlier ip this letter that I was If you think that by removing the nounclear as to some of the report’s content. noking signs, you will keep non-smokers Might I also take the opportunity now to .om becoming aware that you cannot include that I was confused by the recomnoke in classes. . .forget it! It’s too late. I mendation that the department be phased m sure by now that every student on this out and closed down. I state ‘confused’ beampus by now has seen one of these new cause I felt that HR and CS was accomplishigns. So the nonsmokers-now know ing one of the objectives of a university nough to object if you ,smoke in class, education. When I first came to Waterloo rhether the signs remain or not. three years ago I was, intrigued by “A MesIf you don’t like to see no-smoking signs, sage from the Dean” which appeared on ren I suggest that you write a letter to Dr. page six of the- third edition of a booklet Matthews, or to the Chevron. But whatever entitled A Visit with the Faculty of Arts. In ou do, please leave the signs up. that message was stated : “As a broad overMichael Rolle f view it is most important to stress that the Mathematics university -is made up of people. The real member of GASP value of what we do is to be measured in how the people, students, and faculty alike, grow in realizing their own potentialities while they are associated together. We in the University of Waterloo and the Faculty of Arts are constantly striving to improve attempting to come our arrangements, I would like to direct my comments to the closer to this ideal.” ’ ,eaders of this paper concerning the recent As well, the same message stated that, eport that was submitted by a task force at “There is great variety in the way teaching he University of Waterloo on the subject of is done, and experimenting going on seeking he department of human ‘relations and further improvement .” Right on Uniwat! :ounselling studies. The variety you speak of is largely occurMy initial reactions to the report were ring within HR and CS. In a folloking artiambivalent. I believe that some of the concle (on page eight) to prospective students, ent of the task force’s report was justified. the booklet states that students “should Ihe report was good in the sense that it also concern themselves about the business of living. . . Unless there are some inner relluminated problems that have been presL sources, some disciplined, creative, and :nt within the department.

Vo-smoking Fign plea

Task force on HRCS


liberated imaginative faculties trained to go to work, a person is not going to explore fully the business of living.” I agree whole-heartedly and emphasize that my courses in HR and CS are the rarities irfthe university that mlfill such objet tives . Lastly I will include from this intellectual curiosbooklet that, “Indeed, ity, self-directed study, and freedom of choice are strongly encouraged by the Arts Faculty.” It is particularly these quotations, with the recent report of the task force in mind, which have led to my confusion. I am totally perplexed by the fact that the committee has recommended, that one of the few which approaches the departments university’s educational ideal, be phased out and closed down. I find it interesting to note that the task force has recognized some value in the department as they have included in their recommendations that some of the undergraduate courses be retained. This is the only encouraging note in the report. I am happy to see that some merit was acknowledged . In conclusion, I submit that the task force reconsider once again without bias and with a more positive viewpoint. As a person about_ to graduate from Human Relations and Counselling Studies, I would like to see the department helped rather than hindered. Do its future potentialities not really outweigh its present limitations? John S. Arnald 3rd year, HR and CS

Psychology of inflation


In a recent lecture, Max Saltsman (NDP), our local MP, claimed that people’s reaction to inflation is more of a psychological problem than an economic one (Chevron, Nov. 28, 1975). This assertion is the same as the line given by Trudeau that the major problem with inflation is one of “attitudes and expectations. ’’ In speaking of ‘a “reaction” to inflation, our MP clearly means that the price increases pr.ecede the demand for higher wages. Simply put, over the duration of a contract a worker brings home a constant number of dollars each week or month, but as the months go by, this fixed amount buys less and less goods and services because of inflation. When the time comes for a new contract, the workers “react” to this very real loss of earnings by demanding an increase in the rate of wages. Thus, this psychological or subjective response to an objective loss of real earnings has an economic basis. To say the workers’ demands are therefore primarily a psychological problem makes as little sense as it would to say that, were Mr. Saltsman to howl in-pain after striking his thumb with a hammer, the problem is not that he foolishly struck his thumb but rather that he rudely interrupted our reverie by howling! Take an example where a woman has her purse stolen by a thief and then shouts, “Stop, thief!” runs after and catches him, and gives him a good. thrashing. Now, who caused this “disturbance ,” the woman or the thief? It is apparent from all of these examples that we must specify precisely for whom the person’s response is a problem. In the case of the purse-snatcher, an onlooker could take the side of the woman and cheer her just treatment of the cowardly crook, or one could blame the woman for causing a disturbance by fighting back and ignore the thief. Similarly, one could support the efforts of workers to recoup what has been lost to the capitalists via inflation; or one could blame the workers for resisting this thievery. For a worker, inflation*itself is a major problem, while for the bourgeoisie, the main problem is the worker’s reaction to inflation. Mr. Saltsman obscures the class nature of the question for the obvious reason that he, who supposedly represents the ‘interesPs of labour, in fact adopts the same position on this question as the owners of capital. His message to working people is quite clear:


don’t fight back against inflation, capitulate; allow your wages to fall and their profits to rise. Wage increases- do not by themselves cause prices to rise. Prices rise following a wage increase only because the capitalists can raise them at will in order to keep their profits high. . Monopoly capitalists in particular have sufficient control over the supply of commodities to raise prices and thereby absorb any general increase in the rate of w,ages of workers. The state assists this process by expanding the money supply rapidly, -even when production is not increasing. The whole question of wages, prices and profiis is settled by the relative powers of capital and labour to claim a portion of the wealth created by human labour in a conflict known as class struggle. To obscure these facts with some bogus psychol,ogical theory is to assist one combatant, the capitalists, the thieves. .Doug Wahlsten Psychology

