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University of Southern Philippines Foundation Salinas Drive, Lahug, Cebu City 6000

RESEARCH DIGEST Volume 12

SY 2013-2014

ISSN number: 2012-3299 A compendium of selected faculty and student researches presented in the USPF In-House Research Congress on February 2013 published annually by the Center for Research The research papers were referred by invited experts who have extensive experience in research projects _________________________________________________________

Editorial Board Dr. ODILON A. MAGLASANG

Referees Dr. BRYAN A. VASQUEZ

Editor

Director Center for Research University of the Visayas

JULIE ANN M. BASE

Dr. BRYANT C. ACAR

Research Assistant

ALLEN VILLARIN JOBELYN DUTERTE Circulation Officers

Assistant to the President Curriculum and Instruction University of Southern Philippines

Dr. MAURO ALLAN P. AMPARADO Director Center for Research University of Cebu 1


Correspondence CENTER FOR RESEARCH (CentRe) University of Southern Philippines Foundation Salinas Drive, Lahug, Cebu City, Philippines Email: jmbase80@gmail.com Contact Nos. 4148773 local 112 2


RESEARCH DIGEST

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword

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UNIVERSITY RESEARCH AGENDA

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FACULTY and NON-TEACHING CATEGORY INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF MANDARIN ORANGE (Citrus reticulata) RIND-PITH EXTRACT ON THE INFLAMED VEINS OF THE MALE RABBITS (Best Paper) COLLEGE OF PHARMACY

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LIFESTYLE HEALTH PRACTICES AND WELLNESS BEHAVIOR OF NURSING STUDENTS (2nd Best Paper) COLLEGE OF NURSING

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TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR OF DEANS AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND JOB SATISFACTION OF TEACHERS (3rd Best Paper) COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES

29

ALUMNI TRACER ON 5 FLAGSHIP PROGRAMS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN PHILIPPINES FOUNDATION (Finalist) OFFICE OF THE ALUMNI RELATIONS

39

THE EFFECT OF MOZART MUSIC ON THE ABSTRACT REASONING ABILITY OF EDUCATION STUDENTS (Finalist) COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

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PROPOSED ONLINE GRADE ENCODING, RELEASING AND INQUIRING SYSTEM OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN PHILIPPINES FOUNDATION (Finalist) COLLEGE OF COMPUTER STUDIES

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STUDENT CATEGORY THE EFFECT OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica) LEAF CRUDE EXTRACT ON ACETAMINOPHEN-INDUCED HEPATOTOXITY IN MALE RABBITS (Best Paper) COLLEGE OF PHARMACY

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PHYSICAL HEALTH PRACTICES AND PULMONARY HEALTH STATUS OF CALL CENTER AGENTS (2nd Best Paper) COLLEGE OF NURSING

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MOTIVATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF FRESHMEN EDUCATION STUDENTS (3rd Best Paper) COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

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MANIFESTATIONS OF BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN PHILIPPINES FOUNDATION MABINI CAMPUS (Finalist) High School Mabini

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FOREWORD This issue of the Research Digest (Vol. 12) contains a good number of winning research papers from teachers, students, and the nonteaching staff. Our most significant challenge this year is to grow our capacity for research, especially researches that improve classroom instruction, academic performance, community extension, and alumni relations despite facing acute adversities in funding. I believe that we are going towards the direction as well as the attainment of USPF's and the CentRe's vision and mission statement. For 12 years now, this digest continues to be an avenue to disseminate research findings. This compendium serves as evidence that USPF is deepening its roots in research and continues to carve its name in the Research landscape. I am thankful and at the same time proud of all the authors for their extensive work and the quality of work they presented. The authors came up with relevant researches that address the needs of their department, the school or the community in general. As you read along, you will note that the studies presented herein vary in subject matter and in the degree of complexity but confined within the bounds of well thought-of research designs. The teachers from the College of Pharmacy found out that Mandarin orange rind-pith extract exhibits anti-inflammatory effect on the inflamed veins of male rabbits. Mae Karyl P. Pogio from the College of Nursing was able to establish an association between the lifestyle health practices and the wellness behavior of student nurses. The teachers from the College of Arts and Sciences assessed the transformational behavior of the different deans and the organizational commitment and job satisfaction of college teachers. Their study revealed that the deans of USPF have very high transformational leadership behavior as perceived by the teachers. The teachers themselves also possessed a high level of organizational commitment but showed neither job satisfaction nor dissatisfaction. Prof. Kathleen Solon-Villaneza of the Office of Alumni Relations posted evidence that the USPian alumni of the five (5) flagship programs are working in line with the degree they have earned at the University. Janet A. Arcana of the College of Education measured the effect of Mozart music on the abstract reasoning ability of Education students. She concluded that Mozart music increases the students' abstract reasoning ability in a short period of time. Her study proved that music is an aural stimulation which may trigger response in the brain as it 5


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excites the firing patterns that are analogous to spatial reasoning. Teachers from the College of Computer Studies found enough evidence to propose an online grade encoding, releasing, and inquiry system for the school. This applied research aimed to improved the releasing of grades from the department or the school to the students or parents, thus, effectively preventing delay. Students from the College of Pharmacy was able to prove the protective potential and the healing potential of Neem leaf crude extract on the acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in male rabbits. This discovery intends to alleviate the rising cost of medications in the Philippines. The study coming from students from the College of Nursing showed that there is significant inverse association between the physical health practices and the pulmonary health status of call center agents in Cebu City. The students' external reasons to attend the university such as meeting the expectations of family or peers, socializing or preparing for a job are not associated with their academic performance. In contrast, personal reasons such as actual interest in learning and helping others are related to their academic performance. These are the findings collected by the students from the College of Education. High school students from Mabini Campus surveyed on the symptoms or manifestations of behavioral problems among the third and fourth year students. They noted that absenteeism and disrespect are the two most prominent symptoms. It was noted further that behavioral problems are associated with their academic achievement. The insightful discussions, conclusions and recommendations by the authors are their own based on the findings and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Center for Research. I hope that the findings presented inside this compendium will ignite healthy debate and discussion on issues facing the USPian community in terms of instruction, community extension, and research. It further seeks to encourage everyone to delve into investigation, research, and further studies and inculcate within all of us, the love for research.

Odilon A. Maglasang, EdD Director Center for Research 6


RESEARCH DIGEST

UNIVERSITY RESEARCH THRUSTS Vision Statement The Center for Research will advance the research enterprise of the University by providing effective support to the faculty and students in the conceptualization, implementation and completion of researchers. The Centre will foster quality research by advocating collaboration between researchers and assuring adherence to ethical and regulatory standards. It is also our vision to provide high achievement and satisfaction in research undertakings for the improvement in the quality of life. Mission Statement The Center for Research and Development is guided by the University's vision statement, USPF by 2017: Provides quality and holistic educational programs responsive to the needs of the local and global communities through outcomes-based curriculum, research and community services Hence, the backbone principle that propels the research thrusts of the university is geared towards "our ultimate aim to develop our reputation as a research-driven University." In order to become research-driven, we will ensure that: Our faculty and students will be research active, and will produce a recognized work within and across disciplines. We will develop activities leading to the acquisition and dissemination of new knowledge and the preparation of outstanding scholars and professionals in an atmosphere of free and lively inquiry. We will publish our research in a peer-reviewed journal. We will make sure that all research themes are needs-based and result-oriented that will provide improvement not only to the University but to the community as well. We will establish linkage and partnership with other schools and agencies to promote research academia. Values Statement Accountability. The Centre takes responsibility and ownership for decisions, actions and results accountable for both how and what is accomplished. 7


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Integrity. The Centre demonstrates honest and ethical behavior that displays a high moral standard, widely trusted, respectful and honorable. Leadership in Excellence. The Centre demonstrates energy and commitment to improving results, takes initiatives often involving calculated risks while considering the common good. Leadership in Mission. The Centre understands, accepts and supports the mission of the university and fosters values consistent with that mission. Research Goals The Center for Research (CentRe) strongly advocates in the realization of the following goals: People and Resources - recruit, develop, and retain talented people and ensure that the Centre has the human, financial, and technical capacity to advance the University's' mission. Customer Service - provide exceptional service to the research community that is proactive, friendly, effective and responsive Research Administration - assist faculty and students in obtaining and managing sponsored research grants through assistance with applications and administration of awarded funds. Compliance - ensure that the University complies with applicable research regulation and legislation through active monitoring of the environment, management of internal controls and anticipation and planning for future requirements. Research Development - develop and cultivate relationships with benefactors, funding agencies, and government officials to actively monitor upcoming opportunities and to help faculty members to secure support for USPF's research efforts. Celebrate Innovation and Success - highlight and publicize successes in research, scholarship and creative endeavor to relevant internal and external audiences. 8


RESEARCH DIGEST

Research Prioritization The USPF- Center for Research adheres to the principles as framed in the National Higher Education Research Agenda (NHERA) in integrating the concerns of the higher education sector with the overall development goals and objectives of the country and the higher education international community: Multidisciplinary. - Researches that involve the expertise of researchers in several disciplines are preferred over researches needing the expertise in a single discipline. Policy-Orientation - Policy-oriented researches are preferred over researches that have little or no policy implications across the various academic disciplines. Operationalization - Researches which aim to investigate and explain the relationship of different phenomena are preferred over researches that simply document the association among observable events, phenomena or factors. Participation and Broad Impact. Higher education researches should involve the participation of as many stakeholders as possible and should have impact on the greatest number of individuals or groups of individuals. Research Value Deliberate and systematic efforts are made to orient research studies in: Promoting values; Promoting social uplift of the people; Enriching academic and research culture; Uncovering new facts and principles; Challenging existing truths or assumptions; and Affording new insights into little understood phenomena Research Cluster of Disciplines Faculty and Students are encouraged to prioritize the following cluster of disciplines and undertake researches within the clusters listed below. 9


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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Health and Welfare Studies Conservation and Environmental Sustainability Governance and Management of Education Manpower Supply and Demand Studies Integrative Studies on Linguistics, Literature, Physical Education, Physical Therapy, Public Health, Nursing Care, Science and Mathematics, Computer Science and Technology. 6. Socially-Oriented and Community-Based Studies. 7. Gender Sensitivity and Equality studies. 8. Institution Building Studies 9. Policy-Oriented Studies 10. Global Partnership, Business Relations and Customer Management Studies. 11. Culture and Arts Promotion and Appreciation. 12. Advancement of Technology and Product Promotion.

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FACULTY CATEGORY

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INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF MANDARIN ORANGE (Citrus reticulata) RIND-PITH EXTRACT ON THE INFLAMED VEINS OF MALE RABBITS (Best Paper) COLLEGE OF PHARMACY By JULIE A. REYES JAFESAH JAIMA G. MARUHOM CHARLOTTE E. VILLAJUAN ALTHEA R. ARENAJO __________________________________________________ ABSTRACT This study determined the effect of Mandarin Orange (Citrus reticulate) rind-pith extract on the inflamed veins of the rabbits. The white spongy tissue underneath the rind was collected and macerated with 95% ethyl alcohol and was subjected to reflux distillation to get a pure extract. A portion of the extract was treated with ferric chloride to confirm the presence of Hesperidin, an active component in reducing inflammation. The subjects of this study were nine (9) male rabbits with mixed breeds divided into three (3) groups, selected through single blind method. The acclimatization for seven (7) days allowed the rabbits to adopt its new environment. The first group was the Experimental treated with extracts, while the second was given Hirudoid group as the positive control and lastly the Negative control group treated with white ointment base. The inflamed portion f the rabbits chosen were the dorsal marginal veins on the rabbits' ears measured prior to induction to inflammation as the baseline data. The inflammation was induced by mechanical compression of the ears of the rabbits using cloth clips for forty-eight (48) hours to ensure that the inflammation was evident and has the appearance of thrombosis. Another measurement was taken and recorded after forty eight (48) hours when inflammation was visible which was done every 15 minutes for two hours to determine 12


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the reduction of size in the inflamed veins. One week was given to the rabbits to rest and the same procedure was done to established data for treatment. Before the administration of the treatment the size of the veins had a mean size of 0.83 cm, 0.80 cm and 0.80 cm for Experimental, Positive and Negative control group. Consequently, after the treatment a noted reduction of size in the veins both Positive and Experimental control groups were recorded at 0.33 cm while the Negative control group remained at 0.80 cm. Based on the results, it was concluded, that there was a comparable effect of the extracts and Hirudoid in reducing inflammation, the treatment used for Positive control group. It is recommended that this study be replicated with other species of rabbits or animals. Phytochemical screening can also be done to all parts of Mandarin orange plant for possible active constituents. Moreover, toxicity testing of the extracts was essential to establish for safe public consumption. Introduction One of the prevailing societal problems in the Philippines is the inadequate provision of physiological and physical needs such as food, clothing and shelter which were considered the priority sustenance of every individual. Deprived of basic necessities brings about physical, economic, social and cognitive malfunctioning. To be healthy, an individual attention to internal and external considerations is required to fully develop the physiological aspect of the body. Every part of the human body must be in consonance with the others for stability and equilibrium. Like a machine, if one part of the body is neglected it affects the other major constituents thus; malfunctioning results and if left unchecked may lead to chronic disorder. One physical difficulty experience by male and female species is lower extremities vascular disorder typically known as "varicose veins". In this condition, the loss of vascular integrity is obvious when the valves of the veins that prevent blood flowing backward work improperly. It is a medically identified by clinical practitioners common to all adults in both sexes of which the affected area in the lower extremity permanently lost its valvular efficiency due 13


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to continuous dilation caused by intense and complex pressure. Consequently, the vein becomes elongated, enlarged, bulgy, bluish and lumpy. Specifically among women varicose veins in the legs offer embarrassment and insecurities and those who suffered from the disorder often are self conscious to show off their legs in public not to mention discomfort and painful feeling. Although, wearing of "compression stockings" was a suggested remedy to ease the pain from suffering this disorder. Similarly, "schlerotherapy" was also another relieving technique recommended by medical experts to get rid of the bulging veins in the lower extremities with the compression stockings. On the other hand, oral medication was an added traditional treatment of varicose veins which requires oral supplements from natural herbal products to prevent painful, time consuming and expensive complications. Moreover, topical preparations like ointment was an option to relieve pain, bulging and even bluish coloration of the affected veins which is much less expensive and can be purchased by those whose priority was to relieve physical discomfort. For the aforementioned reasons, the researchers intend to delve into finding the healthful potential plants like the Mandarin oranges which can be an option to cure varicose veins.

METHODOLOGY Research Design This study used the experimental method of research to determine the effects of Hesperidin from Orange Rind-pith (Citrus reticulata) on induced inflamed varicose veins of nine (9) male rabbits. Research Environment The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory Room of the University of Southern Philippines Foundation located at Salinas Drive, Lahug, Cebu City, which is well ventilated and equipped with instruments needed for the study. 14


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Research Subjects Nine (9) male rabbits were used in the study, and mixed breed. They were further divided into three (3) groups using simple random allocation. The treatment was through purposive sampling based on the set criteria. Inclusion criteria: Male rabbits 8 to 10 months old 9 Weighing 500-750 grams Exclusion criteria: With no physical deformities Have not been previously used in any experiment Research Instrument The tape measure was utilized to measure the size of the inflamed veins of the nine (9) male rabbits. The data were recorded in the observation sheets regarding the size of the inflamed veins. Research Procedures Data Gathering Collection and Preparation of Plant Sample Mandarin orange fruit were used as the plant sample, purchased at one specific local supplier in Cebu. The oranges were washed thoroughly with cold water and slightly scrubbed with vegetable brush (Lofa) to remove dirt clinging to the skin and wipe dry using a clean cloth. Afterwards, the peeled-off rinds and the pith were carefully scraped and gathered. Preparation of the Crude Extract The orange rind-pith weighing five hundred (500) grams were placed in Erlenmeyer flask and added with enough 95% alcohol to make one Liter for maceration, covered with a cork stopper and allowed to stand for about 48 hours, with occasional agitation. The extract obtained was separated from the marc and 15


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placed in an evaporating dish and heated over a water bath maintaining a temperature of 70 degrees to completely remove the solvent or until a dried substance was obtained. Further extraction like reflux distillation was employed, which is a technique used for the condensation of vapors and the return of the condensate the to system where it originated. A condensed amount was fitted to a Florence flask containing the macerated plant sample with water inlet provided in the condenser to allow constant flow of the water to cool the condenser. Confirmatory test for Hesperidin Hesperidin showed a color reaction with ferric chloride. With higher concentration, it produced a red wine color but with much concentration, the color became almost black. Preparation of White Ointment Base White ointment base was prepared using fusion method of which the ingredients were melted in descending points. Eight (8) grams of white wax were melted in the evaporating dish over a water bath. Sixteen grams of petrolatum were incorporated to the melted wax continuously stirring and was cooled, then transferred to a wide-mouth bottle. Preparation of the Test Animals All of the nine (9) male rabbits were acclimatized for a week before the experimentation, placed in separate cages and divided into three groups containing three rabbits each group namely: Experimental group treated with the Orange rind-pith extract; the Positive group treated with Hirudoid ointment and the negative group treated with the ointment base. Collection of Data The method used in gathering the data was single blinding of which the researchers measured without knowledge of what group the rabbit belonged. Using the tape measure, the marginal vein in the ear of the rabbit was the baseline data before inducing to inflammation. Measurements were recorded in the Record sheet No. 1 shown in Appendix A. After establishing the baseline data, the marginal vein in the ear of the rabbits were mechanically 16


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compressed for forty-eight (48) hours to induce the inflammation. Fifteen minutes later, the size of the marginal veins in the ear of the rabbits were measured and in every fifteen minutes thereafter for two hours. The inflammation data was recorded in the Record Sheet No. 2. After resting for a week, the same veins were mechanically compressed again for forty eight (48) hours to induce inflammation and treatments followed for each three groups. Using cotton swab and Orange rind-pith extract were applied externally on the inflamed marginal vein of the rabbits of the Experimental group. Likewise, Mucopolysaccharide polysulfate (Hirudoid) ointment was applied on Positive Group while the White Ointment base was spread over the inflamed marginal vein of the rabbits in the Negative Group. Fifteen minutes after the treatment the size of the marginal veins in the ear of the rabbits were measured and in every fifteen minutes thereafter for two hours. The data were recorded in Record Sheet No. 3 shown in Appendix C. Treatment of Data Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used in determining the significant difference in the change of size among the Experimental, Positive Negative Control Groups.

