University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario volume 16, number 23 friday, november 21 I 1975
Inside IWgraduate history student Larry Hannant was arrested yesterday at WLV while sellingpapers Inant refused to stop selling and was pulled from the hall by a security guard. After a scuffle the floor beneath WLV guard Ron Stanley. See story on page 3. -
in the dining hall. Hannant ended up
Economic Selling out Feedback Politics of
war measures act . . . . . e . .p. 13 to Syncrude . . . o . u . . . . e .po 15 *a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..p.26 pollution . . . . . . . o . e . . = . .p. 30
lass demos promised .-
nly if tuition fees are abolished students are given a living :nd will universities be acces: to students from all income LPS. ha+ is the position taken by UW ent federation and tlie Ontario Eration of Students.
UW student federation president, John Shortall, and the chairman of OFS will outline the position at a general meeting in the Campus Centre great hall this Wednesday. Arguments on accessibility to university have been going around
for a long time. But they are being dusted off and polished a little because .the provincial government has a committee doing the university circuit and taking a “fresh look” at student aid. The concern of OFS is that universities are the domain of the mid-
t squawks over iialiie of unikersity he benefits of higher education have been oversold in the 1s but there’s still need for uniity and college degrees for cerjobs, UW president Burt thews said Monday. atthews was commenting on a zment made last Friday by -y Parrot, the new minister of :ges and universities, that calthe belief which says degrees ensure recipients good jobs a 1. u-rot, taking part in an all-day Ity development workshop at estoga College, said he intends :peat that view thousands of s, if necessary, to get rid of a : impression that has been Toted by high schools, emprs, colleges and universities. le pieces of paper offered by ersities or colleges are of no ter or lesser value than satisory work experience, the Idstock dentist said. rhe myth is there. . . . It’ll get ;e if I don’t challenge it.” .rrot feels that because he has a orate (the first to hold one in ortfolio), he can afford to make ,tatement about the myth with ibility . atthews said that getting a dedoesn’t necessarily land the :nt with a good job but for cer-
tain occupations a degree is required . “There’s no doubt about it. . . higher education is required for some occupations,” he added. “If one wants to become an engineer then one should pursue a university degree rather than a community college one.” However, for some people the pursuit of a degree isn’t the best “route” to follow since they might find fulfilment in other types of education, the president cautioned. Matthews said that community colleges offer an education which isn’t less desirable than a university from comone. “The graduates munity colleges are just as important as graduates from universi ties. ’ ’ So a person shouldn’t come to university with the expectation of later getting a high paying job for in some cases a graduate ends up with no job at all, the president explained. Parrot said that because he feels so strongly about the myth perpetrated by university and college officials, he plans to re-organize his ministry and place an emphasis on the manpower branch. The minister plans to name a director of college affairs and a director of manpower training. Matthews said he would reserve
comments on the minister’s intentions as he doesn’t know enough about the ministry’s internal organization. Parrot also said it’s easy for students and educators to say they need money, but it’s not as easy for them to tell him where to get it. “I assure you these are difficult times for all areas of government. When you see the budget deficits of both governments (federal and provincial), it’s about time we did not mortgage your future. ” He hinted that there would be government cuts beyond the four percent reduction in the civil service already planned. Not revealing what the cuts would be, Parrot said that provincial treasurer Darcy McKeough has given government ministries directives to do some drastic paring. The latest figures show that the province will have a $1.8 billion deficit this year. McKeough has also told municipal governments not to expect anything more than an eight to ten percent increase in grants. The university system is often equated with municipalities as far as spending priori ties go. -john
dle and upper income groups and are financially out of reach of students from lower income families. The class mix of students has not changed in recent years, Shortall told the chevron. He believes it will only begin to change if the economic barriers are eliminated. In the brief which the OFS will present to the committee, it is stated that the many investigations into student assistance “ . . . while producing a plethora of possible Schemes,- did arrive at one overwhelming consensus : universal accessibility and equality of opportunity to post-secondary education in Ontario do not exist.” The brief cites seven studies to corroborate this case, the most recent of which is from a study entitled “Does Money Matter” by Porter, Porter and Blishen, (September, 1973). The brief quotes from this book: “Throughout this volume we have emphasized the extent to which financial barriers might prevent children from lower income families from aspiring to university. ” The other recent study quoted in the brief is from the 1972 Report of the Commission on PostSecondary Education in Ontario. It reads: “At present our research confirms that (postsecondary education) resources are accorded more generously or utilized more often by students from middle and upper income groups whatever their ability. ” The latest figures on class mix of post-secondary students are due to be released by Statistics Canada this month. Shortall does not expect them to show any difference from previous studies. He said, however, that although the committee knew the figures were expected in November it set its deadline for submissions to be put on the agenda ,at Oct. 3 1. The
committee may use the Canada Statistics data in its report but Shortall said the schedule made it impossible for student groups to use the material in their presentations. Shortall believes the government is using the committee “as a buffer before implementing an already designed program’ ’ . He explained that in recent years the government has heard reports on student aid ‘ ‘from everyone and his brother”. Student groups, organized labour and independent researchers have supplied a plethora of information, Shortall said. The government has had exhaustive reports on the subject, he said, and there is nothing new to be said. S hortall fears the already designed plan is that the provincial government will adopt a contingency repayment plan. This would mean that students would repay their loans according to the income they earn after graduation. Shortall also said the provincial government “has been steadily cutting back on the amount spent on student grants”. He expects that an all-loans plan will be gradually introduced. There are signs of that already Shortall said. Last year, of the 50 percent of UW students who applied for and received money fkom the Ontario Student Awards Plan (OSAP), the average student received $69 1. Since the first $800 of any OSAP award is loan it means that on the average, students at UW are not receiving grants, Shortall explained. Shortall hopes that the Wednesday meeting will also provide him with feedback from students who may have had problems with OSAP. -n&i
Friday Nancy-Lou Patterson. Drawings and liturgical designs. UW Art Gallery. Hours:‘Monday - Friiay 94pm, Sunday 2-5pm till Nov 30.
W E KNOW
OUR DIAMONDS INSIDE-OUT.. AND SO WILL YOU _
Campus Centre Pub opens 12 noon. Audio Master from 9-1 am. 74 cents after 6pm. “Treads A Measure In Renaissance Style” presented by UW Dance Company accompanied by Music Four. Free admission. 12:30pm. Theatre of the Arts. La So&e Francaise annonce que le fi Ime L’Acadie L’Acadie sera present6 & 19:OOh. a la salle ‘AL 105. Entree 50 cents. Une soirbe caribou suivra. Federation Flicks-Amarcord directed by Frederic0 Fellini 8pm. AL 116 Feds $1 Non-feds $1.50. The Wild Duck by Henrik Ibsen. Directed by Maurice Evans. 8pm. Humanities Theatre. Admission $2, Students & senior citizens $1.25.
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Campus Centre Pub opens 7pm. Audio Master from g-lam. 74 cents admission. The Wild Duck by He&ik Ibsen. Directed by Maurice Evaqs. 8pm Humanities Theatre. Admission $2, Students & senior citizens $1.25. Federation Flicks-Amarcord directed by Frederic0 Fellini. 8pm. AL 116 Feds $1 Non-feds $1.50. .
Sunday Chapel. All welcome. “Eternity Sunday: Thoughts on death in our culture.” Coffee and discussion follow. 1Oam Conrad Grebel College. Musica Antiqua. A program of medieval and renaissance music. Presented by music students and friends. 3pm. Conrad Grebel College Chapel. Armenian Night presented by Arrnenian Student Association. 4pm. Theatre of the Arts. F&eration Flicks-Amarcord directed by Frederic0 Fellini. 8pm AL 116. Feds $1 Non-feds $1.50. K-W Chamber Music Society presetits Stratford Ensemble. 8pm. Pa&minster United Church, Erb & Bluevale, Waterloo.
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Para-legal aisistance offers nonlegal advice. Call professional 885-0840 or come to CC 106. Hours: 11:30-2:30 and 7-1 Opm. Dr. Walter Rodney, Historian, Author, Professor, who will speak on Marxism as a third world ideology 11:30am AL 206. Sponsored by Caribbean Students Association and Fed of Stud.
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Campus Centre Pub opens’12 noon. Watson & Reynolds from g-lam. 74 cents after 6pm. Dr. Walter Rodney, Historian, Author, Professor who will speak on African Liberation movements and related sup port movements. 7pm. Theatre of the Arts. Spons,ored by Caribbean Students Association and Fed. of Stud. Nutrition Lecture Series. “Are Canadians Well Fed?” with Lorna Miller, Nutritionist, Waterloo Regional Health Unit. 7:30-l Opns, Adult Recreation Centre, 185 King Street South, Waterloo. Auditions for The Real Inspector Hound. Director Maurice Evans. 7:30pm. Humariities 180. Procrastination Club. 7:30pm St. Jeromes Rm. 213. Cancell@. Grand Valley Car Club welcomes you to our next meeting. Waterloo County Fish & Game Protective Off Hwy 8 between Kitchener & Hwy 401.
Tuesday Campus Centre Pub opens 12 noon. -Watson & Reyndlds from 9-l am. 74 cents after 6pm. Para-legal assistance offers nonprofessional legal advice. Call 885-0840 or come to CC 106:Hours: 14:30pm. Native North American Film Series. Contemporary Land Issues. 2pm. National Film Board Theatre, Suite 207, 659 King Street East, Kitchener. Sponsored by WLU SocAn. Many people are trying to be themselves. The Ontology Club has a few suggestions. We’ll be happy to share them with you. Everybody welcome. 4:30pm. CC 113. Philosophy Undergrad Meeting & Symposium. Professor Hayworth speaking on “Dealing with the Practicality of Philosophy.” 7:30pm. Grad Lounge Hagey Hall.
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- Mon-SAT 9 am - 10 pm - SUN & HOLlDAP/S 11 am - 9 pm
Campus Centre Pub opens 12 Watson & Reynolds from 9-lar cents after 6pm. Para-legal assistance offers profession-al legal advice. 885-0840 or cosne to CC 106. l1304:30pm. Me and Mr. T. A band performing Campus Centre Pub. 2pm. Ca Centre Pub. No cover charge. Waterloo Christian Fellow Everyone is welcome to come 1 informal time of Bible study and fl ship. 5:30pm CC 113. Science Society Wine & Cheea the wine and cheese you can con upon admission. 50 cents for SC members. All others $2. 7pm MC (Facutty !ounge). Christian Science Organlza Everyone is invited to attend these lar meetings for informal discus 7:36pm Hum. 174. General Meeting of the Greek dents Association. 8pm. CC 11 Students’ Wives Club Meeting. ( speaker from Consumer Compl 8pm. E4-4362. Further info 884-9441 or 884-9243. “The Bible as a Psycholo Document”. A lecture by David B Professor of Psychology, York U sity. 8pm. Humanities Faculty Lc Rm. 373. Hagey Hall. Free admi: /
Friday Campus Centre Pub opens 12 Watson & Reynolds from 9-l ar -cents afteV6pm. WLU SocAn panel discussion. sionaries as agents of cuttural infc and inoculation. Panelists include Conroy, Elizabeth Grahma, Dave Lumsden, John Peters, Fc Rutaranganda. 7pm. WLU Mezz; The 1 lth Annual Carol Fan Alfred Kunz, music director and co tor. Beethoven Symphony No. 9 Humanities Theatre. Admissio Students & Senior citizens $1.
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Jo Willment & Doug Pattison in cert. Folk concert. 8pm. Theatre 1 Arts. Free admission. Gay Coffee House. 830pm. CC “The Business of Immigration’ cellent documentary film product Canada’s Educational Televisior vice with Barbara Frum and others. Co-sponsored by Int. Stu Assoc. and the Chaplaincy. Fre mission. 9pm. Psych 2083. Free Movie-Dreams a Bergmal with Eva,Dahlbeck. Sponsored t Campus Centre Board. 10:15pm. pus Centre Great Hall.
Wednesday .Campus Centre Pub opens 12 noon. Watson & Reynolds from g-lam. 74 cents after 6pm. Unjversity Chapel. Sponsored by the UW chaplains. 12:30pm SCH 218K. K-W Red Cross Blood Donor Clinic. 24:30pm and 6-8:30pm. First United Church. King & WilliamStreets, Waterloo. Para-legal assistance offers nonprofessional legal advice. Call 885-0840 or come to CC 106. Hours: 7-1 Opm. Chess Club Meeting. Everyone wel. come. 7:30pm. CC 135.
Teachers and transit
discuss wage demands,
Two strikers explained to stulents why they are on the picket ines, why buses haven’t moved in his city for eleven weeks, and why iigh school education has been uspended in Toronto. More than 30 people showed up o hear the two strikers talk about heir struggles at an informal disussion organized by ‘Man Envionment professor Colin De’Ath on Wednesday. Evangeline Wong is a secondary chool teacher in Metro Toronto nd a member of the Ontario Secndary School Teachers Federaion. Bill Mazmanian is president of he local transit workers union and bus driver.
Wong detailed how Toronto teachers are fighting both their employers and the media. Most people are entirely unaware that Toronto teachers have been losing ground to inflation for the last eight years, she said. This is why teachers will not accept less than 44 per cent and a cost of living allowance. According to Wong the media has gotten even the simplest facts wrong. For example, it has been reported that the secondary teachers have 12 professional days a year and it has been suggested these are virtually holidays. In fact they receive only one such professional development day
and it is a day of work. Recently, 20 students were reported demonstrating in front of Queen’s Park. Wong was there and counted six. . Mazmanian spoke briefly of his anger and determination in the face of Kitchener city council’s “outrageous behaviour”. The union struck for an increase of 20.6 per cent, to $6.07 an hour or enough to prevent the drivers and mechanics from falling further behind transit workers in other On.tario cities. The city offered 15 per cent as its initial offer. Since then it has only offered different combinations of fringe and wage benefits; never
me ia bias
more and sometimes less than 15 per cent. The drivers and mechanics remain firm in the face of the Kitchener city council despite the strain of an eleven week strike. At a recent membership meeting Mazmanian and his entire executive were renewed in office by acclamation and given a standing ovation. (170 out of 214 members of the striking local were present). The strikers face not only city council but the hostile propaganda of the local commercial media, according to Mazmanian. He pointed out that his views are not always fully reported in the press. At the same time, CHYM
promotes various schemes to get around the bus strike. Mazmanian especially emphasized that the city is spending enough money fighting the strike to meet the demands of the strikers. After all it costs a great deal to hire security guards through SIS security, to rent vehicles and to contract out that part of the work of the mechanics which their foremen are unable to do. (In the case of mechanical work contractors charge $25 an hour.) Mazmanian concluded by suggesting that the students present could show their support by corning out to the next meeting of Kitchener city council on Monday. -john
tnguneers need jobs
Fvangeline Wong, a secondary school teacher from Toronto, and Bill Mazmanian, president of the local transit workers union, spoke of the attempts of their striking groups to gain a fair living wage and condemned bias by the nedia in reporting strikes at a discussion held in the grad club on Wednesday. photo by harry strothard
hat’s the role of council? What’s the role of a student ouncillor? If you’ve got any ideas about That to do with your representaves, then you should contact scirice rep. Ralph Torrie who’s inestigating the question for the ‘ederation of Students. Torrie was appointed Sunday by tudent council as chairman of a ommittee charged with examining le role of student councillors and le way they perceive their duties. “The student council has beome pretty much of a joke among Lrge segments of the student ody,” Torrie told councillors. He ren presented his proposal to set p a committee to look into the ratter. When an organization with the sderation’s public impact beomes “sick”, it is then susceptible 1 the whims of minority political roups, Torrie said. (Torrie referred to recent council meetings when some councillors :ft midway during a controversial ebate allegedly to break quorum. quorum was lost ontwo occasions Lhen the issues of abortion on deland and the hiring of a coor-
Pick up yer award If you’re expecting a student award, you better go and pick it up at the student awards office, second floor, Needles Hall. c Many awards have arrived from Queen’s Park but due to the postal strike they can’t be sent off to UW recipients.
roles, and present their views to the dinator for Radio Waterloo were being discussed.) I committee. Therefore, a committee to assess In other business, council voted the political potential of the federaArts student Dan Sautner as its new treasurer. Sautner’s appointment tion and analyse “what’s going was prompted by last weeks resigwrong or has gone wrong” is nation of former treasurer John needed, he added. Long. If such a committee isn’t estab(Long, in a two-page letter, said lished, “the future of this council that though his departure is partly over the next two or three years will be a sad one,” Torrie warned. for academic reasons, he is also leaving because he doesn’t see eye Besides examining student to eye with federation President councillors, the committee will John Shortall over the state of the scrutinize the federation’s free passbudget .) es policy, the lack of quorum at federation’s several council meetings and the Sautner then presented a report on the federation’s budget which reasons for it, and the controversial $50 expense accounts for councilessentially said the organization is lors, Torrie said. in good shape, “and the students, (He alluded to recent student ’ the owners of the federation, can criticism of the proliferation of free feel secure in their actual ownerpasses to federation sponsored ship.” He also pointed out that the fedevents and the allotment of exeration could incur additional debt pense accounts for councillors .) “without undue burden”. The committee could give council “some integrity” since “right Council also set up a committee +n investigate the feasibility of now it doesn’t represent students,” starting a publishing house with the Torrie said. “When peopie have to be dragged in to sit on council Ontario Public Interest Research Group and Dumont Press Graphix. something is wrong.” Appointed to the committee, which Torrie said that perhaps the federation will be breaking new includes several executive officers, ground by establishing such a are Ralph Torrie and Dan Sautner. In another matter, council decommittee. cided that all its meeting will be Education coordinator Shane Roberts agreed with the idea of setlimited to two and a half hours, and ting up a committee saying that it will be held the fast Tuesday and third Sunday of each month. would “increase the effectiveness of council.” He also said councilApparently council meetings lors would be taking the “initiative have been marathon ones in the past, whit h forced some councilto reach students .” Roberts said the problems counlors to leave in mid-session. cil faces are “very common” acOne councillor suggested that inross the province: However, the stead of limiting the length of the problems are not “insoluble” and meetings, the speaker should limit “we shouldn’t be afraid of tackling discussion. “ Time constraints problems head on,” he said. should be placed on speeches made Federation president John Shorby certain people,” the councillor said. tall suggested to councillors that they outline what they see as their -john morris
Freshmen engineering students have more than just exams to fret about-some of them might not find a job for their first co-op work term. David Copp, a UW job coordinator, informed Engineering Faculty councillors on Monday that about 150 to 200 first year students are without jobs and if they don’t find one within the next five weeks, there’ll be a lot of “worried faces around.” If the Canadian economy doesn’t improve there will be a shortage of jobs for first year students, Copp said. “The economic climate in Canada is uncertain and employers are reluctant to hire inexperienced first year engineering students .” However, the UW job coordination department believes the jobs are out there for students but most positions are in places such as Lindsay, Brampton, Chatham and even out of the province, Copp said. Since most first year students want a job close to their homes, there’s a great deal of competition for placements in Toronto, he explained. Copp feels that within the next few weeks, the majority of s tudents will obtain employment so they should only concern themselves about their exams. “Things are tight but we have the usual confidence that we’ll struggle through. ” There are 350 students in first year engineering class who are required to be on a work term during winter. If they don’t find employment then there will be classroom space problems when other students return from their work terms. Though there are problems finding jobs for freshmen, the situation is the reverse for upperclassmen, Copp said.
He pointed out that for mechanical engineers there are two jobs for each student. “It’s a pity we can’t give first year students the excess jobs.” Presently, there are over 800 students sitting through interviews, a figure which includes both freshmen and upperclassmen. In other business, council objected to a request from the UW senate graduate committee which urged the Engineering Faculty to “admonish the department chairmen to carry out their responsibilities in regard to properly chosing people holding teaching positions .” The request referred to complaints received about the Faculty’s teaching assistants regarding their inability to express themselves adequately in English. The graduate committee also stated that positions such as teaching assistantships should be given out based on merit rather than “as a means of financial assistance.” Dave Burns, a mechanical engineering professor, felt the graduate committee’s request was “too general” and that there was need for specific complaints to be voiced about the matter. “The graduate council should provide evidence before making such sweeping statements about the quality of the teaching assistants . ” Other councillors concurred with Bums and urged those members who are also on the university senate to voice the Faculty’s objections. The language question arose at a senate meeting this fall when a member said he had received complaints from students about the inability of some professors and teaching assistants to express, themselves adequately in English. -john
WLU scuffle Two UW people were arrested yesterday while selling papers at Wilfrid Laurier University. Larry Hannant, a UW history graduate student was arrested for trespassing. Further charges may be laid. WLU security chief John Baal told the chevron he would be laying charges before a magistrate today. Professor Jeffrey Forest has been charged with causing a disturbance by shouting. Forest was in the main lobby at
WLU and Hannant in the dining hall selling the Communist Party of Canada (Marxist-Leninist) newspaper Peoples Canada Daily News/On The Line. They moved quietly around selling the paper ‘occasionally stopping to talk with students. After about an hour Hannant, while talking to a student, was approached by WLU security guard Ron Stanley. Hannant told the chevron Stanley asked him to “go continued
on pg. 11
the chevron /
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U of W may apply. General Meeting t Robert Fitzpatrick, I found your wallet! I “a4I” applicants “must” attend will held Jan. 6 at 6pm, Campus Centre F Contact me for its return at 7424177. 113. For further info write S. Philli Campus Centre Board, U of W. Personal Language or style problems? I \ Pregnant &Distressed? The Birth Control Centre is an information and referral copyedit non-technical theses, book3 centre for birth control, V.D., unplanned papers, also proofread manuscrip pregnancy & sexuality. For all the alter884-8021,. . natives phone 885-1211 ext. 3446 (Rm Quebec Ski Tour. Dee 273an 1. $8E 206, Campus Centre) or for emergency Full Days of Skiing at Mt. St. Anne. numbers 884-8770. , Transportation. & Deluxe Accommoc Gay Lib Office, Campus Centre, Rm tion included. - For Information 217C. Open Monday - Thursday Brochure, Write Canadian Ski Tours, 7-l Opm, some afternoons. Counselling Taylorwood Drive, Islington, or Ph, Gc and information. Phone 885-l 211 ext. Allan 749-6900. 2372. Part-time job available. Turnkey jobs . For Sale Olympia available. Any registered student of the c .. Typewriter . a... - Model A.-- a-SG-. - : txcerrent conartron. $1 l5.w rnc John at 8855316.
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Ride wanted to New York City on - , about December 26th:-Will share ( \ penses and driving. Phone after 7p Please. 884-3673.
Fast accurate typing. 40 cents a pa! IBM Selectric. Located in Lakeshore ’ lage. Call 884-6913 anytime. Will do student typing, reasonable rat Lakeshore v,illage. Call 885-1863.
Available after Christmas one doul room and half double. Full use of ho1 and all appliances. Mrs. Wris 885-l 664. ‘ Wanted, couple to share large, c operative house for the winterterm. 0 mile from university. Phone 884-862 Person wantedl to share furnish 2-bedroom apt. in main floor of duplc $lPO/month. Call 742-6381 416-544-0865 (Hamilton).
Want&Accommodation for 4 peopk the upcoming winter term (Jan-May 7 Will sublet or take over lease. Pho (416) 634-2616 after 7:30pm or write Michael Rose, 504 Indian_ Road, B lington, Ontario.
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“Unionization is not an odd ing to do anymore,” a union ornizer told a general meeting of W teaching assistants (TA) on .tesday . And a straw vote following his esentation which had three ainst unionization, 16 undecided !d seven for, he found encourag5. He said when the organizing 2rts “I haven’t seen so many untided go against me.” Andy Stanley is a union ornizer with the University of Tonto graduate assistants’ associaIn. He helped organize the TA ion which became a certified one June 1975. He is on an organizing tour of ltario campuses. The UW meet-
ing was sponsored by the Ontario Federation of Students. Of four other campuses he has visited he said three were organizing. They are Carleton, McMaster and Ottawa. At Queens University, TAs were not organizing because they didn’t have the money, Stanley said. The TAs at York have already organized . It seems his visit to UW has had some impact. Following the meeting a group of TAs decided to have another meeting with him next Wednesday. In a press release, they invite all teaching assistants, tutors and markers . (including undergraduates) who are interested in
forming a union of TAs to attend. The meeting is scheduled for upstairs at the Graduate Club for 7.30 Pm. Also at the Graduate Club board of directors meeting Wednesday, it was decided that a discussion of unionization should be put on the agenda for the annual general meeting on Dec. 4. TAs, Stanely said, have general problems, such as overwork, different pay scales, and jobs which are insecure and can depend on the TA’s relationship with the professors in his department. He also said intimidation can be a problem. Asian TAs can often be overworked, he said, because they fear being sent back home. These were some of the general problems which a union can address, said Stanley, but he stressed that there would also be local problems which each union local could attend to in its contract. A union is flexible, he said, “it is what you make it”. Of the advantages a union can provide Stanley said salary in-
creases is not the most important. A grievance procedure, class size, hours of work, and job security are all very important areas. He gave several examples of what the University of Toronto TAs are bargaining for in their fast contract negotiations with the administration. On job security they are negotiating a five-year guaranteed support clause. So that as long as a TA is at the university he/she will be guaranteed a job for five years. A 70 per cent increase in salary is also being demanded. Stanley justified this by explaining TAs’ salaries were such a small part of the university’s budget that even if they were doubled it would only mean a five per cent increase in the total budget. He warned the TAs that the general situation is likely to deteriorate. The number of TAs at Toronto has declined by five per cent in the last two years. And with the provincial government’s cutbacks in education spending, more jobs will be lost.
