LSA Conference Booklet 2014

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LSA 2014 Sport, Festivity and Digital Cultures

Summer Conference of the Leisure Studies Association (LSA) 7, 8 & 9 July 2014 Hosted by University of the West of Scotland, Paisley Campus, Scotland #LSA2014

Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014


Creative Futures

The Creative Futures Institute is a locus for interdisciplinary research at the University of the West of Scotland, generating a wide range of research from screen studies to social media. It is based in the School of Creative & Cultural Industries with Associates from around the University. The cf. fosters an advanced, theoretically informed and practice-led research culture, identifying key questions relevant to Scotland in a global economy. Our Associates work collaboratively across disciplines and with the wider CCI school research community, generating original insights that creates impact and influences global decisions about innovation, creativity and culture. The CFi puts transdisciplinary learning at the heart of research development, building understanding through art, science, social science & the humanities, to develop a vision for the future that is creative, responsible & inspiring. Within the Institute, we aim to build collaborative research communities and support individual excellence, where knowledge is developed through a range of disciplinary insights. Through our work, we want to reconstitute the knowledge economy in a way that gives due credit to the complexity of ideas and discoveries, drawing as much from the arts as we do from the sciences.

Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Welcome to LSA Conference 2014 University of the West of Scotland, School of Creative and Cultural Industries I am delighted to welcome you to the 39th Annual Leisure Studies Association Conference hosted by University of the West of Scotland on our Paisley Campus. This is an exciting year to attend the LSAs international conference because two weeks after the conference Glasgow will play host to the XX Commonwealth Games and, as part of our social programme, we have made arrangements for delegates to experience some of the transformations happening in the city through the medium of a walking tour. The conference has three main themes - Sport, Festivity and Digital Culture’s – and we have been delighted with the overwhelming response to our themes. With around 100 people attending the conference (50% of whom are international) we are sure you will have many interesting papers to attend. Our Organising Committee have worked hard to ensure that a good spread of topics is available each day and we have planned some exciting evening activities too. We hope you enjoy our excellent keynotes: James Higham, Kath Woodward, David McGillivray, Dave O’Brien and Garry Crawford. With panel discussions, PhD student expert advice sessions and industry panels, this year’s international conference hopes to deliver an exciting mix of presentations from around the world. I would like to thank delegates and presenters for attending this year’s conference and appreciate that some of you have travelled from afar to visit our Country/City this summer. We are offering a walking tour in Glasgow on the Monday evening covering some of the Commonwealth Games venues and cultural offerings. On the Tuesday evening we are being hosted as guests of Glasgow City Council for a civic reception in the beautiful City Chambers, which I’m sure you will enjoy. We then move on to have our Gala dinner and Ceilidh in a traditional Glasgow pub. I hope that you have signed up for these events and look forward to seeing you there. The conference Organising Committee and our volunteers from both University of the West of Scotland and Edinburgh Napier University are here to welcome you and assist you with anything you need to ensure that you have a great time. Professor Gayle McPherson Chair of the Organising Committee, LSA 2014

Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

ORGANISING COMMITTEE > Professor Gayle McPherson, UWS > Professor David McGillivray, UWS > Dr Sandro Carnicelli, UWS > Margaret Scott, UWS > Laura Graham, UWS > Jenny Flinn, Glasgow Caledonian University > David Jarman, Edinburgh Napier University > Dr Jane Ali- Knight, Edinburgh Institute: Festivals, Events & Tourism > Paul Zealey, Glasgow 2014 Ltd


> Moira Divers > Ann Macleod > Diane Will


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014




09:00am to 12:00pm (P Block)


09:30am to 11:00am

Parallel Session 3

09:30am to 11:00am

Parallel Session 6

10:30am to 11:00am (P118)

Opening Address

11:00am to 11:30am (P123/125)

Coffee Break

11:00am to 11:20am (P123/125)

Coffee Break

11:00am to 12:30pm (P118)

Keynotes: Prof. James Higham and Prof. Kath Woodward

11:30am to 1:00pm (P118)

Keynotes Prof. David McGillivray and Prof. Garry Crawford (sponsored by Creative Futures)

11:20am to 12:00pm (P118)

Keynote: Dr. Dave O’Brien

12:30pm to 1:30pm (P123/125)


1:00pm to 2:00pm (P123/125)


12:00pm to 1:00pm (P118)

Panel Leveraging Events, Prof. Gayle McPherson; Paul Zealey, Jill Miller, Joe Aitken

1:30pm to 3:00pm

Parallel Session 1

2:00pm to 3:30pm

Parallel Session 4

1:00pm (P123/125)


3:00pm to 3:30pm (P123/125)

Coffee Break

3:30pm to 4:00pm (P123/125)

Coffee Break

1:45pm to 3:00pm (P114)

PhD Students Meeting with Experts: Prof Malcolm Foley; Prof. Chris Ryan; Prof. Ken Roberts, Dr Sandro Carnicelli

3:30pm to 5:00pm

Parallel Session 2

4:00pm to 5:30pm

Parallel Session 5 (4 papers)

3.00pm close

5:00pm to 6:00pm


7:00pm to 10:00pm

Civic Reception (Sponsored by Glasgow City Council) Gala Dinner

5:30pm to 6:30pm (P123/125)

Drinks Reception (Sponsored by Taylor and Francis)

6:30pm Meeting at UWS High Street Entrance

Walking Tour (Sponsored by VisitScotland)


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

CONFERENCE EVENTS Sunday 6th July 5.00 – 6.30 pm Drinks reception, Seminar Rooms (Gardner Building)

Monday 7th July 5.30 – 6.30 pm Drinks reception (Sponsored by Taylor & Francis) 6.30 pm – Walking Tour (Sponsored by Visit Scotland) – See map Appendix 3 Meeting at UWS High Street Entrance Bus departs from High Street, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley 7.00 - 8.30pm Walking tour starting from Emirates Stadium Tour, Glasgow 8.30 Tour ends at West Brewery (optional for socialising/ordering food) 10.30pm Bus departs West Brewery, Glasgow for return to Paisley

Tuesday 8th July 7.00 – 10.00 pm Civic Reception (Sponsored by Glasgow City Council) Gala Dinner

Wednesday 9th July 12.00 -1.00 pm Leveraging Events in Cities – Implications for Policy Room P118 Professor Gayle McPherson, Paul Zealey, Jill Miller, Joe Aitken 1.45 – 3.00 pm PhD Students Meeting with Experts Room P114 Professor Malcolm Foley, Professor Ken Roberts, Professor Chris Ryan



ROOM P116 (SPORT 2) Chair: Robert Kielty ‘Football, fandom and festivity’: A comparative analysis of the use, impact and experience of fan parks at international football tournaments between 2002 and 2012 Joel Rookwood, Liverpool University Does playing football widen or narrow the goalposts of masculinity? The affective and emotional responses of men who play competitive country football in Bega, New South Wales, Australia Gordon Waitt, University of Wollongong Sports Stadia Tourism: from Sleeping Giant to Active Edutainment Richard Wright, Auckland University of Technology After the Arab Spring and towards the African Nations Cup: Libya’s Tourism Prospects George Lafferty, University of Sydney

ROOM P114 (SPORT 1) Chair: Laura Graham

‘Inspiring generations’? How London 2012 influenced young people in the context of family practices. Liz Such, University of Edinburgh

‘Trailblazing pioneers in the roped arena’: Women boxers as embodiment of gender equality agendas for the London 2012 Olympic Games Rebecca Finkel, Queen Margaret University

Woman’s sport and exercise experiences: A path towards empowering embodiment Joanne Mayoh & Ian Jones, Bournemouth University

Women ‘coming out’ in sport: Ambivalence, Acceptance and Silence in the Australian Sports Media Chelsea Litchfield, Charles Sturt University

PARALLEL SESSION 1 - Monday 7/7/2014 1.30pm

A case study of the Application of the Service Scape Model to Folk Festival Design and Experiences Nathalie Ormrod & Carrianne Wallace Manchester Metropolitan University

A Preliminary Framework for Understanding the Role of Sport and Recreation in Rural Canadian Communities Kyle Rich, Western University

U2’s 360 Tour: The Spectacularization of a Rock Music Event Michael Williams University of Brighton

The ties that bind: connecting family, community and place through the Gathering 2013 Theresa Ryan Dublin Institute of Technology

Evidence-based practice v Practice-based evidence: Improving dissemination in community-based physical activity interventions Angela Beggan University of the West of Scotland

Youth sport participation’s association with adult leisure-time physical activity Michael Edwards, North Carolina State University

The role of events and festivals in modern society Sjanett De Geus and Suzanne Wetzels, Tilberg University

ROOM D126 (FESTIVITY 1) Chair: David Jarman

The Fitness Intervention Taskforce (FIT): Encouraging Physical Activities, Engaging Communities Julie Orr, University of the West of Scotland

ROOM D124 (COMMUNITY 1) Chair: Robert Burton

Parallel Session 1 – Rooms P114, P116, D124, D126, D128


Digital representation of subjective and phenomonological heritage meanings at Towneley Park, Burnley Alex McDonagh, University of Salford Originality, Tradition, Spectacle. Discourses of home and community in Padstow’s May Day Malcolm Foley, University of the West of Scotland

“Staging the Museum” - Community Engagement and Strategies of Performance in Cultural Heritage Sites Pamela Barnes, University of the West of Scotland What the Critics Say About Subtitled Nordic Drama Rachael Stark, University of the West of Scotland

Are High Performance Athletes Human Beings? Rights, Responsibilities and Social Justice Andrew Adams & Emma Kavanagh, Bournemouth University

Sport tourism for building social capital and community engagement Nigel Jamieson, TAFESA

The Role of travel-blogs in the production of destination images Masood Khodadadi University of the West of Scotland

Connecting cultural planning to cultural participation: whom do cultural venues benefit? Orian Brook, St Andrews University

An evaluation of the domestic pre-event social representations of the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games James Kenyon, Loughborough University

The relationship between the golfer, golfing behaviours and destination selection Claire Humphreys, University of Westminster

ROOM D126 (DIGITAL 1) Chair David McGillvray “Unless you’re online, you’re on your own”: Blogs and bridging social capital in para-sport Andrea Bundon, Loughborough University

The nature of social capital in local level sport and recreation clubs Tom Forsell, Victoria University

A case study review of golf tourism and it’s conjunction with destination Brian Krohn Indiana University

ROOM D124 (CULTURE) Chair: Jenny Flinn The city brand and the role of culture: The missing links Mihalis Kavaratzis, University of Leicester

ROOM P116 (SPORT 3) Chair: Laura Graham

ROOM P114 (SPORT TOURISM) Chair: Chris Ryan

PARALLEL SESSION 2 - Monday 7/7/2014 3.30pm

Parallel Session 2 – Rooms P114, P116, D124, D126, D128


Identity expression in sexual minorityfocused sport attenuates internalized homophobia and sexual minority identity concealment over time Steven Mock, University of Waterloo Emic, Etic, and In-between: Differing Roles in Building Tourism Understanding and Value Shawn Daly, Niagara University

The integration of social media in music festival experience: the case of BBK Live 2013 Ana Vinals Blanco, University of Deusto

Mountain Bike Sport Tourism: Mediating Space and Visitor Perception – A case study Martin Robertson et al.

Sochi 2014: A Soft Power Vehicle for a New Russian Identity Daniel Wolfe, European University St. Petersburg

Event-Led Digital Participation: Utilising Glasgow 2014 to Empower Communities to Produce Citizen-Focused Responses to Major Events Jennifer Jones, University of the West of Scotland

Public Policies for outdoor leisure in Brazil: between Sport and Tourism Marilia Bandeira, Universidade Estadual de Campinas

Illuminating Community, Leisure, and Identity with LGBTQ women in the American South Lisbeth Berbary, University of Waterloo

‘Being Alone, Together: The Mediatization of Leisure’ Susan Barnett, Indiana University

The Glasgow 2014 XX Commonwealth Games and Scottish independence: “political truce” or political truth(s)? Stuart Whigham, St Mary’s University College

Displacements Between Illicit and Licit Leisure in South American Borders Alexandre Paulo Loro, Federal University of Southern Frontier

FestIM-The development of a low cost impact evaluation service for cultural events using data from online social networks Debbie Sadd, Bournemouth University

The Olympics as Festival: Party, Circus, or Urban Good? Harry Hiller, University of Calgary

ROOM D126 (LEISURE) Chair: Chris Ryan

Determining the potential of outdoor sports of Devrekani watercourse basin using R’wot analysis Visitors’ perceptions of lake van water sports festival Panel: Alaeddinoglu et al, Yuzuncu Yil University

ROOM D124 (DIGITAL 2) Chair: Masood Khodadadi

ROOM P116 (FESTIVITY 2) Chair: Jane Ali-Knight

ROOM P114 (ADVENTURE SPORT) Chair: Daniel Turner

PARALLEL SESSION 3 - Tuesday 8/7/2014 9.30pm

Parallel Session 3 - Rooms P114, P116, D124, D126, D128


David Legg, Mount Royal University

Julie McElroy, David McGillivray, Gayle McPherson, University of the West of Scotland

Panel: Laura Misener, University of Western Ontario

A study to assess the EduMove curriculum intervention to determine the efficacy of the processes and mechanisms of utilising movement games as a method to teach core subjects in Primary Schools Henry Dorling, Southampton Solent University

Leisure in the social recreational clubs in Brazil – Leisure, Tourism and Culture. Panel: Marcos Silva et al, Universidade

No prize for second place? The relative importance of competitive success in the philosophies of novice sport coaches Laura Graham UWS

‘We’re just trying not to screw it up’: Community Constraints for Leveraging Small Parasport Events’

Leveraging Parasport Events: the impact on sports policy

Panel: Mat Duerden et al, Brigham Young University

Immigrants’ aesthetic enjoyment: Consumption and production of Brazilianness Karine Dalsin, Dublin City University

Engaging young people involved in a weight management support group to develop their programme through CBPR Pamela Scott, University of the West of Scotland

Reproduction and transformation in the management of disability cricket: A Bourdiuesian critical and relational analysis Paul Kitchin, University of Ulster

Practice and place versus positivism? Co-producing research media organisations in Remaking Society, an AHRC Connected Communities ‘pilot demonstrator’ project 2012 – 2014 Graham Jeffery, University of the West of Scotland

Family Leisure and transitioning into Parenting David Lamb, Edith Cowan University

Meaningful Leisure Experiences: Conceptualizing the Core of Leisure Studies

Leisure in Latin America Alcyane Marinho, State University of Santa Catarina

Internationalising the Curriculum in Sport and Events: a case study from Germany Jenny Flinn & Robert Kielty, Glasgow Caledonian University

ROOM D126 (LEISURE) Chair: Ken Roberts

The Social Legacies of Mega Events in Brazil Silvia Amaral, FEF Unicamp

ROOM D124 (LEISURE IN LA) Chair: Sandro Carnicelli

ROOM P116 (SPORT EDUCATION) Chair: Richard Wright

ROOM P114 (SPORT 4) Chair: Stefan Lawrence

PARALLEL SESSION 4 - Tuesday 8/7/2014 2.00pm

Parallel Session 4 - Rooms P114, P116, D124, D126, D128


Australian Folk Festivals and their Community Engagement Strategies Rob Harris, University of Technology, Sydney

Volunteer social capital in community sport Alison Doherty, Western University

Volunteering and the Olympic Games: an emotional matter Sandro Carnicelli, University of the West of Scotland

Audiences development strategies at the Quiksilver/Roxy Pro Joanne MacKellar, Griffith University

Pedaling Through the Past: Sport Heritage, Tourism Development and the Tour of Flanders Gregory Ramshaw and Tom Bottelberghe, Clemson University

Ghosts in the Machine; analysing power in community festivals and events Allan Jepson, University of Hertfordshire

The Strength of Festival Ties: a Social Network Analysis of the Edinburgh International Science Festival Jane Ali-Knight/David Jarman

“Old Scotia’s favourite dish”: Public Celebrations of Scottishness and the Emergence of Haggis as a National Symbol Joy Fraser, George Mason University

Mega event volunteer programmes: evidence of a volunteering legacy for sports and events Karen Smith, Victoria University of Wellington

Inside the ropes’: access, social capital, and the golf event volunteer experience Aaron McIntosh Robert Gordon University

The Sport-for-Development Pulse: Combining Sport Programs with Highlight Events in the Pacific Islands Nico Schulenkorf, NSW – Australia

ROOM D124 (FESTIVITY 3) Chair: Daniel Turner

Sport-for-Development: A Fleeting Fancy or a Confidence Catalyst? Individual Stories from Sports Leadership Training David Scott, The Open University

ROOM P116 (SPORT VOLUNTEERING) Chair: Geoff Nichols

ROOM P114 (SPORT 5) Chair: Robert Kielty

PARALLEL SESSION 5 - Tuesday 8/7/2014 4.00pm

Channelling festival communications: the role of sounds, sights and social media Linda Wilks, Open University A case Study of the Livery Yard - at one with Leisure Carrianne Wallace, Manchester Metropolitan University “We are Slovan!” Celebrating Local and National Identity in Slovakia through Sport Peter Barrer, Comenius University in Bratislava

‘Becoming white’ and (un) learning colourblindness in sport and leisure: Stefan’s story Stefan Lawrence, Southampton Solent University

“in the end, we’re all still just a bunch of snow-loving interweb weirdos” (Tetongravity 2014): an analysis of ski and snowboard cultures displayed through online forums Robert Burton, Southampton Solent University

ROOM D128 (DIGITAL 4) Chair: Matt Frew

The evolving nature of hosting friends and relatives for immigrants Tom Griffin, Ryerson University

Hunt Support Clubs Carrianne Wallace, Manchester Metropolitan University

ROOM D126 (OPEN 3) Chair: Ken Roberts

Parallel Session 5 - Rooms P114, P116, D124, D126, D128


Naked running v the quantified self: The rise of running bodies as an assemblage of physical and digital cultures Simone Fullagar, University of Bath “It’s just Mega antz innit? LOL” Justifying Virtual Maltreatment in Sport Ian Jones & Emma Kavanagh, Bournemouth University Recreation-related Venues’ Social Media Practices: Use Patterns, Engaging Practices, and Building Relationships Patti Freeman, Brigham Young University

The Challenges of Engaging Audiences in ‘Green’ ehaviour at Music Festivals Anna Borley, University of Northampton An Ethnographic research project on the Earagail Arts Festival in Co. Donegal, Ireland Pearl Morrison, Bournemouth University Alternative Leisure: a case study on Burning Man festival and its cultural impacts on participants and beyond Yating Liang, Missouri State University

Sport Internship Legacies from a Professional football club following administration Robert Kielty Glasgow Caledonian University

Did you see that…picture? The role of Instagram in the professional Golf Fan Experience Patti Millar, Western University

Informal’ Ping Pong: New narratives of resistance and a culturalpolitics of recreational play spaces Louise Platt, Liverpool John Moore University

Disruptive Desire: Digital Dreaming in the Fantasy of Festivity Matthew Frew, Bournemouth University

Failure to Launch: Aberdeen’s Bid for UK City of Culture 2017 Daniel Turner, Robert Gordon University

Sport, youth culture and public space: parkour parks as an ‘everyday utopia’ Paul Gilchrist, University of Brighton

ROOM D124 (DIGITAL 3) Chair: Stefan Lawrence

ROOM P116 (FESTIVITY 4) Chair: Jane Ali-Knight

ROOM P114 (SPORT 6) Chair: Jenny Flinn

PARALLEL SESSION 6 - Wednesday 9/7/2014 9.30pm

Local Olympic Ambassador Programmes in 2012; promoting the visitor experience Geoff Nichols, University of Sheffield

The ephemeral and the everyday: An outsider perspective on cycle event experiences Katherine King, Bournemouth University

Variations in motivation and identity in active sport event tourism Brian Krohn, Indiana University

Managing expectations: Organisers’ perspectives of participation-based sport events Millicent Kennelly, Griffith University

ROOM D126 (SPORT 7) Chair: Sandro Carnicelli

Parallel Session 6 - Rooms P114, P116, D124, D126, D128

Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS Garry Crawford BIOGRAPHY A Professor of Sociology at the University of Salford. His research and teaching focuses primarily upon audiences, consumers, technology, fans, sport and gamers. He is the author of the books Video Gamers (2012) and Consuming Sport (2004), and the co-author of Introducing Cultural Studies (2nd ed. 2008), The Sage Dictionary of Leisure Studies (2009), and co-editor of Online Gaming in Context (2011). Garry is Director of the University of Salford Digital Cluster, a Director of the British Sociological Association, and review editor for the journal Cultural Sociology.

ABSTRACT Is it in the Game? game spaces, definitions, theming and sports videogames From the very first days of digital gaming, sport-themed video games have been a constant and ever-popular presence — from the earliest games, such as Tennis For Two and Pong, to today’s detailed and highly advanced games, such as FIFA and Football Manager. However, compared with many other genres of games, such as first person shooters (FPS) and massively multiplayer online games (MMOs), sports-themed games have remained relatively under-research. Therefore, using the case of ‘sports videogames’, this paper advocates a ‘located’ approach to understanding videogames and gameplay. Unlike many existing theorisations of gameplay, such as the ‘magic circle’ (Huizinga 1949 [1938]), which theorise play as a break from ordinary life, this paper argues for a Lefebvrian-based consideration of play as a continuation of ‘the control of the established order’ (Lefebvre (1994 [1974]: 383). In particular, it argues that many videogames, and in particular sports videogames, can be understood as ‘themed’ spaces; which share many similarities to other themed locations, such as fast-food restaurants and theme parks. These are ‘non-places’ (Augé 1995) themed to give (or more specifically ‘sell’) a sense of individuality, control and escape in a society that increasingly offers none of these.

Dave O’Brien BIOGRAPHY Dr Dave O’Brien is a Lecturer in Cultural and Creative Industries at City University London. He currently works on issues in public administration as well as cultural policy. His first book ‘Cultural Policy Management, Value & Modernity in the Creative Industries’ is published by Routledge in October 2013 and he has written extensively on European Capital of Culture and Urban Cultural Policy. He is currently part of several ongoing research projects including 2 major studies, one on arts and dementia the other on the creative economy, both funded by AHRC’s Connected Communities. Dr O’Brien is a member of the editorial board of the journal Cultural Trends and is part of the advisory board for the AHRC’s cultural value project.

ABSTRACT Critical Cultural Value Cultural Value has become a central term in a range of discourses surrounding the arts in the UK. It has been deployed in media, policy and academic debates over issues from arts funding through to the status of humanities education. The term also has two major research programmes associated with it, one from AHRC that has funded over 70 research activities, and one developed by the University of Warwick. Cultural value, it would seem, is now a term and an associated set of ideas that have become central to how a range of key actors are taking decisions about the vast spectrum of practices captured by the term culture. This paper begins by critically engaging with cultural value and setting it within the broader historical context of a specifically British struggle over justifications for the funding and status of the arts. Within this historical context previous (failed) attempts by policy, practice and the public to come to terms with the econfigurement of the State will be interrogated to support a scepticism with regard to cultural value. Just as the paper argues that we should be pessimistic about cultural value for historical reasons, it also considers what, if anything, might be done by those attempting to value cultural practices and artefacts, if cultural value is problematic and insufficient. It is here that the paper considers recent work on neo-liberalism in government to points towards emerging sites of research and resistance that can contribute to both a transformation of the meaning and status of culture within the british state, as well as avoiding the pitfalls of cultural value as a mere milestone on the long road that leads only to the entrenchment and reproduction of current social inequality.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

James Higham BIOGRAPHY James Higham is Professor of Tourism at the University of Otago (New Zealand). His research interests in the field of sport and tourism have addressed sport and spatial travel flows, sport and tourism seasonality, sport and authentic experiences, and globalization, sport and place. Working in collaboration with Professor Tom Hinch (University of Alberta, Canada) since 1998, their major contributions to the field include: Higham, J.E.S. & Hinch, T.D. (2009). Sport and tourism: Globalization, mobility and identity. Oxford: Elsevier and Hinch, T.D. & Higham, J.E.S. (2011). Sport Tourism Development (Edition 2). Bristol: Channel View Publications. James has served as Associated Editor of The Journal of Sport & Tourism (Taylor and Francis) since 2005, and is the editor of Sport Tourism Destinations: Issues, opportunities and analysis (2005,Oxford: Elsevier).

ABSTRACT Sport, tourism and globalisation: Reflections from the Antipodes. In anticipation of the XX Commonwealth Games (Glasgow 2014), this presentation explores the dynamic relationship between sport and tourism in a global world. Setting aside reductionist definitions of sport, in this presentation sport is considered as a form of body culture and, in a tourism context, a type of cultural tourist attraction. Several key characteristics of sport, including the kinaesthetic nature of sport, athletic display and uncertainty of outcome are explored in the context of tourist experiences. It is argued that the combination of these fundamental qualities of sports may promote the prospects that tourists may through sport engage with and experience expressions of unique local culture. Indeed sport may offer tourists a particularly unique, durable and robust form of cultural experience. However, while sport may offer a range of advantages over other types of cultural tourism attractions, the status of the destination as ‘place of competition’ may be threatened by the process of globalisation, which have made sports highly reproducible and transportable. Drawing upon examples from New Zealand, the presentation considers the opportunities and threats that arise in a tourism context from the globalisation of sports experiences; with consideration given to important aspects of authenticity, place connection through sport, and identity construction through the co-creation of experiences.

David McGillivray BIOGRAPHY Professor David McGillivray holds a Chair in Event and Digital Cultures at UWS. His research interests focus on the contemporary significance of events and festivals (sporting and cultural) as markers of identity and mechanisms for the achievements of wider economic, social and cultural externalities. His current research focuses on the value of digital media in enabling alternative readings of major sport events to find currency within the saturated media landscape and he is leading a large Big Lottery Fund project, Digital Common-wealth which addresses this topic. He is co-author of Event Policy: From Theory to Strategy (2011) and co-editor of Research Themes for Events (2013) and sits on the Executive Committee of the Leisure Studies Association.

ABSTRACT Accelerated Leisure in a Digital Age: Transformations and Tribulations In this talk, I explore the changing nature of those leisure cultures intensified by the presence of a digitally-mediated world. I consider the extent to which the digital turn has freed us from the limits of our analogue lives or has simply led us to be caught up in a web of surveillance and corporately controlled leisure. In the talk I firstly highlight the transformations taking place in how we conceive of and experience leisure in a digital age, before exploring critically the professed benefits available from digital leisure participation. I then draw attention to the darker side of digital, paying particular attention to the impact of digital and social media platforms on how we conceive of leisure activity, where it takes place and at what time (s). In doing so I also consider the complex interplay between freedom and constraint that exists within these platforms (e.g. Facebook) that look to socialize the lifeworld of their users and occupy the everyday, or informal sphere. I draw on examples of creative resistance to continuous and unbounded institutional regulation of the everyday before concluding with proposals for a Leisure Studies research agenda that recognises the scale and reach of the digital across a range of leisure subjects.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Kath Woodward BIOGRAPHY Kath Woodward is Professor of Sociology at the Open University where she works on feminist, critical theories and psychosocial approaches to embodiment and affect, mostly within the field of sport. Recent books include Sex Power and the Games (2012) on the explanatory reach of sex gender and the concept of enfleshed selves, Sporting Times (2012) on temporalities in sport using the ‘real time’ of the 2012 Olympics. Sporting Times is informing Kath’s work with the Olympic Museum in Lausanne on its new exhibition Time and Sport for which she is acting as consultant and writing the catalogue. Her approach to feminisms has been developed in the cross generational feminist conversation, Why Feminism Matters (2009) with Sophie Woodward. She has worked extensively on boxing, Boxing, Masculinity and Identity: the ‘I’ of the Tiger (2006) and Globalizing Boxing (2014). She has taught sociology and women’s studies at undergraduate and postgraduate levels and first year introductory interdisciplinary social sciences. Social Sciences the Big issues is in its third edition (2013). She is an editor of the BSA journal Sociology and is currently principal investigator on the AHRC funded project on the psychosocial dimensions of ‘being in the zone‘ in music, sport and cultural work.