FINDINGS The Mandarin orange rind-pith contained Hesperidin by its positive color reaction with ferric chloride, resulting to a red wine color and becoming nearly black in higher concentration. Mechanical compression on the ears of the rabbits using cloth clips was effective in inducing inflammation and resulting to thrombosis. The Mandarin orange rind-pith extract affected th induced mechanical inflammation on the marginal veins of the rabbits which responded positively to the extract. The mean size in the marginal vein of the rabbits after the induction to inflammation was at 0.83 cm for the Experimental group, 0.80 cm for Positive and Negative control group. 17


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After the administration of the treatment, Mandarin orange rind-pith extract, Hirudoid ointment, and white ointment, the mean size of the inflamed marginal veins of the rabbits was measured and was found out to be 0.33 cm both for the Experimental and Positive groups while the Negative group remained at 0.80cm. CONCLUSION Based on the findings and results, the Mandarin orange rindpith extracts has significantly decreased the size of the inflamed marginal veins on the ears of the rabbits. As far as reduction of the inflammation is concerned, the effect of the extracts was comparable with the synthetic preparation, Hirudoid, for the same purpose. RECOMMENDATIONS To intensify the awareness of using experimental research to obtain scientific results, the following are recommended: A phytochemical screening using other parts of the Mandarin orange fruit or the whole plant for its potential constituent of Hesperidin; Replication of the study for the toxicity effect which is deemed possible using different species; and Utilization of plants that can be grown locally to cure certain ailments.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Arash Khalli et.al. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. Vol.5(6),June 2011 Kawaguchi et.al. (2013). Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Arthritis and Related Inflammatory Diseases. 1st Edition,2013 Hendrickson,R,& J.W.Kestersen. Hesperidin The Principal Glucoside of Oranges Hernandez,L.et.al.(General Pharmacy),1994 Trease & Evans Pharmacognosy, 16th edition Tyler,V.et.al.Pharmacognosy, 9th edition Williams and Wilkins. The Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents, 4th edition, Philadelphia, 1995 Journals, Magazines, Articles Natural Remedies Encyclopedia,4th edition The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit, 2nd edition,1994 Unpublished Theses Guardia,T.et.al. (2003). Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plant Flavonoids,effects of rutin, qeurcetin & hesperidin on adjuvant arthritis in rat Salles,P.et.al. (2011). The Effect of the Period of Extrinsic Mechanical Compression Following Sclerotherapy in the Veins of Rabbit Ears

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IFESTYLE HEALTH PRACTICES AND WELLNESS BEHAVIOR OF NURSING STUDENTS (2nd Best Paper) COLLEGE OF NURSING MAE KARYL PUEBLAS POGIO, RN, MN __________________________________________________ ABSTRACT This study determined the lifestyle health practices and wellness behavior of nursing students in University of Southern Philippines Foundation as bases for a Health and Wellness Action Plan. Sought further in this study were the following: profile of the respondents in the aspects of sex, civil status, age, year level; level of lifestyle health practices of the respondents in the areas of substance use, personal hygiene, sleeping habit, eating habit, physical activity; and level of wellness behavior of the respondents with reference to physical, social, emotional, intellectual, spiritual and occupational dimension. An Action Plan was proposed based on the findings. Hypothesis-testing revealed that there is no significant association between the profile of the respondents and the level of lifestyle health practices and no significant association between the level of health practices and wellness behavior of the respondents. The study utilized the descriptive-correlational design. It employed the modified researcher-made instrument adopted from Health Lifestyle Questionnaire and Wellness Self-Perception Questionnaire based on William Hettler's "Six Wellness Dimension Model". The findings of the study shows that more than half of the nursing students are female and majority are single. The lifestyle health practices exhibited by students attained a satisfactory level. The student's behavior in the areas of wellness dimensions displayed a very satisfactory level. The sex of the respondents is associated with substance use and physical activity while age did not pose any influence with 20


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lifestyle choices. Further, findings suggest a strong positive relationship between level of lifestyle health practices and the level of wellness behavior among nursing students. Introduction Healthcare has become increasingly focused on health promotion, wellness and disease prevention. The rapid rise of health care cost has motivated people to seek ways of decreasing the incidence and minimizing the results of illness. Recently, the public has become aware of the importance of disease prevention and health promotion. Reports on the role of nutrition and exercise in preventing debilitating and fatal illness permeate the airways, internet and printed media. Many scholars on health promotion and wellness have suggested that lifestyle makes 33% contribution to a person's health status (Logan, 2007). Lifestyle has been described as a "general way of living based on the interplay between living conditions on the wide sense and individual patterns of behavior as determined by socio-cultural factors and several characteristics (WHO, 1986). The leading health indicator's as defined by Healthy People (2010) are physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance abuse, responsible sexual behavior, mental health, injury and violence, environmental quality, immunization and access to health care (USDHHS, 2000). People select their lifestyle and people's lifestyles often do not promote health. Many assume responsibility for their own lifestyle choice however some persons may refuse to accept the consequences of personal action. Some reasons for this may be a limited appreciation of the effect of lifestyle on health, difficulty accepting responsibility for personal health, lack of knowledge, and varying perceptions of consumer health. Recent evidence reports that modifying simple lifestyle habits can increase the length and improve the quality of life. Health promoting lifestyle activities promote feelings of vitality, vigor, improved mood and affect, flexibility, relaxation, confidence and harmony. Wellness according to Halbert Dunn (1975) is "An integrated method of functioning which is oriented toward maximizing the potential of which the individual is capable, within the environment in which he is functioning." Ardell (1999) states that wellness is 21


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a lifestyle and a personalized approach to living your life in such a way that you enjoy maximum freedom. The efficacy of wellness practices for an optimal quality of life necessitates a balance of the physical, emotional, social, spiritual and intellectual dimensions of our lives. Wellness is a dynamic and integrated level of functioning grounded in expanding awareness and practice of these dimensions. Within this perspective, the amalgamations of these lifestyle components play a role in our total well-being. While components of health are measures at a specific point in time, wellness is dynamic process that consists of habits and practices. These habits are continuously learned and integrated in the lifestyle practices of a person for it to progress and become a wellness behavior. Engaging in healthy behaviors requires an awareness of a person's health state and recognition of personal health issues. It is only then, that they can make a choice to change unhealthy behaviors and initiate this change and develop as a genuine habit of wellness. When people need help maintaining their health, dealing with illness, obtaining rehabilitation assistance or, promoting wellness behavior they turn to "experts" or "professionals" in the health care fields. Traditionally, assistance in meeting daily physical needs has been associated with nursing. Emphasis in nursing is being given to helping people with the difficulties they are experiencing in daily living. Nurses are in a unique position to assist individuals in achieving and maintain optimal levels of health. Nurses understand the challenges of today's health care system and embrace the opportunity to use wellness activities to promote health and wellness. Sachs (2008) and Papp (2007) identified nurses as key human resources to confront the future challenges of improving the health and well-being of all. Nurses possess communication and clinical skills to help persons understand ways to promote a healthy lifestyle and wellness. The nurse can facilitate behavioral change for persons who believe that personal actions determine lifestyle and who exhibit sufficient motivation. Through roles designed to promote health, capitalize on the healthy outlook of people and reinforce their strengths, the nursing profession has the potential to change societal beliefs about health and wellness.

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In trying to improve the quality of health of individuals, the nurse is obligated to fulfill roles that incorporate promoting health and self-care. Nurses must assume responsibility and accountability for their own physical, mental, social and spiritual health by maintaining a balanced lifestyle. It is important for the nurse to take care of herself/himself first before attempting to meet someone else needs (Elder, 1999). In addition, nurses need to take responsibility for self-care because they can be in a position to give only when their own needs have at least to some extent, been acknowledged and satisfied. When nurses sacrifice wholeness of life, they lose capacity for optimal functioning as professionals and people. In summary, nurses need to care for themselves to provide effective care to others and to function at their fullest capacity. Lifestyle practices and wellness behaviors of nurses affect their ability to extend themselves to help others. Wellness is essentially an individual responsibility. An individual takes responsibility for his well-being by making appropriate lifestyle choices. Lifestyle choices are important in that they affect a person's quality of life. Thus, the researcher is interested to investigate the lifestyle health practices and wellness behavior of nursing students. Being a healthcare provider, she considers it a vital role to determine how nursing students understand, assent and exemplify healthy lifestyle choices and wellness behavior. The purpose of the study, therefore, was to reveal these lifestyle practices, identifying crucial areas which are considered detrimental to wellness and necessitates immediate intervention. METHODOLOGY Research Design This quantitative study utilized the descriptive-correlational design which determined the relationship between the profile and the lifestyle health practices of nursing students. It furthers establishes the association between Health Practices and Wellness Behavior. Research Environment The study was conducted at the University of Southern Philippines Foundation-Lahug Campus, a non-sectarian foundation, 23


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located at Salinas Drive Barangay Lahug, Cebu City. The University offers a different college courses from education, engineering, arts and science, social work, business and recently paramedical courses such as pharmacy and nursing. The College of Nursing was established in 2003. It is situated at the ground floor of Don Jereza Building. Research Respondent The study utilized the complete enumeration of respondents which included the entire student population taking up Bachelor of Science in Nursing for the school year 2013-2014- second semester. There were a total of 54 research respondents, 5 students in the First year level, 3 students in the Second year level, 21 students in the Third year level and 25 students in the Fourth year level. Research Instrument This study made use of a checklist which consisted of three major parts. Part I identified the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of sex, civil status, age and year level. The second part determined the lifestyle health practices which is comprised of 5 criteria: Substance Use, Personal Hygiene Sleeping Habits, Eating Habits and Physical Activity. The third part recognized the wellness behavior which includes 6 dimensions of wellness: physical, social, emotional, intellectual, spiritual and occupational. The instrument was modified researcher-made tool adopted from Health Lifestyle Questionnaire and Wellness Self-Perception Questionnaire based on William Hettler's "Six Wellness Dimension Model". Parameter Limits for the Level of Lifestyle Health Practices and Wellness Behavior Range 3.26 - 4.00 2.51 - 3.25 1.76 - 2.50 1.00 - 1.75

Interpretation Very Satisfactory Satisfactory Fair Poor

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Research Procedures Gathering of Data This study used the complete enumeration of the respondentstudents in the College of Nursing. The researcher requested for the official list of enrolled students the College of nursing for the second semester of S.Y. 2013-2014. After determining the total population of nursing student, the researcher coordinated with the class advisers to ask for permission to distribute the research questionnaire before or after their class hours. In the classroom, the researcher explained the purpose of the study and the method of collecting data. Respondents were given the assurance that all entries of data will be treated as confidential. The researcher personally distributed the questionnaires to the students in all year levels and explained each part of the questionnaire and how to answer it completely without leaving any item unanswered. Retrieval of questionnaire and checking for its completeness was done on the same day it was distributed. Tabulation of results then followed. Treatment of Data The following statistical formulae were utilized to treat the collated data. Simple Percentage was used to analyze the demographic profile of the respondents as to age, sex, civil status, and year level. The Weighted Mean was used to analyze the level of lifestyle health practices and level of wellness behavior of the respondents. Then, the Chi-square of Independent Samples was used to establish if there was association between the profile of the respondents and their level of lifestyle health practices. Pearson Product-moment correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the level of lifestyle health practices and the level of wellness behavior. The t-ratio was used to test the degree of significance of Pearson's r.

FINDINGS More than half of the nursing students are female and majority are single. With regards to age, the same percentage of respondent belongs to the age group of 16-20 yrs. old and 2125


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25 yrs. old. Only a few nursing students belong to age group 25yrs and above. It also shows that Fourth year level has the most number of students comprising the entire nursing population. Personal hygiene and substance use attained a very satisfactory level despite of the prevalence of alcohol consumption among students. On contrary, the respondents' physical activity, sleeping and eating habits displayed a satisfactory level only. Overall, the lifestyle health practices exhibited by students attained a satisfactory level. In general, the student's behavior in the areas of wellness dimensions displayed a very satisfactory level. Spiritual wellness emerges as the highest level of wellness behavior while physical wellness scored the lowest level of wellness. Moreover, the paper examines the relationship between profile and the level of lifestyle health practices. Profile of sex is associated to substance use and physical activity while age did not pose any influence to lifestyle choices. Males are more inclined to substance use and females are predisposed to physical inactivity. Finally, the research analysis shows that there is a direct strong positive relationship between levels of lifestyle health practices and levels of wellness behavior among nursing students. The more students demonstrate a positive lifestyle practice, the better their wellness behavior. CONCLUSION Lifestyle health practices are associated with the wellness behavior of the respondents. As the individual's level of healthy lifestyle advances so does their practices toward a state of optimum wellness. Healthy lifestyle results in increased wellness and negative health practices results in a decreased wellness behavior. RECOMMENDATIONS With reference to the findings of the study, the following recommendations are offered: the Nursing Students should be aware of their current lifestyles practices and wellness behavior Having revealed that the respondents have only a satisfactory level of health practices, it is hereby recommended that they 26


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make lifestyle changes based on those unhealthy behaviors of physical inactivity, sleep deprivation, poor food preferences and substance use. The proposed Health and Wellness Action Plan for the promotion of healthy lifestyle and wellness behavior be reviewed, adopted and implemented by their respective colleges.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Hood, Lucy Jane (2010). Leddy and Pepper's Conceptual Bases of Professional Nursing. 7th edition. Roux, Gayle M. and Halstead, Judith A. (2009). Issues and trends in Nursing: Essential Knowledge for Today and Tomorrow Potter, Patricia A. and Perry, Anne G. (2009). Fundamentals of Nursing. 7th edition. Delaune and Ladner (2007). Fundamentals of Nursing Standards and Practice. 2nd edition Taylor, C. et al. (2005). Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care. 7th edition Polit and Beck (2008). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice. 8th edition Levin, J., Alan Fox, J., Forde, D. Elementary Statistics in Social Research. 11th edition Internet Sources Miller, Gord and Foster, Leslie T. (2010). "Critical Synthesis of Wellness Literature" Jones and Bartlett. "The Basics of Wellness" Green, Lawrence W. "Modifying and Developing Health Behavior" Health, Wellness, Fitness, and Healthy Lifestyles: An Introduction www.mhhe.com/hper/physed/clw/01corb.pdf? Introduction to Wellness, Fitness, and Lifestyle Management highered.mcgraw-hill.com/.../Chapter_1

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TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR OF DEANS AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND JOB SATISFACTION OF TEACHERS (3rd Best Paper) COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES JUANITO G. GALOS CORNELIUS ROY NAGAL CHARLES ROY P. BAGUIO DIONISIA TAYCO ____________________________________________________ ABSTRACT This study investigated the deans' transformational leadership behavior as perceived by the college teachers. Further, the study also attempted to establish a correlation between the transformational leadership behavior of deans as perceived by the teachers and the organizational commitment and job satisfaction of the latter. The participating teachers, either full time or parttime, already have one year teaching experience in their respective departments. The level of transformational leadership behavior exhibited by the deans was rated very high level as perceived by the teachers. The level of organizational commitment and job satisfaction of teachers were rated high. They are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with their job. It is noteworthy to find that there is a correlation between transformational leadership of deans and organizational commitment and job satisfaction of teachers. Introduction Educational institutions of the Philippines today, are confronted with challenging demands as the government is taking steps for major educational changes in order to establish congruency with the global educational trends. Academic managers, therefore, should be able to develop the art of leadership for them to guide their people and bring them to a common direction. The major change which is the K-12 program in the basic education has greatly challenged principal's planning and leadership skills. 29


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A revision of the curriculum should be made, trainings for teachers should be conducted, educational facilities should be developed, up-graded, and made available, and the readiness of the learners and support of parents must also be considered. In the tertiary level, the most recent requirement for universities and colleges alike is to adopt the CHED's (Commission on Higher Education) educational innovation like the Outcomes Based Curriculum and at the same time, in assumption, making sure that in the implementation of the programs, quality assurance and standard are observed for a better service delivery to students. The Commission on Higher Education is also desirous to alleviate the standards of HEIs educational services to be at par with the global standards, that is why, this agency of the government also requires all HEIs to comply with the set of standards in her "typology" programs either vertical or horizontal dimensions. Harris and Muijs (2005) stated in their book "Improving Schools through Teacher Leadership" that, "Across many countries, economic, social and political forces have combined to create a climate in which educational reform is expected and in which schools feel continued pressure to improve. The global drive for improved educational performance has resulted in a form of accountability that places tightly prescribed targets at the centre of systemic change. World-wide educational reform has embraced standards and improving economic competitiveness." Each HEI like the University of Southern Philippines Foundation (USPF) should also respond to this need in order to continue her services to the youth, the community, and the related industries. USPF's enthusiasm to affect people is clearly highlighted in her vision and mission statements. The USPF, as one of the leading universities in Central Visayas, is exerting efforts to cope with the demands of the time, and keep her direction towards responding both local and internal needs. To have competent, quality or excellent man-power, like academic middle managers in the workplace is one of the many needs that the university should keep. Stakeholders must be able to pull resources together, especially human resources' concerted efforts must be evident among themselves for a better adjustment on the different concerns. Furthermore, as an institution, being an educational service provider, leadership and subordinate collaborative efforts must be observed. The deans as leaders as 30


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well as the faculty as subordinates should work hand and hand, since the deans' leadership has direct impact on the faculty members' commitment and fulfillment to their job. The faculty as the front liners defines the quality of educational services to be delivered to the students. The academic middle managers and the faculty members therefore, should posses some sort of chemistry in their minds and hearts together in the fulfillment of this task. Furthermore, the academic middle managers must not only manage the program but also most importantly show direction by leading their faculty to a common goal. The faculty themselves on their end must perform their functions with higher degree of commitment, and with a sense of fulfillment in accordance to the university's direction. The very essential aspects to be considered in coping with the educational demands are; first, the leadership behavior which is manifested in the leaders' practices, and secondly, the subordinates' commitment to their functions and their feeling of satisfaction or feeling of fulfillment. In order to be effective, any educational institution needs skilled leaders and committed and satisfied faculty members. Marc S. Tucker and Judy B. Codding 2002 , said, leading and managing schools in the midst of speedy change best leadership practices must be of utmost priority among managers in order to cope with the demands and needs not only in the immediate community but also in the global conditions. The increasing technological change, greater global competition, the deregulation of markets, and the changing demographics of the workplace have prompted an explosion of interest in leadership development both within organizations among schools that support corporations with competence and through executive education. Since leadership behavior is crucial in responding and coping with the felt need, this study aims to look deeply into the academic middle managers transformational leadership behavior because they are the immediate managers who can give impact to teacher commitment and teacher job satisfaction, and also propose a more improved collaboration in the effective delivery of the different educational programs and other similar services. In this study, transformational leadership behavior is the item being studied. This type of leadership behavior includes the following indicators: Provides vision or Inspiration, Models Behavior, Fosters Commitment to Group Goals, Provides Individual Support, 31