“The university will have less of you, work you twice as hard, and turn you over faster”. TAs should not think the university is doing them a favor by giving them a job, Stanley said. At Toronto he said 40 per cent of the teaching was done by graduate students, and “that’s no favor.” Stanley also explained the technicalities of unionizing. First, 35 per cent of the proposed bargaining unit must sign a card and pay one dollar. “You show the labor board that you have the percentage and then the people in the unit have a final vote on whether to unionize.” If 50 per cent plus one vote decide in favor then a union may be formed, Stanley said. If 55 per cent of the bargaining unit sign up initially then a final vote is not required, he added. Stanley advised the TAs not to get bogged down _‘‘double guessing and triple guessing” about the problems of unionizing-“do it” he said. -neil
More than one and a half million dollars will have to be cut from UW’s current budget to provide a base figure for balancing next year’s budget according to university president Burt Matthews. This figure. represents an across-the-board cut of four and one half percent, and is based on the assumption that the per-student grants from the provincial government will increase by about 10 percent. So far there has been no indication from Queen’s Park whether grants will increase or by how much, but last week provincial treasurer Darcy McKeough announced that municipalities will get a maximum of eight to 10 percent increase. University grants in the past have usually been equal to or somewhat below the municipal subsidy level. Universities are waiting to see how the recently introduced federal wage and price guidelines will be applied to them, said Matthews in an address to the UW senate on Monday night. So far all they have been told is that the Ontario cabinet will supply the information “in due time”, he said. The lack of information has
out of the question
3razilian ‘miracle There is ample evidence that inrrectional activity in Brazil has en totally stamped out and that ture parliamentary democracy is t of the question. With these bleak words, Peter nith, a history professor at St. rome’s College, summed up his pressions of contemporary *azil for a UW audience last iursday . Smith, who is author of Oil and litics in Modern Brazil, returned June from his third visit to that untry-a year spent in Rio de neiro doing research on another ok. “There have been profound anges socially and economically Brazil ,” he said, noting that the p is widening between rich and or with Rio’s upper class of sinessmen enjoying significantly )re consumer wealth then in 58. Things have improved sometat for the middle class too, he ded.
not for alI
Yet, in “the hey-day of the socalled ‘Brazilian miracle’,” the poor are actually falling behind in terms of purchasing power, Smith said. Some are starving because the federal minimum wage which was designed in 1938 to feed three adults is now not enough for one, even though it is adjusted annually, the professor said. More than half-and Smith has heard figures of up to 80 per cent-of Brazil’s population lives on this wage which is presently the equivalent of $50 per month. He called Brazil a “businessman’s paradise”; an enormous land mass to be exploited much as the United States was in the 19th century. “Only now, in the last few weeks, is the government having second thoughts about the wisdom of destroying the Amazon jungle” which supplies about half the world’s oxygen, Smith added. Canadian businessmen who go to Brazil live a life they could never
aspire to here -vitually everyone in the middle and upper classes has a maid and, perhaps, a chaffeurdriven car, he observed. Although the “miracle” is “somewhat tarnished of late” with the balance of payments with foreign countries termed as “disastrous”, Brazil has managed to survive with a 20 per cent rate of inflation, the professor said. Its economic growth rate has been soaring at eight or nine per cent for the last five years because of “a captive labour force which cannot strike or protest in any way,” Smith said. He described Brazil as determined to become a great power with ambitions to form a partnership with either the Soviet Union or the United States. Brazil has refused to sign theNuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, claiming that it wants to develop nuclear power to replace hydroelectricity within a few years, continued
on pg. 11
made it impossible for the senate finance committee to begin work on the 1976-77 budget. Usually the budget is in the hands of finance committee by Nov. 1, Matthews noted. However this year he does not expect it until late January. Matthews is also chairman of the senate finance committee. Despite the $1.5 million to be cut, Matthews observed after the meeting that unless the provincial subsidy increases significantly, “we face more deficits. ” He noted that “$80,000 has been saved this year by discontinuing building guards,” and even more by not filling positions that were funded for this year. Several factors may be to blame for the lateness of word on provincial funding, Matthews said, among them the fact of the recent election which resulted in a minority government and the newly introduced federal guidelines. In other business, the senate was informed on Monday night that a new scholarship program is being instituted.
The program, to commence in September of 1976, is made possible by the final disposition of the estate of Ford S. Kumpf, a Waterloo businessman who was also a member of the UW board of governors . Kumpf died in 1960 and included a provision in his will that a portion of his estate should pass to UW. Each scholarship will total $1,500, with $750 being awarded in first year and an additional $750 in second year. It is expected that there will be three or four scholarships awarded each year. Senate was also told that, beginning with the 1976 convocation, eight gold medals will be presented each year to students with the best academic performance. A medal will be awarded to the top student from each of the six faculties, with the other two going to the top student receiving a Master’s degree and to the leading PhD graduate. The medals, valued at $200 each, are being provided by the UW alumni association. -henry hess
Greenmace -Foun tries & protect whales The Greenpeace Foundation, famous for its attempts to stop nucleur testing, has turned its attention to whales. Members of the foundation showed up at the MacGregor Public School Auditorium last week to show fdms, slides and speak to a small audience from the campus and community. The topic was their protest against Russian and Japanese whaling fleets off the west coast last summer. Some species of whale are already extinct, they said, and the whale population in general is fast being depleted because of the Russian and Japanese slaughter. These nations use whale meat primarily to feed fur bearing animals which they need for pelts, the speakers said. Other parts of the whale are used for perfume and glue products. These products may be obtained in other ways, - _the speakers” said, but this method is not economical. The tactic of the Greenpeace ship was to try and place its smaller boats between the harpoon ship and the whale. In this way the foundation managed to save eight whales, an amount it considers symbolic. The speakers pointed out that mobilization of people is effective and necessary. As an example they cited the actions by fishermen on the east coast of Canada to oppose Soviet ships exploiting these waters. By uniting as a body through such actions as petitioning the government the fishermen were able to limit the Soviet actions, they said. -ehristopher
.lODO Ken Mitchell and Mike Kelso r 12100 Ray Marcinow 300 Sign Off
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Wednesday Nov. 26 Mbnday Nov. 24 9zOO Kevin O’Leary ‘900 Chris Hart . 12 00 David Glendenning 12%lO Lorrie Beggs ’ 12:15 STORY- “Swallows and AI 12:15 STORY- “Swallows and Ama-, zons” with Marilyn Turner zons” with Marilyn Turner ‘12:45 David Glendenning 12:45 Lorrie Beggs 300 Bill Stunt 2145 PERSPECTIVES- A United Na5:30 COUCHICHING 19j5tions_ Radio outline of the k( , .Robert Jackson, Under Set .._ . . . facts material to a major worja Issue, ary General of the United produced weekly by UN Radio in tions speaks on developml New .York and the role Canada haspla 300, Jeff Parry in aiding third world nations. 5:30 THE WORLD AROUND US’ 6:15 Bert Bonkowski Talk with Phillip Agee, an ex-CIA 6:OO LlVE SPORTS CCVERA( agent, about the scope of their From the Waterloo’Arena co\ Friday Nov. ;I activities in Latin america, taped age of the Waterloo vs: McN 900 Carlos Mota and Mike Moore at U of W in October. ter hockey game. Comm ‘1290 Mike Ura 6:30 Steve Atkinson tators are Gary Fick, Dave I 12il5 STORY- “Swallows and Ama’6106 FOLK with Stan Gap ley, and’Morgan-Pirie. zons” with. Marilyn Tu mer 9:00 NATIVE ISSUES- The primary 1030 BLUES with Nathan Ball 12:45 Mike Ura emphasis of this programme is 1290 Nigel Bradbury 390 Dave \Thompson on Betouche, an annual native 3100 Sign Off ,530 SEXUALITY AND HUMANKIND festival held in Saskatchewan, . An examination of the concept of which brings together thousands Thursday Nov. 27 a wages for housework. \ of native people for a festival 9:00 Music ’ 600 Phil Rogers which’ lasts several days. Also .12:00 Greg Yachuk 900 The Mutant-Hour with Bill Wharincluded is *a discussion--with 12:15 STORY- “Swallows and AI rie . Terry Lusty on a travelling zons” with Marilyn Turner 1290 JAZZ.with Ian Murray -museum of native artifacts. 12:45 Greg Yachuk Music by Terry Lusty and David 3100 Sign/Off . 390 Jerry Sokoj Campbell. 5:30 SPORTS ‘REPORT with G Saturday Nov. 22 \ ,930 JAZZ with Dennis Ruskin Fick and Neil Wrigley 12:00 Ewan Brocklehurst 900 Robert Statham 6:00 Andy Bite 3100 Sin Cff 12 00 James Higginson 9:00 POVERTY AND THE CHII \ 3:00 GREENPEACEStop killing Members .of the Addiction . j whales.. . One of endangered Tuesrlay NOV. 25 *search Foundation discuss spectes . 900 Doug Baker ’ role and history with emph; 330 Ian Alien .and Sandy Yates 12:OO Dave Gillett on adolescents. 6100 Music _-12:15 STORY- “Swallows and Ama930 Mike Devillaer 6:30 PEOPLE’S MUSICFolk -. zons” with Marilyn Turner 1200 Larry Stareky and Lou Monta guitarist Barb Fraser plays and 12~45 Dave Giljett 390 Sign Off . ( discusses her music, with host 2:45 SCCPE- United Nations Radio Paul Bennett (Content will depend on mail 9:30 David Moss strike) 12:00 Don Cruikshank 3100 Sally Tomek 300 Sign Off . c’ . 5:30 DOWN TO EARTH FESTIVALA discussionwith Rainer / Sunday Nov. 23 . Schwartz about his experiences in media, beginning with his in:’ 9:OO Greg Lemoine volvement in commercial FM to 1200 MUSIC HELVITICA- Originating I from Radio Switzerland this his current position as host of Night Music on Channel 19, and series of programmes features his plans for setting up a new ’ both jazz and classical music. 12:30 CLASSICAL , MUSIC AND commercial FM outlet in Toronto. OPERA with Brigitte Allen 6:15 Niki Klein 390 Harold Jamicki 9:00 Is This It? Local news and com6m Bob Valliant I mentary with Mike Gordon 9:00 INFORMATION MADE PUBLIC.‘930 Joe Belliveau ’ In co-operation with CKWR-FM 1O:OO LIVE BROADCAST FROM this programme examines local e . PUB- This week, Watson and news and issues. Hosted by Bill Reynolds Gulp and Bob Mason .
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in four Canadians will evencontract cancer and one in ill die of the disease. #twill die needlessly because cent of all cancer cases are factors such as food and polcontrol, according to Ross biochemistry proressor at ster University. was speaking on “Nutri.tion y in the Food Industry d Processors Contribution to Disease and Cancer” as part nutrition lecture series at the loo Adult Recreation Centre.
,“What we don’t know about food . . .can hurt you, and hurt you very seriously,” he said. Nutrition labelling, required in the United States and expected to come to Canada, was termed “very misleading”. Using a list of five vitamins and minerals with the recommended daily allowances of each for the majority of adult& Hall &owed that only 33 out of 1,000 people would fall into every category. “You have very individual requirements for vitamins and miner-
he explained. “The recommended daily allowances are gbsolutely useless when it comes to predicting your personal requirements . ’ ’ Hall compared the 16 different vitamins and 17 minerals to a chain which is “only as good as the weakest l,tik”; a lack of just one of them can cause death. A. trade journal ad $med at Fanufacturers of potato chips was shown, urging them to add Vitamin C to their product for higher sales. Another ad claimed that one 1 l/4 ounce bag of potato chips reinforced with Vitamin C is ‘more nourishing than an apple. “Vitamins are no good if the basic nourishment is lousy,” Hall said. He added that vitamins are not food but are necessary to allow food to be used by the body. The U.S. government has decreed that two “super” donuts (vitamins and minerals added) plus one glass of milk constitute an “official meal” providing one-third of the daily nutritional needs, Hall said. It is being sold in five states as part of the school lunch program. When nutritional labelling comes to Canada, the Canadian consumer, are going to be completely bamboozled with the connivance of
the final word-the Federa’ Students hired on Sunday, a ne instead of a part-time nator for Radio Waterloo. federation reversed a moassed at a previous student 1 session allowing the station time position because of the If ‘the organization’s budget. that time, federation treasohn Long, who later ressaid that due to scarce finan:sources council shouldn’t full-time coordinator. ncil agreed with Long and ts okay to hiring one partberson for the station. The. tion’s reserve fund, accordLong, amounted to $5,500.) re were only two applicants job, and council chose Dave nn, a staffer at thextation, as ordinator. The position was ised for one week, and it I Nov. 17 and will end April ‘5; the pay is $145 per week. coordinator’s job will inplanning .f the station’s
schedule, orienting the staff, booking equipment, maintaining office hours and handling day-to-day breakdowns . Seeking “outside” grants from the government and elsewhere to enhance the station’s facilities and programming will also be the coordinator’s duty. Some councillors felt the federa; tion shoulcfn’t reverse its decision to grant Radio Waterloo a part-time coordinator, saying it wasn’t the organization’s job to supply people .with,employment. They also pointed out that Radio Waterloo had indicated in the p&t there wasn’t a need for full-time employees at the station. 1 Other councillors, however, disagreed saying the full-time position was needed because of the federations $30,000 investment in Radio Waterloo. In addition, they said it would be unfair to hire someone part-time while knowing the job entailed a full time commitment. The
federation’s part time salary is $72.50 per week. Besides granting the station $3,770 for the coordinator, council also alloted $600 for Bell Canada payments and $300 for magnetic tape.
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our federal gqvernment, he which is often used to “mask” the warned. Eighty per cent of the food ’ fact that a product has been chemisold in Canada is factory procescally treated, Hall said. sed, or “fabricated,” Hall said. Hall observed that 75 per cent of The effect of fabrication on nutrithe sugar we .eat is in prepared tional quality, is the loss of foods, bringing the per capita connutriegts:known and unknown sumption of sugar to six ounces -and the destruction of the daily. molecular relationships within any “It’s not so much the sugar itself natural food substance, I+& noted. that is harmful but the kind of food These relationships are critical that it’s in”, he said, noting that it is to the way in which food is di; a common masking agent in canned gested, and yet their importance foods, where it conceals bad odors has not been stressed as much as and flavors. that of nutrients, the professor Hall warned against artificial said. sweeteners such as saccharine, “The reason for this is that the especially when taken with the nitchemical industry is putting rites contained in bacon and saus“enormous effort” into the food age, because of experiments in industry, seeing it as “a new field to which they have caused cancer. conquer,” Hall suggested. - On the subject of cholesterol, Most chocolate commodities Hall termFd the practice of striking such as chocolate chip cookies and eggs from the diet as being eclairs are synthetic, as well as the ‘ ‘ridiculous”. cheese in any prepared food-for “Whole eggs are probably the example, macaroni and cheese or most nourishing food possible. ’ ’ pizza, Hall revealed. Referring to a chart from a poulHe wondered what the long-term try journal, the professor pointed effects might be of eating milk pudout that over the last 15 yean the dings which are treated chemically consumption of eggs has gone to keep the starch from breaking down while the incidence of corddown. nary heart disease has gone up. In every natural subs~o~e ;Fly Hall added that every cell in the is a mechanism body contains cholesterol and disdestruction-milk should go sour, missed the notion of an increased bread should go stale and meat risk of heart attack due to eating should go rotten, Hall said. cholesterol in the food as “purely “It has to be changed greatly ifit conjecture”. does not.” “Heart attacks were unknown Although the protein in soybeans prior to World War I,” he said. is very good, in processing it loses He rejected a new egg substitute two essential amino acids besides called “egg beaters” which conseveral minerals, Hall said. As artisists of genuine egg white and subficial hamburger, it doesn’t comstitute yolk, citing an experiment in pare to meat for nourishment. which rats died within two weeks of There are no requirements for eating nothing else. the synthetic product to be labelled People who eat a natural diet, if it appears in a prepared food, the Hall concluded, donot get ulcers or professor said’: cancer of the colon which is a Artificial tomato paste contains “major killer” in Canada and on 50 per cent sucrose (sugar) in its the rise. formula in addition to food coloring -dionyx mcmichael
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Are you a graduate chemist or difference between the chemist and about to graduate in chemistry and the chemical engineer is: the are discouraged with the job situachemist studies chemical propertion? ties to determine how chemicals Your problems could be over react in given conditions and the with the arrival of a new UW I engineer applies this knowledge to industry. graduate program in chemistry. Requirements for the new progThe program is designed to qualify chemists as chemical engineers. ram are an honours degree in As professor Robert Hugins, one chemistry or a related field such as chemical physics and it would be of the program organizers says, helpful if the candidate had some ‘ ‘Obviously, the graduate chemist in industry. has all the chemistry and most of experience A person will be able to enter the the mathematics needed; what .he program in either the spring or the or she would have to pick up would fall terms. be the engineering content. ” The fisst term will be spent takHe explains that, in general, the
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VANCOUVER (CUP)-A University of British Columbia (UBC) student is testing food in the student union building cafeteria for bacterial contamination. Mark Muller said recently that his evaluation of hamburgers, tuna fish, sandwiches, and milkshakes will be the first test for unhealthy amounts of bacteria in cafeteria food. “I was shocked to find out they were not doing routine analysis of food,” he said. “The inspectors never look at food bacteria counts.” Muller said he’s most concerned about snack bar hamburgers which become susceptible to bacteria growth when they are left near human body temperatures under an infra-red lamp. Even if the amount of bacteria in the meat is very small it can multiply rapidly and make the food unfit for consumption, he said. Municipal health inspector Susan Aikman confirmed that food served at the student cafeteria and other campus food services outlets has never been tested. ‘“I would like to do lots of food samplings around U do not have the facilities,” she said. Aikman said previous inspections which occur annually, have only dealt with serving and handling of food services fare, not with the bacteriological purity of the food. ~ “I think our tests are probably very superficial,” she said. Aikman and Muller, who collected samples together, agreed it will be difficult to determine if foods are dangerously contaminiated because there are no federal standards for bacterial levels in cooked meats. “The whole hassle is interpreting results. All I have to go Muller said, by are proposed standards.” UBC food services head Robert Bailey said food services is constantly checking its operation for cleanliness. He said there has been no evidence in the past of food contamination. Muller criticized the provincial government’s “primitive” food standards and health regulations. He said municipal organizations are left to do most of the testing of food outlets despite their inadequate facilities.
ing Fluid Mechanics, Heat fer, Process Dynamics an trol, Engineering Economic Structure and Properties of 1 als. This would be follower work term in industry. Jobs be arranged for through tl coordination department. The final school term WC spent taking Applied Mathel Mass Transfer, Chemical tion, Engineering and Proce tern Design. A student entering in Ma could complete the prog; April, 1977, according to HI As with engineering grac Hudgins said, the Associa Professional Engineers of ( will consider those who co the program for profession gineer designations on the & individual academic backgr A diploma will be awar those completing the progr; though it won’t be a UW ap diploma. udgins is con however, that the progx “more than sufficient” to chemists as engineers. This new engineering PI should not be confused w new co-operative Ph.D. ch6 program to be initiated ii tember, 1976. This program will be the its kind in Canada and will fered jointly by the UW a University of Guelph. In this program, Ph.D. dates would spend eight 1 doing course work, then one a selected job in industry would then spend no less th years writing a thesis. The new engineering pro; designed to produce rese: who are more acceptable for industry. Interest in the Ph.D. progr already been shown by mem various industries. Anyone wishing to knov about either of the new pr may contact the UW Depa of Chemistry. -grab
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hodes speaks onennedy assassination -7 1killed John F. Kennedy
was the main question in the of all those present at Wilfrid r University’s presentation Ionday night of “Rusty” ies is an American private gator, political science proand executive director for Committee to Investigate al Assassinations”. Bughout the presentation, s was highly critical of the 2 Commission, the presidennmission appointed by Lynhnson and presided over by supreme Court justice Earl n to investigate the assassiof John Kennedy. uggested that one avenue of igation overlooked by the n Commission might have :ntitled “Who killed John dy? ” “That one seemed to 3een strangely missing”, s said. Warren Commission’s ver2s that ‘Lee Harvey Oswald e sole assassin of John Ken:here was no conspiracy and shots were fired from the
r having voted to accept a which meets with its apon heraldic, esthetic and Inal grounds, the senate PhD committee disbanded last :sday . committee was formed last Len Graduate Club president Tozer voiced his protest t the existing gown, a gaudy rd green taffeta costume, -was worn by a few doctoral tes between 1965 and 1975. letter to UW president Burt ews, Tozer stated “that Jf my co-workers and officve suggested that the PhD If the University of Waterloo like a harlequin outfit and gown more suiting to the dee sought.” originally approved gown vent a change in 1965 when utfacturer pulled out of pron. thill Levine, a fabric comased in Toronto, which then ver the task, used a different al, taffeta (the original was of ine) and shades of red and much brighter, indeed ier” than those of the “obvisuperior ’ ’ original. )ughout his championing of se for a new gown, Tozer tded unceasingly that only whose colour perception was par could possibly like the red and green, combination old. motion for approval must n-e have seemed a questionctory to him. For, though its m shades are more subdued lnsequently less harlequinle new gown retains the scarI green of the old. committee members’ s for ,choosing these wer2 . Some believed that adher) a colour scheme which had e a tradition over the last de-
Texas School Book Depository, There was evidence of a fourth Rhodes said. shot being fired but the Warren There were witnesses who saw Commission maintains that there someone fire the fatal shot from the were three, the first bullet making grassy knoll past the book depositseven holes in two men, Rhodes ory whit h the presidential motorsaid. Rhodes’ Committee calls this cade passed, but the testimony of bullet the “super bullet”. the one man questioned by the The crux of the case, two photoWarren Commission was thrown graphs of Oswald holding the alout because it didn’t fit in with what leged murder weapon in his landlady’s backyard, were never they saw to be the truth, Rhodes said. seriously questioned by the Warren Rhodes said. These .Many interesting and thought1 Commission, were later found to have been fabprovoking facts about Oswald and ricated from a single photograph of the case were brought out through Oswald’s face, Rhodes added. the use of diagrams, tapes, overAs the representative of Fair heads and films. Play for Cuba in the Orleans area,No one saw Oswald on the sixth Oswald was asked during a radio floor of the Texas School Book how he had supported Depository, from where he is al- interview himself for three years in the Soviet leged to have fired, before, during Union, Rhodes said. or after the shooting, Rhodes said. Oswald was seen in the second Oswald replied that he had worked but, according to Rhodes, floor cafeteria, however, 80 secdid not seem to know or want to onds after the last shot had’been fired, and neither the elevator nor answer whether he had been under the stairs had been used; he Soviet or US protection. claimed. Near the end of his presentation, The best riflemen in the U.S. Rhodes showed a film of the 1963 were unable to duplicate Oswald’s Presidential motorcade in Dallas shots in the time he was alleged to which had been banned from public have made them, Rhodes claimed. view” for the twelve .years since
cade was desirable. Others, simply felt that the red and green mock-up was more visually pleasing than the other under consideration-a scarlet with a flat gold facing. Ironically, as far as the tradition of academic dress is concerned, this PhD gown, worn at UW most commonly by engineering graduates, is decidedly of the humanities persuasion. Scarlet is traditionally the colour worn by doctors of divinity, and green is the colour which identifies the Faculty of ‘Arts.
It was hoped that the colours of the now-approved gown will not be subject to the variation which beset the old taffeta one. The. fact that it is to be made of ‘ ‘tropical’ ’ fabric, a wool-fortrel blend, should ensure the relative stability of the shades, as well as their continuing availability,. In its new form the PhD gown will cost approximately 55 percent more than the old one. However, price was not a consideration of the committee, for, as one member put it, “... after all, the gown is a once-in-a-lifetime investment. ” -julia
John Kennedy’s assassination. As he is hit by the fatal bullet, the president’s head is seen to be thrown violently back and to the left. This would have been impossible had he been hit from the book depository‘, Rhodes claimed. Documents relating to the case, as many as 240, remain secret from public view until the year 2039, he said. “In each and every one of these cases of political assassination, serious evidenciary questions remain unresolved.“. Who did it? The question remains open and an evidenciary
framework is being used by the committee in their brief to attempt to re-open the case,. ‘ ‘Our investigative indicators all point towards the area of the symbiotic relationship between the CIA and organized crime ,’ ’ Rhodes . said. In his concluding remarks after #the questioning was over, Rhodes told the audience, ‘ ‘I congratulate you for having the sensitivity and the far-sightedness to be interested in this topic. “If you see me with immigration papers in hand, please be kind.” -laura
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VANCOUVER (CUP)-The federal and provincial governments have failed to provide adequate inexpensive housing for students, according to the student council president at Capilano College in Vancouver. In a recent interview, Bill Bell pointed to the scores of high priced condominiums currently springing up across the road from the college, literally a stone’s throw away. The units will be out of the price range of the average student; from $40,000 to $70,000.
“I doubt that even most of the faculty could afford them,” Bell said. Proper planning by the administration and the governments, he said, could have produced muchneeded student housing instead. According to Bell, the college administration was approached some years ago by several city councillors who offered to support rezoning of the area to prevent high-priced construction. The administration failed to express interest, but Bell doesn’t blame them
Dec. 2Nan. 1 Quebec Hilton
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TORONTO (CUP)-A University of Toronto student and two technicians have accomplished in seconds work that used to take nature millions of years to do. I They have made diamonds in a laboratory. The diamonds are tiny and can’t be seen with the unaided eye, but recent tests show they really are diamonds. They have been produced with a device originally designed to help scientists study the entry of space vehicles into planet atmospheres. The diamonds can be used industrially, says 1.1. Glass of the U of T’s Institute for Aerospace Studies. Diamond is the hardest known substance and grit sized particles are used for such things as grinding telescope mirrors and sharpening tools made of special alloys. The tiny man-made diamonds will be better for these applications than slivers left over from cutting natural diamonds. Glass says more work is needed before the institutes new method becomes an economic industrial process. The work was done by a student, Paul Sharma, and two technicians, Phillip Crouse and Reinhart Gnoyke. -’ The device used in the experiment can generate high temperatures and pressures. A hemisphere filled with hydrogen and oxygen was ignited and the resulting explosion detonated a thin shell of explosive material that lined the edge of the hemisphere. Because the hemisphere was solidly encased in a large metal block, the second explosion had nowhere to go, so it reflected back as an implosion. This concentrated tremendous energy at a single point. Then the researchers added a cylinder of graphite with a piston at one end. When the implosion hit the piston it compressed the graphite, creating the temperatures and pressures needed to convert it to diamond. The researchers have been unable to actually measure the temperatures and pressures, but their calculations indicate pressures about a million times atmospheric pressure and temperature of hundreds of thousands of degrees Celsius. Glass says it is the fist time this kind of implosion technique has been used to create diamonds. The yield is still low-about five per cent of the graphite is turned into diamond, but Glass believes this ratio could be greatly improved with further development of the process.
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alone. Funds for student housing ‘ ply didn’t look like they wou available”. Capilano College had to cut back academic co to break ‘even on the amounl allocated by the government. The condominiums are 1 built by the Dunhill Corpora owned, ironically, by the pr cial government. “Students are apparently 1~ their list of priorities,” Bell “They feel students at a corn ity college should live in the munity.” This is not a realistic attj however, “since our college s three school districts, cover large area and there are obvi no funds to build more collej (All B.C. colleges face a 1 cent ceiling on annual increas cording to a recently annol policy. This has been wide1 nounced as inadequate to ma] present levels of services.) “The problem is especially because Vancouver ous,” some of the highest ren Canada. “Clearly, we need cost housing, not only for stud but for everybody. These dominiums are not going to pr that,” Bell said. “As for building right next 1 college ,” he continued, “thi disaster. There is not even a 1 zone.” Peter Spratt, principal of College refused to comment c Dunhill development saying not discuss politics.” Frances Burstein, former 1 dent of the faculty association less reticent. “I suspect that people lacked intelligence 7 this was being planned.” Ed Lavalle, president of tl culty association, was even le ticent. ‘ ‘As long as housing is Y ed as a commodity for spe tive profits rather than a util which everyone has a right, yc going to have this kind of prof ing.” “The answer is obvious,” Lavalle. “Socialism, not semi-state capitalism.”
