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Manual of Mutant, Hybrid, Endangered, Super Species MMHESS.

Cornell University, College of AAP, Department of Architecture 2011 Summer Program Program Director Yehre Suh Leonard Mirin Project Investigators Germain Chan, Alex Chuan Hao Chen, Stephanie Young Choe, Ujijji Dasisi Davis, Juan David Grisales, Alice Chin-Shuian Huang, Calvin W. Liu, Jeffrey Chengduan Lu, Matthew Allen Sweets, Sean S. Wen


Xian

Tokyo

Seoul


CONTENTS

006

INTRODUCTION

008 004

MAPS 01 Beijing 02 Xi’an 03 Shanghai 04 Tokyo 05 Kyoto 06 Gyeongju 07 Seoul

005

MAPPING 01 Area 02 Density 03 Transformation 04 Religion 05 Preservation 06 [De/Re]Construction

002

PARTICIPANTS

007

APPENDIX

TIMELINE

006

STRATEGIES 01 TERRITORY

Containment Elevation Gentrification [Re]Siting Siting 02 PROGRAM

Additive Attraction Camoflage Collage Integration Misuse Parallelism Plug-In Rehabitation Symbiosis Patching 03 VISUAL

Backdrop Fabrication Redefinition Spectacle Staging Zoning

05 SYMBOLISM

Monumentalization Mimicry Procession Framing Remembrance Threshold Topping 06 TYPOLOGY

Detachment Extrusion Maintenance Retrofit 07 OBJECTIFICATION

Accessibility Buffering Isolation Miniaturization Segregation 08 SUPPLEMENTS

Advertising Prosthetic Protection

04 TECTONIC

Juxtaposition Replication Revetment Transfiguration Vitrification

2

3


PARTICIPANTS

PROGRAM DIRECTORS Yehre Suh Leonard Mirin PROJECT INVESTIGATORS Germain Chan Alex Chuan Hao Chen Stephanie Young Choe Ujijji Dasisi Davis Juan David Grisales Alice Chin-Shuian Huang Calvin W. Liu Jeffrey Chengduan Lu Matthew Allen Sweets Sean S. Wen COLLABORATORS Liu Jian Assistant Dean / Associate Professor of Urban Planning & Design Tsinghua University / School of Architecture Dong Yao Lecturer Tongji University / College of Architecture and Urban Planning / Architecture Department Jorge Almazan Assistant Professor Keio University / Faculty of Science and Technology Department of System Design Engineering Sanki Choe Assistant Professor University of Seoul / Department of Architecture PRODUCTION ASSISTANT Andrew Kim Cornell B.Arch 10’

376

LECTURERS / CRITICS CHINA

Zhang Jie Professor of Architecture Tsinghua University / School of Architecture Zhang Yue Associate Professor of Urban Planning & Design Tsinghua University / School of Architecture Wang Nan Associate Professor of Urban Planning & Design Tsinghua University / School of Architecture Liu Gang Lecturer Tongji University / Architecture Department

JAPAN

Masayuki Kohiyama Associate Professor Keio University / Department of System Design Engineering

KOREA

Sung Hong Kim Professor University of Seoul / Department of Architecture Eric Reeder Assistant Professor Konkuk University / Department of Architecture Bart Reuser Lecturer University of Seoul / Department of Architecture Soo-in Yang Adjunct Assistant Professor Columbia University / Department of Architecture Partner / The Living Nahyun Hwang Visiting Critic University of Michigan / Department of Architecture Peter Ferretto Professor Seoul National University / Department of Architecture

PROJECT ASSISTANTS CHINA

Xiaoqing Xu Ph.D in Landscape Planning Tsinghua University Lim Tiam Chai Ph.D in Landscape Planning Tsinghua University Zhang Yang Architecture Undergraduate 5 Year Tsinghua University / School of Architecture Han Tientsz Architecture Undergraduate 5 Year Tsinghua University / School of Architecture Zhou Jianjia Masters of Architecture Tongji University / Dept of Architecture Sun Ruowen Masters of Architecture Tongji University / Dept of Architecture Liu Xiao Masters of Landscape Jiao Tong University / Dept of Landscape

JAPAN

Yoshi Uchida Cornell B.Arch 84’ Andrew Namias Cornell B.Arch 09’ Gen Machida Cornell B.Arch.10’

KOREA

Andrew Kim Cornell B.Arch 10’

ITHACA

Zeung Huang Cornell M.Arch II 10’

377


01 “ Garry Hamilton, Super Species: The Species that will Dominate the Planet, 2010

2

Super species are the phenomenally successful invasive life-forms that are dominating ecosystems. These animals, plants and microbes have spread far from their native habitats, most often as a result of human activities. The key to super species’ success is their ability to adapt quickly. Super species may be unusually aggressive, difficult to kill, unfazed by the presence and activity of humans, capable of astonishingly rapid rates of growth and reproduction, exceptionally tolerant of pollution or, in many cases, all of the above. 3


Cities of China, Japan and Korea are investigated relative to its relationship between the new, the old, the new old, and the old new in order to understand issues of transition, negotiation, mitigation, preservation, erasure and reconstruction relative to the political, economic, social dynamic of the urban context. With the chaotic pace of development and expansion of the far eastern metropolises, the traditional fabric of the cities has become hybridized with the new to form mutant species of the urban terrain. 4

02 5


03

Discussions of preservation and cultural identity can only progress under the rubric of nationalism, tourism and marketability. And so the active as well as passive transformations from the old to the new morphs through the process of natural selection. In the turmoil of the urban survival of the fittest, strategies of negotiation ranges in the realms of Territory, Program, Visual, Tectonic, Symbolism, Typology, Objectification and Supplements.

6

7


Beijing, Xi’an, Shanghai, Tokyo, Kyoto, Seoul and Gyeongju,

04

as habitats of the Super Species become our site of observation to investigate and document the conflicts and negotiations between the traditional fabric of the city and the new urban transformations of globalization and its agencies. 8

9


05

As biologists who embark on travels to far distant lands to discover new and hybrid species of the ecological system, we too embark on this trip to map out the hybrid species of the urban ecological system into a Manual of Mutants, Hybrids, Endangered, Super Species. MMHESS investigates the morphology of natural selection of urban territories to map methodologies of survival between the old, the new, the old new and the new old.

10

11


INTRODUCTION

Garry Hamilton, Super Species: The Creatures that will Dominate the Planet, (Buffalo, NY: 2010)

Mark Jarzombek, “The Metaphysics of Permanence: Curating Critical Impossibilities,” Log, Vol. 21, Winter 2011, 125-135

With the chaotic pace of development and expansion of global metropolises, traditional fabric of cities have become hybridized with the new to form mutant and hybrid species of the urban terrain. The new metropolitan city is a site of natural selection between the new, the old, the new old, and the old new through processes of transition, negotiation, mitigation, preservation, erasure and reconstruction. And within the political, economic, social dynamic of urban environments fueled by forces of globalization, discussions of preservation and cultural identity can only progress under the rubric of nationalism, tourism and marketability. In many Asian countries, nationalism is an essential mechanism of urban development and growth. And in an expanding world of globalization, state nationalism and cultural nationalism forms a distinct strategy of construction, demolition and preservation. Mark Jarzombek identifies two types of nationalism. State nationalism, which “embraces a platform of modernization and urbanization,” and cultural nationalism, which “champions ethnic lineages and historical hierarchies, and views capitalism with suspicion. Where the two forms of nationalism often merge… is in the realm of architectural preservation. Cultural nationalists emphasis tradition, state nationalists emphasize tourism.” And along the lines of nationalism, tourism and marketability, architectural preservation has become a new strategy of urban development. Under the name of preservation, new structures are being built, old structures are being demolished and old structures are remade new and new structures are made to look old. Preservation has become the new strategy of survival where new urban species are constantly generating and perishing in the urban terrain.

We hope to investigate the morphology of natural selection of urban territories to map methodologies of survival between the old, the new, the old new and the new old. The metropolises of Japan, Korea and China is a unique habitat where a homogenous habitat based on close similitude of religious, philosophical, social, cultural philosophy and life style were subject to an extreme transformative processes of modernization and globalization. The old and new capitals of the three asian countries, Kyoto and Tokyo, Gyeongju and Seoul, Xi’an and Beijing, as habitats of the Super Species, become the site of observation to investigate and document the conflicts and negotiations between the traditional fabric of the city and the new urban transformations of globalization and its agencies.

As biologists who embark on travels to far distant lands to discover new and hybrid species of the ecological system, we too embark on this trip to map out the hybrid species of the urban ecological system into a Manual of Mutants, Hybrids, Endangered, Super Species (MMHESS). In the turmoil of the urban survival of the fittest, strategies of negotiation ranges in the realms of Territory, Program, Visual, Tectonic, Symbolism, Typology, Objectification and Supplements.

6

7


MAPS

8

9


MAP / 01 BEIJING

1 Mile 1 Kilometer

10

11


MAP / 02 XI’AN

1 Mile 1 Kilometer

12

13


MAP / 03 SHANGHAI

1 Mile 1 Kilometer

14

15


MAP / 04 TOKYO

1 Mile 1 Kilometer

16

17


MAP / 05 KYOTO

1 Mile 1 Kilometer

18

19


MAP / 06 GYEONGJU

1 Mile 1 Kilometer

20

21


MAP / 07 SEOUL

1 Mile 1 Kilometer

22

23


DIAGRAMS

24

25


Seoul Gyeongju

30 370km

GYEONGJU

4 AD - Silla Kingdom

SEOUL 1394 - Joseon Dynasty

1869 - Imperial Restoration

1943 - Tokyo Metropolis, Showa Period

TOKYO

1972

1937

1910

Tokyo

Seoul, Capital of Korea

794 - Heian period

Gyeongseong, Japanese Occupation

KYOTO

1943

1869 1394

1115

AD

1982 - Beijing, People’s Republic

Beijing, Capital of Qing Dynasty

1982

1564

1403

Xian Beijing, Capital of Ming Dynasty

Beijing 1267

914km

Dadu, Capital of the Yuan Dynasty

Zhongdum, Capital of the Jin Dynasty

936 - Jin Dynasty

Gyeongseong, Japanese Occupation

513.6km 936

BEIJING

1893 - Tokyo, Showa Period

Kyoto 794

190 BC - Han Dynasty founded by Liu Bang

1394

1869 - Tokyo, Meiji Period

JAPAN AD

XIAN

Hansung, Capital of Joseon Dynasty

KOREA AD 4

CHINA 190 BC

03 TRANSFORMATION Mapping / 03 Transformation

31


04

Mapping / 04 Religion

RELIGION Shintoism arose in prehistoric times as a religion with a respect for nature

500 BC

Taoism was established by Laozi

CHINA 44.5% No religion 22.0% Buddhism + Taosim + Shenism 14.0% Atheist 10.0% Non-Han

AD 100

8.0% Buddhism Buddhism was introduced during Han Dynasty

200

Taoism was introduced to Baekjae, Goguryeo by Chinese

282

Taoism was introduced from Baekjae kingdom

372

Buddhism was introduced to Goguryeo

600 635 651

Buddhism was introduced from Baekjae kingdom Christianity was introduced by Alopen in Tang Dyansty Islam was introduced eighteen years after the death of Muhammad

1.5% Islam 1.0% Chrisitianity

JAPAN 84.0% No religion 15.0% Others 0.7% Buddhism 0.2% Protestatism 0.02% Roman Catholic

1100

Non-han, Dongbaism arose in Nahki

1542

Christianity was introduced by European landed on Kyushu

1603

Christianity was introduced during Joseon Dyansty

KOREA 46.5% No religion 22.8% Buddhism 18.3% Protestatism 10.9% Roman Catholic 1.5% Others

1949 1950

32

People’s Republic of China established government that is officially atheist Islam was introduced through Turkish soldiers during Korean War

33


05

Mapping / 05 Preservation

PRESERVATION

JAPAN 12 cultural site 4 natural site

KOREA 9 cultural site 1 natural site

CHINA 29 cultural site 8 natural site 4 mixed site

- Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang - Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor - Mogao Caves - Mount Taishan - Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian - The Great Wall - Mount Huangshan - Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area - Jiuzhaigou Valley Scenic and Historic Interest Area - Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area - Ancient Building Complex in the Wudang Mountains - Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace, Lhasa 7 - Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples, Chengde - Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu - Lushan National Park - Mount Emei Scenic Area, including Leshan Giant Buddha Scenic Area - Ancient City of Ping Yao - Classical Gardens of Suzhou - Old Town of Lijiang - Summer Palace, an Imperial Garden in Beijing - Temple of Heaven: an Imperial Sacrificial Altar in Beijing - Dazu Rock Carvings - Mount Wuyi - Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui – Xidi and Hongcun - Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties - Longmen Grottoes - Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System - Yungang Grottoes - Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas - Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom - Historic Centre of Macao - Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries - Wolong, Mt Siguniang and Jiajin Mountains - Yin Xu - Kaiping Diaolou and Villages - South China Karst - Fujian Tulou - Mount Sanqingshan National Park - Mount Wutai - China Danxia - Historic Monuments of Dengfeng in “The Centre of Heaven and Earth” - West Lake Cultural Landscape of Hangzhou

34

XI’AN - Mausoleum of the First Qin emperor

BEIJING - Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian - Summer palace an imperial garden in Beijing - Temple of heaven an imperial sacrificial altar in Beijing

- Buddhist Monuments in the Horyu-ji Area - Himeji-jo - Shirakami-Sanchi - Yakushima - Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities) - Historic Villages of Shirakawa-go and Gokayama - Hiroshima Peace Memorial (Genbaku Dome) - Itsukushima Shinto Shrine - Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara - Shrines and Temples of Nikko - Gusuku Sites and Related Properties of the Kingdom of Ryukyu - Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range - Shiretoko - Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine and its Cultural Landscape - Hiraizumi – Temples, Gardens and Archaeological Sites Representing the Buddhist Pure Land - Ogasawara Islands

- Haeinsa Temple Janggyeong Panjeon, the Depositories for the Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks - Jongmyo Shrine - Seokguram Grotto and Bulguksa Temple - Changdeokgung Palace Complex - Hwaseong Fortress - Gochang, Hwasun and Ganghwa Dolmen Sites - Gyeongju Historic Areas - Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes - Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty - Historic Villages of Korea: Hahoe and Yangdong

GYEONGJU - Gyeongju Historic Areas - Seokguram Grotto and Bulguksa Temple

KYOTO - Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto,Uji and Otsu Cities

SEOUL - Changdeokgung Palace complex - Jongmyo - Hwaseong Fortress

TOKYO - None

35


TIMELINE

36

37


1960

1950

1940

1950 The Tian’anmen Square is enlarged four times its original size, resulting in the demolition of The Gate of China. 1950 Tianzifang opens as a lane factory and residential area.

1949 Parts of the Forbidden City is destroyed during the cultural revolution.

1942 Yuyuan Garden is destroyed extensively by the Japanese.

1927 Construction of new gates of the Xi’an City Wall begins

1925 The Palace Museum begins management and regulation of The Forbidden City.

1917 First bombing of the Forbidden City, as a result of internal conflict during World War I.

1911 Nanchizi opens to the public as a residential area.

1900 Tian’anmen Sqaure is used for assembly during The Boxer Rebellion.

1910 Chogyesa Temple is built in Seoul after site ordaination in1395.

1909 Japanese administration destroys the Geoncheonggung residence inside Gyeongbokgung palace.

1920 Japanese administration applies asphalt to control leakage on Seokguram. 1920 Private renovations of Bukchon homes begin. 1920 Japanese attempt reconstruction on Gyeonbok Palace.

1917 Japanese administration installs drainage pipes to control leakage on Seokguram. 1917 Gyeonbok Palace is destroyed by fire.