ABSTRACT Chasing Time: Time, Sport and the Festival of the Olympics This paper explores some of the connections between sport and time and uses my experience of curating the Chasing Time Exhibition at the Olympic Museum in Lausanne and my work on the 2012 games, discussed in my 2012 book Sporting Times, to present some of the arguments about what sport can tell us about the experience of time and temporality more widely. It’s not chance that the Olympic motto puts time first -faster, higher, stronger and that it us the ‘real time’ of sport which generates its excitement. Time is about much more than stopwatches and precision measurement: time is also social and political.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Panel - Leveraging Events in Cities – Implications for Policy Wednesday 9th July at 12.00pm, P116 Professor Gayle McPherson Professor Gayle McPherson holds a Chair in Events and Cultural Policy. She leads and works on a wide range of research, knowledge transfer and consultancy projects within the Creative Futures Institute at UWS. She has recently completed the impact evaluation of Scotland’s London 2012 Cultural Programme for Creative Scotland and is working on the evaluation of Glasgow’s Commonwealth Games Cultural and Festival Programme. She is currently researching the social and cultural impact of Leveraging Parasport Events for sustainable community participation at Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games and is working on the Digital Commonwealth Big Lottery funded project enhancing digital literacy throughout Scotland. Jill Miller (Glasgow Life) Jill Miller is the Director of Cultural Services for Glasgow Life with responsibility for the strategic, development and operational delivery of museums, libraries, arts and events which includes venues such as the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall, City Halls and Fruitmarket, Kelvingrove, The Burrell and GoMA, Tramway and the Mitchell Library and events such as Gi, Celtic Connections and the Merchant City Festival. Her work focuses on delivering quality outcomes through partnership-working, increasing opportunities for participation and focusing services on people and communities within Glasgow and beyond. Over the past ten years Jill has led on the development of Glasgow’s Strategic Volunteering Framework and through her particular interest in community development, engagement and capacity building Jill led the development of Glasgow Life’s Area Teams which now ensure the local relevance and responsiveness of Glasgow’s international services. Jill was responsible for the Cultural Programme, Ceremonies, Community and Voluntary aspects of the Glasgow’s 2014 Bid Document and managed the development and delivery of the creative segment of the Delhi Flag Handover 14 October 2010. Jill is currently leading, on the development of the Cultural Programme and the delivery of Festival 2014 for Glasgow 2014 Paul Zealey (Glasgow 2014) Paul Zealey is the Head of Engagement and Legacy at the Glasgow 2014 organising committee. He leads on working with partners and wider stakeholders to ensure that there is a long term legacy from the Games for people and communities across Scotland. He has previously worked in consultancy, with Scottish Enterprise and in the third sector. Joe Aitken (GCMB) Joe Aitken is the Head of Major Events at Glasgow City Marketing Bureau. As custodian of the ‘People Make Glasgow’ brand, Glasgow City Marketing Bureau works with numerous partners, stakeholders and businesses to position and promote Glasgow across national and international markets as one of Europe’s most vibrant, dynamic and diverse cities.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

PhD Student Meeting with Experts Wednesday 9th July at 1.45pm, Room P114 Professor Malcolm Foley Professor Malcolm Foley is both Vice Principal for Learning and Teaching and Executive Dean of Business and Creative Industries at the University of the West of Scotland (UWS). He also holds the University Chair in Leisure Cultures. Previously he was Professor in Leisure Development at Glasgow Caledonian University. Prior to his academic career, he was a research analyst for a large consumer goods manufacturer, then a public administrator. As an academic, he has published extensively upon the impacts of events and festivity, the phenomenon of “dark tourism” and the role of popular culture. He has strategic oversight of learning and teaching, student services, academic quality enhancement, library services and academic staff development at the University of the West of Scotland. Professor Ken Roberts Ken Roberts is Professor of Sociology at the University of Liverpool. His books include Leisure (1970), Contemporary and the Growth of Leisure (1978), Leisure in Contemporary Society (2nd edition, 2006), Youth in Transition: Eastern Europe and the West (2009), and Class in Contemporary Britain (2nd edition, 2011). He is a former Chair of the World Leisure Organization’s Research Commission, and also a former President of the International Sociological Association’s Research Committee on Leisure. He is a founder member and now honorary life member of the Leisure Studies Association. Professor Chris Ryan Chris Ryan is Foundation Professor of Tourism at the University of Waikato Management School, New Zealand. He has been the editor of Tourism Management since 1993, and throughout that period the journal has been SSCI rated. In 2013 it received 854 submissions. In addition to being editor Chris has won many awards for his own research, and indeed has published over 200 refereed journal articles. He is an elected Fellow of the International Academy for the Study of Tourism, holds several Visiting Professorships in Asia, and serves on advisory committees to the New Zealand Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment (MBIE) and Tourism New Zealand with respect to issues of Chinese tourism. His most recent work includes research for the United Nations World Tourism Organization in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province China, reports for MBIE on Chinese tourists shopping patterns and the failure of the 2013 Chinese Travel Law, and on issues pertaining to the Hauraki Cycle Trail in the Waikato, New Zealand’. Dr Sandro Carnicelli Dr. Sandro Carnicelli is a Lecturer in Events Management at the University of the West of Scotland and his main academic interests are: sport tourism, adventure tourism, serious leisure, volunteering and emotional labour. Sandro has published articles in international journals, including Annals of Tourism Research, Tourism Management, Annals of Leisure Research and World Leisure. He is a member of the ABRATUR (International Academy for the Development of Tourism Research in Brazil), a member of the Advisory Board of the Annals of Leisure Research, and he is also on the Executive Board of the Leisure Studies Association.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

ABSTRACTS Are high performance athletes human beings: rights, responsibilities and social justice? Dr Andrew Adams and Emma Kavanagh (Centre for Event and Sport Research, Bournemouth University) Once a high performance (HP) athlete is technically no longer a child almost all of the legislation protecting his/her rights disappears. In a HP state funded elite-sport system the athlete is arguably subject to state power to ensure that he/she achieves the potential that has been identified. If we conceive of human rights as universal then some of a HP athlete’s rights are likely to be contravened. Conversely if a relativistic approach is taken we may consider an individual’s rights as being more contingent and hence different in different circumstances. This paper addresses these questions and goes further to explore who are, in such HP situations, the rights holders, what are their responsibilities and whether a HP athlete gets social justice. In interrogating such themes we draw on narrative PhD data from a number of in-depth interviews with HP athletes. The results indicate that those who promote elite sport systems should not be sanguine about the correct working of systems that may promote athlete abuse and maltreatment. It is clear that medals and status come at a human cost.

PANEL SESSION ‘Determining the potential of outdoor sports of Devrekani watercourse basin using R’WOT analysis’ Faruk Alaeddinoglu (Yuzuncu Yil University), Sevgi Ozturk (Kastamonu University), Nuray Turker (Karabuk University) and Ali Selcuk Can (Turkish Culture and Information Counselor’s Office, London) Nowadays recreational activities have become a lifestyle for the majority of people. People participate in recreational activities for the purpose of physical development, searching and experiencing new and different things, self-fulfillment, being creative, socializing, satisfying the need for resting and relaxing, satisfying competition drive, health etc. People feel themselves as a part of the nature while performing outdoor recreational activities and interact with the elements of the nature. Watercourse basin is the important ecological boundary which provides the ecologic balance between the natural environment and the people. In this paper, Devrekani watercourse basin has been chosen as the research area. The area’s strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) related to outdoor sports, the given importance to the strategic and managerial approaches have been analysed by five different group of stakeholders including local authorities, private sector representatives, residents, experts, and NGO’s and prioritised using R’WOT analysis which is one of the multiple evaluation methods. Devrekani watercourse basin includes six towns. The findings of the research indicate that Pinarbasi, Azdavay, and Devrekani have stronger outdoor sports potential while Cide, Agli, and Seydiler are deficient. The area is suitable for trekking activities. Whilst Pinarbasi and Azdavay are the proper places for canyoning, mountaineering, climbing, and camping, Devrekani and Pinarbasi, are convenient for caving. Devrekani and Cide have potential areas for water sports, while Agli has a great potential for sledging. Besides paintball and orienteering are the activities that can be experienced in Seydiler. However lack of planning on outdoor sports and nonoperative management system are identified as the weak aspect of the area.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

‘Visitors’ perceptions of Lake Van sports festival’ Faruk Alaeddinoglu (Yuzuncu Yil University), Sevgi Ozturk (Kastamonu University), Nuray Turker (Karabuk University) and Ali Selcuk Can (Turkish Culture and Information Counselor’s Office, London) Van is one of the most attractive cities of Turkey which is located on the eastern shore of Lake Van. The city provides memorable experiences to the visitiors with its historical buildings, cultural texture, ecotourism and water sports activities. In order to develop tourism industry, improve the local economy and promote the region, the local authorities organised ‘Van-Bitlis Watersports Festival’. Cultural activities and sport events are organised in the festival that visitors can enjoy the watersports events such as swimming, windsurfing, canoing, optimist, dragon, and laser sailing and also beach volleyball, beach football which are held on the shore of the lake. Besides solo and group jet flight shows, water skiing shows, offshore powerboat racing which is called ‘Van Grand Prix’ that is a part of ‘World Offshore Championship’, concerts and firework shows are organised during the festival which takes 7 to 10 days. The festival improves the local economy, promotes the city and effects its image positively. The researchers believe that it will boost the tourism industry in Van and Bitlis in the near future. In order to increase the effect of the festival, it’s essential to get information about the profile of the visitors, their opinions about the events and shows, their expectations and preferences, their level of satisfaction of the events. For this purpose, a two page questionnaire was designed. The survey was conducted by face to face interviews with 217 visitors. The results show that the festival contributes to the development of tourism and it is accepted by the majority of residents. It made an excellent impression on the visitors who attend to the festival for the the first time. Despite of all hard work, lack of substructure and superstructure facilities affect the success of the festival negatively. Furthermore, results indicate that the festival araouse interest among visitors. It increased the social interaction between visitors and residents, improved the local economy, and provide awareness about the facilities and the importance of the region.

The social legacies of mega events in Brazil Prof Sílvia Cristina Franco Amaral, Universidade Estadual de Campinas The 2014 FIFA World Cup and the Rio 2016 Olympic Games will be held in Brazil. As sports mega events, they offer huge potential for urban change. These changes require resources of different kinds (financial, material, human, environmental), and the mobilization of various sectors of society. For this reason, this study seeks to understand the “World Cup and Olympic Games responsibility matrix”; projects involving events and sports infrastructures; and public policies created to support recreational sports in this decade (2010-2020). The paper will seek to establish what the legacies of hese events will be for the citizens of Brazil, specifically in the field of leisure. We seek to understand the concept of the “Barcelona Model” and analyse whether this approach offers a model which could successfully be replicated in relation to the policies and reforms adopted in Brazil. Organizers and Brazilian politicians argue in different media: “Barcelona’s is the successful model to be followed”. We refer to the analysis of the Barcelona model in prospective studies and official documents of the 1992 Olympic Games. This study uses a descriptive interpretative method and content analysis (BARDIN, 2004) with a qualitative approach. Some data show that promises of legacies for leisure were kept, such as creation of entertainment centres, renewal of the infrastructure of the sports and leisure facilities, etc, but it was not possible to identify any specific financial support or policy for recreational sport. The Barcelona model brought some very successful changes to its citizens, this paper will examine whether it could be as effective for Brazilian citizens. Keywords: leisure- mega events public policies-citizen.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Public policies for outdoor leisure in Brazil: between sport and tourism Marília Martins Bandeira and Silvia Cristina Franco Amaral (Universidade Estadual de Campinas/Unicamp/Brazil) Unlike conventional sports, alternative practices used to be characterised by a relative lack of regulation and a customary participants refusal to follow regulatory codes. Paradoxically, commercialisation and competition have led to a need to establish some boundaries, what makes national policies for those activities an agenda for research (Tomlinson et al, 2005). This paper is based on a PhD research (funded by São Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP) regarding Brazilian public policies for adventure leisure. The development of those public policies is a new demand in the country as the right to professional performance and commercial exploration is disputed by tourism guides, sportsmen and physical education teachers. In previous research a dispute between sports and tourism organisations was identified. The objective of the present research was to investigate what are the interests in conflict within this process. Data was collected using a document analysis based on different official publications by the government as well as news and comments regarding these policies on specialised websites and blogs. The documental criticism method (Cellard, 2012) was used in the following stages: description of the context in which the document was produced, identification of who was/were the author(s) and for whom it was produced and discussion regarding the key concepts. The results of the documental analysis found that outdoor activities have become institutionalised in Brazil in the 2000s with the creation of the Radical Sports Brazilian Confederation (CBER) in 2002, the Brazilian Association of Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism (ABETA) in partnership with the Ministry of Tourism (2004), and the Committee of Adventure Sports (CEA) of the Ministry of Sports (2006). Regarding adventure practices, both ABETA and CEA claim the right to regulate the field. While ABETA has already developed a national program, called Aventura Segura (Safe Adventure) which contributes to define the technical standards for adventure practice since 2006, CEA (representing the different sports associations) resist to accept and follow the parameters imposed by ABETA. Based on sports law CEA pioneers argue that ABETA actions are unconstitutional. However, since 2007 the Committee ceased its activities limiting itself to offer official definitions for those sports. References: • Cellard, A. A análise documental. In: Poupart, J. Deslauriers, J.P., Groulx, L. Laperrièrre, A., Mayer, R. Pires, A. (2012). A pesquisa qualitativa: enfoques epistemologicos e metodológicos. Editora Vozes, Petrópolis. • Tomlinson, A, Ravenscroft, N, Wheaton, B and Gilchrist, P. (2005) Lifestyle Sports and National Sport Policy: An Agenda for Research. Sport England, London.

“Staging the museum” — community engagement and strategies of performance in cultural heritage sites Pamela Barnes, University of the West of Scotland This paper outlines an ongoing collaborative community engagement PhD project with South Ayrshire Museums & Galleries and will focus on the theoretical framework and early findings of the research. Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts and theories of class distinction and habitus (1996) will be applied and explored through performance practice in cultural heritage sites. The project will focus on both the buildings and the surrounding grounds of Rozelle House and the Maclaurin Art Gallery. A practice-based approach will be employed to enable performance opportunities for chosen South Ayrshire community groups. The sites will be used as a practical testing ground for Bourdieu’s concepts and theories, which will enable the research to explore and develop knowledge about the sites and its relationship with the surrounding community. It is the intention of the project to generate a framework which can be applied in other museum establishments to build on community engagement and to create original practice-based performances. References: • Bourdieu, (1986) The Forms of Capital. In: Richardson, J. (ed.) Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York: Greenwood, pp. 241258.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Being alone, together: the mediatization of leisure Susan Barnett, Indiana University The infusion of digital devices into the everydayness of life influences the way one seeks information, feedback, and sense of connectedness. The landscape of sports, events, and recreation is morphing into an engaged, technological audience seeking personal experiences. Mobile phone use, specifically smartphone technology, enables connectability anytime, anyplace, and anywhere, therefore creating the desire for customized experiences. This conceptual paper presents a theoretical approach to understanding transformed leisure activities through media use. Ultimately, the purpose of this paper is to begin the discussion about an emerging area of media leisure behavior, that of being “alone, together” (Turkle, 2011). As the second largest generation, Millennials are absorbing much of the target audiences at events. Much of the research on this generation is centered within the fields of education and sociology, yet is necessary for understanding by all social science disciplines, including leisure studies. Descriptions of the various generations are gross generalizations yet provide a set of characteristics helpful for programming events. The unique characteristics of the Millennial generation urge leisure experiences to be viewed from a different perspective. This perspective includes mediatisation (Krotz, 2009), the act of transforming an activity through the use of media or media devices, such as music festivals. For example, traditional music festivals allow all participants to experience the same music in the same location together. However, during a silent disco a participant may customize the music event by choosing what, where, and how he or she experiences the leisure activity through the use of wireless headphones. The activity is now transformed, resulting in many individuals collectively engaging in different experiences through the use of a media device. Thus in the example of a silent disco, the new mediatized leisure experience is one in which people are alone, together. The development of methods to understand this phenomenon is in progress, but will most likely include interpretive phenomenology methodology to understanding the act of being alone, together within the example of the subculture of silent discos. In the meantime, the theoretical frameworks presented in this paper provide the launching point to future studies on mediatized leisure experiences. References: • Krotz, F. (2009). Mediatization: A concept with which to grasp media and societal change. In Lundby, K. (Ed.), Mediatization: Concept, changes, consequences (pp. 21- 40). New York, NY : Peter Lang Publishing. • Turkle, S. (2011). Alone Together. New York, NY: Basic Books.

“We are Slovan!” Celebrating local and national identity in Slovakia through sport Peter Barrer, Comenius University in Bratislava The region of Central and Eastern Europe remains very much on the periphery of scholarly interest in sports fandom, and Slovakia is no exception. However, participation in the mediatised sporting experience (particularly men’s ice hockey events) plays an important role in self-identification for the inhabitants of Bratislava, Slovakia’s capital, as it does for the national population. Primarily drawing on media texts, this paper will focus on how local and national identity in Slovakia has been expressed and redefined by the participation of the Slovan Bratislava men’s ice hockey team in the transnational Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) competition. Points of particular interest include the image-building of Bratislava as an “ice hockey capital” and destination for sports tourists, intersections of local and national identity in specific fandom practices and media promotion, the club’s role in the youth development of ice hockey, and the connection of media discourses on ice hockey to wider political, social and cultural issues. The argument is made that participation in mediatised sports competitions such as the KHL allows for a spontaneous expression of local/national identity which is linked with consumer pleasures and heavy media promotion, and which in turn presents one’s place of origin as something of an attractive ‘brand’ without any sense of permanence, responsibility or commitment. Slovan Bratislava has become a powerful vehicle for redefining and celebrating local identity and Slovak nationhood in spite of the club’s close ties to unpopular political and corporate elites and Slovakia’s intra-national rivalries.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Evidence-based practice v. Practicebased evidence: Improving dissemination in community-based physical activity interventions Angela Beggan (University of the West of Scotland) Designing community-based physical activity interventions benefits from the exchange of evidence between research and practice (Halliday and Marwick, 2009). The purpose of this article is to demonstrate a model of real-world programme evaluation that employs a translational framework called RE-AIM to improve dissemination of evidence (Glasgow, Vogt, Boyles, 1999). The RE-AIM framework was used to evaluate a complex community physical activity intervention. Programme objectives were aligned to the RE-AIM domains and measures were assigned to each using a mixed-method approach including: document review, interviews, and selfreport measures of health-related quality of life (SF-12v2) (Ware, 2008). The individual-level measures showed the intervention had limited reach and effectiveness with regard to its intended objectives. The setting-level measures showed more progress was achieved in this domain but also highlighted issues that threatened the programme’s proliferation and sustainability. The use of the RE-AIM framework provided a clear view of functional elements while demonstrating areas where research could improve practice and practice could inform research. Reporting on internal and external validity factors demonstrates the impact of public health interventions more clearly (Antikainen and Ellis, 2011). Using REAIM benefits both researchers and practitioners by improving dissemination and helping to make sense of contextual characteristics that influence the mechanisms and outcomes such interventions are designed to effect. References: • Antikainen, I., and Ellis, R. (2011) A RE-AIM Evaluation of Theory-Based • Physical Activity Interventions. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33, pp. 198-214. • Glasgow, R., Vogt, T. and Boyles, S. (1999) Evaluating the Public Health Impact of Health Promotion Interventions: The RE-AIM Framework. American Journal of Public Health, 89 (9) pp. 1322-1327. • Halliday, E. and Marwick, S. (2009) Addressing the challenges for evaluation and learning in community-led health • PRACTICAL BRIEFING PAPER [Internet], Health Scotland. Available from: [Accessed 1 March 2011]. • Ware Jr., J. (2008) Improvements in short-form measures of health status: Introduction to a series. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 61 (1) pp.1-5.

Queer Narratives: Illuminating Community, Leisure, and Identity with LGBTQ women in the American South Lisbeth Berbary, University of Waterloo Voices of Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual, Transgender, Queer and Questioning individuals and allies are being heard more than ever before in the United States as reflected in increased visibility of nationally organized campaigns, the passing of new inclusive policies, increased legality of gay marriage, and the prevalence of protective laws regarding sexual orientation and gender identity in public spaces (de Vogue, 2012; Markoe, 2012; Bumiller, 2011). The inclusion of our voices have helped to provide an influx of counternarratives that are slowly but surely opening up the heteronormative meta-narrative of sexuality that has traditionally existed within the US. In particular, as our country attempts to come together to fight against discriminations across our vast geographies we find an increased relevance of hearing the stories of individuals residing in more conservative parts of the US where there is greater potential and likelihood of a silencing of LGBTQ voices due to evangelical ideologies. Specifically, narratives of hope, love, frustration, isolation, transformation, and community that develop within more conservative spaces in the Southern Bible Belt (the nickname given to the area of the US most strongly influenced by conservative, evangelical Christianity) are of interest because they provide stories situated within the unique intersections of geographic particulars such as a history of conservatism, powerful Christian ideologies, highly prescribed gender norms, and painful legacies of converting gay individuals back to heterosexuality through Jesus Christ (Berbary, 2012; Shaw, 2008; Restoration Path; Woodard, 2011). Recognizing the uniqueness and significance of illuminating the counter-narratives of LGBTQ individuals in the Southern Bible Belt, this presentation draws from a larger Queer Narrative Inquiry that utilized life story interviews to collect stories regarding leisure, identity, and community from LGBTQ identified women living in Memphis, TN, a metropolitan city situated in the Bible Belt of the Southern US. Using creative analytic queer narratives, I will present stories specifically focused on the intersections among leisure spaces/places, identity, and formation of inclusive community in order to expose, contextualize, and raise awareness of the lives, struggles, and community experiences of those LGBTQ identified women that reside in the more conservative spaces of the American South. References: • • • • • •

Berbary, L.A. (2012). Don’t be a whore, that’s not ladylike: Discursive Discipline and Sorority Women’s Gendered Subjectivity, Qualitative Inquiry, 18(7), 535-554. Bumiller, E. (2011, July 22). Obama ends ‘don’t ask, don’t tell’ policy. The New York Times. Retrieved from de Vogue, A. (2012, May 9). Obama’s legal progression on defense of marriage act. ABC News. Markoe, L. (2012, November 8). Election 2012 shows a social sea change on gay marriage. Huffington Post. Shaw, S. M. (2008). Gracious submission: Southern Baptist fundamentalists and women. Feminist Formations, 20 (1), 51-77. Woodward, C. ( 2011). American nations: A history of the eleven rival regional cultures of North America. New York, NY: Penguin.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

The integration of social media in music festival experience: the case of BBK Live 2013 Ana Viñals Blanco and June Calvo-Suraluze, University of Deusto The worldwide spread of information and communication technology (ICT), combined with the boost in the Internet infrastructure and democratization of social media, has led to the transformation of most areas of human activity. In fact, the net is already an essential part of daily routines and we are involved in a digital culture (Gere, 2002; Uzelac, 2010) where the main character is the person and their experiences. One of the areas that has been most influenced by this digital era is leisure (Nimrod & Adoni, 2012). The characteristic features of the Internet like interactivity, synchronicity, anonymity, ubiquity and participation in virtual reality are changing our ways of socializing and as a consequence, the way of experiencing our free time activities. Social networks like Facebook, Twitter or Instagram and digital platforms like Spotify, Deezer or Youtube have transformed the way we listen to music or the way we go to live concerts. These changes along with the greater interest in experiences and creativity of users (Richards, 2007) have impacted many industries including music festivals (Goldblatt, 2005; Getz, 2007; Richards & Palmer 2010). Hence, these types of events are trying to sell memorable experiences (Pine & Gilmore, 1999) rather than information or just services. However, in what way are music festival managers taking advantage of the potential of social media to enhance the experience? Is the social media really integrated in music festivals? And how does the audience use social media before, during and after the festivals? In order to answer these questions, this paper is going to analyse the different uses the audience makes of social media in the case of BBK Live music festival. Through online questionnaires aimed at the BBK Live 2013 festival goers, the goal is to observe the level of integration of 2.0 web tools in the event. Thus, observe if the audience uses social media in an instrumental and occasional way or instead, as an integrated part of the festival so as to heighten their leisure experience. These findings can be useful for festival managers to know how to design the event and integrate social media in their festival philosophy in a more valuable way. References: • • • • • • • •

Gere, C. (2002). Digital Culture. London: Reaktion Books. Getz, D. (2007). Event Studies. Theory, research and policy for planned events. Amsterdam [etc.]: Elsevier. Goldblatt, J.J. (2005). Special Events: event leadership for a new world. Hoboken (New Jersey): Wiley. New York (etc.): John Wiley & Sons. Uzelac, A.(2010). Digital culture as a converging paradigm for technology and culture: Challenges for the culture sector. In: Pau ALSINA (coord.). “From the digitalization of culture to digital culture” [online dossier]. Digithum. N. 12. UOC. Nimrod, G.; Adoni, H.(2012). Conceptualizing E-Leisure. Loisir et Société / Society andLeisure. Volume 35, Issue 1, pp. 31 – 56. Pine II B.J. & Gilmore J.H. (1999). The experience economy: work is theatre and business a stage. Harvard Business School Press. Richards (2007). Cultural tourism: global and local perspectives. New York (etc.): Haworth Hospitality. Richards, G. & Palmer, R. (2010) ‘Eventful cities. Cultural management and urban revitalization’, Amsterdam [etc.]: Elsevier.

The challenges of engaging audiences in ‘green’ behaviour at music festivals Anna Borley, University of Northampton Business School Due to increasing environmental, social and political pressures, the UK music festival industry has responded to the negative environmental impacts caused by hosting such events, by developing ‘green’ campaigns and initiatives to engage their audiences in more responsible behaviour (Jones 2010). It is recognised that music festivals can play a significant role in educating audiences on issues such as environmental protection (Picard & Robinson, 2009); and cultural events such as the Glastonbury Festival of Contemporary Performing Arts have developed their ethos around the need to educate audiences, and bring about a change in attitude towards behaviour such as recycling, the reduction of waste and carbon emissions. This paper will present findings from a semiotic analysis of the ‘green’ marketing campaigns used by the organisers of Glastonbury Music Festival during the 2010 and 2011 events. Triangulation will be used as the primary methodological approach to establish whether festival audiences are effectively influenced to change their ‘green’ behaviour during the event. The paper will aim to highlight the challenges in engaging audiences in ‘green’ behaviour at large music festivals, and will provide recommendations for festival organisers and models for ‘best practice’ based on audience attitudes and behaviour. References: • Jones, M. (2010) Sustainable Event Management: A Practical Guide. London: Earthscan. • Picard, D. & Robinson, M. (2009) Festivals, Tourism and Social Change: Remaking Worlds. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Connecting cultural planning to cultural participation: whom do cultural venues benefit? Orian Brook, University of St Andrews Urban planners lack guidance on provision of cultural facilities, unlike the quantitative standards for leisure amenities such as recreation fields and libraries. Reasons for this include: an emphasis on the creative industries as providing economic growth rather than local amenity; the miscellany of cultural providers; the lack of a defined “need” for or benefit of cultural participation; and an emphasis in the literature on social stratification explaining levels of engagement, which has failed to consider the effect of access to cultural facilities. This paper uses the Scottish Household Survey to explore attendance to museums and galleries, analysing the relationship between social stratification and access to facilities in determining participation. Accessibility indices for museums and galleries are created and fitted, alongside demographic and socio-economic characteristics, in a logistic regression model estimating attendance. The results find that access to museums is strongly predictive of attendance. This effect is not linear and is mediated by education: while exceptionally good access has a more positive effect on attendance for those with a degree, poor access has a more significantly negative effect on those with no or few qualifications. Given recent research finding improved self-reported health and life satisfaction for those that engage with culture, independent of their social status, these findings make a case both for an increased consideration of access to culture within the participation literature, but also for greater emphasis in urban planning on the benefits of cultural facilities for residents. References: • • • •

Evans, G. (2009). Creative cities, creative spaces and urban policy. Urban studies, 46(5-6), 1003-1040. Evans, G., & Foord, J. (2008). Cultural mapping and sustainable communities: planning for the arts revisited. Cultural Trends, 17(2), 65-96. Scottish Government. (2013). Healthy Attendance? The Impact of Cultural Engagement and Sports Participation on Health and Satisfaction with Life in Scotland. Widdop, P., & Cutts, D. (2012). Impact of place on museum participation. Cultural Trends, 21(1), 47-66.