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Provides Intellectual Stimulations, and Holds High Performance Expectations. The level on leadership behavior among the academic middle managers exhibited in the six dimension of transformation leadership will be identified via weighted mean computation. Another important variable in this study is the impact of the academic middle managers' transformational leadership on faculty commitment and job satisfaction. This impact is measured in the degree of commitment and the level of job satisfaction exhibited by the faculty members and in like manner these will be computed via weighted mean. The profile of the respondents such as highest educational attainment, number of years in teaching, performance rating employment status, and salary are considered and these will be presented in simple percentage. Finally, the correlation between the level of deans' leadership behavior as perceived by the faculty and the degree of commitment and level of job satisfaction of the faculty members shall be established via coefficient correlation, subjected to t-test to determine whether or not the correlation is significant. This study was conducted by people who have the experience on administrative functions. The chair in this research was once a member of the Board of Trustees and at the same time the director of the Campus Ministry Office of a sectarian school in Davao, and is currently writing his dissertation. One of the members was a former principal for more than 16 years of a Chinese school in Cebu - Samantabhadra Institute and has already defended his first oral exam in his dissertation. Another member is the current dean of the College of Arts and Sciences of the University of Southern Philippines Foundation, and also currently enrolled in the Doctoral degree focusing on educational administration. The last but not the least is an experienced teacher in high school and in college whose managerial knowledge is practiced in the classroom. METHODOLOGY Research Design This study utilized the descriptive-correlational design to investigate the level of transformational leadership behavior of deans as perceived by the college teachers and the level of commitment and job satisfaction of the same. Further, the study tested if there is an association among the variables cited. The specific behaviors targeted in this study are those classified as 32


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transformational leadership behaviors. These behaviors include: providing vision or inspiration, modeling behavior, fostering commitment to group goals, providing individualized attention, providing intellectual stimulation, and setting high performance expectations. Research Environment This research was conducted in the tertiary level of the University of Southern Philippines Foundation, situated at Salinas Drive, Lahug, Cebu City. The University of Southern Philippines Foundation (USPF) is a non-stock non-profit envisions "to be autonomous university committed to develop exemplary professionals and community leaders for the improvement of the quality of life". USPF also offers relevant programs and projects that create opportunities or meet the needs of the community while maintaining a strong linkage with the University's constituencies. Indeed, the university, untiringly continues to pursue its vision and keep the root of its founding spirit to provide for the vast majority of the community the educational experience with extra dimension. Research Respondents The respondents of this study were the college teachers. All full-time and part-time college teachers were considered as the target population. They evaluated their respective dean's transformational leadership behavior. They also assessed their own organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Each teacherrespondent was asked to answer the four sections of the research survey questioner; one on his/her profile, another on his/her perception of his dean's level of transformational leadership behavior, and his level of organizational commitment and his job satisfaction. Table 1.1 shows the teacher-distribution per college with the exclusions of the College of Accountancy whose officer incharge has not served the college for a year. The frequency distribution of teachers who should have responded and be qualified to be the research participants should be at least a year of teaching experience in the college he/she is working with at the USPF.

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Table 1.1 Distribution of Teacher-Respondents COLLEGE

SBM Pharmacy COED CEA CCS BSN CAS Total

NUMBER OF NUMBER OF TEACHERS PERCENTAGE OF TEACHERS PER WHO RESPONDED THE PARTICIPANTS COLLEGE PER COLLEGE RESPONDED (%) 13 10 76.92 % 7 4 57.14 8 4 50.00 21 5 23.81 5 3 60.00 6 4 66.67 27 20 74.07 87 50

The greatest percentage of these participants is from the School of Business Management, followed by the College of Arts and Sciences, much smaller percentages are from other colleges, and the smallest one is from the College of Engineering and Architecture. Research Instrument There are four sections in survey instrument that was used in this study. The first section collected the demographic profile of the research participants. The second section collected data on Transformational leadership behavior of the deans as perceived by the college instructors. There are six indicators in this section on transformational leadership behavior; namely, Identifying and articulating a vision-behavior on the part of the leader aimed at identifying new opportunities for his or her school and developing; articulating inspiring others with his or her vision of the future; Fostering the acceptance of group goals -Behavior on the part of leader aimed at promoting cooperation among staff members and assessing them to work together toward common goal; Providing individual support - Behavior on the part of the leader that indicates respect for staff members and concern about their personal feelings and needs; Intellectual stimulation - Behavior on the part of the leader that challenges staff members to examine some of the assumption about their work and rethink how it can be performed; Providing an appropriate model - Behavior on the part of the leader that sets an example for staff members to follow consistent with the values the leader espouses; and, High performance 34


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expectation - Behavior that demonstrate leader's expectation for excellence, quality, and high performance on the part of the staff. The transformational leadership behavior instrument was developed by Doris Jantzi and Kenneth Leithwood (1996) and was borrowed by Amoroso (2002) which the latter used in his dissertation. The instrument was tested by the authors for validity and reliability (Leithwood and Jantzi 1999). The third section of the survey instrument is used to collect the college instructors' level of commitments as designed by Mowdy, Steers, and Porter (1979). Mowdy, Steers, and Porter initiated a number of validity and reliability tests to assure that this instrument could be used as general measure of commitment (p.228). And the fourth section of this research's instrument is utilized to collect data on the instructors' level of job satisfaction as designed by Evans and Johnson (1990). The three sections use a five-point Likert scale. Research Procedures Gathering of Data The data collection was done at the University of Southern Philippines Foundation, Lahug Campus, after a transmittal letter is approved by the president of the university. The researchers then distributed the survey tool to the college teachers by college and then and retrieve them on the specified date. After the collection of data was exhausted, organization of data into tables, including graphs and then analysis and interpretations are made.

Treatment of Data Since the instrument used the 5-point Likert scale, weighted mean was employed in order to determine the level of transformational leadership behavior of the deans in the six dimensions, and the level of organizational commitment and job satisfaction of the teachers. In order to determine the degree of association between level of Transformational Leadership Behavior of deans as perceived by the college teachers and the level Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction of the college teachers, the Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficient was utilized. 35


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Parameter Limits for the Level of Transformational Leadership Behavior and Organizational Commitment Range 4.2 - 5.0 3.4 - 4.1 2.6 - 3.3 1.8 - 2.5 1.0 - 1.7

Response Category Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

Interpretation Very High High Moderate Low Very Low

FINDINGS Based on the presented, analyzed, and interpreted data in chapter II, the findings can be articulated as follows. The highest educational attainment of the teachers in tertiary level in the University of Southern Philippines Foundation is dominated by Master's degree holders; followed by the bachelor's degree holders, and the least number are doctoral degree holders. The number of year/s of teaching of these teachers under their current deans that is between two to three years comprised the majority of the research participants. The part-time teachers outnumbered the full time teachers. The gross monthly pay of the majority of teachers ranges from 10 thousand to 24 thousand. However, a good percentage also is below 10 thousand, and the least percentage ranges from 25 to 29 thousand monthly gross pay. The deans get the highest level which is in the first three indicators (Provides vision or inspiration, Models behavior, and Fosters commitment to Group Goal), and second to the highest level which is in the last three indicators (Provides Individual Support, Provides Intellectual Stimulation, and Holds High Performance Expectation). The teachers are generally in high level on Organizational Commitment. The teachers are moderately satisfied in their job on the areas related to school policy, school administration, interpersonal relationship, salary, and the work place, and then, neither satisfied nor dissatisfied in the area related to additional compensation, job security, achievement and recognition, and employee additional benefits. The teachers' organizational commitment significantly related to the deans' transformational leadership behavior in the following indicators: models behavior, fosters commitment to group goals, provides individual support, and provides intellectual stimulation. 36


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However, it does not yield enough evidence for a significant correlation in the indicators: provides vision or inspiration, and holds high performance expectation. The teachers' job satisfaction in most areas like: school policy, school administration, interpersonal relationship, salary, achievement and recognition significantly correlated to most indicators on deans' transformational leadership behavior. CONCLUSION The deans in the University of Southern Philippines Foundation revealed a very high transformational leadership behavior as perceived by the teachers. The teachers themselves also confirmed a high level of organizational commitment but showed neither satisfied nor dissatisfied in job satisfaction. Furthermore, the very high transformational leadership behavior exhibited by the deans though low correlation but significantly associated with teachers' organizational commitment and job satisfaction. RECOMMENDATIONS Based of the findings of this study the following are recommended: the proposed program must be implemented; and some variables should be included in future researches: demographic profile of the deans; teachers' leadership in the classroom; and, students' engagement in the school.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Chuck, W. (2013). Management. Cengage Learning Asia, Printed in the Philippines: Hiyas Press. Inc. Harris, A. & Muijs, D. (2005). Improving Schools Through Teacher Leadership. USA: Mac Graw-Hill Leithwood, K. , Jantzi, D., & Steinbach, R. (2009). Changing Leadership for Changing Times. North America, USA: Mc Graw-Hill Robbins, S. & Judge, T. (2009). Organizational Behaviour. Singapore: PTE. LTD. ISBN Tucker, M. & Codding J. (2002). The Principal Challenge, Leading and Managing Schools in Era of Accountability. San Francisco, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Unpublished Theses Amoroso, P. (2002). The Impact of Principals' Transformational Leadership Behaviour on Teacher Commitment and Teacher Job Satisfaction. Seton Hall University Koppula, R. (2008). Examination the Relationship Between Transformational Leadership and Engagement. San Jose State University

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ALUMNI TRACER ON 5 FLAGSHIP PROGRAMS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN PHILIPPINES FOUNDATION (Finalist) OFFICE OF THE ALUMNI By KATHLEEN B. SOLON-VILLANEZA ____________________________________________________ Abstract This alumni tracer study investigated the profile and employment status of the University's 5 Flagship Programs alumni including only those who major in Music, Education, Accountancy, Social Work, and Geodetic Engineering from Classes 1996 to 2012. The Descriptive Research Design is utilized in this study. Modern online social media such as pages and chat applications of Facebook are employed in gathering information along with the traditional pencil-and-paper fill-out alumni tracer forms from July to November 2013. The data treatment made use of simple percentage with fashioned tables and figures for presentation ease. A total population size of 1082 alumni from class years 1996 to 2012 is covered in the study with a 13% total actual alumni response. Of the 94 population size for the Music program, 13.38% alumni responded to the tracer study; of the 257 population size for the Education program, 8.56% alumni responded; of the 135 for the Accountancy program, 15.56% alumni responded; of the 247 population size for the Social Work program, 6.88% alumni responded; and, of the 349 population size for the Geodetic Engineering program, 19.20% alumni responded. The profile of the USPian alumni of the 5 Flagship Programs in terms of class year and program graduated follows a sporadic trend that is not directly proportional to the actual alumni responses' trend. The trend on high population size of the flagship programs by class year does not necessarily equate to high actual response by class year. However, the high-low population size trend by 39


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program resulted to the expected high-low actual alumni response trend by program. A 91.40% of the actual alumni respondents are working in line with the flagship program they finished at the University. An 8.60% underemployment is noted wherein the alumni stated that they are occupied as call center agent, homemaker, and into business. Majority of the actual alumni respondents of the flagship programs are Philippine-based at 89.29% whereas the 10.71%minority are working in foreign countries, specifically in Singapore, Brunei, USA, Norway, UAE, KSA, South Korea, and Bahrain. Based on the findings of the study, the University's 5 Flagship Programs produced graduates who are working in line with the degree earned at the University. The following recommendations are given: (1) Government and non-government underemployment expunger programs that benefit and microscopically focus on the USPian alumni of the 5 Flagship Programs are needed. (2) University-based expunger programs: a.) On underemployment & degree-career mismatch. The creation of annual collegiate career guidance program may be essential in order to solidify the career path of future USPian alumni; b.) On low alumni response. Strengthen the USPF-OAR's Seminar for Graduating USPians with point-blank emphasis on the future alumni's response to the University's researches, especially the Alumni Tracer Studies. (3) Similar alumni tracer studies on employment status of USPian alumni from the other University programs are pertinent with increased respondents and extended timetable of at least 10 to 12 months in data gathering. (4) A narrowed-down alumni tracer on the flagship programs in a 5-year cluster is essential to conspicuously examine the (under)employment status of the USPian alumni. Introduction The global community is in need of professionals in the fields of engineering, social work, accountancy, education, and arts especially in music. Industries in New Zealand include accountants and engineers in the top 20 list of in demand jobs as of 2013. Additionally, engineering is the number one in demand job according to the 521 Million Jobs Across Internet for America as of December 2012 while accountants and auditors land third on the list of the Top 10 most in demand jobs post-recession according to Hot Skills For Hot Jobs as of July 2, 2013. 40


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Moreover, Australia Teachers informs in December 2013 that 284 employers in 9 states of South Australia are in need of basic education teachers including teachers of music while Canada is in dire demand of social workers. On a national level, Philippine Regulatory Board (PRC) details the information on licensure examination top performers including the University of Southern Philippines Foundation (USPF) as one of the Universities that has produced topnotchers in board examinations for Geodetic Engineering, Social Work, and Accountancy. It has satisfactorily fared on passing percentage of those mentioned fields as well as in the Licensure Examination for Teachers. Similarly, The Sunday Times Magazine, one of the national newspapers of the Philippines, informs the public in July 24, 2011 how USPF Social Work education changed the world through the featured article on social worker USPian alumna Myrna RemataEvora with a title "Filipina Power Goes International." Additionally, the USP Alumni Association Incorporated (USP AAI) awards the Most Outstanding Alumna of 2007 to Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) Regional Director and USPian Department of Social Work alumna Mrs. Evelyn Macapobre. Moreover, USP AAI honors the current University President of Southwestern University (SWU) and USPian College of Education alumna Dr. Elsa Suralta the Most Outstanding Alumna of 2012. The Show Violinist and USPian AB Music alumnus Mr. Jake Juleous Bryan Gacang has brought the name of the University on a national level in the Philippine's popular talent search, Pilipinas Got Talent. In the same way, USPian AB Music alumni and Concert Masters Mr. Reynaldo Abellana and Mr. Marc Hamlet Mercado have made history in Cebu as they found the Cebu Philharmonic Orchestra (CPO), the first philharmonic orchestra of Cebu. Meanwhile, 8.526 million Filipinos are underemployed as of July 2012 Labor Force Survey. This alarming result prompted a question on educational background and skills against job needs and job match. The Office of Alumni Relations administrator is curious: How are the USPian alumni performing in this respect.

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METHODOLOGY Research Design The Descriptive Research Design is utilized in tracing the USPian alumni of the University's 5 Flagship Programs. Research Environment The study explored the University's alumni environment. Research Respondents Only those USPian alumni who major in Music, Education, Accountancy, Social Work, and Geodetic Engineering from Classes of 1996 to 2012 are included in this study. These USPian alumni's population size totalled to 1082. In as much as the Researcher wanted to gather all data from the 1082 total population size, only an active 140 total USPian alumni responded in the July to November 2013 call for alumni tracer participation. Research Instruments The study employed the modern online social media Facebook pages and Facebook chat in gathering information. Additionally, the study made use of the traditional pencil-and-paper fill-out basic alumni tracer forms which include at least the following needed information for this study: full name, program graduated, class year, name of company & country, and designation or position. Research Procedures Gathering of Data Majority of the data mining process is done using the Facebook Page and Facebook Chat from July to November 2013. However, data mined from previous filled-out tracer forms and those alumni tracer information from reunions, from placement records, and from the USPF Comprehensive Alumni Tracer Study (CATS) committee's Administrator-Liaison Tracing Alumni (ALTA) documents submitted and archived at the Office of Alumni Relations that are found to still be of relevance to the present study are also utilized. 42


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Information dissemination regarding the USPF-OAR's 2013 alumni tracer study is done through the USPF-OAR's official Facebook account and posted as news on the USPian Alumni Newsletter website. Furthermore, noteworthy documents from the University Registrar's Office on the population size of graduates per semester and academic year, and on the 5 Flagship Programs' historical development through the detailed Government Recognition rundown are found to be of great value at the course of the study. Casual conversation highlights with selected University administrators that are in line with the study are sporadically noted down. The study applied only the 5-months' worth of data gathered specifically from July to November 2013. Alumni information such as length of stay in the company, number of jobs experienced before the current employment, and salary grade are not considered in this study. Treatment of Data Data treatment employed simple percentage. Tables and figures are created for presentation ease along with descriptive discussion. To add vitality, qualitative information is also incorporated. FINDINGS This alumni tracer on USPF's 5 Flagship Programs (Music, Education, Accountancy, Social Work, and Geodetic Engineering) included 1082 alumni from Classes 1996 to 2012 where of the 140 actual USPian alumni response collected, the Geodetic Engineering program is observed to prevalently cover the population size at 32% in contrast to the Music program's 9%. Both Education and Geodetic Engineering programs produced the highest number of graduates in 2000. Among the 5 Flagship Programs, only the Accountancy program did not produce any graduate in 2001 while the Social Work and Geodetic Engineering programs produced the highest number of graduates in the 1990's. Based on the total number of graduates of the 5 Flagship Programs with the highest (at 95 alumni) in 2000 and the lowest (at 36 alumni) in 2011, only the Education program went with the exact highest-lowest trend.

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While the population size of the study showed speckled trends in the flagship programs and class years, the actual respondents of the study also proved to have mottled trends. This alumni tracer recorded a total of 140 actual respondents or 12.94% (round off to 13%) of the covered population size. The highest number of respondents is from classes of 2004 and 2006 with 8.5% response each while the lowest number of alumni respondents is from class 1998 with a 1.43% response. Music alumni from class 2001 gave the highest response at 23.08% while a recurring zero response in five class years after the pioneering class graduated in 2000 is observed. Education alumni of classes 1997 and 2001 gave the highest response on the study at 18.18% while a recurring zero response is observed in seven class years between 1999 and 2012. Accountancy alumni of class 2008 gave the highest response on the study at 23.81% while a recurring zero response is reflected in eight class years between 1997 and 2012. Social Work alumni of class 2007 gave the highest response on the study at 23.53% while a recurring zero response is noticed in nine class years between 1996 and 2011. Geodetic Engineering alumni of class 2004 gave the highest response on the study at 13.43% while a recurring lowest response in 1996, 1998, and 2008 at 1.49%. It is the only alumni that yield responses from each class year 1996 to 2012, the covered class years of this study. Of the 94 population size for the Music program, 13.38% alumni responded to the tracer study; of the 257 population size for the Education program, 8.56% alumni responded; of the 135 for the Accountancy program, 15.56% alumni responded; of the 247 population size for the Social Work program, 6.88% alumni responded; and, of the 349 population size for the Geodetic Engineering program, 19.20% alumni responded. Trends in Producing Graduates and Actual Alumni Response Concluded. The profile of the USPian alumni of the 5 Flagship Programs in terms of class year and program graduated follows a sporadic trend that is not directly proportional to the actual alumni responses' trend. The trend on high population size of the flagship programs by class year does not necessarily equate to high actual respondents by class year. However, the high-low population size trend by program resulted to the expected high-low actual alumni response trend by program.