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China-one has to r&d befween: ‘the lines.” Most newspbpers censor themntlnuqd from pg. 6selves, Smith added, and if they lith said) Gd’ redent reports indiprint something they $hould not, & :e that the country is “rushing warning follows or the paper quota .dly towards a bomb.” may be cut. Occasionally a newsI’here is very;s@ong official oppaper is closed down. ’ sition to birth control’having noAs a result, “Brazilians -don’t ng to do with the position of the know very much about what’s lurch which exercises little going on in their own country in wer, the professor said. terms of real power politics.” smith said that the government Smith said that some very critical material is published in books :ms. determined to ,fdl up this untry of 100 million with (whiih cost as much as they do azilians-not immigrants. here) although there are taboo subBrazil has become so indusjects such as the army, agrarian reGzed and powerful, he noted, form and the oil industry. tt it is securing raw materials The authors can’t have jobs pply treaties with neighbouring teaching, but their books are pubuntries . ’ lished because, the government [n return for $100 million in aid, reasons, they “preach to the conllivia is supplying natural gas and verted anyway so why mike them oal treaty with Colombia is being martyrs?” Irked out. ’ Smith felt there is a “genuine inITruguay also receives substandifference” to politics on,the part I aid.in addition to support for‘its J of Brazilians. litary regime as “Brazil has During the Portuguese coup, he vn to assume the role of policesaid, there was a current emn in South America.?’ barassqent among a “certain dieSmith said that the way to tiiad ment” that Portugal had managed azilian news is “rather like the to throw off its fascist dictatorship y (foreign news) corr&pondents after 50 years of domination while Ed to read wall posters in Brazil which is 10 times larger tid
rlLU scuffle ntinued from pg. 3 th him”. Hannant said he re;ed, saying he was talking to a rdent. He said the security guard re‘ned a few minutes later and red him to leave, this time more .cefully. Hannant refused and he d the huard then Dushed him toIrd thg door. IYwo students, Dan Blair and bris Nickel, who were sitting at : table which Hannant was ptiled bm said he kas just talking to :m and was not creatini a disturrice . Kannant was then pulled ,out of : door. Hannant said he was not d where he was being taken and he was being arrested. Kannant resisted being pulled t and in a scuffle he ended up on : floor with Stanely on top of n. Stanely told Hannant he was spassing and Hannant replied it he couldn’t be.trespassitig on blic property. -:k 3 With some struggling the two nained in that.. position for about . . _. *. . . 1minute8 untti tne police arrived ;1 Hannant w+s taken away. I
much more sophisiicated is labourir$ under a similar regime. In the’press, however, the fear of communism was played up, Smith said, along with a clear warning to Brazilians that if they went the “Portuguese way”. they would be in for serious trouble. “Only 11 years after the cou+ of 1964 there is., profound fear that civilian politics-that some sort of participatory political stat&-will bring chaos back to Brazil.” Smith said this- is a product of skilful propaganda in which the army daily points out how it has saved Brazil from economic ruin and .comtiunism. Besides the army, Brazil is-controlled by a coalition of top ranking men and technocrats, Smith said, adding that the president, in the forseeable titure, will always be an army officer. ’ The function of congress, he exp lained, is “to do what the army wants done” and critical senators or deputies may be jailed or exiled. The army is split into a soft-line group, which is “very pro-U.S.” and concerned with development and modetization, and a hard-line group which is ‘ ‘militantly anticommunist and very worried about civilian politicians,” and not so concerned with development. Smith remarked that thd president, who is’a product of the softline group, is in “serious trouble” After, Hannant was put in a with the hard-liners since he has cruiser, Forest was led out of the begun to -mention %tablishing building by Stanely and a police officer. Then WLU seckty officer some .Fort of representative gbvemment . chief John Baa1 arrived on -the This was illustrated, he said, by scene in running -shorts and tee an incident in Sao Paul0 where, in shirt. defiance of the regime, a newsThe policeman told Baal that paper reported an act of political Forest had been asked to leave and torture by military police. had agreed. Since Sao Paul0 is the centre of After a discussion, in which Baal the hard-line-doup, Smith believesasked Forest to identify himself the publicity was an attempt to emand Forest refused saying this isn’t barass the president who, was, at the kind of country where people that time, talking of moving away have to carry identity cards. from Baal was reluctant to let ‘Forest , .. torture- and regretting its use in tne past. go. Forest, however, walked to the Smith noted that although the sidewalk turned and shouted: police are everywhere, “at the “What is this facism that they don’t same time one feels much more let peoplesellpapers”. free” with respect to such things as He was then arrested by the regsrfioking and speed limits. ional police for causing a disturBut on the whole, “the regime is bance by shouting. Baal told the chevron there was a extemely effective as a- repressive force. ’ ’ univeristy regulation prohibiting 1 “It looks to me pretty much as if selling on the campus without permission. He said people had beef A things *will go on as they have,” Smith concluded. warned before about selling the 4ionyx mcmichael papersoncampus.He&o saidthe campus was private, property. -eil
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The above diagrams were supposed to be run alongside with two stories done last week on Stuart i+&, a McGill professor, who spoke on “Maintaining the long Term Viability of Agriculture” and “Farm Strategies to face the Energy Crisis”. Due to space constraints, the chevron couldn’t run them.’ However, due to heated popular prekure the chevron decided to run them this week for the edificaiion of its readers. ‘So grab a copy of last weeks paper, to read the articles, and educate yourselves with the diagrams.
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Universitiesvvantfunding\ ‘OTTAWA (CUP&Canadian universities are in the postion of wanting a full re-examination of the methods of university funding, while hoping major changes won’t be made in the one setting where such decisions can be made. That is the position universities are in regarding the upcoming federal-provincial renegotiations of the Fiscal Arrangements Act (FAA)-the legal instrument whit h lays down the basic funding fotmula for post-secondary education in Canada. -
Inherent difficulties According to the first draft of the universities brief to the federal and provincial governments, discussed recently by the board of directors of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC), universities see “inherent difficulties” in the existing funding system. But they do not want anyattempt made to correct these:difficulties when the provinces and the federal government meet next year to renegotiate the FAA, saying that the
setting is not right. ’ Under the terms of this Act, which is due to expire in 1977, the federal government annually transfers to each province an unconditional grant equal to 50 per cent of the operation expenditures on post-secondary education made by that province. According to the AUCC brief, the unconditional nature of these grants has led to “a provinciahza-. tion of universities to such an extent that there is little assurance that national objectives will receive attention. ’ ’
changes The brief argues that the grants have resulted in the development of 10 separate university systems with insufficient diversity, and insufficient concentration of resources to produce “true centres of-excellence. ’ ’ “Using 10 provincial frames of reference for university specialization may mean total neglect of some fields; proliferation in others ,, Institutional diversity is curtailed; excellence may be unattainable”, the brief states. The universities do not want these problems tackled during the
FAA renegotiations because tl primary actors at these talks will t finance ministers who ‘ ‘cannc negotiate university funding excel in the framework of federa provincial funding.” the brief say! “University priorities will UI doubtedly receive consideratic but can hardly be the chief dete minants of a policy that mu satisfy the crucial test of tax sha ing. ” New funding -- Instead, the brief calls for the di vising of a new funding system “: part of a coherent country-wit policy, for university developmel worked in a forum in which (ur versities) are full time particil ants.” At present, according to tk brief, no vehicle exists by whit universities can collectively al dress all the provinces or the fe( era1 government on the nation level. Whether governments will agrt to wait for and participate in tk proposed forum, however, will nl be known until early next ye; when AUCC is presented. A spokes\man for AUCC said tl brief will likely go through sever more redrafts before being release sometime this coming December ( January.
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program said five times that number would be needed to seriously apply price controls. But the Canadian government intends to add a staff of 200 to administer its program. Perhaps a clearer expression of the government’s intent in enforcing the program was the statement in the economic pdlicy paper indicating that the only other priority areas for increased staff and spending are police and prisons.
Liberals waffle OTTAWA (CUP)-On Thanksgiving Day last month, five years less two days since the imposition of the War Measures Act, the federal Liberal government announced its “attack on inflation”* economic control program described as “selective wage and price controls’ ’ . Prime minister Pierre Trudeau explained in his televised address to the nation that: “Under this program, a selected number of powerful groups in Canada will be required by law to obey strict guidelines in prices they charge, and incomes they earn.” me He continued by “making a’direct appeal for the cooperation of all Canadians in the practice of individual restraint. . . . This battle must be fought by all of us.” Tory opposition leader Robert Stanfield said the program provided “rough justice” in the fight against inflation. As the policy was explained, however, it became apparent that it was “rougher” than it was “just” for most CanadiansIt was, in fact, nothing less than an Economic War Measures Act, with those dependent on wages and salaries playing the starring role of economic cannon-fodder.
Within a few days Canadians generally understood what “individual restraint” meant in terms of their paycheques. Unless they get a better paying job, or do more work at their presentjob, their wage or salary can only increase by 10 percent this year, eight percent next year, and six per-, cent the year after. The thrust of the policy was clear. There was little doubt expressed over the enforcement of this part of the program. Employers in the public sector and the largest 1,500 fnms in the country, who together employ just under half the work force, were “ordered” to comply with the wage “guidelines”. And as representatives of business and employer association put aside their “free enterprise” speeches and stampeded to announce their support for the patriotic wage restraint campaign, it became clear the “order” would be followed. Duty and interest happily coincided for employers in the specified sectors, and for those whose compliance was officially “vollntary”:
while, are to be “frozen”’ at current levels, unless it is necessary to increase these rates “to raise new equity capital”-the only justifiable economic reason even without controls. And since the guidelines provide no control over interest rates or the financial markets, dividend rates must bear some relation to the rate of return provided by alternate forms of investment, just like before the “restraint” program was announced. mechanism The only effective “control” is, as before, the marketplace. When all the loopholes on dividends, profits and prices are added together, there is no apparent reason to believethat prices could not be increased to raise the level of profit, so as to pay? larger dividends and to attract new capital, just like an uncontrolled economy. The alleged “freeze” at present levels seems to be no more than a “minimum” level below which these sources of income would not fall. Concern over this aspect of the program enforcement presented “difficulties”, but manpower minister Robert Andras told the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association that just because prices are harder to control than wages “does not mean we should throw up our hands and not even try and control
One of the major items of press speculation since the announcement of the. economic program has been why the federal Liberals, who campaigned and won an election on an “anti-controls” platform, would suddenly “reverse” their position. The puzzle can be solved, however, if we forget about the political rhetoric, in other words consider the program as an effective means of controlling wages and nothing else, and look at recent economic trends. The reason for the government’s apparent about face then becomes clear. The results of the first business quarter of 1975 showed that an economic turnaround was beginning. For 15 straight business quarters, while many workers were tied to two and three year collective agreements, profits increased in relation to wages. In 1971, wages accounted for 72.4 percent of the national income, while profits were 12 percent. By 1974, labour’s percentage of the national income had dropped to 67.9 percent while corporate profits rose to 16.1 percent. In terms of dollars, between 1971 and 1974 corporation profits increased from $8.6 billion to $18.3 billion annually, an increase of 111 percent. During the same period wages increased only 25 percent. This trend came to an end in the first quarter of 1975, and continued as the year progressed. By the second business quarter of 1975
Cmodkmconsumeo and wortctng peopk aslc whyme? Wage controls are sup posed to help protect us ail against inflation. But,In reality. they’ll discrtminate against the people v$g~mostaffectedby inccAesofworkingcmodians increased, on average, by 25% between 1971and 1974.But in the same period. housing went up 65%, mortgage interest by 32%,food by49%. And corporate profits more than doubled --up 111%. isthere any reason to believe the people who profited by inflation ca&abe controlled? lhe governments guidelines arefuii of ioophoiesthat will allow prices and profits to continue rtsing. Clever bookkeeping can get around its regukJtions Professkmoi fees, iand specuiatton and interest rates will probabty ail escape controls. Government spokesmenhaveadmtttedasmuch.
. Owing to the efforts of the press to present both”. “We never said the program is perfeet,” he added. :he program as “wage and price controls”, :onfusion mounted over the way the prog*am would affect prices, profits, dividends, Easy on business nterest rates, mortgages and almost every ’ Ither source of non-wage or salary income. It would have been reassuring to those The single authoritative document pubconcerned with the effectiveness of the price ished was a 25-page policy statement tabled restraint aspect of the program if someone other than Jean Luc Pepin, former Liberal n the House of Commons by finance miniser Donald MacDonald entitled Attack on minister of industry, trade and commerce, were made head of the Anti-Inflation Board, Inflation. It contained the “initial which will judge whether the rules or the guidelines ’ ’ , including the series of selective loopholes will be applied. oopholes which could exempt just about As a Montreal economic analyst recently anything from control except the price of told a meeting of investors, they have no abour. reason to fear profit guidelines will be The guidelines said, for instance, that “strictly enforced” since he would “be surprices are not to increase “to amounts more prised to see Jean Luc Pepin come down .han required to cover net increase in zests”, but as long as some plausible cost hard on business. ” :ould be found to offset a price increase, the Another measure of the government’s in;ky’s the limit. tent in enforcing the complex guidelines it As well, prices could be increased in addevised was the decision to add 200 new staff lance simply on the basis of “forecasts of to do the work of the Anti-Inflation Board, :ost increases” which could. be foreseen 40 of whom are to be public relations officers. ‘with a reasonable degree of assurance.” Many of the large corporations whose As far as profits are concerned, these are o be frozen at approximately the same level products must be cost accounted if price increases are to be monitored and investigated Jrevailing over the average of the past five have more accounting staff than the Board, Iears, which was a record-breaking high Jrofit period. and will thus remain in effective control of And profits could go above this level if the their financial data and reports. By contrast to the manpower allocated to ncrease could be shown to be due to “unadministering this economic program, usual productivity gains resulting from the Canada needed a staff of over 10,000 during :fforts of the employer”, such as through World War II to administer much less unnvestment in labour-saving devices or by popular controls over a much less compli>aying less, or due to “favourable cost decated economy. relopments which could not reasonably And the US had a staff of more than 5,000 rave been anticipated” but which resulted in to administer its control program in the early overpricing . 70’s and later a top administrator of that Dividend rates for shareholders, mean-
control. Wsobvious who’s goingtogetsquw3zed.cunadianconsumersandworktng people ale gping to be asktng:whyme? While our incomes are heiddowntheprfcesofthings we need arebound to keep ing up. And those on low or fir ed incomes and pensions will suffer most of all. Thegovernment tgnored the plan proposed by the Canadian Labour Congress. ffs own program isunfair and unworkable. Most of ail, its discriminatory. We, as Canadian consumers and wage earners, vehemently oppose it. Why should we alone pay the price for inflation? PublIshed In the Interest ot Canadlanwo&mandconsumersby the Canadian labour Congress.
wages accounted for 70.8 percent of the national income and profits declined relatively to 14 percent. ’ A year earlier second quarter figures were 67 and 16.8 percent respectively. This represents about a 5.7 percent increase in wages share of the economic pie, and a 20 percent decline in profit’s share-although profits did not decline absolutely. In dollar terms, this means that about $8.3 billion was transferred this year from profits to wages compared with 1974, a transfer amounting to 6.8 percent of the total national income. But, after two and one half business quarters in which wages and salaries suddenly started to catch up to profits, and as many long-term collective agreements were up for renegotiation, the government just as suddenly reversed its long standing objection to economic controls and announced its new program. But rather than being an inexplicable move, nothing could be more natural for a government which has traditionally based its economic policies on the principle that maximization of profit serves the interests of the nation. Seen in this light, the reversal in the government’s attitude to economic controls is really only a continuation of existing policy under changed circumstances.
Zap labour? On Oct. 21, eight days after the announcement of the controls, a perspiring labour minister John Mum-o was howled at by delegates at the CUPE national conference in Toronto. He chose an apt provocation when he told them the program was
“not a crude attempt to zap labour, to make labour the inflation scapegoat. ” The phrase was identical to one used by Arnold Webster, former director of the US Cost-Of-Living Council, when he explained the purpose of the control program he administered . “The idea of the freeze and phase II was to zap labour. And we did,” he boasted after it was all over. Mum-o had anticipated the charge correctly. Organized labour did feel “zapped” and singled out to bear the brunt of the program. But Munro and his colleagues seemed to underestimate the intensity of feeling among the union rank and file. The story the Liberals were trying to get out was that although the union leadership “might greet the program negatively . . . the rank and file of labour unions understand the need of restraints . . . and I think they will accept it,” as one Western Liberal leader put it. But at the CUPE convention the delegates rejected a resolution condemning the controls put forward by their leaders, and demanded another that was tougher. They jeered at Trudeau when he made a stop-over at their hotel to address a business luncheon. They howled at Munro. And they openly debated the calling of a general strike to defeat the economic program. The official condemnation of organized labour was no surprise, least of all to John Munro and the federal government. The Canadian Labour Congress, (CLC) which represents over two million unionized workers, clearly stated its position during ‘last spring’s round of talks on “voluntary restraint” conducted by then finance minister John Turner. The CLC at that time set out its views in an 80-page memorandum rejecting Turner’s proposed “restraint” package. The primary thrust was that labour would cooperate with a “restraint” program only if profits and prices were restrained along with wages and salaries, and only if it included a mechanism whereby wealth and purchasing power were transferred from the higher to the lower income brackets. They also wanted full employment policies and no, restraint until wages caught up with recent profit and price increases. Since the government’s new program was almost identical to the Turner plan, and since it met none of the CLC’s demands, the non-support of organized labour was assured even before the announcement was made. The real questions were how the rank and file would respond, and what action the CLC would take to oppose the program. In- the first weeks following the announcement of the program, workers voted by show of hands at every possible occasion to demand strong action to defeat the program, and voted “with their feet and lungs” every time Munro attempted to address a workers group. Since the feeling of the rank and file were quite clear, the focus turned to the CLC. The 30-member executive council of the Congress met on Oct. 24 in Ottawa and came out with official rejection of the program “on the grounds that it is highly inequitable and will be unworkable in curbing the rate of price increases over the period intended to be covered.” Just what the Congress intended to do to fight the program, however, was not announced until the end of the month, after a meeting between CLC officials and Trudeau. That meeting made it clear the government was not going to back down on wage control, nor would it make any hard promises about prices and profits. The Congress responded after the meeting by unveiling its own “Program of Action” to counter the wage control program. ’ The CLC plan specifically rejected the militant line of calling for a general strike, and confined worker resistance to strategies which do not break the law. Local unions would “pursue their collective bargaining objectives with vigour and determination” and ignore the controls. A national lobby and information campaign would be established to discredit the government and to put forward to the rank and file and the general public the position of the CLC. As well, constitutional lawyers would be retained to advise the CLC in appealing to the Supreme Court for a ruling on the constitutionality of the federal program, a legal question which is by no means predestined to be answered in the federal government’s favour. Additionally, the CLC announced that a
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rhe politics Canada has paid a high price for its willingness to olerate, indeed applaud, the quiet dealings of its politcal leaders with the good corporate citizens of GM, Exxon, /TTand a myriad others. is a price that cannot 2 determined by an accounting manual, nor can it be ,etrieved through higher taxes or royalties, since the issets our politicians have alienated have so often leen of an intangible nature. How, for example, can we assess the market value of a government’s promise o rewrite its laws if necessary to ensure “labour stabilty” for a multinational corporation? Or how do we neasure in dollars and cents a committment by ?/ected politicians to involve foreign companies in the Jrocess of drafting future legislation relating to the ?nvjronment! In the following article from Canadian forum magazine Larry Pratt, a political economist at the UniJersity of Alberta in Edmonton, examines one case in (vhich the Canadian government has displayed a willingness to capitulate to industry’s ultimatums: the Tyncrude affair. This is the first section of Pratt’s artiz/e, which will be concluded in next week’s chevron.
3y the first week of December 1974, while a Canadian qernment delegation headed by Prime Minister Trudeau velled to Washington to explain the implications of its N oil export policy to the Ford administration, Alberta s in the midst of a political crisis over the rereduction of John Turner’s resource budget. ntense public and private pressure was being applied tinst the provincial leadership by the industry to force 3erta to reduce its royalties and taxes. Calgary was in an -oar. Companies were pulling out or threatening to do and the alarmed media had swung solidly behind the ustry’s demands. igainst this backdrop Alberta’s ambitious plans for the sands suddenly came apart. innouncing the inability of his government to devise an sands development policy in light of uncertainty surnding Ottawa’s intentions on pricing and exports, Peter ugheed told the Alberta legislature in late October that era1 energy decisions threatened the province’s timetafor exploiting the sands. ;hell Explorer, a wholly-owned affiliate of Shell US, s pulling out of its fifty-fifty venture with Shell Canada :ause there was no assurance that it would be able to >ort its share of oil production to American refineries. zalating construction and operating costs were also :d by Shell Explorer as reasons for its withdrawal. n November, shortly after the announcement of the eral budget and the release to the press of the National ergy Board’s report on oil exports, both the Athabasca Sands Project group and Home Oil-Alminex Ltd. let it known that their projects too were being put into cold rage. 1t the same time Alberta Mines and Minerals Minister 1 Dickie worried aloud that Syncrude’s estimated costs 1 soared above $1.5 billion and could reach “well over billion.” )n December 4, the crucial blow was delivered. Atlantic hfield, one of four participants in Syncrude, tersely lounced its immediate withdrawal from the giant
project-better than a year into construction with about 1500 workers on site north of Fort McMurray. The decision vividly underlined Alberta’s vulnerability and its lack of autonomous decision-making power. “The shock waves generated sent some of North America’s leading oil executives scurrying to a meeting in New York as well as making employees in Fort McMurray and Edmonton worry about their future,” noted the Edmonton Journal, a newspaper which has consistently supported Lougheed’s tar sands policy. ARCO’s spokesman in Washington denied that a recent refusal by the United States Export-Import Bank to lend the consortium $75 million for the purchase of US-made equipment had influenced its decision: US Treasury officials, however, hinted that the Export-Import Bank’s decision (actually taken by the National Advisory Council, an inter-agency group headed by Treasury) had been motivated in part by a concern that American energy supply be protected. ARC0 explained that its action had been determined by rising cost projections which had become “‘just unbelievable”: the firm had reached “a point where we have to give something up. ’ ’ Farewell, Frank Spragins . Test of strength In point of fact, ARC0 had been disenchanted with Syncrude for several months. Rumours that the company was thinking of quitting the tar sands were circulated in Fort McMurray in the summer of 1974. Faced with rapidly escalating costs in Alaska, where it holds some 2 billion barrels of north slope oil and over twenty percent of the Alyeska pipeline, the company had been experiencing serious cash flow problems in meeting its commitments. Though it has a good chance of improving its overall position within the industry once Alaskan oil goes to market, ARCO’s ambitious expansion program, emphasizing diversification into petrochemicals and alternate energy sources, had begun to strain its internal and outside capital resources. As part of a general strategy of rationalizing its holdings and easing the financial burden, the firm withdrew from the fiist major project in the Colorado oil shales in September 1974, and it is reasonable to assume that its deci-. sion to abandon Syncrude was made around that time as well. Federal announcements on the phasing-out of exports probably reinforced the inclination to quit: the company has no refining capacity in Canada and the parent firm is already a heavy net purchaser of crude. The timing of the announcement, however, appears to have been arranged to have maximum impact on both levels of government-one of which saw the Syncrude project as vital to its future economic plans, the other of which was depending on Syncrude to help relieve the nation’s deteriorating oil supply position. From the point of view of the majors, ARCO’s action not only increased the financial burden of the other members of the consortium; it also offered the possibility of using the project as political leverage in bargaining for solme old and new concessions. Syncrude was strategically placed, the perfect candidate for the industry’s test of strength with Canada’s political leadership.
Political repercussions For the Lougheed administration the threatened collapse of Syncrude posed grave political consequences. Without Syncrude there would be no further exploitation of the tar sands; many of the province’s plans for diversifying the economy would have to be shelved. So much of the economy and the Conservative government’s prestige had already been tied to Syncrude’s coattails that the sudden failure of the venture would throw a couple of thousand workers out of their jobs, send many small companies to the wall and puncture the‘ buoyant atmosphere which had prevailed in the province to that point. Such an event could also have far-reaching political repercussions, perhaps even arresting Social Credit’s steep slide into oblivion--a feat somewhat akin to refloating certainly improving the prospects of the Titanic -and the provincial New Democratic Party which was calling for development of the tar sands through a publicly-owned crown corporation. Peter Lougheed had deliberately created public expectations of growth and spectacular progress; his personal image and credibility were bound up with Syncrude’s fate. He had burned his bridges: the project would have to be rescued. On December 12 Lougheed eased his crisis with the oil industry by implementing his Petroleum Exploration Plan, a package of tax credits and royalty reductions designed to return between $300 million and $500 million to the allegedly overburdened industry. The plan had been fashioned during the summer of 1974 as a response to Turner’s May budget proposals and, according to a version which was leaked to the press, had the objective of holding the oil industry’s life-cycle discounted rate of return near its very healthy current level of fifteen or sixteen percent. The leaked document confirmed that without higher taxes the industry could be expected to reap tremendous profits on the order of $60 billion or more by century’s end. Nonetheless, Lougheed’s PEP. concessions went beyond the earlier contingency plan, restoring industry’s share of net production income to thirty-three percent and leaving the oil companies with a realized income (at the $6.50 per barrel price) of $2.38 per barrel of “old” Alberta oil, $2.95 on “new,” after payment of royalties ) taxes and lifting costs. The plan was publicized as beneficial to the small independents, and it was, yet the inevitable effect of reducing royalties and taxes was to improve the profitability of the largest operators. As the province’s big producers, Imperial, Amoco, Shell, Gulf and Texaco would receive much of the benefit of the concessions. Ottawa applauded. John Turner had won a unique Canadian triumph.