cost of education everyone satisfied


with the present cost of education to the individual? Do you feel thatsome sort of change is necessary in the funding system? If you do, I propose to outline a method of change, leaving the details :of what to change up to each of us to decide. First, a few facts. Tuition costs each of us about $680 a year. Government aid (OSAP) will contribute $800 in the form of a loan and the remainder of your costs in the form of a grant up to a maximum of $24QO a year. The Ontario Government is presently considering the recommendations of a white paper known as The Henderson Report to reduce government expenditures. Among other things in the chapter on education, it is recommended that tuition be ‘. increased by 65% over the next four years, and that the loan portion of OSAP be increased to $1800, an approximate increase to your costs (if you even qualify for assistance) of $3000 loan plus $1050 (15% per year) in tuition if you’re in first year now, and correspondingly less if you’re in a higher year. But, to keep matters “at home”‘,do you have any younger br&thers or sisters who plan on attending university in future years? After four years time, it will cost them $4000 loan and $1680 tuition more than it would under the present system. True, it costs you alot now, and any further increase would be ridiculous, but I leave the criticism of the present system to others. Now the questiqn remainsTwhat can be done to ensure that these proposed changes are not put into effect? What can we relatively powerless individuals do? Simply this: Show our support for OFS/FEO. . In order for a group to have any effect on our government, it must -prove to the government that it is in fact representing those whom it claims to represent. Prove it to the government and to other groups within the society that wield power. To-support OFS/FEO, I suggest that we all go to the hearings on student aid in Toronto on 21 January. Our federation, of students is paying for buses, and it will mean about six hours, of your time. Remember, if OFS/FEO is not shown to be representing us, the students, our demands will be ignored by the government and it will cost-us and our successors in the university scene one hell of a lot of money, more than what it costs us now. If you wish to see both sides of the subject fist-hand and for yourself, go to the feds’ office in the campus centre and get your hands on a copy of chapter seven of The Henderson Report and of OFS/FEO’s brief to the Ontario Government. There are many other factors which would also be of great interest which I’ve neglected. Then, support OFS/FEO and come out& . the hearings. Eric Weitzman , Science -IS


the chevron


Toward’ environmental warfare following the devastating ecological1 damage wrought by US forces in Vietnam, there is increasing interest in the feasibility of environmental warfare, including geophysical weapons and techniques of weather modificatibn. In the following article, which appeared in the journal New Scientist, Frank Barnaby takes a look at what has and is happening in the area of environmental control. Barnaby is the director of the Stockholm International Peace Research lnstitutc.

War has two main impacts on the environment. One is the damage done during fighting, either deliberately or incidentally. Deliberate damage may be caused to deny cover to enemy troops, to destroy food crops, to terrorise the population and so on. ‘. The other is the use of artificial changes in the environment as a method of warfare. For a number of reasons, there is increasing concern about both of these phenomena, though currently the former is considerably more real than the latter. Concern about the possible development of environmental weapons, is, however, certainly justified because of ongoing efforts to produce such artificial environmental effects as the modification of the weather (by, for example, influencing the production of rain, fog or hail). Even if these effects are being developed initially for peaceful purposes, they clearly may have military applications. One reason for current interest in the impact of war on the environment is simply the general widespread - concern for the biosphere. Another is that recent wars, particularly those in Indochina, have dramatically demonstrated just how devastating modern warfare can be to the environment, The use of herbicides and defoliants to destroy nearly one half of the forests of South Viet-Nam was the first time the biosphere had been systematically assailed for military purposes. * Yet another reason is that discussions about an international treaty to ban en: vironmental methods of warfare have focused attention on the issue. And then there have been a number of cryptic references by Secretary-General Brezhnev to new weapons of mass destruction which many have assumed (but with virtually no evidence) are geophysical weapons. International sensitivity about the effects of war on the environment is not entirely new. In fact, a number of treaties more or less relevant to the issue have been signed. Examples are: the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting the use in war of asphyxiating poisonous and other gases, and of bacteriological methods of warfare; the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty banning nuclearweapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water, which has had as its main effect the reduction of the radioactive contamination of the environment; and the 1972 Convention on the prohibition of the development, production and stockpiling of biological and toxin weapons. In July 1973, the United States Senate passed a resolution calling on the US government to seek agreement with other governments on a treaty providing for “the complete cessation of any research, experimentation, and use of any environmental or geophysical modification activity as a weapon of war”. One year later, during the NixonBrezhnev talks) a joint statement was issued to the effect that the US and the Soviet Union would take up the matter of environmental warfare bilaterally. But in September 1974 the Soviet Union stole the march on the US by proposing to the UN General Assembly a convention to prohibit action to influence the environ-