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All Music alumni respondents are currently working in line with the degree they finished at the University. They are occupied as proprietor of music schools, concert master, (regional) choir director, orchestra member, administrator of music, radio disc jockey, trainer, and teacher. 69.23% are based in the Philippines while 30.77% are working in countries outside the Philippines including Singapore, Brunei, and the USA. Majority of the alumni respondents of the Education program are working in line with the program they completed at the University. The alumni in this program are employed as teachers and school administrators. The 27.27% are into business not related to their degree, are homemakers, and are not employed. Majority of the alumni at 95.45% are based in the Philippines while 4.55% are in Norway. All Accountancy alumni respondents are working in line with the program they earned at the University with the Philippinebased majority at 95.24% and a 4.76% at Abu Dhabi, UAE. They are occupied as accountant, internal audit officer, corporate audit manager, credit analyst, bookkeeper, project and budget head, accounting supervisor, senior financial associate, finance analyst, rebates claim analyst, and business applications consultant. Most of the Social Work respondents are working in line with the program they worked for at the University. These alumni percentage are social worker, municipal link, program officer, training and program administrator, and educator while 11.76% are into business and into call center agent occupation. Majority are based in the Philippines at 88.24% while the 11.76% are in Saudi Arabia and the USA. Most of the Geodetic Engineering alumni respondents are working in line with the program they finished at the University. They are Geodetic engineering business proprietor/partner, private/government Geodetic engineer, land surveyor, survey technical consultant, government engineer, cartographer, technical verifier, computer encoder, and instrument man. An underemployment (work as cashier) at 1.49% is noted. Majority of the alumni respondents at 89.55% are based in the Philippines while 10.45% are practicing their profession in KSA, UAE, South Korea, Singapore, and Bahrain. 45


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Both Music and Accountancy flagship programs managed to produce 100% alumni respondents who are working in relation to the degree earned at the University. The other three flagship programs Education, Social Work, and Geodetic Engineering equipped 72%-98% of the alumni respondents to land in professional occupations related to the program accomplished at the University while the 1.5%-27% are underemployed. More than ninety percent of the actual alumni respondents are working in line with the flagship program they finished at the University. An 8.60% underemployment is noted wherein the alumni stated that they are occupied as call center agent, homemaker, and into business. Majority of the actual alumni respondents of the flagship programs are Philippine-based at 89.29% whereas the 10.71% minority are working in foreign countries, specifically in Singapore, Brunei, USA, Norway, UAE, KSA, South Korea, and Bahrain. CONCLUSION Based on the findings of the study, the USPian alumni of USPF's 5 Flagship Programs are working in line with the degree they earned at the University. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings and conclusion, it is recommended that: the Government and non-government underemployment expunger programs that benefit and microscopically focus on the USPian alumni of the 5 Flagship Programs are needed. There should be an annual collegiate career guidance program may be essential in order to solidify the career path of future USPian alumni. Strengthen the USPF-OAR's Seminar for Graduating USPians with point-blank emphasis on the future alumni's response to the University's researches, especially the Alumni Tracer Studies. Similar alumni tracer studies on employment status of USPian alumni from the other University programs are pertinent with: increased respondents and extended timetable (at least 10 to 12 months in data gathering).

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Al-Samarral, S., Reilley, B. (2008). "Education, Employment and Earnings of Secondary School and University Leavers in Tanzania: Evidence from a Tracer Study". Journal of Development Studies, Vol 44, No 2. Australia Teachers.com ( 2 0 1 3 , D e c e m b e r 7 ) . Re t r i e v e d f r o m h t t p : / / www.australiateachers.com Baime, D. (2012, March). "A Measured Response". CASE Currents, 9. Canadavisa.com (2013, December 7). retrieved from http://canadavisa.com/social-workers Centra, J. (2012, May). "Rally 'Round the Leader: famous alumna provides inspiration for current and future female lawyers". Currents, Vol 38, No 5, 7. Clotfelter, C.T. (2003, April). "Alumni Giving to Elite Private Universities". Economics of Education Review, Vol 22, No 2, 109-120. Cohen, R. (2004). Introducing Tracer Studies: Guidelines for implementing Tracer Studies in early childhood programmes. Netherlands:Bernard van Leer Foundation. DashBurst LLC (2013, December 7). retrieved from http://dashburst.com/ infographics/in-demand-jobs-skills-2013-beyond Drucker, A. J. and Remmers, H.H. (2012). "Do Alumniand Students differ in their Attitudes toward Instructors?".Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol 42, No 3, 129-143. Dubbey, J.M. et. Al. (2007; 1991, July). "How Effective is Our University? A study of Graduates from the University of Malawi". Higher Education Quarterly, Vol 45, No 3, 210233. HubPages Inc. (2013, December 7). Retrieved from http://hubpages.com/hub/what-jobs-are-in-demand Larson, M. (2012, March). "Advancement is Everyone's Job". CASE Currents,11. Mael, F. and Ashforth, B. (2006; 1992, March). "Alumni and their Alma Mater: A partial test of the reformulated model of organizational identification". Journal of Organizationalhavior, Vol 13, No 2, 103-123. 47


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McAdoo (2013). Factors affecting the institutional perception of alumni of the University of Arkansas. Retrieved from http://www.alumniattitudestudy.org

McAdoo. (2010). Factors affecting the institutional perception of alumni of The University of Arkansas. Retrieved from http://udini.proquest.com/view/factors-affecting-theinstitutional-goid:750358735. Philippine Regulatory Board. (2013, December 7). Retrieved from http://prc.gov.ph Philstar (2012, June 20). Government-Concern Rising Underemployment. retrieved from h t t p : / / p h i l s t a r. c o m / b r e a k i n g - n e w s / 2 0 1 2 / 0 9 / 18/850659/govt- concern-rising-underemployment Pilipinas Got Talent (2013, December 7). Retrieved from http://pilipinasgottalent.net Spaeth,J. and Greeley, A. (1970). Recent Alumni and Higher Education: A Survey of College Students. New Jersey: McGraw-Hill. Working in New Zealand (2013, December 7). retrieved from http://www.workingin-newzealand.com/jobs

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THE EFFECT OF MOZART MUSIC ON THE ABSTRACT REASONING ABILITY OF EDUCATION STUDENTS (Finalist) COLLEGE OF EDUCATION by JANET A. ARCANA _____________________________________________________ ABSTRACT This study determined the abstract reasoning ability of Education students in USPF. The findings served as basis for the proposed learning module. An increase in the abstract reasoning ability of the students is noted after 5 minutes of listening to Mozart's music, while a consistent decrease is observed after 10 minutes and 15 minutes of listening to the same music as evidenced by the computed mean. A positive effect of Mozart's music happens when students are exposed to music in just a short period of time. The findings indicate that the longer the students are exposed to music, less and lesser scores are attained. Mozart music increases the students' abstract reasoning ability in a short period of time. The study proves that music is an aural stimulation that may trigger response in the brain as it excites the firing patterns that are analogous to spatial reasoning. The Education students, should make use of the learning module The Mathematics teachers, should conduct other researches and develop strategies other than those found in the learning module while future researchers should replicate this study in other fields.

INTRODUCTION Mathematics is the mother science of the abstract world. Although it is a confusing course that causes many headaches, it is considered an important tool to keep balance in life and has 49


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a significant role in the lives of individuals and society. Knowing the fact that Mathematics is more than just a science of numbers taught by teachers to students that could enjoy or fear, it needs to be amplified in education to provide students with skills required to achieve higher education and reach personal fulfillment (Lasfar, 2010). The primary objectives of mathematics program are to develop in the learner the ability to utilize mathematical processes skillfully, intelligently, and with insight into their value and efficiency; and to provide a rich variety of experience which will assure the ability of the learner to apply qualitative procedures effectively in dealing with problems and social situations in the affairs of daily life, both in and out of school (Brueckner, as cited by Aro, 2003). The focus of Mathematics in learning is how to solve the problem based on concepts instead of just memorizing how to solve the problem, but too often, students acquired skills in manipulating symbol systems without learning to use mathematical constructs as instruments of reasoning in contexts of applied and realistic problem solving. Abstract reasoning as an accurate indicator of one's intellectual ability uses visual questions that are independent of language and mathematical ability. It involves forming theories about the nature of objects, ideas, processes and problem solving through analysis and evaluation. It is important because it enables students to apply what they learn in complex ways. The main problem most students face is converting information from working memory to long-term memory and understanding it. Students must understand math vocabulary and practice problems to place information into long-term memory, in which abstract reasoning is necessary. The researcher, in her more than twenty years of teaching Mathematics observed that majority of the students have difficulty in comprehending and solving Mathematics problems. This scenario encouraged the researcher to make inquiries on how to boost a person's Mathematical ability. A certain documentary on the effect of music on the children's mathematical ability triggered the researcher's desire to do more readings, and therefore decided to replicate a similar study among the Education students of USPF. 50


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It is the researcher's intention to test the abstract reasoning ability of the students since this is integrated in the subject Contemporary Mathematics, the second Math subject offered in the College of Education, taken by all BSEd and BEEd students. Based on observation, most students have low scores in any given problem set involving abstract reasoning. With this study, the researcher aims to develop learning modules in all Math subjects offered in the College of Education. METHODOLOGY Research Design The method used in this research was the quasi-experimental design. Mozart's music was used as an intervention to determine the abstract reasoning ability of the students. Research Environment This research was conducted in the College of Education, University of Southern Philippines Foundation, Cebu City. The College has BSED with Level III, and BEED programs with Level I PACUCOA accreditation. Research Subjects The subjects of the study were the thirty Education students enrolled in Contemporary Mathematics (with History of Mathematics) this Second Semester of Academic Year 2013-2014. The class is composed of twelve BSEd students with one major in Biology, eight major in English, and three major in Computer Education, and eighteen BEED students with eight major in Special Education, two major in English and eight major in General Content. Of the fourteen research subjects, only four are males. Most students are in the first year level in which eight are in the second year and one third year. The class was then grouped into two through drawing lots. Those who picked a rolled paper with C are in the control group, while those who picked a rolled paper with E are in the experimental group. Each group had fifteen students. 51


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The control group was composed of four BSEd major in English, two BSEd major in Computer Education, three BEEd major in SpEd, and six BEEd major in General Content. The experimental group was composed of one BSEd major in Biology, four BSEd major in English, one BSEd major in Computer Education, five BEEd major in SpEd, two BEEd major in English and two BEED major in General Content. Research Instrument The instrument used in the study was taken from the "Book of Abstract Reasoning" by Canonigo and Basadre (2001). The problem sets in this book include number and letter series, and figure analogy. These sets were the exercises given to all Education students who enrolled in Contemporary Mathematics since 2007. The researcher chose Part 1 on Figure Analogy. The test was grouped into four sets. Each set was composed of sixteen questions. These problem sets were first validated among the twenty-two students who enrolled in Contemporary Mathematics during the Second Semester of Academic Year 2012-2013. The second validation was done on January 16, 2014 among the thirty-three students. Research Procedures Gathering of Data The test was conducted on February 18, 2014. The research subjects were given ten minutes to answer each set of exercises. Set A served as the pretest for both groups. Those in the control group answered set B after five minutes of relaxation. Set C was answered after ten minutes of relaxation, while set D was answered after fifteen minutes of relaxation. In the experimental group, Mozart's Piano Sonata #15 in C was used during the intervention. Set B was answered after five minutes of listening to the music, set C was answered after ten minutes of listening to the music, and set D was answered after fifteen minutes of listening to the music. Treatment of Data Mean was computed to determine the abstract reasoning ability of the Education students in their pretests and post tests. 52


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T-test for Correlated Means was utilized to determine the significant difference between the Education students' abstract reasoning ability. FINDINGS An increase in the abstract reasoning ability of the students is noted after 5 minutes of listening to Mozart's music, while a consistent decrease is observed after 10 minutes and 15 minutes of listening to the same music as evidenced by the computed mean. A positive effect of Mozart's music happens when students are exposed to music in just a short period of time. The findings indicate that the longer the students are exposed to music, less and lesser scores are attained. CONCLUSION Mozart music increases the students' abstract reasoning ability in a short period of time. The study proves that music is an aural stimulation which may trigger response in the brain as it excites the firing patterns that are analogous to spatial reasoning. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings and conclusions, the following are recommended: the learning module should be implemented for the Education students; Mathematics teachers should conduct other researches and develop strategies other than those found in the learning module.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Brewer, Chris.( 2005). Music and Learning: Seven Ways to Use Music in the Classroom. Tequesta, Florida: LifeSounds. Canonigo, C.S and Basadre, Roberto.( 2001). Book of Abstract Reasoning. Manila: CKC Publications. Gardner, Howard. (2000). Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. Basic Books Inc. ISBN 978-0-465-02611-1. Jensen, E. (2000). Brain-based Learning: The New Science of Teaching and Training. (Rev ed.). San Diego: The Brain Store. Sousa, D. ( 2011). How The Brain Learns. Thousand Oaks, CA. Corwin Press. Journals Anderson, Thomas. (2002). The Mozart Effect: A Closer Look. Retrieved from http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/ lerch1/edpsy/mozart_effect. html Caine, R. and Caine, G., Understanding a Brain-Based Approach to Learning and Teaching, EBSCO Campbell, Don (1997). The Mozart Effect: Tapping the Power of Music to Heal the Body, Strengthen the Mind, and Unlock the Creative Spirit. ISBN 0-380-97418-5. Catchen, Ruth. ( March 29,2012). How to Use Music to Improve Math Skills. Retrieved from: http://www.ruthcatchen. wordpress.com/2012/03/29/how-to-use-music-to-improvemath-skills/ Chabris, Christopher F. (1999). "Prelude or requiem for the 'Mozart effect'?". Nature 400 (6747): 826-827. doi: 10.1038/23608. PMID 10476958. 54


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Durr , Julie Darleen. (2010,June 11). Yahoo Contributor Network, Retrieved from http://www.voices.yahoo.com/brain-based-learningmusic-6179028/1.html Hine, Connie. (2008). Developing Multiple Intelligences in Young Learners . Retrieved from http://www.earlychildhoodnews. com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=251 Kommer, Dave. ABC's of Brain-based Learning. Retreived from http:// personal .ashland.edu/dkommer/ABC's%20of %20BBL_pdf Lasfar, Amine ( 2010, Jan 12) The Importance of Mathematics. Retrieved from http://www.voices.yahoo.com/theimportance-mathematics-5224583.html?cat=4 Lozanov, Georgi.( 4/30/2006) Suggestopaedia-Dessuggestive. Teaching Communicative Method on the Level of the Hidden reserves of the Human Mind. Retrieved from h t t p : / / d r. l o z a n o v. d i r. b g / b o o k / s t a r t _ b o o k h t m . Rauscher, Frances H.; Shaw, Gordon L.; Ky, Catherine N. (1993). "Music and spatial task performance". Nature 365 (6447): 611. doi: 10.1038/365611a0. PMID 8413624 Rideout, B. E. & Taylor, J. (1997). Percept. Motor Skills. 85, 112114 Rimm,Robert. eHow Contributor. (2012, December 1) The Effects of Music on Brain-Based Learning. Retrieved from http://www.tpackids.com/the-effects-of-music-on-brainbased-learning/ Ross, Alex (1994, August 28). "CLASSICAL VIEW; Listening To Prozac.. Er, Mozart". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-1115. Steele, Kenneth M.; Bass, Karen E.; Crook, Melissa D. (1999). "The Mystery of the Mozart Effect: Failure to Replicate". Psychological Science 10 (4): 366-369. doi:10.1111/14679280.00169 55


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Wilson, Leslie. ,ED 790 Wilson's Brain-based Education, University of Wisconsin Systems Zhan, Cindy ( January 16, 2008). The Correlation between Music and Math: A Neurobiology Perspective. SerendipStudio. Retrieved from: http://www.serendip.brynmawr. edu/exchange/node/1869 Unpublished Material Aro, Janet Q. (2003). "The Achievement of the Intermediate Pupils Of the University of Southern Philippines, Cebu City in Mathematics: Basis for Remedial Instructions." Unpublished Master's Thesis. University of Southern Philippines, Cebu City, Philippines.

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PROPOSED ONLINE GRADE ENCODING, RELEASING AND INQUIRING SYSTEM OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN PHILIPPINES FOUNDATION (Finalist) COLLEGE OF COMPUTER STUDIES by MS. MARIE JOY P. MORANO ENGR. RAYMUNDO P. OBRADOR ENGR. JENALYN R. BACUS- BOCTOT ENGR. MARITES S. LANTICSE ____________________________________________________ ABSTRACT The study focuses on the evaluation of the proposed Online Grade Encoding, Releasing and Inquiring System in terms of design, performance, maintainability and security as perceived by the faculty and students of the University of Southern Philippines Foundation, Cebu City. As an output of the study, an online grade encoding, releasing and inquiring system was developed to enhance the present USPF Grade Encoding System. It was found out that the level of efficiency in terms of design, performance, maintainability and security of the present USPF system rates Fairly Efficient. This implies that the respondents who are faculty members of different colleges and selected students encounter challenges in using the present USPF grade encoding system. The researchers developed an online system to enhance the present USPF Grade Encoding System and the system used by the registrar's office. The study proves that the present USPF grading system is fairly efficient in terms of design, performance, maintainability and security as it posses challenges to the users as well. The faculty members encounter problems during the encoding, printing and submitting of final grades due to some limitations in accessing the present system. In which, the process in releasing of the students final grades is time consuming because the registrar's 57


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office will need to wait for the printed final grade sheets of the faculty and have it re- encoded in their own system. It was also found out that it is inconvenient for the students to wait for the scheduled date for the releasing of grades. Furthermore, the Proposed Online Grade Encoding, Releasing and Inquiry System was developed to cater to the needs of the user and improved the present system. Introduction Today's education, instruction and learning radically changed as technology progresses. Ample researches show that online technologies can be an effective tool in both teaching and learning. With innovation, internet technology became an integral part of the need of the students, faculty and staff especially in the tertiary level of education. The University of Southern Philippines Foundation is moving on to a culture of excellence. Thus, there is a greater need for application of technology advancement in order to provide quality education and services. Currently, the university has its computerized system hosted on a local server. It facilitates the encoding of subjects, assignment of faculty and adding of students during enrollment. It also let the faculty and staff to encode grades for every semester. Only authorized faculty and staff of every department has access to the said system provided the program is installed in their respective computer system unit. At the end of every semester, the faculty submits a printed report of the encoded grades to the registrar's office. The registrar then encodes the grades in the database and students can get the semester grades at specified dates. The Proposed Online Grade Encoding, Releasing and Inquiring System: A System Development Study aims to study and assess the computerized system used by the Registrar Office, faculty and staff of every college; provides better solutions to minimize delay in encoding and releasing of grades for the convenience of the faculty, staff and students of the university. As an output of the study, the faculty researchers of the College of Computer Studies design and developed an online system which will enhance the process and flow of the current USPF system. This will provide ease and convenience for the 58


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faculty, staff and students during the grade encoding and releasing processes. METHODOLOGY Research Design This applied research used a questionnaire to gather the desired information about the existing condition of the USPF Grading system. Research Environment The presentation and survey of the Proposed Online Grade Encoding, Releasing and Inquiring System: A System Development Study was conducted among the selected students and faculty of the tertiary level, Academic Year 2013-14 in the University of Southern Philippines Foundation, Salinas Drive, Lahug, Cebu City. Research Respondents The respondents of the research study were chosen among the selected students and faculty members of each department in the tertiary level of USPF. The researchers use a purposive sampling technique. It is a non-probability sampling.