The terms demanded by the three remaining Syncrude participants, Imperial, Gulf and Cities Service, to.keep the project alive were to prove even more expensive. They were made public on January 16, ‘1975, at a remarkable joint press conference held by the three corporations in Toronto. continued
on pg. 16
Taking up an old unsettled grievance, the group demanded access to world prices; second, Syncrude wanted fresh guarantees of exemption from the non-deductibility provisions of the Turner budget as well as from any future pro-rationing of oil production; and third, the public sector must come up with a billion dollars in equity and/or further tax concessions. All this by January 3 1, or the project would be closed down. If that happened, noted Gulf Canada president Jerry McAfee, it would be five or ten years at least before any other producer started up another tar sands project. The threat could not have been plainer. “We’d like to get another billion,” remarked McAfee. But was that all the three companies were after? Geoffrey Stevens, Globe and Mail columnist, described Syncrude’s cross-country lobbying campaign as impressive and pondered, “Is money what the Syncrude partners really want from the two governments? There is a suspicion among federal officials that the money is secondary, that the real object is the security or protection that would come from government involvement in a risky, costly project. With public funds invested, the governments involved would have to make sure taxpayers’ interests were not jeopardized for want of such things as price protection, tax breaks and relief from environmental safeguards .” Alberta oil man Nick Taylor, who has long since dispensed with the rhetoric of laissez-faire in his quest for the petroleum dollar, calls this the strategy of “marrying the landlord’s daughter. You stop paying rent, get the first porkchop and the best bed in the house” -merely by arranging a joint venture with the state. Direct equity participation by government ensures that any antagonisms between the private sector and the owners of a new resource will be blunted by their mutual interest in seeing development succeed, in spite of high prices, environmental problems, labour strife, and so on.
And with future world oil prices unpredictable and a new surplus of petroleum combining with slackened demand to weaken OPEC’s monopoly position, from the companies’ perspective it clearly made sense to hedge their risks by insisting on Ottawa’s entry into Syncrude.
Speaking in Calgary on January 31, hours before the expiration of the ultimatum, B.C. Premier Dave Barrett brought down the house by giving his own answer to Syncrude’s demands-“Get out! Get out!”
Privately, Nick Taylor insists, the large oil companies are unanimously in favour of the creation of Canada’s national oil company, Petrocan, because it offers the prospect of a bigger porkchop through joint development of frontier energy resources. “The January 3 1 deadline is an ominous and odious thing,” wrote Geoffrey Stevens in an angry column.
But Barrett was not among the politicians making the decisions, and the ones who were clearly were not up to the job of turning the crisis into an opportunity. Three essential failings destroyed that possibility and fatally weakened the bargaining power of the governments. One principal impediment to effective bargaining by the political leaders was their lack of crucial information. When multinational companies and host politicians barter over terms, a key element in determining the outcome is control of vital intelligence. Historically, the bargaining advantage has been generally held by the international firm, since it possesses and closely protects industrial information, techniques and expertise unavailable to others. Most governments, including those of the developed capitalist world, have lagged far behind the large global companies, in their understanding of how the latter are able to exploit the opportunities open to them to manipulate prices, disguise profits, avoid taxes and repatriate capital. Referring to what they term “the managerial dilemma of the nation-state,” Richard Barnet and Ronald Miiller, authors of the controversial Global
“Can any self-respecting government permit itself to be rushed and forced into throwing a huge amount of taxpayers’ money on the table just because the other players, a trio of oil companies, are threatening to take their cards and chips and go home? Somehow, that smacks more of blackmail than poker. ” Stevens was not voicing unpopular sentiments. Even the Calgary Herald, no enemy of the oil industry, complained: Even Calgarians will be tempt to force the government.. . The long the Canadian government change gears by three panies. That simply does those such as the Herald long and hard against energy policies.
shocked by this athand of their and short of it is that has been told to American oil comnot sit well even with who have argued many of Ottawa’s
Several major daily newspapers across the country, including the Montreal Star, the Edmonton Journal, and the Toronto Star among others, expressed editorial support for some sort of full public ownership or public utility concept in the tar sands; and many prominent Canadians, including Bruce Willson, former head of Canadian Bechtel and Union Gas Co., were demanding outright nationalization of Syncrude. The Toronto Star took that position one step further by suggesting the federal government take over Imperial Oil itself!
of Ykiller fogs”
EDMONTON (CUP)-An Alberta Environmental lobby group may soon launch legal action against the Alberta government and the Syncrude oil project. In a 2500 word letter delivered to environment minister D.J. Russel October 23, the “Save Tomorrow, Oppose Pollution” (STOP) group told the government that if Syncrude’s sulpher dioxide (S02) emissions were not drastically reduced, legal proceedings may be initiated. STOP research director Lucien Royer said SO2 is dangerous. A 1974 civil service report informed .* the minister that sulpheric acid produced by SO2 reacting to water molecules in the air could pose dangers to Fort MacMurray residents as severe as those in the 1952 London “Killer Fog”. Royer said within two days 4,000 people had died in the London incident and 8,000 more perished a short time later. “The minister of the environment has ignored these and other warnings given to him about SO2 dangers,” Royer said, adding “Fort McMurray residents have something to worry about.” Under the government’s present plans, Syncrude will be allowed to emit 287 long tons of SO2 gas in the air everday. This amount of SO2 will fill 2,647 railroad tank cars each day Syncrude operates. If such a load was to be shipped across the country, a train 17 miles long would be required every day, he said. The STOP letter claims the minister has failed to consider matters relevant to the Syncrude SO2 limits. STOP’s legal advisor, Alex Pringle told reporters that if more responsible SO2 limits were not established for Syncrude, an appeal to the courts would be initiated. “First we can ask the courts to declare that the department of the environment has exceeded its bounds of discretion in is suing the Syncrude permit. . . if howe ver this proves inappropria te . . . our an injunction against Syncr ude when operations begin. ” second option is to seek
EDMONTON (CUP)-Information contained in five documents leaked to STOP (Save Tomorrow Oppose Pollution) indicate potential catastrophic hazards to health and environment in the Tar Sands area of Alberta. The documents prepared by Albertacivil servants now working for the Minister of the environment D.J. Russell were to have been appendices to an earlier report on the environmental impacts of oil extraction from the Athabasca Tar Sands. But Lucien Royer, researcher for STOP, alleged October 28 the documents were kept secret because of their explosive contents. Although he would not reveal his source, Royer said it was not an author of the leaked documents. He said he has had them in his possession for just over a week, verifying their statement and authorship. One document called “Climatology and Environmental Problems” describes the Tar Sands area as being highly unfavorable to industry because it is situated on a valley floor in a cold region where air inversions can trap emmissions and result in a potential killer fog. “Long linerar plumes of trapped pollutants can be expected to fill the valley floor on a frequent basis. It is likely that the noxious industrial effluents will concentrate in a layer covering the foliage of the Birch Mountains with a possible Killer Acid rain which could affect valley and hills alike.” The document concluded by warning against future developments on a large scale in the area. Royer pointed to another document, which reports that sulpher dioxide emmissions already exceed the legal limits at some times, and which suggests the limits themselves may be too high in the first place. “The potential for serious air pollution problems in the oil sands region is high, already ambient standards for sulpher dioxide are exceeded frequently. With two plants operating the chances for upset are increased,” he said. Royer said it was unfortunate that the minister chose to keep these particular documents secret, and refuted Syncrude’s earlier allegations that he has been misinformed. Royers asked that Syncrude produce their figures on pollution potential in the light of the climatic situation and show him where he has erred. He said the documents prove that federal provincial government officials have indicated that environmental dangers exist, despite the fact that the Syncrude promoters have reportedly denied this.
Lack of information
Reach: The Power tions, write:
of the Multinational
The institutional lag that cripples governments in their efforts to prevent global corporations from circumventing the spirit of tax, securities, and banking laws is due in no small measure to the technological breakthroughs of the accounting industry. The space-age alchemists have discovered the incantations that turn banks into nonbanks, dividends into interest, and profits into losses. . . . Skilled obfuscation is now an essential accounting tool. The challenge is to create a tidy world for inves tars, regulatory agencies, and tax collectors to scrutinise, which may have little or no resemblance to what an old-fashioned bookkeeper might have called the real world.
In trying to discover “the real world” in their negotiations with the Syncrude partners, the Lougheed and Trudeau governments encountered many key questions they could not answer. By far the most perplexing arose from the huge cost overruns on the project: from a projected cost of half a billion dollars in January 1973, to just above one billion in June 1973, to better than two billion by the end of 1974. Documents were produced by critics to prove that as recently as July 1974 Bechtel was still projecting the ultimate cost of the plant at below $900 million. Cost increases and purported diminishing profits had, as we have seen, played a major part in the earlier round of negotiations with the Lougheed administration; and it was as clear then, as it was now, that the politicians and their advisors simply did not know whose figures to believe. Throughout, Syncrude has consistently produced data on costs which show that the project can at best make a modest return of around ten percent. As world prices skyrocketed, so had the cost projections more than doubled. Coincidence or contrivance? Would companies which are being assured of an internal rate of return of twenty percent on North Sea oil by the British government be investing large sums of capital in the tar sands for half the return? After ten years of study Syncrude had decided to “go” when oil prices were below $4 a barrel; did the companies now need $12 to $16 for the same barrel? Was Bechtel using the project as a test case for its other big construction contracts? Or had the engineering giant totally botched the original projections? Since Bechtel’s management fees are apparently arranged on a cost-plus basis, it clearly stood to gain from the escalations.
The significance of the huge overruns lay in the 1973 agreement to substitute profit sharing for the usual royalty on gross production. As capital and operating costs escalated, so too did the interest and depreciation charges which could be written off by the companies under the profit sharing forumla. The so-called “base return,” subject of Syncrude’s showdown with the Lougheed cabinet in August 1973, was now worth some $2 billion over the life of the project. At the rate the province would be fortunate to recoup anything whatever from its profit sharing contract-which is precisely what critics of the agreement had predicted at the outset! Syncrude’s spokesmen explained the doubling of costs as a function of inadequate design (which implied that Bechtel’s original projections were unreliable) and escalations for heavy equipment, housing, environmental problems; and, in addition, “a contingency allowance, amounting to about twenty-five percent of the cost increase on the plant itself, had been provided to cover unexpected costs including
work stoppage fabrication pla Operating a boondoggle ju Frank Spragi Games had ur In a bid to i ‘ ‘the ins titutio and ’ the polil commissioned project and S! sulting compa In part, the Lougheed’s o tion against pc go under. Of the fou Waterhouse ( Internationaldustry. Price, of the large o Syncrude par firm which co Loram, corm Mannix of Ca construction p ture. These were the task of a panies ’ mono] Moreover, that consultar clients wish Lougheed wa fleeced by Sy In light oft too was relyii on which to b were in-and fore the week made up their companies an “A content nipeg meeting Norman Web done, ‘ ‘has be ing govemme
Ti Visual paper. G( fascinatic ogy over The ve thick, stil dirty bus some inv Tobee of the mu oil, must GCOS generatio the scale appalling After el scarred e Appalach Some ( resemblir exploit th self-suffic Destru clearly, tl But the questions The ba crude oil x the glass Athabasc oil depos Crude 1 to transpc to carbor But err product \ quality, SC The oil rectly im industry particular . What g refining, I we have The bit sands the is the one of McMu The ap followed surface; ( presently But les concentrz This sn and it is tl has been 1
This would have heightened the tension surrounding the affair, perhaps prolonging the crisis, but it would also have countered the “ominous and odious” tactics of the three companies.
nsportation systems or unexpected events .” 1 the premise that one d, Syncrude president Montreal’s Olympic ilar inflation rate. Barnet and Miiller call vides the corporations ougheed government tdies and audits of the ;s by four private con-
Submissiveness and dependence
have been inspired by cover his adminis traI in case Syncrude did firms, three-Price, Insultants, and Loram lations with the oil indits the books of many including those of the s a Washington-based ame corporations; and ;heed’s old company, ;he time working on a ut of the Syncrude venly group to charge with letrating the oil comdge. vn fact of business life their clients what the the last thing Peter was that he was being chtel. surprising that Ottawa studies for information s. ‘But long before they )orts were received be1 l-the politicians had It the cost figures of the : troubled project. uestion since the Winbe and Mail columnist y 11, after the deed was Ice, by the three invest:ompanies’ cost figures
for Syncrude. Apparently a fair amount was really taken on trust . ’ ’ Neither of the two levels of government had the expertise to do anything but, and the four outside consultants only reported after the principal policy decisions had been made. Resolving the information
‘the world’s first oil mine” at Tar Island are quite impossible to convey on it came boiling out of the imagination of some early Surrealist painter with a s earth-biting machines and smoke-belching factories-a triumph of technolresource demands giantism. Getting the asphalt-like sands to surrender their I transforming that oil to a marketable product is an expensive, appahgly large-scale technology borrowed from coal-strip-mining and oil refining and y for the tar sands. ible the process demands large economies of scale: everything, from removal .u-den through the mining of the sands to the extraction and processing of the jrobdingnagian scale. liver’s land of giants, but it will be dwarfed by the plants of Syncrude’s he technologies employed, the mountains of materials handled every hour, it, the sprawling lakes of polluted wastes-these are at once awesome and :nsive development the GCOS lease is an ecological disaster-acres of black, zaped soils, deep open pit mines, sulphurous stench-a kind of northern ly barren landscape shattered by machinery. can be avoided, part of the land may one day be restored to something tte, but much of it is simply a price we imply when we argue that we must :et North America’s appetite for non-renewable resources or to keep Canada ronment may be inevitable if security of energy supplies is a national priority: tradeoffs and dilemmas which admit to no easy, instant solutions. y of energy development in Canada entails some very large costs and highly td nowhere are these more apparent than in the tar sands. 1 in question, the so-called ‘tar”, is bitumen, a very heavy, black viscous state resembles the slowest and thickest molasses. Cool some in a glass, turn id the stuff will not run. The oil is found in the bituminous sands of the huge , is also found (or closely resembles the oil found) in the deeply buried heavy Alberta. ’ I especially attractive hydrocarbon; for one thing, it is too heavy and viscous for another, it is deficient in hydrogen, that is, it has a lower ratio of hydrogen Inal oils; and for another, it is high in sulphur content. n be processed and upgraded to a valuable and highly flexible synthetic :n down, coked, desulferized and hydrogen is added. This yields a high.d of naptha and light and heavy gas oils which is exceptionally sulphur free. this straw-coloured blend of liquids “synthetic crude oil”, but this incor-oduct is merely a substitute for conventional crude. It is not, and the oil ; it is of a higher quality and apparently has many more potential uses, remical feedstock, than ordinary crude. tential from being realized is that the product is being integrated into the ricing structure of the oil companies. The lease-holders define the use, hence le”. flow naturally and it cannot be pumped; hence, it must either flow, or the : mined and the oil extracted in a subsequent operation. The latter technique anned by GCOS, Syncrude, Shell, Petrofina and Home on their leases north > ithabasca river. open-pit mining of the sands and then hot-water extraction of the bitumen, synthetic fuel. But this can only be done where the tar sands lie close to the ing less than HO-200 feet beneath the muskeg and overburden of soils are mecoverable through the surface mining technique. :ent of the total oil sands of Alberta falls into this category, and all of it is 1of the Athabasca river. hly 480,000 acres, 75 miles long and 25 miles wide, contains the prime leases ! Canadian territory which is the focal point of today’s oil sands play. Here it bout 26 billion barrels of synthetic oil could be recovered by digging for it.
and knowledge problem is a long-term proposition, and it can only be properly tackled when govemments themselves are inside the oil business.
Political divisions Internal political divisions within Canada also contributed to the fiasco. There is no need to recite the nature of these divisions, they are as old as the country itself; yet it must be recognized that their existence certainly strengthened the bargaining hand of the oil companies . The remaining Syncrude partners unquestionably have important conflicting interests and objectives among themselves, but, to repeat, the large oil companies usually manage to present a common front when dealing with governments. Their behaviour, to recall the words of the US Federal Trade Commission, “should properly be regarded as cooperative, rather than competitive’ ’ in such a situation; they “continually engage in common courses of action for their common benefit’ ’ . By contrast, Canada’s balkanized political system presented the oil companies with no parallel set of common interests, no joint front organized around a shared federal-provincial energy policy. Consequently, each of the governments involved in the rescue operation was pursuing its own interests and running on a different set of tracks. Better than a year of feuding and rhetorical warfare on energy matters had created an atmosphere that was anything but conducive to joint policy-making. Even at the summit meeting in Winnipeg the inter-governmental rows erupted, a fact which can hardly have escaped the attention of the corporate executives. About all Canada’s feuding politicians could agree to was that it would be preferable to yield to the companies’ terms than to see Syncrude shut down. Capitulation was the common denominator which brought the politicians to Winnipeg. But-and here was the third and decisive weakness in the political setup-the governments involved were literally incapable of seeing alternatives to capitulation. Blinkered by ideological distrust of public ownership proposals and long habituated to relying on the oil industry to make the investment decisions, the politicians closest to the affair-men like Lougheed, Don Getty, Macdonald, and Ontario Premier William Davis-cut themselves off from the one course of action which might have changed the result. And that was to make a public statement to the effect that Syncrude would not be shut down: that if the oil companies chose to cut and run, they would lose their investment in the project, be sued for breach of contract and shut out of any future development of the tar sands. Ifrequired, the tar sands would be developed by crown corporations-but they would be developed. Beyond such a statement of intent, it was open to both levels of government to turn the tables on the oil companies following their extraordinarily offensive press conference of January 16: given strong, effective leadership from the politicians, there can be no doubt that immense public pressure could have been brought to bear on Imperial, Gulf and Cities Service to force them to rethink their position.
The point is not a philosophical one; it is purely a question of power politics. By renouncing the.option of public ownership and development of the tar sands the political leaders lost their sole opportunity to checkmate what we have called the oil industry’s monopoly veto power-its power to threaten to block development of resources such as the Athabasca sands. Without such an option in reserve, without a bargaining card of last resort, the politicians simply lacked credibility when they bravely asserted that they would not be intimidated or pressured into concessions. To put it even more categorically, the governments could not have won the showdown with the oil companies without being prepared to nationalize Syncrude and develop the tar sands on their own. There is not a shred of evidence that any of the governments involved seriously contemplated such action, nor is it likely the others would have agreed had one done so. From the outset of the affair the most the politicians envisaged was that other oil companies and/or governments would have to pick up Atlantic Richfield’s share, while incentives would also be required to keep the other participants in the project. There was little taste among the country’s politicians for the kind of thinking which led one commentator to remark that “true political leadership consists in seeing the potential of historic change, even as the change is only emerging, and of seizing the opportunity to take hold of events and shape them to advantage. We should see the new oil sands problems in that light. We should view them as new opportunities and challenges, to be turned to good account. ’ ’ That was sound advice, but in the Canadian context almost utopian. It seriously exaggerated the ability of a group of politicians operating from a context of dependence to break out of that context. Expectations based on the false assumption that the politicians enjoyed the independence to choose and to manoeuvre freely were doomed to disappointment. Decades of reliance on powerful outside forces-on outside governments, outside ideas and ideologies, outside corporations, outside advice and outside technologies -have bred into Canada’s ruling groups, and many of their supporters, a mentality of submissiveness and dependence that effectively obscures alternatives. The politicians yielded the day they decided Imperial Oil was indispensable to the future of Canada. Ottawa had indicated its willingness in principle to invest in Syncrude shortly after ARCO’s departure, and as the January 31 deadline approached each of the companies’ demands on taxes, prices and participation was met. John Turner reiterated his pledge that the project would be exempt from the provision in the November 18 budget whereby resource royalties, or payments in lieu of royalties, to governments would no longer be deductible for income tax purposes. Moreover, added the finance minister in his letter of January 24 to the three companies, this exemption would apply even if Alberta opted for the low seven and one-half percent royalty rather than a share of net profits. In December 1973 Donald Macdonald had refused to give Syncrude categorical assurances that its product would be sold at the world price. Such a commitment might bind the hands of future governments, especially in the light of “the multiplicity of future and unpredictable events which may occur. ” Now, however, the qualifications were dropped. Syncrude, Ottawa promised, would be permitted to sell its oil at an ‘ ‘internationally related price, ” adjusted for transportation and quality. At prices prevailing in early 1975 this would probably mean a price of about $13 a barrel: synthetic tar sands oil is of a higher quality than most crudes, thus Ottawa was in effect guaranteeing Syncrude a higher price than the going world figure when the plant comes onstream. Since all Canadian oil prices are likely to rise to international (or at least US)“levels by 1979, the commitment may be academic. There is no provision of a guaranteed floor price for Syncrude, but if world prices should decline the oil companies have the added insurance that Ottawa now has a direct interest in seeing the plant make money. The project has also been exempted from any future prorationing-a commitment which could be important years from now if Canada again develops surplus oil reserves. On Thursday, January 30, the day before Syncrude’s deadline, the federal cabinet agreed to invest between $200 and $500 million in the project in order, as Donald Macdonald put it, to keep open the option of oil sands development. **** The conclusion week’s chevron.
Warrior The basketball Warriors opened the 1975-76 season with a victory over Toronto Estonia on November 7. The final score was 78-65 in favour of the Warriors and featured the return of several exWarriors; Tom Kieswetter, now junior varsity coach at Waterloo, Ed Talaj, and Paul Skowron. Leading scorers for the Warriors were Mike Visser with 19 points, Trevor Briggs with 17 and Jamie Russell who finished with 13. Estonia was led by Paul Skowron with 15, Ed Talaj and Tom Kieswetter both netting 12 points. Neither team showed a great deal
of finesse in their floor play. This is understandable as the game was the first of the season for the Warriors and Estonia was unable to field a full team. This game did provide an opportunity for the fans to see the new faces in the Warrior lineup. Returnees from last year include forwards Phil Schlote and TrevorBriggs and backcourt men Don Lax-man and Jeff Scott. Two notable additions are Jamie Russell, presently on tour with the Canadian National Team and Mike Visser, an all-star with Laurentian last year.
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The Warriors will be a tall squad this year thanks to the addition of such first year men as 6’8” Ron Graham from Toronto MacDonald, 6’6” Doug Vance from Brantford C.I.and 6’6” Steve Garrett from Eastwood C.I. in Kitchener. Seymour Hadwen from Guelph C.V.I. andKevinLohrfromCameron Heights in Kitchener are a pair of 6’3” swingmen, capable of playing either forward or guard. All of the rookies are expected to make contributions to the Warrior effort this year. This pastweekend, the Warriors travelled to Ottawa to compete in . the Tip Off Tournament, playing without Jamie Russell who was on tour with the National team in the States. Game one in round robin series was against Concordia University (a result of Loyola & Sir George Williams amalgamation). In the first half the Warriors started slowly, but led by the 14 point performance of Seymour Hadwen managed a half-time lead of 7, 43-36. In the second half veterans Phil Schlote and Trevor Briggs began to find the range and eventually Waterloo outdistanced the Stingers 96-79. Leading scorers were Briggs with 31, 25 in the second half; Schlote with 17; Hadwen, Mike Visser and Jeff Scott with 15, 11 and 10 points respectively. Trevor Briggs with his 31 points and 15 rebounds had a tremendous second half. Game two against the Dalhousie Tigers opened at 9:30 Saturday morning. Both teams looked sluggish and somewhat fatigued due to the early start. Strong scoring and
rebounding from Briggs, Visser and Steve Garrett led- the team to a 48-38 half-time lead. The Warriors began to substitute early in the second half giving all of the first year men ample floor time and opportunity to show their talents. They responded well and combined their hustle with the scoring of Trevor Briggs (25 points) and Phil Schlote (19 points) to lead the team to a 97-85 win. The championship game started at 8 :30 and the Warriors faced their hosts, the University of Ottawa Gee-Gees. Ottawa came into the game 2-O after beating Dalhousie Friday night and Concordia in a close game Saturday afternoon. The Warriors opened quickly, heading out to‘ a 9-l lead and then just as quickly folded. Ottawa pressed and hurried the Warriors into frequent turnovers and poor shots in the fast half but couldn’t take advantage of their own opportunities and went to the locker room tied 34-34 at the half. Warrior fans were disappointed by a slow start in the second ‘half and watched Ottawa pull away to a 7 point lead. However, heading down the stretch, the Warriors began to rebound and score with greater consistency and eventually pulled away to a 79-72 victory. Trevor Briggs finished with 24; Mike Visser and Jeff Scott finished with 14 points apiece. Tremendous late efforts by Visser, Scott and Larman turned the game around as Ottawa led by 7 with 7 minutes to go* Overall, the team showed great potential despite numerous lapses in their floor game. Rebounding was good and the play of the first
year men in relief of the starters was especially encouraging. Although not overly sharp from the floor the Warriors did show well at the foul line, shooting 75 per cent over three games with a 21 for 24 effort at clutch moments in the final game. In recognition of his fine play in crucial situations and a three game scoring total of 80 points, Trevor Briggs was awarded the MVP trophy of the tournament. The Warriors continue their tournament schedule tonight and Saturday at Wilfrid Lauier University when they open the Friday night session at 7:00 p.m. against Sheppard College of West Virginia, a run and gun small college. This is WLU’s second Tip-Off Tournament with Carleton playing WLU at 9:00 p.m. on Friday. On Saturday, the losers play at 7 :00 p.m. and the winners at 9:00 p.m. -seananon
sports roundup Women’s Volleyball
Every Monday night, the main gym in the PAC is the location for the Women’s Intramural Volleyball. There are three leagues this term and players and teams are madly spiking and setting their way to wins, losses and ties. As of Monday, Nov. 17 after an evening of fun and games V2 South in league A has 4 wins and in first place followed closely by Kin 1 and Kin 2. V2 East B dz C has 4 wins to put them in first place with V2 WC in second place and Notre Dame in third. In league C, the Arts team is presently in first place but Vl N and Renison appear to be still in contention.
ompetitive With the season quickly drawing to an end these teams are still high in spirits and competitiveness and also fighting for a play-off position. In the six leagues, the first and second place standing as of Nov. 17 are as follows : League Al St. Jeromes 6 Alufahons 4 League A2 Math A 8 E.S.S. 8 League Bl V2 South 8 Vl East 6 League B2 Conrad Grebel 6 co-op 6 League B3 Flyers 6 Optometry 5 League B4 Team Lakeshore 8 Beavers 4 The top two teams from each league will be chosen to advance to the playoffs whit h are scheduled to start Thursday, Nov. 27. For further information check your teams’ schedule.