1958 The household system was further tightened by a migration law.

1954 A household registration (hukou) system was established to regulate growth of cities

1945 Gyeongju Branch of Korea’s National Musuem is established.

1959 Seoul completes reconstruction of Dongdaemun Market.

1953The Chwihyanngyo Bridge is reconstructed.

1950 The Gyeonbok Palace and Dongdaemun Market suffers from more fire damage.

1948 The Repulic of Korea is established. Gyeonbok Palace is used as a residence for President Rhee Syngman

1951 156 "joint factory" projects are realized under the "Socialist Unification Plan" in the first Five-Year Plan.

1949 The Cultural Revolution of China begins.

1946 France relinquishes its concessions in China.

1936 Chogyesa Temple becomes the main temple by order of Korean Buddhism. 1937 Second Sino-Japanese war breake 1937 A main hall is built for Chogyesa out lasting until 1945 Temple.

1929 Rural Reconstruction Movement is started in China by Y.C. James Yen, Liang Shuming and others to revive the Chinese village

1919 Massive student demonstrations against the Beijing government and Japan cause nation-wide awakening called the May Fourth Movement.

1915 In 1915 the Japanese set before the government in Beijing the so-called Twenty-One Demands.

1911 Japanese administration destroys all but ten original structures in Gyeonbok Palace. Japanese General 1912 Republic of China is established, Government Building is constructed. with first provisional president Sun Yat-sen inaugurated in Nanjing. 1913 Japanese administration conducts 1913 After Second revolution, Yuan repairs on Seokguram. Shikai who had effective control of the Beiyang Army in Beijing is elected as a president 1914 Chogyesa Temple receives Buddha relic from Sri Lankan monk.

1900 The French Concession becomes the premier residential and retail district of Shanghai through unregulated development.

CHINA

1930

1920

1910

1900

1913 Ise Shrine is rebuilt ritually. (56)

1939 Mirei Shigamori constructs Tofuku-ji (Four Gardens) in Kyoto.

1937 Yoshimura residence, Osaka, becomes first private residence appointed “National Treasure”

1959 US forces Opens Seoul American High School in Yongsan Garrison.

1957 United Nations moves the headquarters of the UNC from Tokyo to Yongsan.

1953 United Nations establishes United Nations Command and reestablishes U.S. Military power at Yongsan. 1953 The Korean War end.

1955 The Golden Pavilion (Kinkauji Temple) is reconstructed. 1955 The Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum is constructed.

1953 Ise Shrine is rebuilt ritually. (58)

1949 The US creates the Korean Military 1949 The kon-dō of Hōryū-ji, one of the Advisory Group (KMAG) in Yongsan oldest wooden buildings in the world, Garrison. catches fire and results in the loss of important 7th century wall paintings. 1950 The Korean War begins. U.S. This prompts the establishment of the forces bombs Yongsan to stave off Law for the Protection of Cultural North Korean advance. 45% of all Properties. industrial building and city infrastructure is destroyed. 1950 The Golden Pavilion (Kinkauji Temple) is burned down by a 22-year-old novice monk, Hayashi Yoken

1945 Japanese occupation ends. Yongsan becomes defacto seat of power for United States Army presence in Korea.

1943 ‘Central renovation plan’ is established aiming towards east Asia ground infrastructure system.

1941 Sewage system for Seoul is completed which was done in four phases and total length reaching 225km.

1929 National Treasures Preservation Law is established, replacing the 1897 laws. Protection expands to private properties.

1933 Law for Preservation of Important Works of Fine Arts is established in response to Great Depression financial crisis. 1933 Ise Shrine is rebuilt ritually. (57) 1934 ‘Joseon city street renovation’ is established to facilitate troupe movement through Seoul city center.

1926 Emperor Sunjong succumbs to Japanese occupation. Japanese administration erects City Hall Building.

1919 Historical Sites, Places of Scenic 1919 Tapgol Park hosts March 1st Beauty, and Natural Monuments Movement. Samil Indepedence Movement Preservation Law is established supporters rally on Seoul Sqaure. adverse to lobbying societies.

1910 Japanese administration begins to restore historic Korean sites.Yongsan is used as Japanese headquarters. 1911 Wealthy Koreans are displaced from Insadong by Japanese administration.

1905 Japanese invasion of Korea begins.

1900 Seoul-Incheon train track opens. 1900 First bridge crossing Han river is constructed.

1897 Ancient Temples and Shrines Preservation Law enacted as Japan’s first preservation law for saving traditional art and architecture.

KOREA 1905 Japanese invasion of Korea begins.

1958 Japan hosts Asian Game in Tokyo.

1954 Subway line opens between Ikebukuro to Ochanomizu.

1946 Government Department of Shinto Affairs is abolished, separating religion and state. The Association of Shinto Shrines is then founded.

1945 The United States detonates atomic bomb over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ending WWII.

1942 US begins firebombing Japanese cities Tokyo, Yokohama, and Osaka.

1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, bringing the United States into WWII

1937 Japan captures Beijing and Nanjing.

1934 Subway line opens between Ginza and Shimbashi inTokyo.

1931 Japan invades Manchuria (China) using Shintoism to encourage patriotism.

1923 Japan suffers from the Great Kanto Earthquake.

1920 Tokyo Underground Railway Company is established.

JAPAN Timeline


2010

2000

1989 The Korean administration begins 40 Year renovation plan.

1985 The Korean administration assigns five sites as National Treasures of Korea: Imperial Throne hall Geunjeongjeon, Gyeongheoru Pavillion, Amisan garden chimneys, Jagyeongjeon Hall and Injeongjeon Hall .

1982 Gyeongju National Museum opens second annex.

1977 Seoul Metropolitan City designates Bukchon as Local Cultural Asset.

1975 Gyeongju National Museum opens in Inwang-Dong. The Sacred Bell of the Great Kind Seongdeok is moved here.

1997 UNESCO designates Cheongdeok Palace as a World Heritage Site.

1995 UNESCO designates Bulguksa and Seokguram as Wolrd Heritage Sites.

2010 Shanghai Expo. 2010 China hosts Asian Game in Guangzhou.

2009 Beijing Olympic Village opens.

2008 Beijing Olympics. 2008 The Qianmen area reopens with international brand shops.

2010 UNESCO designates Hahoe and Yangdong village as a World Heritage Site.

2008 Namdaemun which is Korea’s national tresure number 1 is set on fire and burnt down. 2009 Gwuangwhamun plaza is opened.

2007 Completed reconstruction of Geoncheonggung Residence ends.

2006 Redevelopment of Dongdaemun area into park is planned. 2006 Tianzifang is named China’s Best Creative Industry Zone. 2006 Nanluoguxiang's 1 billion RMB facelift was completed with a mix of traditional Chinese culture and western outposts.

2005 The district government begins 13 billion RMB renovation of Qianmen Street.

2002 The municipal government adopts 2002 Seoul government begins conservation plan for historic and demolition of original structures for cultural city of Beijing. reconstruction in Bukchon. 2003 Beijing Olympic Village’s 2003 Seoul Mayor Myungbak Lee construction starts for 2008 Olympics. initiates a project to remove the elevated highway and restore the 2004 China starts large-scale Cheonggyecheon stream. renovations on six world cultural heritage sites in Beijing. 2005 Complete reconstruction of Taewonjeon Shrine ends.

1998 Chogyesa Temple hosts temple sit-in by antagonized monks of Chogye order in the midst of power struggle. 1999 Queen Elizabeth i visits Insadong. Shopping Centers emerge: Geopyeong Freya, Migliore, Doosan Tower Malls. 2000 General renovation of Insadong 2000 The Chinese government enforces begins. more strict development and planning controls in the French Concession. 2001 Seoul City Museum is renamed to Seoul Museum of History.

1997 Hongkong was returned to China, resulting in development in neighboring Guangdong province.

1995 Beijing's Central Academy of Fine Arts (CAFA) sets up in the defunct Factory 706 as the National Centre for the Performing Arts.

1994 Complete restoration of Huijeongdang and Gyotaejeon ends.

1993 President Kim Youngsam's Civilian Administration is established.

1990 Sub-factories cease production, unemployment rises, and management becomes a real-estate operation. 1991 Gyeongju National Museum 1990 China hosts Asian Game in renames the first annex to Tumulus Hall, Beijing. and the second to Anapji Hall.

1989 Tian’anment Sqaure Massacure ensues.

1962 Korean administration designates ten sites as National Tresasures of Korea: Dabotap, Seokgatap, Yeonhwagyo, Chilbogyo, Seokguram, Cheongungyo, Baegungyo, Buddha of Enlightenement Statue, Amitabha Buddha Statue, Celadon Wine Pot Sarira Pagoda.

1969 President Park Chunghee conducts major restoration on Bulguksa.

1978 Adoption of open policy resulting in reduce role of government in urban development.

1963 State Council announce the "Instruction on the Adjustment of the Establishment of City and Town Government and the Reduction of the Areas of City Suburban Districts"

2002 Xintiandi’s urban revitalization project begins along with the re-development of the surrounding residential areas.

2000 Beijing City Government turns Nanchizhi into a cultural historical site with new construction and renovation. 2000 Tianzifang is developed into a new art zone with art galleries.

1997 Wangshi Yuan is inscribed on the World Heritage List by UNESCO.

1994 The Qin Terra Cotta Army Museum opens exhibiting Pit Two.

1990 Nanluoguxiang becomes one of the capital's oldest hutong areas and Beijing's cultural and historical protection area. 1991 The Qin Terra Cotta Army Museum opens exhibiting Pit Three.

1984 People’s Party begins Great Wall Restoration Committee to raise 2.7 million for Great Wall renovation. 1985 The Suzhou government appropriates the Wangshi Yuan Garden. 1985 China ratifies The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. 1987 The Forbidden City is declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

1982 YuYuan Garden is declared a National Monument.

1980 The Old Summer Palace is reclaimed by the Chinese government and turned into an historical site.

1979 The Qin Terra Cotta Army Museum officially opens exhibiting Pit One.

1976 Mao’s Mausoluem is constructed near the former site of the Gate of China. Tian’anmen Square is expanded rectangularly with capacity of 600,000 persons.

1974 The Terra Cotta Warriors are discovered by local farmers in Xi'an near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor.

1966 All gates to the Forbidden City are sealed due to ongoing destruction

1964 The Wild Goose Pagoda is renovated.

1961 Yu Yuan Garden is repaired and reopened to the public after extensive damage.

1960 Insadong becomes popular for tourism, nicknamed Mary’s Alley. 1960 President Park Chunghee conducts major restoration on Seokguram. 1961 Old Gyeongju Museum in Dongbu-Dong opens.

CHINA

1990

1980

1970

1960

2014 Korea hosts Asian game in Incheon.

2008 Seoul City Hall redevelopment starts.

2006 The city demolishes Japanese City Hall s in view of plans for new City Hall.

2002 Korea hosts world cup with Japan. 2002 Korea hosts Asian Game in Busan.

1999 Cultural Heritage Administration is elevated to a sub-ministerial agency to identify the National Treasures of South Korea.

1994 Gyeongju National Museum Administration opens Gyeongju Museum College. 1995 Japanese General Government Building is demolished.

1993 Seoul City Museum opens. 1993 Taejun Expo Opening.

1992 U.S. Army Garrison gives back 77 acres to the City of Seoul.

1991 South and North Korea joins UN

1989 Promotion Committee of Korean Publishing City Constructions holds initiation convention at Paju

1988 Seoul Olympics

1986 Tapgol Park hosts Site of Grand Peace March for Democracy. 1986 Korea hosts Asian Game in Seoul. 1987 Pro-Democracy Movement supporters holds rally at Seoul City Hall.

1985 Construction planning of Seoul City Museum begins.

1984 2nd Subway line opens in Seoul.

1980 US cancels reductions originally proposed to address budget issues.

1974 First Subway connecting Seoul Station and Cheongnyangri was opened.

1970 Saemaul Movement begins 1970 First expressway connecting Seoul and Busan opens. 1971 Seoul removes Yongsan U.S. Army Garrison from provisional status to begin expanding support capacity to surrounding area.

1969 3rd Han River Bridge, now the Hannam Bridge is constructed.

2013 Ise Shrine is rebuilt ritually. (61)

2008 Ginkakuji Temple receives extensive renovations.

2005 Machiya-zukuri is established to save and restore the traditional machiya-style homes. 2006 Omotesando Hills is constructed by Tadao Ando in Tokyo.

2003 The roof of Kinkakuji Temple in Kyoto is restored.

1993 Traditional machiya-style homes are demolished and replaced. Neighborhood renovation continues until 2003. 1993 Ise Shrine is rebuilt ritually. (60) 1993 UNESCO designates Buddhist Monuments in the Horyu-ji area as Wolrd Heritage Sites. 1996 UNESCO designates Hiroshima Peace Memorial (Genbaku Dome) as Wolrd Heritage Sites.

1990 The Garden of Fine Arts by Tadao Ando is constructed in Kyoto.

1984 Kinkakuji Temple receives a new coating of gold leaf.

1975 Preservation laws are extended to cover craft techniques for the conservation of cultural properties.

1973 Ise Shrine is rebuilt ritually. (59)

1964 St. Mary's Cathedral (by Kenzo Tange) is built in Tokyo. The original structure was built in 1899, but burnt down in WWII. The Yoyogi National Gymnasium (by Kenzo Tange) and Kyoto Tower (by Tachu Naito) are constructed. 1966 Law for the Preservation of Ancient Capitals is established to protect ancient Japanese capitals.

1962 Korean Administration builds North Building for City Hall. 1962 Cultural Property Protection Law protects items fall into four main categories, Tangible Cultural Properties , Monuments, Important Folklore Material (which is not subdivided) and Important Intangible Cultural Properties

KOREA 1961 Subway line opens between Minami-senju to Naka-okachimachi.

2011 Japan suffers from Tohoku Earthquake. 549 cultural properties including five National Treasures (at Zuigan-ji, Ōsaki Hachiman-gū, Shiramizu Amidadō, and Seihaku-ji).

2000 Japan establishes of fire resistance construction.

1995 Japan suffers from Kobe Earthquake. Over 10 trillion yen damage and only 3% of area is covered by earthquake insurance.

1994 Japan hosts Asian Game in Hiroshima.

1978 Subway line opens between Shibuya to Aoyama-itchome. 1979 Japan suffers from Miyagi Earthquake.Japan establishes energy conservation laws. 1980 Japan enforces criteria for earthquake resistent structures.

1969 Tozai and Chiyoda subway lines opens.

1968 Japan becomes the world's second largest economic power.

1966 Japan establshes earthquake insurance.

1964 Tokyo hosts Summer Olympics. 1964 Japanese city infrastructure modernizes. The Tokaido Shinkasen is the fastest train in the world.

1962 Subway line opens between Nakano-fujimicho to Honancho.

JAPAN Timeline


05 DESTRUCTION / RECONSTRUCTION Timeline of Reconstruction Practices I

I Ise Shrine

II

II

Xi’An City Wall

Master of Nets Garden

Forbidden City

Humble Administrator’s Garden

Katsura Imperial Villa

III

III Bulguksa

Todai-Ji

Injeongjeon Hall

New Summer Palace

IV

IV Meiji Shrine

V

V Kinkakuji

Yongding-Men

Namdaemun

First Construction 374

Major Reconstruction Restoration

Minor Restoration

Total Destruction 375


STRATEGIES / 01 TERRITORY

42

43


STRATEGIES / 01 TERRITORY /

ELEVATION

Tokyo

Shinto Shrine, Hiroshima

Shinto Shrine, Hiroshima

Shinto Shrine, Hiroshima

Name, City

Name, City

44

Name, City

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Germaine Chan

Name, City

45


ELEVATION / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 01 Territory / Elevation

Inari Shrine, Hiroshima / 稲生神社, 広島 Address: Hiroshima-ken Hiroshima-shi Minami-ku 2-12 Year of First Construct: Around 400 years ago Use: Shinto shrine Preservation Status: Reconstructed Geneology: This Shinto shrine was damaged by a big fire in 1733 and was destroyed in 1945 by the atomic bomb and was reconstructed in 1948. The last major renovation was in 1993.