ment, including the weather and climate, “for military and other purposes incompatible with the maintenance of international security, human well-being and health”. The proposed convention included a long list of activities to be banned. They included weather modification, stimulation of seismic waves, interference with the ozone layer, disturbance of the land surface causing erosion, and the disturbance of the ecology of the vegetable and animal kingdoms. The activities cited in the proposal are a strange mixture of the possible and the futuristic. Most of the conceivable ways of influencing the environment are listed. In August 1975, the US and the Soviet Union submitted to the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament (CCD) in Geneva identical draft conventions in which each state party would undertake “not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to another state party”. This initiative was the culmination of a series of secret meetings held by the two powers after the Nixon-Brezhnev meeting. The Soviet-American draft convention is less ambitious (and possibly, therefore, more politically realistic) than the earlier Soviet proposal and it takes into account the UN discussion of the Soviet proposal. In it, “environmental modification techniques” are defined as techniques for changing “through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes-the dynamics, composition or structure of the earth, including its biota, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere, or of outer space, so as to cause such effects as earthquakes and tsunamis (tidal waves), an upset in the ecological balance of a region, or changes in weather patterns (clouds, precipitation, cyclones of various types and tornadic storms), in the states of the ozone layer or ionosphere, in climate patterns, or in ocean currents’ ’ . Long-term damage It is of interest that in February 1975, before the Soviet-American draft convention had been submitted to the CCD, the International Commission of the Red Cross (ICRC) Conference on the Laws of War agreed that “care shall be taken in warfare to protect the natural environment against widespread, long-term and severe damage”. The fact that the ICRC wording uses nrad before ‘ ‘severe’ ’ whereas the CCD draft uses or is significant. A leading Soviet proponent of the prohibition of geophysical weapons is Academician E .K. Fyodorov, director of the Institute of Applied Geophysics of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and chief adviser to the Soviet Government on problems of environmental warfare e hundred operations annually in attempts to intensify the normal monsoon rainfall over the Ho Chi Minh trail. Clouds were seeded with silver and lead iodide from aircraft. (Nearly 50,OQO canisters were dropped during more than 2500 sorties ) In a review of these and other rainSIPRI researcher Dr. making activities) B .M. Jasani concludes that seeding of certain types of clouds can modify their struc-

At a recent meeting in Moscow, Fyodorov decribed Soviet success in modifying hail-clouds for peaceful purposes and it may well be that it is this success that has stimulated Soviet interest in the prohibition of environmental weapons. Fyodorov claimed that some four million hectares of crops are currently being protected by hail suppression. Hail-formation zones in clouds approaching the protected area are detected by radar at ranges of up to about 40 kilometres. Anti-aircraft guns and missiles fire explosives and substances into the clouds to stimulate the crystallisation of super-cooled drops and thereby to prevent the formation of large hailstones. According to Fyodorov, the technique reduces hail damage by four to five times. That this degree of success has not yet been matched by any other routine modification of the weather is discussed in the current issue of Ambio (The Journal of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences), produced in collaboration with SIPRI and devoted entirely to war and the environment. Between March 1967 and July 1972, the US Army in Viet-Nam carried out several

16, 19

But modern conventional warfare c cause enormous damage too. Just hc .much damage is described by Professor Westing, a botanist at Windham Colleg Putney, Vermont, in an Ambio article 1 the environmental effects of three n< military tactics used by the Americans Viet-Nam to deny the enemy access to lar land areas-extensive bombing and’ shr ling, herbicide spraying, and land-clearin The US bombing of Viet-Nam was extl ordinarily extensive. According to We ing, between 1965 and 1973 the America dropped on South Viet-Nam alone some million bombs. Together with about 2 million artillery shells, the total weight US high-explosive munitions used in Sou Viet-Nam was more than 7 million tonne This was equivalent to dropping OI Hiroshima-sized atomic bomb on Sou Viet-Nam every five days throughout t seven-year period. Westing, a former US Marine Corps ( ficer, calculated that the total area of e vironmental damage done by the vast qua tity of munitions is equivalent to half of t whole country.

The USSR has developed techniques of hail control deliver chemicals to the cloud formations.

ture and can sometimes initiate and increase-or decrease-precipitation. But natural variations in the weather are so much greater than any effect from a single attempt to modify a cloud artificially that it is, to say the least, extremely difficult to know whether or not a particular artificial rainmaking or cloud dispersion operation has worked. Reasonably assured and significant modification of the weather-other than perhaps the suppression of hail and, under favourable conditions, the local dissipation of some types of fog-is not yet practicable. Nor is the production of the other environmental warfare (the stimulation of earthquakes and tsunamis; the modification of hurricanes, typhoons or cyclones; the control of lightning and of the electrical behaviour of the atmosphere; and the modification of the climate). One type of environmental warfare may, however, be feasible-the reduction of the concentration of stratospheric ozone. The consequent increase in the flux of UV radiation reaching the earth’s surface could have disastrous effects on exposed biological systems. The earth’s ozone layer could be modified by stratospheric nuclear explosions or by the injection of an ozone-attracting chemical (like chlorine). A general nuclear war between the US and the USSR would be so utterly devastating in all respects as to destroy civilization as we know it. And a tactical nuclear war in, for example, Europe would virtually eliminate the societies there even if only a fraction of the tactical nuclear weapons stationed on the continent were used.