Faculty Students TOTAL

Frequency 35 15 50

Percentage 70% 30% 100%

Research Instrument This study included the use of questionnaires and interviews. A self-made questionnaire was used as the main data-gathering instrument for this study. It was divided into two main sections: the profile and the questionnaire proper. The questions were structured using the Likert scale format. In this survey, five choices are provided for every question or statement. The choices represent the degree of agreement each respondent has on the given question. The Likert survey was the selected questionnaire type as this enabled the respondents to 59


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answer the survey easily. In addition, this research instrument allowed the research to carry out the quantitative approach effectively with the use of statistics for data interpretation. Research Procedures Gathering of Data In order to support the validity of the data, interview is conducted to gather information. The researchers study researches on online system in the internet, books and tutorials that are conducive in developing the system. The researchers have detailed research and also read different materials that are relevant to the study being conducted. Treatment of Data This included the scaling system, which is the technique to monitor the respondent's interpretation of facts. The Likert scale is use to interpret items in the questionnaire. These responses were based on the respondents.

FINDINGS In terms of project design, majority of respondents rated the system as Efficient. As to performance, faculty respondents evaluated the system as Fairly Efficient while student respondents rated the system as Poorly Efficient. Overall, the level of efficiency of the system is graded as Fairly Efficient as to performance. The level of efficiency of the system in terms of maintainability was assessed by both of the two groups of respondents as Fairly Efficient. Moreover, in terms of security the level of efficiency of the system was considered by most the respondents as Fairly Efficient. As a whole, the present USPF grading system is Fairly Efficient in terms of design, performance, maintainability and security. Among the problems faced by the students and faculty is accessibility of the present system for encoding, releasing and inquiring of grades. They also stressed out the inefficient displaying of up-to-date information and changing of specific errors. This stated problems lead to unsecured and unsynchronized data 60


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between the present USPF Grading system and the system used by the registrar's office. CONCLUSION The design, performance, maintainability and security of the present USPF grading system proves to be fairly efficient as it poses challenges to users. Faculty experienced problems while encoding, printing and submitting final grades due to limitation in accessing the present system. The process of releasing could be time consuming as the registrar will have to wait for the approved grades report generated by every college and enter it again in the system used by the registrar's office. Student found it inconvenient to wait for the scheduled date of releasing of final grades. As the output of study, the Proposed Online Grade Encoding, Releasing and Inquiry System was developed to cater to the needs of the user and improved the present system. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings and conclusions presented, it is recommended that the output of this study be implemented and linked to the official website of the school. Further, an EDP (Electronic Data Processing) section will be developed and made responsible for managing, monitoring and securing data. The university registrar may be taught about the proposed online system and learn about it for synchronization of data and lessen their burden in re-encoding of grades. The faculty and staff should undergo training regarding the proposed online system for effective implementation of the proposed system.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Books William, Brian K., Sawyer, Stacey.(2010). Using Information Technology. New York, NY Darwen, Hugh.(2010) An Introduction to Relational Database Theory. Luckey, Teresa and Joseph Philips. (2006) Software Project Management for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ Unpublished Thesis Morano, M.P., Obrador, R.P., & Bacus-Boctot, J.R.(2013). Proposed University of the Southern Philippines Foundation - College of Computer Studies Alumni Tracing Software: Basis for Implementation. Online Sources San Mateo College of Information Technolog.(2012) Online Grading Encoding and Inquiry System. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/aitianbao/thesis-in-it-onlinegrade- encoding-and-inquiry-system-via-sms-technology Mary Jane Santos.(2013,09) The Development of an Online Grading System. Retrieved from http://www.studymode.com/essays/ Development-Of-Online-Grading-System 1948029.html? topic Cotatabato Foundation College of Science and Technology(2011,09) StudyMode.com. Computerized Grading System. Retrieved from http://www.studymode. com/essays/Computerized-Grading-System-788215.html Studymode.com. Online Grading System. Retrieved from <http://www.studymode.com/essays/Online Grading-System-976217.html>Gozo,et al(2010, 09). Grading System. StudyMode.com. Retrieved 09, 2010, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Grading-System394360.html

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STUDENT CATEGORY

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THE EFFECT OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica) LEAF CRUDE EXTRACT ON ACETAMINOPHEN-INDUCED HEPATOTOXITY IN MALE RABBITS (Best Paper) COLLEGE OF PHARMACY HARLYN B. CONDE JUNAVIE ANE G. COTON ASMA M. EISA JOYCE P. EVENGELISTA REGINE A. GARCIA KENNETH C. MACALAM LAVINIA CHARMAINE C. MONSUETO ABDULLAHI OMAR SHEIKH IVONY P. PLAMARA APRILLE HANNAH B. ZAMORA _____________________________________________________ ABSTRACT The study was designed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective effect of the crude extract obtained from the Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves on acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in male rabbits. Nine (9) male rabbits were used as research subjects in this study. The subjects were divided into three groups of three (3) and acclimatized for seven days. Experimentation began with collecting blood samples from the rabbits which were then subjected to Liver function Test to find out the mean AST and ALT levels. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering acetaminophen at a dose of 2g/kg body weight of the rabbit. Hepatotoxicity confirmed by elevated levels of ALT and AST measures after 24 hours of induction. Treatment was administered per group for three days. The Negative Control Group was given distilled water orally ad libitum. The Positive Control Group was treated with Essentiale Forte 1 capsule, 3 times a day. The experimental Group was treated with Neem leaves extract with a dose of 400mg/kg body weight given once daily. A marked evaluation in ALT and AST enzyme levels was noted in the three groups after acetaminophen administration. Analysis of variance showed that administration of different treatments to the three groups had an F ratio of 37.0916 which 64


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is greater than the critical value of F at p=0.01, this, the null hypothesis that stated that there was no significant difference between the liver function tests values after treatment was rejected. Tukey's post hoc results showed that mean liver function tests values of the Experimental group was significantly different from the Negative Control Group but not significantly different from the Positive Control Group. The Positive Control group was also significantly different from the Negative Control Group. This indicated that Neem keaf crude extract was marked hepatotoxicity in male rabbits, significantly the same with Essentiale Forte. The results suggest that the effects of Neem leaf extract on acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity may be attributed to its antioxidant properties or its ability to increase hepatic glutathione levels in the body. Thus, the conclusion was made that Neem crude leaf extract has the potential to protect and treat damaged liver cells from acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in the male rabbits due to its antioxidant property. INTRODUCTION The Philippines is a country rich in natural resources but it is also a place where poverty is rampant with an incidence of 20.6% of its population. Add to this, the cost of medication is very high and comprises the highest percentage of out-of-pocket expenditure among all the healthcare elements. Although the government continually creates provided means for accessible healthcare services to its constituents, there are still many barriers that stop them from reaching their goal. The citizens who do not have access to these services usually rely on self-medication using herbal remedies to cure their diseases. Thus, there is a great need for the discovery of alternative drug remedies from plant sources to alleviate the suffering of the Filipino people ("DOH HSRA Monograph No. 12, 2011). The Department of Health, noted that chronic liver diseases listed as one of the top ten causes of death by non-communicable disease with a death toll of 6774 Filipinos in the year 2008. The liver is the chief organ concerned with the biochemical processes that occur in the human body. It is the center of enzyme production and activity. This organ functions in regulating the metabolic activities of drugs and detoxifying harmful substances that enter the body. Therefore, it is very important to protect the liver from 65


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any untoward damage to avoid grave consequences (Pravin et al., 2010). There are many medications that can have adverse effects on the liver. One of these medications is Acetaminiophen (Clin, 2000). Those who take acetaminiophen must be aware of its possible hazardous effects since it is very important that the liver is safeguarded against toxicity and damage. Mankind's search for plant and other materials that can be used as remedies to diseases has been going on since time immemorial. Society's growing concern towards prevention and cure of diseases has prompted a need for the discovery of medical properties of different plants (Kuran, 2010). As students in the College of Pharmacy, the researchers are interest to explore the possible therapeutic effect of plants. It is on this premise that they initiated this investigation for the purpose of finding the possible use of Neem leaf for prevention and cure of liver damage. METHODOLOGY Research Design The researchers used the pure experimental method of analysis in order to reach the goal of the study. The selection of r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t s i n e a c h g r o u p wa s ra n d o m i z e d . Research Environment The extraction of plant material was conducted in a welland lighted area in the Chemistry Laboratory of the University of Southern Philippines Foundation. The collection of data from the test animals was executed in Southwestern University Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Basak, Cebu City. Research Subjects Male rabbits were used as test animals. The rabbits were bought from a breeder in Colon St. Cebu City and were selected following these conditions: 66


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Inclusion Criteria: Healthy, adult (4 to 6 months old) males, preferably all local breed with long pointed, pink inner ears, normal weight within average range. Exclusion Criteria: Any visible defects (i.e. skin disease, blind eyes, missing limbs), young or baby rabbits, weak or ill. Research Instruments Syringe needles G#25 were used to collect the rabbit blood. Blood samples were centrifuged; the serum was collected and sent to the diagnostics laboratory for the measurement of the serum levels of Alanine Aminotransaminase (ALT) and Aspartate Aminotransaminase (AST). Research Procedures Collection of Plant Material The fresh matured leaves of neem tree (A. indica) was collected from the University of Southern Philippines Foundation at around 8 a.m. after the dew has dried from the plant, but before the sun heats it too much so that mist essential oils are still present (Chattopadhayay, 2005). Plant samples were sent to the Department of Agriculture, Mandaue Branch for identification and certification. Preparation of Plant Extract The gathered leaves were air-fried (500 g) and coarsely powered. It was then extracted by maceration with 2 liters of ethanol (70%v/v) for 24 hours. The extract was concentrated under water bath at 50 째C. the aqueous extract was dried with a rotary evaporator. The fried weight of the plant extract was 13.1 g (2.62% yield). It was stored in the freezer for further use. Upon treatment, the fried extract was dissolved in saline solution for oral administration to the test subjects (Subapriya, 2003) Preparation of Test Animal Nine adult male rabbits weighing 1.25 to 2.0 kg were used for experiment. They were housed in separate cages and acclimatized for seven days at normal room temperature of 37째C67


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38째C and 13-hour light/dark cycle. The rabbits had free access to standard pellete chow and drinking water ad libitum. They were classified into 3 groups of 3 via fishbowl technique. Collection of Data On the first day of experimentation, after acclimatization, the rabbits were weighed and their blood samples were collected. Their blood samples were subjected to Liver Function Test to find out the mean AST and ALT. Hepatotoxity was induced on the same day by administering acetaminophen (2g/kg body weight) (Maaz, 2010). Twenty four hours after acetaminophen administration, their blood was collected for Liver Function Test to find out the mean AST and ALT. Pharamacologic Testing/Administration of Treatment On the 2nd day of experimentation, right after blood collection, each group was subjected to their treatment regimen as followed: Negative Control Group: Positive Control Group:

Distilled Water ad libitum Essentiale Forte 1 capsule (300mg) x 3 doses per day Axadirachta indica leaves extract 400mg/kg once daily

Experimental Group:

This regimen was continued for three days, until the last day of experimentation, where bloos samples were collected to find the mean LFT enzymes valued. Treatment of Data Statistical analysis of the data of comparisons between the control and experimental groups in this study were carried out using F-test analysis of variance and significance of the group data difference was tested for using student's Tukey's HSD Post Hoc Test. P<0.01 was considered statistically significant. Upon tabulation of the liver enzyme levels (see Appendix C), it was observed that there was an increase in the ALT and AST values after hepatotoxity was induced. 68


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FINDINGS Table 2.1 Liver Enzyme Levels of Rabbits in Three Groups after treatment Treatment Group

ALT (Mean ± SEM) Units per liter 352.33 ± 64.72 39 ± 6.66 47.66 ± 3.80

Negative Control Group Positive Control Group Experimental Group

AST (Mean ± SEM) Units per liter 581.33 ± 81.76 40.33 ± 11.86 42.67 ± 4.84

Comparison of the ALT and AST means of the Negative Control Group and the Experimental Group produced an HSD score of 10.497 which was greater than the critical table value of 4.84. This indicated that the administration of Neem leaf extract produced a significant difference in LFT values of the rabbits when compared to the LFT values of the rabbits who were given only distilled water. The marked decrease in the LFT values of the Experimental Group after treatment showed that Neem leaf extract was effective in treating acetaminophen induced hepatotoxity in rabbits. Table 2.2 Statistical Summary Groups Negative Control Group Positive Control Group Experimental Group

Count 6 6 6

Sum 2801 238 277

Average 466.83 39.67 41.17

Variance 28779.4 222.67 72.57

Table 2.3 F- Test ANOVA Source of Variation SS Between Groups 718948 Within Groups 145373 Total 864321

DF 2 15 17

MS 359474 9691.53

F 37.09

P-value 1.56E-006

F Critical 6.36

The Comparison between the ALT and AST values of the three groups after treatment produced an F ratio of 37.0916 which was greater than the critical value of F at p=0.01, indicating a significant difference between the liver enzyme levels in the three groups. Thus, the null hypothesis that stated that there is no significant difference between the LFT levels of the three groups after treatment was rejected. 69


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Based on this, Tukey's HSD Post Hoc Test was done to find the source of variation. Table 2.4 Tukey's HSD Post Hoc Test

N vs P P vs N P vs E E vs P N vs E E vs N

Mean 1

Mean

m1-m2

466.83 39.67 39.67 45.17 466.83 45.17

39.67 466.83 45.17 39.67 45.17 466.83

427.17 -427.17 -5.5 5.5 421.67 -421.67

Msw = 9691.5333

n=6

df = 15

Squareroot (Msw*1/n) 40.19 40.19 40.19 40.19 40.19 40.19

Tukey's HSD 10.63 -10.63 -0.14 0.14 10.49 -10.49

HSD Crit. (Q) = 4.84

Comparison between the LFT values of the Negative Control and Positive Control Groups showed significant difference (HSD score of 10.6286) in the means of the two populations. This also indicated that Essentiale Forte was effective for treating acetaminophen induced hepatotoxity in rabbits. Comparing the LFT values in the Positive Control Group and Experimental Group, the HSD score was 0.1368. This meant that there was no significant difference between the means of these two groups. This indicated that Essentiale Forte and Neem leaf extract have significantly the same marked effects on acetaminophen induced hepatotoxity in rabbits. The decrease in ALT and AST values of the rabbits in these groups after treatment indicated that both were effective treatments. The results also indicated that the extract have affected the biochemical processes that assist in reducing hepatic damage. The hepatoprotective effect of Neem crude leaf extract may be due to its flavonoid content, which are potent antioxidants (Kiranmai, 2011). Since acetaminophen oxidation produces NAPQI, the toxic metabolite responsible for hepatotoxicity, an antioxidant may retard the production of NAPQI. The effect of Neem leaf on acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity may also attributed to its ability to enhance the hepatic levels of glutathione and glutathione dependent enzymes as shown in a study by Arivazhagan (2000). Glutathione conjugates with NAPQI to inactivate it and make it easier to excrete from the body (US FDA, 2014). 70


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CONCLUSION Neem crude leaf extract has the potential to protect and treat damaged liver cells from acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in male rabbits due to its antioxidant property. The easy preparation and administration of this locally available plant provided practical importance as an herbal medicine. RECOMMENDATION The Neem tree, although popular for its medical uses abroad, is not as extensively used in the Philippines due to the idea that it may have toxic properties because it is an insect repellant. This plant has so many potential uses, so it is recommended that further studies be done to explore the other potential uses of the Neem. Further studies involving measurement of flavonoids and other constituents present in different parts of the Neem are also recommended to specifically identify which compounds are responsible for its hepatoprotective activity. This study uses maceration to prepare the crude extract of Neem leaves. Other methods of preparation should also be examined.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Arivazhagan, S ., Balasenthil, S., Nagini, S. (2000). Garlic and Neem Leaf Extracts Enhance Hepatic Glutathione and Glutathione Dependent Enzymes During N-methyl-N'-nitroN-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-Induced Gastric Carcinogenesis in Rats. Phytotheraphy Research, 14 (4), 291-293. Bhanwra, S., Singh, J., Khosla, P. (2000). Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) Leaf Aqueous Extract on ParacetamolInduced Liver Damage rats. Indian J Physiology and Pharmacology 44(1), 64-68. Bartholomew M. (2007). The Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology. Loyola Heights, Quezon City: Mind Mover Publishing House. Chattopadhyay R. R., Bandyopadhyay M. (2005). Possible mechanism of hepatoprotective activity of Azadirachtaindica leaf extract against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rats: Part III. Indian Pharmacology, 37, 184-5. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.16218 Cholestec LDX速 Package Insert. (2004). Alanine Aminotransferase (Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase) Test Cassette. Hayward, Ca: Cholestec Corporation. Conrick, J. (2009) Neem The Ultimate Herb (3rd ed.). Wisconsin, USA: Lotus press. DOH HSRA Monograph No. 12. (2011). 2011-2016 National Objectives for Health, Health Sector Reform Agenda Monographs. Manila, Republic of the Philippines Department of Health. Essentiale Forte P Drug Monograph. (2013). MIMS Philippines. Gupta, V.K., Sigh, G.D., Sigh. S., Kaul A. (2010). Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Tri Nagar, Delhi-110 035: Daya Publishing House. John, A. A, Bamidele F. P., OluwaSeun O. A. (2011). Some Protective Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Azadirachtaindica on 72


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Paracetamol-induced hepatptpxicity in Adult Wistar Rats. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, 1(3), 97-106. Kiranmai, M., Kumar, C. B. M., Ibrahim, M. (2011). Comparison of Total Flavanoid Content of Azadirachtaindica Root Bark Extracts Prepared by Different Methods of Extraction. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 2(3), 254-261. Koul, O., & Wahab, S. (2004). Neem: Today and in the New Millenium. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2(3), 254-261. Kurian J.C. Ph.D. (2010). Amazing Healing Plants (pp 27-28). Manila, Philippines: Philippine Publishing House. Larson, A. M., Polson, J., Fontana, R. J., et al. (2005). Acetaminophen Induced Acute Liver Failure. Acute Liver Failure Study Group (ALFSG). Hepatology. 42, 1364-1372. Maaz A., Bhatti A.S.A., Maryam S., Afzal S., Ahmad M., & Gilani A . N . ( 2 0 1 0 ) . H e p a t o p r o t e c t i v e E va l u a t i o n o f Buteamonosperma against Liver damage by Paracetamol in Rabbits. SPECIAL EDITION ANNALS, 16 (1), 73-76. Marieb, E.N. (2011). Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology (10th ed.). San Francisco CA: Benjamin Cummings. Michalopoulos, G.K. (2007). Liver Regeneration. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 213, 286-300. Doi: 10.1002/jcp.21172. Savankumar, G., Lalitha, V., Sengottuvelu, S., Sharif, S.H, & Sivakumar, T. (2011). Hepatoprotective Activity of Vitex Negundo Linn Bark Against Chemical Induced Toxicity in Experimental Rats. An International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 02, 534-536. Sigh, K. K., Phogat, S., Tomas, A., & Dhillon, R.S. (2008). Neem: A treatise. New Delhi, India: I.K. International Publishing House.