46

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Germaine Chan

47


Strategies / 01 Territory / Elevation

ELEVATION / ANALYSIS Inari Shrine, Hiroshima / 稲生神社, 広島

Shinto Shrine

Shinto shrine Torii Office

Office/ Souvenir Shop

Office

Parking garage

Shop/ Office

Parking Garage

Axonometric of rooftop Shinto Shrine in Hiroshima 48

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Germaine Chan

Section of rooftop Shinto temple in Hiroshima 49


STRATEGIES / 01 TERRITORY /

CONTAINMENT

Dongdaemun History and Culture Park, Seoul

50

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alice Huang

Gyeongju Museum, Gyeongju

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CONTAINMENT / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 01 Territory / Containment

Terracotta Warrior Museum, Xi’an / 秦陵, 兵馬俑博物館, 西安 Address: Xi’an, Lintong County, Shaanxi Province Year of First Construct: 210 BC Use: Museum Preservation Status: Designated as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987 Geneology: The “Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses” is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210-209 BC and whose purpose was to help guard his empire in his afterlife. The figures, dating from 3rd century BC, were discovered in 1974 by some local farmers in Lintong District, Xi’an, Shaanxi province, near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor.

52

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alice Huang

53


CONTAINMENT / ANALYSIS

Strategies / 01 Territory / Containment

Terracotta Warrior Museum, Xi’an / 秦陵, 兵馬俑博物館, 西安

Terra Cotta Warriors, Pit 1, Xi’an

Section, 1974 Pit 1 was the first pit discovered in 1974. Every three yards, a puddle wall separates the underground army into different columns. The total area of this pit is 12,600 square meters

Terra Cotta Warriors, Pit 1, Xi’an

Section, 1974 Pit 1 was the first pit discovered in 1974. Every three yards, a puddle wall separates the underground army into different columns. The total area of this pit is 12,600 square meters

Terra Cotta Warriors, Pit 1, Xi’an

Section,2011 present day A section of 960 square meters (out of 12,600) has been fully excavated and marked out as the main attraction of the museum. In order to protect pit 1, a large arched hall with a steel frame was built right above the pit in 1976. They have been meticulously reassembled and rearranged. They are posed in lines and seem prepared for battle.

54

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alice Huang

55


STRATEGIES / 01 TERRITORY /

GENTRIFICATION

798 Dashanzi Art District, Beijing

56

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alice Huang

Seoul Art Space-Mullae, Seoul

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Strategies / 01 Territory / Gentrification

GENTRIFICATION / PRECEDENT Tianzifang, Shanghai / 田子坊, 上海 Address: Taikang Road, Shanghai Year of First Construct: 1930s, 1970s Use: Commerial Preservation Status: None Geneology: Tianzifang is a commercial art zone that supports many bars, cafes, and shops. It is popular with both local and tourists, featured as one of the highlights of Shanghai. Tianzifang was once a typical factory lane, housing food machinery plants that were built in the 70s. It is on Lane 210, off Taikang Road where artists have come since the 1930s. The factories were renovated first in 1998 by local artists. As the area gained attention, it expanded into neighboring lanes, the shikumen-style housing. Tianzifang’s commercial success and dependency on the shikumen’s forms mean that it was remained untouched from large scale changes, as neighboring shikumens have been replaced with high-rises.

Lane 274: Shikumen

58

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alice Huang

Lane 248 Shikumen

Lane 210 Factory Lane

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Strategies / 01 Territory / Gentrification

GENTRIFICATION / ANALYSIS Tianzifang, Shanghai / 田子坊, 上海

Expanded balcony

Temporary partition walls

New windows

New permanent walls

“Stone gate”

New glass doors

Lane 210, Tianzifang, Shanghai

Lane 210 Tianzifang, Shanghai

This is an example of an original shikumen from the 1930s on Lane 210. Shikumens (literally “stone gate”) are two to three story residential townhouses, fusing Western and Chinese architecture.

60

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alice Huang

This shikumen is now the Rui Yuan C. Gallery. The interior has been completely modernized with air conditioning and electricity. Renovations included a balcony, partition walls, studio lighting, etc. Galleries like this successfully converted residencies into galleries. However, the renovations have mostly been updates to the building, and so the basics of the structure have remained intact and preserved.

61


Strategies / 01 Territory / Gentrification

GENTRIFICATION / ANALYSIS Tianzifang, Shanghai / 田子坊, 上海

Ruinjin Second Road 32,731 ¥ /m2

Jiangu Rd, No. 139 77,604 ¥ /m2

Tianzifang Guanlichu 78,156 ¥ /m2 Sinan Road, 115 Long 37,208 ¥ /m2

Lane 210, Tianzifang, Shanghai

Tianzifang and surrounding area, Shanghai

Real Estate values: Tianzifang and surrounding blocks Tianzifang’s success has led to rising property costs in the area, compared to the almost 50% of that in surrounding areas. There are around 33 galleries in the area, compared to 135 shops. However, two-thirds of its original residents lived here as of 2010, but gentrification is slowly taking over.

62

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alice Huang

Lane 210 in 2001 and now. The area is changing and evolving to accommodate its new popularity and resulting clientele.

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STRATEGIES / 01 TERRITORY /

[RE]SITING

Seohojeongsa, Paju Book City

64

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alice Huang

Historic Site No. 171, Statue of King Sejong and Great Admiral Yi Sun-Shin, Seoul

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Strategies / 01 Territory / [Re]Siting

[RE]SITING / PRECEDENT Xintiandi, Shanghai / 新天地, 上海 Address: 181 Tai Cang Road, Shanghai Year of First Construct: mid 1800s Year of Development: 2002 Use: Commercial Preservation Status: None Geneology: Xintiandi is a shopping complex situated in the heart of Shanghai. It is divided into two blocks, the north and south. The north block is reconstructed traditional Shanghainese housing, called Shikumen (“stone gate”). The developer maintain that original bricks and tiles were preserved to be used for the “new” Shikumen style structures. The south block is made of completely modern steel and glass structures. The site is a popular destination for both locals and tourists. This has also caused a rise in real estate prices in the adjacent sites by 82% from 2002 to 2011. The construction displaced 3,500 shanghainese families.

North block

Reassembled shikumens Original tiles and roofing were used, as well as dry brick-wall, specific to this housing.

South block

66

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alice Huang

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Strategies / 01 Territory / [Re]Siting

[RE]SITING / ANALYSIS Xintiandi, Shanghai / 新天地, 上海

Jinlin Tiandi 88,597 ¥ /m2

Lakeville Regency 109,929 ¥ /m2 International Plaza 54,572 ¥ /m2

Freshwater Road, Lane 214 44,818 ¥ /m2

Casa Lakeville 129,366 ¥ /m2

Zhenhua Li Cell 57, 431 ¥ /m2

Above: Xintiandi is surrounded by blocks of both old and new, and the area is neither one or the other. As you can see, older housing (from the mid 1800s) still remains in certain areas. They have significantly cheaper rents, usually around 50,000 yuan per square foot, compared to newer housing, which is almost double at an average of over 100,000, as you can see from the next slide.

Xintiandi, Shanghai 68

Left: This is a satellite photo before redevelopment, where both blocks had tradition lilong arrangements, filled with shikumen

Above: This is map of new, modern housing, to compare and contrast the two. Xintiandi is surrounded by a mix of the new and old to form unique surroundings. It redefines the relationship between new old and new new. Right: This is a satellite photo after redevelopment, where a single lane of shikumen housing was “preserved.”

Xintiandi, Shanghai 69


Strategies / 01 Territory / [Re]Siting

[RE]SITING / ANALYSIS Xintiandi, Shanghai / 新天地, 上海

Shikumen housing

Shikumen housing

Shikumen housing

Xintiandi, Shanghai

New development These are sections cut through the shikumens. The upper section is before development, and the lower is after, in 2002.

New development

Xintiandi uses Shanghainese character with these preserved shikumens to attract commerce, and the surrounding new highlights the shikumens as precious. It not only draws attention to the issue, but also gives commercial value to the old housing, thus designating them as “preservation worthy.” These sections illustrate the strong contrast of old and new.

New development

“Preserved” shikumen, commericial center now

Xintiandi, Shanghai 70

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alice Huang

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STRATEGIES / 01 TERRITORY /

SITING

72

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alice Huang

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Strategies / 01 Territory / Siting

SITING / PRECEDENT Shinto Shrines in Kawaramachi-dori, Kyoto / 河原町通りの神社, 京都

4

Address: Shijo-dori , Kawaramachi-dori, Gojo-dori , and Karasuma-dori Year of First Construct: Varying Use: Religion Preservation Status: None Geneology: Shrines are sited in specific places where Kamis are said to dwell. Their presence, if not the actual structure, is rooted deep in the city’s history, and provides a point of reference for the population. Sacred geography can be related to political geography, where specific deities protect particular areas. Shrines organize the landscape to reflect sociopolitical conditions and provide gradations of physical access to this deity.

1 5

78

6

3

10

2

Gabled roofing

9

14

11

12

15

13

17

16

28

21

31 33 30

24

29

25

23

20

22

18

19

Honden

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32

26

34

Counterclockwise swastika

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36

37

This is a typical shinto shrine. All of the shrines in this area are “hokora” which are miniature shrines that are on the precincts of a larger shrine or on a side street. The elements of a shinto shrine are the honden, the sanctuary where the kami resides, the counterclockwise swastika symbol, gabled roofing,

74

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alice Huang

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Strategies / 01 Territory / Siting

SITING / ANALYSIS Shinto Shrines in Kawaramachi-dori, Kyoto / 河原町通りの神社, 京都 Construction zone, where everything is demolished except the shrine

This shrine is elevated and fenced off and the trees hide it from passerby. Plastic and wood shelter for bikes

The major street of Karasuma-dori

Shrine No. 23, Kyoto

Shrine No. 35, Kyoto

Storefront, where the shrine is just sitting on its threshold Shrine

Shrine No. 29, Kyoto

76

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alice Huang

The shrine blends in with the facade, as they have the same grided pattern, and the shrine is not extruded or separated from it in any way.

Shrine No. 33, Kyoto

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STRATEGIES / 02 PROGRAM

78

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STRATEGIES / 02 PROGRAM

ADDITIVE

80

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Stephanie Choe

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Strategies / 02 Program / Additive

ADDITIVE / PRECEDENT 01 Humble Administor’s Garden, Suzhou / 拙政園, 蘇州 Address: 168 Dongbei Street, Pingjiang, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China Year of First Construct: 1509 Use: Tourist Destination, Garden Preservation Status: Designated as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997 Geneology: Originally built as private garden and residence by retired scholar Lu Guimeng, the garden went through multiple ownership and uses before Chinese Government took active protection and maintenance through major renovation. The survival of the Humble Administrator’s Garden is heavily dependent on the surrounding functional and architectural additives that allowed the complex to serve its new functions when it was converted from private gardens and backyards into public garden. Such elements include anything from the parking lot and the restrooms to the public phones, baggage locker and the newly added Garden Museum. The function and the physical boundary of the Garden is constantly transforming through additons.

First Aid Restroom Public Phone

Parking Lot

The Main Garden area

Newly built site of Garden Museum

82

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Stephanie Choe

83


Strategies / 02 Program / Additive

ADDITIVE / PRECEDENT 02 Meiji Shrine, Tokyo / 明治神宮, 東京 Address: 1-1, Kamizono-choe Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 151-0053 Year of First Construction: 1915 Use: Tourist Destination, Shinto Shrine, Arboretum, Ceremonial Ground, Wedding Ground. Preservation Status: Kanpei Taisha, First Rank Government Supported Shrine Geneology: Built to commemorate Emperor Meiji and his wife Empress Shoken, Meiji Shinto Shrine was built after the Emperor’s death. After destruction from World War II, the orignal building was reconstructed in 1958. Besides the Main Shrine, the Shrine Complex includes a multitude of other buildings that serve other different functions.

Main Shinto Shrine

Amulet Office Hall of Sacred Dance and Music

Shukuelsha

Shrine Gate

84

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Stephanie Choe

85


ADDITIVE / ANALYSIS 01

ADDITIVE / ANALYSIS 02

Humble Administor’s Garden, Suzhou / 拙政園, 蘇州

Meiji Shrine, Tokyo / 明治神宮, 東京

Strategies / 02 Program / Additive

1921 Treasure Museum

Shisaken Dojo Yoyogi Torii

Martial Arts Training Center

1912 Original Shrine 1920 Reconstruction

1990 Kaguuaden Hall of Sacred Music and Dance

Amulet Office Iris Garden

Newest Construction

Arboretum

Complex Boundary Before 1631

Main Shrine Complex

Complex Building

Complex Buildings

Humble Administrator’s Garden, Suzhou 86

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Stephanie Choe

The humble Administrator’s Garden was first founded in 1509 by a retired Chinese government official. After use as a private garden for the founder, the garden went through extenive expansion and then was split into several parts, belonging to more than one ownerhip at times. Then in 1738, its ownership shifted to the Chinese government, and there was an extensive reconstruction as restoration efforts persited. The solid fill shows buildings after 1738, and the line-hatched fill shows structures that were added most recently, around 1950. The dotted double line enclosed area shows the extent of the garden before the major expansion in 1631; it now takes up most of the space enclosed by the large rectangular frame.

Meiji Shrine Complex, Tokyo

Torii

The original Meiji Shrine was destroyed during the World War II, which prompted the Japanese citizens to raise support and reconstruct the complex. The components other than the Shinto shrine were added throughout the entire complex, including Sake donation exhibit area, a forest of 700,000 sq. meters that contain about 365 donated species of plants and trees. The Shrine dedicated to the Emperor Meiji manifests itself as a survival strategy in which functional additives to its original architecture (rebuilt 1912) plays a crucial role.

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STRATEGIES / 02 PROGRAM

ATTRACTION

Bird’s Nest Stadium, Race track for Segways, Beijing

Kinkakuji, Louis Vitton Exhibition, Kyoto

88

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Stephanie Choe

Mausoleum of Emporer Qin Shi Huang, Xi’an

Shrine, Kyoto

Summer Palace, Beijing

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ATTRACTION / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 02 Program / Attraction

National Aquatics Center of China, Beijing / 水立方-北京國家游泳中心, 北京 Address: 11 Tianchen East Rd, Chaoyang, Beijing, China Year of First Construction: 2003 Use: Tourist Destination, Water Park Geneology: Built for the Beijing Summer Olympics of 2008, the National Aquatic Center of China insured its own survival by converting itself into a mega water park structure in efforts to revive the Olympics Green and raise revenue.

90

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Stephanie Choe

91


Strategies / 02 Program / Attraction

ATTRACTION / ANALYSIS National Aquatics Center of China, Beijing / 水立方-北京國家游泳中心, 北京

Renovated Waterpark Area Renovated Waterpark Area Olympic Size Swimming Pool

Basketball courts

The original seating

The original Olympics Water

Water Park

The Water Cube, or the National Aquatics Center of China, successfully served for the Beijing’s Summer Olympics of 2008; After the events, however, the structure seemed to have reached its end as a functional architecture piece. Nevertheless, the Chinese government started a major renovation projectwhich renewed the building as a tourist attractor for the Olympics Green and also a large revenue collector. The mega swimming pool structure is the largest water parkexistent in China and displays latest trends in technology.

92

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Stephanie Choe

The original seating area of the Olympics water has been preserved along with the swimming track. Tourists can venture towards the seating area as well as visit the Chinse water sports museum upstairs. Through the corridors that have been preserved, one can look down towards the original Olympics water serving its symbolic and social function.