using anti-aircraft

guns and missiles


“It is clear”, he writes “that many mil ions of trees (and lesser numbers of wildlift living on several millions of hectares wer either destroyed outright or struck an wounded by shards of metal”. Effects of bomb craters Another serious and long-lasting el vironmental effect of high-explosive mur tions arises from the craters they produc Westing calculates that the craters in Sou Viet-Nam have a combined surface area ( about 148,000 hectares and a combined VC ume of 2000 million cubic metres. From these figures he concludes tha “the direct damage from convention high-explosives to the biota of South Vie Nam, both immediate and delayed, con bined with the indirect damage to it v habitat disruption, has resulted in what rnz well be the most serious (and least recol nized) long-term ecological impact of tl Second Indo-China War”. Chemical anti-plant agents or herbicide were extensively used in Viet-Nam, fc the first time ever, to destroy forest cove food plants and industrial crops. According to Westing, about 1.7 millio hectares of South Viet-Nam (about 10 pc cent of the whole area) were sprayed wit herbicides. Me has this to say about the er vironmental consequences: “The employment of chemical anti-plar agents of herbicides can readily lead to th serious debilitation of local“ ecosystem: first, by so-called nutrient dumping (a ser ous and long lasting effect arising frcm th loss of nutrients in leaves which are cause to drop); second by the destruction of th continued

on page




16, 1976

the chevron



0 we n eed nuclear ‘power? ,

The following article by Swedish Nobel Prize-winning physicist, Hannes AIfv&n, takes a look at alternative energy sources. A/f&n is open/y critical of nuclear energy as a potential power source, claiming that it can be handled with complete safety only in a “technoiogical paradise”. The article appeared in Atlas magazine.

Will the availability of energy become the bottleneck that prevents a decent standard of living from being established throughout the world? This question leads its proponents to assert that nuclear energy is the only energy source which can save us. Four questions should be asked of every energy source: -From a physical point of view is it capable of delivering enough energy to be important on a global scale? -Does our present technology permit its use without too many negative side effects? -How does the cost in terms of manpower and real capital compare with other sources? -Do the world’s political and economic systems function so as to make it available to those who really need it? Before answering, these facts should be weighed: We receive enough energy from the sun to satisfy all reasonable energy requirements for billions of years (the expected lifetime of the sun). In addition, in the hot interior of the earth there is enough energy already stored at depths of three to-six miles to suffice for millions of years, at the present rate of energy consumption or even with a large increase. There is furthermore enough coal in the earth to last for hundreds or thousands of years and enough oil and gas to suffice for at least some decades (waterfalls, winds, and tides are important locally, but not on a global scale). Methods of using coal and oil have, of course, been well known for a long time but the burning of these fuels often causes serious pollution. Much research to decrease this pollution is needed. Solar energy is the cleanest of all energy sources but it is available only when the sun shines. Very little research has so far been devoted to using this unlimited source of energy. In regions with much sunshine it is already available at a competitive price for home heating and other uses.

A British fast reactor. The British c/aim safety procedures in this area are more Alfv6n denies that a sufficient level of safety can be attained.

It is also technically possible to generate electricity from solar energy but the price is still relatively high. However, there seems a reasonably good chance of drastically r& ducing the cost by intensive research. This is especially important for the poor countries, which as a rule are rich in sunshine. There are two different kinds of geothermal energy stored in the earth’s interior. One is volcanic, such as the hot springs, which occur in only a few places. The other kind is dry hot rock energy, namely the heat of the earth’s interior, which is available all over the globe but at

warfare continued




extant vegetational community; and third, by the loss of the animal community, largely via habitat destruction. A decimated plant community on tropical upland sites is likely to become replaced by an ecologically inferior, long-lasting plant community, one with a significantly lesser plant and animal species diversity, a greatly reduced biomass, and a decreased level of productivity. s Moreover, a decimated coastal mangrove ecosystem seems to remain desolate for some very lengthy period of time. Finally, when an herbicidal attack is used to destroy either food or industrial crops, this can lead not only to ecological damage, but to social havoc as well”. The third military innovation, extensive land-clearance, involved the use of socalled “Rome ploughs”-33-tonne armoured tractors, each equipped with a blade to shear and push over trees of almost any size. These massive vehicles were used to destroy forest and crops, and to raze villages. A company of 30 tractors-a normal working group-could remove heavy jungle at a rate of about 40 hectares per day and

US helicopters


in a “defoliation

light jungle at a rate of 160 hectares per day. In all, Wes ting claims, 350,000 hectares of forest land in South Viet-Nam were cleared in addition to thousands of hectares of rubber plantations, fruit orchards and fields (including their irrigation systems). Severe and long-lasting ecological debilitation followed this land clearance. The cleared areas were “occupied with longlasting biotic communities of low plant and animal species diversity, reduced biomass, and diminished productivity”. The prospect of gross interference with the weather or climate for military purposes is so disturbing (perhaps instinctively?) to most people that there would be massive support for a ban on geophysical weapons. Even more so because, unless banned, these weapons will almost certainly be developed. But certain existing military tactics are so damaging to the environment, and the consequences of their use are so out of proportion to any conceivable military need, that their prohibition is much more urgent. Recent warfare has shown that at the top of the list are the use of* herbicides and strategic bombing.


in Vietnam.


than for any other

depths of more than three to six miles. It offers a virtually unlimited supply of energy but unfortunately very little research has yet been devoted to extracting it. Although it is not difficult to drill a hole down to the required depth, there may be some problems to be solved before it can be used. What we need, it would seem, is to develop an underground capability just as we have developed a space capability. This requires a major research effort. The solution to the energy problem may be only three to six miles away. Since there is obviously no dearth of energy sources, what is called the “energy crisis” is the result of misdirected research policy and ineffective energy distribution. Many poor countries are having increasing difficulties in getting the energy they badly need for development. Many rich countries are so accustomed to lavishly expending their energy that a crisis is caused by the threat of being forced to cut consumption to a level slightly closer to a fair share of the world supply. The energy crisis can only be solved through a better international order. Unfortunately, this seems to be beyond the competence of the world’s political leaders. From a global point of view, and in the long term perspective, nuclear energy is unnecessary. Moreover, it is extremely dangerous to mankind. Nuclear energy originated as a byproduct of the development of nuclear bombs. Much scientific and technological effort was spent on nuclear reactor research with an enormous investment of money and scientific and political prestige. Research policy was not aimed at discovering how to satisfy the need for energy but at finding a way to use the nuclear technology which had been initially developed for other reasons. Hence we find ourselves in a situation where the nuclear people can claim that nuclear energy is the only solution to the energy crisis. This is a shortsighted view which will result i_n a worse dilemma in the future. In the long run mankind does not need nuclear energy. Other sources of energy can be developed with probably a fraction of the research effort which has been devoted to fission energy. Furthermore nuclear energy is dangerous. The fission of uranium results in essentially three products: energy, plutonium, and a number of other radioactive elements commonly referred to as “radioactive waste.” The laws of physics make it impossible to produce the energy without also producing