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Subrapiya, R., Nagini, S. (2003). Ethanolic Neem Leaf Extract Protects Against N-Methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosiguanidineinduced Gastric Carcinogenesis in Wistar Rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 4, 215-223. US Food and Drug Administration. Acetaminophen information. Available at http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ InformationbyDrugClass/ucm 165107.htm. Accessed January 30, 2014.

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PHYSICAL HEALTH PRACTICES AND PULMONARY HEALTH STATUS OF CALL CENTER AGENTS (2nd Best Paper) COLLEGE OF NURSING By BELLE MISHA MARIE E. ALEONAR DYAN JANE YBANEZ JERLYN L. YU DENNIS L. ZACARIAS __________________________________________________ ABSTRACT The study entitled Physical Health Practices and Pulmonary Health Status of Call Center Agents in the Business Process Outsourcing Companies in IT Park, Cebu City is based on the assumption that call center agents' pulmonary health status are correlated with various variables such as their age, sex, length of employment, lifestyle, diet and nutrition, active living, substance use and hygiene. Utilizing a descriptive correlational survey design, the study described the correlation between the profile, physical health practices and pulmonary health status with each other. Based on the findings, the profile of age is correlated with physical health practices. However, sex and length and employment only demonstrated positive but weak preponderance on health practices such as activity and rest diet and nutrition, substance use and abuse, and hygiene. Finally, this study showed significant inverse relationships between physical health practices and pulmonary health status. The findings support other researches elaborating on the crucial role of physical health practices on pulmonary health status. These outcomes suggest that as call center agents increase performance of physical health practices, the prevalence of respiratory conditions and symptoms tend to decrease, thus improving their pulmonary health status. Introduction The Philippines is a major player in the Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry. Places like Eastwood Cyber Park, Ortigas Center, Makati CBD, Bonifacio Global City, and cities like 75


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Baguio, Cebu, and Davao all have economic ties with contact centers, staff offshoring, and outsourcing in general. While much has been said about the positive economic impact of the BPO industry, many negative points have also been raised especially to working conditions. As nursing students, the researchers are disciplined and conditioned to the principle that encompasses the diverse roles of nurses in health and public welfare. The primary objectives of the nurse as caregiver are to promote health, to prevent illness, to restore health, and to facilitate coping with illness, disability, or death. Furthermore, these objectives focus on maximizing the health of patients of all ages, in all settings, and in both health and illness. Thus, the topic of this study has striking appropriateness and pertinence to the student researchers. The outcomes of this undertaking shall assist them in widening their understanding on the complex nature of the continuum of health and illness as experienced by call center agents. With regards to the most prominent illness, the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality for the entire country as well as per region and sex in the Philippine Health Statistics. Respiratory diseases ranks first among the leading causes of morbidity for the entire Philippines, this includes acute respiratory infection and pneumonia in both sexes. Specifically for males, acute respiratory infection ranks first (521,008), followed by acute lower respiratory infection and pneumonia (259,902); bronchitis (167,481); influenza (131,234) occupied the sixth rank; and respiratory tuberculosis (43,698) ranked seventh. In females, acute respiratory infection remains first (574,320), followed by acute lower respiratory infections and pneumonia (257,631), the bronchitis (177,844) occupies the fourth rank, closely followed by influenza at sixth rank (138,279), and respiratory tuberculosis at eight rank (29,916). In 2009, pneumonia ranked third and chronic lower respiratory diseases in the leading causes of mortality for both sexes (National Epidemiology Center of DOH, 2009). With this, the researchers were able to decipher that a lot of Filipinos suffer and die from respiratory problems. A lot of debate has been done as to why the call center agents have been chosen instead of other population groups who are more prone to extreme factors. Other population groups identified are public utility jeepney and taxi drivers, and construction workers. These 76


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population groups have been tackled upon as to the rate of cooperation the researchers may get from taking from them a few minutes to answer our research instrument instead of working. The dilemma as well of contacting a wide coverage of drivers or workers would be a very big challenge for the researchers. Call center agents however may still pose the risk that they may not cooperate. However, the population is somehow concentrated to areas (buildings) which are easier to penetrate rather than going around the whole City. Aiming towards identifying the pulmonary health status and its relation to several factors from whom we know as high risk groups (call center agents) due to their lifestyle has boiled down to the decision to choose them to be the focus of the study. As stated in the R.A. 9173 or the Philippine Nursing Act of 2002, as independent practitioners, nurses are primarily responsible for the promotion of health and prevention of illness. As members of the health team, nurses shall collaborate with other health care providers for the curative, preventive, and rehabilitative aspects of care, restoration of health, alleviation of suffering, and when recovery is not possible, towards a peaceful death. Promoting the health of workers in the most promising industry today remains a key role for nurse practitioners in the coming years to come. As nurses may occupy various fields in healthcare, to include nursing positions in the school, industry such as occupational health, and community health nursing, the cultivation and enhancement of knowledge that affects these practice fields still remains indispensable. METHODOLOGY Research Design This study made use of the descriptive-correlative design. It is descriptive because it seeks to determine and describe the profile distribution of the respondents in terms of: age and sex, and their length of employment in any of the BPO companies based in IT Park, Cebu City; the respondents' physical health practices; and pulmonary health status. It also determined if there was a correlation or not among the variables - between the profile and pulmonary health status, the physical health practices and pulmonary health status, and 77


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between the profile of respondents and their physical health practices. Research Environment This study was conducted in the Business Process Outsourcing Companies located in IT Park, Cebu City. There is no definite number of populations in each company since the total population or number of call center agents in a company varies. Each BPO has their own clinic with a nurse and an accredited physician; they also have their own sleeping lounges for agents who want to take a short eye while on break; and almost all have coffee shops, fast foods, and the like surrounding the building or even inside the building. Research Respondents The respondents of this study were the currently employed call center agents coming from the BPO companies in IT Park, Cebu City. The list of BPO companies is shown in Appendix L. The researchers utilized the stratified random sampling technique. Stratified random sampling was used to group the total population of call center agents in IT Park, Cebu City according to their company. This gave the researchers a sample that is highly representative of the population being studied. Because of the greater precision of a stratified random sample compared with a simple random sample, it was possible to use a smaller sample, which saves time and money. Once the needed number of samples per strata had been identified, the simple random sampling via lottery of the agents' assigned number was used to select the respondents in every stratum. A total of 390 respondents were selected from the estimated population of the BPO companies in IT Park, Cebu City. The sampling size was determined using the Slovins' formula. Research Instrument The researcher-made instrument is composed of three parts. The first part identifies the respondent's age, sex and their length of employment in the company. The second part identifies the respondent's physical health practices: activity and rest, nutrition, 78


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lifestyle and hygiene practices. The third part assesses the pulmonary health status of the respondents. The researcher-made instrument has been checked and validated by experts before the pilot study was conducted. A pilot study was used to test the tools/frameworks trustworthiness, reliability, and also the interview location and time frames. The questionnaire pretested 30 randomly selected call center agents from the different BPO companies in IT Park, Cebu City. After accomplishing the pretest, the respondents were asked for commentaries regarding the questionnaire, and was then taken with due consideration for suitable revisions of the instruments used. Research Procedures Data Gathering The data was gathered by administering the instruments to the chosen respondents of the study. This provided a database for the researchers for the variables profile, pulmonary health status and physical health practices. Prior to proceeding with data gathering, necessary permission was requested from the Dean of the College of Nursing and the BPO HR. We sought permission from the Human Resource personnel from every company and oriented them of the study objectives through a cover letter attached to our instrument. We emphasized that participation in the study is voluntary and that non-participation will not incur them any penalty. To ensure the anonymity, we did not require them to write their names and company name on the questionnaires; instead, we used control numbers. We informed them that return of the answered questionnaires would imply their consent to participate in the study. After the data were collected, questionnaires were kept in a secure place. Data Analysis Data were treated statistically using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Simple Percentage was used to analyze the demographic profile of the respondents as to age, sex, length of employment, physical health practices and pulmonary health status. The weighted mean was used to determine the classification 79


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of pulmonary health status and physical health practices since the questionnaire made use of the 5-point scale. Pearson Productmoment correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between the profile and pulmonary health status; physical health practices and the pulmonary health status; and the profile and physical health practices. Chi-square Test was used to determine the correlation between sex of the respondents and pulmonary health status and physical health practices. FINDINGS Majority of the respondents belong to the age group of 2426 years old; followed by those whose age is between 21-23 years old. The least age group composed of 2.3% comes from ages 30-32. It is also presented here that more than half of the respondents are female with a percentage of 54.1. Most of the respondents have worked in the BPO industry for 7 to 12 months already. The least number of call center agents who has worked in the industry comes from those who have been agents for more than 48 months or 2 years. This study primarily describes the physical health practices of all the respondents included in the study. It shows here that the call center agents in IT Park Cebu City generally perceive a satisfactory level with an average weighted mean of 2.8 in relation to their physical health practices. When it comes to their health practices pertaining to active living, the average level is 2.1 interpreted as Acceptable, generally satisfactory for diet and nutrition (2.5) and hygiene (3.2), while the highest rating of (3.3) went to Substance Use and Abuse. Thence, it can be surmised that the call center agents perceived their physical health practices as satisfactory, in spite of the negative health effects of a high prevalence of substance use and abuse among the call center agents. The outcomes of this study proved that it is possible for individuals to perceive themselves as generally healthy even when they lead unhealthy lifestyles. Hence, the findings of this research purports that it is important for nurses working in occupational health positions to respect these values, their significance for the call center agents and use an organized approach to health education so that these agents can meet their specific health care needs. Because every opportunity that nurses comes in contact with individuals whether or not that person is ill or has a disability, it should be considered as an opportunity for learning. Regardless 80


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of the fact that call center agents have a right to decide whether or not to learn, occupational health nurses have the responsibility to present valuable information that shall motivate these individuals to recognize the need to change behaviors in order to promote health and well-being. And that effective health education serves a formidable foundation for individual and community wellness. Specifically, this research presents the activity and rest pattern of the respondents in the study. In general, the respondents portray an Acceptable Level of active living. Although, they scored low when it comes to performing exercise and other activities such as sports and walking and it is interpreted as minimally acceptable. They scored acceptable with their sleeping hours per day. Moreover, they scored satisfactorily when asked if they fell asleep during work hours and whether they can sleep during their days off. Based on the results, the call center agents considered themselves as more sedentary perhaps because of their inability to neither engage in physical exercises regularly such as walking nor play active sports such as basketball, badminton, swimming etc. However, in relation to sleep and rest, the call center agents conveyed that they were able to obtain adequate amounts of sleep while at work and during days off. A pertinent finding that is contrary to previous research outcomes highlighting on the increasing incidence of work-related stress, lack of sleep, fatigue and unhealthy lifestyles predisposing more and more call center agents to various health problems. In addition, results show that the respondents have Satisfactory practices in terms of Diet and Nutrition. The respondents also had a weighted mean interpreted as Satisfactory with respect to physical health practices relevant to diet and nutrition. The respondents gained a weighted mean of 3.0 when asked if they skip meals while having a score of 2.1 when asked if they eat fruits and vegetables. The findings suggest that in spite of the fact that call center agents skip meals, eat fast and processed foods, take little vitamins or other nutritional supplements, they were able to reckon their health practices in terms of diet and nutrition as favorable and healthy. The outcomes of this research have proved that the call for health promotion through health education has become a commodity in the call centers because of the need to control expense of productivity and most importantly 81


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reduce unnecessary sickness among employees. Because health promotion is an active process, it is up to each call center agent to decide and want to make changes to promote a higher level of wellness. Nurses should remember that only the individual can make these informed choices. Moreover, this study shows the Substance Use and Abuse of respondents. The call center agents were explicit in conveying their routine substance use and abuse, with an average weighted mean of 3.3 interpreted as adequate health performance. In addition, these respondents expressed that they have engaged in smoking (3.2) with an average of 3-7 sticks per day, drinking alcohol occasionally (3.5), and have used marijuana, cocaine, barbiturates (3.8) for at least 3 years. Specifically, the call center agents who participated in this research reported that they smoke and drink at the same time (3.5) and at times engross their tea breaks for smoking. The aforementioned findings depict that there is really a growing number of young call center agents (ages 2426 years) attracted to substance use and abuse, and even engage in smoking while at work during break time. Although reasons behind this practice are not dealt in this study, the research outcomes necessitate immediate interventions by the BPO companies, perhaps through the intensifying health promotion programs geared to control substance use and abuse among call center agents. Considering the harmful effects of substance use and abuse in the human body, it is a must for BPO companies to maintain the health of their call center agents at optimum to maximum levels through health promotion activities spearheaded by their respective occupational health nurses. Thus, one of the crucial roles of occupational health nurses is to encourage the development of healthy behaviors in employees. Finally, in terms of health practices, the research output shows the Hygiene practices of the respondents. As depicted in the findings, the call center agents relayed an overall satisfactory level of hygiene practices. They scored high when asked about hand washing and taking a bath. However, they did not gain a high rating when it comes to precautions such as cough etiquettes of covering mouth when sneezing, coughing, disposing tissue papers soiled with phlegm or sputum, using face mask when having colds, and cleaning their work place before starting their shift. In addition, the call center agents found it difficult to stay away from people with colds or flu. The outcomes stipulate that 82


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although call center agents maintain high levels of personal hygiene practices, they still encounter difficulties in performing etiquettes associated with preventing the spread of respiratory illnesses such as cough and colds. Meanwhile, the findings suggest that call center agents undermine the relevance of maintaining physical health practices that prevents spread of respiratory illnesses maybe because they perceive themselves as generally healthy. These results prove that the each individual has his or her own ideals on health and goals for the promotion of wellness. With these findings in consideration, nurses must reflect that health education and health promotion are coupled by a mutual goal - to encourage individuals to achieve a relative high level of wellness as possible. Therefore, nurses responsible for health promotion among call center agents must continually assist these individuals through health education so that they can live maximally healthy lives and avoid preventable illnesses, amidst their diverse perceptions of health and well-being. On the other hand, this research shows the level of pulmonary health status of the call center agents. The respondents were classified as minimally acceptable on the facet of pulmonary health status. When asked, the respondents usually reported that they have problems with their pulmonary health as manifested by experience of cough, shortness of breath, episodes of wheezing, reports of cough with phlegm (sputum), incidence of cough sputum with blood, difficulty breathing (dyspnea) even at rest, difficulty sleeping because of the tendency to stop breathing (apnea), and lastly, the presence of respiratory conditions involving sore throat, colds, sneezing, and runny nose. Although the respondents conveyed previously that they have routine used and abused harmful substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the lowest weighted means of 0.3 interpreted as excellent pulmonary health accounts for threatening respiratory diseases, such as coughing out of sputum with blood and difficulty sleeping secondary to apnea. Among others, this research established that there is really a reason to be alarmed on the deteriorating health conditions of the call center agents in Cebu City. Empirical data have sufficiently supported the harmful effects of substance use and abuse on pulmonary health. Henceforth, the respective occupational health nurses of these call center agents have to devise measures to ameliorate the unfavorable pulmonary health status of these call center agents. As many of the major causes of illness today are chronic diseases that have been closely related to lifestyle behaviors 83


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including pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Thus, each of these call center agents must recognize their own need to change and take the initiative to change those lifestyles that negatively affect and endangers their state of health. Through health promotion programs, nurses can effectively support individuals and encourage people to assume responsibility for their own health and to develop behaviors that improve their present health status. Distinctively, this study endeavored to investigate on the relationships of age, sex and length of employment to physical health practices. Based on the findings, Age has an inverse negligible correlation between Substance use and Abuse, and Hygiene while it has negligible correlation between Activity and Rest, and Diet and Nutrition. The study findings proved that majority of workforce in the call centers are young employees. In addition, the results also connote that as BPO companies continue to hire and employ young call center agents there is an anticipated increase in the prevalence of substance use and abuse in call centers. On a lighter note, as these young employees continue to work in the call centers, there is a great potential that the BPO companies along with their respective occupational health nurses be able to implement healthy behaviors with reference to hygiene, active living, and nutrition through health promotion and health education programs started at an earlier, highly malleable stage. Nurses should be able to maintain an insight and understanding that staying healthy is a skill, and that teachinglearning requires the involvement of both teacher and learner in the effort to reach the desired change in behavior. As literatures suggest, any individual who does not view the desired learning as personally meaningful may reject teaching efforts. Henceforth, the occupational health nurses who are accountable for the health promotion of these young call center agents must consider their readiness to learn and change unhealthy lifestyles. Meanwhile, the correlation between Sex and Levels of Physical Health Practices was also determined. Chi-square test has been used instead of Pearson r coefficient since "Sex" is a nominal variable. The correlation between Sex and Activity and Rest is not significant as well. The correlation between Diet and Nutrition, Substance Use and Abuse, and Hygiene however, shows that the hypothesis should be rejected and that the relationships that exist among these variables are significant. This research reinforced previous findings that sex has an impact on health practices 84