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STRATEGIES / 02 PROGRAM

CAMOUFLAGE

94

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Stephanie Choe

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CAMOUFLAGE / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 02 Program / Camouflage

Great Mosque of Xi’an, Xi’an / 清真寺, 西安 Address: Huajue Xiang 30, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China Year of First Construction: 1368 Use: Tourist Destina

Geneology: Oneof the largest and best preserved ancient mosques of China shows adaptation of Arabian architectural styles to that of ancient Chinese.

96

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Stephanie Choe

97


Strategies / 02 Program / Camouflage

CAMOUFLAGE / ANALYSIS Great Mosque of Xi’an, Xi’an / 清真寺, 西安

The Great Mosque of Xi’an is an interesting archetype of fushionarchitecture. Traditional mosque has adapted itself into the Chinese environment by following the architectural style of a normative Buddhist temple yet still keeping the crucial religious ideology and rituals of a traditional mosque.

98

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Stephanie Choe

For example, the Main Prayer Hall faces West (direction of Mecca from China), and its occupation by women is prohibited. Wearing of sarii is remains a rule for the believers within the religious complex. Althought the shell of the complex seems to follow Tang Dynasty’s style (prevalent at the time of construction), the interior arrangements such as the seating in the main hall follows the organization of a traditional mosque.

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STRATEGIES / 02 PROGRAM

COLLAGE

Xi’an Horicultural Expo, Xi’an

100

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Stephanie Choe

798 Art Zone, Beijing

101


Strategies / 02 Program / Collage

COLLAGE / PRECEDENT Tapgol Park, Seoul / 탑골공원, 서울 Address: South Korea Seoul Jongnogu 2 ga 38-1 Year of First Construction: 1400s site, 1919 movement Use: Tourist Destination, Park, Historical Monument Preservation Site Preservation Status: Public park containing National Treasure No.2, No.3, and other monuments. Geneology: The park gained historical importance as the origin of the March 1st Independence movement in 1919. In addition, it used to site a 15 century Buddhist temple, consequently possessing many important monuments from the temple. Later, various statues and monuments were erected to commemorate war victims.

Wongaksa Pagoda

Palgakjeong

Wongaksa Monument Declaration of Independence Monument

Declaration of Independence Monument and poem

102

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Stephanie Choe

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COLLAGE / ANALYSIS

Strategies / 02 Program / Collage

Tapgol Park, Seoul / 탑골공원, 서울

01_Wongaksa Pagoda Originally from Wongaksa Temple Complex, it is Korean National Treasure No. 2 and is now protected by a glass box to prevent against corrosion and other damages.

02_Palgakjeong Originally from Wongaksa Temple Complex, the structure now serves as a hang out space for many old retired men (and a few women). Usually they are found in clusters on rainly days under the shelter of Palgakjeong. The agglomeration of different architectural pieces have created a public park whose symbolic and social implications have drawn the nostalgic older population in a strangely unique, Korean manner. Palgakjeong has been the origin point of all the Korean Independence (March 1st Movement).

03_Wongaksa Monument Wongaksa Monument is a “tortoise-born stele” marble that is housed by a Korean style shelter. It was built to commemorate the founding of Wongaksa in 1471.

04_Declaration of Independence The poem and the bas-relief sculptures are dedicated to the victims of Japanese brutality while celebrating Korean independence.

Tapgol Park, Seoul 104

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Stephanie Choe

105


STRATEGIES / 02 PROGRAM

INTEGRATION

City Wall, Xian

Yuan Da Du, Beijing

City Wall, Xian

Old Summer Palace, Beijing

Murinan , Kyoto

106

ChinShang Park, Beijing

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Calvin Liu

Summer Palace, Beijing

Yuan Da Du, Beijing

Yuan Da Du, Beijing

Humble Administrator’s Garden

Tiananmen Square, Beijing

107


Strategies / 02 Program / Integration

INTEGRATION / PRECEDENT Old Summer Palace, Beijing / 頤和園, 北京 Address: 28 Qinghua West Road, Haidian, Beijing, China 10000 Year of First Construct: 1707 Use: Tourist Destination Preservation Status: Important Heritage Site Under State Protection Geneology: The Old Summer Palace was built as an imperial garden palace, where the emperors of the Qing Dynasty resided and handled government affairs. In 1860, during the Second Opium War, British and French expeditionary forces, having marched inland from the coast, reached the Old Summer Palace and destroyed the palace. Most of the site was left abandoned and used by local farmers as agricultural land. Only in the 1980s was the site reclaimed by the Chinese government and turned into an historical site.

The Old Column Base

Old Podium Structure Half Destroyed

Half Destroyed Column Base Sunken into the Ground

Small Pieces of Ruin with Severe Destruction

108

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Calvin Liu

109


INTEGRATION / ANALYSIS

INTEGRATION / ANALYSIS

Old Summer Palace, Beijing / 頤和園, 北京

Summer Palace, Beijing / 和園, 北京

Old Summer Palace, Beijing 110

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Calvin Liu

Strategies / 02 Program / Integration

Old Summer Palace Before Interaction

Summer Palace Before Interaction

Old Summer Palace After Interaction

Summer Palace After Interaction

The old structures were left on site without any protection or isolation devices. Humans are free to enter and navigate through the structure. A special interaction thus developed between human and the structure. New functions adopted as a result of human freely interacting with the structure. The Old Summer Palace’s ruins are left on site since the destruction. Due to its unprotected status, the ruins were turned into resting chairs, exercising devices, picnic spot for the people. Through the method of integration, the old infrastructure regains its purpose of survival after its shift of program into an object that people interact with during their daily life.

The hall way in Summer Palace is used for a connecting pathway between the main structures. After Summer Palace was opened to the large public, the hall way is occupied everyday with special purposes. The ancient railing became a picnic space for people to sit on. People are chatting and eating on the hall way using the railing as the chair. Shops and stalls saling local foods developed around the hall way in Summer Palace. The long hall way of Summer Palace turns into a food court market. This special condition of human intervention brings the Summer Palace into another level of tourist commercialization.

Summer Palace, Beijing

111


STRATEGIES / 02 PROGRAM

MISUSE

Qianmen Street, Beijing

Summer Palace, Beijing

112

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Ujijji Davis

Qianmen Street, Beijing

Summer Palace, Beijing

Summer Palace, Beijing

113


MISUSE / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 02 Program / Misuse

Cheonmachong, Gyeongju / 천마총, 경주 Address: Cheongmachong, Gyeongju Year of First Construct: 14th Century Use: Tourist Destination Preservation Status: None Geneology: The Royal Burial Mounds were constructed historically for the Korean Imperial Family upon death. They are built mounds of earth covering underground masoleums for the deceased and are scattered throughout the city of Gyeongju. Now, they are tourist attractions and new versions are constructed to be used as museums or shops or as symbolic installations. It is difficult to identify which ones are authentic versus fake.

114

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Ujijji Davis

115


Strategies / 02 Program / Misuse

MISUSE / ANALYSIS Cheonmachong, Gyeongju / 천마총, 경주

These royal mounds were originally closed off the public as a resting place of the royal family.

116

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Ujijji Davis

However, now they are instances of use where the mounds are used as exhibition halls.

117


STRATEGIES / 02 PROGRAM

PARALLELLISM

Name, City

Name, City

Name, City

Name, City

Name, City

Name, City

118

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Juan David Grisales

Name, City

Name, City

Name, City

Name, City

Name, City

Name, City

Name, City

Name, City

Name, City

Name, City

119


PARALLELISM / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 02 Program / Parallelism

Qianmen Street, Beijing / 前門大街, 北京 Address: Beijing, China Year of First Construct: 13-14c Use: Tourist Destination Preservation Status: The street was “renovated” in preparation for the 2008 Olympics. Geneology: Located at the center of Beijing near Tiananmen Square, Qianmen Street, no more than 2 km long, has been a prosperous area for more than 600 years and had accumulated some long-standing stores. But in preparation for the Olympics, the exisitng buildings were razed and reconstructed with new buildings that look like the what was there previously. Due to high rent rate, currently only a few key original shops remain as token gestures and major international brand names stores such as Zara, Swatch, Starbucks, Rolex occupy majority of the storefronts.

120

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Juan David Grisales

121


Strategies / 02 Program / Parallelism

PARALLELISM / PRECEDENT Qianmen Street, Beijing / 前門大街, 北京

Main street with international global brands such as Rolex, Starbucks, Zara and Swatch

Back street with small retail shops and restaurants selling cheap traditional street food

Qianmen Street, Beijing 122

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Juan David Grisales

123


STRATEGIES / 02 PROGRAM

PLUG-IN

124

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Ujijji Davis

125


PLUG-IN / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 02 Program / Plug-In

Nan Luo Gu Xiang, Beijing / 南鑼鼓巷, 北京 Address: Nan Luogu Xiang, Xicheng District, Beijing Year of First Construct: 15th Century Use: Residential Area, Tourist Destination Preservation Status: Cultural Center Geneology: Nan Luo Gu Xiang is one of the many neighborhoods in Beijing home to hutongs. However, in the past 10-20 years, many of the hutongs were being demolished to be replaced by high rise development, especially in preparation for the 2008 Olympics. It was only recently that through efforts of conservationists such as Wang Jun, the government drafted a conservation plan designating 25 protected historic zones. Nan Luo Gu Xiang is part of the preservation zone which although is saved from demolition, is being retrofitted through gentrification. Hutongs and siheyuans have been converted into small retail shopping streets to attract tourists and also into higher end residential houses.

126

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Ujijji Davis

127


Strategies / 02 Program / Plug-In

PLUG-IN / ANALYSIS Nan Luo Gu Xiang, Beijing / 南鑼鼓巷, 北京

The Plug-In strategy pertains to the commercial element that is added to the main arteries of the hutong neighborhoods. This helps to preserve the vitality of the hutong areas even though the types of commercial and social activity in these areas have changed.

128

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Ujijji Davis

129


STRATEGIES / 02 PROGRAM

REHABITATION

Ming Xuan Garden, New York

Deng Chu Yuan, Duisburg

Yi Yuan, Vancuver

Chi Xin Yuan, New York

Hua Fang Yuan, Munich

130

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Calvin Liu

The Humble Administrator’s Garden, Suzhou

Huntington Botanical Gardens, Los Angeles

Garden of Lin Family, Taipei

Wen Shuo Yuan, Singapore

131


Strategies / 02 Program / Rehabitation

REHABITATION / PRECEDENT Suzhou Market Street, Summer Palace, Beijing / 蘇州街, 北京 Address: Suzhou Street (Summer Palace), Haidian, Beijing, China 10000 Year of First Construct: 1740 Use: Tourist Destination Preservation Status: UNESCO World Heritage Site Geneology: Built during the reign of Qianlong, the Suzhou Market Street was an entertainment place where Emperors and concubines could feel as if they were strolling on a commercial street that is an imitation of the water canal streets in Suzhou City. It was burned down by Anglo-French allied force in 1860. Until 1986, it was rebuilt and in 1990 it was opened to the public. Today’s market includes stores such as dyers, souvenir shops, drugstores, banks, shoe stores, teashops, and hockshops, with clerks dressed in Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) costumes.

Shop Selling Local Foods and Drinks

Shop Selling Tourist Postcard of Beijing

The wooden Bride Copied from Suzhou Bridge Small Suzhou Style Gate

The Stone Arch Bridge Copied from Feng Bridge in Suzhou

132

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Calvin Liu

133


Strategies / 02 Program / Rehabitation

REHABITATION / ANALYSIS Suzhou Market Street, Summer Palace, Beijing / 蘇州街, 北京

Yi Yuan, Vancuver

Suzhouje, Beijing

Xian Expo, Xian

Hua Fang Yuan, Munich

Su Juan Yuan, Xiamen

Yo Yi Yuan, Yokohama

When rehabitating a spatial condition, the typology is objectified, copied and pasted in many places. The infrastructure is no longer site specific, it become an object that can be copied everywhere. Suzhou was the busiest and the most important trade point in China due to its elaborate canal system. A unique spatial and architectural typology developed in Suzhou. After the industrialization, the Suzhou canal system was kept in place any trading functions. The Suzhou spatial typology creates a unique oriental aesthetic, which attracts tourists all over the world.

Suzhou Market Street, Summer Palace, Beijing 134

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Calvin Liu

In order to achieve the same success of tourism commercialization in Suzhou, many countries started to adopt the typology. The typology of Suzhou canal is copied and pasted into other site. Most notably, the mini Suzhou Market Street in Beijing is one of the most successful cases that copied the Suzhou typology and brought it into Beijing. This is an aerial axon showing the layout of the mini Suzhou Street in Beijing. We can really see the similar typology of Suzhou layout being copied to create this space.

Chi Xin Yuan, New York

Minsu Park, Taichung

Suzhou Typology Around the World 135


STRATEGIES / 02 PROGRAM

SYMBIOSIS

Omotesando (Meiji-jingu), Tokyo

Nakamise-dori (Senso-ji), Tokyo

Matsubara-dori (Kiyomizu-dera), Kyoto

Imadegawa (Ginkakuji), Kyoto

Nishiki-shijo (Nishiki-tenmangu), Kyoto

Gekusando (Ise Geku), Ise

Okage-yokocho (Ise Naiku), Ise

Komachi-dori (Tsuruga Hachiman-gu), Kamakura

Omotesando (Itsukushima), Miyajima

136

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Sean Wen

Meiji-jingu, Tokyo

Ginkakuji, Kyoto

Ise Naiku, Ise

Senso-ji, Tokyo

Kiyomizu-dera, Kyoto

Nishiki-tenmangu, Kyoto

Ise Geku, Ise

Tsuruga Hachimangu, Kamakura

Itsukishima, Miyajima, Hiroshima

137


Strategies / 02 Program / Symbiosis

SYMBIOSIS / PRECEDENT Nakamise-dori, Tokyo / 仲見世通り, 東京 Address: Nakamise-dori, Taito-ku, Tokyo, Japan Year of First Construct: 1688 AD - 1735 AD Use: Shinto shrine shopping street Preservation Status: None Geneology: The Nakamise-dori was first established when businesses near the Senso-ji shrine were given permission to set up shop along the approach to the shrine. During the Meiji Restoration, which began in 1868, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government ousted the merchants and created large parks. In 1885, the Meiji government ordered the construction of brick shops along the Nakamise-dori. These were destroyed in the 1923 Kanto Earthquake, and rebuilt in concrete, only to be destroyed again in WWII. These were rebuilt in steel, and renovated again in 1992.

Kannondo Hall

Pagoda

Hozomon Gate

Nakamise-dori shops

138

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Sean Wen

139


Strategies / 02 Program / Symbiosis

SYMBIOSIS / PRECEDENT Omotesando, Tokyo / 表参道, 東京 Address: Jingu-mae, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, Japan Year of First Construct: 1920 AD Use: High-end shopping street Preservation Status: None Geneology: Omotesando, which literally means “front approach,” was first established in 1920 as an approach to the Meiji shrine grounds. Two years after the Kanto Earthquake of 1923, the famous Dojunkai Aoyama Apartments were built. However, after the Mori-Biru Building Corporation hired Tadao Ando to build Omotesando Hills, a large shopping mall, in exception to two units, all remains were purged. Some of the most illustrious architecture in the world, including Omotesando Hills, was built along Omotesando and Aoyama Streets during the 20th and 21st Centuries.