but phys’icist


plu toniurn and radioactive waste . As long as we speak of a single, small reactor there is no difficulty in handling these byproducts. This is why scientists initially hailed nuclear energy as a clean and attractive energy source. But when, as now, we are faced with the task of supplying a large part of the world’s energy by fission we realize that both the radioactive waste and the plutonium are a serious threat to mankind. We are actually starting mass production of the most poisonous elements and, since plutonium is the raw material of nuclear bombs, we are facilitating the spread of these means of mass destruction. We are creating an increasingly terrifying world by the planned large-scale investment in nuclear technology. What I have said about nuclear energy refers primarily to fission energy. There is much less objection to fusion energy, which as a widespread source lies far in the future. And fusion energy ma? be developed in such a way as to be ecologically acceptable. This is, however, too complex an issue to discuss here. The nuclear people claim that radioactive waste can be handled and plutonium controlled so that it is not misused. According to their blueprints this looks possible, but only if we were living in a technological paradise-a world where everything works according to the blueprints, when all personnel exactly follow instructions, where there are no criminals, no blackmailers, no terrorists, no war. Unfortunately the real world is much too insecure, chaotic, and violent. To inject into our world enormous quantities of radioactive poison and more means of mass destruction is irresponsible. Some people, myself among them, think that the increasing quantities of nuclear weapons will sooner or later be used for the purpose for which they are constructed -killing and mutilating people by the millions or the billions. The spread of nuclear energy will make the holocaust more likely and more devastating . To some extent, the present situation is a result of the old technological credo that if a thing can be done it also must be done, regardless of whether it benefits mankind or leads to destruction and misery. At present there &e already more than 10,000 nuclear bombs in Western and Eastern Europe, sufficient for 10,000 catastrophies of Hiroshima proportions. To discuss the energy crisis without taking these facts into consideration is naive and irresponsible escapism.

. 26

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Toronto (CUP)-Pssst. Wanna buy some used university buildings? Or perhaps even: Pssst. Wanna buy a used university? An odd question. But there is every indication the Ontario government is planning to substantially decrease its investment in ost-secondary education, and rationalize Further the job-training orientation of community colleges. The result would be the maintenance of universities as training grounds for the silent corporate elite, the colleges as producers of the skilled labor an increasingly capital-intensive industrial economy requires, backed up by a large semi-skilled and unskilled (and probably largely unemployed) labor force. The desired rationalization of Ontario’s post-secondary educational resources would not take place overnight. As government advisors noted in the recent “Henderson Report” on the Commission on Government Spending, “Post-secondary institutions and their clients require considerable lead-time to respond to chance, particularly financial arrangements. ”



Perhaps this explains why the universities were happy to receive a 14.4 per cent increase in total post-secondary education grants for the 1976-77 academic year. The Henderson Report, (more aptly entitled the McKeough Report, since provincial treasurer Darcy McKeough chaired the government spending commission) preceded the government funding announcement by scarcely two weeks, hinted darkly that the “public” was not getting an equitable return on its investment in postsecondary education, and that drastic cut.backs in spending might be in the offing. In fact, increases in university and college financing have decreased in Ontario over the last three years. For the. 1974-75 academic year, govemment funding increased 19.6 per cent from the previous year and when it was announced last year that the increase for ‘75-76 would only be 16.9 per cent, university presidents and governing boards across the province protes te.d loudly and immediately implemented cutbacks in their own budgets. But this year, the Council of Ontario Universities (COU) quietly accepted the 14.4 per cent increase, announced by the government on Dec. 15, while noting that enrolment increases were estimated at 5.4 per cent, and hence the increase in per student revenue would only be 7 per cent. “Since inflation is still running well above the 8 per cent guideline target, the pattern of budget cutbacks which has affected all aspects of university operations in recent years will thus have to be continued,” the COU statement concluded. One might conclude that Ontario’s universities have accepted the obvious need for continuing decreases in funding, and are implementing the government’s cutback measures with be1 t-tightening resignation. But the reason for their complacency may be that, while they feel the cost-revenue squeeze right now, their salvation lies in government proposals to reduce enrolment. Reduced enrolment The McKeough Re rt provides the clear answer to crowded c p”assrooms and declin-

University fyndin continued


page 27

component. To this extent, we support increased students fees . . .” The CAUT position parallels that of a secretive federal-provincial task force on student aid, which has been working since June 1974 on a program to ammend the Canada Student Loans Act. The task force has been considering a large-scale change of the loan system, which would force students to pay a much greater percentage of their education costs, and repay the government with increased loan obligations. Students have been excluded from participating directly in the task-force decision-making, even though they are the people who,will be most affected by the decisions .