“Unless you’re online, you’re on your own”: Blogs and bridging social capital in para-sport Andrea Bundon, Loughborough University Since the inception of the Web, it has been described as a liberating technology that would permit individuals with disabilities to surmount structural and socio-cultural barriers that otherwise prevent full engagement in society. Subsequent studies of Web communication have instead reported that disabling conditions are reproduced rather than challenged online. Based on a project framed by a participatory action research (PAR) methodology, this paper draws on interviews with 25 para-sport athletes and supporters and on data from posts and comments made on a multi-authored blog about disability sport to provide an empirical account of how the affordances of the Web are being leveraged in disability sport communities. Findings indicate that individuals with disabilities are using blogs, Facebook, Twitter, and other forms of online communication to find information, engage in outreach and advocacy work, and form strong sport-based networks that extend both online and offline. The findings are discussed in light of Putnam’s (2000) conceptualization of bridging and bonding social capital that describes how individuals and groups leverage weak ties to disseminate information and strong ties to foster a sense of belonging or community. References: • Putnam, R. D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

“in the end, we’re all still just a bunch of snow-loving interweb weirdos” (Tetongravity 2014): an analysis of ski and snowboard cultures displayed through online forums Robert Burton, Southampton Solent University This paper will continue the author’s previous work (Burton & Jones, 2011) on hybrid ski and snowboard cultures and identities. Where snowboarders and skiers once created oppositional identities (Humphreys 1997, Heino 2000, Edensor & Richards 2007, Thorpe 2010) through subcultural markers such as language, dress and attitude, there now seems to be far less difference between the two groups. This research paper aims to explore the attitudes and language used by skiers and snowboarders towards each other when not on the mountainside, but instead through the medium of online forums. As the researcher is a keen all mountain skier with close ties to snowboarders, the research will follow an ethnographic approach. The researcher’s position and knowledge will be used to critically interpret online forum posts on ski and snowboard sites and evaluate, through discourse tracing (Le Greco & Tracy 2006), the extent to which they exhibit aspects of animosity to the ‘other’ or a sharing of values and mutual respect. Forum posts for the current winter ski/snowboard season will form the basis of data to be analysed. The research findings will be discussed, and where appropriate juxtaposed, to the previously identified researchers’ work in the fields of skier and snowboarder identities. Conclusions will assess the extent to which the participants of snowboarding and skiing exhibit, at least through online forum settings, hybrid identities that are culturally less differentiated than previously thought. References: • Burton, R. & R. Jones. 2011. ‘Trolls with poles’ vs ‘gays on trays’; looking beyond the banter to explore the similarities and differences in sub-cultural identity amongst snowboarders and skiers. In Watson, B & J. Halpin (Eds), 2011. Cultures and Voices in Leisure and Sport. Eastbourne: Leisure Studies Association. • Edensor, T. & S. Richards. 2007. Snowboarders vs skiers, contested choreographies of the slopes. Leisure Studies. Vol. 6, No. 1: pp 97-114. • Heino, R. 2000. What is so punk about snowboarding. Journal of Sport and Social Issues. Vol. 24. No . 2: pp176-191. • Humphreys, D. 1996. Snowboarders: Bodies out of control and in conflict. Sporting Traditions. Vol. 13, No.1: pp 3-23. • Le Greco, M. & S. Tracy. 2009. Discourse tracing as qualitative practice. Qualitative Inquiry. Vol. 15, No. 9: pp 1516-1543. • Tetongravity, 2014. Meet the Maggots [online] [viewed 28 February 2014]. Available from: • Thorpe, T. 2010. Bourdieu, Gender Reflexivity, and Physical Culture: A Case of Masculinities in the Snowboarding Field. Journal of Sport and Social Issues. Vol. 34, No. 2: pp 176-214.

Volunteering and the Olympic Games: an emotional matter Sandro Carnicelli, University of the West of Scotland Many are the publications that can be found about the planning, historical development, economic, social, and environmental impacts and well as the legacies by hosting the Olympic and Paralympic Games (Minnaert, 2012; Zhou & Ap, 2009). Volunteering has also been a topic discussed in many studies about Mega Events (Fairley et al., 2007; Nichols & Ralston, 2011). The selection and training of volunteers for Mega Events were also of previous academic studies (Zhuang & Girginov, 2012). However not much has been studied about the emotional preparation and management of volunteers. This paper offers contributions to academia as well as to the tourism, events, hospitality and leisure industries, by discussing the emotions and emotional management of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games volunteers. More specifically this research explored the emotions and feelings of volunteers during the 2012 London Games as well as their emotional return to daily life. Questionnaires during the Olympic Games and after the Paralympic Games and observation during the Olympic Games were used as methods for data collection. Results show that volunteering at the Games can be a relevant and exciting experience but can also cause emotional issues such as confusion between volunteer role and the volunteer-self. The research concludes suggesting a new approach and actions to be taken by events managers in order to reduce the emotional costs of volunteering and enhance the positive experience. References: • Fairley, S., Kellett, P., & Green, B. C. (2007). Volunteering abroad: Motives for travel to volunteer at the Athens Olympic Games. Journal of Sport Management, 21(1), 41–57. • Minnaert, L. (2012). An Olympic legacy for all? The non-infrastructural outcomes of the Olympic Games for socially excluded groups (Atlanta 1996-Beijing 2008). Tourism Management, 33, 361–370. • Nichols, G., & Ralston, R. (2011). Olympic Games Social Inclusion through Volunteering: The Legacy Potential of the 2012. Sociology, 45(5), 900–914. • Zhou, Y., & Ap, J. (2009). Residents’ perceptions towards the impacts of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Journal of Travel Research, 48, 78–91. • Zhuang, J., & Girginov, V. (2012). Volunteer selection and social, human and political capital: a case study of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Managing Leisure, 17(2-3), 239-256.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Emic, etic, and in-between: differing roles in building tourism understanding and value Dr Shawn P. Daly, Niagara University, Niagara Falls There are two main paradigms in cultural analysis: emic and etic. The vast majority of the literature on culture in travel and tourism takes an etic way of thought, though in the past few years there has been a small flow of emic research (Watkins & Gnoth 2011). Yet, essentially all these papers examine culture from the view of the tourist’s destination image and how it’s managed by the industry. Given that many researchers have found local culture experience is one of the outstanding reasons for travel (e.g., Kim, Ritchie, and McCormick 2012), taking an intensely emic perspective would allow those inside the society to describe salient attributes that make their local culture special. Triandis (2000) presents a dialectic, more continuum than dichotomy, placing indigenous, cultural, cross-cultural, and other paradigms of psychology on an emic/etic scale. By reviewing the major elements of these psychological perspectives, this paper opens new possibilities for helping tourists in their local knowledge quests and the deep valuing of those experiences, as well as assisting researchers and practitioners in utilizing the cultural paradigm in fitting with their own objectives. References: • Kim, Jong-Hyeong, J.R. Brent Ritchie, and Bryan McCormick (2012), “Development of a Scale to Measure Memorable Tourism Experiences”, Journal of Travel Research, 2012, 51, 12-25. • Triandis, Harry C. (2000), “Dialectics Between Cultural and Cross-Cultural Psychology”, Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 3, 185-195. • Watkins, Leah and Juergen Gnoth (2011), “The Value Orientation Approach to Understanding Culture”, Annals of Tourism Research, 38, 1274-1299.

The social role of events and festivals in modern society Sjanett De Geus and Suzanne Wetzels, Tilberg University In contemporary society an outburst of eventfulness and festivity is evident. Events are increasingly valuable, as in the modern ‘network society’ events can help to bring the networked individuals together (Castells, 2010). One of the explanations for the growing significance of events and festivals is their changing social function, such as the support of social cohesion (Richards, 2013). In general, researchers have indeed noted that events and festivals take on new social, as well as cultural, economic and political roles in contemporary society (Richards & de Brito, 2013; Ekman, 1999; Gursoy, Kim & Uysal, 2004). For the current research the changing social role is of interest, and especially the meaning of the social role for the visitors, since this perspective has not adequately been addressed in the literature so far (Richards & de Brito, 2013; Quinn, 2006). In April 2014, at the beginning of the Dutch festival season, qualitative research will be conducted among Dutch festival and event visitors, to gain an in-depth understanding of the social function as experienced by their visitors, and how this may have changed over time. Since the growth of events and festivals has encouraged a rise in the professionalism of its management, including a rising awareness of the social role and function associated (Gursoy, Kim & Usyal, 2004), current findings will also be valuable for all other stakeholders involved. Besides an academic interest, event and festival managers and policy makers can implement these new insights regarding the changed social function as experienced by their visitors, to successfully design events and festivals that attract and retain audiences. References: • Castells, M. (2010). The rise of the network society (2nd ed.). Oxford, England: Blackwell. • Ekman, A-K. (1999). The revival of cultural celebrations in regional Sweden. Aspects of tradition and transition. Sociologia Ruralis, 39(3), 280-293. • Gursoy, D., Kim, K., & Uysal, M. (2004). Perceived impacts of festivals and special events by organizers: an extension and validation. Tourism Management, 25, 171-181. • Richards, G. (2013). Events and the means of attention. Journal of Tourism Research & Hospitality, 2(2), 1-5. • Richards, G., & de Brito, M. (2013). The future of events as a social phenomenon. In G. Richards, M. de Brito, & L. Wilks (Eds.), Exploring the social impact of events. London, England: Routledge. • Quinn, B. (2006). Problematising ‘festival tourism’: Arts festivals and sustainable development in Ireland. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(3), 288-306.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Volunteer social capital in community sport Alison Doherty (Western University), Katie Misener (University of Waterloo) and Russell Hoye (La Trobe University) Community sport organizations (CSOs) or clubs are nonprofit grassroots membership associations that rely almost exclusively on the leisure time efforts of volunteers to organize and deliver many sport and physical recreation opportunities for children, youth and adults. They are also expected to be a major player in the achievement of social policy objectives associated with increased participation. Yet, these small, volunteer-run organizations struggle in many ways to meet their own goals and objectives. The social capital generated among volunteers working together may be an important resource for CSOs to draw on for the effective delivery of community sport programs. However, there has been little research to date on volunteer social capital in and for grassroots membership associations, and its nature, mechanisms and impact are not well-understood in this context. This paper presents a theoretical framework that weaves together social capital and organizational capacity from a critical theory perspective to guide the investigation of the nature and impact of volunteer connections in CSOs. The framework is founded on the conceptualization of social capital as a resource that is produced (and reproduced) in a social connection(s), and which individuals or groups may draw on for further benefit (Adler & Kwon, 2002; Payne et al., 2011). Both cognitive (e.g., mutual understanding, shared information) and relational (e.g., trust, reciprocity, solidarity) resources can accrue over time in a social connection (Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998), depending on the frequency and intensity of the engagement (Tsai & Ghoshal, 1998), and the human capital (e.g., knowledge, experience) individuals bring to the connection (Adler & Kwon, 2002). Closed and potentially exclusionary “bonding” connections among similar individuals, and more open “bridging” connections among individuals who differ, are also expected to influence the social capital generated among CSO volunteers (Coffe & Geys, 2007; Putnam, 2000). The cognitive and relational resources that characterize social capital are expected to shape individual attitudes and behavior (e.g., satisfaction, commitment, effort; Payne et al., 2011) and group performance (e.g., problem solving, innovation; Fredette & Bradshaw, 2012; Oh et al., 2004, 2006; Tsai & Ghoshal, 1998), and ultimately impact the capacity of the organization to achieve its goals (cf. Hall et al., 2003). The framework provides a holistic explanation of the nature and development of social capital among volunteers in CSOs, and the relationship between social capital and organizational capacity as indicated by individual, group and organizational performance in that context. References: • Adler, P.S., & Kwon, S-W. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Review, 27(1), 17-40. • Coffe, H., & Geys, B. (2007). Toward an empirical characterization of bridging and bonding social capital. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36(1), 121139. • Fredette, C., & Bradshaw, P. (2012). Social capital and nonprofit governance effectiveness. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 22(4), 391-409. • Hall, M.H., Andrukow, A., Barr, C., Brock, K., de Wit, M., Embuldeniya, D., et al. (2003). The capacity to serve: A qualitative study of the challenges facing Canada’s nonprofit and voluntary organizations. Toronto, ON: Canadian Centre for Philanthropy. • Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23( 2) 242-266. • Oh, H., Chung, M-H., & Labianca, G. (2004). Group social capital and group effectiveness: The role of informal socializing ties. Academy of Management Journal, 47(6), 860-875. • Oh, H., Labianca, G., & Chung, M-H. (2006). A multilevel model of group social capital. Academy of Management Review, 31, 569-582. • Payne, G.T., Moore, C.B., Griffis, S.E., & Autry, C.W. (2011). Multilevel challenges and opportunities in social capital research. Journal of Management, 37(2), 491520. • Putnam, R.D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster. • Tsai, W., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital and value creation: The role of intrafirm networks. Academy of Management Journal, 41(4), 464-476.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

A study to assess the EduMove curriculum intervention to determine the efficacy of the processes and mechanisms of utilising movement games as a method to teach core subjects in Primary Schools Henry Dorling (Southampton Solent University) The EduMove concept (Education through Movement) has become an integral component within the Coaching Innovation Programme at Southampton Solent University however, no rigorous evaluation has been conducted to date to investigate and assess the effectiveness of learning through participation in subject specific movement games. EduMove serves to address several notable areas of worldwide concern around obesity, inactivity, inactive curricula, active learning and physical literacy, as well as embracing active curricula more widely. This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of the mechanisms and processes of the EduMove concept which includes the implementation of Student Practitioners to deliver EduMove sessions. A traditional qualitative methodology was utilized, framed in a critical realist ontological perspective in order to obtain a cross section of views from the many vested interests involved. Semi structured interviews were conducted with school teachers (n = 5) and with University student EduMove practitioners (n = 6). A small quantitative survey was also administered to school children who had experienced the EduMove methodology (n = 54). Methods of data analysis used were thematic coding of emergent themes from transcripts and basic descriptive analysis from the supporting survey results. The in depth data collected tended to demonstrate a positive attitude in those pupils involved in EduMove and an increase in their motivation and interest in the particular core curriculum subject. Teachers overall saw a benefit from the school pupils being involved in EduMove but were unsure as to the more holistic reasons for the intervention. The use of student practitioners highlighted the need for further, more in depth training in the EduMove concept to negotiate more appropriate outcomes for all involved, although actual delivery of games based sessions proved to be of a high standard. Future areas to address include the development of a common framework for EduMove Practitioner Training, and to look more closely at a correlation between subject achievement and involvement in the EduMove programme, linking more broadly with the effects of introducing a more active and outdoor learning environment.

PANEL SESSION Meaningful Leisure Experiences: Conceptualizing the Core of Leisure Studies Mat Duerden, Patti Freeman, Brian Hill, Neil Lundberg and Peter Ward (Brigham Young University) Conceptualizing Experiences: A Multi-Disciplinary Synthesis Over the last 20 years the concept of experiences has received increasing attention across a variety of fields. Concepts such as customer experience management (Meyer & Schwager, 2007), experience management (Morgan, 2010; Schmitt & Rogers, 2008), the experience economy (Pine & Gilmore, 2011), experiential marketing (Schmitt, 1999), and the tourist experience (Ritchie & Hudson, 2009) have become commonly accepted within relevant professional and academic circles. As Rossman and Ellis (2012) note: It seems everyone wants to provide experiences these days including retail businesses, tourism agencies, event planners, sport managers, leisure providers, marketers, arts managers, and museum curators. These seemingly diverse organizations share a common goal, an intention to provide experiences, preferably memorable experiences, and sometimes experiences that serve to transform people’s lives. (p. 1) Although consensus exists across these industries regarding the importance of providing quality experiences, little to no interdisciplinary conversations have occurred defining and conceptualizing what is the essence of experiences (Rossman & Ellis, 2012). It would seem that establishing a common conceptual understanding of structured leisure experiences is a necessary step in order for experiences to serve as a unifying and interdisciplinary concept. Therefore the purpose of this paper was twofold: (1) to review literature related to experiences across the fields of leisure studies, tourism, and marketing in order to identify differences and commonalities regarding the conceptualization of experiences; and (2) based upon these comparisons propose a synthesized concept of experiences applicable across multiple fields. It is our hope that such an effort will facilitate experience related research that has applicability for both academics and professionals across fields interested in the provision of meaningful leisure experiences. References • Meyer, C., & Schwager, A. (2007). Understanding customer experience. Harvard business review, 85(2), 1-11. • Morgan, M. (2010). The experience economy 10 years on: Where next for experience management? In M. Morgan, P. Lugosi & J. R. B. Ritchie (Eds.), The tourism and leisure experience: Consumer and managerial perspectives (pp. 218-230). Tonawanda, NY: Channel View Publications. • Pine, B. J. I., & Gilmore, J. (2011). The experience economy. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press. • Ritchie, J. R. B., & Hudson, S. (2009). Understanding and meeting the challenges of consumer/tourist experience research. International Journal of Tourism Research, 11(2), 111-126.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

PANEL SESSION Mat Duerden, Patti Freeman, Brian Hill, Neil Lundberg and Peter Ward (Brigham Young University) Defining the Experience Industry—Practitioner’s Perspectives Although the use of experience focused language has been increasing for two decades by academics (Meyer & Schwager, 2007; Morgan, 2010; Pine & Gilmore, 2011; Rossman & Ellis, 2012; Schmitt, 1999; and Schmitt & Rogers, 2008), the popular press (e.g., Michelli, 2012), and professional digital media (e.g., Hensel, 2013) a common definition and understanding of experience by those enterprises engaged in leisure experience delivery has not been developed. Twenty-six professionals and academics attended the 2013 Experience Industry Management (EIM) Conference in Provo, Utah from March 21-22, 2013. Professionals came from diverse orientations including outdoor recreation outfitting, hotel management, corporate event planning, performing arts venues, sports management, youth sports, public recreation, convention centers, therapeutic recreation, and national parks. Nominal group techniques were utilized to: 1) build common ground across diverse fields around the concept of experience management, 2) identify the experience, skills, and training needed for undergraduate students to embark on successful EIM careers, and 3) discuss and prioritize an EIM research agenda applicable across both academics and practitioners. Participants universally agreed they were part of the experience industry. The group determined the common attribute needed for all who work in the experience industries was “advanced soft skills.” Research needs most commonly identified by the EIM professionals were 1) understanding meaningful experiences, 2) the role of technology in providing experiences, 3) experience engineering, and 4) evaluating experiences. The conference will be held again in March 2014 and additional related data will be added to these findings. The purpose of this paper is to detail the findings of these practitioner gatherings and discuss their implications. References • Hensel, J. (2013, October 24). Sofa vs stadium: Creating great fan experiences. (IAVM Industry Blog). Retrieved from • Meyer, C., & Schwager, A. (2007). Understanding customer experience. Harvard Business Review, 85(2), 1-11. • Michelli, J. A. (2012). The Zappos experience. New York: McGraw-Hill. • Morgan, M. (2010). The experience economy 10 years on: Where next for experience management? In M. Morgan, P. Lugosi & J. R. B. Ritchie (Eds.), The tourism and leisure experience: Consumer and managerial perspectives (pp. 218-230). Tonawanda, NY: Channel View Publications. • Pine, B. J. III, & Gilmore, J. (2011). The experience economy. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press. • Rossman, J. R., & Ellis, G. E. (2012). Thoughts on experience: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 30(3), 1-6. • Schmitt, B. H. (1999). Experiential Marketing. New York, NY: The Free Press. • Schmitt, B. H., & Rogers, D. L. (Eds.). (2008). Handbook on Brand and Experience Management. Northhampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

PANEL SESSION Mat Duerden, Patti Freeman, Brian Hill, Neil Lundberg and Peter Ward (Brigham Young University) Practice Models within the Experience Industry: Staging Experiences and Guiding Transformations The concept of providing experiences is not new (Meyer & Schwager, 2007; Morgan, 2010; Pine & Gilmore, 2011; Schmitt, 1999; Schmitt & Rogers, 2008) but has only recently been modeled within the parks, recreation, and tourism field of study (Rossman & Ellis, 2012). Developing systematic models of practice is a key component in the implementaion of superior-quality services, the delineation of appropriate outcomes, and the advancement of professional prepartion curriculum (Voelkl, Carruthers, & Hawkins, 1997). The current practice model for experience-staging within leisure related indistries focuses on how experiences can be enhanced and made more memorable through the use of essential concepts such as themeing, harmonizing cues, engaging the senses, providing memorablilia, and customizing (Pine & Gilmore, 2011). While the model is extensive, and provides significant insights into additional artistic and technical offerings intended to enhance the experience (Rossman & Ellis, 2012), it does not address the last and most customized stage of economic progression, guiding transformations. This is particularly relavent in that many leisure services are oriented towards providing a transformational experience at both the individual and community levels. The purpose of this paper is to further illucidate the concepts relevant for guiding transformation by incorporating suggestions provided by Pine and Gilmore (2011), but also drawing on a body of literature illustrating the processes of behavior change (Norcross, 2012). The paper concludes by providing an extension of Rossman and Ellis’s model which inculdes concepts such as individualized customization, provisions based on wisdom, trust and caring, value prioritization, identifying aspiration and eliciting motivation, and behavior techniques for sustainable change (Pine & Gilmore, 2011). References • Meyer, C., & Schwager, A. (2007). Understanding customer experience. Harvard Business Review, 85(2), 1-11. • Morgan, M. (2010). The experience economy 10 years on: Where next for experience management? In M. Morgan, P. Lugosi & J. R. B. Ritchie (Eds.), The tourism and leisure experience: Consumer and managerial perspectives (pp. 218-230). Tonawanda, NY: Channel View Publications. • Norcross, J. C. (2012). Changeology: Five steps tp realizing your goals and resolutions. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster. • Pine, B. J. I., & Gilmore, J. (2011). The experience economy. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press. • Ritchie, J. R. B., & Hudson, S. (2009). Understanding and meeting the challenges of consumer/tourist experience research. International Journal of Tourism Research, 11(2), 111-126. • Rossman, J. R., & Ellis, G. E. (2012). Thoughts on experience: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 30(3), 1-6. • Schmitt, B. H. (1999). Experiential Marketing. New York, NY: The Free Press.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Youth sport participation’s association with adult leisure-time physical activity Dr Michael Edwards, Dr Jason Bocarro and Dr Michael Kanters, North Carolina State University Increasingly, sport participation for young people has been encouraged as a means of increasing leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in adulthood. There is theoretical support for this concept. Continuity theory (Atchley, 1989), social learning theory (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997), and the leisure repertoire model (Iso-Ahola, 1980) suggest people are more likely to continue leisure activities learned in earlier life stages. Thus, youth sport participation is seen as an important predictor of adult LTPA (Green, Smith, & Roberts, 2005). However, critics of youth sport’s efficacy to promote physical activity and health argue sport’s relationship with health may be contextual to different social groups and delivery models (Casper, et al., 2011; Leek et al., 2011; Walters, et al., 2009). Increasingly, researchers and policy advocates have suggested more inclusive and less competitive sports that appeal to all interests and abilities, can be continued across the lifespan, and may be more beneficial to promoting adult LTPA than competitive youth sports (Edwards & Casper, 2012; Fuller, et al., 2011). The purpose of this study was to determine how youth sport participation affects levels of adult LTPA. Data were obtained from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey that surveyed a cohort of U.S. adolescents (N = 12,144) from adolescence into young adulthood between 1988 and 2000. Controlling for socio-demographic variables, results indicated that playing sport in adolescence was associated with higher levels of adult LTPA. Playing highly competitive youth sport was more important than playing informal sport; however, informal sport participation had an additive effect. There was no significant effect for type of sport played (e.g., football, basketball, swimming) or number of sports played in youth. Sport participation in adolescence had less overall effect on women’s LTPA, and only competitive youth sport was associated with women’s LTPA. Informal youth sport participation had a greater effect than competitive sports on adult LTPA only for adults who grew up in lower social class families, especially women. Generally, promoting competitive sport among youth may encourage LTPA in adulthood. However, providing informal and less competitive sports for low income youth, particularly girls, may be important to reduce physical activity disparities.

‘Trailblazing pioneers in the roped arena’: Women boxers as embodiment of gender equality agendas for the London 2012 Olympic Games Dr Rebecca Finkel, Queen Margaret University The role of women in sport is arguably one of the most important issues in the Olympic Movement right now (Jowell 2009). The London 2012 Olympic Games were heralded as the most gender equal to date; yet, it has been recognised that more still needs to be done in this area. At the Opening Ceremony, IOC President Jacques Rogge said that the London Games signified “a major boost for gender equality” (Donnelly and Donnelly 2013). As part of this, the inclusion of women’s boxing for the first time in the London Games meant that all summer Olympic sports that are open to men are now also open to women. Part of the legacy agendas for the London Games has been to provide an international platform to encourage more women to become involved in sport. This can be achieved not only through medal success, but also positive media representation of female athlete’s abilities and also their bodies. This paper critically analyses mainstream media accounts of women’s boxing for the London Games and seeks to examine how women competitors are represented in terms of the linkages between gender equality agendas and sport participation and discourses in the traditionally masculine boxing ring (Mennessen 2000; Theberge 1997). Situated in the work of Butler (1990) and Woodward (2007), this paper explores how Olympic women boxers became the embodiment 1of gender equality agendas for the London Games through ‘heroic’ focussed media narratives. Utilising documentary research (McCulloch 2004), methods include content analysis of both mainstream newspaper and televised broadcast coverage of women boxers and women’s boxing matches at the London Games. The main themes of gender equality, performance of gender, and sport influencing social change came through in the mainstream media reports of women’s boxing. It is argued that the London Games have been successful in improving the collectively recognised legitimacy of women’s boxing and providing an arena for the global consumption of women’s sport, where issues of power, representation and equality are tested and contested through the gendered mediated lens. References: • Butler, J. (1990) Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. London: Routledge. • Donnelly, P. and Donnelly, M. (2013) The London 2012 Olympics: A Gender Equality Audit. Centre for Sport Policy Studies Research Report. Toronto: University of Toronto. • Jowell, T. (2009) London 2012 – a chance to nurture strong female role models. Accessed from: asp?m=11&e=88#.Ul0L2-SQQpPo • McCulloch, G. (2004) Documentary research: In education, history and the social sciences. London: Routledge. • Mennessen, C. (2000) ‘Hard’ women and ‘soft’ women: The social construction of identities among female boxers. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 35, pp. 21-33. • Theberge, N. (1997) ‘It’s part of the game’: Physicality and the production of gender in women’s hockey. Gender and Society, 11, pp. 69-87. • Woodward, K. (2007) Boxing, Masculinity and Identity: The ‘I’ of the Tiger. London: Routledge.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Internationalising the Curriculum in Sport and Events: a case study from Germany Jenny Flinn and Robert Kielty, Glasgow Caledonian University The concepts of globalisation and internationalisation dominate Higher Education policy and strategy within the UK with international recruitment being a key driver behind this approach. However, it is evident that the relationship between these two concepts is a complex one that is both difficult to define and frame within applied educational settings (Altbach & Knight, 2007). Consequently, this leads to a multi-dimensional delivery framework amongst universities in the UK (Warwick & Moogan, 2013), as is acknowledged by the Sweeney (2012: 15) who advises that ‘Internationalisation needs to be nurtured through integrationary processes. It does not happen of itself simply through being set in a university context’. This paper will argue that internationalisation should extend beyond the realms of recruitment; offering exceptional scope for pedagogical development. As Warwick & Moogan (2013: 118) advocate, internationalisation is ‘an ongoing process, encompassing teaching and learning, research collaborations, curriculum development, the student experience, staff development, student support services and much more’. Adopting a case study approach we will present evidence from a German study project involving Sports, Events, and Media students at Glasgow Caledonian University. The paper will evaluate and critique the impact of the project on curriculum development innovation and student experience within the subject areas of sport, events and media, specifically focusing on the impact of the project on student’s academic mobility. Evidence will be provided as to the ways in which students documented the project utilising digital media and furthermore, the ways in which this digital evidence enhanced employability. We will conclude by offering an examination of the future direction and challenges for internationalisation of the curriculum. References: • Altbach, P.G. & Knight, J. (2007) The Internationalization of Higher Education: Motivations and Realities. Journal of Studies in International Education. Vol. 11 (3/4), pp. 290-305. • Sweeney, S. (2012) Going Mobile: internationalisation, mobility and the European Higher Education Area. York: Higher Education Academy. • Higher Education Academy (2014) Going Mobile: Internationalisation, mobility and the European Higher Education Area. Edited by Simon Sweeney. York. England. Available online at, • Warwick, P. & Moogan, Y. (2013) A comparative study of perceptions of internationalisation strategies in UK universities. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education. Vol. 43 (1), pp.102-123.