Meiji-jingu

Omotesando

Aoyama

140

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Sean Wen

141


SYMBIOSIS / ANALYSIS

SYMBIOSIS / ANALYSIS

Nakamise-dori, Tokyo / 仲見世通り, 東京

Omotesando, Tokyo / 表参道、東京

Strategies / 02 Program / Symbiosis

Tadao Ando: Omotesando Hills

Kannondo Hall: Saisen box

Kisho Kurokawa: Japanese Nursing Association

Senso-ji

Mika: Omikuji Zeichiku SANAA: Dior Omotesando

MVRDV: GYRE

Bruno Moinard: Cartier Aoyama

Kengo Kuma: ONE Omotesando

Mika: Juzu

Sanbi-do: Omamori Daruma Buddha images Incense

Shizuoka-ya: Juzu

Jun Aoki: Louis Vuitton Omotesando

Kawasaki-ya: Kokeshi

Toyo Ito: Tod’s Omotesando

Kenzo Tange: Hanae Mori Building

Bunsen-do: Kodenbukuro Future Systems: Commes des Garçons Aoyama Herzog & deMeuron: Prada Aoyama Nakamise-dori

Nakamise-dori, Tokyo 142

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Sean Wen

Jun Mistui & Associates: Jewels of Aoyama

Tadao Ando: La Collezione

Omotesando, Tokyo 143


STRATEGIES / 02 PROGRAM

PATCHING

Cheongaechun, Seoul

Dondaemun Design Park, Seoul

144

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Stephanie Choe

Bukchon, Seoul

145


Strategies / 02 Program / Patching

PATCHING / PRECEDENT Xi’an City Wall, Xi’an / 西安城牆, 西安 Address: Shuncheng Alley, Beilinqu, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China Year of First Construction: 618 Use: Tourist Destination, Historical monument Preservation Status: State Council of the People’s Republic of China Heritage Site Geneology: Original wall built during ancient Tang dynasty in 618 was expanded to its current size. It went through at least three renovations, once for expansion and the others for renovation. In 1568, Zhang Zhi was in charge to rebuilt the wall with bricks, In 1781, another officer, Bi Yuan, refitted the city wall and the gate towers. In year 1983, Xi’an’s municipal government went through another comprehensive maintenance for the city wall. Part of the buildings were recovered. The breaking parts of the rampart were changed into gates, and the moat was restored. In May 2005, the Xi’an ramparts were all connected.However, most importantly, several gates were added during the renovation period to accommodate increased and changing traffic patterns and etc. On Mar. 4th, 1961, the State Council of the People’s Republic of China announced the Xi’an rampart as one of the heritage sites under the national protection of the first batch.

Anyuan Gate

Changle Gate

Anding Gate

146

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Stephanie Choe

Yongning Gate

147


Strategies / 02 Program / Patching

PATCHING / ANALYSIS Xi’an City Wall, Xi’an / 西安城牆, 西安

Drum Tower North Gate

New gate added, 1983

New gate added, 1983

West Gate

Zhuque Gate

Xi’an Railway Station

Bell Tower

East Gate

Xingqing Palace Park

South Gate

Helping Gate

Small Wild Goose Pagoda

Big Wild Goose Pagoda Shanxi Provincial History Museum

Plan and section of additional gates built to accomodate changing traffic patterns in China, 1983

Xian City Wall, Xi’an 148

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Stephanie Choe

Plan view of the Xi’an City Wall showing major traffic and main structures that are currently present. The East gate was modified to allow traffic patterns to change smoothly. The East Gate was reconstructed heavily and a tower was added relatively recently. During Ming Dynasty, in order to accommodate the growing city, the walls were espanded about a quarter size towards North and East. In 1983 new gates were added to accommodate increased traffic.

149


STRATEGIES / 03 VISUAL

150

151


STRATEGIES / 03 VISUAL

BACKDROP

Tian An Men Square, Beijing

People’s Square, Shanghai

152

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Sean Wen

Sejong-ro, Seoul

Seoul Plaza, Seoul

153


Strategies / 03 Visual / Backdrop

BACKDROP / PRECEDENT Tiananmen Square, Beijing / 天安門廣場, 北京 Address: Beijing Dongcheng District, Beijing City, People’s Republic of China Year of First Construct: 1651 AD Use: Public square Preservation Status: None Geneology: Tian An Men Square, the largest continuous open space in the world, at 440,000 square meters, was first built in 1651 to accompany the Tian An Men Gate, built in 1415, which belongs to the Forbidden City just North of it. The square has been enlarged four times since its first construction, the most notable of which took place in 1958 - 1959, after Chairman Mao demolished the nearby Gate of China to in order to carry out his vision of creating the world’s largest and greatest open square. His Mausoleum was constructed in the square in 1976.

Tian An Men

Great Hall of the People

National Museum

Monument to the People’s Heroes

Chairman Mao Memorial Hall

Zheng Yang Gate Arrow Tower

154

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Sean Wen

155


Strategies / 03 Visual / Backdrop

BACKDROP / ANALYSIS Tiananmen Square, Beijing / 天安門廣場, 北京

Tian An Men

Great Hall of the People

Perimeter fence National Museum

Zheng Yang Gate

Access tunnel

Access tunnel

Equipment post Access tunnel

Access tunnel

156

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Sean Wen

157


STRATEGIES / 03 VISUAL

FABRICATION

Terracotta Warrior Museum, Xi’an

Terracotta Warrior Museum, Xi’an

158

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Sean Wen

Coal Hill, Beijing

159


Strategies / 03 Visual / Fabrication

FABRICATION / PRECEDENT Terracotta Warrior Museum, Xi’an / 兵馬俑博物館, 西安 Address: Qinling North Road, Lintong District, Xi’An City, People’s Republic of China Year of First Construct: 246 BC Use: Archaeological museum Preservation Status: Designated UNESCO World Heritage Site, Reference 441, in 1987 Geneology: The Terracotta Warrior Archaeological Museum houses relics that were the work of the first emperor of Qin, Qin Shi Huang, during the 3rd Century BC. In 1974, a group of local farmers unintentionally unearthed fragments of the warriors when digging to make a well. Major excavations have ensued since this incident, leading to the creation of three separate “pits.” During its 11th session, in 1987, UNESCO declared the Terracotta Warrior Museum a World Heritage Site.

Trooper figure

Backdrop screen

Unidentified figure

Horse figure

Kneeling trooper figure Kneeling trooper figure

Camera

Kneeling trooper figure Military officer figure Military officer figure

160

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Sean Wen

161


Strategies / 03 Visual / Fabrication

FABRICATION / ANALYSIS Terracotta Warrior Museum, Xi’an / 兵馬俑博物館, 西安

Projected camera range

Projected scope of 1st pit in middle-ground

Backdrop screen

Camera position

Projected scope of 1st pit in backdrop

Projected scope of 2nd excavation pit in foreground

Terracotta Warrior Museum, Xi’an 162

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Sean Wen

163


STRATEGIES / 03 VISUAL

REDEFINITION

Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Memorial, Hiroshima

Water Cube, Beijing

Gyeongbok Palace, Seoul

Asakusa Temple, Tokyo

Jongro, Seoul

Qianmen, Beijing

164

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Ujijji Davis

Bogeun Temple, Seoul

165


REDEFINITION / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 03 Visual / Redefinition

Forbidden City, Beijing / 紫禁城, 北京 Address: Central Axis, Xicheng District, Beijing Year of First Construct: 1420 Use: Tourist Destination Preservation Status: UNESCO World Heritage Site Geneology: The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty. It is located in the middle of Beijing, China, and now houses the Palace Museum. For almost five hundred years, it served as the home of emperors and their households, and was called the Forbidden City because outsiders were not allowed inside.

166

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Ujijji Davis

167


REDEFINITION / ANALYSIS

Strategies / 03 Visual / Redefinition

Forbidden City, Beijing / 紫禁城, 北京

The lighting on the Forbidden CIty Axis help to embed an image or icon that is importance to both Beijing’s historic and current presence of power. At night, the lights create the outline of these buildings, giving life to these areas even after hours. This effect works as both a strategy toward preservation of the space, but also, preservation of monarchial power.

168

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Ujijji Davis

169


STRATEGIES / 03 VISUAL

SPECTACLE

Banpo Bridge, Tokyo

Jinju, Seoul

Beijing National Stadium, Beijing

Busan Station, Busan

Marunouchi, Tokyo

People’s Square, Shanghai

170

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Sean Wen

Sejong-ro, Seoul

Sejong-ro, Seoul

Cheonggyecheon, Seoul

Hiroshima Peace Memorial, Hiroshima

Seoul Plaza, Seoul

Seoul Plaza, Seoul

171


Strategies / 03 Visual / Spectacle

SPECTACLE / PRECEDENT Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi’an / 大雁塔, 西安 Address: Yanta (Goose) Road, Xi’An City, People’s Republic of China Year of First Construct: 652 AD Use: Historic landmark and public plaza Preservation Status: None Geneology: The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda was first built in 652 as a Buddhist structure by Emperor Gao Zong of the Tang Dynasty. The original structure had five floors, but was rebuilt in 704 by Empress Wu Ze Tian to include five more. In 1556, a large earthquake reduced the structure by three stories, to seven, at its current height. The structure was extensively renovated by the Ming Dynasty following the earthquake, and then once more in 1964. The North Square, which includes the fountains, was built at a later date at a cost of approximately 500 million RMB.

Giant Wild Goose Pagoda

North Square

172

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Sean Wen

173


Strategies / 03 Visual / Spectacle

SPECTACLE / ANALYSIS Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi’an / 大雁塔, 西安

Giant Wild Goose Pagoda North Square with fountains turned on Giant Wild Goose Pagoda

Daytime visitor density map

Nighttime visitor density map

Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi’an 174

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Sean Wen

175


STRATEGIES / 03 VISUAL

STAGING

Suzhou Canal, Suzhou

Qian Men Street, Beijing

Fushimi Shrine, Kyoto

Qian Men Street, Beijing

Summer Palace, Beijing

176

Kinkakuji, Kyoto

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Calvin Liu

Kinkakuji, Kyoto

Terricoda Warrior, Xian

Forbbiden City, Beijing

Ryoanji, Kyoto

Wild Goose Pagoda, Xian

177


Strategies / 03 Visual / Staging

STAGING / PRECEDENT Kaminarimon, Tokyo / 雷門, 東京 Address: 1-3-3 Asakusa, Todai, Tokyo, Japan Year of First Construct: 942 Use: Tourist Destination Preservation Status: Important Heritage Site Under State Protection Geneology: The Kaminarimon was first built in 942 by Taira no Kinmasa. It was originally located near Komagata, but it was reconstructed in its current location in 1635. This is believed to be when the statues of Raijin and Fūjin were first placed on the gate. The gate has been destroyed many times throughout the ages. Four years after its relocation, the Kaminarimon burned down, and in 1649 Tokugawa Iemitsu rebuilt the gate along with several other of the major structures in the temple complex. The Kaminarimon’s current structure dates from 1960.

Stall Selling Japanese Local Sweets and Tea Drinks

Stall Selling Tourist Postcard and Japanese Shinto Charms and Amulets

The Nakasemidori Street which lead to Sensoji at the Other End of the Street

Asakusa Visitor Center

Small Photo Plaza in Front of the Kaminarimon

178

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Calvin Liu

179


STAGING / ANALYSIS

STAGING / ANALYSIS

Kaminarimon, Tokyo / 雷門, 東京

Old Summer Palace, Beijing / 頤和園, 北京

Using the staging technique, structure is staged using composition, lighting and angel. Human only interact and view the structure in the certain viewpoint. A façade is generated, which became a symbolic and iconic imagery. 3 dimensional experience is compressed into a 2 dimensional imagery. The 2D experience is the most common way of experience a space, such as looking picture on the computer screen, books or posters.

The ruins in the old summer palace are staged strategically. Each pieces of ruins are closely studied and composed onto the site to create layers of depth in the photograph. It’s really interesting to see the difference between the imagery generated through photograph and seeing the actual structure on site. On the actual site, as shown in the axon, visitors are required to be in a certain distance away from the structure, and a photographing zone is enclosed by a periphery of stone pebbles. From the designated spot, camera can capture the most iconic imagery through the perfect lighting system, layers of stone that create depth, background vegetation, and the orientation of ornamented façade. All these intentional staging of the structure is one of the most successful survival strategy.

Postcard is the best example of staging. The notion of generating one beautiful and iconic set view of the structure become a popular trend in tourism commercialization. In Kaminarimon, the lighting lightens up the façade of kaminarimon with its iconic lantern. A street of shops also façade a beautiful perspective as the background.

Kaminarimon, Tokyo 180

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Calvin Liu

Strategies / 03 Visual / Staging

Old Summer Palace, Beijing 181


STRATEGIES / 03 VISUAL

ZONING

Great Wall of China, Beijing

Coal Hill, Beijing

182

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Sean Wen

Forbidden City, Beijing

Terracotta Warrior Museum, Xi’an

183


Strategies / 03 Visual / Zoning

ZONING / PRECEDENT Hu Xin Ting Teahouse, Shanghai / 湖心亭茶屋, 上海 Address: New Yuyuan Road, Huangpu District, Shanghai City, People’s Republic of China Year of First Construct: 14th Century AD - 17th Century AD (Ming Dynasty) Use: Upscale teahouse Preservation Status: None Geneology: The structure was first built during the Ming Dynasty by a Sichuan official named Pan Yong Rui, originally called the Si Pavillion as part of the Yu Yuan Gardens. In 1784, during the Qing Dynasty, two businessmen, Zhu Yun Hui and Zhang Fu Cheng donated a large sum of money to convert the Si Pavilion into Shanghai’s first teahouse, the Hu Xin Ting Teahouse, which was opened to the public in 1855.

Hu Xing Ting Teahouse

Lotus Pond

Jiu Qu Bridge

184

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Sean Wen

185


Strategies / 03 Visual / Zoning

ZONING / ANALYSIS Hu Xin Ting Teahouse, Shanghai / 湖心亭茶屋, 上海

Congestion caused by camera fields

View plane

Forbidden zone

A simple mathematical expression describes, roughly speaking, the behavior changes in the environment due to the presence of visitors with cameras. The first graph describes the time of travel as if the journey through the Jiu Qu Bridge is uninterrpted. The second graph describes the time of travel with the points of interruption as demonstrated in the plan above.

Camera position

For the second set of calculations, a factor was applied to describe the decrease in speed due to congestion, and the particular disruptions are described as breaks in the graph equal to approximately 7 seconds of lost time due to avoidance of the forbidden zone.

v ≈ 1m

s d ≈ 160 m

Human subject

160m = 160s t =d = v 1m s

Camera-related behavioral diagram

= 0) v ′ = φv( .6 1m s = 0.6 m s d ≈ 160 m 160m

+) 17 7s ∑ t = d v + 17n = 0.6 ( m

x

Hu Xin Ting Teahouse, Shanghai 186

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Sean Wen

t) = ∫ f x dx ∑( 0

∑ t ≈ 386s

= 266.6s + 119s

s

187


STRATEGIES / 04 TECTONIC

188

189


STRATEGIES / 04 TECTONIC

JUXTAPOSITION

190

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Juan David Grisales

191


JUXTAPOSITION / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 04 Tectonic / Juxtaposition

Wood & Brick, Gahoeheon & Gourmet, Seoul / 가회원, 서울 Address: Bukchon, Seoul, South Korea Year of First Construct: 2006 Use: Restaurant Preservation Status: None Geneology: Gahoeheon is a restaurant that was opened in Bukchon. The restaurant has a very unique combination in whcih it mixes two different types of architecture, a hanok (a traditional Korean house) and a modern building.

192

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Juan David Grisales

193


JUXTAPOSITION / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 04 Tectonic / Juxtaposition

Murin-an, Kyoto / 無隣庵, 京都 Address: Kyoto, Japan Year of First Construct: 1896 Use: Garden Preservation Status: National Treasure No. 32 Geneology: Describe the background story.... and/or story of reconstruction, maintenance, transformation, etc....