Last week at the time of printing the championship of the Men’s Single Tourney had not been determined . The match has since been played and the final outcome was T. Darwin (Math) defeating G. Aldwinkle (St. Jeromes) in what was a well played match. Congratulations to both players.
a Being a perennial champion is lot easy: there is always someone ust one step behind, ready to neck you off the top. The Waterloo Athenas have :ompletely dominated the 0 WIAA wim circuit since their inception in 968, missing out in the championhips only once to U of T in %9-70. Early signs this year indicate that nother championship perfornance is definitely possible. Team records which generally emain intact until the second half #f the season, are already being necked off. Three individual reords (in the 100 yd. freestyle, 200 d. individual medley, and 100 yd. reaststroke) and the 400 yd. med- _
ley relay have been changed already. This is the major indicator of the Swimmin’ Wimmen’s development so far this year. Last Saturday, despite a disappointing show of fans, the Athenas continued their domination of OWIAA teams by drowning McMaster 71-23. It was a good all round effort by the team, winning all but two events. For the Athenas it was Auntie Elaine Keith who registered wins in the 200 and 400 yd. freestyles with times of 2:07.2 and 4:24.2 respectively, and newcomer Karen Murphy, with wins of 27.2 in the 50 yd. free and 1:04.7 in the 100 yd. butterfly, who led the way. The
The 8th annual Naismith classic starts next Friday afternoon, . November 28 with eight outstanding teams. The Waterloo Warriors hope to defend the Naismith title they have won 3 of the last 4 years. Jamie Russell who has been with the National team, is scheduled to be back from the American tour. The draw is as follows: Friday, November 28: Acadia vs UWO at 1:00 p.m. Winnipeg vs Guelph at 3 :00 p.m. York vs WLU at 7:00 p.m. Lakehead vs U of Waterloo at 9:00 p.m. Acadia should battle St. Mary’s for the Atlantic Conference title and Winnipeg defeated Manitoba in an early Tip-Off tournament in the province of Manitoba. Guelph and WLU appear to be contenders for the west division of the OUAA and York is favoured in the eastern Division. The tournament should represent as always, a pulse of team potential. Season tickets will give admission to all games. For non-holders a $4.00 charge will give admission to all games. A $1.50 charge will be made for each session (i.e Friday afternoon-two games, Friday evening-two games, Saturday four games, and Saturday evening-two morning and afternobngames.
and threat was Barb Stauton from Mat. Winning both of McMasters events, she was able to fight off Athenas Pat Gorozdowska and Michelle in the 200 yd. i.m. and then out-sprint Karen Stewart in the 100 yd. backstroke. The rest of the events were- won by Waterloo. The Athenas took the lead-off event 400 medley relay, and then placed l-2 in the 800 yd. freestyle as Mat didn’t start a swimmer. Maida Murray and Cathy Adams paced one another in
half a dozen Olympic wrestlers. Another wrestling season is Coach Boese’s ability is best about to get underway. The first demonstrated by the success of two meet of the year we host WLU, athletes. Wednesday Nov. 19. Saturday Under Kurt’s guidance Egon November 29, the Waterloo GrapBeiler has developed into one of the plers travel to Ryerson for the only other tournament of the term. countries’ premier matmen. Egon fast represented Canada intemaThe Ryerson Open, under the direction of a former Warrior and tionally in the 1972 Olympic’s while Olympian, Pat Bolger has become still a high school student in Kitchener. Since then he has been on one of the premier events of the season. Most of Canada’s national several championship teams and won gold medals at both the Comranked wrestlers as well as top athmonwealth Games and the Pan letes from the USA are always featured. American Games. His Pan AmeriWaterloo will field a strong comcan Medal was Canada’s first ever wrestling gold in that competition. petitive team as always, due to the excellent coaching of Kurt Boese. Perhaps just as great a tribute to Kurt is Clarke Jenkins success. He An adequate summary of Kurt’s coaching achievements would re- - joined the team last fall with absolutely no wrestling experience. Dequire a lengthy article. It is suffispite being badly outclassed in his cient to say that he was Canada’s 1972 Olympic coach and has been first few matches Clarke learned responsible for the development of enough in four months to place
Tom Jarv, Dave Montief and Duncan Colquahan had superb spiking, blocking and all-round court play at the volleyball tournament last weekend at Wilfrid Laurier University. The Warriors defeated Western, Wilfrid Laurier, Brock and Guelph. The best competition was between Waterloo, Western and MacMas ter . The MacMaster team defeated the Warriors in two games of 15-13, but Guelph managed to’defeat MacMaster in one game. Waterloo Warriors and MacMaster share the lead in the conference. This weekend the Warriors play at Western.
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the event with times of 955.5 and 9:4X3 respectively. Maida returned 5 events later to win the 100 yd. freestyle quite handily with a time of 1:04.5 The 100 yd. breaststroke saw the Athenas go l-2 as teammates Daphne McCulloc h and Michelle McDonald put in respectable times of 1:21.6 and 1:24.3 respectively. The Athenas were able to finish just as strongly as they started by winning the 400 yd. free relay by a full 21 seconds.
Unfortunately, for those who care, the Athenas next home meet is not until next term and you will have to wait until then for your next opportunity to view the action. Remaining this term, are meets at Guelph on Nov. 26 and UWO on Nov. 29. A trip to Michigan is planned for the weekend of Dec. 5-7 to give the women some of the really top competition that they need and do not seem to be able to get from other Ontario university teams. -honey
Warriors beat eve
second in the OUAA championship. Kurt is being aided this year by Don @ink, a graduate chemistry student. Don wrestled with Waterloo for five years, winning the OUAA championship once and placing second several times. The team captain, Tim Wenzel, is last year’s national champion and a Pan American Games team member. Look for Tim in Montreal next summer. A few of the other outstanding members of the present squad are Tony Beiler, Al Kallfleisch, Tim Marks and freshman Bob Emptage. The team practices every night from 5:30 till 7:oO pm. New faces are always welcome. All that’s necessary is desire, although experience is helpful. Support your team, it’s a good sport. --gord cole
Once upon a time, in the summer of 1914, a tiny street was formed in the town of Berlin. And it was called Moyer Place. Over the years, as Berlin grew larger and changed its name, Moyer Place slowly started to disappear into the hustle and bustle of bia citv business. Until 1975. . . when it was rebuilt and called Market Village. - a
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This is the album that a great many people, the Pink Floyd included, almost never expected to see. After the phenomenal success of their incredible Dark Side of the Moon album and the corresponding 1973 eastern American tour, critics and the public alike wondered what the Floyd could possibly do for an encore. Evidently the band, members themselves had doubts too, because widely-spread rumours reported the band afraid to do another album. They believed they couldn’t possibly compete with the reputation Dark Side of the Moon developed. _ __It became a case of_ suc_ cess breeding paranoia, and they
The songs refer to him in the past tense as if he were dead. The first and last songs on the album are presumably dedicated to him: “Remember when you were young, you shone like the sun. Shine on you crazy diamond. Now there’s a look in your eyes, like black holes in the sky. Shine on you crazy diamond. ’ ’ “Welcome to the Machine” is about the budding rock star’s introduction to the world of big business : “What did you dream? It’s alright we told you what to dream/You dreamed of a big star, he played a mean guitar/He always ate in the Steak Bar, he loved to drive in his Jaguar. So welcome to the Machine? “Have a Cigar” is a song that is surely autobiographical, and a comment about their success so far. The narrator is a record executive, pressuring the band to work harder so the company can reap bigger profits: “We’re just knocked out. We heard about the sell out. You gotta get an album out. You owe it to the people. We’re so happy we can hardly count.” “Wish You Were Here”, the title track and the best song on the album, talks about Sid Barret ‘again. It asks the questions “And did they get you to trade your heroes for ghosts?/And did you exchange your walk on part in the war for a lead role ina cage?” The answers are obvious; the hope is that it is a happier existence in an asylum that it is in the ‘ ‘machine’ ’ . “Wish You Were Here is not a happy album. It is not good-time rock and roll, but it is the best album done yet on the pressures of being a star. It strips away all of the glamour of the recording industry. In lyric and theme, it is the best Pink Floyd album yet. The music is on a par with earlier efforts, but some of the instrumental solos are a trifle long. Buy it, it’s an album that _will grow on you every time you play it.
feared a possible mass rejection of their new music. In April of this year t-he Pink Floyd resurfaced to do a complete North American tour, something which they had not done in several years. The band played large sports arenas, and the tour was a sellout in every major city it played. In Los Angeles, tickets to four shows at the Forum were sold within hours of notice to the public. The band played some new material on the tour, but an album, tentatively titled You Gotta Be Crazy was never released. With more of the pre-release publicity Columbia is famous for, the new Pink Floyd album Wish You Were Here was released in early October. It arrived with mixed reviews by the established rock press, who found the album rather trite and boring. The Pink Floyd found out, as many groups often do after releasing a monster success album, that you can’t please all of the people all of the time. Yet the band need not be too concerned; they’re laughing all the way to the bank. Wish You Were-Here has been a tremendous success with the public, resting comfortably in number two position on the Billboard Hot 100. You can thank Elton John’s newest monthly release that it’s not number one. Elton or no Elton, this reviewer believes that the new Pink Floyd album is one of the best to be released this year. It is as good as Dark Side of the Moon, and I could be- easily persuaded to substitute “better” for “good”. There has been a lot of really hard work put into this album, and it is reflected in the lyrics: “Have you seen the chart/it’s a helluva start/it could be made into a monster/if we all pull together as a team.” Prophetic words indeed. This album is about the tremendous pressure of being a big rock star. It is an album about Sid Barret, one of the founding members of the band who went mentally insane from the pressure.
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The Basement Tapes down home type people appears in Bob Dylan the “Clothes Line Saga”. It was Well, here it is, time to review January 30, everyone was feeling Dylan and The Band’s BASEfine and the clothes were drying; MENT TAPES. I’ve already relife continued happening. ’ The vice prezy went insane.. viewed it once before and gave-it a poor rating, but today I heard it Reactions were “ . . are the clothes -/again and decided it is one of those still wet?” “ Then my neighbour he albums that grows on you. blew his nose.” A wonderful attempt at keeping folk type music You must be in the proper mood simple. --_ to appreciate it. Today it seemed to be a perfect topping for a “get up ’ The next song is the one that reand blow a doob morning”. Let’s ally gets in your brain. You may only hear it once and days later findsee if the same type of appreciation can happen in the mellow midnight yourself humming or even singing hour. Lights, camera, doob . . . it. “Apple SuckImg Tree”. You know the kind of song: foot The first song, “Odds and Ends” is quite a body pulsator. Dylan’s stomping, hand clapping, it’s just. voice is effectively used, but fantastic ! Dylan plays piano on this otherwise the song is \ not overly cut and although, it is definitely impressive. (Perhaps it is noticeable it> not dominant. Please Mrs. Henry is the plea of a foreshadowing the rest of the album; the songs are just odds and derelict who “ain’t got a dime”. ends). Fairly catchy but not an overly impressive song. Seems to be a poor I Next there is a quick switch to choice of rhymes but then I haven’t totally different tempo; a very nice heard too many rhymin’ derelicts mellow bluesy beat called “Orange lately. I could (almost swear that Juice Blues”. this song was improvised during A lover who patiently wants his the recording session. love to get right but seems tuned “Tears of Rage” ends the first into the balance enough to’realize half of the double album set. Some to be calm is the best, Garth people may not bother listening to Hudson’s sax really deserves mentioning here (except for two short the rest of the album after hearing blasts it is the centre of the mellowthis song. I guess it-depends on what you’re into. nes.s of the song). “Million Dollar Bash” brings It’s a very emotional song which Dylan back with his wail heard sounds quite bad at first then gets faintly- over a rythmically rolling worse. Someone wails in the back-piano. Lyrically it is nothing but it ground while others complain. There is a chance this one too can is a great song for drunks to sing along to. grow on you but it seems highly This album was recorded on a unlikely. The beginning of the next side is home taping system (mind you it a comment on fate “with too much was the Band’s, which implies that of nothing no one has control.” it was a goodsystem) but this is one Here one can see Dylan’s comsong which semi shows it. A bit rough is what I’m getting at. ments of life on the streets. “Too Much of Nothing” is definitely the Likewise with the next song, most intelligent song lyrically so far “Yazoo Street Scandal”. This one on this album (or maybe it’s my sounds just right with that special effect though. ’ state of consciousness); “Yea! Heavy and -a-Bottle of It’s got that ‘down-in the gutter’ Bread” is floaty enough. It’s the quality about it. I think it could be - the sleazy harp in the background. type of song -you- know Dylan is After all that, though, there was a warming up with. If there is anything which is close degree of impatience for the song to end. to a typical Bob Dylan song buried The next one “Goin’ to among the Basement Tapes this is Acupulco’ ’ , is probably also a song it. Ah! ..Those comments on the that grows on you, but it hasn’t on simple things of life-“The comic bookandme...” me yet. It’s not really even worth mentioning, but, as it is playing .I Then there’s a switch back to the may as well complain. I’m quite -Band with “Ain’t No More Cane”. bored-mind you I haven’t been This is a story of life on the chain listening to the words, which could gang in 1910. make all the difference. Rick Dar&o does an adequate job “Katie’s Been Gone” is defion mandolin in this song. Wow, the nitely a Band song. Ah Yes ! The, instrumental close to the song is lover waiting for Katie-she’ll just great! Anyone into the band probably not return: his heart is- must hear this one. broken. SOB.. Otherwise this piece Dylan returns with “Crash on the Levee”. Garth Hudson’s do- . is fairly well done. Next comes the best song on the minant organ on thisparticular tune album so far, As I sit here typing I reminds me of that old song ‘$96 can still feel the pattern of “Lo and Tears’ ’ . Behold” in my more relaxed This song- has that uniqueness chambers of the mind. which the next one, “Reuben This is an excellent piece of Remus”, lacks. No impressions of music. The. train vibes are de& this song at all so far. nitely there. Bob’s narration is just “Well, you can tell everybody perfect. Excellent song ! That’s all down in old Frisco Tiny Montgomthat can be said. ery said hello, ” Ha! As I hear this Then a sad love memory tune is played. The echo effect and everything remind me quite a lot of (if MAJESTIC THEATRE \ you can believe this) the memory sequence of Alice Cooper’s FOR THE SCHOOL’S OUT. Quite a lovely floaty song. FINEST IN This song, whic’h is entitled MOVIE ‘ ‘Bessie Smith’ ’ , has an excellent organ background. It’s not exactly ENTERTAINMENwhat you’d want to listen to at the pub, but nice as background music 6 Princess St. W. for. . .shall we say late evening acWatedoo 1 7434991tivities. ’ A .-‘.7’refle.ction.of_ 1the simplicity of
song I close my eves and picture some five foot freak clinging to the mike slurring “Tell ‘em all Tiny_ Montgomery says hello. ‘? Who remembers Tiny Montgomery anyway? This is a beautiful tribute to Mr. Average USA, “Tiny Montgomery” has a very smooth rythmic beat. I like it. The first song on the last side is a very nice version of Dylan’s popular “You Ain’t Going Nowhere”. WhenIfiist heardit, Ididn’tlikeit. But this time it’s done so nicely! Relaxed, you know. The music is bassy, just right. The words can be heard and understood well (which is a common problem among other songs on this album). ‘ ‘Don’t Ya Tell Henry” certainly has a great deal of vitality to it. This is a high energy song. Just great! Richard Manuel plays drums here and really keeps the beat together. ,Levon Helm does an excellent job of conveying the messageto the audience with his vocals. “Nothing Was Delivered”‘is not my type of music. Sort of a deep bluesy piano piece of trash. i Perhaps, I’ve been a bit too harsh. This song improves slightly as it gets to the end but still it is way under par. “Open the Door Homer” is a lesson we- must all learn; that is, C‘ .one must always flush out of his’house if he don’t expect to be housing plushes . . .“. Musically it is a bumpy piece, definitely in the blood but not over-noticeably. Then there’s another of those moans of a guy trying to get the operator to give his girl a call. Everyone seems to have at least one of these songs. This particular one is entitled (you guessed it) “Long Distance Operator” and is very well done, especially the harp by Richard Manuel. He’s very good; so is the song. (Really, I’m beginning to believe this album is worth hearing). The closing song is “ This Wheel’s On Fire”. It’s got a definite air of intrigue. This is an excellent song but not quite-what should end a Dylan album. The feeling Wheel’s On after hearing “This Fire” is to ‘put the album away rather than to start playing it over. Well, Bob Dylan and the Band’s Basement Tpaes deserves to be grabbed up by Dylan fans who’ll definitely enjoy it. Otherwise don’t _ get it. Rated 5 and a quarter out of 10. -
ROBERT RED CLIFF ROBERTSON/MAX
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they don’t have to play loud here to be heard. As a result, they come across much better. Musically, they tend to place a lot of emphasis on keyboards and percussion instruments (bongos, bells and other assorted goodies). Any group who likes bongo drums and kiddies’ Xylophones can’t be all bad.
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One can fault the C.C. Pub for many things: bad acoustics, bad seating, so-so atmosphere and surroundings but at least they’ve been trying to provide diversified entertainment . From Garfield through raunchrock to country-bluegrass ; now they’ve brought in a band that will appeal to those who enjoy music that is flavoured with an undercurrent of jazz. Audio Master was here during the summer and at that time they attempted to live up to their name by seeing how many ear-drums they could shatter. Their extreme volume prompted at least one bartender to threaten to pull out their plugs. This time around though, they’ve taken into account that
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Chess team scores in recent match In the recent match between the UW and Hamilton “A” level chess teams the UW team member Brian Douthwaite pulled off an upset victory against his highly rated opponent, the expert V. Mudroch. Douthwaite’s forceful attacking play was in marked contrast to the ineffectual efforts of this redoubtable opponent.
Dutch defence White: V. Mudroch Black: B. Douthwaite P-Q4 1. P-KB4 In this aggressive defence Black strives to control his K5 square and attack on the King’s-side at the cost of some positional drawbacks. 2. N-KB3 In view of the reputation of Mudroch as atactical player one might have expected him to employ the Staunton Gambit with 2 P-K4. However, as Douthwaite is known to be an expert on the Dutch Defence, Mudroch may have considered that course to be too risky. 2. N-KB3 3. P:KN3 P-K3 4, B-N2 B-K2 5. o-o ’ o-o P-B4 6. P-Q4 With his last move Black introduces the famous “Stonewall” Pawn formation which is characterized by the Pawns on Q4, K3 and KB4. Despite its impressive name the “Stonewall” formation has crumbled more than once. It is no longer as popular as it was forty years ago, since with so many Pawns on White squares Black’s Queen Bishop has little scope. White has a number of fairly promising plans at his disposal: (A) N-K5followed by N-Q3, P-KB3 and P-K4 with powerful pressure in the centre. (B) P-QN3 and B-QR3 to exchange off the dark square Bishops which will leave Black very weak on the dark squares. (C) N-QB3 followed by R-QNl with the idea of an offensive on the Queen’s-side by the advance of the QNP. 7. N-B3 P-B3 8 P-N3 Q-K1 Black swings his Queen over to the King’s-side for operations there; a typical maneuver in this defence. 9. N-K5 QN-Q2 10. Q-B2? *White can’t seem to make up his mind about his plans. 10 N-Q3 with P-B3 and P-K4 to come was the logical maneuver. Black is now able to virtually force the win of a pawn. 10. NxN! 11. %I N-N5 White discovers that he cannot defend his far advanced King Pawn. 11 P-KB4? is answered by B-B4ch while 11 B-B4 is met with P-KN4. White therefore tries to indirectly defend his King Pawn. B-N2 PXP 12. If12 . . .NxP White maintains material equality with 13 NxP but Black’s reply suggests that he should have first interpolated PxP before playing B-N2 although Black maintains a fine position in any , event. 13. PXP Q-R4 14. P-KR3 Obviously White had to prevent 14 .: :QxP mate. 14. ... NxKP Black wins the advanced King Pawn. 15. N-Q5 B-Q3 16. N-B4 Q-B2 17. KR-Ql ? The wrong Rook! Black will try for a ‘Pawn storm with P-KN4 followed by P-KB5 afterwhichtheabsence of the King Rookfromthe King’s-side will make itself sorely felt. Correct is 17 QR-Ql ! 17. B-B2 18. RlQ2 . .. The precautionary alternatives of 18 P-K3 to facilitate the defence of the King’s-side along the second rank or 18 B-QR3 to drive the Black Rook from the King Bishopfile would have been more prudent. 18. P-KN4 19. NQ3 N-N3 KB-B3 20. P-B5! Black will open the King Bishop file and launch a withering attack on the unfortunate enemy monarch. 21. Q-B3?! Rather than fall back on passive defence White elects to try and stir up complications. Perhaps he was hoping for Black to blunder / and permit a checkmate. 21. PXP 22. I+ BxP Black wins another Pawn. 23. B-R5 P-K4 24. BxN PxB! 25. BxN PxB! 26. R/Q2-Ql BxPch! Black plays with remarkable ingenuity. On 27 KxB then 27 .Q-R2ch, 28 K-N2 Q-R7ch, 29 K-B1 B-Q7 dis ch wins outright. This demonstrates the point of Black’s 25 .PxB! 27. K-R1 Q-B4 ’ NxB 28. Q-KSch 29. K-R2 RxN 30. QxB R-KR5 White is losing his Queen. 31. QxR QxQch 32. K-N2 R-KBl The flag on White’s clock fell, thereby signifying his loss on time but in any event the endgame is hopeless. Black’s alert play earned 8 a well deserved victory. -robert inkol
2 1, 1975
One might be led to think that the Throat’s latest album success might be based on the fact that Faces’ guitarist Ronnie Wood has been playing with the Stones. However, the material chosen and artists used in backing Rod Stewart’s million dollar voice are excellent. There are no references made to Ronnie, and his absence is barely noticed. For some reason, it is a relief to hear the Mod’s singing without the inevitable bottle-neck guitar work. AtIantic Crossing is, without a doubt, Rod’s best effort yet. The cover is on a par with any Yes sleeve, and seems to suit the music and the new studios well. (Rod drawn with a huge scarf, with London in the background, New York City in the foreground and two ships in between.) The cover is symbolic of Rod’s breaking with the tradition of recording in his homeland, while in fact trying out some new musicians in famous American recording studios. (A and R, Wally Heider, Criteria and Muscle Shoals.) But, it still sounds like that good 01’ Rod Stewart of old: the one who can rasp out a rocker or croon a slow love song. Two good examples of this talent appear in “Three Time Loser”, the heavier single released in the U.S.A. and “Sailing”, an English single and probably the best cut on the album, although all are excellent. String arrangements on this song as well as “I Don’t Want To Talk About It”, and “‘This Old
The trouble with doing Ibsen is that his plays are so strong, so packed with emotion and so mentally active that to portray his characters on stage with any degree of sincerity, the actor must concentrate on every single word, every unit of thought and all action of those around him as well as his own words and action. What is apparent in The Wild Duck production, now on at the Humanities Theatre, is that many of the actors have barely gotten off the ground and, like a wounded duck, grope around for a place to lay down and die. Performances on opening night generally lacked any energy. Nobody seemed to care about anybody else, and as a result there was very little tragedy at the climax of the play. The villain in this drama rather than being a representative of the old establishment, as in many social dramas, is the rebel idealist himself who cannot see past his own moral intentions into the eyes of the common man who, with all his faults, only hopes for a little peace and quiet and a shread of dignity. The tragedy arises when the idealist thinks he has lit up the ignorant man’s existance. Instead he has taken away the little amount of happiness the poor man had. Truth can be a dangerous weapon in the hands of a fraudulent Messiah. It has cost the poor man the life of his only child. Mark Knelman has provided us with two rooms as his set designs. One is drab green, the other drab grey. They certainly don’t inspire one’s imagination, all they do is sit there and occasionally wobble where they are not properly braced .I The only sparks of life in the production come from Terry Bryant (as . ,- Dr. Relling, the only aware
Heart of Mine”, two more songs on on which Stewart’s talent and conthe “Slow Side”, are superb, re- trol over sidemen shines. miniscent of the Beatles’ works Danny Whitten’s (dead guitar with arches tras . - player of Crazy Horse) “I Don’t New musician/co-writers in-Want To Talk About It” is good clude guitarists Jesse Ed Davis and even when compared to Whitten’s Steve Cropper who do excellent own “Come On Baby Let’s Go ’ work along with Pete Cart-, Jimmy Downtown” with Neil Young. Johnson, and Fred Tackett, who“It’s Not The Spotlight”, a ever they are. Goffin-Goldberg tune, is such a Lee Sklar is the only notable in nice song about the light in a lover’s the bass field, being a player in eyes. This field seems to fit Rod’s style the best. As long as Rod can James Taylor’s heavy rock band. Nigel Olsson, formerly with the be away from the ones he loves as also in “Still Love You” (one he balding superstar of pink glasses wrote himself), his songs, singing, fame, plays drums and percussion along with three others who are music and feeling will be fitting his very good but unknown to the re- nomadic character. “This Old Heart of Mine”, a viewer. David Lindley of Jackson Holland-Dozier-Holland tune is the perfect Motown song for him, and Browne and Linda Ronstadt fame his plays violin and mandolin, an in- the backing vocals complement strument Rod never seems to revoice perfectly. cord without. But “Sailing” is still the most superb, excellent, and above all, Enough about those musicians fair song ever done by Smiler. who help make it one of the best albums of the year; let’s get down By the way, Rod and the Faces to the music. The album is unique were the second best group I’ve in that it has a Fast Side and a Slow ever seen. Ronnie Wood is even Side. better there than he was with the The best song on the fast part is Stones, Tetsu is better than before, “Drift Away”, a familiar song penRod was sexier,-Ian McLagan was ned by Mentor Williams and given funny as hell, some other Japanese that now-famous Stewart touch. on rhythm filled in well, and Kenny “Three Time Loser” sees still doesn’t need a watch to keep Roddy “jackin’ off to Playboy on a time. But Rod dominated, even hot afternoon’ ’ , a great line to have over the Toronto Symphony Orto have changed on a single verchestra used for a few numbers. sion. In this world of disco and Tubes, The other titles, “Alright For An its great to hear some good music Hour”, “All In The Name of Rock for a change. Rod Stewart’s ‘N Roll” and “Stone Cold Sober” Atlantic Grossing is a decent and are well done and deserve listening. long awaited masterpiece in the The Slow Side is definitely the popular rock music trade. strongest of the two, being the one -@enn criger
character in the play), Brian Sexsmith (as old Ekdal, the mighty hunter of rabbits) and occasionally we get an odd burst of energy from Wally Bondarenko (as Hjalmar Ekdal, the pleasant, though bumbling, victim of the idealist’s campaign). Bryant bursts into the stale scene between Hjalmar and Gregers (the idealist) and makes everything clear. He defines the villain and the victim through his keen grasp of the situation. Brain. Sexsmith plays the old man with a feel for the humorous side of the aging lieutenant who at one time shot bears in the bushland, but now only rabbits in the attic. Though at times he gets a bit monotonous with his mugging and
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ludricrous mannerisms, Bondarenko manages to stir a ripple of pity in the audience for his predicament. And now the $60,000 question. Is seeing Ibsen, done haphazardly, better than seeing no Ibsen at all? In this production, Ibsen’s point barely comes across. From my standpoint, it is because of the strength of the writing and not-the delivery of it. Can the people who produced it really have learnt that much? An audience can put up with a great deal in order to get a smidgeon of entertainment. (Anyone who has sat through Italian opera knows that). Pardon me if I abstain from voting, my bias lies with the, playwright. . -myles
Gifts from Near & Far
Open 9.30 - 5~30 Friday * 53 Queen St. S., Kitchener
ge-typical middle-age char-lady (if you don’t know what that means, you can’t play it). Felicity-in her 20’s Lady Cynthia Muldoon-A beautiful woman in her 30’s Creative Arts Board, Federation of Students
uitar , harmonica. Music by Lightfoot, Simon & Garfunkel and others plus some original compokitions. Theatre of the Arts Free Admission Creative Arts Board, Federation of Students
J.S. Bach-Cantata No. 142 Christmas Carol Sing-a-long Alfred Kunz-Music Director & Conductor Humanities Theatre Admission $2.00, students & senior citizens $1 .OO Box Off ice-ext. 2126 Creative Arts Board, Federation of Students
9AM to 11 PM
Drop in and see our many distinctive gifts; Chinese Happy Coats, Hungarian Blouses, Russian Wine Sets, Danish Jewellery, Canadian Pottery, Japanese Tea Sets-and much more. Distinctive
newspaper critics of indeterminate age Bi rdfoot Simonl-Medium height and build; youngish Magnus-SO-40 spends most of the play in a wheel-chair Inspector Hound-f indeterminate age, but very much Sherlock Holmes-ey t a speaking part
232 King IV. Waterloo, Phone 885-2530 Qpposite Athletic Complex.
til 9 pm 745-0567
Choral music of Brahms, Schutz, Hassier Christmas Music Bach motet: Der Geist Hilft conductor: William Janzen Jr. Theatre of the Arts Free Admission Creative Arts Board, Federation of Students
with Barry MacGregor-Narrator and Kathryn Root-Pianist A full evening’s entertainment in which music and word POti the audience back into fhe life of the Schumanns. Theatre of the Arts Admission $5.00 students & senior citizens $2.50 Box Office ext. 2126
Rock Of The Westies Elton John MCA Records
With the release of his eleventh album, Elton John continues the tradition of high musical standards which have characterized the majority of his previous recordings. The latest album also marks the debut of a new musical lineup and a subsequently wider and generally harder sound. The gaps left behind by the departure of bassist Dee Murray and drummer Nigel Olsson (to whom this album is jointly dedicated) are ably filled by Kenny Passarelli (ex Steve Stills and Joe Walsh) and Roger Pope. Pope’s career includes stints
‘, ihe foIlowing review was written for the chevron by Kathy Bergen and Larry -Hannant on behalf of UW’s Progressive Cultural Club.