ORIGINALITY. TRADITION. SPECTACLE. Discourses of home and community in Padstow’s May Day Malcolm Foley, University of the West of Scotland and Neil Findlay, Punch Taverns The small town of Padstow in Cornwall maintains an event on 1 May every year that is both unusual and spectacular. ‘Oss is a spectacle which is staged, stewarded, conducted and is delivered entirely locally, without substantial state or commercial inputs and is portrayed as being genuinely community owned and led. Its spectacle derives much from its human scale in a tiny town with narrow streets, its cacophonies of accordions and drums. In the typology of Tonnies (1912), there is evident, if temporary, gemeinschaft, in a hostile world of globalising gesellschaft (Hobsbawm, 2007) for the remaining 364 days of the year. It appears as an “original” English celebration (Padstow’s Old Oss poster, 2014) where genuine “traditions” are observed (Blue Ribbon Oss poster, 2014) in opposition to “invented traditions’ which often characterise alienated and fractured communities (Hobsbawm and Ranger, 1983). As Jameson (2000) observes, there is an “ambivalent envy” for gemeinschaft, even as those who are envious conspire in its downfall. Padstonians return to their “home” in large numbers, many from nearby but less expensive settlements; a few others from great distance as a kind of neo Tribe (Maffesoli, 1996) observing their connections and shared culture for a day before once again atomizing. Normal, accepted behaviours, physical and oral expressions and defined social boundaries are effectively loosened for the day, giving the impression of a suspension of cosmopolitan, liberal values and a resumption of cultural forms and expressions that are not normally observable in the public sphere throughout the rest of the year. One participant was recorded as saying, “In Padstow, reality takes a day off once a year”. The elaborate and continuous organization of the ‘Osses appears to resist the characterisations of Puttnam (2006) and the fracturing of community and social capital. This ethnographic research was conducted in the streets of Padstow using a series of media, including social media, to record the resumption and suspension of community, the discourses of originality and tradition operationalized by participants and the use of local spectacle as resistance to colonization, suburbanization and globalization.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

The nature of social capital in local level sport and recreation clubs Tom Forsell, Victoria University, Melbourne Social capital has become a popular area of research in villages in third world countries (World Bank studies), in local clubs (Putnam 1995), and it is also used to influence government direction e.g., Department for Victorian Communities. This paper analyses social capital in a local sport or recreation club setting. The material is part of research that focuses on measuring the nature of social capital in local sport and recreation clubs in Victoria through the development of a scale. In the initial stages of the research social capital was explored from the club member’s perspective through focus groups and interviews providing grounded concepts to augment the literature and provide another source of scale items. Two focus groups were conducted together with a small series of in depth interviews with club members for this qualitative section of the research. Each focus group included a mixture of club members representing sport (e.g., baseball and fencing) as well as recreation clubs (e.g., bushwalking and angling). In all, 22 people provided information. The prompts for the focus groups and interviews sought club members’ conceptualization of components of social capital. It was analysed using standard theme coding procedures. Major themes that emerged from the analysis included trust, friendship, support, bonding, helping, acceptance and tolerance of difference, rules of behaviour, and governance which reflect very much social capital factors in the research. The second stage of the research focused on the development of the scale through a series of exercises which systematically reduced the number of scale items (questions) through a panel of experts, a pilot study and factor analysis. The scale “The Social Capital Club Scale” was then distributed to clubs in Victoria with 1130 returned questionnaires from 54 diverse clubs. The data was analysed and a number of significant results were noted including social capital differences attributed to age, gender, income, and education. A series of other questions provided indicators on helping, trust, volunteering, and spillage of these values into the community, through volunteering and the strong presence of mutual support and reciprocity. This research while targeting sport and recreation clubs resulted in the development and testing of a generic tool for measuring social capital in most clubs which could also be used in related fields including the arts and environment.

“Old Scotia’s favourite dish”: Public celebrations of Scottishness and the emergence of haggis as a national symbol Dr. Joy Fraser (George Mason University, Virginia) This paper investigates the role played by Robert Burns anniversary dinners and other public celebrations of Scottishness in the cultural construction of haggis as Scotland’s “national dish” during the first half of the nineteenth century. My evidence is drawn primarily from newspaper articles and other contemporary accounts of festivities hosted by Scottish cultural associations throughout the British Isles. The earliest accounts typically devote scant attention to the dishes served at these events; subsequent reports, however, indicate that participants attached increasing significance to haggis’s status as a symbol of Scottish nationality, and developed correspondingly elaborate rituals surrounding the dish’s consumption in the context of their celebrations. Building on recent work by Alex Tyrrell et al. (2007) and by Clark McGinn (2012), I argue that these trends exemplify the processes of formularisation and “tartan-isation” that characterised the growth of public celebrations of Scottishness during this period. While earlier critics of Scottish cultural representation have tended to dismiss such festivities as propagating a facile “tartan-andhaggis” stereotype of Scottishness, I interpret them as nuanced and often playful performances of nationality, through which participants negotiated the cultural politics involved in forging a new role for haggis as a national symbol. References: • McGinn, Clark. 2012. “Robert Burns and the Invention of the Haggis.” Robert Burns Lives!, ed. Frank R. Shaw. August 15, 2012. familytree/frank/burns_lives148.htm. • Tyrrell, Alex, Patricia Hill, and Diane Kirkby. 2007. “Feasting on National Identity: Whisky, Haggis and the Celebration of Scottishness in the Nineteenth Century.” In Dining on Turtles: Food Feasts and Drinking in History, edited by Diane Kirkby and Tanja Luckins, 46-63. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Recreation-related venues’ social media practices: use patterns, engaging practices, and building relationships Dr. Patti Freeman and Dr. Peter Ward (Brigham Young University) and Dr. Sarah Taylor Agate (State University of New York) It is no longer a question of if recreation venues should use various social media channels to increase visibility, market programs, and inform the public but the question is how to do it best. Across the globe there is widespread use of social media (Rothschild, 2011), resulting in individuals and recreation-related venues having an ever-increasing array of communication channels to choose from (Gillin, 2008). Social media is a core element of many business’s marketing and communication strategies (Gillin). Although initial gratification may come from increasing numbers of “likes” on Facebook or followers on Twitter, greater customer loyalty and increased likelihood to visit a venue will come from moving beyond focusing on “likes” to concentrating on engaging with customers and building relationships through effectively using social media channels (Williams & Chinn, 2010). It is unclear, however, from the limited research on social media related to recreation venues what ways are best to engage customers, build relationships, and increase the likelihood of a venue visit. Tourism and hospitality disciplines dominate the social media research on recreation related venues (e.g., McCarthy, 2010; ParraLopez, Bulchand-Gidumal, Gutierrez-Tano, & Diaz-Armas, 2011; Stankov, Lazic, & Dragicevic, 2010; Xiang, 2010). Only one study was found focusing on sports and entertainment venues (Rothschild, 2011) and no studies were found related to social media at public/community recreation venues, although a number of web-based newsletters with tips on best practices are available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the social media practices of a variety of recreation-related venues, to determine use patterns as well as practices most likely to instill a desire to visit the venue, and prompt interaction and build interest in and loyalty to the venue. Social media best practices gleaned from web sources served as the template for evaluation. Results are based on social media practices from over 200 recreation-related venues in America, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand over a 3-week period. Venues included public/community recreation centers, resorts, theme/amusement parks, arenas, and stadiums. Findings describe social media use patterns by venues as well as best practices to create loyalty, engage customers, build relationships, and generate a desire to visit. References: • Gillin, P. (2008). New media, new influencers and implications for the public relations profession. Journal of New Communications Research, 2(2), 1-10. • McCarthy, L., Stock, D., & Verma, R. (2010). How travellers use online and social media channels to make hotel- choice decisions. Cornell Hospitality Report, 10(18), 4-18. • Parra-López, E., Bulchand-Gidumal, J., Gutiérrez-Taño, D., & Díaz-Armas, R. (2011). Intentions to use social media in organizing and taking vacation trips. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(2), 640-654. • Rothschild, P. C. (2011). Social media use in sports and entertainment venues. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 2(2), 139-150. • Stankov, U., Lazic, L., & Dragicevic, V. (2010). The extent of use of basic facebook user- enerated content by the national tourism organizations in europe. European Journal of Tourism Research, 3(2), 105-113. • Williams, J., Chinn, S., & Clavio, G. (2010). Meeting relationship- marketing goals through social media: A conceptual model for sport marketers. International Journal of Sport Communication, 3(4), 422-437. • Xiang, Z., & Gretzel, U. (2010). Role of social media in online travel information search. Tourism Management, 31(2), 179-188.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Disruptive Desire: Digital Dreaming in the Fantasy of Festivity Matthew Frew, Bournemouth University Today ubiquitous technologies see new modes of mobile, immediate, interactive and sociable engagement as commonplace markers of Western consumerism (Solis, 2013). It is argued here that the phenomenon of digital and social media merely represent the tremors of a technological Tsunami that is transforming the creative and cultural content of social life. This paper couples the work of Zizek (1989) with Deleuze and Guattari (1987) to provide a critical reading of the field of festivity within this age of accelerating techno-culture (Djik, 2013). Burning Man provides the methodological focus of the paper as an analysis of its digital narrative unmasks the seductive spectacle of festive attraction (Frew, 2013), and importantly, offers a microcosm of the techno-cultural phenomenon evidence across consumer capitalism. It is argued that the trajectory of techno-culture demonstrates a march of digital disruption, increasingly, moving from the external to the internal or embodied state. Digital disruption is more than the breaking or re-imagining of tourism, festive or life narratives (Flinn and Frew, 2013). It is the progressive eradication of physically restrictive technologies towards those that seamlessly blend into an internalised embodied given (Kaku, 2011). Digital disruption marks a transhuman e-volution that liberates and facilitates techno-omniscient desire. Current advances such as the internet-of-things, Google Glass, iOptik augmented reality, Oculus Rift immersion, haptic feedback to brain-computer interface reflect an accelerating techno-culture that sees desire digitally de-territorialising. Burning Man, while a festival that openly celebrates and champions resistance, unmasks this techno-cultural transformation as the web shifts from a repository of digital curation to one where fantasy and desire is actively augmented, recreated and re-lived. The spaces and spectacles of festivity are no longer sufficient as consumers are frustrated by the traditional journey, physical body and singular self. Techno-culture is accelerating, challenging the fantastic supplement of ideology and opening new routes where de-territorialised desire breathes digital life into our E-mbodied ‘othering’. Digital desire is feeding a transhuman technological ‘othering’, where an airbrushed, augmented and enhanced experiential self is displayed in a cycle of convergent competition. Techno-culture is now placing the structuring glue of fantasy, productive power of desire, the self and the social into critical relief. In these digital dreams what constitutes cultural ‘reality’ is up for grabs. To dismiss it as ‘fantastical’ would, ironically, be correct for the future is, indeed, now. References • • • • • • • •

Kaku, M. (2011) The Physics of the Futur., London: Doubleday. Deleuze, G. and Guattari. F. (1987) A Thousand Plateaus. Minneapolis: U Minnesota Dijk, J.V. (2013) The Culture of Connectivity: a critical history of social media. London: Oxford University Press. Jenny Flinn & Matt Frew (2013) ‘Glastonbury: managing the mystification of festivity’, Leisure Studies, DOI:10.1080/02614367.2012.751121. Frew, M. and McGillivray, D. (2008) ‘Exploring Hyper-Experiences: Performing the Fan at Germany 2006’, Journal of Sport & Tourism, Vol 13, No.3: 181-198. Frew, M. (2013) ‘Events and media spectacle’, In R. Finkel, D. McGillivray, G. McPherson and P. Robinson (eds.), Research Themes for Events, Wallingford, CABI. Solis, B. (2013) What’s the Future of Business?: changing the way businesses create experience., New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Zizek, S. (1989) The Sublime Object of Ideology. London: Verso.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Naked running v the quantified self: The rise of running bodies as an assemblage of physical and digital cultures Simone Fullagar, University of Bath, Adele Pavlidis, Griffith University and Gordon Waitt, University of Wollongong In contrast with declining participation in many organised sports, participation in running has grown in a number of countries over the last decade (for example, Australia, Denmark). In this paper we consider the emergence of running as an embodied practice that has been produced as an assemblage of physical and digital cultures. The emergence of technologies that are sold and deployed to measure a range of capacities (speed, distance, heart rate) (Swan, 2012) has transformed running bodies. The individual’s quest to know and monitor their embodied capacity is produced through the calculative rationality of advanced liberalism - becoming the entrepreneurial self who is faster, stronger, healthier, more productive and attractive. However, the normalisation of this ‘quantified self’ (Lupton, 2013) has also been contested by counter imperatives that value ‘naked running’ (technology free) as well as the value of belonging and ‘togetherness’ through shared running experiences. We situate these changes within interdisciplinary work across sociology, cultural studies and human geography to ask how the running body is experienced within an assemblage of relations with other running bodies, digital texts and images of running, non-human nature, urban spaces and one’s own corporeal biography (Pavlidis & Fullagar, 2012). We think through the visceral body in motion to consider the materiality of engagement in different forms of individual and collective running experiences (5km community ‘parkruns’ to longer marathons). Our analysis draws upon cultural artefacts such as photographs, journal notes on self-other observations and facebook comments. We aim to contribute a different way of thinking through the multiplicity of running identities, experiences and relations that inform different notions of embodied participation beyond normalised sport discourse. References: • Swan, Melanie. (2012). Sensor mania! The Internet of Things, wearable computing, objective metrics, and the Quantified Self 2.0. Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, 1(3), 217-253. • Lupton, Deborah. (2013). Quantifying the body: monitoring and measuring health in the age of mHealth technologies. Critical Public Health, 23(4), 393-403. doi: 10.1080 /09581596.2013.794931 • Pavlidis, A., & Fullagar, S. (2012). Becoming roller derby grrrls: Exploring the gendered play of affect in mediated sport cultures. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, DOI: 10.1177/1012690212446451 1-16.

Sport, youth culture and public space: parkour parks as an ‘everyday utopia’ Paul Gilchrist, School of Environment and Technology, University of Brighton This paper examines public space as a domain in which social values are asserted and contested. It focuses in particular upon research into the development of parkour parks and training spaces in the UK. Rather than viewing parkour parks as discrete, spatially bounded units and a manifestation of regulatory practices and youth development policies, this paper seeks to shed light on how the spaces are materialised and imagined by users and participants as ‘everyday utopias’. The term ‘utopia’ is deployed here not uncritically, for research has shown inequalities and exclusions occur within the parkour subculture, but instead I seek to shift the theoretical lens to the park itself as an evolving space of social invention and careerist aspiration. The paper reveals how parkour parks are constructed by users as enfolded in networks, mobilities and possibilities; where the ‘everyday utopias’ are at once ‘glocalised’ manifestations of neoliberal entrepreneurialism and an expression of ‘creative citizenship’. I conclude with some thoughts about the individual and social dynamics at work in the ‘everyday utopias’ of parkour parks and the tensions and contradictions that emerge.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

No prize for second place? The relative importance of competitive success in the philosophies of novice sport coaches Laura Graham, University of the West of Scotland The capacity for sport to contribute towards social inclusion and the regeneration of communities has become a popular theme amongst sport organisations and policy makers (Maguire et al., 2002). However, sport has also maintained a reputation for excluding a number of social groups and for replicating stagnant, discriminatory teaching practices. A common discourse is that of prioritising the development of high performance sport over participation for fun (Cassidy, Jones and Potrac, 2008; Fernández-Balboa and Muros, 2006). This study aimed to explore the values and beliefs of novice sport coaching students and the subsequent development of their coaching philosophy, regarding, amongst other things, their definition of success. Following ethical approval from the author’s institution, the written coaching philosophy statements of 77 sport coaching students, submitted during their 1st semester were examined. Inductive content analysis generated several key areas to which students tended to refer; Encouraging Fun, Importance of Success, Building Relationships, Developing Character, and Origin of Beliefs. Although some students did highlight the importance of winning competitions, most preferred to emphasise the personal development of each participant. Consistent with previous research on novice coaches however (Nash, Sproule and Horton, 2008), it was noted that participants appeared to struggle to articulate the precise nature of their philosophy and in particular, how it would translate into action. The impact of core values and beliefs about sport participation upon coach behaviour, particularly regarding the importance of competition, is an area which would benefit from further investigation. References: • Cassidy, T. G., Jones, R. L., and Potrac, P. (2008). Understanding sports coaching: The social, cultural and pedagogical foundations of coaching practice. Routledge. • Fernández-Balboa, J.-M., and Muros, B. (2006) The Hegemonic Triumvirate--Ideologies, Discourses, and Habitus in Sport and Physical Education: Implications and Suggestions. Quest (00336297). Vol.58(2), pp.197-221. • Maguire, J., Jarvie, G., Mansfield, L., and Bradley, J. (2002). Sport Worlds: A Sociological Perspective. Leeds: Human Kinetics. • Nash, C. S., Sproule, J., and Horton, P. (2008) Sport Coaches’ Perceived Role Frames and Philosophies. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. Vol.3(4), pp.538- 554.

The evolving nature of hosting friends and relatives for immigrants Tom Griffin, Ryerson University Increasing global mobility means the experiences of immigrants have become progressively important for communities who receive them (Williams & Hall, 2000). The impact on touristic travel is noteworthy, both with diaspora returning home, and (of interest for this paper) with friends and family visiting the immigrant. Hosting as a form of leisure has implications for integration (e.g. Doherty & Taylor, 2007; Stack & Iwasaki, 2009), however, the additional context of co-presence with friends and family holds additional significance (Larsen, 2008). Despite the volume of such travel, the experience of immigrant hosts has been disregarded by practice and academe (Backer, 2011). Therefore, the focus of this study considers the evolution of the hosting experience for immigrants. This study draws on interviews with nine immigrants from various cultures and length of time since settlement in the Toronto, Ontario region. Epistemological considerations are important (Griffin, 2013), and a constructionist narrative analysis was adopted. Storytelling is considered as a way of co-constructing knowledge, selectively revealing what is of interest, articulating values and attitudes (Glover, 2003; Polkinghorne, 1995). Participants’ experiences with settlement and hosting friends and relatives were explored. All interviews were individual, and video recorded. Edited excerpts of the first interviews were used in the second meetings as an elicitation tool, with each participant viewing their own video, as well as two to four videos of other participants, enabling clarification and further exploration in an accessible way (Rahn, 2007). Early hosting provides comfort, reassurance, and an emotional boost, stimulating exploration of new environments, generating meaning and attachment to foreign surroundings. Sharing these experiences in a leisure context with friends and family helps in positive interpretation. As time passes the nature of hosting can evolve into family obligation, caring for new children, and spending time with elderly parents, and demonstrating the value of friendship by continued visits. This paper has methodological implications for its use of narrative analysis and video, as well as suggestions for practitioners involved with settlement, as well as destination marketers in communities with high immigrant populations. References: • • • • • • •

Doherty, A., & Taylor, T. (2007). Sport and physical recreation in the settlement of immigrant youth. Leisure/loisir, 31(1), 27-55. Backer, E. (2011). VFR travel: It is underestimated. Tourism Management, 33(1), 74-79. Glover, T. D. (2003). Taking the narrative turn: The value of stories in leisure research. Loisir Et Société,26(1), 145-167. Griffin, T. (2013). A paradigmatic discussion for the study of immigrant hosts. Current Issues in Tourism, doi:10.1080/13683500.2012.755157 Larsen, J. (2008). De-exoticizing leisure travel. Leisure Studies, 27(1), 21-34. Polkinghorne, D. E. (1995). Narrative configuration in qualitative analysis. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 8(1), 5-23. Rahn, J. (2007). Digital content: Video as research. In J. G. Knowles, & A. L. Cole (Eds.), Handbook of the arts in qualitative research, (pp. 299-312). Los Angeles: Sage. • Stack, J. A. C., & Iwasaki, Y. (2009). The role of leisure pursuits in adaptation processes among Afghan refugees who have immigrated to Winnipeg, Canada. Leisure Studies, 28(3), 239-259. • Williams, A. M., & Hall, C. M. (2000). Tourism and migration: New relationships between production and consumption. Tourism Geographies, 2(1), 5-27.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Australian folk festivals and their community engagement strategies Dr Rob Harris and Francesca Piazza, University of Technology, Sydney This paper provides insights into those approaches available to public event organisers as they seek to engage with their respective host communities. Specifically, it focuses on Australian Folk Festivals, an event type that, anecdotally at least, is known in the Australian context as being proactive in this area. While a number of researchers have sought to identify potential social impacts flowing to host communities from the staging of events (e.g. Derrett, 2003; Fredline & Faulkner 1998; Mowbray, 2007; Haxton 2000; Small, 2007; and Wood 2006), little effort has been directed at identifying the spectrum of practices available to public events seeking to engage with their respective communities in ways that might influence such impacts. This study seeks to go some way towards identifying and classifying these practices so that public event managers more generally can appreciate the range of activities available to them for this. It also seeks to determine those factors that might serve to impact, positively or negatively, on such efforts. These outcomes in-turn have the potential to ‘sharpen’ the strategic focus of public event organisers in the community engagement area, and potentially enhance the longer term sustainability of their events through such means as gaining access to community resources, growing local audiences and enhancing community tolerance levels for short term negative impacts (e.g. crowding). In exploring this issue a qualitative exploratory research approach has been employed involving an extensive literature review and a series of in-depth interviews with selected Australian Folk Festival managers. References: • Derret, R. 2003, ‘Festivals and Regional Destinations: How Festivals Demonstrate a Sense of Community and Place’, Rural Society, vol. 13, no. 1. • Fredline, L. & Faulkner, B. 1998, ‘Residents reactions to a major tourist event: The Gold Coast Indy car race’, Festival and Event Tourism, vol. 5, pp. 185-205. • Haxton, P. 2000, ‘The perceived role of community involvement in the mega event hosting process: a case study of the Atlanta 1996 and Sydney 2000 Olympic Games’, UTS, Sydney. • Mowbray, M. 2005, ‘Community capacity building or state opportunism?’, Community Development Journal, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 255-64.. • Small, K. 2007, ‘Social Dimensions of Community Festivals: An application of factor analysis in the development of the social impact perception (SIP) scale’, Event Management, vol. 11, no. 45-55. • Wood, E.H. 2006, ‘Measuring the social impacts of local authority events: a pilot study for a civic pride scale’, International Journal of Voluntary Sector and Nonprofit Marketing, vol. 11, pp. 165-79.

The Olympics as Festival: Party, Circus, or Urban Good? Harry H. Hiller, University of Calgary This paper examines the question of how host city residents view the Olympic Games. While Olympic organizers assume that the Games are a prize to be celebrated on the international stage, local residents often view the Olympics more in terms of costs and misplaced priorities rather than supposed positive outcomes. Advocates usually stress the economic benefits of hosting the Games whereas opponents often characterize the Games as redirecting public funds from more important purposes and then masking that action with a festival atmosphere often called a “party” or “circus” that diverts public attention from the controversies. Public opinion measures both before and after the Games are sometimes used to gauge levels of public support by the local organizing committee and the IOC. This paper introduces new measures both during the Games themselves and at a longer time after the Games are over (one year and four years) in order to assess how host city residents understand the Olympics and its contribution to their city. The festival question can be answered by measuring public opinion at numerous intervals during the Games in order to determine what impact the event itself has on host city residents as it unfolds (i.e. do the Games change public opinion or alter the urban mood?). But what is the long-term impact? The literature often uses the term “hangover” to imply that once citizens realize the full impact of the Games, the fiscal outcomes and headaches become known, and the emotion has worn off, public opinion will become increasingly negative. Public opinion data will be presented from both the Vancouver 2010 Winter Games and the London 2012 Summer Games in order to assess outcomes and answers to this question. Of particular importance will be a discussion of how local residents perceive the Games in retrospect. References: • Gursoy, D., Chi, C. G., Ai, J., & Chen, B. T. (2011). Temporal change in resident perceptions of a mega-event: the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Tourism Geographies, 13(2), 299-324. • Hall, C. Michael and Julie Hodges (1996). “The Party’s Great But What About the Hangover? The Housing and Social Impacts of Mega-Events with Special Reference to the 2000 Sydney Olympics.” Festival Management and Event Tourism 4:13-20. • Hiller, H.H. (2012). Host Cities and the Olympics: An Interactionist Approach. London: Routledge. • Hiller, H. H., & Wanner, R. A. (2011). Public opinion in host Olympic cities: the case of the 2010 Vancouver Winter Games. Sociology, 45(5), 883-899.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

The relationship between the golfer, golfing behaviours and destination selection Claire Humphreys, University of Westminster Sports tourism has received growing attention in academic research over the past two decades (Weed and Bull, 2009, Gibson, 2005) but greater understanding of the consumer is needed, particularly the factors influencing decisions to include sport as part of a leisure trip. This paper provides, through a focus on the sport of golf, insight into the characteristics of the sports tourist, how participation is included in trips, how the emotional rewards gained from participation can influence sports tourist behaviours, and thus influence the selection of locations deemed suitable for sports participation. This qualitative research employs a grounded theory methodology, underpinned by a constructivist epistemology, evaluating twentyseven in-depth interviews with UK-based golf tourists. The findings propose a model which seeks to explain the relationship between golf tourist behaviours and destination selection. A brief discussion explores how this insight informs understanding of sport tourism more generally. References: • Gibson, H. (2005) Towards an Understanding of ‘Why Sport Tourists Do What They Do’. Sport in Society, 8, 198-217. • Weed, M. & Bull, C. (2009) Sports Tourism: participants, policy and providers, Oxford, Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann.

Sport tourism for building social capital and community engagement Nigel Jamieson, Technical and Further Education South Australia Sport and tourism can play a major role in the bringing together of communities. The social cohesion that emanates from this interaction can make an important contribution to life in general, but rural life in particular in South Australia. Some towns have been struggling in recent times with high out- migration, bad seasons, loss of services and general low morale. A sport tourism event could well be seen as a fillip for the community and this study looks at seven towns and the role a particular sport tourism event, the Tour Down Under (TDU), plays in building the social capital of the community involved. Many studies concentrate on the economic impact of sport tourism events but fail to contemplate the social impacts which can be just as important and meaningful for those involved. This research investigated the role, if any, that sport tourism events have in building social capital in those towns with a start and or finish of the TDU and while there seems to be a dearth of research and relevant articles to draw upon there is a trend towards increased interest in this concept in more recent times. While some research has centred its attention on sport and the building of social capital, and now more recently festivals and the role they play, specifically, sport tourism or events have not been a focus. This research also concentrated on those in the community willing to assist in the event and contribute to community building of well-being and trust. Events are the socio-cultural glue which binds our communities and ultimately our nation together. They are occasions to share our traditions, to connect with one another and to express our cultural heritage. They offer opportunities to celebrate, to remember and to showcase the very best of our cultural and creative endeavours. In short, events are important. Governments have been quick to seize on this aspect of events and have directed their energy and money toward building a portfolio of them in recent years. Certain “givens” however, need to be enacted to maximise the chance for community building. Specific recommendations and further research will be discussed in the presentation but recommendations specific to the context of the event include; a need for greater community engagement by event organisers, a holistic Government wide focus utilising all the specialists, and not just the event managers, and greater effort at leveraging off events in the future. The need to appease the local community with events focused on them as well as providing for the tourists became a strong theme in the findings. The paper will also look at some of the reasons why industry has not engaged with this study from both personal and historic perspectives and practices.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

The strength of festival ties: a social network analysis of the Edinburgh International Science Festival David Jarman and Jane Ali-Knight, Edinburgh Napier University As commentators advocate an advantageous fruitful future for festival cities, so policy makers around the world proclaim their desire for an eventful economy (Richards, & Palmer 2010); (Festivals Edinburgh 2012). An apparent corollary of this progress is the opening up of career opportunities for those with an interest in the production, administration and mediation of these experiences, many of whom now possess academic qualifications in related fields (Getz 2012). The forces shaping career opportunities in such economies are subject to multiple influences and it is argued in this paper that they can be illustrated and perhaps better understood through Social Network Analysis (SNA) methods. For the individual this can highlight the importance of social networks and that sometimes it is who you know that counts, while festival organisations may recognise and value the multiple ties and connections that exist between their employees and those working with their stakeholders. SNA offers a means by which we might observe the ‘“structure” or “form” of social relations’ as well as the ‘interactional “processes”’ which create such structures – both the ‘outsider’ and ‘insider’ views of a network respectively (Edwards 2010, p. 5). Through these lenses the means by which resources, ideas and opportunities flow through the festival economy can be mapped, potentially identifying the people most central to the network and those who exist on its periphery (Scott 2000). This paper will present data gathered through the Edinburgh International Science Festival (EISF) as they produce the 2014 event, recruiting new staff and volunteers, while welcoming back previous employees to join the permanent workforce. It is hoped that these data will reveal something about the extent to which the EISF workforce is embedded in Edinburgh’s broader festival community. There may be an opportunity to view the impact of a festival period itself on the web of connections between those directly involved. This research also has the potential to suggest implications for the flow of information into and through the central organisation. This and other such findings will be of interest to festival managers, staff throughout the sector and researchers interested in a form of research that has thus far seen limited application in the events field. References: • • • • •

Edwards, G., 2010, Mixed-method approaches to social network analysis, ESRC National Centre for Research Methods Review paper. Festivals Edinburgh, 2012, Edinburgh’s Festivals: World Leaders, Festivals Edinburgh, Edinburgh. Getz, D., 2012, Event studies: theory, research and policy for planned events, Routledge, London. Richards, G. & Palmer, R., 2010, Eventful cities cultural management and urban revitalisation, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. Scott, J., 2000, Social network analysis: a handbook, 2nd ed. SAGE Publications, London.