ing facilities: universities could maintain and even improve the quality of education, if they were only allowed to drastically re-. duce enrolment, it said. Currently the bulk of Ontario universities’ financing is pegged to enrolment. One full-time undergraduate (or full-time equivalent) is worth one Basic Income Unit (BIU) in provincial funds. But the report notes that the system moved from an enrolment based financing formula to “a global budgeting approach” in 1974, while simultaneously granting the reduced funds on the stipulation that the institutions keep their fees at the present level. So the report recommends the govemment lift its control on tuition, allowing the individual institutions to raise fees as they see fit, and points to an eventual fee increase of 56 per cent, to be achieved over a three to four year period. The effect would be, as the report notes, to make students pay more towards the cost of their education. What it doesn’t mention is that such high fees (approximately $970 for universities, and $400 for community colleges) would be an effective financial barrier for a large number of those currently enrolled in postsecondary institutions. For community colleges, the distribution of funds is not pegged to a BIU-style formula, but is determined on the basis of enrolment by the college governing body, the Ontario Council of Regents. To rationalize colleges, the McKeough Report suggests “phasing out” provincial support for general-interest, part-time courses “so as to put them on a full-cost recovery basis.” The end is a community college .system devoted to vocational and technical training, the report states. University graduate studies have also come under the gun. Since 1974 an economic embargo has been in effect on new graduate programs. In July 1975 then Minister of Colleges and Universities, James Auld, told the COU that universities should “give higher priority to the financial implications of graduate programs” rather than “considerations of academic quality and desirability.” The crunch came with a recent announcement of fiscal guidelines from the now minister of colleges and universities, Harry Parrott, in which he stated the formal funding of graduate work would be sus- * pended for the next two years. The BIU system is to be dropped in favor of one which “reflects increase in costs but not increase in enrolments,” according to a statement from Carleton University president, Mic heal Oliver. There is currently no information as to how this new method of financing is to be determined, or whether it favors expanding existing graduate programs over starting new ones, or if it favors either. But for conjecture, -we have again the McKeough Report, which recommends no additional provincial funds for new graduate programs. Student aid While the funding for universities and colleges in the ‘76-77 academic year has been set, the future of student financial aid has yet to be announced. The McKeough report recommends tuition be increased 45 per cent, the loan porStudents also are being excluded debate on the Fiscal Arrangements

from the Act.

Policies without program An official in the secretary of state department, which administers the act, said policy officials consider submissions from AUCC and CAUT important in forming their own recommendations to their minister, Hugh Faulkner. He neglected to mention the National Union of Students. When asked about the omission, the official noted that “NUS represents a lot less than 100 per cent of students in Canada.” He later clarified his remarks by saying NUS has made a submission to his department and that the submission is being considered. NUS executive secretary Dan O’Connor admitted the organization hasn’t pursued with maximum vigour its presentations on the Fiscal Arrangements Act, pointing out the organization’s executive has been occupied with the student loan controversies. O’Connor also said the person who was researching the fiscal arrangements issue

tion of the Ontario Student Assistance Plan (OSAP) be raised to $1800 while the grant portion be lowered and eventually eliminated. Under these conditions “it will not matter to most of the people of the province what the universities and colleges receive, the financial barriers to post-secondary education will be so high as to again make the universities the exclusive preserve of the rich,” states the chairman of the Ontario Federation of Students (OFS) John Shortall in a recent release. The McKeough Report estimates that $40 million annually can be saved by “the first step” of increasing the loan and lowering the grant portion of OSAP, and up to $80 million by increasing tuition 65 per cent. Increased productivity If institutions find themselves reluctant to increase tuition, they could always ‘ ‘increase productivity” by reducing teaching staff, and increasing the student-staff ratio from 13-1 to 16-1, the report states, estimating total college and university faculty reductions at 5,000. Such an alternative is not likely to be seriously considered by Ontario’s postsecondary institutions. So the report really offers no choice at all. What it does is pit accessibility to higher education against the quality of education. Quality can be maintained and even improved if enrolment is cut. In the end both faculty and students lose: if enrolment is reduced, faculty will be laid off. On the subject of college and university staff, non-academic as well as faculty it’s worthy to note that the institutions feel they GUI look forward to windfall savings under the federal wage and price controls. With any salary increases over 8 per cent under the eye of the Anti-inflation Board, COU executive secretary Grant Clark said that the decrease in next year’s funding will not be so severe, as wage hikes can be limited. The reasons the McKeough Report gives for decreasing financing are mainly economic, and on a superficial level are easy to back up. University graduates are no longer in such great demand, therefore their benefit to the public in question. We’re going through economic hard times, hence proand prepared recommendations for the fall NUS conference in Fredericton, is now in Argentina. The NUS recommendations, sent to the secretary of state department without detailed explanations, include the organization’s insistence that tuition fees be abolished . NUS asks that “tuition fees not be considered part of the financial sources for postsecondary education and that the fiscal transfers be conditional on the abolition of tuition fees. ’ ’ NUS also approved motions asking that all monies granted to provinces through the act should be used for post-secondary education, and, joined with CAUT and the AUCC, is asking the 15 per cent annual limit on funding increases be eliminated. High stakes * But NUS faces an uphill battle in getting its points across. Both the AUCC and CAUT want the federal government to take a greater role in post-secondary policy making. That is appealing to the federal government, which