194

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Juan David Grisales

195


JUXTAPOSITION / ANALYSIS

JUXTAPOSITION / ANALYSIS

Wood & Brick, Gahoeheon & Gourmet, Seoul / 가회원, 서울

Murin-an, Kyoto / 無隣庵, 京都

Wood & Brick: Gahoeheon + Gourmet, Seoul

Murin-an, Kyoto

196

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Juan David Grisales

Strategies / 04 Tectonic / Juxtaposition

197


STRATEGIES / 04 TECTONIC

REPLICATION

Palace Museum, Beijing

New Summer Palace, Beijing

Meiji Shrine, Tokyo

Namdaemun, Seoul

Xi’an City Wal, Xi’an

Todaiji, Nara

198

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

Bulguksa, Gyeongju

The Humble Administrator’s Garden, Suzhou

Injeongjeon Hall, Seoul

Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto

The Master of Net’s Garden, Suzhou

Yongdingmen, Beijing

199


Strategies / 04 Tectonic / Replication

REPLICATION / PRECEDENT Kinkakuji, Kyoto / 金閣寺, 京都 Address: Kinkakuji-cho, Kita-ku, Kyoto, Japan Year of First Construct: 1397 Use: Tourist Destination

Preservation Status: Historic Monuments in Ancient Tokyo UNESCO World Heritage Site Geneology: First built in 1397 in a fusion of Shinden-zukuri, buke-zukuri, and zenshubutsuden-zukuri styles, burnt down in 1950 by a mad monk, reconstructed in 1955.

Phoenix

Statue of Buddha

Gold-Leafing

200

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

201


Strategies / 04 Tectonic / Replication

REPLICATION / PRECEDENT Ise Shrine, Ise / 伊勢神宮, 伊勢 Address: Uji-Tachi, Ise, Japan Year of First Construct: 672 Use: Shinto Shrine Preservation Status: Shinto Ritual Reconstruction every 20 years Geneology: One of the Key Shrines in Japanese Shintoism, this shrine is linked to the sun goddess Amaterasu and holds several relics important to the imperial family. This shrine is rebuilt every 20 years in an alternate site that is next to each other. The 62nd shrine will be rebuilt in 2013.

Current Site

Main Shrine

Alternate Site Worshipper

202

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

203


REPLICATION / ANALYSIS

REPLICATION / ANALYSIS

Kinkakuji, Kyoto / 金閣寺, 京都

Ise Shrine, Ise / 伊勢神宮, 伊勢

Current SIte

Original, built in 1397

Kinkakuji, Kyoto 204

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

Strategies / 04 Tectonic / Replication

Alternate Site

Reconstructed, built in 1955

Ise Shrine, Ise 205


STRATEGIES / 04 TECTONIC

REVETMENT

Nan Chi Zhi Housing, Beijing

Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art, Kyoto

YuYuan Commercial Center Store, Shanghai

Qianmen East Road, Beijing

206

Palace Museum Ticketing, Beijing

Miniature Beijing Amusement Park, Beijing

Wang Fu Jing Shopping Mall, Beijing

Asakusa Shrine Sando Shop, Tokyo

Beijing Tiananmen East Subway Station, Beijing

Terracotta Warrior’s Museum, Xi’an

Xi’an Yong Ning Palace Hotel, Xi’an

Omotesando Shop, Tokyo

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

207


Strategies / 04 Tectonic / Revetment

REVETMENT / PRECEDENT Shanghai Classical Hotel, Shanghai / 上海老飯店, 上海 Address: 242 Fuyou Road, Huangpu, Shanghai, PROC Year of First Construct: 2000 Use: Hotel Preservation Status: Not preserved Geneology: Hotel established in 1875, moved to current location in 1965, new building constructed in 2000. The hotel is now a regular midrise reinforced concrete building with traditional roofing.

Traditional Roof Motif

Reinforced Concrete Structure

Storefront

208

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

209


Strategies / 04 Tectonic / Revetment

REVETMENT / ANALYSIS Shanghai Classical Hotel, Shanghai / 上海老飯店, 上海

Chinese Roof

Chinese Eaves

Concrete Shell Building Wooden One-Story Pavillion

Reinforced Concrete Six-Story Building

Shanghai Classical Hotel, Shanghai 210

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

Chinese Door / Shutters

Types of Available “Attachments” 211


Strategies / 04 Tectonic / Revetment

REVETMENT / ANALYSIS

scored plaster coat

porcelain tiles

generic brick wall

Panelling

Revetment Techniques 212

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

coat of paint Fabric with printed facade pattern

generic brick wall

generic reinforced concrete wall

generic reinforced concrete wall

Plaster Scored

Wallpaper

Painting

Revetment Techniques 213


STRATEGIES / 04 TECTONIC

TRANSFIGURATION

Insadong Restaurant Awning, Seoul

Bukchon Elementary School Gate, Seoul

Ga Hoe Heon Wood&Brick Restaurant, Seoul

Hiroshima Inari Shrine, Hiroshima

Beijing Olympic Park Subway Station, Beijing

Yan Dai Xie Jie Residence Awning, Beijing

214

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

Fushimi Inari Shrine, Kyoto

Bukchon Street Wall, Seoul

Anguk Station, Seoul

Nan Chi Zhi Parking Garage, Beijing

Miniature Beijing Model Interior, Beijing

Beijing Olympic Park Stadium, Beijing

215


Strategies / 04 Tectonic / Transfiguration

TRANSFIGURATION / PRECEDENT Toji Pagoda, Kyoto / 東寺仏塔, 京都 Address: Minami-ku, Kyoto, Japan Year of First Construct: 796 Use: Buddhist Temple, Flea Market Site Preservation Status: Built first in 796 as one of the two buddhist temples in Heian or Kyoto. Rebuilt four times due to being destroyed by lightning, the extant structure was built in 1644.

Toji Pagoda

Toji Garden

216

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

217


Strategies / 04 Tectonic / Transfiguration

TRANSFIGURATION / PRECEDENT Tokyo Sky Tree, Tokyo / 東京スカイツリー, 東京 Address: Sumida, Tokyo, Japan Year of First Construct: 2011 (Under construction) Use: Broadcasting, Restaurant, and Observational Tower Preservation Status: National Treasure No. 32 Geneology: Construction led by Tobu Railway and Terrestrial Broadcasters

Antennae

Observatory deck

Restaurant level

Supporting structure

Central core

Cars

218

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

219


Strategies / 04 Tectonic / Transfiguration

TRANSFIGURATION / ANALYSIS Tokyo Sky Tree, Tokyo / 東京スカイツリー, 東京

heart pillar supporting columns beams truss elements load transfer joint brackets

Relative Scale of the Two Towers 220

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

Structural Analysis of the Two Towers 221


TRANSFIGURATION / ANALYSIS

TRANSFIGURATION / ANALYSIS

Roof Tiles, China

Tori, Japan

Multiple tiles

One sheet molded plastic

mortise and tenon joined heavy timber

Clay Tiles

Assembly Transfigurations 222

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

Strategies / 04 Tectonic / Transfiguration

Plastic

Wood

welded tube steel section

Steel Section

Material Transfigurations 223


STRATEGIES / 04 TECTONIC

VITRIFICATION

Ho Hai Siheyuan, Beijing

798 Art Gallery, Beijing

Kyoto Machiya Interior, Kyoto

Qianmen Street, Beijing

Tian Zhi Fan Model, Shanghai

Meiji Shrine Office, Tokyo

224

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

Humble Administrator’s Garden, Suzhou

YuYuan, Shanghai

Old Palace Garden Shops, Beijing

Old Palace Garden Rock Formation, Beijing

Ichijo Mansion Ruins, Kyoto

Nan Luo Gu Xian Shops, Beijing

225


Strategies / 04 Tectonic / Vitrification

VITRIFICATION / PRECEDENT Wongaksa Pagoda, Seoul / 원각사지 10층석탑, 파고다 공원, 서울 Address: Jongno-gil, Seoul, South Korea Year of First Construct: 1467 Use: Tourist Destination Preservation Status: National Treasure No. 2 Geneology: Erected as part of Wongaksa in the 15th century and is one of the few relics surviving from the destroyed temple. The park was created in 1897.-

Scale 1/2,000

Protective Glass Box

Wangaksa Pagoda

Old Man in the Park

226

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

227


Strategies / 04 Tectonic / Vitrification

VITRIFICATION / PRECEDENT The Master of Nets Garden, Suzhou / 網師園, 蘇州 Address: Kuo Jia Tou Street, Canglang District, Suzhou, PROC Year of First Construct: 1140 Use: Tourist Destination and Pleasure Garden Preservation Status: UNESCO World Heritage Site 1997 Geneology: Rebuilt in 1795, 1880, 1940, and donated to the government in 1968.

Glass Windows

Pavillion

Lily Pads Covered Corridor

228

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

229


Strategies / 04 Tectonic / Vitrification

VITRIFICATION / ANALYSIS Wongaksa Pagoda, Seoul / 원각사지 10층석탑, 파고다 공원, 서울 The Master of Nets Garden, Suzhou / 網師園, 蘇州

Step I glass protecting artifacts

Step II glass protecting site objects

Step III glass protecting building & turning building into a glass box for displaying artifacts

Vitrification: To make have a glass-like quality 230

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

Vitrification Evolution 231


Strategies / 04 Tectonic / Vitrification

VITRIFICATION / ANALYSIS Wongaksa Pagoda, Seoul / 원각사지 10층석탑, 파고다 공원, 서울 The Master of Nets Garden, Suzhou / 網師園, 蘇州

Glass Volume 232

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

Sectional Relationships 233


STRATEGIES / 05 SYMBOLISM

234

235


STRATEGIES / 05 SYMBOLISM

MONUMENTALIZATION

Saejongro, Seoul

Miyajima, Hiroshima

236

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alice Huang

Great Wall Park, Beijing

Statue of Mao, Tongji Univ., Shanghai

Monument to the People’s Heros, Beijing

237


MONUMENTALIZATION / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Monumentalization

Hiroshima Atomic Dome, Hiroshima / 原爆ドーム, 広島 Address: 1-2 Nakajima-cho, Naka-ku, Hiroshima Year of First Construct: 1915 Year of Development: 1945, bombed Use: Park Preservation Status: Designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1996 Geneology: The Hiroshima Commercial Exhibition Hall to promote industry was finished in 1915. Built in the Western style, as well as steel framing, it was ironic that it was the only building left standing at the hypocenter of the atomic bomb, dropped by the US. Only the skeletal frame of the structure stands now. There have thus have been two preservation efforts to keep the dome looking exactly as it did when bombed.

Steel frame of dome

238

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alice Huang

239


Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Monumentalization

MONUMENTALIZATION / ANALYSIS Hiroshima Atomic Dome, Hiroshima / 原爆ドーム, 広島

There are mainly wooden and brick two-story buildings. These houses, so close to the center of the blast, did not survive primarily due to their wooden structures.

Hiroshima Prefectural Commerial Exhibition, Hiroshima

Section through dome and context, 1915

Most buildings became scorched earth. Nearby, very few structures were left standing. The destruction of this area was near complete as it was near the hypocenter.

Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall, Hiroshima

Section through dome and context, 1945

The dome is left in its ruined condition, on axis with the Peace Memorial Museum and the Cenotaph for the A-bomb victims, all part of the Hiroshima Peace Park. The bustling city is in the background.

Hiroshima A-bomb Dome, Hiroshima 240

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alice Huang

Section through dome and context, 2011 present day 241


STRATEGIES / 05 SYMBOLISM

MIMICRY

Name, City

Name, City

242

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Ujijji Davis

243


MIMICRY / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Mimicry

Tofukuji, Kyoto / 東福寺, 京都 Address: 15-778 Honmachi Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto Year of First Construct: 1236, Gardens built in 1930 Use: Tourist Destination, Religious Practices, Tourist Attraction Preservation Status: Kyoto Gozan Geneology: Tōfuku-ji was founded in 1236 by imperial chancellor Kujo Michiie. The temple was burned but rebuilt in the 15th century according to original plans.The gardens were designed in the 1930s and are modernized versions of the ancient zen garden style. There is a stronger architectural and symmetric presence in this garden’s design, in comparison to Ryoanji Temple.

244

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Ujijji Davis

245


MIMICRY / ANALYSIS

MIMICRY / ANALYSIS

Roanji, Kyoto / 東福寺, 京都

Tofukuji, Kyoto / 東福寺, 京都

Ryoanji Temple

Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Mimicry

Tofukuji Temple

The two temples are alike in both style and use of material, but Tofukuji is more of a modern interpretation of the Zen Garden practices as seen in Ryoanji. This is clear in small details, like the intracacies of the sand designs, the size of the rocks; and the quantity and placement of the rocks.

246

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Ujijji Davis

247


STRATEGIES / 05 SYMBOLISM

PROCESSION

Asakusa-jinja, Tokyo

Shibuya, Tokyo

248

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

Market, Tokyo

Shibuya, Tokyo

Shinjuku, Tokyo

Market, Tokyo

Qian Men Da Jie, Beijing

Higashiyama, Kyoto

249


Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Procession

PROCESSION / PRECEDENT Qianmen Street, Beijing / 前門大街, 北京 Address: Qian Men Da Jie, Beijing Year of First Construct: 1400s Use: Commercial Shopping Street, Tourist Destination Preservation Status: Recently Underwent Extensive Renovation/Reconstruction Geneology: Originally named Zheng Yang Men Street in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, this axial street and the gate for which it is named were once considered the gateway to the Forbidden City. It was renamed in 1965, reconstructed in 2007, and opened to the public a year later by the Beijing Government. Where once the shops flanking Zheng Yang Men were well-known and frequented by locals, the present day reconstruction serves more as a tourist destination than a shopping street, per se.

drum shaped street furniture

250

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

251


PROCESSION / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Procession

10,000 Toriis at Fushimi Inari Taisha, Kyoto / 伏見稲荷大社, 京都 Address: Inari Mountain, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto Year of First Construct: 1499 (Main Shrine) Use: Tourist Destination, Head Shinto Shrine of Inari, Private Prayer Preservation Status: Head Shrine Geneology: Here, the seemingly endless toriis follow the mountain trails, and are as much, if not more, a tourist attraction as the main shrine itself. The shrine and its mountain trails are in a constant state of transformation, as more toriis are added every year thanks to donations by local businesses, who in term have their business name inscribed on the pillar of the donated torii. The toriis have an estimated lifespan of 15-20 years, and are priced between 383,000 and 1,302,000 yen.