Practice and place versus positivism? Co-producing research with community arts and media organisations in Remaking Society, an AHRC Connected Communities ‘pilot demonstrator’ project 2012 – 2014 Graham Jeffery, University of the West of Scotland • Remaking Society started from the premise that socially engaged arts practices – and the organisations that facilitate them - remain vital to everyday life, building social ties and helping us re-imagine alternative futures. Many such ventures, particularly in contexts of social deprivation, exist on a funding knife-edge. Another threat to these arts-based initiatives is the retreat of publicly engaged (and publicly funded) artists from being critics. Behind our project lies the vexed question of how the activities of artists and the academics who collaborate with them can avoid being extinguished by the same governmental, policy, and market logics that they seek to critique and challenge through their work. The project, which worked across four sites in the North of England and Scotland, took a broad methodological approach – using contemporaneous notes, interviews, participant-observation and the joint making of new art and media works – in film, audio, performance and public visual arts. The engaged arts practices we studied can only be understood in the context of place, where people from diverse backgrounds carry multiple perspectives. For community-based activities to lead to practical policy-change, some funders now call for the kinds of organisations we have collaborated with to be guided by a “theory of change”, involving predetermined outcomes and setting a route map for achieving them. The four organisations with whom we worked did subscribe to such a methodology for achieving change, preferring a more ‘ruthless and improvised pragmatism’ guided more by underlying values and attitudes than more functionally-oriented ‹cultural strategies›. The problem for deploying outcome based theories of change and notions of social impact in a community/participatory arts setting is that they appear to bring ends and means into conflict – predictive knowledge at one end, and the unravelling of accepted truths and re-imagining of different futures through creative improvisation at the other. References: • Ellingson, L. ‘Analysis and Representation Across the Continuum’, in Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y (eds) 2011 The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, London: Sage • Haraway, D. (1988) ‘Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective’ in Feminist Studies, Vol 14., No. 3 (Autumn 1988), pp. 575 - 599


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Ghosts in the Machine; analysing power in community festivals and events Allan. S. Jepson, University of Hertfordshire and Professor Alan Clarke, University of Pannonia in Veszprém, Hungary The context for this paper is set within the discursive constructions of power within community festivals and events. Our previous research (e.g. Jepson & Clarke, 2012; Clarke & Jepson 2009; 2010; 2011; 2012) has explored the creation and management of community festivals in regards how decisions are taken and how these impact on the wider production and consumption of festival events. Previous research and definitions of community festivals and events have tended to exclude the conditions that frame their production. This research takes forward Jepson & Clarke’s (2013) definition of community festivals and events as a; Themed and inclusive community event or series of events which have been created as the result of an inclusive community planning process to celebrate the particular way of life of people and groups in the local community with emphasis on particular space and time. Researching cultural festivals reveals the existence of a multitude of stakeholder relationships, given meaning through different cultures. The factor which holds our analyses together is that the stakeholders are all influenced by power, which in turn impacts on how a festival is constructed, delivered, and consumed. The focus in the current phase of our research focuses on how power is manifested and constructed in community festivals and events (Law, 2004). This paper takes an ethnographic approach (e.g. Corbin Dwyer & Buckle, 2009) to the creation of a new community festival ‘Folkstock’ formed through a community interest company (CIC). Previous research by Jepson and Clarke (2013) explored the way in which members of the local community chose to engage in the festival and event planning process. This paper explores the ways in which a festivals construction and presentation are shaped by different presentations of power within and around the festival organisation. The framework for the analysis is explored (Lewis, 2003) but is set within the context of a Foucauldian paradigm (Wright, 2002). There are evidences of formal and informal approaches to power within the organisation of the festival. Our analysis suggests that the power relationships are mediated through claims to and resistances to the discourses of professionalism, managerialism, volunteerism and enthusiasm, which will be further elaborated and explored in the paper (McKee, 2003). References: • Clarke, A. & Jepson, A., (2009). Cultural Festivals and Cultures of Communities in Cooper, C., ed. Proceedings of the EUTO Conference 2008 “Attractions and Events as Catalysts for Regeneration and Social Change” Christel DeHaan Tourism & Travel Research Institute, University of Nottingham and The Centre for Tourism and Cultural Change, Leeds Metropolitan University. Univ. of Nottingham. September 2008 2008/1 pp 68 – 88 • Clarke, A. & Jepson, A., (2010). Power, Hegemony and relationships within the festival planning and construction process presented at 2010 Global Events Congress IV, Leeds, 14- 16 July 2010 • Clarke, A. & Jepson, A., (2011). Power and Hegemony in a Community Festival International Journal of Events and Festival Management 2(1) 7 – 19. • Corbin Dwyer, S. and Buckle, J.L. (2009), “The space between: on being an insider-outsider in qualitative research”, International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 54-63. • Jepson, A. S. & Clarke, A., (2013) Community Festivals and Community Development: in Robinson, M. et al eds. Research Themes in Events. Wallingford, CABI. • Jepson, A., Clarke, A. and Ragsdell G. (2013) Applying the motivation-opportunity-ability (MOA) model to reveal factors that influence inclusive engagement within local community festivals: The case of UtcaZene 2012 International Journal of Events and Festival Management 4(3) 186-205. • Law, J. (2004), After Method – Mess in Social Science Research, Routledge, London and New York, NY. • Lewis, J. (2003), “Design issues”, in Ritchie, J. and Lewis, J. (Ed.) Qualitative Research Practice: A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers, Sage Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA, New Delhi, pp. 47-76. • McKee, A. (2003), Textual Analysis – A Beginner’s Guide, Sage Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA, New Delhi. • Wright, D.L., (2002). Applying Foucault to a future-oriented layered analysis in a post-bubble Japanese community. Futures, 34 pp. 523–534.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

“It’s just MegaBantz innit? LOL”: justifying virtual maltreatment in sport Ian Jones and Emma Kavanagh (Bournemouth University) Recent years have seen a considerable shift in the ways in which athletes and fans communicate (Pegoraro, 2010), with social media allowing direct and immediate communication between fans and athletes allowing gatekeepers such as officials and journalists to be bypassed (Hutchins, 2011). As a consequence, fans now have unprecedented access to athletes (Kassing and Sanderson, 2010), becoming closer to their heroes (Pegoraro, 2010). As Suler (2004, p.321) notes, however, “people say and do things in cyberspace that they wouldn’t normally say and do in face-to-face interaction”. As a consequence, there is a growing evidence of widespread online maltreatment against athletes and officials involving “direct or non-direct online communication that is stated in an aggressive, exploitative, manipulative, threatening or lewd manner designed to elicit fear, emotional or psychological upset, distress, alarm or feelings of inferiority” (Kavanagh & Jones, 2013). Despite recent high profile incidents, the question of how such behaviour may be justified by perpetrators has yet to be explored, Using a netnographic (Kozinets, 2010) approach, an analysis of two public forums (the Guardian, Digital Spy), identified four strategies to justify online abuse against athletes. These were Dissociative imagination (Suler 2004), or the view that online abuse is somehow “not real”; Externalising cognitive distortions (Barriga, et al 2000), or viewing online maltreatment as just “banter”, and two moral disengagement strategies (Pornari & Wood, 2010), these being Displacement of responsibility (blaming the online medium itself rather than taking personal responsibility), and Moral justification (the victim deserved it). References: • • • • • • • • •

Barriga, A., Landau, J., Stinson, B., Liau, A., & Gibbs, J. (2000). Cognitive distortion and problem behaviors in adolescents. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 27, 36–56 Hara, H. (2002). Justifications for bullying among Japanese schoolchildren. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 5: 197–204 Hutchins, B. (2011.) The acceleration of media sport culture. Information, Communication & Society, 14(2): 237-257. Kassing, J,. & Sanderson, J. (2010). Fan-athlete interaction and Twitter: tweeting through the Giro: a case study. International Journal of Sport Communication, 3(1): 113-128. Kavanagh, E., & Jones, I. (2013). #cyberviolence: Developing a typology for understanding virtual maltreatment in sport. Paper presented to the Brunel International Research Network for Athlete Welfare. Brunel University. 06 Nov 2013. Kozinets, R. (2010). Netnography. Doing ethnographic research online. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Pegararo, A. (2010). Look who’s talking? – Athletes on Twitter: A case study. International Journal of Sport Communication, 3 (4): 501-515. Pornari, C., & Wood, J. (2010). Peer and cyber aggression in secondary school students: The role of moral disengagement, hostile attribution bias and outcome expectancies. Aggressive Behavior, 36, 81-94. Suler, J. (2004). The online disinhibition effect. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 7, 321-326.

Event-led Digital Participation: Utalising Glasgow 2014 to empower communities to produce citizen-focused responses to major events Jennifer Jones, David McGillivray, Gayle McPherson and Alison McCandlish, University of the West of Scotland The emergence of small, alternative or citizen media during recent major events has offered space for citizens to discuss and act together and thus lower the threshold for involvement when producing media (Bakardjieva et al, 2012: i). This allows for the newly digitally empowered to break stories, become media makers and storytellers of the now, developing the potential to make a serious contribution to the historical record of a major event, beyond the mainstream narratives of the accredited broadcaster (McGillivray & Jones, 2013). With new media discourse aligning with notions of accelerated modernity in mediatized events (Redhead, 2007: 230) the speed in which communications and representations create challenges of control and management for event stakeholders and corporate sponsors alike. This workshop draws on a practice-research project, Digital Commonwealth, and how it utilises citizen journalism and ‘digital storytelling’ techniques, including blogging, video, audio and social media as a method of exploring and sustaining digital participation within identified marginalised and unvoiced communities across Scotland. By facilitating a creative and citizen-focused response, generated by communities for communities, the project works on the principle of networked publics (Boyd, 2014: 6) as a powerful source of grassroots storytelling (Gillmor, 2004) that can compliment or challenge dominant event narratives, providing an alternative channel and mediated experience of a major event. References: • • • • •

Bakardjieva, M., Svensson, J., & Skoric, M. (2012). Digital citizenship and activism: Questions of power and participation online. JeDEM, 4(1), i–v. Boyd, D. (2014) It’s Complicated: The Social Lives of Networked Teens. Yale University Press. Gillmor, D. (2004) We the Media: Grassroots Journalism by the People. O’Reilly Media. McGillivray, D & Jones, J. (2013) Events and Resistance in Research Themes in Events. CABI. Redhead, S. (2007) ‘Those Absent From The Stadium Are Always Right: Accelerated Culture, Sport Media and Theory at the Speed of Light’, Journal of Sport and Social Issues. Vol 33 No 1.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

The city brand and the role of culture: The missing links Mihalis Kavaratzis, University of Leicester Culture - in its various forms and understandings - is used extensively within city branding as demonstrated, not least, by the popularity of cultural festivals as city branding tools. This paper argues that the understanding of culture evident in contemporary city branding practice is inappropriate to capture the complexity of the relationship between the city brand and culture. To demonstrate this, the paper undertakes a cross-disciplinary literature review combining place branding studies (e.g. Kavaratzis, 2004; Greenberg, 2008; Govers and Go, 2009; Ashworth and Kavaratzis, 2010) with cultural planning studies (Evans, 2001; Kunzmann, 2004), integrating the role of culture in regeneration (Gibson and Stevenson, 2004; Colomb, 2011) and the role of events in particular (e.g. Garcia, 2005; Boland, 2010). Important for the argument, are recent publications linking place identity and place branding (e.g. Jensen, 2007; Mayes, 2008; Kalandides, 2011; Kavaratzis and Hatch, 2013). The paper re-assesses the role of culture in the effort to establish a favourable city image as well as, more importantly, a closer link between the city and its residents. The paper evaluates the contemporary uses of culture – focusing particularly on cultural events – against the framework of Kavaratzis and Hatch (2013) that explicates how the city brand mediates between local culture and local identity. Using as an illustration the extended example of Athens, Greece (starting with the 2004 Olympics), the paper traces the missing links between the use of events and the politics of identity as expressed in city branding practice. The paper offers a critical evaluation of the uses of culture and re-appreciates the link that culture can provide between local identity and the city brand. Particular attention is paid to cultural events and their potential role in city branding. The connection between local culture, local identity and the city brand is found in a clearer appreciation of the ways in which the city brand itself contributes to the formulation and articulation of local culture. This leads the paper to suggest practical ways in which culture can serve as the basis for city brands to link local populations to their own city. References: • Ashworth, G.J. (2010), ‘Personality association as an instrument of place branding’, in G.J. Ashworth and M. Kavaratzis (eds), Towards effective place brand management: Branding European cities and regions, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 222-233. • Boland, P. (2010), ‘Capital of Culture—you must be having a laugh! Challenging the official rhetoric of Liverpool as the 2008 European cultural capital’, Social and Cultural Geography, 11, 627-645. • Colomb, C. (2011), ‘Culture in the city, culture for the city? The political construction of the trickle-down in cultural regeneration strategies in Roubaix, France’, Town Planning Review, 82, 77-98. • Evans, G. (2001), ‘Cultural Planning: An urban renaissance?’, London: Routledge. • Garcia, B. (2005), ‘Deconstructing the city of culture: the long-term cultural legacies of Glasgow 1990’, Urban Studies, 42, 841-868. • Gibson, L. and Stevenson, D. (2004), ‘Urban space and the uses of culture’, International Journal of Cultural Policy, 10, 1-4. • Govers, R. and Go, F. (2009) Place Branding, Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. • Greenberg, M. (2008), Branding New York: How a City in Crisis was Sold to the World, London, Routledge. • Jensen, O.B. (2007), ‘Culture stories: Understanding cultural urban branding’, Planning Theory, 6, pp 211-236. • Kalandides, A. (2011), ‘The Problem with Spatial Identity: Revisiting the Sense of Place’, Journal of Place Management and Development, 4, 28-39. • Kavaratzis, M. (2004), ‘From City Marketing to City Branding’, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 1, pp 58-73. • Kavaratzis, M. and Hatch, M.J. (2013), ‘The dynamics of place brands: An identity-based approach to place branding theory’, Marketing Theory, 13, 69-86. • Kunzmann, K.R. (2004), ‘Culture, Creativity and Spatial Planning’, Town Planning Review, 75, 383-404. • Mayes, R. (2008), ‘A place in the sun: The Politics of Place, Identity and Branding’, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4, 124-32.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Managing expectations: Organisers’ perspectives of participation-based sport events Millicent Kennelly, Griffith University This research examines the management and community impacts of participation-based sport events (PSEs) from the perspectives of their organisers. PSEs are community events “where the primary focus is on promoting participation and engagement rather than the significance of the sporting outcome” (Coleman & Ramchandani, 2010, p. 25). Examples of PSEs include amateur running, cycling, and swimming events, triathlons and adventure races that are open to individuals of many ages and levels of ability and fitness. Such events have experienced a surge in popularity (Bauman, Murphy, & Lane, 2005). A review of the growing literature considering PSEs indicates researchers have predominantly examined: (1) demand-side perspectives, particularly participant motivations and experiences (Fullagar & Pavlidis, 2012; Shipway & Jones, 2008), (2) host destination perspectives, specifically related to economic outcomes and tourism generated by PSEs (Coleman & Ramchandani, 2010), and (3) health-related perspectives, especially the potential role of PSEs in fulfilling public health objectives, such as the prevention of lifestyle diseases (Bauman, Murphy, & Lane, 2005). Within this literature, the viewpoints, experiences, and goals of PSE organisers have largely been overlooked. Considering the diverse outcomes PSEs are anticipated to deliver for communities, and the community stakeholders these outcomes may impact, this appears a significant oversight. This paper will share preliminary results of a qualitative study examining the perspectives of PSE organisers from the United Kingdom and Australia. Through semi-structured interviews, event organisers shared their experiences of organising and staging community events, and discussed the outcomes they seek to achieve. The research critically examines whether PSE organisers have an interest in delivering, as well as the capacity to deliver the range of community social, economic, and health outcomes identified in previous literature on PSEs. Implications for the future management of PSEs and their role in communities will be discussed. References: • Bauman, A., Murphy, N., & Lane, A. (2009). The role of community programmes and mass events in promoting physical activity to patients. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(1), 44-46. • Coleman, R., & Ramchandani, G. (2010). The hidden benefits of non-elite mass participation sport events: An economic perspective. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 12(1), 24-36. • Fullagar, S., & Pavlidis, A. (2012). ‘Its all about the journey’: Women and cycle tour events. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 3(2), 149-170. • Shipway, R., & Jones, I. (2008). ‘The great suburban Everest’: An ‘insiders’ perspective on experiences at the 2007 Flora London Marathon. Journal of Sport and Tourism, 13(1), 61-77.

An evaluation of the domestic pre-event social representations of the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games James Kenyon, Guillaume Bodet (Loughborough University) and Clare Mackay (University of Northampton) Mega-events (MEs), and in particular sport-based mega-events, provide those involved in their development and delivery with the opportunity to modify the image of the host, both domestically and internationally. Glasgow, host of the 2014 Commonwealth Games (CG), is no exception. For example, although image, in the context of MEs, is not always easy to control (e.g. Smith, 2005), issues highlighted in the Glasgow Candidate File (CGCS, 2006), amongst many others, focus on how the CG can be used to enhance the images of Glasgow and Scotland, how the image of the CG can be reinforced and developed by Glasgow hosting it, and how the branding strategy of the 2014 event could facilitate both of these. Thus, the main purpose of this project, informed by a critical realist perspective, and underpinned by social representation theory (Moscovici, 1961), is to evaluate the image impact of hosting the 2014 Commonwealth Games, pre- and post-event, for the city of Glasgow, with this part of the project representing the pre-event assessment. It will seek to determine, compare and present the images generated by the UK population concerning Glasgow as a city, the CG as a mega-event, and the 2014 CG as a one-off event. Based on previous research conducted around the 2008 and 2012 Olympics (Bodet & Lacassagne, 2012; Kenyon, 2013), UK citizens (18+) will complete an online, mixedmethods questionnaire before the 2014 CG are held. Participants will be required to submit freeassociation responses to the objects: Glasgow, the CG and the 2014 CG. Data gleaned from this questionnaire will be used to construct the image of each of the objects, using only those responses cited by at least 15% of participants. Subsequent analysis will be aimed determining the internal structure of the generated images; that is, the strength of the connections between the terms contained therein. The aim, at this stage of the project, is that this research will: inform those involved in the development and delivery CG as to the critical issues influencing the level of UK participation in and engagement with the 2014 CG; and, create the basis for a longitudinal analysis. References • Bodet, G. & Lacassagne, M.-F. (2012). International place branding through sporting events: A British perspective of the 2008 Beijing Olympics. European Sport Management Quarterly, 12(4): pp.357–374. • Commonwealth Games Council for Scotland (2006). Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games Candidate City File. The Official Website of the Commonwealth Games [online]. Available at: (accessed 12th December 2013). • Kenyon, J. A. (2013). An evaluation of the image impact of hosting the 2012 Summer Olympic Games for the city of London. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. Loughborough University. • Moscovici, S. (1961). La Psychanalyse: Son Image et Son Public. Paris: Universitaires de France. • Smith, A. (2005). Reimaging the city: The value of sport tourism initiatives. Annals of Tourism Research. 32(1): pp. 217–236.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

The role of travel-blogs in the production of destination images Masood Khodadadi, University of the West of Scotland Past studies have demonstrated that image is a valuable concept for having a better understanding of the destination selection process of tourists (Bologlu and McCleary, 1999). However, little empirical study has focused on how destination images are actually formed, while it is important to consider that the initial image formation stage before actual travel is the most important phase in tourists’ destination selection process (Pearce, 1982; Chon, 1991; Gartner 1994, Baloglu and McCleary 1999, Chen and Tsai, 2007). This paper focuses on the role of travel-blogs in the formation of destination images due to their relatively overlooked nature within this area of tourism literature. Choi et al. (2007: 118) argue that ‘image and image formation have been examined extensively in the tourism literature due to its complex conceptual nature and its important role in influencing tourist decision making. However, research on the Internet as an image formation agent is still at an infancy stage’. During the past decade the Internet has become an important source of data collection for researchers as it provides a platform where traces of human thought are recorded in ways that were once unimaginable (Bernard and Ryan, 2010: 20). Therefore, this paper focuses on the role of travel-blogs in the production/circulation of destination images. References: • • • • •

Baloglu, S. and McCleary, K. W. (1999). A Model of Destination Image Formation, Annals of Tourism Research, 26 (4), 868-897. Bernard, H. R. and Ryan, G. W. (2010). Analyzing Qualitative Data. California: Sage Publications. Chen, C. F. and Tsai, D. (2007). How Destination Image and Evaluative Factors Affect Behavioural Intentions, Tourism Management, 28 (4), 1115-1122. Chon, K. (1991). Tourism Destination Image Modification Process: Marketing Implications. Tourism Management, 12, 68-72. Choi, S. Lehto, X. Y. and Morrison, A. M. (2007). Destination image representation on the web: Content analysis of Macau travel related websites, Tourism Management, 28, 118-129. • Gartner, C. W. (1994). Image Formation Process, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 2 (2), 191-216.

Sport Internship Legacies from a Professional football club following administration Robert Kielty, Glasgow Caledonian University Internships programmes in the UK Sport Industry have rapidly increased in the last 10 years and can be characterised by the leveraging of capital in the workplace, often resulting in employment opportunities for students and graduates. Whilst these programmes have been generally welcomed and utilised by national sporting organisations, there are aspects of this concept that require more transparency and tighter regulation with regards to working conditions, financial contracts and ethical considerations. BASES (2013). Moreover, part of the discourse surrounding internship programmes involves the relative lack of applied research regarding purpose and practice across different sporting bodies, often resulting in ambiguity and generalisation. This paper will present a case-study of a 3 year internship programme from Scottish Professional Football during which time the club entered administration. The specific impact of administration and the threat of liquidation paradoxically created a sustainable legacy output that will be examined and evaluated against national service delivery criteria, SFA (2012); McLeish (2010). The case-study examines the characteristics of a tailored internship programme whilst attempting to define and frame the concept of internship and it’s connectivity to volunteerism from within UK public sporting bodies. In addition, the paper critically assesses the cost of creating sustainable legacies within the field of private sport. References: • BASES (2013): The BASES Position Stand on Graduate Internships • McLeish (2010): The Review of Scottish Football. Part 1 & 2. • SFA (2012): Club Academy Scotland. Mandatory Criteria. Scottish Football Association


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

The ephemeral and the everyday: An outsider perspective on cycle event experiences Katherine King, Richard Shipway (Bournemouth University), Insun Sunny Lee & Graham Brown (University of South Australia) There is growing recognition of the role cycling can play in achieving policy objectives related to the environment, public health and sport. Such recognition has been accompanied by a recent focus within academic research on exploring the cycling experience, most notably within the contexts of sport tourism and events management. Much of the current literature on the cycling experience, however, adopts an insider perspective by researchers who are known to, or have legitimacy within the sporting community (e.g. Coghlan 2012; Fullaver and Pavaladis 2012; Lamont and McKay 2012; Spinney 2006). This paper presents findings from an exploratory qualitative study into amateur cycle experiences at a professional cycle event in Australia through the lens of an “outsider” to community, country and culture of the field of research. The paper will explore issues relating to identity formation and expression, mobilities and space, and the inter relations between those who identify as local or as tourist, to consider the way in which the ephemeral and leisure of the everyday interplay within established leisure communities. Through such an outsider approach the paper will offer new insights into the relationship between events and leisure of the everyday , and a consideration of the way in which the culture and community of established sporting communities may affect the integration of “outsiders” as result of policy emphases on generating new engagement in sport. References:

• Coghlan, A. 2012. ‘An autoethnographic account of a cycling charity challenge event: exploring manifest and latent aspects of the experience’. Journal of Sport and Tourism. 17(2),105-124 • Fullagar, S. & Pavlidis, A. 2012.“It’s all about the journey”: women and cycling events. International Journal of Event and Festival Management. 3 (2), 149-170 • Lamont, M. & McKay, J. 2012 Intimations of postmodernity in sports tourism at the Tour de France. Journal of Sport and Tourism. 17(4), 313-331. • Spinney, J. 2006. A place of sense: a kinaesthetic ethnography of cyclists on Mont Ventoux. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space. 24, 709 – 732.

From continuity and change to reproduction and transformation: A Bourdieusian analysis of mainstreaming in disability cricket Paul Kitchin, University of Ulster and David Howe, Loughborough University Previous investigations on the what, how and why of change in organized sport have grappled with how power and agency affect the process. This paper draws on an alternative, critical approach for an examination of change in disability sport. We deployed Bourdieu’s practice theory to examine the relationships between institutional, organizational and individual levels of analysis. We demonstrate that while agents can alter their practice, these alterations do not impact on the existing institutional doxa, which produces field effects to limit the possibility of the transformation of dominant values. To develop a more nuanced understanding of how reproduction and/or transformation occurred within disability cricket, an ethnography was performed between 2008 and 2012). The lead researcher drew on Adler and Adler’s (1987) active-member approach to participant observation. Data were collected from document analysis, formal and informal interviews, field notes and reflective diaries. This data was managed through a framework outlined by Coffey and Atkinson (1996) whereby the initial codes were established and axial codes were used to identify the dimensions of a phenomenon, its consequences, and its relationships with other phenomena. The impetus to implement mainstreaming came from outside the institutional field of cricket. An interpretation of this policy by the governing body resulted in a range of activities as means to ends to incorporate all aspects of the sport under one auspices. Resources were distributed throughout the field to facilitate the means. As a result, a number of field organizations launched a variety of initiatives to create more opportunities for people with disabilities to play the game. Despite these programmes the majority of opportunities were for playing opportunities and these specifically were for individuals with certain types of disability and impairment. There was little consideration taken to address the potentially exclusive practices that existed within the sport before mainstreaming was adopted. Even at grassroots levels the competitive doxa of cricket went unchallenged, instilling many of the new initiatives and programmes merely reproductions of the able-bodied game. This paper can provide insights into understanding how policy initiatives impact on sport organizations and how managers respond to such pressures. From this study we provide useful data that can demonstrate how transformation cannot occur unless certain taken-for-granted values of sport practice are realized. This paper provides a useful contribution to the relational implementation of Bourdieu’s practice theory, particularly as a tool to critically examine continuity and change in organizations. References: • Adler, P. A., & Adler, P. (1987). Membership roles in field research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. • Coffey, A. & Atkinson, P. (1996). Making sense of qualitative data: Complementary research strategies. Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Variations in motivation and identity in active sport event tourism Dr. Brian D. Krohn and Jay Gladden, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis Large sport participation events rely heavily on tourism in order to fill registration and provide the local area with significant positive impact (Daniels, Norman, & Henry, 2004). Previous research has investigated overall motivations to participate in sport tourism events (Daniels & Norman, 2005; Holden, 1999; Kurtzman & Zauhar, 2005), including developing consumer profiles of sport tourists (Hallmann & Wicker, 2012; Zorba, Micoogullari, & Zorba, 2004). Hallmann & Wicker (2012) developed profiles of marathon runners and determined there were three basic categories, holidayers, socializers and marathoners. However, these profiles looked at trip and event characteristics without considering the impact of the participant’s sport behavior. Examination of relationships between sport behavior and event participation is necessary to understand why individuals might choose a specific event or choose to participate in multiple events. The purpose of this paper is to explore the connections between motivation and feelings of identity within sport and repeat participation at a specific sport tourism event. To investigate this research question, surveys that included motivation and sport identity scales were collected via the online survey tool Qualtrics from participant following their registration for a large halfmarathon located in the USA. Emails were sent to the 38,576 participants with an internet link to the survey resulting in 35,375 successfully delivered emails. At the end of the 6 week open period, 5,428 complete and usable surveys were collected. Analysis included ANOVAs examining differences in responses on both scales by categories of previous participation the same event (none, low/moderate, high), and participation in any running event during the previous 5 years (low, moderate, high). Results suggest that levels of motivation and sport identity differ between participants based on the number of events in which they have participated. Differences were also found when examining participants in multiple events versus repeat participation in a single event. Analysis of motivations against event participation frequency revealed significant positive and negative differences that could be used by event hosts to better understand repeat consumption behavior and develop profiles that aid in attracting ideal participants. Sample profiles and detailed results will be presented. References • • • • • •

Daniels, Margaret J., & Norman, William C. (2005). Motivations of equestrian tourists: an analysis of the colonial cup races. Journal of Sport Tourism, 10(3), 201-210. Daniels, Margaret J., Norman, William C., & Henry, Mark S. (2004). Estimating income effects of a sport tourism event. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(1), 180-199. Hallmann, Kirstin, & Wicker, Pamela. (2012). Consumer profiles of runners at marathon races. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 3(2), 171-187. Holden, andrew. (1999). Understanding Skiers Motivation using PearcesTravel Career Construct. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(2), 435-438. Kurtzman, Joseph, & Zauhar, John. (2005). Sports tourism consumer motivation. Journal of Sport Tourism, 10(1), 21-31. Zorba, Erdal, Micoogullari, B. Olan, & Zorba, Ecan. (2004). To determine a sport tourists profile for Turkey. Journal of Sport Tourism, 9(4), 323-323.