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pertinent to diet and nutrition, substance use and abuse, and hygiene. While this study is almost equally participated by both men and women, the results are highly suggestive that sex affected the health practices of call center agents with reference to diet and nutrition; substance use and abuse; and hygiene. This research reinforced previous findings that sex has an impact on health practices pertinent to diet and nutrition, substance use and abuse, and hygiene. Therefore, it is imperative for occupational health nurses to be responsive to the peculiar needs of men and women regarding health practices among call center agents. By virtue of the nurses' expertise in health and the high regard in terms of credibility with health care, nurses occupy a crucial role in health promotion. These programs can be offered almost anywhere and anyone but with due regard to sex and gender orientations of healthcare consumers. Especially that empirical data have reiterated that sex greatly influence the compliance and acceptance of individuals to health promotion and wellness programs. Hence, the idea for these programs to serve and meet the needs of many adults (regardless of sex), who otherwise would not avail themselves of opportunities to strive toward a healthier lifestyle. The correlation between length of employment and Diet and Nutrition, and Substance Use and Abuse shows an inverse negligible correlation while its correlation with Activity and Rest, and Hygiene has a positive negligible correlation. This means that length of employment affects the lifestyles of call center agents in relation to their activity, rest, and hygiene health practices. Interestingly, this research has proved that the length of employment of call center agents affects their lifestyles in terms of activity, rest, and hygiene health practices. The evidence turn out that call center agents employed within at least 7-12 months discerned considerable changes in health practices as those employed for more than 48 months. The findings reiterate literatures stressing that employers should provide health promotion activities and health packages for their employees. In another important manner, this research attempted to elaborate on the relationship between profiles (age, sex, and length of employment) on the pulmonary health status among call center agents. The findings reveal a significant positive relationship between age and pulmonary health status. With a computed Pearson r value of 0.115 and a p-value of 0.023 necessitates the decision to reject the null hypothesis. Thence, 85


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it can be supposed that age has an impact on pulmonary health status. Interestingly, this research has proved that the length of employment of call center agents affects their lifestyles in terms of activity, rest, and hygiene health practices. The evidence turn out that call center agents employed within at least 7-12 months discerned considerable changes in health practices as those employed for more than 48 months. The findings reiterate literatures stressing that the BPO employers should provide comprehensive health promotion activities and health packages that shall in turn instigate maximum level of functioning and wellness among call center agents. Such as compulsory annual medical check-ups or health fairs that cater to the diverse needs of call center agents which can serve as valuable diagnostic and illness prevention measures. Moreover, the maintenance and development of friendly and motivating work climate is also essential to promote health and preclude stress among call center agents. Finally, this study presents the correlation between Level of Physical Health Practices and Level of Pulmonary Health Status. Based on the research outcomes, physical health practices showed significant inverse relationships with pulmonary health status; diet and nutrition; and substance use and abuse. These findings support other researches elaborating on the crucial role of physical health practices on pulmonary health status. These outcomes suggest that as call center agents increase performance of physical health practices, the prevalence of respiratory conditions and symptoms tend to decrease, thus improving their pulmonary health status. This pertinent finding evokes that as call center agents continue to senesce, there is an expected and relative decline in their level of pulmonary status. Therefore, the goal of health promotion for these young call center agents should go beyond health screening and include extensive efforts to promote positive health practices at an early age. Behaviors and habits relevant to health practices are formed early in life, hence, this young adults should be encouraged to develop positive health attitudes that precedes good health habits. Nurses working in BPO companies should design and implement health education programs that also appeal to young employees that focus on the negative results of practices such as smoking, risky sexual activities, alcohol and drug abuse, sedentary patterns, and poor nutrition on pulmonary health, with emphasis placed on values training, self-esteem, and healthy lifestyle practices. In doing so, nurses keep in mind that there is a greater chance that these young call 86


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center agents engage in lifestyle practices that supports pulmonary health. CONCLUSION Based on the findings, the profile of age has a relationship with physical health practices. Meanwhile, research outcomes reveal correlation between age and pulmonary health status. Demographic attributes such as age, sex and length of employment have little to no impingement on physical health practices and pulmonary health status. The study also showed significant inverse relationship between physical health practices and pulmonary health status. These outcomes suggest that as call center agents increase performance of physical practices that promotes health such as active lifestyle, proper nutrition and diet, and avoid use of harmful substances, the prevalence of respiratory conditions and symptoms tend to decrease, thus improving their pulmonary wellness and health status.

RECOMMENDATIONS With reference to the findings of this study, it is recommended that: the proposed health education plan for the promotion of physical health practices and pulmonary health status of call center agents be reviewed and implemented by their respective Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) firms; the call center agents should be aware of their current level of lifestyle health practices and pulmonary health including education on behaviors that promote healthy lifestyle; the administrators and management of BPO companies in IT Park Cebu City should acknowledge the crucial role of the results of this study. Efforts should be done to promote healthy lifestyles among call center agents; that the findings of this research shall assist the Occupational Health Nurses advocating health promoting activities for the call center agents. Devise a more appropriate health intervention plan to meet the unique needs of the respondents.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Alligood, Martha R. and Tomey, Ann M. (Ed.) (2010). Nursing Theory. Singapore: Elsevier Pte Ltd DeLaune, Sue C. and Ladner, Patricia K. (Ed.) (2011). Fundamentals of Nursing: Standards and Practice. United States of America: Delmar, Cengage Learning Dillon, Patricia M. (2007). Nursing Health Assessment: A Critical Thinking, Case Studies Approach. United States of America: F. A. Davis Company Friginal, Eric (2009). The Language of Outsourced Call Centers: A Corpus-based Study of Cross-cultural Interaction. The Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Co. George, Julia B. (Ed.) (2005). Nursing Theories: The Base for Professional Nursing Practice. Singapore: Pearson Education South Asia Pte. Ltd Griffin, Ricky W. and Moorehead, Gregory. (Ed.) (2012). Human Behavior in Organization. Singapore: Cengage Learning Asia Pte. Ltd Helgeson, Vicki S. (Ed.) (2012). The Psychology of Gender. United States: Pearson Education, Inc. Kozier, Barbara (2004). Fundamentals of Nursing: Concepts, Process, Practice. Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2004). Marquis, Bessie L. and Huston, Carol J. (Ed.) (2012) Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: Theory and Application. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Nelms, Marcia et al. (Ed.) (2010). Nutritional Therapy & Pathophysiology. United States of America: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning Newstrom, John W. (Ed.) (2011). Organizational Behavior: Human Behavior at Work. United States: McGraw-Hill Education 88


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Octaviano, Eufemia F. and Balita, Carlito E. (2008).Theoretical Foundations of Nursing: The Philippine Perspective. Philippines: Balikatan Prints & Binding Enterprises Polit, Denise F. and Beck, Cheryl T. (Ed.) (2008).Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pyzdek, Thomas (2000). The Handbook for Quality Management: A Complete Guide to Quality Management. Arizona: Quality Publishing, Inc. Pyzdek, Thomas and Keller, Paul A. (2nded.) (2013). The Handbook for Quality Management: A Complete Guide to Operational Excellence. Asia: McGraw-Hill Publishing Smeltzer et al. (2010) (Ed). Brunner &Suddarth's Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/ Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor et al. (2011) (Ed.). Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care. United States of America: Wolters Kluwer Health/ Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Weber, Janet and Kelley, Jane H. (2010) (Ed). Health Assessment in Nursing. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/ Lippincott Williams & Wilkins JOURNALS AND PERIODICALS Benninghoven et al. (2005).CCall-healthy and successful work in call centers. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE), 11(4), 409-421. Bongard et al. (2007). Effects of age and gender on physical performance. Age (Dordr), 29(2-3), 77-85. doi:10.1007/ s11357-007-9034-z Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2267663/ Clow, Barbara., Bernier, J., Haworth-Brockman, M., Pederson, A., & Hanson, Y. (2013). SGBA e-learning resource: Rising to the challenge. Retrieved from http://sgba-resource.ca/en 89


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Daniel, J. Z. et al. (2006). The effect of exercise in reducing desire to smoke and cigarette withdrawal symptoms is not caused by distraction. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 101(8), 1187-92. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/16869848?dopt=Abstract Deb Group (2013). Are women better than men when it comes to hand washing practices? Hand Hygiene, Infection Prevention and Food Safety Blog. Retrieved from http://info.debgroup.com/blog/bid/297508/Are-WomenBetter-Than-Men-When-it-Comes-to-Hand-WashingPractices Dunstan, Steven (2010). General Lifestyle Survey Overview: A Report on the 2010 General Lifestyle Survey. Retrieved from www.ons.gov.uk Erick, P. and Smith, D. R. (2013). Prevalence of tobacco smoking among school teachers in Botswana. Biomed Central, 11(24).doi:10.1186/1617-9625-11-24. Retrieved from http://www.tobaccoinduceddiseases.com/content/11/1/24 Harris, Patricia R. (n.d.) Health Consequences of Smoking for Women .National Institute of Health. Retrieved from http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/access/NNBBRT.ocr Roberts, V. et al. (2012). The acute effects of exercise on cigarette cravings, withdrawal symptoms, affect, and smoking behavior: systematic review update and meta-analysis. Psychopharmacology, 222(1), 1-15. doi: 10.1007s/s00213012-2731-z. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/22585034 Salimpade, Hannah Yvette (2012). Nutrition-related lifestyle practices, dietary pattern, nutrient intake and nutritional status of selected call center agents. Geneva Health Forum. Retrieved from http://ghf.globalhealthforum.net/ 2011/12/14/nutrition-related-lifestyle-practices-dietarypattern-nutrient-intake-and-nutritional-status-of-selectedcall-center-agents/ Schiff, Wendy J. (Ed.) (2011). Nutrition for Healthy Living. United States of America: McGraw-Hill Companies 90


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Smith, Jacquelyn (2014). Flu season etiquette: what you need to know about sickness and the office. Forbes Leadership. Re t r i e v e d f r o m h t t p : / / w w w. f o r b e s . c o m / s i t e s / jacquelynsmith/2014/01/17/flu-season-etiquette-whatyou-need-to-know-about-sickness-and-the-office-2/ Tidy, C. and Kenny, T. (2012).Physical activity for health. Retrieved from http://www.patient.co.uk/health/Physical-ActivityFor-Health.htm Published and Unpublished Materials Arela, Napoleon J. (2007). Effects of coffee drinking in maximizing reading comprehension and memory retention among BSNI students of USPF-CN 2007-2008: basis for the improvement of cognitive skills. (Unpublished Study, University of Southern Philippines Foundation, 2007) Arevalo, D. C. and Delos Reyes, R. (2007). Effectiveness of nicotine gum as an aid for smoking cessation: basis for the health education program. (Unpublished Study, University of Southern Philippines Foundation, 2007) Burgos, G. C., Cabalhin, P., and Pondar, N. (2010). Level of awareness on the effects of smoking on health among Active and Passive smokers in Barangay Apas, Cebu City: Proposed Health Education Program (Unpublished Study, University of Southern Philippines Foundation, 2010). Butigan, Consunji, Gomez, Sanson, Seno (2009). Level of Awareness on the Side Effects of Smoking Among Call Center Agents: A Basis for Health Information Dissemination. (Unpublished Study, University of Southern Philippines Foundation, 2009). Ibarra, N. (2013). World views and practices on personal health care among call center agents employed in a selected call center company in Bacolod City, Philippines: a correlational study towards increasing health care awareness. Faculty of Information and Communication Studies: UP Open University. Retrieved from http://fics.upou.edu.ph/ index.php/component/k2/item/76-world-views-andpractices-on-personal-health-care-among-call-center91


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agents-employed-in-a-selected-call-center-company-inbacolod-city-philippines-a-correlational-study-towardsincreasing-health-care-awareness/76-world-views-andpractices-on-personal-health-care-among-call-centeragents-employed-in-a-selected-call-center-company-inbacolod-city-philippines-a-correlational-study-towardsincreasing-health-care-awareness Pasa-ol, T.M. (2010). Application of Jean Watsons theory on human caring in the care of alcoholic patient at halfway rehabilitation center for health promotion program. (Unpublished Study, University of Southern Philippines Foundation, 2010). Remolano C, and Navarro R. (2009) Lifestyle that generate Pulmonary Tuberculosis among the Constituents of Barangay Ermita: Basis for Improved Health Education Program. (Unpublished Study, University of Southern Philippines Foundation, 2009). Internet Sources Action on Smoking and Health (2013). Smoking statistics: who smokes and how much. Retrieved from http://ash.org.uk /files/documents/ASH_106.pdf Call Centers in India, CCI (2007). Call center night shift: effects on health. Call Centers in India, Offshore Call Center Services. Retrieved from http://callcentersindia. wordpress.com/2007/11/06/call-center-night-shift-effectson-health/ Comcare (2012). Call centres: a guide to safe work. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved from http://www.comcare.gov.au/ __data/assets/pdf_file/0016/41281/Call_centres__A_guide_to_safe_work.pdf Chua, P. (2011, February). Heart to Heart Talk "Are you at risk?" Inquirer Global Nation. Retrieved from http://globalnation. inquirer.net/cebudailynews/opinion/view/20110228322682/Are-you-at-risk Department of Health (2012, October). Smoking Fast Facts. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved from http://business. inquirer.net/87196/smoking-fast-facts 92


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Escasa (2011, August). PHILIPPINES smoking statistics. World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://www.facebook. com/notes/malou-escasa/philippines-smoking-statisticsfrom-who/10150294972963905 Hannah, Yvette (2012). Nutrition-Related Lifestyle Practices, Dietary Pattern, Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status of Selected Call Center Agents. Retrieved from: http://ghf.globalhealthforum.net/ 2011/12/14/nutrition-related-lifestyle-practices-dietarypattern-nutrient-intake-and-nutritional-status-of-selectedcall-center-agents/ F. Speizer, S. Horton, J. Bat, and A. Slutsky (2000) (as cited in Murray and Lopez, 1996). Respiratory Diseases of Adults. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries (2nd edition). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ books/NBK11773/ Kelly, Frank J. (2005). Vitamins and Respiratory Disease: antioxidant micronutrients in pulmonary health and disease. doi: 10.1079/PNS2005457 M. Carey, J. Card, J. Voltz, S. Arbes, Jr, D. Germolec, K. Korach, and D. Zeldin (2007). It's all about sex: male-female differences in lung development and disease. NIH Public Access. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2007.08.003 Neonate Blogspot (2008). BPO Call Centers - bane or boon?Retrieved from http://neonate28.blogspot.com/ 2008/09/bpo-call-centers-bane-or-boon.html O p t u m H e a l t h N e w M e x i c o ( 2 0 1 3 ) . Re t r i e v e d f r o m https://www.optumhealthnewmexico.com/consumer/en/ physicalHealth.jsp Oishiberry (2013, January). "Lifestyle Activity Level: Are you sedentary, lightly active, moderately active or extremely active?". Retrieved from http://www.oishiberry.com/ 2013/01/lifestyle-activity-level-are-you.html Pacific Northwest Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.pnf.org/ Definitions_of_Health_C.pdf 93


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Restrepo, Carillo, Martinez, Ojeda, Rivera and Hatta (2007, July). Pulmonary complications from cocaine and cocaine-based substances: Imaging manifestations. Radiographics. doi: 10.1148/rg.274065144 SeifShaheen (Aug 2010). Eating a suitable Diet improves health. Retrieved from http://phys.org/news201887932.html Republic of the Philippines-Office of the President on Dangerous Board. An Exploratory Study on Drug Abuse among Call Center Agents in Metro Manila. Retrieved from http://www.ddb.gov.ph/research-statistics/research/45research-and-statistics/95-2009-researches Vestil, J. (2010, January). Call Center agents face risks: study. Sun Star Cebu. Retrieved from http://www.sunstar.com.ph/ cebu/call-agents-face-risks Virginia Department of Health (2012). Standard Precautions. Re t r i e ve d f r o m < h t t p : / / w w w. v d h . v i r g i n i a . g o v / epidemiology/surveillance/hai/ StandardPrecautions.htm> WHO (2014).Physical activity and adults: recommended activity for adults aged 18-64 years. Global Strategy on Diet, P hy s i c a l A c t i v i t y a n d H e a l t h . Re t r i e ve d f r o m http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_adults /en/index.html WHO (2011). Young people: health risks and solutions. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs345/en/ World Health Organization (1948). WHO definition of Health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/about/definition/ en/print.html World Life Expectancy live longer live better. Philippines: Lung Disease. Retrieved from http://www.worldlifeex pectancy.com/philippines-lung-disease

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MOTIVATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF FRESHMEN EDUCATION STUDENTS (3rd BEST PAPER) COLLEGE OF EDUCATION PRINCESS FABELLE ARIZALA REGINE PALICTE JOSEPHINE PALICTE DYNA MICOLOB ___________________________________________________ ABSTRACT This study investigated the relationship between the freshmen education students' motivation and academic performance. The findings of this study served as bases for a Peer Mentoring Plan. This study was conducted at the University of Southern Philippines Foundation, Lahug Campus with 44 respondents in the study. A Complete Enumeration Sampling Technique was employed. A 30item adopted questionnaire, The University Student Motivation Questionnaire 2 (Neill, 2007), was utilized to assess the levels of students' extrinsic and intrinsic motivations in attending the university. The four extrinsic motivators are Rejection of Alternative Options, Career and Qualifications, Social Enjoyment, and Social Pressure. The two intrinsic motivators are Self-Exploration and Altruism. A chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between motivation and academic performance. Contingency coefficient was used to measure the strength of relationship between the two variables. Majority of the First Year College of Education Students are female. Most of the students are English majors. Only one student is taking a major in General Science. Most of the freshmen students show high level of extrinsic motivation in attending the university. The majority of the freshmen students have very high level of intrinsic motivation in attending the university. Majority of the freshmen students have attained a very satisfactory academic performance rating. Only a minimal number of students have achieved an excellent rating and a few have earned a fair rating. 95


