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Teaching Profession


of Teacher Education In Malaysia Prepared by :

Ahmad Zaki Osman Ilya Elina Bt Mohd Ghazali Nurul Fatihah Bt Kamsan Nur Asyima Bt Zainuddin

A139384 A141198 A140953 A141195

• Introduction • Concept Map • Pre-Independence Era (before 1957) • Post-Independence Era (1957-1970) • Dasar Ekonomi Baru (1971-1990) • Dasar Wawasan Negara (2001 – Now) • Conclusion • Bibliography

Introduction Prev : Contents Next : Concept Map

Teacher education is important in generating pulse structure based on education policy to the goals outlined in the national education policy. In realizing this vision a national education philosophy formed as a guide to planning and implementation of teacher education programs. In this topic we will discuss the description of the evolution of education in national educational aspirations spawn from as early as the pre-independence and postindependence until it evolved into a wellestablished and adopted policies to this day.

Concept Map Prev : Introduction Next : Pre-Independence Era

Pre-Independence Era

(before 1957)

Prev : Concept Map Next : Post-Independence Era

Introduction • As the title suggested, we are going to look into the previous education policies that were implemented before Malaya even got its independence from the British. • Initially we are going to have a look at the Cheeseman’s plan which was in 1946, followed by Barne’s and Fenn-Wu reports, and the Education Ordinance in 1952 soon after.

Cheeseman’s Plan (1946)

• Free education policies to all primary schools students. • In the secondary Schools, English was used in all type of schools at that time namely the Malay school, Chinese school, and Indian school. • English was also made as a compulsory to be teaches in all vernacular schools.

Barne’s Report (1951)

• More focus on the development of Malay’s schools. • Suggested bilingual schools, with Bahasa Melayu And Inggeris as the main language used in the school. • Chinese and Tamil language as an option to be choosed in the implementation of National School suggested by this report. • Raised furiosity among Chinese and Indian as they feel that this report was rather one-sided.

Fenn-Wu Report (1951)

• Gave more priority towards the Chinese society. • This report suggested that there should be an education system that allowed the teaching of three language (Malay, Chinese and Indian) by using Chinese schools as the compound. • It also stated that we should be more focus on how to integrated Chinese schools into the national education system without having to demolished it in the process.

Education Ordinance (1952)

This ordinance was the combination of Barnes’ Report and Fenn-Wu’s Report, as a way to accommodate those two reports suggestions stated for each the Malays and the Chinese specifically. This was the first step actually for this it to be drafted in the next national education policies later on. It stated that : a)

Tanah Melayu should have two national schools


Chinese & Tamil Vernacular school were not accepted as part of national education system.


Bahasa Melayu will be taught in English School and vice versa

Post-Independence Era


Prev : Pre-Independence Era Next : Dasar Ekonomi Baru

Introduction •

After several big steps were done before, improvements have been sketch down to further up the quality and the enhancement of the teaching profession in this country. Such bold steps that have been taken before such as those of Barn’s Report (1951), Fenn-Wu’s Report (1951) and Education Ordinance (1952) have considerably brought upon a new life for the education field in our country. In this time frame, we shall look at some of new improvements that have been launched to accommodate the needs within the educational field. What we are going to focus on more in TWO of the well known reports stated at this time frame which has lead towards much changes and contribute to the later more well organized law and enforcement within the education field of this country.

Razak’s Report (1957)

• This 1957 statement was a report written by a group of people; lead by our former Second Prime Minister, Tun Abdul Razak Hussain; that analyze the country education weaknesses and lackingness, giving comments on the implementation of the previous policies and laws, and thus providing better solutions, methods, ideas and point of views to accommodate our country education. • The report has reported several keys that have had great impacts towards teaching profession as it has broaden and reconstruct the career mobility, duties and broader scoop of work.