A case study review of golf tourism and its conjunction with destination development Dr. Brian D. Krohn, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis Many destinations around the world have included an active sport tourism focus in order to grow the overall tourism product and thus increase the economic viability and longevity of the destination and/or region. One popular approach is to focus on golf in connection with other leisure activities. For example, many coastal destinations include golf an attraction along with beach/waterfront, shopping, and other recreational activities. Many tourism destinations develop plans with hopes this combination will increase visitation from families and individuals that desire to participate in multiple attractions at the destination and thus increase repeat visitation (Tassiopoulos & Haydam, 2008). This has prompted several researchers to investigate characteristics and profiles of golf tourists (Hudson & Hudson, 2010; Kim, Kim, & Ritchie, 2008). This paper is a report from a larger project that looked specifically at the characteristics, behaviour, and experience of golf tourists to one of the top golf destinations in the USA. Using an adaptation of golf tourism segmentation developed through a project with VisitScotland (see Hudson & Hudson, 2010), this project investigates the characteristics and trip behaviour of a predominant visitor profile, the “Golf Buddy”. While this type of visitor has significantly increased the average length of stay for the destination, qualitative insights suggest that they fail to fulfill the objectives set forth by the tourism management organization. Rather than engaging in broader range of activities, their overwhelming presence during the peak golf seasons (8 weeks in April-May and 6 weeks in September-October) decreases availability of lodging that other visitors might use in conjunction with other activities, such as beach, shopping and recreation. Evidence also suggests that the consumer choices of this segments creates negative impacts on the residents of this destination. While destination managers still promote and actively encourage the influx of golf tourists, the health of the tourism program and local tourism enterprise might be in question. The presentation will share specific comments and insights from the project along with insights and experiences of the research team. References: • Hudson, Simon, & Hudson, Louise. (2010). Golf tourism: Goodfellow Publishing Oxford. Kim, Samuel Seongseop, Kim, Jae Hak, & Ritchie, Brent W. (2008). Segmenting overseas golf tourists by the concept of specialization. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 25(2), 199-217. • Tassiopoulos, Dimitri, & Haydam, Norbert. (2008). Golf tourists in South Africa: A demand-side study of a niche market in sports tourism. Tourism Management, 29(5), 870-882.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Family leisure and transitioning into parenting David Lamb, Edith Cowan University This conference paper will be based on a qualitative study that explored the transition period from pregnancy into first-time parenthood with heterosexual couples with a specific focus on family leisure and experiences of first-time parenting. In order to collect qualitative data, focus group studies (Grbich, 2007) were used, one during pregnancy and the other postpregnancy. The key findings from the study indicated that gender (Currie, 2009; Daly, 2004) was a significant factor in determining the nature and characteristics of men’s and women’s leisure and parenting style (Dermott, 2006). In terms of access and opportunity for leisure, women were more constrained than men, especially around the birth of their child and in the early stages of parenthood. Finding time for coupled leisure, solo leisure and other leisure, such as time out with friends became more difficult during the latter stages of pregnancy and even more limited just after their child was born. Most of the couples’ free-time was taken up with preparing for the birth of their child and in meeting the direct needs of their child, with a discernible shift from an adult to a child centered focused lifestyle. In preparing for parenting, first-time parents read parenting literature; watched instructional DVDs, trawled the web, spoke with friends and family, and attended antenatal classes. First-time parents described their experience as enjoyable, but time pressured, challenging and stressful, especially for women who undertook the primary care giver role. As a result of this study, men’s voices in family leisure research were heard following on from the work of Hand and Lewis (2002) and more recently Dyck and Daly (2009). As a result of this research study, a number of recommendations are provided to enhance and improve leisure provision for families and research priorities for further research on family are identified. References: • Currie, J. (2009). Managing motherhood: Strategies used by new mothers to maintain perceptions of wellness. Health Care for Women International, 30(7), 653668. • Daly, K. (2004). The Changing Culture of Parenting. Ottawa, Canada: The Vanier Institute of the family. • Dermott, E. (2006) What’s parenthood got to do with it? Men’s hours of paid work. British Journal of Sociology, 57, (4) 619-694. • Dyck, V., & Daly, K. (2009). Father’s roles in the negotiation of couple time. In T. Kay, (Ed.), Fathering Through Sport and Leisure (pp. 183-199). London: Routledge. • Grbich, C. (2007). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Introduction. Thousand Oaks. CA: Sage. • Hand, K., & Lewis, K. (2002). Father’s views of family life and paid work. Family Matters, 61, 26-29.

‘Becoming white’ and (un)learning colour-blindness in sport and leisure: Stefan’s story Stefan Lawrence, Southampton Solent University In recent times, the methodological value of narrative and storytelling has been recognised by a number of leisure studies scholars. Those who have foregrounded the usefulness of these techniques have illustrated that all ways of ‘knowing’ about the world are deeply embodied and culturally situated and as such (auto)biographical stories offer rich, detailed, personal insights, highlighting a plurality of perspectives on the human condition. Moreover, narrative has not simply emerged merely as a niche epistemological strategy in sociology: the rise and popularity of ‘blogging’, which is often written in a narrative style, which in turn signals the unique and complex intersections between leisure, politics, and digital culture, has become an increasingly popular feature of social media. Thus, narrative and storytelling in both popular and academic realms has sought to reposition debates about knowing, bodies, subjectivities and identities in a manner increasingly reflective of late modern society. Critical Race Theory is one such theoretical framework to have recognised the usefulness of storytelling, especially its potential to counter mainstream, dominant media and political discourse on racism, which often operate within narrow paradigms, unreceptive to debates about lived racialised experience. Hylton (2012: 25), for instance, asserts storytelling is a particularly useful strategy which understands marginalised voices “as holders of legitimate sources of knowledge where Eurocentric epistemologies consistently fail”. Or, put more simply, “stories can name a type of discrimination; once named it can be combatted” (Delgado and Stefancic, 2001: 43). During this paper then I too explore the usefulness of narrative from my perceived social position as a ‘white man’. Throughout I present: a brief critical, autobiographical account of whiteness and masculinity and the ways in which liberal colour-blind ideologies fail to capture the stories of other bodies; how this affected my social interactions with others, during my leisure time and theirs; and why it is becoming increasingly conscious of ‘race’ (read: social construction of ‘race’), paradoxically, may be a more effective political strategy capable of lessening the effects of racism and white privilege in sport and leisure and society more broadly.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Alternative leisure: a case study on Burning Man festival and its cultural impacts on participants and beyond Yating Liang, Hong Suk Choi, Steve Illum (Missouri State University) and Megan Heller (University of California) This study focused on the investigation of a week-long alternative art-themed festival called “Burning Man” that takes place in Black Rock Desert of northern Nevada in the United States, which has grown from a small gathering on a California beach with dozens of people to an event that attracts over 50,000 all over the world in the past 28 years. The participants of this annual weeklong event are devoted to creativity in forms of art, technology, music and, most importantly, self-expression. The climax of the event is the burning of a giant wooden figure known as “The Man”. A temporary community, Black Rock City (BRC) is formed for the event in which commerce is forbidden. Participants bring all they need to survive for the week and “leave no trace”, one of the ten principles that guide the event. Each year, a unique theme is given for participants to follow, which allows artists and their creations to have a common ideal. The purpose of the study was to investigate the reasons of participants attending this festival and how the culture of this event impacts its participants at and beyond the event. Profiles of the participants of Burning Man and associated implications were also presented. The quantitative and qualitative analyses were based on the “annual census” distributed by the Burning Man organization. The results showed that participants indicated that the festival did have a long-term “transformative effect” on them. Future studies could be directed to study the long-term impact of such festivals on the society at large. References: • Braunstein, P. & Doyle, M.W. (2002). Imagine Nation: The American Counterculture of the 1960’s and 70’s. Routledge: New York, NY. • Chen, K. (2009). Enabling creative chaos: The organization behind the Burning Man event. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. • Clark, X. (2012). Burning Man census reveals surprising demographics at the desert festival. Peninsula Press, a project of the Stanford graduate program in journalism. Retrieved on March 17, 2014 from • Clupper, W. (2007). The performance culture of Burning Man. Dissertation. Retrieved on March 1, 2014 from • Crompton, J. L.& McKay, S.L. (1997). Motives of Visitors Attending Festival Events, Annals of Tourism Research, 24, 425-39. • Doherty, Brian (2004). This is Burning Man: The rise of a new American underground. New York, NY: Little, Brown & Co. • Fletcher, E. (2012). Blacks at Burning Man. The Roots. Retrieved on March 27, 2014 from man_is_it_a_white_thing.html • Gilmore, L. (2010). Theatre in a Crowded Fire: Ritual and Spirituality at Burning Man, University of California Press. • Hockett, J. (2005). Participant observation and the study of self: Burning Man as ethnographic experience. In L. Gilmore & M. Van Proyen (Eds.), Afterburn: Reflections on Burning Man. Albequerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 65-86. • Hoover, D. J. (2008). Realizing the artful in management education and development: Smoldering examples from the Burning Man Project. Journal of Management and Organization. November. • Kozinets R. V., Sherry Jr., J. F., & Borghini S. (2007). Agents in paradise: Experiential co-creation through emplacement, ritualization, and community,” in Consuming Experiences, ed. Antonella Carù and Bernard Cova, London and New York: Routledge, 17-33. • Magister C. (2012). Is Burning Man a “White People Thing”? The Burning Man Blog. Retrieved on March 27, 2014 from uncategorized/is-burning-man-a-white-people-thing/ • McRae, K. Heller, S.M., John, O.P. & Gross, J.J. (2011). Context-Dependent Emotion Regulation: Suppression and Reappraisal at the Burning Man Festival. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 33, 346-350. • Ryan, R.M & Deci, E.L. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67. • Sherry, J. F., & Kozinets, R.V. (2007). Comedy of the commons: Nomadic spirituality at Burning Man. In R. Belk & J.F. Sherry Jr. (Eds.), Consumer Culture Theory. Oxford: Elsevier • Snepenger D.,King J., Marshall, E. & Uysal, M. (2006). Modeling Iso-Ahola’s Motivation Theory in the Tourism Context. Journal of Travel Research, 45, 140-149. • Steenson M. (n.d.) What is Burning Man. Retrieved on March 27, 2014 from • St. John, G. (1999). Alternative Cultural Heterotopia: ConFest asAustralia’s Marginal Centre. Master thesis. Retrieved on March 22, 2014 from http://www.confest. org/thesis_confest_july_1999.pdf • St. John, G. (2009). 12 noon, Black Rock City. Dancecult: Journal of Electronic Dance Music Culture. 1(1). • Turner F. (2009). New Media & Society, Burning Man at Google: a cultural infrastructure for new media production. New Media & Society, 11 (1&2), 73-94. • Wray, M. (2013). Burning Man: A roundtable discussion. The Society Pages. Retrieved on March 4, 2014 from http//:www.the


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Women ‘coming out’ in sport: Ambivalence, Acceptance and Silence in the Australian Sports Media Chelsea Litchfield and Jaquelyn Osborne, Charles Sturt University Over a decade ago, Wensing and Bruce (2003) suggested that the media traditionally adhered to a set of unwritten ‘old rules’ to describe women athletes, their sporting performance and their femininity (p. 387). These rules included; ‘Gender Marking’, ‘Compulsory Heterosexuality’, ‘Emphasizing Appropriate Femininity’, ‘Infantilization’ and ‘Focussing on Non-Sport-Related Aspects’ and similar themes have since been used in research by Kane and Maxwell (2011). Additionally, Wensing and Bruce suggested a ‘new rule’ exists to describe women athletes in sports media reporting, which they label ‘ambivalence’ (2003, p. 388). ‘Ambivalence’ in contemporary sports media refers to a combination of positive images and reporting, along with the traditional undermining and negative images and reporting of female athletes, women’s sporting competitions and women’s sporting success. Recently, athletes such as tennis player Casey Dellacqua, WNBL rookie Brittney Griner and United States football (soccer) player Abby Wambach ‘came out’ as lesbians in the sports media. The media reactions to these stories have been varied and in many ways parallel the new rule of ‘ambivalence’ devised by Wensing and Bruce (2003) some time ago. Through a case study media analysis, the coming-out story through the eyes of the sports media of one of these particular athletes, Casey Dellacqua, is investigated in this presentation. Using a critical feminist framework, an analysis of the digital and print media of Dellacqua’s story has elicited a series of themes, including the abovementioned theme of ‘Ambivalence’, as well as ‘Acceptance’ and ‘Silence’. The significance of such research and these themes lies in the broad range of media responses to diversity of women athletes in the world of sport. Dellacqua’s story has been accepted and celebrated by some media outlets, particularly those who have exclusive rights to tennis coverage, while other media sources have remained relatively silent about her coming out story. Using Wensing and Bruce’s (2003) framework, some media outlets have shown ambivalence towards the story of Dellacqua. While ambivalence can be viewed as disinterest and ‘negative’ media coverage, the move away from the ‘old rules’ of media coverage can also be viewed as progress for female athletes and importantly, female lesbian athletes. References: • • • •

Kane, Mary. J. and Heather D. Maxwell. 2011. “Expanding the Boundaries of Sport Media Research: Using Critical Theory to Explore Consumer Responses to Representations of Women’s Sports.” Journal of Sport Management 25: 202-216. Wensing, Emma.H. and Toni Bruce. 2003. “Bending the Rules: Media Representations of Gender during an International Sporting Event.” International Review for the Sociology of Sport 38(4): 387-396.

Displacements between illicit and licit leisure in South American borders Alexandre Paulo Loro (Federal University of Southern Frontier, Chapecó/SC/Brazil) and Giuliano Gomes de Assis Pimentel (State University of Maringa) It is clear that there is a daily traffic of people coming to the borders in search of experience which they would hardly have in their countries of origin. Therefore, we studied the leisure at the frontier of Brazil with the following countries: Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia. There are two factors to consider: a) the cultural difference experience; b) the legal loopholes that allow the experience of the illicit. The paper interview residents in border regions, aiming to describe the leisure practices involving intercultural dialogues, especially those that are prohibited in one country and allowed in another. The results indicate that the demand for the leisure in the other side of the border differs according class, gender and generation. For example, among children of Bolivian origin, who was born in Brazil, we evidenced conflicts in interpersonal relationships, especially in the power relationships established through language with Brazilian children during the accomplishment of popular games. Occasionally, in relation to the experiences of the Brazilian adult male leisure, we observe fishing, sex tourism, shopping and gambling (casinos). In contrast, the Argentines, Paraguayans and Bolivians with lower economic status seek social rights (work, health and education) in Brazil. References: • Loro, A. P. School Physical Education in border Brazil/Bolivia: a look at the popular games. In: Loro, A. P.; Vinha, M.; Golin, C. H. (Org.). Physical Education: Contemporary approaches. Dourados/MS: publishing house in UFGD, 2013, p. 37-56. • Loro, A. P; Gebara, A. Frontier situations in children’s games In: GOLIN, C. H (Org.) Physics Education, Frontier and training: the investigative distinct looks. Campo Grande/ MS: publishing house UFMS, 2013, p. 112-127. • Pimentel, G. G. A. Postmodernist readings in leisure studies. In: Pimentel, G. G. A. (Org.). Theories of Leisure. Maringá/PR: publishing house in EDUEM, 2010, vol. 1, p. 103-151.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Audiences development strategies at the Quiksilver/Roxy Pro Joanne MacKellar (Griffith Institute for Tourism, Griffith University) The development of major sport events in regional areas has received attention from governments and researchers as they seek to understand the impacts upon communities and economies. Yet while the focus of research is upon the impacts of the event, research into their audiences is not as well established, to explore their leisure choice, travel behaviour and connections to social worlds (Getz, 2003). This study of an international surfing event is used to explore the sport event audience and the increasing complexity of managing event audiences across digital and physical environments. The research employed a mixed method approach gathering quantitative data to assess the audience profile, as well as qualitative methods to glean information from event stakeholders (Creswell, 2003). The findings suggest the event has a complex place in the local and international surfing community, with multiple stakeholders in leisure, tourism and surfing industries. These relationships are illustrated using an event network perspective (Sallent, Palau, & Guia, 2011) to examine the changing dynamics of the event audience and subsequent demands on the event management organisation. It is therefore significant to our understanding of the characteristics and behaviours of sport event audiences, and to the development of event tourism strategies of city and event planners. References: • Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approaches (3rd Ed. ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage. • Getz, D. (2003). Sport Event Tourism, Development and Marketing. In S. Hudson (Ed.), Sport and Adventure Tourism. New York: Hayworth Hospitality Press. • Sallent, O, Palau, R, & Guia, J. (2011). Exploring the Legacy of Sport Events on Sport Tourism Networks. European Sport Management Quarterly, 11(4), 397-421.

Leisure in Latin America Alcyane Marinho, State University of Santa Catarina, Arianne C.Reis, Southern Cross University, Priscila Mari Dos Santos, Miraira Noal Manfroi, Cecilia Bertuol and Juliana De Paula Fisueiredo, Federal University of Santa Catarina Latin American countries have common characteristics that distinguish them from other countries around the world; however, they also possess very unique cultural, historical, economic, social, political, ethnic and environmental issues and features that differentiate them from each other. The term “Latin America” originated in the nineteenth century under the political influence of France and the United States, and has endured as nations achieved independence from their colonizers. Indeed, the term is now well-established and adopted by national and international institutions across the globe, despite its cultural, social and even geographic inaccuracy. It is against this backdrop that we present an overview of leisure matters in Latin America. The analysis presented is based on a thorough review of the literature included in the electronic academic database Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS). A search was performed for full text articles published between 2008 and 2012 using the keywords “leisure,” “recreation” and “free time” in Portuguese and Spanish. In total, 109 articles were included in the final list and five main themes were identified from their analysis: Health, Public Policy, Sports, Environment, and Physical Education. Although contributions emanating from Brazilian scholars were by far the most predominant in the search performed, researchers from Argentina, Chile, Colombia and Peru were also represented. Specifically, Peruvian and Argentinean scholars showed a more pronounced interest for issues related to leisure in physical education classes, while Chile was better represented under the leisure and health theme. In regards to the general content of these studies, much of the discussions and also, more importantly, the everyday practices described still seem to reduce leisure to a space in time, often ignoring its importance as a social right, a possibility for cultural production, community involvement and social transformation, and the benefits acknowledged by and sometimes advocated for among Latin American leisure theorists. It is necessary to understand the meanings that have historically been built around of leisure. This is particularly relevant because they are all commonly, and often interchangeably, used in society and academic literature, but also because each term hides and reveals identities and forms of visibility.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Women’s sport and exercise experiences: A path towards empowering embodiment Joanne Mayoh and Ian Jones, Bournemouth University It is widely recognised that our gender plays an important part in how we experience our bodies (Young 1990; Whitson, Birrell et al. 1994; Fredrickson and Roberts 1997; Fredrickson, Roberts et al. 1998; Theberge 2003; Liimakka 2011; Velija, Mierzwinski et al. 2012). Specifically, feminist scholars have highlighted that women receive mixed messages with regards to how they are meant to feel in their bodies (Yarnal, Hutchinson et al. 2006) and are more likely than men to develop a detached and self-conscious relationship with their physical selves, and engage in the negative practice of self-objectification (Young 1990; Liimakka 2011). It has been suggested that by refocusing women’s attention on more hidden capabilities, namely ‘what the body does’ rather than aesthetics or ‘how it looks’ one can provide more positive bodily experiences for women (Fredrickson, Roberts et al. 1998) which can lead to increased feelings of empowerment and overall wellbeing and limit the negative effects of more oppressive practices. This theoretical paper contributes to the small yet emerging body of literature that provides an embodied analysis of sport in order to propose how sporting activity may provide existential possibilities for empowerment wellbeing for women. In doing so we draw upon phenomenological theory (Todres and Galvin 2010; Galvin and Todres 2011, Mayoh and Jones, 2014) in order to explore examples of how sport provides these opportunities for wellbeing through the experiential life world dimensions of embodiment and identity. References: • Fredrickson, B. L. and Roberts, T.A., (1997). Objectification theory. Psychology of Women quarterly, 21(2), 173-206. • Fredrickson, B. L. and Roberts, al., (1998). That swimsuit becomes you: sex differences in self-objectification, restrained eating, and math performance. J Pers Soc Psychol, 75(1), 269-284. • Galvin, K. and Todres, L., (2011). Kinds of well-being: A conceptual framework that provides direction for caring. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 6 (online). • Liimakka, S., (2011). I Am My Body: Objectification, Empowering Embodiment, and Physical Activity in Women’s Studies Students’ Accounts. SSJ ,28(4), 441-460. • Mayoh, J. and Jones, I., (2014). Making Well-being an Experiential Possibility: The Role of Sport. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health (in press). • Todres, L. and Galvin, K., (2010). “Dwelling-mobility”: An existential theory of well-being. International journal of qualitative studies on health and well-being, 5(3) (online). • Theberge, N., (2003). “No Fear Comes” Adolescent Girls, Ice Hockey, and the Embodiment of Gender. Youth & Society, 34(4), 497-516. • Velija, P., Mierzwinski, M. et al., (2012). ‘It made me feel powerful’: women’s gendered embodiment and physical empowerment in the martial arts. Leisure Studies, 1-18. • Whitson, D., Birrell, S. et al., (1994). The embodiment of gender: discipline, domination and empowerment. In Birrell, S., Cole, C.L. (Eds) Women, sport, and culture, 353-371. Human Kinetics: Champaign, IL. • Yarnal, C. M. Hutchinson,S. et al., (2006). “I Could Probably Run a Marathon Right Now”: Embodiment, Space, and Young Women’s Leisure Experience. Leisure sciences, 28(2), 133-161. • Young, I. M., (1990). Throwing like a girl and other essays in feminist philosophy and social theory. Indiana University Press: Bloomington.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Digital representation of subjective and phenomonological heritage meanings at Towneley Park, Burnley Alex McDonagh, University of Salford Studies have highlighted the subjectivity of heritage and the natural environment, pointing to the oversight of subjective landscape meanings through scientific research (Harvey 2001; Harvey and Riley 2005). While natural environments have been studied in terms of access, democratisation and self-determinism (Gough 2007; Gobster 2007), there has been limited study exploring the effects of expressing ‘natural’ or outdoor heritage meanings in a digital context. This paper discusses the author’s current PhD research which combines phenomenological archaeology (Bender et al 2007) and constructivist grounded theory (Charmaz 2000) to explore the expression of outdoor heritage and leisure meanings through digital media. Focusing on Towneley Park, this research aims to gather subjective interview data along with phenomenological data from participants. This data will be used to collaboratively develop a digital representation of Towneley Park from the participants’ point of view. The aim of this paper is to use interview data gathered so far in order to discuss the difficulties in translating subjective meanings into digital data. It will also explore the effects of digital representation on our perception of heritage and leisure spaces in terms of simulated phenomena (Baudrillard 2010; Bandura 2001; Gosden 2008; Gordon 1986). Firstly the paper will cover the heritage and leisure roles of the park and highlight the varied nature of those who engage with it. This will be followed by an outline of the project’s methodology, justifying qualitative approaches to explore the park’s multiple heritage and leisure narratives. The participant interview data gathered so far will then be briefly analysed and discussed in terms of planning a digital representation of Towneley Park’s heritage and leisure meanings. The paper will conclude by looking forwards to the next stage of the research which will necessitate tackling the problem of translating subjective and phenomenological meanings into digital media. References: • • • • • • • •

Bandura A. (2001) ‘Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic Perspective’, Annual Review of Psychology 52, pp.1-26 Baudrillard J. (2010) Simulacra and Simulation, Michigan: University of Michigan Press Bender B., Hamilton S. & Tilley C. (2007) Stone Worlds: Narrative and Reflexivity in Landscape Archaeology, Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press Charmaz (2000) ‘Grounded Theory: Objectivist and Constructivist Methods’ in Denzin N.K. & Lincoln Y.S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research (2nd Edition) Gobster P.H. (2007) ‘Urban Park Restoration and the “Museumification” of Nature’, Nature and Culture 2 (2), pp.95-114 Gosden C. (2008) ‘Social Ontologies’, Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society 363, pp.2003-10 Gordon R.M. (1986) ‘Folk Psychology as Simulation’, Mind & Language 1 (2), pp.158-71 Gough P. (2007) ‘Planting Peace: The Greater London Council and the Community Gardens of Central London’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol. 13, Issue 1, pp. 22-40 • Harvey D. C. (2001) ‘Heritage Pasts and Heritage Presents: Temporality, meaning and the scope of heritage studies’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol. 7, No.4, December, pp. 319-338 • Harvey D.C. and Riley M. (2005) ‘Country Stories: the use of oral histories of the countryside to challenge the sciences of the past and future’, Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 30(1), 19-32


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

‘Inside the ropes’: access, social capital, and the golf event volunteer experience Aaron McIntosh, MSc (Aberdeen Business School, Robert Gordon University) Volunteers have been seen as the ‘unsung heroes’ of major sporting events (Bladen et al, 2012). Previous work in this area has included examining the demographics, motivations, and satisfaction of event volunteers (e.g. Costa et al, 2006; Kim et al, 2010; Pauline, 2011), event volunteer traits (Getz, 1997), their recruitment and retention (Smith & Lockstone, 2009), and their dependability (Cuskelly et al, 2004). Scotland has the honour of hosting the Ryder Cup in 2014, alongside other prestigious professional and amateur golf events. Volunteers will form a significant part of the workforce in delivering these, gaining a privileged access to some of the most revered sporting venues and occasions, and perhaps engaging in what Bianchi (2000) and Uriely (2001) describe as working holiday tourism. This paper intends to develop a theoretical foundation for subsequent primary research, focusing on the experience and particularities of being a golf event volunteer, and drawing upon key themes of social capital and communities of interest (e.g. Putnam, 2000), alongside Stebbin’s (2007) notion of serious leisure, and Pine and Gilmore’s (2011) concept of the experience economy. It is hoped that the analysis of primary research data on these themes will inform sport event organisers in relation to engaging the event volunteer workforces of the future, and in designing and managing the volunteer experience, alongside that of the event attendee. References: • Bianchi, RV (2000) ‘Migrant Tourist-Workers: Exploring the ‘Contact Zones’ of Post-Industrial Tourism’, Current Issues in Tourism, Vol.3, No.2, pp.107-137. • Bladen, C, Kennell, J, Abson, E & Wilde, N (2012) Events Management. Oxon: Routledge. • Costa, CA, Chalip, L, Green, BC, Simes, C (2006) ‘Reconsidering the Role of Training in Event Volunteers’ Satisfaction’, Sport Management Review, Vol.9, No.2, pp.165-182. • Cuskelly, G, Auld, C, Harrington, M, Coleman, D (2004) ‘Predicting the Behavioural Dependability of Sport Event Volunteers’, Event Management, Vol.9, No.1-2, pp. 73-89. • Getz, D (1997) Event Management and Event Tourism. New York: Cognizant Communication Corporation of Political Science, Vol.29, pp.417-461. • Kim, M, Kim, MK & Odio, MA (2010) ‘Are You Proud?: The Influence of Sport and Community Identity and Job Satisfaction on Pride of Mega-Event Volunteers’, Event Management, Vol.14, No.2, pp. 127-136. • Pauline, G (2011) ‘Volunteer Satisfaction and Intent to Remain: An Analysis of Contributing Factors Among Professional Golf Event Volunteers’, International Journal of Event Management Research, Vol.6, No.1, pp.10-32. • Pine, J & Gilmore, J (2011) The Experience Economy: Updated Edition, Boston: Harvard Business School Press. • Putnam, R (2000) Bowling Alone – The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster. • Smith, KA & Lockstone, L (1999) ‘Involving and Keeping Event Volunteers: Management Insights from the Cultural Festivals’, in Baum, T, Deery, M, Hanlon, C, Lockstone, L, Smith, K (eds) People & Work in Events & Conventions. Wallingford: CABI, pp.154-170. • Stebbins, RA (2007) Serious Leisure. London: Transaction Publishers. • Uriely, N (2001) ‘’Travelling Workers’ and ‘Working Tourists’: Variations Across the Interaction between Work and Tourism’, International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol.3, No.1, pp.1-8.