16, 1976

vincial resources are taxed to the limit. So students are simply going to have to pay more of the cost of education. The report’s answers to these problems are perhaps better understood when viewed not as haphazard, emergency measures but as part of an overall plan to restructure the post-secondary education system to meet the needs of an industrial economy dominated by private corporations. The OFS suggests this in its brief to Ontario’s Interim Committee on Financial Assistance for Students. The brief argues that community colleges are part of a “streaming” process in the “stratified” higher education system. Their function is not to facilitate upward social mobility, but to train a technically advanced working class. Universities are designed to train the managerial class, the brief contends. This argument is consistent with the recent developments in post-secondary education financing, and the recommendations of the McKeough Report. Despite ,former colleges and universities minister James Auld’s insistence that community colleges are facing budget constraints “at least as severe” as universities, it is worth noting that cutbacks for the former are suggested mainly in the “general-interest” courses, while the McKeough Report endorses the colleges’ value as vocational and technical centres. And if, as the report advocates, tuitions are to be increased by 65 per cent, a tuition of $400 is far easier for most people to meet, even with an all-loan system, than a $950 price tag attached to university programmes . The OFS brief contends that instead of seeking ways to cut costs in the provincial budget, the government should be thinking of increasing revenue. The brief shows statistics revealing that private corporations share of public expenditure costs have dropped, while personal income taxes have gone up, in the period from 1964-1974. “Surely it’would be more sensible to direct one’s assault at the tax system itself. . . (particularly) on the question of the benefits derived by the corporate sector, the brief states, comparing the benefit corporations receive from post-secondary education compared to what they pay in taxes. clan


might see an opportunity to get some tangible political returns for the money it spends. It may also result in a constitutional battle between the provincial and federal govemments, since the British North America Act clearly specifies the provinces have jurisdiction over education. But while the provinces and the federal government have the resources to press their self-interests, the position of students and the NUS is less than perfect. The proposal by CAUT that students be required to pay greater tuition fees has obvious appeal to the provinces and federal government. The AUCC also is believed to support increased tuition fees, although it has not yet mustered the courage to state its opinion publicly. And NUS so far has been unable to mobilize massive enough support to convince the federal and provincial bureaucrats, university administrators and teachers of the merits of its position. It remains to be seen what that failure will mean for students’ pocketbooks and accessibility to post-secondary education. ’ -mark


day, january

16, 1976

the chevron


fr’ritancing may TTAWA (CUP&Within months, the deral cabinet will make a decision which )uld result in drastic tuition fee increases nd fundamentally alter the way univerties deal with governments. Plans for amendments to the Fiscal Arurgements Act, which indirectly provides re bulk of money for university and comunity college operations, are being discus:d secretly as the government here anounces austerity measures and spending :strictions. Ominously, students appear to be taking minor role in the decision-making process, :sults of which could interfere with enrollent levels, expansion of programs, uniersity autonomy, and academic standards Levery province. At the same time, university adminissators, represented by the Asso$at.ion of lniversities and Colleges of Canada SUCC), appear to be making progress in zlling the idea of a “national universities olicy” and of federally encouraged “regmal centres of (academic) excellence”. If accepted, this would give the federal ovemment power over university policy, lrmerly controlled exclusively by the proinces. There are also pressures-supported by he Canadian Association of University leachers (CAUT )-for the government to ut its broad-based (and unconditional) conributions to post-secondary education by laking students pay greater tuition fees. An extensive series of meetings of proincial, federal and university officials beins this month to thrash out the new law, to

‘eedbaek ontinued 1 preparing


page 22

a Chess column.



ranslating games from one notation system o another, typing, and production. The criticism of the analysis as “inadeluate” is totally unfounded. In the first lace there is no space available for more ietailed analysis, and considering the low atings possessed by the authors of the leter, it is difficult to see how they could berefit from it in any event. My analysis has generally proven to be easonably accurate and pertinent. On sevral occasions it has elicited compliments rom the players of the games analyzed. It is roteworthy that the analysis found with nost Chess columns is extremely spartan lthough these Columns are written by proessionals. In view of the time that I can easonably be expected to put into my artiles, the results on the average are generahy :onsidered by many knowledgeable players In the campus to be quite good. In view of the assumed air of reverence owards Chess adopted by the authors of he letter, it is perhaps ironic that they have rot joined the UW Chess Club. I am perfectly willing to let them take )ver the task of preparing the Chevron Chess Column, and having to put up with :he odd crank letter now and then. The results would


be amusing. Robert


be presented

to parliament

before the end of

the year.

Mind-boggling act they are debating is a mindboggling document with intricate defmitions and complicated equations. It outlines a method of calculating federal assistance for The

post-secondary education while providing a system of tax revenue equalization among the provinces. Basically, the federal government offers to share 50-50 most of the operating costs of most public and private post-secondary institutions recognized by the provinces. Funds obtained fi-om tuition fees (about 15 per cent of the total) and endowment are

added to provincial



Last year the federal government provinces


$1.2 billion

year, because

for higher

now in a funding arrangement might cost the universities money, so Oliver is expected to ask Trudeau not to do anything major for the next two years.



Meanwhile, CAUT takes a bolder stand, insisting that provincial governments be bypassed and funds be provided directly to the universities from Ottawa. CAUT points out the problems of provincialization similar to the ones AUCC mentioned.

But CAUT in its brief goes beyond the request for direct federal aid for university operating expenses. It says students should be required to pay higher fees. CAUT claims costs of running universities have increased greatly in recent years while tuition fees remain stable. “We conclude that the fee component should, at a minimum, remain stable in the mix of financial resources, and this implies annual cost-of-living adjustments to the fee continued on page 26

paid the education.

a 15 per cent limit in

annual increases set in 1972 will be reached for the fast time, the fiscal transfers are set at $1.67 billion.