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Results of the test of relationship between extrinsic motivation and academic performance showed no significant correlation; hence, the null hypothesis is accepted. There is no significant relationship between the freshmen students' extrinsic motivation and their academic performance. The coefficient contingency showed a moderate strength of relationship between the two variables. The result of the test of relationship between intrinsic motivation and academic performance showed significant correlation; hence, the null hypothesis is rejected. There is a significant relationship between the freshmen students' intrinsic motivation and their academic performance. The coefficient contingency showed a moderate strength of relationship between the two variables. INTRODUCTION Motivation plays a significant role in everything that people do and it is one's reason or purpose for acting. It is the impetus or influence that arouses, directs and sustains behavior that may come from the person, an experience or the environment. In other words, the motivation can come from internal sources or intrinsic motivation or from external sources or extrinsic motivation. Students entering college have their reasons or purpose for their action. The reason may be to explore the field they are interested in. It may also be for a career preparation or to meet people and develop friendships. Whatever the reasons are, attending college is one of the major transitions in the lives of many young adults. It has been a drift in the universities that the biggest number of enrollees is in the first year but only a small percentage of the students are able to persevere until their graduation. This is the same pattern seen in the College of Education (COED) of the University of Southern Philippines Foundation (USPF). Several reasons can be said about the attrition rate of the first year students; however, they are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, if the students do persist in the course in education, they have to be cognizant that they have to contend with Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) where only a small percentage of the examinees make it. 96


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The academic performance or academic achievement is the dependent variable in many studies because it is usually associated with positive outcomes that society values. A good academic performance may mean better chance of success for the student. A student with an outstanding academic performance may have a chance at landing a place on the board exam which could bring honor and favorable reputation to the college or university the student belongs. A general outstanding academic performance of students may result in a higher passing rate for the school. In other words, the academic performance is not only a concern for the student and his or her family but to the college or university as well. The researchers, who are in fourth year of college, were compelled to investigate the first year student's reasons for attending the university, that is, whether the locus of causality for the action is inside or outside the person. Henceforth, this study aims to find out whether an extrinsic or an intrinsic motivation to attend the university is related to learning, with the academic performance as the indicator of learning. METHODOLOGY Research Design The study employed the descriptive correlational design of research to determine the relationship between the Students' level of Motivation and their Academic Performance, University of Southern Philippines Foundation, School year 2013-2014. A descriptive correlation method is one that helps to determine if two or more variables are associated with each other by explaining their relationship but not necessarily implying that this relationship is also a cause. The findings of this study served as bases for Peer Mentoring Plan. Research Environment The study was conducted within the University of Southern Philippines Foundation, Lahug, Cebu City. This university was established as a private, non - sectarian educational institution. The University takes great pride in College of Education for receiving the LEVEL III Accreditation in the Bachelor of Secondary 97


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Education program from Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities Commission on Accreditation (PACUCOA). Moreover, the University received the distinction as the only university to achieve the level III Accredited status in region 7. The Bachelor of Elementary Education program has likewise received a Level I Accreditation from the PACUCOA. The College of Education is preparing for its LEVEL II accreditation at the end of 2014. Research Respondents There are 44 first year education students who were chosen as respondents of this study because they are part of the researchers' cell group. A cell group is an informal bond between the freshmen and the fourth year students. A Complete Enumeration Sampling Technique was employed in this study. Research Instrument The researchers utilized a researcher-modified questionnaire called the University Student Motivation Questionnaire (TUSMS), which was created by James Neill (2007). The TUSMSQ2 contains 30 indicators which determine the students' internal and external reasons students for attending the university. The scaling is based on a four-point Likert scale. For each item, students will answer from a scale of 1 to 4 with four for Strongly Agree, 3 for Agree, 2 for Disagree and 1 for Strongly Disagree. Indicators number 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 21, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28 and 29 measure the extrinsic motivation of the students. Indicators numbers 2, 6, 8,12,14,18,20,24,26 and 30 measure the intrinsic motivation of the students measure the extrinsic motivation of the students. The statements are mixed regarding the reasons for the student motivation so as not to establish some pattern. Research Procedures Gathering of Data A letter asking for permission was secured from the dean of the College of Education allowing the researchers to conduct the study and to the classroom teacher. The researchers explained to the freshmen students in class, the nature and purpose of the study. The researchers distributed the questionnaires to the 98


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respondents and collected the questionnaires immediately after their completion. Treatment of Data The following statistical procedures were used to interpret the data gathered. The Simple Percentage was used to determine the profile of the respondents. The Weighted Mean was used to determine the freshmen students' level of motivation. It was also used to determine the students' level of academic performance, based on the average grades of the students. Parameters of Limits for the Student's Level of Motivation Range 3.26 -4.0 2.51-3.25 1.76-2.50 1.00-1.75

Interpretation Very High Level of Motivation High Level of Motivation Low Level of Motivation Very Low Level of Motivation

Parameters of Limits of the Student's Level of Academic Performance Range Interpretation 1.0 -1.4 Excellent 1.5-1.9 Very Satisfactory 2.0-2.4 Satisfactory 2.5-3.0 Fair The chi-square was used in testing the null hypotheses. The correlation coefficient was employed to determine the strength of relationship between the students' level of motivation and academic performance. Summary of Findings Majority of the First Year College of Education Students are female. Most of the students are taking English as their academic program. Only one student is taking a major in General Science. Most of the freshmen students show high levels of extrinsic motivation in attending the university. The majority of the freshmen students have very high levels of intrinsic motivation in attending the university. Majority of the freshmen students have attained a very satisfactory academic performance rating. Only a minimal 99


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number have achieved an excellent rating and a few have earned a fair rating. Results of the test of relationship between extrinsic motivation and academic performance showed no significant correlation; hence, the null hypothesis is accepted. There is no significant relationship between the freshmen education students' extrinsic motivation and their academic performance. The coefficient contingency showed a moderate strength of relationship between the two variables. The result of the test of relationship between intrinsic motivation and academic performance showed significant correlation; hence, the null hypothesis is rejected. There is a significant relationship between the freshmen education students' intrinsic motivation and their academic performance. The coefficient contingency showed a moderate strength of relationship between the two variables. CONCLUSION Based on the findings, it is concluded that students' external reasons to attend the university such as meeting the expectations of family or peers, socializing or preparing for a job are not associated with their performance in the academics. In contrast, personal reasons such as actual interest in learning and helping others are related to their performance in the academics. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings and conclusion, it is recommended that: the proposed peer mentoring plan should be implemented; the result the study be disseminated to the dean, the faculty and the students of the College of Education; teachers and peer mentors should monitor the student's participation in the peer mentoring plan.

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REFERENCES Books Marquis, B. & Huston, C. (2006). Leadership roles and management function in nursing: theory and application. Philadelphia: J.B Lippincott Co. Salandan, G. (2012). Methods of Teaching. Cubao, Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing Inc. Woolfolk, A. (2006). Educational Psychology. (11th Ed). Needham, Heights, Ma.:Allyn and Bacon Inc. Woolfolk, A. (1998). Educational Psychology. (10th Ed). Needham, Heights, Ma.:Allyn and Bacon Inc. Unpublished Materials Descartin, S., Lopez, J., Senagan, L.M., & Sevilleno, J.H. (2008) Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation factors: enhancing nursing students desire to pursue Bachelor of Science in Nursing at University of Southern Philippines Foundation Online Sources Afzal,H., Ali,I., Aslam, M. & Hamid, K. A Study of University Students' Motivation and Its Relationship with Their Academic Performance. (2010). International Journal of Business and Management. Vol. 5, No. 4. Retrieved from www.ccsenet.org/ijbm Ahmed, A., Ali,S., Haider, Z., & Khan, F.(2013). Factors Contributing to the Students Academic Performance: A Case Study of Islamia University Sub-Campus. American Journal of Educational Research 1.8. 283-289. Retrieved from http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/1/8/3/ Allen, D., Gatch, D., Maurer,T., Shankar, P. & Sturges,D. (2012) The internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences & Practice, Vol. 10, Number 1. Students' Academic Motivation in Allied Health Classes. http://ijahsp.nova.edu/articles/ Vol10Num1/pdf/Maurer.pdf 101


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Ayub, N. (2010). Effect of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on academic performance. Pakistan Business Review. J Re t r i e v e d f r o m h t t p : / / w w w. i o b m . e d u . p k / P B R / 1007/PBR_1007_363_The%20Effect%20of%20Inrinsic% 2 0 a n d % 2 0 E x t r i n s i c % 2 0 M o t i va t i o n % 2 0 r e v i s e . p d f Banluta, J. (2013). Relationship of the Academic Rating and Board Examination Performance of the Electronics Engineering Graduates. Retrieved from http://www.ietecconference.com/ ietec13/conferenceproceedings2013/papers/Monday/MP 1/MP1.4_submission_118.pdf Demir, I., Kiliรงaslan, A., Mesici, F., Yavuzer, E.,Ismen-Gazioglu, E., Sertelin, C., Yavuzer, E. and Yildiz, A. ( 2006) The Teacher Altruism Scale: Development, Validity and Reliability. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/ 1469906/The_Teacher_ Altruism_Scale_Development_ Validity_and_Reliability Dresel, M. &Grassinger , R. (2013). Changes in Achievement Motivation among University Freshmen Journal of Education and Training Studies Vol. 1, No. 2; doi:10.11114/ jets.v1i2.147 Esplanada,J. (2009). Male teachers an endangered species? Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved from http://newsinfo. inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/learning/view/20090628212873/Male-teachers-an-endangered-species Edwards, L. C. & Johansen, L. The surprising consequences of Extrinsic Motivation. The Interaction between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation a Literature Review. Retrieved From http://pure.au.dk/portal/files/36141704/ Final_bachelor.pdf Fisher, D. & Frey, N. (2011). "Inviting students to own the purpose." the Purposeful classroom: how to structure lessons with learning goals in mind. 90-105. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX2001500010&v=2.1&u=phuspf& it=r&p=GPS&sw=w&asid=566c2ed5a1d1b71cc3997572 65ed8081 102


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Gonzalez, D.M., Navarro, R., Tierra, R.J. & Vitamog, A. (2011) Predictors of Nursing Board Examination Performance. http://www.eisrjc.com/documents/Predictors_of_ Nursing_Board_Examination_Performance_1325757145.pdf Neill,J. (2007). The University Student Motivation and Satisfaction Questionnaire 2. Retrieved from: http://wilderdom.com/ courses/surveyresearch/assessment/labreport/TUSMSQ2 .doc Radi, S.M. (2013). Baccalaureate Nursing Students' Motivation for Attending University and its Relationship with their Academic Achievement. International Journal of Education a n d Re s e a r c h Vo l . 1 N o . 7 . Re t r i e v e d f r o m h t t p : / / w w w. i j e r n . c o m / j o u r n a l / J u l y- 2 0 1 3 / 0 8 . p d f

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MANIFESTATIONS OF BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN PHILIPPINES FOUNDATION MABINI CAMPUS (Finalist) High School Mabini ALIF LORENZ B. FABIAN JENNY MARIE A. FAJARDO DARLENE C. BONDOC MA. CARMELA F. BATIQUIN ANN JENNIFER T. ALVEZ JONA MARIE A. VERCIDE MARK ANTHONY T. LIMOSNERO ALVINO B. CALLINO Adviser __________________________________________________ ABSTRACT Learning can be defined as the process leading to relatively permanent change in behavior brought about as a result of experience. As one learns, he changes the way he perceives his environment, the way he interprets and comprehends the incoming change as well as the way he interacts and conducts himself. In all situations, it is the behavior that decides the overall performance of a person, nonetheless a student. One's actions depend on his behavior and attitudes towards a situation, One's behavior affects the whole being of the person as well as the person's ability to learn and heed an instruction. A student's behavior has an impact on his/her academic achievement. The way the student performs in class goes back to how he is treated not only in school but also in his place. Behavior is the key to good performance. Student behavior plays a major role in academic achievement. Academic achievement isn't always a measurement of a student's intelligence. A variety of factors, such as absenteeism, fighting, disrespect, and tardiness can affect the student's life. The interaction of a student to his environment in accordance to his behavior affects the academic achievement in school. This leads to the idea that the child's 104


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behavior decides whether his performance may decrease or increase, affecting their grades in terms of their academic achievement. Behavioral problems could possibly be a risk factor in academic achievement. INTRODUCTION Numerous studies have sought to understand the factors which result to low achievement of students. Studies have been seeking to identify what determines academic failure in response to critical situation. One of the factors that affect student achievement is Absenteeism. Absenteeism is one of the most common causes as to why student's academic achievement tends to drop. Missing lectures and classes causes great loses to student's learning. This may result to giving up an aimed position especially to those who are striving to the top. This habit may cause a dilemma to the student, affecting their grades in the process. Some teens are much more likely to get into fights than others. Teens who are frequently involved in fighting cannot control their temper properly, having a hard time in preventing conflicts. Disrespect towards people can lead to fights. This would surely affect his relationship with other people, thus, affecting his students as well. Teacher involvement plays a big role in the academic achievement of the students. Good relationship depends on how they interact with one another as student and teachers. If the student and teacher are on good terms, the students will be able to excel considering that they have a good relationship with the teacher. But if the teacher and student are not on good terms, the student will surely not excel. If the teacher interacts with his students well, the students, in return, will also treat him well. This leads to the idea that a student's good performance will depend on the interactions he has with the teacher. A student will not learn if he doesn't blend with the teacher. Students who are frequently tardy to school are also apt to be fired from a job for showing up late. They give negative impact to their teachers and other students. Teachers sometimes allow tardy students to make up school works, which requires them to re-teach missed lessons, repeating the process all over again. Tardiness takes away student's attention to teacher's lesson and 105


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cannot comply and submit classroom works and activities on time which leads to more behavior problems and missed instructions. Intervening in these problems can help in enhancing the student's learning and improve their performance in class. The results of this study will help determine and lead findings on hoe to resolve such attitude and endeavor towards learning. This would greatly provide development on the students' performance. Hence, the researchers would like to find out if there is indeed a relationship between behavioral problems and the academic achievement of the students. The result will ascertain if there is a need for interventions that will help in the development of the students as better individuals. METHODOLOGY Research Design This study made us of the descriptive co relational research in determining the relationship between the Behavioral Problems and Academic Achievement of the Third Year and Fourth Year High School Students in University of Southern Philippines Foundation, Mabini Campus, S.Y. 2013-2014 as basis for intervention of programs. The researchers used probability sampling. Research Environment The researchers conducted their study at University of Southern Philippines Foundation, Mabini Campus located at Mabini Street, Cebu City, Philippines. Research Respondents The research respondents of this study are the following: Table 1 Table of Respondents Year Level Third Year Fourth Year Total

Male 36 38 74

Female Total Number of Respondents 26 62 36 74 62 136 106


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Research Instruments The research made use of a validated researcher-made questionnaire for gathering of data of the students. Research Procedures Gathering of Data The researchers formulated the following procedures as guide in gathering the data. The researchers asked permission from the principal through a letter to conduct this research. After obtaining permission, the researchers conducted internet in the library research about the problem. The researchers asked permission from the guidance office to retrieve the grades of the high school students. After obtaining permission and the approval for the retrieval of data, the researchers distributed the questionnaires for the survey of the students. The researchers interviewed the teachers with regards to the students' absents, fights, tardiness and disrespect. The researchers retrieved, collated, tallied and interpreted the data gathered. Treatment of Data The information and data gathered were treated statistically using the following statistical tools: Simple Percentage was used to determine the profile of the students and their academic achievement. The Weighted Mean was used to determine the behavior profile of the students and their academic achievement. The Coefficient of Contingency was used to determine the relationship between the profile of the students and their academic achievement. FINDINGS On the basis of the data presented in the previous chapter, the following is summary of the findings: Majority of the respondents are fourth year students. Most of them are males who have an age ranging from 16-17 years old, having an academic performance of 75-79 interpreted as fair. The study revealed that there is a significant relationship between behavior problems and student's academic achievement. 107


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CONCLUSION The two most prominent symptoms or manifestations of behavioral problems which are manifested by third and fourth year high school students are absenteeism and disrespect. Further, it is concluded that these two variables are associated with their academic achievement. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings and conclusion of the study, it is recommended that the students should live a healthy lifestyle and their parents should have a better communication with this in regards to their behavior that causes them to absent. They should have good relationship between their classmates and other schoolmates so their academic performance will not be affected. They should also have moral and good attitude towards each other. They should also respect each other so that their academic performance won't be affected. Students should make sure that they pass and arrive on time in every activity they have in school.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Aquino, G.V. (2000). Educational Psychology. Quezon City: Rex Book Store Bustos, A.S. (2000). Introduction to Psychology. Manila: Katha Publishing Co., Inc. Cruickshank, D. (2009). The Act of Teaching. New York: Mc-Graw Hill Companies, Inc. Lardizabal, A.S. (1997). The Principles and Methods of Teaching. Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. Marzano, R.J. et al. (2001). Classroom Instruction that Works: Research Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA, USA: ASCD. Ornstein, A.C. (1990). Strategies for Effective Teaching. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, Inc. Sadker, M.Y. and Sadker, D.M. (2000). Teachers, Schools, and Society. New York: Mc-Graw Hill Inc. Unpublished Theses Wenceslao, Annabelle (2011) "Relationship Between Learning Behavior and Performance of Grade III Pupils in Cogon Central School, Cogon, Ormoc City: An Improvement Plan" Unpublished master's Thesis, University of Southern Philippines Foundation, Cebu City, Philippines. Mahinay, Marlette Ni単o (2011) "The Behavioral Problems and Academic Performance of Indigenous Students in Melale National High School, Laak Division of Compostela Valley: A Proposed Program" Unpublished master's Thesis, University of Southern Philippines Foundation, Cebu City, Philippines.

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Jayme Jazel et. al (2013) "The Relationship Between Teachers' Competence And Students' Academic Achievement of the High School Department, University of southern Philippines Foundation Mabini Campus, S.Y. 2011-2012: Basis For Improvement" Unpublished master's Thesis, University of Southern Philippines Foundation, Cebu City, Philippines. Internet Sources http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classc ond.htm http://psychology.about.com./od/behavioralpsychology/a/classicalvs-operant-conditioning.htm http://psychology.about.com./od/behavioralpsychology/a/condi tioning-study-guide.htm http://www.simplypsychology.org/classical-conditioning.html http://www3.niu.edu/acad/psych/Millis/History/2003/ClassicalC onditioning.htm http://psychology.about.com./od/behavioralpsychology/a/introo pcond.htm http://www.learning-theories.com/operant-conditioningskinner.html http://www.pamf.org/children/common/behavioral/#top

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