Did you see that…picture? The Role of Instagram in the Professional Golf Fan Experience Patti Millar (Western University), Katie Lebel (St. John’s University) and Alanna Harman (Lock Haven University) The way in which a sporting event or athlete is covered by the media has the potential to impact consumers’ perceived reality of that event or athlete (Hardin, Lynn, Walsdorf, & Hardin, 2002). While traditional media has historically been able to determine what is newsworthy, and by omission, what is not (McCombs & Shaw, 1972), the emergence of social media has enabled a new and varied assortment of interpretations with which we can shape our sport perceptions and re-imagine our fan engagement. Today, anyone can share their sport opinion and perhaps more powerfully, provide photographic evidence of their experiences. The power inherent in visual content has spurred the social media tool Instagram to not only become an incredibly popular mobile application in sport, but also one of the fastest growing social media platforms in the world (Fox, 2013). Instagram provides athletes and fans with a window for behind-the-scenes sport access (Authors, 2014). The purpose of this study is to explore the role of Instagram in our digital sport culture. Specifically, this research investigates how Instagram is shaping the digital experiences of professional golf fans. A purposeful sample of golf stakeholders (e.g., athletes, governing bodies, media outlets, manufacturers, sponsors) active on Instagram were analyzed to determine what types of visual content most engage audiences. Building on the work of Authors (2014), fan engagement will be measured through an analysis of the number of ‘likes’ photos receive as well as the types of comments images inspire. Content analysis of the comments will begin with emergent coding, followed by comparison and refinements of the codes until consensus is achieved among the researchers. Frequency of photograph ‘likes’ will also be reported. The findings are expected to provide a deeper understanding of the sports fans’ experience on Instagram, and social media more broadly, while generating insight into the role that the Instagram platform plays in the experience of sport. References: • Authors. (2014). These guys are good, but do they have an agenda? An investigation of the use of Instagram in professional golf. Presented at the International Association for Communication and Sport, New York City, NY. • Hardin, M., Lynn, Susan., Walsdorf, K., & Hardin, B. (2002). The framing of sexual difference in SI for Kids editorial photos. Mass Communication and Society, 5(3), 341-359. • McCombs, M.E., & Shaw, D.L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 36(2), 176-187.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

DISABILITY SPORT EVENTS AND SOCIAL IMPACT PANEL SESSION ‘We’re just trying not to screw it up’: Community Constraints for Leveraging Small Parasport Events Laura Misener (University of Western Ontario) Despite the scholarly emphasis on mega sporting events as tools for economic, tourism, and social development in cities, little attention has been paid to potential opportunity of smaller scale events (Taks, 2013). Further, there is also a dearth of research focusing on events of any size and scale for persons with a disability (Misener et al., 2013). Chalip (2006) and Smith (2013) have argued that in order for benefits to accrue to a host region, communities need to find points of leverage within the context of event resources to enhance positive social legacies. This research aims to begin to address the gap in the literature by focusing on leveraging tools and tactics of small-medium scale sporting events for persons with a disability. More specifically, using a narrative analysis of interviews undertaken with members of organizing committees and provincial sports organisations that have hosted the Ontario Parasport Games (n=24), a multisport event hosted annually in different cities the province of Ontario, Canada for persons with a disability, I examine the how these community members negotiate the complexities of event hosting in the face of limited resources, leaving little opportunity to leverage the event for broader social outcomes. Despite the belief that small-medium scale events offer a more tangible prospect for communities to tap into resources to enhance opportunities for persons with a disability (Misener et al., 2013), the difficulties in merely accomplishing the multifarious requirements of hosting an event, particularly a multisport, disability event in a small community means that limited resources and prospects were available to be utilized for broader outcomes. Notwithstanding the constraints, community members felt strongly in the value of hosting these events for creating awareness about disability sport and enhancing opportunities for sport participation at the community level. It is incumbent upon communities to develop and create the opportunities to leverage events if they wish to enhance to positive social outcomes. Thus, it is equally important for the policy infrastructure and supportive services be available to support these endeavours in host communities. References: • Chalip, L. (2006). Towards social leverage of sport events. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 11(2), 109-127. • Misener, L., Darcy, S., Legg, D., & Gilbert, K. (2013). Beyond Olympic legacy : Understanding Paralympic Legacy through a thematic analysis. Journal of Sport Management, 329-341. • Smith, A. (2013). Leveraging sport mega-events: new model or convenient justification? Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 1-16. doi: 10.1080/19407963.2013.823976 • Taks, M. (2013). Social sustainability of non-mega sport events in a global world. European Journal for Sport and Society, 10(2), 121-141.

Leveraging Parasport Events: the impact on sports policy Laura Misener (University of Western Ontario), Gayle McPherson (University of West Scotland), David McGillivray (University of West Scotland) and David Legg (Mount Royal University) Article 30 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with a Disability states that persons with a disability have the right to participate on an equal basis in community life including recreational, leisure, and sporting activities (UN, 2009). Hosting sporting events can offer an opportunity to access scarce resources to create more accessible infrastructure (e.g. sport and recreation facilities, transportation), increase supportive services (i.e. coaching, volunteers, programs), gain access to specialized equipment, and potentially change attitudes about disability (Misener et al., 2013). Disability sport organisations such as the International Paralympic Committee have argued that the hosting of sporting events for persons with a disability (parasport events) can influence community members’ perceptions of disability resulting in greater integration of persons with a disability into community life (IPC, 2007). The reality is, however, is that empirical research addressing these issues is scarce. This paper is part of an ongoing study hoping to address this absence by examining leveraging tactics of two different types of large scale sporting events that include athletes with a disability: integrated events where able bodied athletes and athletes with a disability compete alongside one another (2014 Commonwealth Games – Glasgow, Scotland), and non-integrated events that have a distinct event for athletes with a disability separated by time, but occurring in the same or similar location (2015 Pan/Parapan American Games – Toronto, Canada). Here, we examine the policy level perspective of how Glasgow 2014 and other stakeholders have used the Games as a platform to develop strategies and tactics aimed at increasing the level of awareness about disability sport and disability issues. The context of this policy level analysis is particularly relevant given the recent hosting of the London 2012 Paralympic Games in the United Kingdom, which raised the profile and visibility of disability sport. References: • International Paralympic Committee (2007). IPC Handbook, Section 1 Chapter 3 Paralympic Games Chapter. Retrieved from HWA/Handbook. • Misener, L., Darcy, S., Legg, D., & Gilbert, K. (2013). Beyond Olympic Legacy : Understanding Paralympic Legacy Through a Thematic Analysis. Journal of Sport Management, (27), 329–341. • United Nations. (2009). Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. Retrieved from


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Identity expression in sexual minority-focused sport attenuates internalized homophobia and sexual minority identity concealment over time Steven E. Mock, University of Waterloo For sexual minority adults (e.g., gay, bisexual, lesbian), prejudice and negative interpersonal interactions can lead to internalized homophobia and concealment of sexual minority identity (Meyer, 2003). Sexual minority-focused sport groups can offer an identitysupportive environment (Jones & McCarthy, 2010) without the homophobic stigmatization sometimes found in sport settings (Anderson, 2002). The study examines the role identity affirmation and expression in a sexual minority-focused sport group participation in attenuating internalized homophobia and identity concealment. Two hundred and twenty four sexual minority adults who were members of sexual minority-focused sport groups took part in a 9-month longitudinal study. Participation involved completion of a web-based survey that assessed degree of involvement in the groups and management of sexual orientation identity. Standard measures were used to assess identity expression and affirmation as well as internalized homophobia and identity concealment. In longitudinal regression analyses, identity expression was found to attenuate internalized homophobia and sexual minority identity concealment over time. Significance. Sexual minority-focused sport group involvement appears to help lessen internalized homophobia and identity concealment. References: • Anderson, E. (2002). Openly gay athletes: Contesting hegemonic masculinity in a homophobic environment. Gender & Society, 16, 860-877. • Jones, L. & McCarthy, M. (2010). Mapping the landscape of gay men’s football. Leisure Studies, 29, 161-173. • Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674-697.

An Ethnographic research project on the Earagail Arts Festival in Co. Donegal, Ireland Pearl Morrison, Bournemouth University An Ethnographic study investigated the motivations for attending the Celtic Earagail Arts Festival in the North West coast of Ireland in the Gaeltacht Irish speaking region of Donegal during the Gathering 2013. As a member of the Irish Diaspora the motivation to attend the events at the Gathering 2013 flagship event in the ‘abhaile’ (home) concert of Clannad and supporting cultural events was investigated. The notion of expression of Irish identity, motivations for attending and the importance of the Gathering as a tourism strategy to stimulate increased tourists and the returning diaspora was identified. The motivational factors investigated were: Irish identity, belongingness, romanticism, escapism, sense of place and socialization. The literature review traces the growing importance of Celtic festivity and the attraction of ‘the other’ status to attract mainstream tourists to Irish cultural events; the social and cultural perspective on place and the growing importance of cultural events to returning diaspora. References: • (Morrison, 2013)


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

The ties that bind: connecting family, community and place through the Gathering 2013 Ziene Mottier, Bernadette Quinn and Theresa Ryan, Dublin Institute of Technology In 2013, Ireland launched a tourism initiative called ‘The Gathering’. Styled on earlier UK versions including Scotland’s ‘Homecoming’, the initiative was intended to appeal to the country’s extensive diaspora, increase international inbound tourist flows and contribute to tourism revenue. Emerging data suggest that the initiative achieved all of the above (Fáilte Ireland 2013). Informed by data drawn from a study that engaged with key informants (33), event organisers (79) and community members (250) in two Irish counties (Kerry and Westmeath), the research reported here seeks to tease out some of the impacts generated by the Gathering at the community level. In line with the extensive literature on the social and community impacts of events, the study identifies what are already known to be important outcomes in terms of, for example, pride in place, building place attachment, increased awareness of heritage and local traditions, community bonding, increased opportunities for social and cultural engagement and increased networking opportunities (De Bres and Davies 2001, Finkel 2010, Quinn and Wilks 2013). The main contribution of the study, however, lies in two main areas. Firstly, it offers fresh insights into the role that events can play in re-connecting and enhancing ties within the extended family unit, both for family units that are separated in terms of geographical distance and in terms of age-time. In so doing, the study investigates how events can stimulate the recall of memories and the appreciation and dissemination of inheritance in ways that are profoundly important for the formation of personal, family and place identities. Secondly, because it examines two counties where the importance of tourism varies very significantly, the study is able to comment on the role that the presence or absence of a strong tourism culture plays in informing the identity formation practices under investigation. References: • De Bres, K. & Davies, J. (2001) Celebrating group identity and place identity: a case study of a new regional festival. Tourism Geographies, 3(3): 326-37. • Fáilte Ireland (2013) The Gathering delivered a €170 million boost to the Irish economy. Accessed 12/02/2014. • Finkel, R. (2010) Dancing around the ring of fire: social capital, tourism resistance and gender dichotomies up at Helly Aa in Lerwick, Scotland. Event Management, 14 (4): 275-85. • Quinn, B. & Wilks, L. (2013) Festival connections: people, place and social capital, in, Richards, G. De Brito, M. P. & Wilks, L. (Eds) Exploring the Social Impacts of Events. Abingdon: Routledge pp 16 – 30.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Promoting tourism during and after the 2012 Olympic Games – the role of local Ambassador programmes Geoff Nichols, University of Sheffield and Rita Ralston, Manchester Metropolitan University The aim of this paper is to show how local government managed the 2012 Olympic Games volunteer Ambassador programmes not only to enhance the experience of tourists during the Games but also with a view to promoting and supporting repeat visits. LOCOG was responsible for managing the 70,000 ‘Games Makers’ who supported delivery of the 2012 Olympic Games (Nichols, 2012; Nichols and Ralston, 2014). At the same time local government was responsible for delivering a series of ‘Ambassador’ programmes at the 11 Olympic venues outside London, and also within London, but away from competition sites. The role of the 13,000 volunteer ambassadors was to enhance the visitor experience at these locations. While LOCOG did not have a volunteer legacy strategy (Nichols, 2012) local government had a long-term objective of promoting tourism to its region, was concerned to develop a volunteering legacy from the event to support this, but operated within considerable financial constraints. Research has examined the experience of volunteers as tourists (Wearing and McGehee, 2013) and the use of volunteers in visitor attractions such as museums and stately homes (Holmes, 2003) however there has been little research into how volunteers have been used to enhance the experience of visitors with a view to promoting further tourism (Smith and Holmes, 2012) and how local government has attempted to develop volunteers capitalising on the enthusiasm engendered by a mega-sports event (Nichols and Ralston, 2012). In-depth interviews with the 11 ambassador programme managers were conducted in the year following the Games. Analysis shows how the recruitment and management of ambassadors used their enthusiasm and pride in their city to enhance the experience of tourists during the Games (Auld, et al. 2009) but the ability to develop a volunteering legacy was constrained significantly by financial resources. References: • Auld, C., Cuskelly, G. and Harrington, M. (2009) ‘Managing volunteers to enhance the legacy potential of major events’, in T. Baum, M. Deery, C. Hanlon, L. Lockstone, and K. Smith (eds) People and Work in Events and Conventions: A research perspective, Oxfordshire: CABI. 181–192). • Holmes, K. (2003) Volunteers in the heritage sector: a neglected audience? International Journal of Heritage Studies, 9(4) 341-355 • Nichols, G. (2012) Volunteering for the Games. In V. Girginov (ed.) The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Volume one: Making the Games. London: Routledge. 215 – 224. • Nichols, G. and Ralston, R. (2014) Volunteering for the Games. In V. Girginov (ed.) Handbook of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Volume two: Celebrating the Games. London: Routledge. 53 – 70. • Nichols, G. and Ralston R. (2012) Lessons from the Volunteering Legacy of the 2002 Commonwealth Games. Urban Studies. 49(1) 165 - 180. • Wearing, S. and McGehee, N. G. (2013) Volunteer tourism: a review. Tourism Management 38, 120 – 130. • Smith, K. and Holmes, K. (2012) Visitor centre staffing: Involving volunteers. Tourism Management 33, 562-568.

A Case Study of the Application of the Service Scape Model to Folk Festival Design and Experiences Nathalie Ormrod and Carrianne Wallace, Manchester Metropolitan University This case study explores the festival design and experiences of participants at folk festivals. The authors utilised the Service Scape model (Bitner, 1992) to provide a framework for examining the ‘festival Scape. ’ This research involved both ethnographic and narrative based accounting through the visiting of a number of folk festivals on one or more occasions. Other methods included the use of semi structured interview, internet forum analysis and focus group discussions. The authors have concluded that there are significant core social and cultural aspects of the event experience that organisers do not consider in full and are not facilitated in the festival design. Reasons here include a lack of knowledge, compounded by different approaches (varying degrees of success) and the experience of each festival organiser in designing experiential features that facilitate a ‘good’ experience. Whilst the Service Scape model provided a useful tool to examine gaps in the festival design and experience aspects of folk festivals, recommendations include extending particular aspects of the model in developing a best practices framework / guide for festival organisers and their design teams. Recommendations also include the need for festival designers to develop knowledge of and treat the festival environment holistically, rather than compartmentalise activities according to event schedule. References: • Bitner M J (1992) Servicescapes :The Impact of Physical Surroundings on Customers and Employees. Journal of Marketing, Vol 56 pp 57 -71.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

The Fitness Intervention Taskforce (FIT): encouraging physical activities, engaging communities Julie Orr, Sue McGrouther, Marie McCaig (University of the West of Scotland) and Chris Topping (Dumfries & Galloway Health and Wellbeing) The FIT project involves nursing students from all three years, encouraging adult and mental health students to engage collaboratively with peers and communities to plan physical activity and health promoting interventions. During this process students are engaged in project delivery groups, building creative ideas and delivering these to peers and local communities. This has benefits for all involved, allowing students the opportunity to build on theoretical learning and apply it in a real and meaningful way whilst engaging local groups in health promotion activities and opportunities. Examples so far have included dance classes, movement to music (drumming) and kinaesthetic learning approaches. Research aim To provide research evidence to support the integration of physical activity within an undergraduate curriculum. Methodology An action research approach is utilised, encouraging reflection and participation. Data collection methods include emotional touch points and photo elicitation. Results will be available from late 2014. Significance The project will support integration of physical activity into the curriculum. Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for mortality globally (WHO, 2012). Encouraging students to engage with communities and promote physical activity using a strength based approach across the life course has longer term benefits for society. Physical, emotional and social benefits include improved retention, concentration levels, success rates, production at work and less absenteeism (Nike, Inc. Ng, S.W. and Popkin, 2012).

‘Informal’ Ping Pong: New narratives of resistance and a cultural politics of recreational play spaces Louise Platt and Christopher I. MacIntosh, Liverpool John Moore University It has been acknowledged that the game of table tennis found popularity in the dining rooms of the upper classes in the 1880s and by the late 1890s the game was becoming more formalised. By 1926 the first world championships were help in London. Coming from two different perspectives, anthropology and sport policy, the paper’s authors question the need for national governing bodies (NGBs) to ‘measure’ and quantify engagement alongside the growth of informal and ‘underground’ ping-pong clubs such as ‘Ping, Pong Parlour’ with tournaments to find the ‘King or Queen of Ping’ or themed events, like ‘Goths of Pong’. This theoretical paper will be problematising contemporary engagement with, what, outside official competitions is referred to as ‘Ping Pong’. Building on research conducted by Mackintosh around ‘Outdoor Table Tennis’ (2013) and the national PING! Initiative (Mackintosh, Cookson, and Griggs, 2013) in line with the work of Wheaton (2013) the paper critiques the traditional notions and theoretical lenses of sport development, especially in a community setting, by turning attention to the performative, potentially radical manifestations and cultural politics of a ‘movement’. It questions whether those engaging with ‘ping-pong’ feel they are participating in sport and thus opening up the debate around public management of sport and physical activity into a wider anthropological and sociological domain of identity performances. It ultimately asks; what narratives are being excluded from these blunt instruments of measurements? Perhaps it timely to reconsider the spatial, socio-cultural and philosophical principles that are highlighted in this growing subculture of resistance against the neo-liberal, marketised formats of sport and recreation brands being increasingly sold as ‘products’ to wider civil society and partners in the public sector by NGBs. References: • Mackintosh, C.I. (2013). An Evaluation of the Outdoor Table Tennis Initiative (OTTI): ‘Ping pong in the fresh air - how does that work?’. Managing Leisure: An International Journal. 18 (3) 226-238 • Mackintosh, C.I., Cookson,G., & Griggs, G. (2013). Reflections on the PING! table tennis initiative: lessons and new directions for sports development? International Journal of Public Sector Management. EarlyCite Article • Wheaton, B. (2013). The Cultural Politics of Lifestyle Sport. Oxon: Routledge


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Pedaling through the past: sport heritage, tourism development and the Tour of Flanders Gregory Ramshaw, Clemson University, South Carolina and Tim Bottelberghe, Head of the Marketing and Communications, Tourism Board of East-Flanders, Belgium Sport and heritage, individually, are widely viewed as important catalysts in tourism development. Timothy (2011) notes that “sport is one of the most ancient elements of culture we have on record and clearly has major implications for heritage tourism development” (p. 477), while Hinch and Higham (2011) discuss the role that heritage plays in sport tourism development, noting that many sports venues, activities, and experiences have heritage as a central element of the tourism product. Sporting events also frequently employ heritage as a key promotional feature, touting ritual, tradition, and culture as part of their place making strategy (Hinch & Ramshaw, 2014). Even large scale events, such as the Olympics, will place competition venues at or near heritage sites (Strohmayer, 2013) or use the heritage of the event to enhance other forms of heritage tourism development (Boukas, Ziakas, Boustras, 2013). Thus, there are many potential ways that sport heritage can be a central feature of a tourism development strategy, however the potential role that combining sport and heritage could have in tourism development remains little understood. This presentation therefore considers the tourism development potential of sport heritage via the Tour of Flanders – an over centuryold one- day cycling race held each spring in the Flanders region of Belgium – by discussing the role of heritage in cycling tourism, the background of the race, current local tourism challenges surrounding the race, the initiatives used for developing heritage sport tourism year-round in the region, and a snapshot appraisal of these on-going initiatives. The Tour of Flanders case suggests that sport heritage could be a potentially important avenue for tourism development, though it may need to be combined with other forms of local non-sport heritage in order combat seasonality and reach a broader, international audience. References: • Boukas, N., Ziakas, V. & Boustras, G. (2013). Olympic legacy and cultural tourism: exploring the facets of Athens’ Olympic heritage. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 19 (2), 203-228. Hinch, T. & Higham, J. (2011). Sport Tourism Development (2nd edition). Bristol: Channel View Publications. • Hinch, T. & Ramshaw, G. (2014) Heritage sport tourism in Canada. Tourism Geographies. Retrieved February 6, 2014 from 080/14616688.2013.823234 #.UvOsuBbGZjQ • Strohmayer, U. (2013). Non-events and their leagies: Parisian heritage and the Olympics that never were. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 19 (2), 186-202. • Timothy, D.J. (2011). Cultural Heritage and Tourism: An Introduction. Bristol: Channel View.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

A Preliminary Framework for Understanding the Role of Sport and Recreation in Rural Canadian Communities Kyle Rich, Western University While sport and recreation are often attributed to developing many positive individual and community-level outcomes, increased scrutiny is being placed on the processes through which these outcomes are procured. Indeed, sport has been identified as a tool for community development and a facilitator of the creation of social capital in various communities (e.g., Jarvie, 2003). However, within these discussions, few authors have discussed rural sport and recreation (Atherly, 2006; Tonts, 2005), and even fewer in a Canadian context (Oncescu & Robertson, 2010). Interestingly, these aforementioned studies identified sport and recreation as important social activities both historically, and in contemporary rural communities; however, rural Canadian sport participation rates are still among the lowest in the country (Statistics Canada, 2009). Clearly, sport and recreation in rural communities deserves further investigation, particularly as these activities hold potential for community-based development strategies that can be designed and implemented from within the communities to produce social outcomes. Based on the assumption that understanding the role and importance of sport and recreation for rural citizens will help clarify the processes through which social outcomes may be facilitated, this research will provide a conceptual framework for understanding these nuances. In this paper, drawing from research on rural community development (e.g., Emery & Flora, 2006; Reimer, 2002), and concepts such as rurality (Balfour & Mitchell, 2008), resilience (Kulig, Edge, & Joyce, 2008), and sustainable community development through sport (Schulenkorf, 2012), I propose a framework for understanding the role and importance of sport and recreation for rural communities by considering their unique historical and contemporary social conditions. The value of the framework will then be illustrated with preliminary findings from a participatory action research project in Powassan, Ontario, Canada. References: • Atherly, K. (2006). Sport, localism and social capital in rural western Australia. Geographical Research, 44(4), 348-360. • Balfour, R. & Mitchell, C. (2008). Troubling Contexts: Toward a generative theory of rurality as education research. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 3(3), 95-107. • Emery, M. & Flora, C. (2006). Spiraling-Up: Mapping Community Transformation with Community Capitals Framework. Community Development, 37(1), 19-35. • Golob, M., Giles, A. R., & Rich, K. (2013). Identifying promising practices for enhancing the relevance and effectiveness of water safety education for ethnic and cultural minorities. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education 7(1), 39-55. • Kulig, J. C., Edge, D. S., & Joyce, B. (2008). Understanding Community Resiliency in Rural Communities Through Multimethod Research. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 3(3), 77-94. • Rich, K. A. (2013). Bridging Troubled Waters: Examining Culture in the Canadian Red Cross’ Swimming and Water Safety Program. Unpublished Masters Thesis. Available from • Rich, K., & Giles, A. R. (2013). Contextually appropriate aquatics programming in Canada’s North: The Shallow Water Pool Lifeguard Certification. Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 33(1). • Oncescu, J. & Robertson, B. (2010). Recreation in Remote Communities: A Case Study of a Nova Scotian Village . Journal of Rural and Community Development, 5(1), 221-237. • Reimer, B. (2002). A Sample Frame for Rural Canada: Design and Evaluation. Regional Studies, 36(8), 845-859. • Schulenkorf, N. (2012). Sustainable Community Development Through Sport and Events: A Conceptual Framework for Sport-for-Development. Sport Management Review 15(1), 1-12. • Statistics Canada. (2009). Kids’ Sports. Retrieved from • Tonts, M. (2005). Competitive sport and social capital in rural Australia. Journal of Rural Studies, 21(2), 137-149.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

An Exploration of the Effects of a Mountain bike sport event tourism in rural Scotland Martin Robertson (Victoria University), Brianna Newland (University of Delaware), Sandro Carnicelli and David McGillvray (University of the West of Scotland. Rural destinations have evolved from a predominantly agrarian economy and culture to a transitional, multi-dimensional one (Holmes, 2006). To revitalise rural communities, governments have used a number of methods in response to a decline in traditional production and employment (Kline & Milburn, 2010), including sport events and the associated tourism (Robertson, Newland, & Darby, 2014). Rural destinations are challenged to attract new audiences due to a limited range of attractions (Cai, 2002). Sport events can offer sustainable tourism (Gibson, Kaplanidou, & Kang, 2012) with the potential to gain economic and social benefit. This study explored event attendee perception a sport event’s impact on a rural destination. Mountain bike and associated visitor activities within the rural environment were also explored. Baron and Kenny’s (1986) test of direct and mediating effect was used to explore the importance of attendee background on perception of rural sport events, and whether interest and awareness mediated the effect of this variable. Overall, there was a lack of interest in visiting the available attractions in Scotland and respondents were generally unaware of the various sporting events hosted in the country. Further analysis tested attendee characteristics, both as a direct determinant of perception and as mediated by interest and awareness and found that interest in tourist activities was driven by attendee characteristics. The findings also indicate that there are many visitors who are only interested in visiting the area for the sport event, specifically and are not interested in further tourist activities. This could certainly have a negative impact on the greater tourism goals of the local community and rural Scotland, more generally. Sport event activities might be a better tourist attraction for this group. The rapid growth of ‘extreme’ sports, such as mountain bike racing, as a subculture, has bolstered the development of adventure tourism business in rural communities (Costa & Chalip, 2005). Further studies that explore how rural destinations leverage the sport event and other tourist activities would be instrumental in gaining a better understanding of the strategic functionality niche sport events in the rural context.

‘Football, fandom and festivity’: A comparative analysis of the use, impact and experience of fan parks at international football tournaments between 2002 and 2012 Dr Joel Rookwood, Liverpool Hope University Travelling to watch football matches has become an established culture, and academics from various fields have undertaken related scholarly research for decades. Football disasters and disorder, particularly in the context of international competition, has inspired responses from police, law makers, clubs, associations and competition organisers. In addition, the growth and increasing internationalisation of fandom and developments in tourism have seen various responses to the evolving challenges associated with hosting large numbers of visiting supporters. ‘Fan parks’ are a notable example. Their first widespread introduction in European competition was at the 2006 World Cup finals in Germany, and they have since been used in various competitions. These parks are temporarily erected, specifically located zones where supporters can congregate together (irrespective of allegiances) to watch matches on large screens, and partake in other forms of organised on-site entertainment. Such facilities can also allow organisers to control the behaviour, confine the movement and monitor the alcohol consumption of supporters. This represents a notable shift in policy from previous football tournaments, when the ‘assumed’ causal link between alcohol and hooliganism, which frequently shaped legislative and police responses to disorder (Stott and Pearson, 2006), also dissuaded some authorities from permitting fans to consume alcohol in and around stadia (Millward, 2009). It also reflects changing attitudes towards modern football fans. However, little is known about how fan parks have been developed and utilised at various competitions and what impact they have had on fan behaviour and experience. This qualitative, longitudinal, multi-continent research addresses some of these issues. The work draws on semi-structured interview and observation data undertaken at three World Cup finals (Japan 2002, Germany 2006 and South Africa 2010), six confederation tournaments (Portugal 2004, Ghana 2008, Switzerland/ Austria 2008, Qatar 2011, USA 2011 and Poland 2012), and three Champions League finals (Istanbul 2005, Athens 2007 and Rome 2009). As a frame of reference, this work considers non-European tournaments and other football events staged before the development of fan parks. The work found that in certain contexts fans have increasingly engaged with such provision, but that this is relative to factors including location, facilities, and security.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

FestIM – The development of a low cost impact evaluation service for cultural events using data from online social networks Debbie Sadd, Bournemouth University The UK Events industry is a critical economic contributor to development and is projected to grow from £36 billion and 550000 jobs to £43 billion and 630000 jobs by 2020. Growth requires new event products, entrepreneurs and talent, which are currently delivered by cultural festivals and they are supported by public funds however, they face difficulty gaining funding in the current economic environment as it is difficult to provide a valid assessment of their impact. Festivals in general are often quoted as providing community pride and social benefits but there is ever increasing pressure to show some measurable impact evaluation (Derret 2003, 2004: Getz 2002; Getz et al 2010) Working with event industry stakeholders, staff and students of BU, this project is developing a research based impact evaluation monitor for cultural events using data from online social networks. A low cost event evaluation methodology that meets relevance, rigour and disclosure requirements can support decision making by event stakeholders, ensuring that successful events are preserved providing the support that the industry needs to grow. This service will advise industry stakeholders to improve the effectiveness of funding allocations to cultural events, ensuring the events’ industry continued growth. Students and Staff are gaining experience of working with large datasets “big data”, skills that are highly relevant to industry, supporting placements and employment (students), and generating highly ranked publications (staff). Social networks aggregate customer narratives, geographic, temporal and network data that can be used for event evaluation overcoming the limitations of qualitative (external validity, high cost) and quantitative (inability to evaluate complex issues). The data and methods can be made available for review and modification, meeting the current open data requirements for public organizations. Working with industry is also aiding Staff and Students in building relationships that can provide teaching case studies, employment/placement opportunities and research/consultancy work. This project has the support of The Royal Borough of Chelsea and Kensington; The Arts Council; Luton Hat Factory; Bournemouth Council; Caribbean Enterprise Network. References: • • • •

Derrett, R. (2003). Festivals & Regional Destinations: How festivals demonstrate a sense of community and place. Rural Society, 13(1), 35-53. Derrett, R. (2004). Festivals, events and the destination. Festival and events management: An international arts and culture perspective, 33-50. Getz, D. (2002). Why festivals fail. Event Management, 7(4), 209-219.. Getz, D., Andersson, T., & Carlsen, J. (2010). Festival management studies: developing a framework and priorities for comparative and cross-cultural research. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 1(1), 29-59.