Is it still possible to make it, to win success and wealth in a time of economic crisis? In Mahogany, Diana Ross, in the best Shirley Temple tradition, proclaims success and happiness to be an attainable goal. Mahogany is a modern adaptation of the classic tale of the poor person who loses her soul in a determined drive to the top, but who comes to her senses and finds deeper satisfaction by turning her back on that success. But the routes are something to behold ! In her struggle to escape the Chicago ghetto, to flee the disintegrating slums, the welfare queues and the garment sweatshops, Diana turns away from her people and her “man”. That road carries her to the villas of the rich and beautiful. Ah, but the cost! Diana is remolded into a commodity-Mahogany, an internationally renowned model and clothes designer. In part, the movie is a striking portrait of the sordid process of creating and selling a product-whether it be a model, a movie star. a nolitician or a new
with the obscure Hookfoot, Kiki Dee and as an original member of Elton John’s band, dating back to the first album, Empty Sky, and continuing through Madman Across The Water.
Guitarist Caleb Quaye, who was also an original band member, has been added to complement Davey Johnstone’s playing, and keyboard whiz James Newton Howard, formerly with Melissa Manchester, filis in on synthesizer, harpsichord, electric piano, clavinet and mellotron. Percussionist Ray Cooper, who joined the band on Caribou and has since become notorious for his long kazoo solo on the live version of ‘ ‘Honky Cat” 9rounds out the mus-
brand of cigarette. But more than jus t a movie about the peddling of a high-class person, Mahogany is a touch of added lustre to Diana Ross’ own stardom. The last credit line presents to the viewers Diana Ross’ newest talent. It reads : Dress Design-Diana Ross. After a few more movies one could almost expect the final line to say: Diana Ross for President. In fact, Mahogany makes it clear why movie stars seem to take so readily to politics-witness Ronald Reagan and Shirley Temple Black. They’ve already got everything it takes-public exposure, an image, a following and, . like all the I... * * other politicians now in power, nave not a single answer to the pressing problems of unemployment, wretched housing etc. But there’s a second road to the top. In Mahogany it’s embodied in Diana’s boyfriend, Billy Dee Williams. While she’s living it up in Rome, he’s home in the guts of Chicago, flailing away , we’re told, at power-merchants and corrupt political machines. We don’t actually see any of these villains, but we can rest assured that Billy Dee is fighting ‘em, ‘cause he’s constantly in punch-ups with their pawns -fat, racist, white workers. Hollvwood is still on its cam-
ical lineup. The resulting sound places more emphasis upon the two electric guitars and Howard’s superb keyboards, and appears to, represent a direct reaction to the ballads which dominated Captain Fantastic.
The opening cut consists of three tunes whit h are grouped under the title of the “Yell Help Medley”. The upbeat melodies (“Yell Help” and “LJgly”) are catchy and well sung, but the brief “Wednesday Night”, which is sandwiched in between, illustrates Elton’s ability to write more memorable melodies to gentler lyrics. The tunes fit together nicely, and Labelle (whom Elton worked with i
paign to slander the American working class as reactionary, boorish and lethargic. Just why the working class might be moved to actively defend reactionary politicians Hollywood doesn’t tell. But it continues to, insist on that image, despite contrary objective conditions. In any case Billy Dee Williams’ answers to the people’s urgent demands are no more substantive than “Elect me”, and “It takes time to change things.” While Billy Dee campaigns, Diana champagnes , finally floating to the top of the smart set in Europe. But with success her’s, she ,realizes the truth of Billy Dee’s axiom: “Success is nothing without someone you love to share it with.” (cf. Love means never having to say ‘I’m sorry’. Freedom’s just another word for nothing left to lose .) So, home flies Diana, finding her love at a political rally. They rush into the crowd-he in his fancy threads, she in her haute couture, the faceless people in their Sally Ann suits-and with their embrace the film ends. The American Way triumphs again; all’s right with the world. That is, until you step outside the theatre.
a decade ago as a member of Bluesology) add minimal but effective backing vocals. Davev Johnstone also shares a writing credit on the cut, a first for John and Taupin. “Dan Dare” is a slower, funkier song, which highlights the clavinet work of James Newton Howard, and shows off Elton’s stro_ng vocals. It is a fresh departure from most of Elton’s, previous songs, and even the obscurity of Bernie Taupin’s Lyrics doesn’t detract from the overall effect. Davey Johnstone’s slide guitar lifts the largely inconsequential ‘ ‘Island Girl” to respectable status, and adds an element of catchmess which might otherwise have hampered its rise to the number one spot on the national singles charts. The lyrics are typical Taupin, describing a Jamaican hooker in simple, rather cliched lines, but the rhythmic beat lets him get away with it. “Grow Some Funk Of Your Own” and “Hard Luck Story” (the only non-original song on the album) are catchy rockers in “The Bitch Is Back” vein, and both could be likely candidates for singles. The frantic “Street Kids” is the best example of the wider guitar sound of the revamped band, and the style is comparable to “Saturday Night’s Alright For Fighting” from a few albums back. Of the nine selections on Rock Of The Westies, the two quieter tunes stand out as the most memorable. “Feed Me” with its Steely Dan overtones, is one of the most near perfect examples of matching lyrics to melody that Elton has ever committed to vinyl, and again, Newton Howard’s electric piano
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adds considerable to Gus Dudgeon’s arrangement. , The closing cut on side one !‘I Feel Like A Bullet (in the gun of is without a doubt Robert Ford)“, the best track on the album, and ranks alongside of “Your Song” and “Someone Saved My Life Tonight” in quality. It is the only slow song on the record, and Taupin’s randomly arranged metaphorical images are superbly expressed: “Like corn in a field I cut you down/I threw the last punch too hard/After years of going steady/Well I thought it was time/To throw in my hand for a new set of cards. . .” and the refrain “I feel like a bullet in the gun of Robert Ford/I’m low as a paid assassin is/You Know I’m cold as a hired sword. . .” The song also incorporates some of the themes of Western American heritage which Taupin became fascinated with in Tumbleweed Connection, and which have continued to influence his writing ever since. This one performance in particular will stand out long after the other tunes have become golden oldies, and will help to elevate Elton John above the status of being just an extremely gifted entertainer. Rock Of The Westies is a strong, catchy collection of pop-rock, played expertly by a group of talented musicians. The album ranks as one of Elton John’s best, albeit ephemeral efforts, and although it’s unlikely that it will gain him any new admirers, it shouldn’t disappoint any of his numerous fans. -john
e In the following
open letter to the academic
community Renison college social work professor Marlene Webber explains why she believes her contract will not be renewed.
Many people in the university and the community have shared with me their almost universal outrage with the purge of progressive academics form Renison College and many have offered their views on what course of action I should take to defend myself against the political repression which has resulted in the non-renewal of my contract. I have seriously considered these suggestions and am writing this statement now to clarify my response as well as to offer a view of what Renison College represents and what students and faculty need as basic pro’ tection from) reactionary administrations which are part and parcel of universities under capitalism. I have been notified by the Faculty Review and Retention Committee that they have recommended non-renewal of my three year probationary term contract which expires August 31, 1976. The board of governors of Renison College never acknowledged their acceptance or rejection of this recommendation despite an August 3 1,1975 deadline. One of the three members on the committee which ‘“reviewed” me was, according to Renison’s own procedures, inelig_ ible to sit on the committee. All of the committee members have in the past year indicated publicly their opposition to me as a professional colleague; one even previously published a letter slandering me and others, aletter rife with vicious innuendo (in the now defunct Renison newsletter, the CataIyst). He was subsequently criticised by the faculty and later published an apology. In addition, this mockery of a review committee operated under at least a tacit expectation from the board of governors and Towler that I was not to be renewed. The greatest irony in all of this is the fact that previous to the politically motivated firings at Renison last year, the college had no procedures of which to speak. In the wake of the “Renison Affair” and under pressure from Canadian Association of University Teachers Renison developed some very inadequate procedures not conforming to CAUT’s advice. However, under John Towler’s guidance, the College has not even honoured their own inadequate procedures. I do, of course, have recourse to appeal to archreactionary John Towler. If I am displeased with h$ decision I can appeal to the board of governors. It is already a matter of record at Renison College that John Towler intends to uphold the Review and Retention committee’s recommendation if I appeal. No one should labour under the illusion that anything akin to an impartial review of my contract was held. The extensive documentation I submitted for my review -including hundreds of anonymous student evaluations and letters of reference from students, professional colleagues in the university and in the community-provide evidence that I have an excellent teaching record and extensive service to the university and the community. It is especially significant that no credence was given to my contributions in social work as a practiceoriented discipline. In fact, the Review and Retention committee gave not a single reason that could be considered cause for my non-renewal other than vague allegations that my “professional conduct” didn’t in their judgement meet University of Waterloo Senate guidelines for standards of conduct. c So why I am being fired? It is extremely simple-I am a progressive academic who upholds Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tse-tung thought. The university, led in this instance by Renison College; systematically denies students access to this world view, this method of analysing the world and this theory as a guide to action. It is the same reason why Dr. Jeffrey Forest was fired and why the arbitration report on this case upheld Renison’s reactionary charges. (Incidentally, the arbitrator is a lay minister in the Anglican Church and chairman of his
parish’s advisory committee, a fact never disclosed to Dr. Forest by CAUT.) It is also the same reason why the Human Relations department is preparing conditions to attempt a termination of Dr. Marsha Forest’s contract. This situation should be watched very carefully. It is the same reason why other progressive academics will find their tenure-in question. Ht is particularly significant that this attack is escalating at a time when large numbers of serious people in the university as elsewhere think that MarxismLeninism-Mao tse-tung thought is the most advanced theory and are taking up its study and application. In my own discipline it is very clear that there are two contending world views-ne
view. It is immaterial whether they succeed in completing their purge for it is not a case of a few individuals holding these views, it is the rising trend in the world. Stripped of its jargon, what is happening at Renison College is straight forward class struggle where the board of governors, Towler and their puppets -- are vigorously defending the interests of the bourgeois minority over the majority. There are those who believe that the university is a traditional refuge for ‘left’ academics. Here we must make an important distinction. Universities are hotbeds of every kind of petit bourgeois socialism and new left ideologies--of every kind of opportunism. These teachings, while superficially left,
is thorough-going reaction, the other progressive. I bring the latter to bear in my teaching in social work and interdisciplinary social science. The first view holds that people are to blame for all social problems and individual social disability, that they must be ‘ ‘therapised” into “adjusting” and “coping with” reality. The progressive view blames the social system, trains students to investigate the real world and to organise to change the conditions which produce social problems. The tension between reform/rehabilitation and social change has long raged in social work. It is curious that at a time when the latter is gaining ascendancy Renison College chooses to purge the leading representatives of that perspective. The reactionary line in social work says that ideas come from books, that theory and practice are separable. The opposing view links theory with social practice, recognising that theory comes from practice and in turn serves practice. Reactionaries want nothing investigated, just ideas concocted in some academic’s head. Progressive teachers stand for investigation of material conditions as the basis for solving all problems. Social work, like any other discipline has contending class interests. The interests of the ruling class are served by rea&ionary lines in social work which propose that social workers are “experts”, masters over the destiny of their clients, who, “for one reason or another” are unable to compete in a competitive world. -Opposed to the expert line is the mass line where social workers exist to serve their clients, to unite with them in solving their common problems as immigrants, unemployed, welfare recipients, etc. It is this line which the Renison administration abhors and is attempting to silence. It is only an ahistorical view of the world which creates fantasies in the minds of reactionaries that they can hold back the tide by fiiing a few representations of that world
in practice serve the ruling class by mystifying issues and blunting resistance. It is towards democratic, progressive and communist ideologies that the university imposes the most severe restrictions. It is not that it is a wholesale impossibility for such people to work in a university -because the university too is tom by unresolved contradictions-but such academics are few and closely watched to ensure that they don’t exceed the limits of liberal propriety. There is nothing unique about the Renison College administration-it is simply, because of some special conditions, a concentrated expression of the university as a bourgeois institution. Its special condition is its aEiIiation with the most backward sentiment in the Anglican Church. (The Anglican Church itself harbours contention between reactionary and progressive forces). The most active section of the board of governors led by chairman Bill Townshend (Superintendent of Planning and Development for the Waterloo County School Board) represents definite class interests from industry, law and the Anglican clergy. In their practice, they have consistently upheld norms of behaviour which are centralized and anti-democratic. The degree of their interference in the everyday workings of the college reduces Renison to the status of a private boys school where the most authoritarian rule pervades. It is a degree of interference which would not be tolerated in university departments vis-a-vis the UW board of governors for instance. Because they have such direct influence and their representative John Towler is policing the daily operation, they have been able to realise most of their ambitions at Renison. Amongst their pet theories about the “problems” at Renison College have been ideas of conspiracy and malcontents. Yet in spite of the fact that Renison has
purged itself of John Towler’s nemesis (Miller, Forests, Sachs, Gupta, etc) the problems are deepening at the College. Under John Towler’s “leadership” Renison College is quickly going to the dogs. Either embarassed by his own incompetence or forced by the board of governors when they accept that to keep John Towler will mean the loss of the college-he will have to resign. It’s only a question of time. The main point in all of this is-without self-defense organizations, faculty, not only at Renison College but throughout the university have no protection-no job security, no cushion from the excesses of arbitrary authority;* no power to negotiate better wages and working conditions. Economic conditions have allowed a certain amount of complacency at UW and the brunt of the economic crisis has yet to lower its weight here. The impact, however, is already making a dent as in the History Department where struggle is developing around problems caused by the cutbacks. Also in secondary schools in Ontario as well as in health and welfare spending the cutbacks are already sharply felt. Illusions will not assist the junior faculty who w& be the first to go when the government shifts more of the burden of the economic crisis onto the university. Nor will it assist the tenured faculty who, too, have certain illusions about their positions D The grand total of 44 women faculty at UW, of course, can expect no special considerations. The only thing that can assist is a union. Without unity and strength the basic democratic rights and the interests of faculty won’t be protected m Some university faculty invoke ideas of bourgeois privilege, imagining that they occupy some special status as “professionals” above the working class. Out of conditions of necessity, secondary school teachers along with some social workers, nurses, librarians, etc. have been stripped of that fantasy. The case here will not be any different and people should prepare themselves for some changes. For all reactionaries that the university harbours, there are, as well, many democratic and progressive people. They, certainly, have no protection outside of unions. The time has long passed for backroom politicking, for patching up splits caused by divide-and-rule tactics, for abiding by the dictates of secrecy and individual negotiations, for isolating faculty from students and staff, and isolating faculty within their own departments. This is a guaranteed formula for defeat, no matter what the demands. The ruling class did not invent these methods to see themselves usurped but rather to ensure their own entrenchment. Students too have to organize themselves to exercise control over hiring and fiig, to fight against cutbacks in educational spending which will undermine loans, bursaries and the quality of their education. In conclusion, I am quite prepared to leave Renison College. I have no intentions of appealing to such outright reactionaries. Besides it is my view that I have no reason to appeal because I have not been legally terminated. I regret that anybody should have to work in the oppressive conditions existing at the college. Since Towler’s arrival I have been subject to outstandingly unjust treatment, petty harassment (stripped of popular introductory courses, excluded from committees, scheduling of 8:30a.m. classes Monday to Friday, most blatant chauvinist treatment from Towler, and on and on). I want very much to teach, to be an active part of a democratically run department which appreciates diversity. Under the Townshend-Towler administration this will never be the case at Renison College. I have written this statement in the spirit of open debate which should characterize an academic community. In this spirit I encourage students and faculty to engage in a public debate on the question of unionization and the rights of progressive and MarxistLeninist faculty to teach. -markne
scuran 0 issue obscurantism is opposition to inquiry and enlightenment, to clarity and plain speaking. It makes the world incomprehensible, nebulous, and thereby engenders pessimism, cynicism and despair. In many religions and occult practices the workings of obscurantism are quite obvious, but they are also prevalent in intellectual undertakings veiled by academic respectibility. At the University of Waterloo, obscurantism is practiced in -order ‘to oppose progressive ideas and create confusion in the minds of people who are seriously trying to understand the world. As an indication of a significant upsurge of interest in progressive ideas, writings have appeared recently in the chevron in opposition to the bourgeois outlook on science (Oct. 24, p. 27) and unscientific treatments of heredity and IQ (Nov. 7, p. 25). Now, a professor Jan Narveson in the Philosophy d,epartment has seen fit to attack these progressive ideas in recent letters (Nov. 7, p. 22; Nov. 14, p. 22), droning on at great length about the lies and fallacies which he, a “professional philosopher”, claims to have-discovered. Professor Narveson clearly disagrees with the content of the progressive writings, but he focusses his criticisms on the writers themselves 9 challenging their competence and integrity, and he uses devices of form and style to confuse ordinary readers. Unwilling to confront these progressive ideas openly and directly, our philosopher has resorted to a number of empty rhetorical devices which constitute the practice of obscurantism. The present essay is intended simply to analyze six techniques which Professor Narveson employs in his two letters to obscure the actual difference of outlook between the progressive writers and himself. After explaining to the readers of the chevron how he mystifies and confuses the issues, and why so many people, including myself, had such great difficulty figuring out j,ust what this man was saying, we can then proceed with the debate about the two views of science. Reference to Narveson’s statements will be made using a code indicating the date (A is Nov. 7; B is Nov. 14) and a number indicating the-paragraph within each of his two letters. 1. Introducing ambiguity and refusing to take a stand. This device is used 16 times in the two articles. For example, he says, 6‘ . . .so far as I can see, the argument is either quite wrong, or self-contradictory, or inapplicable to its apparent target o . .” (B16) Well, whichisit, professor? Andjust how far can you see? Apparent to whom? Vague statements such as these cannot be refuted, because they contain indefinite qualifiers such as “So far as’ ’ , “either . . .or . . .or”, and “apparent.” Throughout his letters, our philosopher refuses to take a stand which can, in principle, be tested for its validity. Another phrase is “ . . .there is really nothing wrong, and in the main a whole lot right, about using some such definitions as the one quoted.” (A4) Here confusion is generated to a high degree. If there is nothing wrong, but it is not unequivocally right either, then there must be some unspecified aspects of the definition which are neither right nor wrong, which means that confusion is inherent in the definition itself. Then the professor says “some such.. .as”, which makes the very object of the statement indefinite . As a final case, take this eyesore: “Now, there are some minor matters in the quoted statement whit h would need a bit of explanation, but so far as the main claim is con-
cerned, it should be pointed out that Wahlsten’s reaction is probably’ ill-taken.” (A3) First, if the matters are minor, why raise them? Second, having raised them, he should at least say what they are. And how much is a “bit”? The professor said that “it should be pointed out,” which means that he is calling on someone else to do the job. Then he refers to a “reaction” as “ill-taken.” To be precise, this says that the quoted statement caused Wahlsten to vomit. But this result he asserts is only “probable.” Thus, instead of stating clearly that Wahlsten’s view is wrong, our philosopher proposes that someone else should say that Wahlsten may have become ill after reading the quote ! It is no wonder that many ordinary people have had great difficulty slogging through this intellectual quagmire. 2. Imputing statements which were not written and answering charges which were not made. Narveson rants against the view
that “science requires a blood-and-guts commitment to the ultimate victory of the proletariat.” (A20), when this statement was never made. The initial letter (Oct. 24) said clearly that there are two kinds of science, serving either the bourgeoisie or the proletariat. The author of the IQ article is charged with calling Jensen a racist and failing to define racism, when in fact the term “racist’ ’ never appears in the article at all. In addition, there are a large number of statements putting words into the authors’ mouths. For example, “What he has to be referring to.. ’ ’ (A5), “One presumes that they already knew..” (A19), “one would have to infer that he thinks. .” (B4), “It could be that the authors thinks.. (B6), etc. One letter (Oct. 24) stated clearly that dialectical materialism “is not taught” here, but our philosopher says that this “seems to imply” that it is not studied (Al@, and he rejects this non-claim. Altogether, these devices are used 19 times in the two letters. Unable to oppose the arguments which are actually given, he fabricates some closely related views with which he can find fault, at the time trying to discredit the authors and cause confusion. This is the work of a thorough-going reactionary and coward, and it is the opposite of science. 3. Making everything tion. A definition cannot
be correct or incorrect, only useful or an impediment. A thesis or theorem which asserts something about the material world is subject to verification, but a definition merely states what the terms of the thesis mean. Our philosopher responds to the progressive view of science (Oct. 24) by proposing his own three-part definition of science, the second part of which is itself contrary to the opposing view. (A3) His entire argument is thus mere tautology. First he concocts a definition which contradicts the statement, and then he claims that the statement is disproved by the definition! The effect of this exercise is to avoid dealing with what was actually said, the main argument, by seizing on a detail and giving it a different meaning. This is very clear in the professor’s treatment of materialism (A9). He offers a metaphysical view of materialism which totally obscures how metaphysics and materialism are opposites. He then claims that dialectical materialism is a “set of rather loose and unspecific terms.” (A9) Using his authority as a professional philosopher, he defines the word to be exactly the opposite of what Marx and Engels meant. Thus does confusion run rampant in letters A and B. 4. Citing mysterious authorities and unnamed “experts”. Incapable of giving clear
and convincing evidence on many points himself, our magician-philosopher simply conjures up support for his views. In his letter on the IQ article, he calls forth assistance from “well-informed acquaintances in psychology” (B 14), makes reference to “well-known facts” (B13), speaks of “highly competent people” (B34) who support Jensen and Herrnstein, and bases his argument on views of “those who know his (Jensen’s) work” (B33).