Razak’s Report (1957)

Below were some of the improvements that have been brought upon to carry out the Razak’s Report 1957: a) Primary teachers with the Lower Certificate of Education shall be trained for three years (two years in College plus a year in practical teaching). b) Trainee teachers in technical school at least must have past a Cambridge examination or had a Sijil Persekolahan Tanah Melayu or sat for Form Six. These teachers shall be trained for about two years as full time students in college. c) Technical teachers who taught at technical school must past their secondary school before apart from received training in technical at college before can be accepted as a teacher. d) Maktab Perguruan Bahasa was introduced in conjunction with this Razak report that wanted to uphold the Bahasa Melayu as the main language used in all level of education. A memorandum between Maktab Perguruan Bahasa with Dewan Bahasa & Pustaka was made to further strengthen the course pointed by this report.

Razak’s Report (1957)

• Not long after the proposal, the report was later on being adopted and utilized within the teaching career. • All of the recommendation that were stated in Razak’s Report was run under the name Education Ordinance 1957 and thus bring upon great changes in this country education field at that time.

Rahman Talib’s Report (1960)

• •

• •

As the time goes by, the needs to review back the education ordinance arise. YB abdul Rahman Talib was in charge on a committee to have a look at the Education Ordinance 1957 to dig more of the possibilities of improving the already written implemented guideline in education field. Rahman Talib’s Statement 1960 was announced after three years the ordinance being ran on. The report of this committee became the basis for the formulation of the Education Act 1961, which outlines the Malay language as the main medium of education at all levels and the use of curriculum and examinations for all students.

Rahman Talib’s Report (1960)

• •

• •

Policy of democratization in education began in 1962 with an emphasis on free education for all students. This policy is extended to provide universal education for nine years, when the examination selection into secondary schools was abolished in 1964. With the elimination of this selection examination resulted in an increase to the secondary school enrollment rate. So in 1965, Pusat Latihan Daerah was developed which function as a training center for trainee teachers in order to accommodate with the demand of teacher at that time. Teacher had to take extra courses on the weekend apart from their daily teaching period at the school.

Dasar Ekonomi Baru

(1971-1990) Prev : Post-Independence Next : Dasar Wawasan Negara

Dasar Ekonomi Baru (1971-1990)

• 1987- Establish Universities for Teaching

a) Sultan Idris Training College (MPSI) upgraded to the Sultan Idris Training Institute b) Sultan Idris University of Education (UPSI) – 1997 c)

To produce more graduates, efficient and quality teachers

• 1994- Establish a Foundation Teacher Malaysia Berhad a) Yayasan Guru Malaysia Berhad (YGMB) was incorporated under the Companies Act 1965 as a Limited company

Dasar Ekonomi Baru (1971-1990)

• 1996- Diploma in Special Education Program

a) To ensure quality at the secondary level by providing graduate teachers in all secondary schools by 2005

• 1999- Teaching Graduate Program

a) Courses such as Special Programme Graduate Teacher (PKPG)

b) Courses held in collaboration with the Open University Malaysia for non-graduate teachers c) Increased the number of graduate teachers

Dasar Wawasan Negara

(2001- Now) Prev : Dasar Ekonomi Baru Next : Conclusion

Introduction • •

Nowadays as today time the National Education System streamlined is in line with the development of the information technology world. Taking into account the various changes and challenges of the 21st century, improving and streamlining the education system is reflected in its legislation, policies and major programs, including: a)

the Education Act 1996 (amended 2002);


Program and Guidance (Cabinet Decision, 2002):


Teaching and Learning science and Mathematics in English was implemented in 2003 (Cabinet decision, 2002).


Education Subject Incentive Payment (BISP) was introduced in 2003;


j-QAF program was introduced in 2005 and expanded in 2006 to ensure students mastered Jawi Islam, Al-Quran, Arabic and Fardh Ain when completed primary school (Decision of the Cabinet, 2003).


The most significant change in the history of education is the establishment of the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia (MOHE) in 2004.

We shall be talking about a few of them afterwards just to get an overview of what they have contributed towards our education field.