Not included as eligible operating costs for federal funding are costs of ancilliary services such as residences and food services, and money for capital debt or depreciation. Not surprisingly, the provinces don’t mind receiving the money from Ottawa, especially since no strings are attached. The provincial governments can choose which institutions to ‘spend their money on, and don’t even have to use the money received

for post-secondary The provincial

education. education ministers will meet in Vancouver next week (Jan. 13 and 14) to work out their position on the revised Act revisions. Next month their collective group, the Council of Ministers of Education, comes here for a federal-provincial ministers meeting. The ministers have generally remained silent about their position on the Act. It is unlikely they would support any move to cut funds to their treasuries. But the universities, in what appears to be a shrewd move, are giving the provinces another problem by offering Ottawa a trade-off of increased federal control of university policy in exchange for increased money. Officially, the AUCC is remaining silent pending a private meeting Jan. 15 between its executive and prime minister Trudeau. “I don’t want to say anything about the content of our brief until then,” AUCC president Michael Oliver said Jan. 6. But a copy of the association’s first draft brief, discussed at a board of directors meeting in October, shows an awareness of the balance between federal and provincial politics. The AUCC supports its argument against ‘ ‘provincialization” of universities with ar-

The chevron invites applications

for the position of



calculating the matching federal funding. This means provincial governments pay about 35 per cent of university and college operating costs. The three smallest provinces, Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick, which don’t have many postsecondary institutions, take advantage of a provision in the law allowing them to collect a flat $15 per capita annual payment.

guments for academic “centres of excellence.” “The general effect of federal funding by unconditional tmnsfers.. . has been a provincialization of universities to such a degree that there is little assurance that national objectives will receive attention commensurate with their importance for balanced university development,‘” the brief states. “The reliability of Canadian university standards, a consequence of the development of 10 university systems each with 50 per cent of their costs borne by Ottawa, carries with it a danger of insuEcient diversity and insufficient concentration of resources to produce true centres of excellence.” In general, AUCC says there is a tendency for provincial governments to duplicate resources, resulting in several mediocre quality institutions. It points out, as an example, the difficulty of having Asian Studies programs in every province. But the association is believed to be afraid that any change the government makes


Term:May1, 1976-April30; 1977

Salary$145 per week,,> ApplicationscloseJan. 30 All applications,stating qualifications, shouldbe sent to the chairperson, Boardof Publications,StudentFederation m

1 the

Member: Canadian university press (CUP). The chevron is typeset by members of the workers union of dumont press graphix (CNTU) and published by the federation of students incorporated, university of Waterloo. Content is the sole responsibility of the chevron editorial staff. Offices are located in the campus centre; (519) 885-I 660, or university local 2331. Bob inkol’s chess column which is causing some controversy on camp@~s provided us with the hard news of the week. bob reports that a chess tournament last week had to be postponed due to bad weather. So if you spent a few hours trying to dig your car, cycle or roller-skates out of a heavily snow-&d d&w&y, spare a thought for all those scantily clothed pawns and royalty who must have had their butts hit ice a few times as they wera maneuvti around a snow bound board. Apparently the game was called off after one white king, sent into the fray minus his thermal underwear, froze to the spot, and unabie to avoid a body check from an off-balance rook was sent slithering off the board and into a four foot drift. Ah well, chess was never meant to be a winter sport. In a more serious vein,: as the government heightens its attack on universities and students, the upcoming election takes on greater significance. So be sure to pay careful heed to all the candidates and cast your vote wlth care. The paper this week is the combined . effort of john mcnair, iibby warren, glen dewar, dave watson, george lomaga, dave anjo, Isabella grigoroff, fii, and the men who write about the warriors’ adventures (sorry we slipped up last i&k) judy jansen, graham gee, nina tym oszewicz who put her fingers to work on twoc, bob inkol u&does good work, and to dine ritza, simple john morris, hairy henry hess, and a person called cup, and chevroc of the week: the do& nd





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.1 .







- Pi%ES~lDEN.TlAL ‘..px _- *i3: ELECTION L. _I /. . x*I. \ \ _, for. ‘76~‘77 ’ ’ ’1 m * Come and hear the-Cakd,idatei. ‘. 1. J



Find out who they are; what they,..stand fgr; what the is&ues . i are. .

._ -



-: - Y WHEN:‘.Tuesday,

-* I


Jan. 20’-

> -.

I!00 p.m.

- ,





Modern . Languages Foyer ‘- .I WHY: Because you should get to know ,the candidates- ‘and the issues . before youI vote January 28. \

, , ,

I x 8

-‘I , ’ /-’DON7 a , JUSTVOTE. - . VOTE /NTkLL/GENTL.KfI / -., \

’-’ , .


We need

your help .at the’polling



I i .:I ;I II I.i :I I


- ‘- _for the presidential

and council elections I / - . To find outallxa,bout-the scenes.


behind the @election and how to ~run a polling station

’ ’ . v



(1 , there ,is,a meeting on Monday #Jan 19, MC2065 4:30 p.m. ai . . L 1 . . \ ’_ .; up sheets can be , -w - II I found . there I * ‘Sign -. .and at ‘your respective society office.-\ l *






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Radio Waterloo, which has been around since 7965 when it was started as the Broadcasting Club, left the air on Tuesday afternoon. /t was a v...

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