OK, professor, let’s see your cards. Name your sources, and cite your facts ! I say that no such facts exist, that many “reputable” scientists oppose Jensen, and that you are a charlatan! This technique is the one used by Joe McCarthy to purge progressive and democratic people from the U.S. government, and by Pierre Trudeau to invoke the War Measures Act. By citing secret evidence “in my pocket,” these devious characters deflect the question away from the central issue of whether the actual evidence supports conclusions, to a question of whether or not McCarthy, Trudeau and Narveson are liars. These criminals use their respected positions as Senator, Prime Minister and Full Professor to persuade people that their conclusions are valid irrespective of the facts. 5. Ignoring published material and carefully selecting sources of information. Wheras
method No, 4 asserts that unreal sources do exist, this method claims that sources which are real do not exist. For example, our philosopher speculates that dialectical materialism is merely hypothesis and was regarded as such by Marx himself (AlO). But he ignores what Mao Tsetung, the greatest living dialectical materialist, has to say on is held to this question : “Marxism-Leninism be true not only because it was so considered when it was scientifically formulated by Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin but because it has been verified in the subsequent practice of revolutionary class struggle and revolutionary national struggle. Dialectical materialsim is universally true because it is impossible for anyone to escape from its domain in his practice.” (“On Practice,” Selected Tsetung,
Foreign Languages Press, Peking, 1971, p. 77). In his reply to the IQ article, our philosopher engages in a virtual orgy of ignorance, making more than a dozen statements which are not supported by published material. For example, he speaks of experiments “matching environments as closely as is humanly possible,” (B30) in spite of the fact that his has never been attempted or even claimed. Instead, many articles have been published demonstrating serious flaws in research with human twins. Our philosopher also claims that “Highly competent people agree that (Jensen) certainly hasn’t been refuted:” (B34) But the “experts” do not agree. Hirsch, Bodmer and Cavlli-Sforza, among others, have long ago rejected Jensen’s arguments. What Narveson attempts by this device is to prop himself up as an “expert” and thereby lend support to his backward line. In fact, he refers to none other than himself as “insight into the nature of science.” (A20) So we must decide who is an authority on dialectical materialism, Jan Narveson or Mao Tsetung; and who knows the views of “Highly competent people” in genetics, Jan Narveson or Jerry Hirsch. For myself, the views of people who actually apply dialectical materialism and even bourgeois science in practice are more worthy of respect than those of a two-bit, arrogant windbag and ignoramous. 6. Accusing others of crimes commits himselfe Our philosopher
charges others (9 times) with committing fallacies (A19), using ambiguous terms (A20), omitting ‘ ‘proper citations” (B 13), being “badly informed and conceptually confused” (B37), and issuing “contemptible verbal drool” (B7). This technique is intended to maximize confusion by standing truth on its head. He tops it off by accusing the chevron of doing disservice to its readers by publishing the IQ article which amounted to 32 column-inches of material, when his own response to it ran 47 and one half column-inches and his reply to my brief letter of 12 and one half columninches rambled on for 31 and one half column-inches. Now, the IQ article was concise, clear and, in my opinion, correct, and my letter was timely, concise and controversial, whereas our philosopher’s writings are murky, languorous and uninformative. The
readers of the chevron #will decide who is doing a disservice to whom in this case. Most incredibly, professor Jan Narveson concludes by calling for progressive science to be banned from the chevron (B35). Hey, Jan, what about democracy and freedom of expression on this campus? You want the freedom for yourself to ramble on in the pages of the student newspaper, but you want opposing voices to be silenced. How well you have exposed your reactionary views! It is excellent that the chevron publishes both sides in this dispute so that ordinary people can see for themselves who talks sense and who is progressive. In conclusion, professor Narveson’s writing is an exercise in obscurantism and reactionary thinking which is opposite to progressive science in every respect. He takes the best qualities of progressive thinking and attributes them to himself, and he takes the worst aspects of his own thinking and attributes them to others. Thus are the two sides in this dispute drawn up, each accusing the the other of the same crimes. Those among us who are serious scientists and honest intellectuals must proceed in the coming months to determine who is correct. This is class struggle on the ideological front! Doug Wkthlsten, with t&t2 hdp of S~W~P~I friends
I am responding to a letter written by Jan Narveson, which appeared in the Nov. 7 issue of the chevron. In that letter he attacked Doug Whalsten’s attitude towards science (Oct. 24, chevron). I wish to comment on the tactics of debate used by Narveson in his letter. He assumes the posture of an expert, presumably an expert in the Philosophy of Science. First he expresses his appreciation of “other people besides PROFESSIONAL philosophers” taking an interest in his subject, then he proceeds to “set matter straight” for the readers, so that innocent people will not be misled. As an exhibition of the clarity of his own thinking he proceeds to mystify science by proposing three alternative definitions-for it: scientific method; scientific theories and scientific research activities. Since Whalsten was never confused about the meaning of science and only definition no. 2 was used in Narveson’s own letter anyway, what purpose can he serve by raising those pointless alternatives other than to establish his own expertise as a philosopher of science? This same expert line reappears when Narveson discusses materialists. Doug Wahlsten states very clearly that he means “someone who believes that the world is knowable and that the laws of nature exist in the material world independent of human will”. Narveson offers a crumb of his erudition: there is also a metaphysical meaning of materialism, “the claim that mental phenomena are identical with physical ones and may be reduced to them”. Once again Narveson proves that his ideological opponents are so ignorant of the possibilities in the twisting of words in the so called philosophy today. Since he admits that this alternative definition of materialism has no bearing on science (“it is quite possible to pursue not only physics but even psychology without it”), I am convinced that Narveson raises this issue only to frighten amateurs. What should be considered by the people as scientific? Narveson asks the people to submit to the opinion of : he “relevant experts” (although what qiralifies the “experts” he never discuss- ;). Since he has posed as an expert (possibly of relevance), he hints to us to take his words as correct. Those are his tactics of debate! To follow Narveson’s line is to let a hand-. ful of “experts” to determine what is correct for the people. In the world today, there is a strong movement for the scientists to serve
2 1, 1975
the need of the people, and the ordinary people to understand -their environment (both social and physical) through scientific investigations. Narveson’s line which mystify science (and philosophy) opposes this progessive movement and should be seriously dealt with. I am startled by Narveson’s ignorance of dialectical materialism. He describes it as “a set of rather loose and unspecified claims about the main determinant if history”. It is a common knowledge (“common s&se’ ’ in Narveson’s words) that dialectical materialism pertains to every branch of science, not just to history. Frederick Engels “Dialectic of nature” dealt with problems in subjects ranging from astronomy to biology. When applied to history, we have what we call the “materialist -historical point of view”. While it remains a paradox that a professor of philosophy is ignorant of this fact, it certainly sheds some light on why there were no more than eight students in his course on Marxism. I suggest to Mr. Narveson that he stop posturing as an authority, and involve seriously in the debate on the current issues in science. P.S. There has been discussions on campus about the theories concerning the XYY syndrome. It is demonstrating to note that to follow Narveson’s line would mean to let a handful of so called ‘>‘scientists” to provide a theoretical basis for the attack on civil rights. Physics
C. S. Kang Student
Study and practice Materialist dialectics is one of the most widely applied philosophies of science in the world today. It’s users claim deeper practical and theoretical understanding of Iif& in this world, including a fundamental improvement in their ability to change the world in their interest. This letter refers to a discussion in feedback by Doug Wahlsten, and later Jan Narveson, of the scientific search for truth and the practical and theoretical meaning of materialist dialectics in and for this search, including some political consequences, i.e. how and why people work together. The word “science” is usually used to refer mainly to a way of knowing through observation, hypothesis and testing. Those expositions in philosophy of science which treat one aspect, theory, “a consensus of rational opinion distinct from other bodies of knowledge and from its application”, in isolation from the context of observation and testing are, therefore, not themselves scientific. Is our main interest in doing philosophy, e.g. of science, or in doing science? What is at issue is whether we mainly or only want to understand how (abstractly or concretely) and what, e.g. the world in which we live and work; or whether our main interest is to test, apply and develop the understanding by acting
to affect the world.
The theory of dialectical materialism may be considered to be a scientific philosophy because one of its main proponents claims it is based on practice, citing evidence, and states that theory should be tested in practice. (1) Narveson either wilfully ignores this, or he does not understand it. For example, his observation that turnout for his Marxism course was low “despite the apparently large population of aspiring Marxists dweldialectics, the ling among us”: Materialist form of scientific method which Marxists say they apply, requires practice and not merely theoretical consideration. If Narveson has studied the main ideas of dialectical materialism he has not understood and in any case is not interested in the requirement of the materialist-dialectical paradigm for practice to deepen understanding, or why would he presume that some prospective course participants did not attend because “they already knew all there was to know about dialectical materialism and associated
matters, and/&- were not about to associate with bourgeois professors whose professed aim was merely to analyze Marx’s ideas carefully and try to determine what sort of evidence was relevant to them, just what they imply about what, and so on”? “Merely to analyze” is inadequate. Materialist dialectics claims more than that experimental trial of an hypothesis or application of a theory provides evidence for a judgement about the nature and extent of truth or falsity of the hypothesis or theory. What is claimed is that the step to test of practice is more important than the step of theorizing, “for it is this leap alone which can prove the correctness or incorrectness of the first leap. . .There is no other way of testing truth.“(2) As a consequence of the repetition of this process, the kind of knowledge one develops goes from one-sided, from external, to many-sided, towards a knowledge of the basis of motion, change and development in things, which is considered in the theory of dialectical materialism to be internal.(3) I see this deepening of knowledge of a thing, this approach to the essence, the “insideness” of a thing, to the contradictoriness in its essence, to its dialectic, as (in other words) an approach to an applied intuition of “what makes it tick” through a cycle of practice and reflection followed by practice again. Political materialist
consequences of applying dialectics: Seeking truth from
facts is something anyone. can do. This depends on people’s initiative and not on the pomp and circumstance of some mouthpiece of imperial “omniscience”. Wahlsten claims that in Marxism “social practice is the sole criterion for truth”. (Narveson emphasizes this claim by opposing it bombastically.) Mao Tsetting says that scientific experiment is a kind of social practice and continues, “It is man’s social being that determines his thinking”(4) (historical materialism). I think that both the social origins of scientifically treated problems as well as the development of ways of solving them, and the effects of solutions, involve people working together. Is scientific experiment essentially a matter of social practice? Readers please reply;’ I prefer that you make your assertions in a testable form. Chevron, please, reprint “Where do correct ideas come from?” by Mao, which appeared in these pages ca. May 5,197O. I urge people interested in understanding the world in order to change it to give the ideas stated there careful consideration; to investigate with understanding, and to understand through application. Footnotes
(1). Mao Tsetung, says on Philosophy
“On Practice”, Four EsForeign Languages Press,
Peking, 1966. (2) Mao Tsetung, “Where Do Correct Ideas Come From?“, Four Essays, p. 135 (3) “On Practice”, p.26 (4) “Where Do Correct Ideas Come From?“, p. 134. --ernst
Student council blasted
This letter was addressed Nov. 5 to the members of the federation student council.
I am writing this letter on behalf of the Environmental Studies society council to inform you of our dissatisfaction with your behavior of late. We feel that you, as a body, have acted irresponsibly as representatives of the student population of this campus. In particular we refer to the recent motion of your council, which would allow yourselves as councillors to receive excessively extensive privileges with regard to all social, educational, and other federation events. We can see no reason why these privileges and the $50.00 expense account for each
councillor should be financed by the remainder of the student body. This, we feel, is gross irresponsibility on the part of council: -a council that can rarely achieve a quorum of its members; -a council that does not communicate adequately with its electorate; -a council that should be ostracized for its selfish irresponsibility. David
McLellan President Studies Society
daunted and will carry on the people’s fight against the “revisionist” Martians until I too become a martyr. In this spirit I challenge the Martian Manipulators to engage the people of the earth’s army in a fight to the death ! We’ll meet you on the steps in front of the library at 3 :00 pm Tuesday the 1 lth. Chains and pipes ok but no zip guns or knives longer than 10”. John Anti Martian
Lies and slanders
Censorship claimed The following poem was censored from Thee Record Store ad in the chevron, Friday, November 7, 1975, Page 28. Flash, Flash We need the posties back Over 10,000 grand a year Why do they live in fear The union is so big and strong Few members work on The record spins around But they don’t listen to the sound About all the mail Rotting on the ground To cripple our economy Is surely a sin Greed is the Word Through apathy they win We loose! Censorship in chevron? Who is God? John
Who is god indeed? The record store is a Federation of Students enterprise and one would expect its ads to conform to federation policies. Is it federation policy to attack and slander unions? Not according to president John Shortall, who expressed ‘shock’ upon being shown the alleged poem. The place for personal sentiments to be expressed is in the feedback section of the chevron, not in an ad for which the record store manager does not pay and which is intended to advertise a federation-offered service and not to provide a soapbox for personal pontificating. -lettitor
Martian rumblings Oh, the tide seems to be turning and if the light at the end of the tunnel is not yet visible, at least the tunnel is just around the bend. Yes, my scathing attack on Wahlsten Psychology has sent the coward packing (for good?); the mighty sword of the people’s truth has struck home.. . but, fellow earthlings, the battle is far from over. Last Wednesday there was a public forum (which, by the way, you failed to announce) on ‘ ‘The control of Passions in an Aphrodisiac Society” and let me tell you, what transpired at that fateful forum would fry and frazzle the fears of free fraternal friends everywhere! Oh shame! Oh disgrace! For, you see, our orderly and meaningful discussion had only just begun when a group of rabble rousers rose up and totally dominated the meeting! They (a new group known as the Martian Alliance of Geographers and Planners) turned our search for truth into a tawdry ideological song and dance act. Those persons in the audience who had come to hear the truth were berated for their honest desire to listen and were bombarded with over-ripe avocados ! At this point, we of the Anti-Martian Alliance rose up as one and marched against the imperialist avocado-mongers. After a bloody battle the cowards fled with their tails tucked between their legs. We won, but the price was dear-3 AMA mem,bers were fatally killed and one, as their leader, sustained serious flesh wounds. But do not fear, earth people, for martyrdom is the reward for valiant and fearless dying in the cause of the people’s revolution! Though dazed and bloodied, I am still un-
Jane Peddie’s reply (Chevron, Nov. 14) to Doug Wahlsten’s letter (Chevron, Oct. 31) contains a number of distortions and several outright lies. It is just another vain attempt to slander the Anti-Imperialist Alliance without reference to any objective fact. To refresh Jane’s memory about the . wages for housework meeting to which both letters referred: In a vote of all those present there was overwhelming approval for Professor Marlene Webber to read an AIA statement on the wages for housework question. Jane supposes that the audience was “packed with AIA members.” This is more than a distortion-it is an outright lie. It is no doubt difficult for Jane to believe that many non-AIA people find the wages for housework position to be nonsensical and, as one member of the audience put it, reactionary. But it is obvious that Jane’s cause does not find wide support among the majority of students and workers. Another outright lie is the declaration about the length of the prepared text which the audience voted to hear. It was 7 minutes in length. Marlene Webber was rudely interrupted after only 3 minutes. It is clear why this interruption took place. The statement was a concise criticism of the fundamental tenets of wages for housework. It was a devastating critique, a class analysis bolstered by facts about the real condition of women in Canada. (And how many times was Susie Fleming, the imported wages for housework expert, heard to say “I don’t know what things are like here in Canada, but . ..?) Because it was so harsh on wages for housework, the AIA statement was cut short by the ravings of a few social-fascist feminists who cannot uphold their feeble causes in a thorough-going give-and-take based on the real world situation. Despite their best attempts, the statement did spark vigorous discussion among the majority of people at the meeting who wanted to deal with the issue at hand. As a contrast to their own petty efforts to smother democratic discussion, Jane and her friends should attend any AIAsponsored event. Full and open discussion is encouraged ! At the Green Paper on Immigration Forum, the symposium on China and the superpowers, and the wage control meeting there was enthusiastic and thorough discussion amon the hundreds of people present; the complete9 opposite to what occurred at the wages for housework meeting, where discussion was stifled and men were refused the right to speak. The UW community and KitchenerWaterloo as a whole, will support democratic and progressive issues. The AIA, in united action with many other groups, has proven that to be the case. The wages for housework people may sputter their hysteria all they want-in the meantime there is serious work to be done to resist the attack of the Trudeau government and to build a united front against U.S. control of Canada. Wages for housework is a retrogressive clamor raised by a minority. We urge these women to come out of their houses and join the real struggle of. the Canadian people. Jenn
the factors while holding one of them constant. For example, -according to Jensen’s claims, individuals who have the same social class background, but differing levels of adult IQ should fare quite differently in terms economic success, dependof ing on the amount of difference between their IQ’s-the one with a higher IQ coming out better. Jensen would say that years of school and social class background only relate to success (Tables 2 & 3) because they
Social Class Background
In a continujng are presenting adopted from
critique the thik/ “Science
of the IQ concept, we in a series of features for the People”.
The ideologues of IQ have been rightly attacked on the basis that their “scientific claims are no more than distortions and lies. But those who attack Jensen, Herrstein, and Shockley on this level often share with them an important underlying assumption. The assumption is that IQ is basically important to being an economic success in North American society. Put another way, if you’re smart, you’ll succeed. Those who fail to analyze and attack this assumption are ignoring the essential political content of the entire IQ controversy. In fact, IQ is not an important cause of economic success. Arguments about the heritability of IQ or what IQ measures are really irrelevant to understanding why some people are wealthy and successful and others are not. What are the causes of economic success, if not intelligence? And what part does IQ actually play? During recent years many opponents of Jensenism have not addressed these crucial questions. They have rather ineffectively argued that IQ is affected by environment, and is therefore changeable. The answer, they say is in progressive social reform-in providing equal opportunity by improving “disadvantaged environments. ” By sticking to an IQ-is-important-to-success basis, though, these reforms have had severe shortcomings. First, even though some programs have raised IQ scores, they have not increased the economic gains .of their participants. Program planners then become disillusioned and end up putting the blame on the victims. Second, many “improved environments” for raising black IQ’s are simply modeled after those of whites. This orientation seems to accept the idea that intelligence differences among whites of different class and environmental background are ‘ ‘natural. ” The meaning of IQ and the class structure of white society go unchallenged. And third, many of these program planners accept the idea that society rewards people who are talented and smart by giving them better jobs, higher pay, etc. The corollary to this notion is that programs to eliminate unfair and unnecessary causes of lower IQ’s will eventually lead to a stratified society based on intelligence alone. In fact, it would be even more absolutely stratified than now, but fairly so-since the “dumb” would be poor and the “smart” would be rich! As long as people think that IQ and intelligence are basic to success, and refuse to look at the source of the blatant inequities in the North American class structure, they will end up reinforcing these inequities every time. Why have so few people questioned this basic limiting assumption while practically every other part of the Jensen school has been blasted? The answer is that IQ serves an important function in maintaining the status quo for those who benefit from it by making it appear right and legitimate. IQ serves to detract from the real issues. Having a high or low IQ does not determine whether a person will be rich or poor; but it has made the privileged positions of the few appear more fair and acceptable.
IQ doesn’t determine success-the evidence
The evidence presented in the following tables demonstrates that IQ is unimportant in determining who makes it and who doesn’t. The data shows that IQ score and ~ economic success do correspond; but there is also a direct relationship between years of schooling and economic success and between social class and economic success-more strongly than IQ. There is no logical reason for Jensenists to point to high IQ as the determiner of success. Why not schooling or social background? When each factor is considered separately to find out what has the most influence on becoming economically successful, we find
that the influence of IQ is neglegible. It only appears to affect economic outcome because it is attached to more important influences-schooling and social class. The following tables will demonstrate this clearly. Adult 8109
Table 1 shows the connection between adult IQ and economic success (the relation most often referred to by Herrnstein). Across the top, the table is divided in terms of IQ-from the lowest 10th of the population to the top 10th. The same is done with economic success starting from the lowest 10th of the population up the highest. The numbers in the slots cox?espond. to how a sample population falls into these categories when their IQ’s and economic success are mzasured and related to each other. In a survey of 100 people in the top IOth of the population for IQ, a person in that category would have a chance of being also in the top 10th economically approximately 30.9% of the time. This person’s chance of being in the 2nd highest 10th of the population for economic success is 19.2% , in the 3rd highest, 13.8%, and so on. His or her chance of being at the very bottom while still being in the group of 100 with such a high measured IQ is only about 6%. Since the chances are randomly 10% that any individual will end up in any particualr lOih of the population, w&ould also say that the person in the top 10th IQ rank is 3.09 times (about 3 times) as likely (10% x 30.9) to end up at the top economically and .06 times as likely (10% x .6) to be at the bottom, than if IQ and economic success had nothing to do with each other. This is just another way of describing how much these two factors-econo&c success and IQ-will occur together in people. So Table 1 illustrates the most immediate support for the IQ theory of social stratification-that high IQ and high level of economic success do have a strong association. On the other hand, Tables 2 & 3 show how misleading and narrow this statistical support really &. For when years of schooling (Table 2) and @al class background (Table 3) are related to economic success, even stronger associations occur. For example, an individual in the top 10th in schooling is 3.76 times as likely to be also at the top economically and .Ol times as likely to be at the bottom, while the corresponding numbers are 3.26 and .04 for social class background. These statistics could easily be used to draw up a “level of education attainment theory” or a ‘ ‘socio-economic background theory” of social stratification since they are stronier than the correlation Hermstein and the others use. Clearly, though, this is a case of selectively using numbers to prove one’s Years of Schooling 9
(adjusted) by Tenths
Social Class Background xl0
IQ by Tenths 7
is really via its connection to years of schooling and social class. It is unimportant as a factor in itself. But let’s go back to a table like Table 1 (a measure of the relationship between IQ & economic success)-but this time corrected in light of our new information-to see for sure. Suppose we now measure the effects of IQ on economic success, so that years of schooling and class background don’t affect
by Tenths 5
are associated with higher adult cognitive (IQ) skills (i.e., people with more years of schooling and higher class background are also richer because they are smart to begin with). Table 4 shows that this is false. For in Table 4 individuals of equal education and class but differing adult IQ’s do not vary too much at all in economic success; certainly much less than Table 1 would indicate they do (14.1% chance for the top in Table 4 as compared with 30.9% in Table 1). This indicates that the high relationship exhibited in Table 1 must be more due to the association IQ has with schooling and class than it does when measured as the primary cause, as in Table 4 (where its importance goes down). So although higher IQ’s and economic success tend to go together, IQ’s are not an important cause for this. Table 5 deals with the role of schooling in promoting economic success when viewed independent of IQ. The IQ proponent argues that the reason schooling and economic sucAdult
Years of Schooling
16 2 15.3
15.3 1162 14.6
own theory-which is just what they can do by using only the information found in Table 1 in his arguments. There are logical errors in using ani of this data by itself to draw conelusions. Tables 4-7 show how these factors (IQ, years of schooling, and social class background) contribute independently to a person’s economic status, and to what degree. This is done by combining certain of
by Tenths 5
Social Class Background x 10
IQ by Tenths
cess are strongly associated in Table 2 is due to the fact that success depends on intellectual capacities (as measured by IQ). Yet Tables 2 & 5 are almost the same. When adults with equal IQs get a high level of schooling, they achieve only about the same level of economic success as do adults with a high level of schooling and differing IQs (33.2% is highest in Table 5; 37.6% in Table 2-a negligible difference). Put another way, Table 5 shows that years of schooling does indeed make a difference on an individual’s economic success, but that the intelligence factor that IQ may measure, accounts for an insignificant part of that schooling’s influence. What you get rewarded for because you went to school x number of years isn’t due to IQ. It may be due to what you learned there, or to the diploma you got, or to the particular socialization that went on. It must be some combination of these factors that school generates and rewards, and upon which it selects individuals for higher education, Tather than IQ, that makes years of schooling significant. x109
our results. Then, we’d have an accurate measure of how much iQ really does affect who makes it and who doesn’t,-independent of anything else. By factoring out the influence of the data in Tables 2 & 3 (schooling dz class) from the IQ data in Table 1, we can approximate this hypothetical situation. Now we would be left measuring the situation Herrnstein refers to as the pure meritocracy. We have such a situation in Table 7. All that is left of the category Social Class Background in this data is the “pure trait” of intelligefice as measured by IQ. Do the results fit with Herrnstein’s vision of i highly stratified society based on differences in IQ? Hardly. Looking at Table 7, it’s clear that such an IQ alone makes very little difference as to what happens to people economically. A person at the high end of the scale would have about the same chance of being at the top economically as a person at the low end, in terms of IQ (10.619.4-l .07)-about the same as might be predicted by chance. The
8 5 IO
Table 3 has already shown the strong association between class background and success. Table 6 shows that evenif everyone had the same opportunity in terms of equal IQ, their social class would still serve as a good prediction of whether or not they would succeed economically. For example, suppose two individuals have the same childhood IQ, but one is in the 2nd highest 10th in social background, while the other is in the 2nd lowest 10th. Then the first is 7.4 (l&5/2.5) times as likely as the second to attain the top 10th in economic success. We’ve seen in Tables 4-6 that the effects that IQ seems to have on economic success
6 101 1
difference among people in this table are low indeed as far as economic outcome goes. There seems to be very little correspondence between the categories of IQ and economic success, as soom as schooling & class background have been factored out. So, even ifyour parents had transmitted you their IQ, it alone would have little to do with the money & status you have now. A test score isn’t going to be anyone’s key to success.
If IQ pe-rformance is not the basis -for people’s economic success, then what function does IQ serve? The IQ test is one of a battery of devices used in schools to separate kids out and put them into different educatiotial tracks according to their class and racial background. It is a predictor of success and status simply because it is one of the many tools used to maintain the existing class structure in our society. But beyond this, and more broadly, IQ serves to legitimize in people’s minds the unequal way that jobs and wealth are divided. Its use helps to perpetuate the belief that people who are on top got there because they had the intelligence to make it. IQ thus plays an important ideological function. I The need for IQ as an ideological instrument stems from the nature of our economic and political system. People are raised believing that theirs is a country of democracy and equality, yet every day of their lives they experience a very different reality. Their livelihoods are in the hands of those who purchase and exploit their labor-those who hire, fire, and lay them off at will. Those who determine what their work shall be, what is produced, how fast, in what place, under what conditions. Workers in North America are confronted with alienating and meaningless work and with a heirarchy of bosses who use economic insecurity as their coercive whip. They know exploitation as death’ from black lung, forced overtime, union busting, the squalor of urban ghettos. Work
is not democratic
and it is not equal.
on pg. 29
IQ , continued
In this advanced capitalist society,.work is characterized by extreme division of labor,$ not only in terms of the fragmentation and specialization ofjobs, but also in terms of the division of power and\ authority. The entire hierarchy, from boss through manager, supervisors and foremen, and worker-on down the line-does not much resemble the democracy and equality that people hold SO dear. In the face of such a blatant contradiction, the totalitarian nature of the capitalist form of production must be justified and made acceptable. Ideology must do what force alone could never accomplish. The justification for this structure, for this system of production, is that it is “techni\The management and cally necessary.” supervision of this massive productive apparatus must be reserved for the few people who have the knowledge and ability to handle the task. Those of lesser skill should be lesser--managers, and so on. Higher salaries and status are fair reward for the people who have the training and education to assume positions of power; and these positions, the argument goes on, are won in a fair and freely competitive way by those with merit and intelligence, as measured by and. reflected in their years of schooling. Their education is in turn dependent to a large extent on being bright-that is, having> high IQ. Eventually the whole arrangement, from kindergarten through retirement has been justified! The insidiousness of this argument is that it is more or less believed even though people’s direct experience is not one of being selected simply on the basis of merit or “intelligence.” It is doubtful,that experience in the workplace itself could ever make people believe in and accept the way jobs, salaries, and power are determined or distributed. The task of carrying out this ideological. indoctrination is the primary function of the educational system, and IQ is one of its tools. The view that people’s economic success is dependent on their intellectual achievement is created and constantly reinforcedin the schools. Schools are seen as oriented toward the production of intellectual skills, rewards (grades) are seen as being objective measures of these skills, and levels of schooling are seen as a major determinant of economic success. The apparent objectivity of IQ-of testing, grading, and tracking-all these experiences, however unobjective and class biased they may really be, begin to reconcile children and parents to the belief that it is “intel.ligence” that is counted and rewarded. But while on the surface, the school is oriented toward the development of cognitive abilities, achievement is actually dependent on motivation, perserverance, sacrifice, and a host of other factors related to students social and economic backround. By many years of testing, by gradually “cooling out” students at different/ educational levels, schools insure that students’ aspirations are brought into line with their probably occupational status. By the time most students finish school they have convinced themselves of their inability or unwillingness to succed at the Through competition, highest level. success and defeat in the classroom, people become reconciled to their class position in our society. /
The Role of Education That schools have served to condition people for their roles within the system of production can be seen from the historical development of education in North America. The common notion is that mass education developed as modern industry became so complex, its workings so intellectually demanding, that an increasingly intelligent labour force was needed to run it. But the history of the rise of universal education does not support this view, which puts the cart before the horse. In the West and South.for example, mass education began before the growth of skill-’ demanding industry; it arose rather with the system of wage-labor agricultural employment, before mechanization took place. The development of the modern educational system has in reality grown from a coordinated attempt to provide a disciplined labor force. As a cotton manufacturer wrote to Horace Mann, then Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, in 1841: I
school which correspond to those ,required of them on the job. But, theschool experience emphasizes different traits in different students depending on which rung on the job ladder they are headed for. So, for example, the heavy emphasis on obedience to rules and lack of independence in many high schools will fit what an employer needs of someone for routinized, assemblyline type of work. A four-year college experience, on the other hand-turns out a person with different expectations and characteristics. A middle-class suburban high school and a ghetto high school , a fouryear college and a junior college; all differ in the traits and behaviors they reinforce. - The different patterns in schools attended by students from different social classes, and even within the same school, are no accident. The educational objectives of administrators, teachers, and parents-and the way kids respond to the various teaching methods and controls) differ for students of ,different social classes. These differences are strongly affected by economic status: it’s clear that money for schools of workingclass and black children is scarce compared to those for the wealthy; so innovative teaching, small classrooms, free time and space, flexible environments are much harder to come by. Because of these conditions, kids in poorer schools usually get treated like raw material on the production line-obedience and punctuality are emphasized over creative work and individual attention. And the emphasis, as we’ve seen, c,orresponds to the traits for the job slots these kids will occupy. So it is these non-intellectual, non-IQ factors, related to social class experience, that are reinforced by schools and transmitted over generations. They are qualities demanded and used by the structure of .work in’ America; and their influence on an individual’s economic success is decisive. For the very reason class differences exist, efforts to reform schools, create new programs, &\give more financial aid, etc. -while important demands in and of themselves for children in school-atinot alone change the chances for economic success kids will have.
knowledge.. .as the. only advantage derivedfrom a good Common School education. . .(Workers with more education possess) a higher and better state of morals, are more orderly and respectful in their department, and more ready to comply with the wholesome‘ and necessary regulations of an , establishment...in times of agitation, on account of some change in regulations of wages, I have always looked to the most intelligent, best educated and the most moral for support. The ignorant and uneducated I have generally found the most turbulent and troublesome, acting under the impulse of excited passion and jealousy.