Education Development Plan (2001-2010)

• The Education Development Plan for Malaysia (2001-2010), henceforth referred to as : • the Blueprint, that takes into account the goals and aspirations of the National Vision Policy • to build a resilient nation, encourage the creation of a just society, maintain sustainable economic growth, • develop global competitiveness, build a knowledgebased economy (K-economy), strengthen human resource development, • and maintain sustainable environment development.

Education Development Plan (2001-2010) • Aims : • The major thrusts of the Blueprint are to increase access to education, increase equity in education, increase quality of education, and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of education management. • The Ministry of Education (MOE) will continue with the equitable distribution of educational inputs to ensure students obtain appropriate learning experiences from all educational programmes. • The Blueprint focuses on the development of preschool, primary, secondary, and tertiary education levels.

MBM & MBI • MBMMBI or Upholding the Malay Language & Strengthening English is the main focus of this education began in 2012. • In the year 2012, the MBMMBI will be implemented more aggressively in school and the main thing is to strengthened MBMMBI Teachers' Role in Implementing MBMMBI Policy.

MBM & MBI • Upholding Bahasa Malaysia means

a) put at the right place, in keeping with its position as the national language as enshrined in Article 152 of the Constitution of Malaysia. b) Bahasa Malaysia is the main medium of education based on the Education Act 1996.

• Strengthening English means

• to strengthen the English Language as a compulsory language learned, the language of communication and language knowledge national and international levels.


Here are some of the teachers' role in Implementing MBM & MBI policy : •

Modular Curriculum Approach - Mastery of basic language skills strengthened through a modular approach to integrated, holistic and balanced through the module P & P. Basic speaking (Basics To Basics) - Strengthening done speaking basic structured and systematic. Basic speaking previews, Presound, and pre-writing pre-reading shall be strengthened through module incorporating of fun elements in language arts. P & P grammar is correctly based on the language system and integrated done in context. Teach cheer - Provide a more fun and interesting through various methods. Listening, speaking, reading, writing, grammar and language arts will be embroidered with the exploration, search for information, reporting and production. For more, please visit this homepage.


PISMP is a short term for Program Ijazah Sarjana Muda Perguruan. The program is meant to train teachers in the Institute of Teacher Education (IPG) set by the Ministry of Education in various fields for the needs of elementary school. As a prerequisite, candidates are required to attend the Preparatory Programme for eighteen months / three semesters at the institution. Candidates must pass the preparatory program before they are accepted to received the Degree in Teaching Program for four years / eight semesters at the Institute of Teacher Education set by the Ministry of Education.


Qualification – SPM

Study for a year in college.

Trainer can continue their studies in bachelor for full time at IPG (which will take around 4 years)

Curiculum focus for PISMP a)

It is hollistic


to instill unity, patriotisme & good teeachers’ values in the teachers.


d) e)

Stressed on academic & cocuriculum

Practical curriculur is more stressed on than theory curriculur In order to produce teacher who have high self-esteem (jati diri yg tinggi)


Conclusion • Teacher education is important in generating pulse structure based on education policy to the goals outlined in the national education policy. • In realizing this vision a national education philosophy formed as a guide to planning and implementation of teacher education programs. • In this topic we will discuss the description of the evolution of education in national educational aspirations spawn from as early as the preindependence and post-independence until it evolved into a well-established and adopted policies to this day.


Tajul Ariffin Bin Nordin (1993). Perspektif Falsafah dan Pendidikan di Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka.

Sheela Abraham (1993). Sejarah Perkembangan Negara. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn. Bhd.

Fadzilah bt Abdullah (1996). Dasar Pendidikan Kebangsaan. Kuala Lumpur: As Noordeen.

Sufean Hussin (2002). Dasar Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia. Teori dan Analisis. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka. Abdullah Sani Yahaya (2003). Perkembangan Pendidikan di Malaysia. Bentong, Pahang: PTS Pub & Distributor Sdn. Bhd.

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Evolution of Teacher Education in Malaysia