252

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

253


PROCESSION / ANALYSIS

PROCESSION / ANALYSIS

Qianmen Street, Beijing / 前門大街, 北京

10,000 Toriis at Fushimi Inari Taisha, Kyoto / 伏見稲荷大社, 京都

Qian Men Da Jie, Beijing

10,000 Toriis at Fushimi Inari Taisha, Kyoto

254

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Procession

255


STRATEGIES / 05 SYMBOLISM

FRAMING

New Summer Palace, Beijing

New Summer Palace, Beijing

New Summer Palace Beijing

New Summer Palace, Beijing

New Summer Palace, Beijing

Name, City

New Summer Garden, Beijing

New Summer Garden, Beijing

Olympic Green, Beijing

Houhai, Beijing

New Summer Palace, Beijing

New Summer Palace, Beijing

New Summer Palace, Beijing

New Summer Palace Beijing

New Summer Palace, Beijing

New Summer Palace, Beijing

New Summer Palace, Beijing

New Summer Palace, Beijing

New Summer Palace Beijing

New Summer Palace, Beijing

New Summer Palace, Beijing

256

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

257


Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Framing

FRAMING / PRECEDENT Suzhou Museum, Suzhou / 蘇州博物館, 蘇州 Address: 204 Dong Bei Street, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China Year of First Construct: 2002-2006 Use: Historic Museum, Tourist Destination Preservation Status: UNESCO World Heritage Site (adjacent Garden of the Humble Administrator) Geneology: Designed by I.M. Pei, the Suzhou Museum lies adjacent to Zhong Wang Fu (Prince Zhong’s mansion), which according to the Museum website is “is the most complete historic architectural complex of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom that has been preserved to the present in China.” It also lies adjacent to the 15th century Garden of the Humble Administrator. Pei himself describes his Museum a metaphorical bridge between the Mansion and the Garden.

viewing frame

258

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

259


Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Framing

FRAMING / PRECEDENT Yu Yuan, Shanghai / 豫園, 上海 Address: Ren Min Road, Shanghai, China Year of First Construct: 1559 Use: Tourist Destination Preservation Status: National Monument (as of 1982) Geneology: Originally designed in 1559 as a private garden by Pan Yunduan for his father, a Ming dynasty official. Renovated briefly in 1760, and suffered extensive damage during the Opium Wars of the 19th century, and during the Japanese invasion in 1942. Repaired by the Shanghai government from 1956–1961, and subsequently declared a National Monument.

viewing frame

260

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

261


FRAMING / ANALYSIS

FRAMING / ANALYSIS

Suzhou Museum, Suzhou / 蘇州博物館, 蘇州

Yu Yuan, Shanghai / 豫園, 上海

Suzhou Museum, Suzhou

Yu Yuan, Shanghai

262

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Framing

263


Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Remembrance

STRATEGIES / 05 SYMBOLISM

REMEMBRANCE

Unknown Tower, Beiijing

264

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

Jin Mao Tower, Shanghai

Taipei 101, Taipei

Unknown Tower, Japan

265


Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Remembrance

REMEMBRANCE / PRECEDENT Gyeongju Tower, Gyeongju / 경주타워, 경주 Address: 130, CheonGun-dong, Gyeongsang-Bukdo Province, Gyeongju Year of First Construct: 2004-2007

Use: Observation Tower, Exhibition Hall, Tourist Attraction Preservation Status: None

Geneology: The Gyeongju World Culture Expo was first established in 1998, and has run

5 times since its inception. The Gyeongju Tower is considered “the landmark architectural achievement” of Gyeongju, evoking memories of the Hwangryongsa Temple, a 9 storey

pagoda that was demolished in 1238 during the Mongol invasion of Korea. The tower is

featured often in promotional events regarding the expo, boasting a laser/light show and an

Glass and steel structure

266

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

267


Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Remembrance

REMEMBRANCE / PRECEDENT Changan Tower, Xi’an / 西安鼓樓, 西安 Address: Guang Yun Lake, Chan-Ba Ecological District, Xi’an Year of First Construct: 2011 Use: International Expo Site, Tourist Attraction, Observation Tower Preservation Status: n/a Geneology: The 2011 International Horticultural Exposition at Xi’an is the international expo that Xi’an has ever seen; surprising given the city’s over 3000 years worth of history. Thus, for such an important event, big-name designers were charged with the design - the master plan was headed by Plasma Studio, and the Chang’an Tower designed by Tsinghua University graduate Zhang Jinqiu. This is not Zhang’s first design for Xi’an, a city which she considers her home. Her “modern” pagoda’s design draws inspiration from its ancient neighbour - the Wild Goose Pagoda.

glass and steel structure

268

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

269


REMEMBRANCE / ANALYSIS

Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Remembrance

Gyeongju Tower, Gyeongju / 경주타워, 경주 Changan Tower, Xi’an / 西安鼓樓, 西安

Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi’an 64m 652 AD - 704 AD - 1556 - 1964 - ?

Hwangnyongsa Temple Pagoda, Gyeongju 68m 664 AD - 1238

270

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

Chang’an Tower, Xi’an 99m 2011 -

Gyeongju Tower, Gyeongju 82m 2011 -

271


STRATEGIES / 05 SYMBOLISM

THRESHOLD

Fushimi Inari Taisha, Kyoto

Geku Shrine, Ise

Name, City

Fushimi Inari Taisha, Kyoto

272

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

Naiku Shrine, Ise

Geku Shrine, Ise

Geku Shrine, Ise

Geku Shrine, Ise

Unknown Shrine, Kyoto

Unknown Shrine, Kyoto

273


THRESHOLD / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Threshold

Xijiao Hotel, Beijing / 西郊賓館, 北京 Address: 18 Wangzhuang Road, Haidian, Beijing Year of First Construct:1986 Use: Guest Hotel, Conferences Preservation Status: n/a Geneology: Although the main hotel lobby is hidden some 400m from the main road, it alerts passers-by to its presence via two lavish, lit-up signboards at the entrance to the driveway. Halfway down, an traditional style Pai Lou (ornamental gate) drives away whatever doubts one might have to whether or not one is heading in the right direction. These thresholds delineate and demarcate the hotel’s private domain from the public throughway.

274

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

275


THRESHOLD / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Threshold

Meiji Shrine, Tokyo / 明治神宮, 東京 Address: Shibuya, Tokyo Year of First Construct: 1915-1926 Use: Tourist Destination, Imperial Shrine, Private Prayer Preservation Status: n/a Geneology: Hidden deep within a 700,000 square meter forest, the shrine’s only indication of presence at the busy street level is a single torii, itself half hidden amongst the procession of evergreens. Further down the trail, a second and third torii signal the way, each signifying a transition into the most sacred realms of the forest. The shrine was destroyed in WWII, and the present iteration dates from 1958.

276

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

277


THRESHOLD / ANALYSIS

THRESHOLD / ANALYSIS

Xijiao Hotel, Beijing / 西郊賓館, 北京

Meiji Shrine, Tokyp / 明治神宮, 東京

Xi Jiao Hotel, Beijing

Meiji Shrine, Tokyo

278

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Threshold

279


STRATEGIES / 05 SYMBOLISM

TOPPING

Beijing

Shanghai

Tokyo

280

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

281


TOPPING / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Topping

Xi’an / 西安 Address: Xi’an, China Year of First Construct: n/a Use: n/a Preservation Status: n/a Geneology: A city’s skyline is not only an iconic image for tourist-y postcards, but also can be an interesting representation of a city’s status. Beijing’s relatively low and widely-spread roofs indicate its status as the political capital of China. On the other hand, Shanghai’s erratic ups and downs reflect its seat as China’s fickle, conomic powerhouse, where land prices and the stock market dictate the graph-like skyline. Xi’an’s skyline is interesting still, where if the traditional-styled roofs are removed, the remaining reinforced concrete buildings would look as generic as in any other city.

282

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

283


Strategies / 05 Symbolism / Topping

TOPPING / ANALYSIS

master of the house family room guest room servant’s room

main gate

Typical Si He Yuan, Beijing

most desirable location

$$$$$$ $$$$$

least desirable location

$$$$ $$$ $$ $

Pu Xi, Shanghai

284

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Jeffrey Lu

285


STRATEGIES / 06 TYPOLOGY

286

287


STRATEGIES / 06 TYPOLOGY

DETACHMENT

Various Machiyas, Kyoto

288

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Juan David Grisales

289


DETACHMENT / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 06 Typology / Detachment

Machiya, Kyoto / 町家, 京都 Address: Kyoto, Japan Year of First Construct: 1500’s Use: Traditional House Preservation Status: Machizukuri established in 2005, it is an institution in Kyoto that help protect and restore machiyas in Kyoto Geneology: Machiya are traditional wooden townhouses found throughout Japan and typified in the historical capital of Kyoto. Between 1993 and 2003, over 13% of the machiya in Kyoto were demolished. Roughly forty percent of those demolished were replaced with new modern houses, and another 40% were replaced with high-rise apartment buildings, parking lots, or modern-style commercial shops.

290

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Juan David Grisales

291


DETACHMENT / ANALYSIS

Strategies / 06 Typology / Detachment

Machiya, Kyoto / 町家, 京都

Of those machiya remaining, over 80% have suffered significant losses to the traditional appearance of their facades. Roughly 20% of Kyoto’s machiya have been altered in a process called kanban kenchiku “signboard architecture”; they retain the basic shape of a machiya, but their facades have been completely covered over in cement, which replaces the wooden lattices of the first story and mushikomado windows and earthwork walls of the second story. Many of these kanban kenchiku machiya have also lost their tile roofs, becoming more boxed-out in shape; many have also had aluminum or steel shutters installed, as are commonly seen in small urban shops around the world.

292

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Juan David Grisales

To preserve the machiyas from fire hazards, the shared walls between the machiyas are detached and separated with the renovation and reconstruction. There are groups, which are taking action to protect and restore machiya in Kyoto. One such institution, the “Machiya Machizukuri Fund,” was established in 2005 with the backing of a Tokyo-based benefactor. The group works alongside individual machiya owners to restore their buildings and to have them designated as “Structures of Landscape Importance”. Under this designation, the structures are protected from demolition without the permission of the mayor of Kyoto, and a stipend is provided by the city government to the owners of the machiya to help support the upkeep of the building.

293


STRATEGIES / 06 TYPOLOGY

EXTRUSION

Various converted siheyuans, Beijing

294

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Juan David Grisales

295


EXTRUSION / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 06 Typology / Extrusion

Nanchizi, Beijing / 南池子, 北京 Address: Beijing, China Year of First Construct: 1980’s Use: Residential Preservation Status: None Geneology: It is a model for the renovation and upgrading of old hutong areas in Beijing; it tries to preserve the floor plan layout of a siheyuan (a traditional Beijing house) It was a project done in the 1980’s in which the floor plan of Siheyuans were estruded to make it into a a two story house courtyard house that could hold more than one family. It is currently an affluent residential area of the city.

296

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Juan David Grisales

297


EXTRUSION / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 06 Typology / Extrusion

Ju-er Hutong, Beijing / 菊兒胡同, 北京 Address: Beijing, China Year of First Construct: 1987 Use: ResidentialPreservation Status: None Geneology: It was a project designed by Wu Liang Yong to transform the original typology of one story siheyuan in Beijing into a three story multi unit building for low income families.

298

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Juan David Grisales

299


Strategies / 06 Typology / Extrusion

EXTRUSION / ANALYSIS Nanchizi, Beijing / 南池子, 北京 Ju-er Hutong, Beijing / 菊兒胡同, 北京

Typical Siheyuan, Beijing 300

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Juan David Grisales

New Typology of Siheyuan, Nanchizi, Ju’er Hutong 301


STRATEGIES / 06 TYPOLOGY

MAINTENANCE

Andon, Korea

Dadu City Wall Park, Beijing

The Great Mosque, Xi’an

Meijing Shrine, Tokyo

Meijin Shrine, Tokyo

Bukchon, Seoul

Amidado Hall, Kyoto

Amidado Hall, Kyoto

Amidado Hall, Kyoto

302

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Germaine Chan

303


Strategies / 06 Typology / Maintenance

MAINTENANCE / PRECEDENT Amidado Hall, Kyoto / 阿弥陀堂, 京都 Address: Higashi Honganji, Kyoto, Japan Year of First Construct: 1602 Use: Buddhist Temple Preservation Status: Unesco Heritage Site Geneology: Nishi Honganji completed a major renovation of its main hall in 2009 and Amidado Hall in Amidado Hall is now covered by a huge metallic tent for renovation works. The site has suffered innumerable fires and the present structures date from 1895.

Scale 1/10,000

Amidado Hall encapsulated for renovation and repair

Main Hall of Higashi Honganji

304

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Germaine Chan

305


Strategies / 06 Typology / Maintenance

MAINTENANCE / ANALYSIS Amidado Hall, Kyoto / 阿弥陀堂, 京都

Supplementary metallic structure

Steel Scaffolding for repair works

Exploded Axonometric of Amidado Hall and main hall 306

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Germaine Chan

Section of Amidado Hall with protective structure and scaffolding 307


STRATEGIES / 06 TYPOLOGY

RETROFIT

Ryoanji Gift Shop, Kyoto

New Summer Palace Gift Shop Interior, Beijing

Nan Luo Gu Xiang Shop, Beijing

Palace Museum Clock Hall, Beijing

Xi’an City Wall Ticket Booth, Xi’an

Kyoto Imperial Palace Reception Hall, Kyoto

308

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

Calligraphy Street Bookstore, Xi’an

Kinkaku-Ji Tea House, Kyoto

Todai-Ji Interior Gift Shops , Nara

Kyoto Imperial Palace Waiting Room, Nara

798 Factory Gallery, Beijing

Old Summer Palace Fountain, Beijing

309


Strategies / 06 Typology / Retrofit

RETROFIT / PRECEDENT Exhibition Hall, Yu Yuan, Shanghai / 豫園, 上海 Address: Huangpu, Shanghai, PROC Year of First Construct: 1559 Use: Pleasure Garden, Exhibition Hall Preservation Status: UNESCO 1997 Geneology: Built by Pan Yunduan, a Ming administrative commisionner for the provice of Sichuan, rebuilt in the 19th century, refitted in the 20th century

Exhibition Hall

Lake

Tai Hu Stone

310

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

311


Strategies / 06 Typology / Retrofit

RETROFIT / PRECEDENT Houhai Siheyuan, Beijing / 後海四合院, 北京 Address: Houhai Beijyan, Beijing, PROC Year of First Construct: 2011 Use: Private Residence Preservation Status: Renovated per preservation zoing requirement Geneology: The old siheyuan was purchased by a wealthy foreigner who kept the roof of the siheyuan but gutted the entire structure. There is now a basement as well as a skylight covering the entire courtyard.

Scale 1/3,000

Original Structure

New Courtyard Glass Cover

Converted Garage

312

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

313


Strategies / 06 Typology / Retrofit

RETROFIT / PRECEDENT Bukchon, Seoul / 북촌, 서울 Address: Bukchon preservation district, Seoul, South Korea Year of First Construct: 2009 Use: Private Residence Preservation Status: Renovated per preservation zone requirement Geneology: The owner had grown up in the neighborhood when he was little but moved out. After retirement, he returned to the neighborhood, purchased a hanok, and renovated it with government subsidies and private funds. He changed the ondol system to a water heating system, moved the building, and renovated the courtyard.

Hanok

Flower Garden

Old Ondol Location

314

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

315


Strategies / 06 Typology / Retrofit

RETROFIT / ANALYSIS Exhibition Hall, Yu Yuan, Shanghai / 豫園, 上海 Houhai Siheyuan, Beijing / 後海四合院, 北京 Bukchon, Seoul / 북촌, 서울 The Double Shell Sub-strategy

Exhibition Hall

Architectural Economical Historical Social

Pre-Condition

Post-Condition

The Keep-the-roof-and-install-new-structure-and-glass-pyramid-overcourtyard-so-you-destroy-the-siheyuan-idea-Sub-strategy Siheyuqan

Architectural Economical Historical Social

I. Original Structure

II. Keeping the Roof

III. New Foundation Laid and Basement Dug

IV. Installing New Steel Structure

Cosmetic Repair and Systems Replacement sub-strategy

Fallen Tile Exposed Rafters

Wood for ondol

Roof is Repaired

Hanok Architectural Economical Water Heater Replaces Ondol

Historical Social

Radiant Heating Pipes

Damaged Wall

Disused Hanok

Comparative Analysis 316

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Alex Chuan Hao Chen

House is Occupied Windows Repaired and Walls Repainted

Gradients of Preservation 317


STRATEGIES / 07 OBJECTIFICATION

318

319


STRATEGIES / 07 OBJECTIFICATION

ACCESSIBILITY

Master of Net Garden, Suzhou

Humble Administrator’s Garden, Suzhou

Yu Yuan, Shanghai

Forbidden City, Beijing

Sensoji, Tokyo

320

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Calvin Liu

Imperial Palace, Tokyo

Summer Palace, Beijing

Sento Imperial Palace, Kyoto

Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto

Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto

Kyoto Imperial Palace, Kyoto

Tofukuji, Kyoto

Chang Deok Gung, Seoul

321


Strategies / 07 Objectification / Accesibility

ACCESSIBILITY / PRECEDENT Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto / 桂離宮, 京都 Address: Yabuzoe Shugakuin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8052 Year of First Construct: 1616 Use: Tourist Destination Preservation Status: National Treasure Geneology: The first villa was constructed in the Heian Period. After years, Prince Toshihito established the complete villa at Katsura as his leisure palace. After the line died out in 1881, the Imperial Household Ministry took control of the Katsura Detached Palace in 1883, and since World War II, the Imperial Household Agency has been in control.