As capitalism developed in the U.S., as small-scale enterprises ga de way to corporations, as farm workers, and the millions of immigrants swelled the ranks of the urban workforce, and as labor militance and the public welfare burden developed, the educational system responded to the new demands. For example, as more and more workingclass and particularly immigrant children began attending high schools, the older democratic belief in the common school -that the same curriculum should be offered to all children-gave way to the “progessive’? theory that education should be tailored to the needs of the child: But in fact, these “needs” were a euphemistic expression for vocational schools and tracking for the children of working-class families. The more academic curricula got saved for those privileged enough to go on to college and white collar jobs. A system of guidance counselling gave a voluntary feeling to this process. Around the same time, as well, the eugenics movement and its theories of ethnic inferiority supplied the rationale for these changing educational programs. And then, mainly after World War 1, these developments were finally rationalized by another ‘ ‘progressive” reform-‘ ‘objet tive” -educational testing; that is, the IQ test. Thus it is a false notion that the school system has functioned primarily to promote the intellectual skills needed for a technically more advanced system of production. Intellectual skills are more nearly a by-product. What the schools produce is a labor force matched to the demands of the hierarchical division of labor of productive enterprise. The different levels within this hierarchy demand different worker characteristics, and it is the purpose of the educational system to sort people out accordingly. Not surprisingly these characteristics themselves correspond to various class backgrounds -and so what the educational system actually does is reproduce the existing class structure of American society. Of course employers don’t directly ask for class background on job forms. But, then, they don’t have to, since the characteristics more acceptable for different kinds of jobs ,are clearly associated <with class status anyway. These characteristics are: personality traits (are you motivated, obedient, tactful, flexible, etc.); ways of behaving (how you look, speak, who you associate with and how); race, sex, and age; and credentials (level of education and work experience). Each one of these characteristics is important in determining where a person will be placed on the job ladder. The inequalities that come from using these characteristics to place people are not the result of irrational and uninformed employment practices. They are necessary. They are used by those in control to keep things working smoothly, and would only be changed by employers if a change would help insure the objectives of profitability and control. These are the traits, then, beyond IQ (inherited or not) that account for a person’s economic success. And they are ultimately traits that are identifiable not to individuals alone as >much as to social class. How do people come by the various traits that are needed within the capitalist system bf production? Of course race and sex are acquired at birth, and aging is inescapable, thus far. Acquiring credentials means surviving the schoolsystem. But the acquisition of the right personality traits and behaviour are largely the results of processing by the school system (and family). The structure of school is similar in many ways to the structure of the work hierarchy. The different levels of authority in school systems-with their rules, tracking, age divisions, grades and sex distinctions (shop, home economics., physical education)-all make the transition into the workforce fairly smooth. Students -develop the traits in
,IQ and Class Structure Those who attack Jensen, Herrnstein, and Shockley, but who don’t attack the idea that “smart people are the ones who make it to the top,” are themselves perpetuating the ideology of IQ. By not analyzing and exposing the origins of the U .S 1class structure and the roots of the existing division of labor, they give credibility to the notion that the present system of production and exploitation are “technically necessary.‘: When academics and intellectuals fail to attack the systemic xbasis for inequality in our society, they are really defending their own elitist and privileged positions. As we’ve seen, the function of education, with the help of IQ, is to achieve the division of labor into workers managers, teachers, housewives )- engineers, etc., so necessary for the efficient functioning of the economy. But where do these categories of labor come from? What relationship is there between the system of production and the class stratification that the ideologues of IQ claim is inevitable? The extreme inequities, whether in income, wealth, access to health care, decent housing, conditions of work, racial discrimination, or any number of others, are not a consequence of the best use of people’s talents, not the inevitable product of human nature. They are structural features of the system of production. They stem from a form of economic organization in which the vast majority are forced to offer themselves as employees to the small. fraction of people who own and control the resources of the society. The capitalist system of production defines not only the categories of labor, but also its use, according to what is necessary to maintain the vitality and longevity of the \ present economic eystem.
This system is organized for maximizing profit, and that includes growth of productive capacity, markets, and economic control. I This goal is of prime importance in the manipulation and division of labor, in the creation of wage dtfferentials, and in the limitation of social mobility. . Division of la bor because specializa tion means efficiency for the owner of labor, and fragmentation, separation, and powerlessI ness for the worker. Wage differentialsbecause they provide the incentive for advance.
Limited social mobility because it guarantees a reservoir of low cost labor. Unemployment and depressed .wages to blacks, women, young people, and other minority groups are institutionalized in the sys tern. The owners and managers hold the power of hiring, firing, establishing production priorities, and disposing of profits. The government, agent of capitalist interest, reinforces these practices through taxes, subsidies, labor legislation, and military force.
These, then, are the roots of social stratification-not intelligence or heredity. To explain the inequalities in our society ’ requires us to understand the social organi, zation and internal dynamics of capitalism. The variety of incentives, the use of IQ, and other methods of manipulating labor are tied up with the ideology which supports and rationalizes this system of production. While these relationships are complex, one thing is sufficiently clear: modern capitalism is abusive, oppressive, and irrational. People labor to produce waste or trivia, and those who produce the least of social value are the ones who reap the greatest rewards-economic and social standing depend on people’s utility to the system and its ruling class ,, not their utility to other people. Bankers and money handlers manipulate capital, managers manipulate labor, corporate executives manipulate the market, gov- . ernment, government bureaucrats and executives manipulate people. These servants of capital reap high rewards while people’s needs for food, health care, and decent housing go unmet (unless these generate profit). 1 People are reduced to mere commodities. Their creativity, humanity, and desire to be socially producti/ve, are drowned in the competitive struggle for economic survival. The actions of both managers and workers ’ are reduced by the demands of capital to mechanistic responses. At worst these actions involve the brutal murder or starvation of large masses of people; at best they -mean the ins titutionalized violence of disease, slum life and financial insecurity. It is in the defense of this diseased system that IQ has raised its ugly head. And it is in the destruction of this system-in the struggle to create a humane and just society-that the IQ ideology must be buried. Not only must IQ disappear, but so too must-the brutal class system which created it.
pg. i 3
special levy of 25 cents per member would be collected to provide $500,000 to finance the campaign.
The battle lines in the attack on inflation are now clearly drawn. On the one side there is the federal government, supported by business and the press. On the other there are the 2.3 million members of the CLC. But a major factor in deciding the outcome of the battle will be the response of the general public over the months ahead. Will people generally support the government program and believe it to be what Ottawa and the press claim it is-necessary, fair, and workable? Or will they view the program as the CLC depicts it-unnecessary, unfair and unworkable? One thing is certain. Public attitudes may be influe,nced by the arguments and rhetoric of the two campaigns, but the general response will be-fundamentally determined by the economic results of the program. The success of the program from the viewpoint of the average Canadian can be reduced to a single question: Will the program result in price restraint and arrest the deterioration of Canada’s standard of living, and will it do so without causing more unemployment and economic hardship for the middle and low income classes? The answer will unfold in the economic and political developments which emerge in the upcoming months. From the analysis of the program presented above, it follows that the program will fail to produce results satisfactory to the wage and salary earning public and the government will be forced to, either withdraw or fundamentally amend its’ program. The possibility remains, however, that the government could utilize its police and prisons to their maximum capacity. -peter
The nature of the- beast The human race has been around for a million years. Nature engineered us very carefully so we wouldn’t interfere with the ’ balance of life, which supports all living things-including humanity. You breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide (C02). You give off solid and liquid wastes . Plants breathe in C02, and take in minerals and nitrogen from animal and human waste. They use sunlight to turn these things into food substance, and they grow. Animals eat the plants, then humans eat these animals and plants as well. After we die, .our bodies decompose, and become food for the plants. The cycle is closed. Nothing is wasted. Pollution interferes with this natural cycle of life, a cycle which depends on air, land and water. Pollution is smoke and oil slicks and junk cars and weed-killers. Pollution pours out of smokestacks, exhaust pipes, culverts, dump trucks. Pollution comes from producing things and from the things that are produced. We’ve already seen what makes the air so dirty. Cars and industries do an equal job of poisoning the atmosphere. Water is even more the victim of the factory. Industry uses and pollutes almost twothirds of our water supply, and agribusiness (big farms using irrigation) accounts for most of the rest. People themselves use less than l/7 of all the water consumed in the U.S. Sewage, the waste that humans put into water, can be removed. The oil, acid, ammonia, dissolved metal and pesticides from industry and agribusiness in most cases cannot be removed. It’s the same story with land pollution (garbage). Industrial and commercial waste makes up 60% of the hundreds of millions of tons of garbage discarded annually. The other 40% comes from “people”. But look more closely and you find that _ much unavoidable people garbage -discarded food, paper and the like -breaks down or can be recycled. The problem comes from all the “convenience” packages. The no-deposit, non-returnable cans and bottles are hard to get rid of. They pile up on the scrap heaps-over 100 biilion a year -and actually costs us a lot more money than the old returnable types. Each one costs you, over the years, an extra 30 cents in taxes for disposal, a tab the manufacturer never mentions. That’s one reason they started making non-returnable containers in the first place: to slip us the bill for getting rid of them. All of which leads to one conclusion: pobtion is not a people problem. If it was, countries like India which have many more people and less area than America would be dying from pollution. It is the industrial countries of the world that are polluted, but even among those some are much more polluted than others. And none of them-not’ even Japan -compares with America. The cause ofpollution is the way machines and technology are used.
In America, most of the machines and technology are controlled by corporations. The goal of these corporations is to make more and more profits. And in order to do this, they have to grow bigger and produce more. This is what determines how they use the machines and technology and land that they own. This is capitalism. Our economy is like a person built leaning forward who must keep running ahead or he will fall over.
- Businesses can’t keep making and selling the same things all the time because people would soon have most of the products they need, and demand would fall off. Which means profits would fall. Then workers get laid off, plants shut down, and you’ve got a recession or depression. Which makes profits drop more. Corporations have to make more things, and convince people to buy more, in order to keep making profits. They must keep growing=. The U.S. has the world’s largest “gross national product. ’ ’ That means that the U.S. makes more things than any other country in the world. And every year, the GNP gets bigger. Is it really the wishes and demands of the people that run the US? Does the US’s immense, swelling economy really work for us--or against us? Who benefits from it? We have to look at what is made.
Who profits and who pays? Twenty percent of United States’s industrial GNP is devoured by militaryiproduction. Most of these war products-planes, missiles, ABM systems, submarines-are enormously expensive and are never used. They sit around for a few years and become “obsolete” ; then new models are produced to replace them. On the other hand, to use these deadly weapons would bring on the death of the world-or at least of the U.S. The military goods that are used are eitherdropped in the jungles of Southeast Asia and Latin America or sold to dictators and other buyers around the world. Big corporations have made billions of dollars in profits from military production. For the rest of us, the cost has been enormous. It goes far beyond the 70 cents out of every tax dollar we pay that goes for war or war-related uses. The industries of war--oil, steel: chemicals, plastics and manufacturing-are the-dirtiest of all, and military production accounts for over l/S of their output. Think of all the acids and smoke added to our rivers and air while steel is made for missiles, and submarines, and bombers. How much of the poisonous chemicals that
we drink and the deadly gasses that we breathe originated in the manufacture of military hardware ? The stupendous amounts of weaponry that we create wage war on our own bodies as well as on our paychecks. Still, most of what the U.S. makes is for the consumer, not the army. It is the stuff of which the so-called American Dream is made. What kinds of goods does business sell us, and what kind of life does it bring? We spend thousands of dollars on cars, refrigerators, TV sets, stoves and washing machines that can be made (labor included) for a fraction of their price tags. And then, while we’re working overtime to keep up with our payments, the things break down. Or some new and jazzier model comes out. Advertisements are always yammering at us about some new product that’s supposed to make us look and feel sexier, or younger, or stronger, or more important. The ads are very clever, being scientifically designed to play on our weaknesses, our desires, our vanities. They’re nothing but psychological pick-pockets and purse-snatchers. Many of us go into debt to buy all the things the ads tell us we need. No matter how much we have, we never have enough. There’s always something else we’re urged to buy. There’s always a new set of Joneses we’re supposed to keep up with. So consumer goods and military hardware form the heart of the gigantic U.S. economy. Why are these things produced?
Industry domination: buying up the experts The state of California has been facing pollution problems asbad as any in the nation. Now state official’s are talking big about their counter-attack, which is supposed to be a model for the nation. Among California’s worst problems is massive pollution of seashores and coastal waters from off-shore oil drilling. If big oil companies had to pay for the messes they make, they might be a little more careful about mucking over our land and water. So that is what the deputy state attorney-general, Charles O’Brien, set out to do after the big Union Oil-blow-out. But when he tried to help citizens sue the oil companies, he found that the very state agencies set up to protect the people against industries were the strongest supporters of the oil companies ! The state conservation boards, charged Mr. O’Brien, suffer from “industry domination.” How often does a public official come out and admit something like that? But then, it was becoming difficult to cover up. Especially when one of the directors of the state agency most responsible for controlling pollution in the Santa Barbara pm channel happened to be a Union Oil executive. So O’Brien turned to the experts in the state’s universities. Men who, for the most part, drew their salaries from the taxpayers. The response of these professors was rather interesting. “The university experts,” said Mr. O’Brien, “all seem to be working on grants from the oil industry. There is an atmosphere of fear. The experts are afraid that if they assist in our case on behalf of the people of California, they will lose their oil industry grants.” Does that sound far-fetched? Wilbur H. Somerton, a professor of oil engineering, admitted that he wouldn’t testify “because my work depends on good relations with the oil industry. My interest is serving the petroleum industry.”
Business must keep growing to make profits. Profits come from sales.. The critical problem for corporations becomes “How can we increase sales?” They have found several ways. They build their products to break down in a relatively short time, because this increases turnover. Scholars call this “planned obsolescence.” We can call it waste. They spend billions of dollars on advertising (and tack the cost onto the price-tag) to convince-us to buy new things, often things we don’t really need. This too we can call waste.
They back the politicians and newspapers that push for expensive new defense systems, which collect dust for a few years and are replaced. What else could we call it but waste! Our enormous, expanding ers itself by creating waste!
Look at all the metal-objects which surround you and consider how many of them you really need. While you do this, keep in mind that 650,000 gallons of water are degraded making one ton ofsteel; 130 million tons are produced each year. It’s part of the cost-your cost-that companies don’t tell you about. Thumb through the daily paper and notice all the advertising pages. You pay for these ads. Not only do the companies tack the cost onto the price-tag, but 240,000 gallons of water and dozens of trees go into making one ton of newspaper. 6 1% of all newspaper goes for ads, consuming well over 5 million tons of paper each year. That’s your cost also. Waste land-and
exhausts the of the people.
There are other, less obvious ways in which we pay the price of an illogical system fueled by greed. How much better off are we? Businessmen are much better off. In the five years from 1968-73 big corporations have grown 31%. But inflation has crippled many of us. It’s left us running on a treadmill. Many of us are even going backwards: working people can’t even buy as much now with their paychecks as they could 10 years ago. Many of us are deeply in debt. American consumers are over $98 billion in the hole. That works out to over $2000 per family! And the final price we pay for all the possessions and “conveniences” that they sell us runs a lot higher. The billions and billions of dollars worth of goods the U.S. produces every year exact a fearsome ecological toll. Our cities are crowded, smelly, and ugly. There’s less open land each passing year. Our health is deteriorating: more people are getting degenerative diseases-which means their bodies virtually rot-at younger ages. Even life expectancy is decreasing. Our jobs are boring. We work harder and harder to pay our bills and end up making other people rich. continued
on pg. 31
Things don’t have to be this way Suppose nations were really, run for the benefit of everyone. That would make it possible to plan very carefully how to use our land, resources and technology without ripping up our environment. We could use things over instead of using - them up. People would decide for themselves what their needs are and what should be produced. Things would be built to last: there’s no reason why lightbulbs can’t shine for years, and refrigerators run for a lifetime. The know-how exists right now, but most companies know that durable goods compete with fast profits. We could get a lot of energy from cleaner power sources like solar power or “super. battery” fuel cells. These things aren’t used now because they can’t deliver the kind of power needed for enormous cities packed with people, or industries which crank out ‘endless heaps of goods. But they would be perfect for smaller,\ spread-out cities that could be planned and built. Even if some of the goods we need must be made by dirty methods and with dirty power, making only as much as we really need and not overloading any one area with factories would minimize the damage. and sprays. Nature has tremendous ability to clean up Instead, we could practice mixed agriculhuman messes if she isn’t pushed too hard. ture. For example, different crops attract Decentralization is the key word. different insects and rodents and one crop The same principles can work for agriculcan attract creatures which destroy the ture. Today, enormous areas of United enemies of another crop. Also some crops return to the soil the nutStates farmland are planted with single rients that others take out. We can use crops, overloading the soil and making it easy for pests and blights to invade. This Nature’s own system of checks and balances to ensure our harvests. requires harmful and expensive fertilizers
th foreign Imperialism: policies of pollution The ecological piracy which has exhausted the United States extends beyond its borders. All over the world, people in under-developed countries are seeing their own natural resources dug up, cut down, and pumped away. The signs on the plant gates carry names like Standard Oil, Anaconda, or United Fruit. The people know that they will never see a penny of the profits from these mines and plantations and factories. The big U.S. companies divide their take with the rich \ overlords who control the land. This is called imperialism. Imperialism lets U.S. companies get cheaply from other countries what they have used up and need at home; it lets them convert these countries into captive markets for over-priced American goods; it lets them get away with moving factories overseas and paying dirt-cheap wages to desperate workers who have no other choice. What big U.S. companies do dirty at home, they do much dirtier in Brazil, or Indonesia, or Ghana. In these places, no officials will bug them about sooty smokestacks, oil slicks, dangerous pesticides, or unhealthy working conditions. In Peru, U.S mining corporations pay Indians up to one dollar a day to mine copper in the Andes mountains. Here is one description of those mines : There are about 100,000 Indians employed in the big sierra mines . . .where conditions (minerals lie at up to 17,000 feet above sea level) and poisonous fumes make a man of thirty-five look sixty-if he has survived that long in the first place. Many companies . . . distribute coca (which produces cocaine wh,en chewed) to the Indians before they enter the pits so as to render them semi-unconscious of dangers, hardships, and the internal pains the fumes create. (J. Gerassi, The Great Fear in Latin America, p. 129)
In Brazil, most of the good land is controlled by American companies like United Fruit, Standard Fruit, W.P. Grace Co. and Bank of America. These companies grow non-food cash crops, like coffee, in a country which should be one of the richest food producers in the world and instead is one of the poorest. They grow their crops on huge jungle plantations, on sensitive but fertile tropical soils. George Borgstrom, in his book The Hungry Planet, tells what happens to this farmland in a section called “Coffee on the March” (p. 329): The almost predatory exploitations by the coffee planters have ruined a considerable portion ofBrazil’s soil. In many areas, these abandoned coffee lands are so ruined that they can hardly ever be restored to crop production. . .Therefore, the coffee plantations have always been on the march, grabbing new land and leaving behind eroded or impoverished soils. . . This march of the coffee plantations over the wide expanses of Brazil has been likened to a devastating giant wave. . .In some of these early coffee regions the abandoned soil is so crisscrossed by ravines and gullies that it almost resembles a lunar landscape.
Should Brazil becalled “Brazil the Overpopulated”? Or should it be called “Brazil the Raped”? It is no coincidence that American corporations dominate the economy of many of the world’s poorest and hungriest countries. Peru, Brazil-the list could go on and on. It could include South Africa, where black men are paid slave wages to build Ford cars. Or Liberia, whose rubber plantations yield Firestone average net profits three times as great as the entire Liberian national revenue. Or the Dominican Republic, scene of American military intervention in 1965, where American companies own the best plantation land on the island, make big profits from sugar crops, and pay hungry Dominicans about a dollar a day.
. When the earth is tended as a garden, it gives higher, healthier yields than when used as a factory. The rewards of technology need not be abandoned if technology is used selectively, and carefully. We don’t have to go back to the horse and plow to escape death from the smokestack and culvert. But this sounds like a wild dream. Not because these things are impossible-they could be started immediately. It sounds unreal because the men and the corporations that run the present system, and profit by it, insist that no other way of doing things is as good as what we have now. And they back
up these claims with force when people try to change their system. And yet, these same white men, who are ‘now being attacked from so many directions--by people against the war, by people suffering from inflation, by black and brown and poor people-are now leading the parade and carrying the banners for the U.S.‘s new Ecology Crusade. Politicians talk tough and make promises; government officials slip money and supplies to “responsible” students who demonstrate for ecology; businessmen give financial support to the college professors and conservation clubs that are spreading the word. But the word they spread is a lie. And if lies work better than force to keep people confused and keep them from attacking their system, then lie they will. If encouraging people to rally for their brand of ecology discourages others from rallying for decent working cooditions, an end to the war in Asia, the fight against racism and real control over their own lives and environment, then they will make ecology the watchword of the day. The wolves will pose as shepherds. Pollution is not a technical oversight, nor is it the fault of the people, or caused by too many people. It will not be cured by a few fancy gadgets or inventions. Pollution comes from waste: producing too much, producing too sloppily, and wasting what has been produced. There will be pollution as long as things are made for profit, not because people actually need them. ’ There will be pollution until we consider all the costs of making something-including the cost to the environment. There will be pollution and hunger as long as the land and resources of nations are run for the profit of a few, and at the expense of the manv.+ This is the last of a series of articles dealing with pohtion reprinted from The Earth Be-
longs to the People.
chevron debate Resolved:
There is no scientific basis for hereditary differences in intelligence and there never will be. All research on this question should be suppressed.
Affirmative : - Professor Doug Wahlsten, Psychology Dept. Negative: Professor Jan Narveson, Philosophy Dept. Time: Dee lst, 1975 8 p.m. Place: Engineering Lecture Hall 211
Member: Canadian university press (CUP). The chevron is typeset by members of the workers union of dumont press graphix (CNTU) and published by the federation of students incorporated, university of Waterloo. Content is the sole responsibility of the chevron editorialstaff. Off ices are located in the campus centre; (519) 885-l 660, or university local 2331. News of the day is that wellington mp frank maine who attacked cupw president joe davidson for being a quote bloody limey unquote himself hails from hayes, england. for those interested in ending the bus strike, there will be a kitchener council meeting on monday, nov. 24, at 790 pm. come with a few of your friends and let macintosh et al know that they can’t get away with screwing the transit workers forever. an organizational meeting to support the busmen will be held in room 132 of environmental studies today at 12:30. a second meeting is scheduled for monday, nov. 24, at 12:30 in room 110 of the campus centre. chevrics of the week; iibby warren, goz lyv, denis andre, dave an/o, mart radomsky, julia Schneider, judy jansen, george eister, bob inkol, john &afford, Chris jones, laura mciachlan, graham gee, nina-tymoszewicz, Steve mcmullan, harry strothard,dionyx mcmichael, john morris, diane ritza, syl& hauck, neii docherty and me. hh
2 I, I 975
M&s Schedule 9:00 a.m. Sunday 7:00 p.m.
IO:00 a.m.‘ 1130 a.m. 7:00 p.m. Sunday 1230p.m. V.II East Quad Lounge Weekdays 7:00 a.m. 1235 p.m. 5:00 p.m. Confessions: Saturday 6:15 p.m. Father Norm Choate CR, 884-4256 Father Bob Liddy CR. 884-0863 or 884-8110
The Plight of the Indian Brazil and Canada Two Films:
The Canadian Situation “Our land our life”; Indian People of the North and the McKenzie Valley Pipeline.
otre Dame Chapel
The Brazilian Situation “The old who must die”
TONIGHT & TOMORROW Now. 21’3 22-8 pm Henrik Ibsen% THE WILD DUCK “one of Ibsen’s greatest plays” “strikes out at false piety with a rugged vigour and humanity” Humanities Theatre Admission $2.00, students & senior citizens $1.25 Box Office ext. 2126 Creative Arts Board, Federation of Students
Discussion: Roger Rolfe: education co-ordinator f Herbert Sousa: sociologist from Brazil, presently ai York University.
November 25th Lecture Room 105 7:30 pm
Sponsored by: Federation of Students, Latin American Student Association.
One.of Canada’s largest chains of Hair Salons is now located in Kitchener. Our new shop in Simpsons of Fairview Park Shopping Centre adds to our eight other Toronto shops cutting hair for over 500,000 people a year.
FOR PEOPLE WHOBONT
LIKE TO GET THEIR HAIR CUT