Grass Roof Being Repaired and Replaced Every Year

Free Standing Columns Made of Tree Barks

Wooden Fencing Isolating the Struction from Free Accessibility

Stone Pebbles Marking the Pedestrian Route Bamboo Fencing Marking the Forbidden Zone

322

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Calvin Liu

323


Strategies / 07 Objectification / Accesibility

ACCESSIBILITY / PRECEDENT Humble Administrator’s Garden, Suzhou / 拙政園, 蘇州 Address: 178 Dongbei Street, Pingjiang, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China Year of First Construct: 1510 Use: Tourist Destination Preservation Status: UNESCO World Heritage Site Geneology: The garden was built as a private garden owned by the Lu. It was then turned into a monastery garden and imperial garden in later years The garden was saled and changed hand many times since it was built. Several modification was added. In 1949 all three parts of the garden were rejoined and restored in 1952. In 1997 the garden was given UNESCO world heritage status.

Interior Space with Huge Openings and Resting Spots

Staircase Leading to the Structure

Stone Platform

Shaped Window Opening to capture the exterior pond view from the interior

324

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Calvin Liu

Lotus Leaf Decorating the Small Pond Small Gardening Artificial Pond

325


ACCESSIBILITY / ANALYSIS

ACCESSIBILITY / ANALYSIS

Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto / 桂離宮, 京都

Humble Administrator’s Garden, Suzhou / 拙政園, 蘇州

PROHIBITED AREA / NON ACCESSIBLE

PROHIBITED AREA / NON ACCESSIBLE

VISITING ROUTE & SPACES / ACCESSIBLE

VISITING ROUTE & SPACES / ACCESSIBLE

Different site adopted different policy in preservation with the control of accessibility. Easy accessibility will result in a higher tourist commercial profit; difficult accessibility will result in more complete preservation perfection. The Katsura Imperial Palace adopted a very strict control on accessibility. Visitors need to make reservation in order to get into the villa, with a complicated application process that envolve identification check. The numbers of visitors per visit is also highly controled. As shown on the plan, accessible area in Katsura Imperial Villa covers only 14%. The accessible area marks a clear pathway for the visitor in the villa. Circulation is only in a single direction, with no turning back. Pathway are marked with stone pebbles. Visitors are only allowed to stand on the stone pebbles. Anyspace outside is prohibited to enter. Bamboo and wooden fencings are everywhere to limited the traveling to the minimum.

Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto 326

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Calvin Liu

Katsura Imperial Villa Entrance Requirement

Visitor must be above 18. The maximum number of visitor is 4 visitors per visit. Please provide Passport ID and Photo identification to the application office. Visitor must apply for a visiting tour in person. Please apply 3 months prior to the visit.

Opening Time

1 Hour Tour (Mon.-Fri.) 9:00am 10:00am 11:00am 1:30pm 2:30pm 3:30pm

Average Visitors

60 People / Day

Opposite to the Katsura Imperial Villa, the Humble Administrator’s Garden has a low control of accessibility. The garden is easily accessible. No entrance requirement nor reservation is required. The garden space is opened everyday with no control on the number of visitors. The Katsura Imperial Villa’s plan and the Humble Administrator’s Garden’s plan are compared. Clear difference can be seen. In the Humble Administrator’s Garden, the non accessible area only covers 10 % of the entire garden, which is mainly the interior space of the building structures. Circulation is in multiple direction. Visitor in the garden can travel freely to every corners in the garden. No clear boundary is made to limited the circulation.

Strategies / 07 Objectification / Accesibility

Humble Administrators’ Garden Entrance Requirement

None

Opening Time

Free Entry (Mon.-Sun.) 8:30 - 5:00 Summer 9:00 - 4:00 Winter

Average Visitors

12.000 People / Day

Rules

No Littering No Climbing the Rocks No Swimming / Camp Firing No Gun / Fireworks

Humble Administrator’s Garden, Suzhou 327


STRATEGIES / 07 OBJECTIFICATION

BUFFERING

328

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Ujijji Davis

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Strategies / 07 Objectification / Buffering

BUFFERING / PRECEDENT Yu Yuan Bazaar, Shanghai / 豫園, 上海 Address: Yu Yuan Garden, Chenghuangmiao, Shanghai Year of First Construct: 1559 Use: Tourist Destination Preservation Status: National Monument (1982) Geneology: The garden was first established in 1559 as a private garden but fell into disrepair in the 18th and 19th centuries. During the Taiping Rebellion, the gardens were occupied by imperial troops, and was damaged again by the Japanese in 1942. They were repaired by the Shanghai government from 1956–1961 and opened to the public in 1961. It is now surrounded by one of Shanghai’s largest shopping complexes.

Yu Yuan Garden behind a protective wall

strong architectural language

decorative commercial area circling preservation node

330

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Ujijji Davis

331


Strategies / 07 Objectification / Buffering

BUFFERING / PRECEDENT Yu Yuan Bazaar, Shanghai / 豫園, 上海

The use of a decorative commercial space to protect an area of cultural or historic relevance is a motif that is played out often. Yu Yuan Plaza works as a buffer of protection for the garden in Shanghai.

332

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Ujijji Davis

A small commercial area in Xi’an helps to protect the Great Mosque of Xi’an. For many places like this, the preservation area can only be found with intentions of finding it.

333


STRATEGIES / 07 OBJECTIFICATION

ISOLATION

Atomic Bomb Dome, Hiroshima

Great East Gate, Hsin-Chu

Summer Palace, Beijing

Itsukushima, Hiroshima

East Gate, Taipei

334

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Calvin Liu

Drum Tower, Xian

Nan Dae Mun, Seoul

Kinkakuji, Kyoto

Summer Palace, Beijing

Tofukuji, Kyoto

Dong Dae Mun , Seoul

Summer Palace, Beijing

335


Strategies / 07 Objectification / Isolation

ISOLATION / PRECEDENT Bell Tower, Xi’an / 西安鐘樓, 西安 Address: 110 South Street, Beilinqu, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China, 710001 Year of First Construct: 1384 Use: Tourist Destination Preservation Status: Important Heritage Site Under State Protection Geneology: The Bell Tower is built by Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang as a way to dominate the surrounding countryside and provide early warning of attack by rival rulers. After the cultural revolution, the Bell Tower was transformed into the first cinema in the history of Xi’an city. During the Anti-Japanese war, the Bell Tower was used as the Alarming Tower to alert the air attack of the Japanese army. After the war, Xian Bell Tower was classified as the important heritage site under state protection.

Tiled Roof made up of traditional clay tiles

Plat form Terrace with lighting ornament Plantation / Greeneries

Previous Entrance Gate Way Through the Bell Tower

336

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Calvin Liu

337


Strategies / 07 Objectification / Isolation

ISOLATION / ANALYSIS Bell Tower, Xi’an / 西安鐘樓, 西安

Through isolation, the old structure is isolated with a zone of periphery, anything old outside the zone is taken down, and direct interacting is prohibited through a periphery of barrier. A distant view point is the only spatial interaction. Isolation creates a hierarchical spatial quality, which make the isolated structure spatially important. A bigger scale of isolation will be the ring road isolation around the old structure. In this example, the Bell Tower in Xian was isolated surrounded by a ring road organization. As shown in the plan, the urban planner of Xian transform the Bell Tower into a locational monument. Two main roads were constructed using the Bell Tower as the intersection. A 30 meters wide ring road is thus laid around the tower, which create the forbidden zone. People can only view the structure in a distance of 30 meters. An underground tunnel was constructed as a pedestrian path way around the Bell Tower ring. The underground tunnel also allows the pedestrian access into the Bell Tower. The bell tower survives and regains its new program as a symbolic object in the city of Xian.

338

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Calvin Liu

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STRATEGIES / 07 OBJECTIFICATION

MINIATURIZATION

340

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Matthew Sweets

341


MINIATURIZATION / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 07 Objectification / Miniaturization

Forbidden City, Beijing / 紫禁城, 北京 Address: Dongcheng District, Beijing Year of First Construct: 1406 - 1420 A.D. Use: Historical Museum/Tourist Destination Preservation Status: UNESCO World Heritage Site and Historical center of Beijing Geneology: Served as the home of the Emporer and the political center of Beijing for nearly 500 years. It was meticulously planned to reflect Chinese religious and philosophic principles to effectively symbolize the majesty of Imperial power. The complex consists of 980 buildings and covers 720,000 square meters. It was declared a UNESCO world heritage site in 1987 and houses the largest collection of preserved ancient wooden buildings in the world.

342

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Matthew Sweets

343


MINIATURIZATION / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 07 Objectification / Miniaturization

Old Beijing Miniature Landscape Park, Beijing / 北京 Address: Nankou, Beijing Year of First Construct: 1993 - 1994 A.D. Use: Tourist Destination Preservation Status: N/A (Falling into ruin) Geneology: Built at a scale of 1:15, the park covers 132.5 acres and cost 2.4 million USD. More than 40 construction companies were involved in building the park, using over 30 million bricks. The aim of miniaturizing the old city was to bring it back as it had been in the past. The park publicizes the ancient cultures and traditions of the ancient Imperial City.

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MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Matthew Sweets

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MINIATURIZATION / ANALYSIS

MINIATURIZATION / ANALYSIS

Forbidden City, Beijing / 紫禁城, 北京

Old Beijing Miniature Landscape Park, Beijing / 北京

Forbidden City, Beijing

Old Beijing Miniature Landscape Park, Beijing

346

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Matthew Sweets

Strategies / 07 Objectification / Miniaturization

347


STRATEGIES / 07 OBJECTIFICATION

SEGREGATION

348

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Juan David Grisales

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SEGREGATION / PRECEDENT

Strategies / 07 Objectification / Segregation

Xi’an City Wall, Xi’an / 西安城牆, 西安 Address: Xi’an, China Year of First Construct: 1370 Use: Tourist destination Preservation Status: Cultural historial site Geneology: As the city was growing, new gates had to be opened to allow traffic to go inside and outside of the city wall area. The construction of the new gates of the city wall began in 1927

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MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Juan David Grisales

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Strategies / 07 Objectification / Segregation

SEGREGATION / ANALYSIS Xi’an City Wall, Xi’an / 西安城牆, 西安 Beijing Ring Road, Beijing / 北京二環路, 北京

Xi’an City Wall 352

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Juan David Grisales

Beijing road (where the city wall used to be) 353


STRATEGIES / 08 SUPPLEMENTS

354

355


STRATEGIES / 08 SUPPLEMENTS

ADVERTISING

NanLuoGuXiang, beijing

TianZhiFang, Shanghai

Shi Sha Hai Hutong, Beijing

near Summer Palace, Beijing

Ju’er Hutong, Beijing

Huang Cheng Miao, Shanghai

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MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Germaine Chan

ChengHuangMiao , Shanghai

Huang Cheng Miao, Shanghai

Yan Dai Xie Jie, Beijing

Nan Chi zhi, Beijing

Ju’er Hutong, Beijing

Shi Sha Hai Hutong, Beijing

Huang Zhuang Lu, Beijng

Yan Dai Xie Jie, Beijing

Shi Sha Hai Hutong, Beijing

Huang Cheng Miao, Shanghai

357


Strategies / 08 Supplements / Advertising

ADVERTISING / PRECEDENT Cheng Huang Miao Shopping Mall, Shanghai / 城隍廟小吃街, 上海 Address: Li Shui Lu No. 88 Year of First Construct: 1995 Use: Shopping mall Preservation Status: None Geneology: The shopping mall was built to emulate the Shanghai traditional architectural style, situated in the old ChengHuangMiao neighborhood, which is an important national protection unit, and advertisement boards were added to the facade of the building to attract tourists and passerby’s attention. In a way, these typologies are preserved and reinterpreted as a result of the extravagant advertisement boards and the commercial value of the mall.

Scale 1/10,000

Rooftop advertising boards

Video advertisement display

Advertising boards / posters

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MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Germaine Chan

359


Strategies / 08 Supplements / Advertising

ADVERTISING / ANALYSIS Cheng Huang Miao Shopping Mall, Shanghai / 城隍廟小吃街, 上海

Chinese herbs Shopping mall

Tea

Jewelry Watches Restaurant

Advertising boards associated with different businesses 360

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Germaine Chan

Visual additives of information and decoration 361


STRATEGIES / 08 SUPPLEMENTS

PROSTHETICS

Ju’er Hutong, Beijing

Nanchizhi, Beijing

French Concession, Shanghai

Nanchizhi, Beijing

Bukchon, Seoul

French Concession, Shanghai

362

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Germaine Chan

French Concession, Shanghai

Kiyomizu Zaka, Kyoto

French Concession, Shanghai

Shi Sha Hai Hutong, Beijing

Ju’er Hutong, Beijing

Nanluoguxiang, Beijing

Machiya, Kyoto

Ju’er Hutong, Beijing

Machiya, Kyoto

Ju’er Hutong, Beijing

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Strategies / 08 Supplements / Prosthetics

PROSTHETIC / PRECEDENT Shishahai Hutong, Beijing / 什剎海胡同, 北京 Address: Shi Sha Hai District, Beijing Year of First Construct: Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) Use: Residential / Tourist Destination Preservation Status: National Protection Unit Geneology: Shi Sha Hai Hutong is a historical residential neighborhood that has been transformed into a tourist destination. Many houses have been renovated, modified, or demolished to sacrifice for new urban construction. It is one of the Hutongs that are preserved and protected by the government since the 21st century.

Electricity meter boxes added to roof

Entrance of a traditional house in the hutong

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MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Germaine Chan

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Strategies / 08 Supplements / Prosthetics

PROSTHETIC / ANALYSIS Shishahai Hutong, Beijing / 什剎海胡同, 北京

Air handler

Electricity meter boxes

Electricity power box

Air conditioner 366

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Germaine Chan

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STRATEGIES / 08 SUPPLEMENTS

PROTECTION

Ju’er Hutong, Beijing

Summer Palace, Beijing

Ginkakuji, Kyoto

Summer Palace, Beijing

Great Wall, Beijing

Summer Palace, Beijing

368

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Germaine Chan

Yu Yuan, Shanghai

Terracotta Warriors, Xi’an

Bulguksa, Gyeongju

Tapgol Park, Seoul

Summer Palace, Beijing

Olympic Green, Beijing

798 Factory, Beijing

Summer Palace, City

Summer Palace, Beijing

Summer Palace, Beijing

369


Strategies / 08 Supplements / Protection

PROTECTION / PRECEDENT Wongaksa Monument, Seoul / 원각사비, 서울 Address: 97 Jongno-gil, Seoul Year of First Construct: 1471 Use: Public park Preservation Status: National Treasure No. 3 Geneology: The Monument of Wongaksa was built to commemorate the founding of Wongaksa Temple. Tapgol Park was organized as a garden by John McLeavy Brown, the Irish advisor to provincial subdivision in 1897, and opened to the public in 1920. The Monument is now protected by a wooden pavillion.

Scale 1/10,000

Wooden pavillion for protection

500-year-old Monument of Wongaksa

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MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Germaine Chan

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Strategies / 08 Supplements / Protection

PROTECTION / ANALYSIS

Wongaksa Pagoda, Seoul 372

MMHESS / Summer 2011 Studio / Investigator / Germaine Chan

Monument of Wongaksa, Seoul

Summer palace, Beijing

Meiji Shrine, Tokyo 373

Profile for Yehre Suh / Urban Terrains Lab

Manual of Mutants, Hybrids, Endangered, Super Species / MMHESS  

With the chaotic pace of development and expansion of global metropolises, traditional fabric of cities have become hybridized with the new...

Manual of Mutants, Hybrids, Endangered, Super Species / MMHESS  

With the chaotic pace of development and expansion of global metropolises, traditional fabric of cities have become hybridized with the new...

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