The Sport-for-Development pulse: combining sport programs with highlight events in the Pacific Islands Nico Schulenkorf, University of Technology, Sydney, Daryl Adair, University of Technology, Sydney and Katja Siefken, AUT, Auckland University Given the ubiquity of health-related social issues in the Pacific Islands, the need for remedial community development initiatives is critical. From a social perspective, the Pacific population experiences high rates of domestic violence and adolescent suicide. From a health perspective, non-communicable diseases present substantial risks for individuals, families and communities at large (SEARO, 2008, WHO, 2008). In addressing these issues, the football-based sport-for development (SFD) program Just Play promotes physical activity, healthy living and community involvement across eleven Pacific Islands. Our study investigates the opportunities and challenges of the Just Play initiative and its approach of using football festivals to reach out to larger numbers of participants and the wider community – a process described as sport event leverage (Chalip 2006, Schulenkorf and Edwards, 2012). An NVIVO-supported thematic analysis of 38 key stakeholders revealed that sport festivals have the ability to play an important role within the context of ongoing, regularised SFD programs; they can provide much needed excitement, animation, enthusiasm and vibrancy. In other words, while regular programs can contribute to deepening existing relationships and networks, specific ‘highlight events’ allow for the widening of participation and program scope. The nexus between sport programs and events will be illustrated graphically with the Sport-for-Development Pulse. References: • Chalip, L., 2006. Towards Social Leverage of Sport Events. Journal of Sport and Tourism, 11 (2), 109-127. • Schulenkorf, N. and Edwards, D., 2012. Maximizing Positive Social Impacts: Strategies for Sustaining and Leveraging the Benefits of Inter-Community Sport Events in Divided Societies. Journal of Sport Management, 26 (5), 379-390. • SEARO, 2008. Health in Asia and the Pacific. Manila. • WHO, 2008. A framework to monitor and evaluate implementation: Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. Geneva, Switzerland.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Sport-for-Development: A Fleeting Fancy or a Confidence Catalyst? Individual Stories from Sports Leadership Training David Scott, The Open University An oft-cited claim of sport-for-development programmes is that they are able to change lives through sport. Rather than rely on what is typically anecdotal evidence, this study critically examines the experiences sport-for-development courses can provide individuals, in order to better understand the role sport can play in shaping identities. Sports leadership training was investigated through a qualitative ethnographic approach, which involved observing four Level 2 Community Sports Leaders Awards around the North-West of England, a cyclic interview process with participants from the courses over 5-10 months, and discourse analysis of the training provider’s artefacts. Results show that although the sports leadership course may have been a catalyst for change in some individuals’ identity, this was not the case for all the participants, and it is not necessarily the course that stimulated this change. Instead it is suggested that the main proponent of identity reformation is the individual, who may well use certain strategies and influences within their social context, such as a sport-for-development course, to inform this identity exploration. This builds on the findings from previous work in other contexts (Morris et al, 2003; Pawson & Tilley, 2004; Coalter, 2012) that suggest the content of sport-for-development courses is less important than providing the space and opportunity for individuals to explore their identity within a social environment. The findings of this research provide a critical view of how individuals experience this training, points of connection and disconnection between participants and the learning experience, and the impact such training can have upon personal and professional identities. This will be reported back to Sports Leaders UK, who has co-funded this research, and thus will inform training providers regarding best practice. References: • Coalter, F. (2012) ‘There is loads of relationships here’: developing a programme theory for sport-for-change programmes. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 0(0), 1-19; • Morris, L., Sallybanks, J., Willis, K., & Makkai, T. (2003) Sport, Physical Activity and Antisocial Behaviour in Youth, Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 249, Canberra, Australian Institute of Criminology; • Pawson, R., & Tilley, I. (2004) Realist evaluation. In Paper Prepared for British Cabinet Office. Available at [first accessed 25/07/2012].

Engaging young people involved in a weight management support group to develop their programme through CBPR Pamela Scott, Moira Lewitt and Beth Cross, University of the West of Scotland Community based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach promoting co-learning and empowerment through mutual collaboration and the sharing of knowledge between community members and researchers (Banks, 2012). CBPR is utilised in this study to allow the children and young people involved in a weight management support group to evaluate and develop their current programme. The support group allows children and young people to participate in exercise-based activities and games within a community environment where weight management support is given and positive healthy behaviours are promoted. The children and young people who attend the group are evaluating and developing their current programme through participatory research methods, such as by developing board games to model the process of research and the different routes of the research, and to understand impact of the programme on their wellbeing. This will allow us to understand how using the board game will enrich the evaluation of the support group. The children and young people are involved in all stages of the research process, in order to have an active role in evaluating and developing their current support groups’ programme. The support group is based in an area of deprivation within Ayrshire, Scotland. References: • Banks, S. 2012. Community-based participatory research: a guide to ethical principles and practice. National Coordinating Centre for Public Engagement, Bristol.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

PANEL SESSION Marcos Silva (Universidade Estadual de Maringá), Laura Alice Camargo and Giuliano Pimental

Leisure in the social-recreational clubs in Brazil The social-recreation clubs are a manifestation of specific characteristic of Brazilian society that could be described as large private properties built and used for leisure activities and spending free time. Despite having similar characteristics regarding their purpose and administrative structure, each association has peculiarities that emerge from the conflicts experienced within this environment. Therefore, the central purpose of this study was to discuss the daily life within these structures and uncover evidence to understand the dynamics of the interaction among patrons, workers and administrative staff, and the possible influences on the life style and social representations of users. We discuss some variables that make up the club scenario, such as the constitution of social time, available space and playful environment, considering the triad that constitutes the base for leisure. Other prominent aspects of everyday life in the clubs that significantly influence in establishing benchmarks for social life were discussed. Emphasis was given on the form of administration regarding the disparities in proposal for sport activities rather than other leisure options and also the tensions formed in various groups of interest. From the field survey with questionnaires, interviews and non-participant observation the composition of social representations of the entities surveyed was presented. It was found that despite the clubs influence the formation of different lifestyles of its patrons, it is not a producer of social representations. Despite the dynamic relationship between users, managers and employees, the meanings attributed to the practices within these environments are reproductions of values ​​of the society in which it is inserted.

Leisure, Tourism and Culture Marcos Silva (Universidade Estadual de Maringá), Laura Alice Camargo and Giuliano Pimental Tourism is a relevant social economic and cultural phenomenon, and community participation in planning actions and development has provided a more authentic and strengthened relationship with tourists. The objective of this study was to analyze if community involvement leads to the restoration of values of their identity and culture, as tourism and recreationin their social function can act as driving forces in the processes of recovering identities and memories of places. Within this context, the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba – PR has been highlighted by the development of Tourist Circuits aimed at the strengthening of ethnic and rural matters. It is necessary to understand the tourism and leisure through cultural interrelations, using this concept precisely because it is understood that both exceed the economic logic, extrapolating the perspective of tourism to include cultural diversity and identity. Tourism and leisure compiled according to the cultural bias represent a segment that aims to enhance and promote the tangible and intangible assets found in cultural events, in events, fairs and their own territory. The municipalities in the region of the Curitiba are characterized by colonization of Germans, Polish and Italians who developed their history in rural areas. The Tourist Circuits aim to show the daily life, history and gastronomy in these living rural areas, use these elements and the involvement of the community in the planning of tourism and leisure. This study used a qualitative approach with the semi structured interviews, following guidelines of the specific objectives of the research. It intends to show the vision of the community members involved in the action and planning of the Tourist Circuits, discussing their perception regarding the strengthening of cultural heritage, in order to verify the involvement and satisfaction of ourselves in relation to tourism and leisure. Proper planning and participation of the local community during the process of preparation of a region of tourism can have positive results. Aggregating value to the cultural heritage makes the communities feel appreciated; therefore, the culture becomes a vehicle for socialization between visitors and visited.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Mega event volunteer programmes: evidence of a volunteering legacy for sports and events Dr Karen A. Smith (Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand) Increased volunteering can be claimed as a social legacy of sporting mega events. However, while studies of sport event volunteer programmes have recorded high levels of positive intention to volunteer again after the event (eg, MacLean and Hamm, 2007, Bang et al., 2009, Doherty, 2009, Pauline, 2011, Dickson et al., 2013), the lack of longitudinal research on event volunteering (Doherty, 2009, Pauline, 2011) means there is an absence of data on whether these good intentions are acted upon. This paper provides evidence of a volunteering legacy from Rugby World Cup 2011 (RWC 2011) which was held in New Zealand. Funded by Sport New Zealand, the research investigated the volunteering intentions and actions of those who were part of the 5,500 strong RWC 2011 Volunteer Programme. The longitudinal study used an online survey to track the RWC 2011 volunteering experience over five timepoints, from two-and-a-half months before the event to tenand- a-half months after the Tournament. The RWC 2011 Volunteer Programme had a number of positive outcomes for volunteering. First, RWC 2011 introduced new people to volunteering and encouraged lapsed volunteers to get involved again. Second, most survey respondents intended to volunteer again after the event, and the greatest potential to increase volunteering was in sport and events. Third, positive intentions led to action and there was an overall increase in volunteering after the Tournament. However, not all the growth potential in volunteering was realised. Fourth, the increase in post-Tournament volunteering mainly benefited event and sport organisations. Volunteering in other community organisations was popular but did not increase post-event. The significance of this research is its longitudinal approach. It highlights the weakness of using intentions as the indicator of volunteering legacy. By measuring both intentions and subsequent volunteering actions, the complexity of the post-event volunteering legacy is revealed. The research has implications for those attempting to measure the impacts of major events. It highlights that major events can have positive outcomes for event and sport organisations that rely on volunteers, but these sectors need to be ready to engage volunteers as they complete their major event volunteering experience. References: • Bang, H., Won, D., & Kim, Y. (2009). Motivations, commitment, and intentions to continue volunteering for sporting events. Event Management, 13(2), 69-81 • Dickson, T. J., Benson, A. M., Blackman, D. A., & Terwiel, A. F. (2013). It’s All About the Games! 2010 Vancouver Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games Volunteers. Event Management, 17(1), 77-92. • Doherty, A. (2009). The volunteer legacy of a major sport event. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 1(3), 185-207. • MacLean, J., & Hamm, S. (2007). Motivation, commitment, and intentions of volunteers at a large canadian sporting event. Leisure/Loisir: Journal of the Canadian Association for Leisure Studies, 31(2), 523-556. • Pauline, G. (2011). Volunteer satisfaction and intent to remain: an analysis of contributing factors among professional golf event volunteers. International Journal of Event Management Research, 6(1), 10-32.

‘What the Critics Say About Subtitled Nordic Drama’ Rachael Stark, University of the West of Scotland “Who on earth wanted out-of-control Danish cops and politicians drowning in blood and subtitles? Well, we did” (Preston, 2011). If we accept Himmelstein’s opinion that the role of the critic “helps us fine-tune our sensibilities so that we may better recognize what makes one work of art special” (1981: xii) then television reviewers can play an important function in signposting texts worth examination and features worth especial attention. Preston’s response to The Killing (BBC4, 2011) conveys the general surprise of television critics, to the popularity of the recent influx of subtitled Danish drama. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the critical response of television reviewers to a selection of Northern European dramas and specifically, their commentary on the public’s acceptance of imported drama that is subtitled. In particular, this study will focus on the reviewers’ reactions to The Killing, The Killing II (BBC4, 2011), Borgen (BBC4, 2012) and The Bridge (BBC4, 2012). These texts were selected as not only are they representative of this recent phenomenon (the importation of Nordic dramas) but they were all broadcast in the UK on BBC4. All have received critical acclaim and represent what Firth (2000) describes as ‘valuable television’ in that they attract quality audiences, help to brand the broadcasting channel (in this case BBC4) and are strong examples of commercial successes in the international market. References: • Frith, S (2000) ‘The Black Box: The value of television and the future of television research’ Screen 41.1, Spring 2000 • Himmelstein, H (1981) On the Small Screen: New Approaches in Television and Video Criticism New York: Praeger • Preston, P (2011) ‘Cops that fit the mood’ The Guardian [online] 4th December [accessed 10/2/14]


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

‘Inspiring generations’? How London 2012 influenced young people in the context of family practices Liz Such, University of Edinburgh ‘Inspire a generation’ was the slogan of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Perhaps a more appropriate tagline would have been ‘inspire across generations’ as it is in the context of family networks that young people’s engagement and activity in sport and physical activity takes place. Family and peer networks have an important mediating effect on what, when and for how long children and young people participate in sport and physical activity (Kay, 2000; Wheeler and Green, 2012). This paper examines these processes in some detail in order to assess the form and nature of sporting inspiration in the wake of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Data from a study carried out with young people in Scotland and the North West of England is presented to unravel the role of family relationships in negotiating attitudes towards the Games, sport and physical activity. Discussion centres on the family filters through which any kind of ‘demonstration effect’ takes place. The paper presents an argument for more sophisticated policy theorisation in this area based on the complexities of relational personal life and family processes. References: • Kay, T. (2000) Sporting excellence: A family affair? European Physical Education Review 6(2) 151-169. • Wheeler, S., & Green. (2012). Parenting in relation to children’s sports participation: Generational changes and potential implications. Leisure Studies. doi:10.1080 /02614367.2012.707227

Immigrants’ aesthetic enjoyment: Consumption and production of Brazilianness Darach Turley and Karine Dalsin, Dublin City University One of the most fascinating aspects of human migration is that it problematizes the concept of nation and notions of nationhood. Moving away from a more common sense understanding of national groups as concrete, static, cohesive human aggregations who exhibit uniform behaviour, this paper draws attention to the dynamics of identification, differentiation and aesthetic enjoyment. This perspective does not deny the relevance of nationhood as a conceptual tool, indeed it can shed light on the manner in which national groups are constituted and the way multiple groups and notions of nationhood can be encapsulated accommodated under the umbrella term ‘nation’. The focus of the study is on Brazilian feasts or “festas brasileiras” in Dublin, capital city of Ireland. These events mostly consist of social gatherings strongly based on music consumption and take place on a weekly basis in pubs around the city centre area. Using long term participant observation and semi-structured interviews this research examines the relationship between immigrants’ consumption of aesthetic gation, consumption is understood as a socio-cultural activity through which persons make sense of the world. In this sense, Brazilian immigrants’ consumption of music is a way to express, test, contest, or even deny group affiliation with Brazilian nationhood as a core aspect of their identity. It is important to note that it is widely agreed among scholars that music has always been a prominent outlet for Brazilians to think themselves as nationhood (Tinhorao 1998; Garcia 2005; Oliven 2006). Therefore it does not just provide soundtrack to the history of Brazil but it actively makes itself a part of it. Using it as standpoint this study analyses the role played by music consumption in the context of Brazilians’ immigration experience. References: • Garcia, T. C. O” it verde e amarelo” de Carmen Miranda (1930-1946). Annablume, 2005. • Oliven, R. G. A parte eo todo: a diversidade cultural no Brasil- nação. Editora Vozes, 2006. • Tinhorao, J.R. Historia social da musica popuplar brasileira. Editora 34, 1998.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Failure to Launch: Aberdeen’s Bid for UK City of Culture 2017 Daniel Turner, Robert Gordon University In 2012, Aberdeen announced its intention to bid for the title of “2017 UK City of Culture”, with a campaign which, like many preceding it (Richards and Palmer, 2010), focussed on the potential of the event to transform the city’s cultural landscape. Whilst Hull succeeded in winning the title, and a bid from near neighbour Dundee received plaudits whilst reaching the final shortlist, Aberdeen’s bid was rejected at the first stage of the application process in summer 2013. In the period following this announcement, the bid and its delivery team received considerable criticism within the city (Press and Journal, 2013) and in the formal feedback which indicated that the bid failed to “deliver a compelling case in terms of vision or deliverability” (Regeneris Consulting, 2013). Drawing upon a range of previous research in the terrain of ‘event bidding’ (Westerbeek et al, 2002; Emery, 2002; Getz, 2004), this paper examines the Aberdeen bid in detail in order to ascertain the issues leading to its lack of success. Building on the bid documentation and official feedback, the paper presents additional testimony in the form of interviews with the bid team and a range of stakeholders across the city’s cultural sector to examine the weaknesses of Aberdeen’s campaign and the lessons which can be learned from the process. This data raises a range of concerns with the bid. In addition to a range of issues unique to the local environment which impacted negatively on the bid at a practical level, it is argued that the bid team struggled with two key issues which have wider resonance. Firstly, Aberdeen’s campaign demonstrated a naivety towards the dominant ‘externalities’ (Foley et al, 2012; Smith 2012) agenda which typically dominates the award of titles such as UK City of Culture. Secondly, the bid failed to control the internal stakeholder environment and influence the citywide consultation process which took place as part of the bid (Richards and Palmer, 2010). It is suggested that these issues combined to deliver a bid which was hastily conceived, naively executed and poorly articulated. However, the research indicates that significant lessons have been learned from the 2017 bid process and the city is, as a result, better positioned for future award bids. References: • Emery, P., (2002), ‘Bidding to host a major sports event: the local organising committee perspective’ in International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol 15, Iss 4, pp316-335 • Foley, M., McGillivray, D. and McPherson, G., (2011), ‘Event Policy: From Theory to Strategy’, London, Routledge • Getz, D., (2004), ‘Bidding on Events: Identifying Event Selection Criteria and Critical Success Factors’ , in Journal of Convention and Exhibition Management, Vol 5, Iss 2, pp1-24 • Press and Journal, (2013), ‘Hang your heads in shame over City of Culture failure’, Press and Journal, 20 June, p1 • Regeneris Consulting, (2013). ‘Aberdeen: Initial bid for UK City of Culture’ [online]. London: Department of Media Culture and Sport. Available from http:// [accessed 25th January 2014) • Richards, G. and Palmer, R., (2010), ‘Eventful Cities: Cultural Management and Urban Revitalisation’, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinnmann • Smith, A., (2012), ‘Events and Urban Regeneration’, London, Routledge • Westerbeek, H., Turner, P. and Ingerson, L., (2002), ‘Key Success Factors in Bidding for Hallmark Sporting Events’ in International Marketing Review, Vol 19, No. 3, pp303-322

Does football widen or narrow the goalposts of masculinity? The affective and emotional responses of men who play competitive country football in Bega, New South Wales, Australia Gordon Waitt and David Clifton, University of Wollongong This paper investigates the bodies of men who play football beyond the metropolis as a crucial site for both normalising and contesting acceptable modes of gender identity and behaviour. The paper responds to recent calls to consider the visceral aspects of sport in leisure studies (Booth 2009; Keys 2013). Adopting a feminist, post-structuralist, geographical perspective, we illustrate how a visceral geographical approach – one that pays attention to people’s emotional bonds and affective ties of active participation in sports – can provide new ways of thinking about football as a site of social engagement – and provide important clues to understanding rurality and masculinity. This requires interpreting 21 football life-narratives, which articulate the interlacing of the embodied self, decision making and sensual, even gut or visceral reactions. Specifically, we examine variations in the meaning and experiences of playing football expressed by men who live in the Bega Valley, New South Wales, Australia. We reveal how men who play football embody the dynamics of pride and shame may reconfigure or rupture the bodily, social and spatial boundaries associated with myriad masculine subjectivities. References: • Booth, D. (2009) Politics and pleasure: the philosophy of physical education revisited, American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education, 61, pp. 133-153. • Keys, B. (2013) Senses and emotions in the history of sport, The Journal of Sport History, 40, 1, pp. 21-38


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Hunt Support Clubs – A Case Study Carrianne Wallace, Manchester Metropolitan University This research attempts to unravel hunt support club culture in relation to the study of a particular hunt supporters club situated in Shropshire in the UK. Whilst hunt support clubs are briefly outlined in literature as the ‘ lifeline’ of the hunt’ The author, through this research, has found that discussions surrounding hunt support clubs, have remained outside of any real research focus. Typically, hunting literature focuses upon the birth of modern day hunting, hunting practices, culture, politics and traditions including; Le Good (1983)Williams (1984) Carroll (1984) Poole (1988) Hart (1997) and George (1999). Recent literature including May (2013) highlights and analyses some of the broader socio- cultural and political issues surrounding hunting. Whilst providing a useful overview of the development of hunting, hunt support clubs remain outside of any real focus or analysis. This case study provides the scope for exploring the social and cultural meanings of a significant leisure activity and lifestyle embraced by a number of people. The author utilised forty years of hunt support club newsletters, other artefacts and stories including interviews to study hunt support club movement origins, their development, a detailed analysis of the their culture and practices, and their supporting role in maintaining hunting today. Further investigations through interview, examine and reveal the lifestyles of those supporters who have remained involved despite the hunting ban in 1997 and the impact of this upon their altered but committed leisure lifestyle. References: • • • • • • •

Carroll, T (1984) Diary of a fox hunting man London : Hamish Hamilton Ltd George, J (1999) A rural uprising the battle to save hunting with hounds, London : J A Allen. Hart – Davis, D (1997) When the country went to town. The countryside marches and rally of 1997, Ludlow : Excellent Press. LeGood, B (1983) The riding handbook, Northampton :Beacon Publishing May, A N (2013) The Fox hunting controversy 1781 – 2004 class and cruelty, Surrey : Ashgate. Poole, RWF (1988) Hunting an introductory handbook, USA : David and Charles Inc. Williams, D (1984) Between the lines further reminiscences, London : Methuen.

A Case study of the’ Livery Yard’ - At one with’ Leisure’ ?! Carrianne Wallace (Manchester Metropolitan University), Kate Dashper (Leeds Metropolitan University) and Julie McKeown (Aberystwyth University) Equestrian sport and leisure often takes place in third party shared settings where owners will pay weekly or monthly for their horse to be kept at a stable yard, this is commonly known as ‘ Livery’. There a number of different types of livery yards and packages available to horse owners and standards of livery vary in terms of setting, management, welfare and facilities. The British Equestrian Association (2006) along with The British Horse Society (2014) identify that over 1000 livery yards in the UK are currently licensed, but there is a recognised number of un- licensed livery yards. This research investigates the modern day livery yard, both licensed and un - licensed, its culture and the social interactions that occur in particular settings. The outcome of this research provides an understanding of how the third party aspect of the setting influences equestrian leisure and sports behaviour. The authors have utilised auto ethnography as outlined by Sands ( 2002) in identifying, understanding and interpreting their own experiences. The authors have also conducted a number of semi - structured interviews with a range of people at different livery yard settings, as a basis for exploring the socio - cultural and micro political world of livery yards. Responses reveal the relationship between owner, horse and ‘others’ within different livery settings and the impact of these relationships on meanings of leisure. Common problems and areas of conflict with owning a horse at livery are examined, within the context of developing understandings of the meanings of livery yard culture and the ’ labour of leisure’ conditions identified by Rojek (2009). Altogether this research outlines the key aspects of how particular leisure settings can ultimately determine a persons’ ability to be at one with ‘leisure’!. References: • • • •

BETA 2006 National Equestrian Survey. BHS 20014 Sands R, R (2002) Sport Ethnography Human Kinetics : USA Rojek C (2009)The labour of Leisure and Culture, SAGE Publications Ltd :UK


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

The Glasgow 2014 XX Commonwealth Games and Scottish independence: “political truce” or political truth(s)? Stuart Whigham, St Mary’s University College This paper explores the political reaction to Lord McConnell’s appeal for a political ‘truce’ in the form of a temporary halt to campaigning by all political parties and organisations involved in the debate regarding the Scottish independence referendum during the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games (BBC, 2014; McConnell, 2014). Urging both sides of the debate to cease campaigning for the two-week period of the Glasgow 2014 games, the current Labour peer and past First Minister of the Scottish Parliament cited concerns that there are “genuine concerns that the Games, and the image of Scotland, could be damaged by attempts by either side – for and against – to use the Games to promote their cause, or to use the venues for campaigning” (McConnell, 2014). Drawing upon the principles of both a critical discourse and a narrative analysis methodological approach, this paper will scrutinise the nature of the political reactions to McConnell’s proposal from both sides of the independence referendum debate by analysing press releases, media interviews and other public reaction. In particular, the emphasis in the responses from both sides of the debate regarding the apolitical nature of the 2014 Games will be critiqued, drawing upon the arguments of past analyses of sporting mega-events which highlight the potential for political exploitation of such events by the host nations (Grix, 2012; Houlihan and Giulianotti, 2012). Furthermore, the findings of academic research on the political implications of hosting the Commonwealth Games will be considered (e.g. Majumdar and Mehta, 2010; Macintosh and Greenhorn, 1992; Majumdar, 2011; Lockstone and Baum, 2010), highlighting a number of precedents which demonstrate the numerous challenges faced in any attempts to the keep the 2014 Games free from political influence. References: • British Broadcasting Corporation (2014) ‘Scottish independence: Call from ‘truce’ during Glasgow 2014’, BBC News Online. Available at: news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-25645859. Accessed on 25/1/2014. • Grix, J. (2012) The politics of sports mega-events, Political Insight, 3 (1): 4-7. • Houlihan, B, and Giulianotti, R. (2012) Politics and the London 2012 Olympics: the (in)security Games, International Affairs, 88 (4): 701-717. • Lockstone, L., and Baum, T. (2008) Fun in the family: tourism and the Commonwealth Games, International Journal of Tourism Research, 10: 497-509. Macintosh. D., and Greenhorn, D. (1992) Canadian diplomacy and the 1978 Edmonton Commonwealth Games, Journal of Sport History, 19 (1): 26-55. • Majumdar, B. (2011) Commonwealth Games 2010: the index of a ‘new’ India, Social Research, 78 (1): 231-254. • Majumdar, B., and Mehta, N. (2010) Sellotape legacy: Delhi and the Commonwealth Games. Noida: Harper Collins. • McConnell, J. (2014) ‘Glasgow 2014 can be the best ever Commonwealth Games’, Lords of the Blog. Available at: Accessed on 25/1/2014.

Omnivorism, social capital and networks Paul Widdop, University of Manchester, Grant Jarvie, University of Edinburgh and David Cutts, University of Bath In this paper we use recent survey data to test the relationship between aspects of social capital and the consumption of sport. The benefits of sports participation have recently been both acknowledged and questioned not just within the UK but also Europe and Canada. Governments have shown an interest in sports participation trends because of the perceived benefit to the health of the nation. The hosting of major sporting events have been linked to legacies that are claimed to involve ‘booster’ effects upon participation in sport and physical activity. The issue of sports participation has also been visible within the literature on sport and social capital as researchers have attempted to evidence the extent to which social capital is achieved or not through sports participation. It is at this intersection between the literature on sports participation and social capital that this study is placed. It is the first of its kind to use Taking Part Survey Data to examine specific patterns of sports consumption as a basis for influencing social networks as an aspect of social capital informed by the work of Nan Lin and his theory of social structure and action.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

“Channelling festival communications: the role of sounds, sights and social media” Dr. Linda Wilks, The Open University This paper explores the channels through which the Folkstock Arts Foundation communicates its values to its stakeholders. Folkstock Arts Foundation is a Community Interest Company set up in 2013 which supports and develops fledgling acoustic musicians in a range of ways, including through the creation of events. Their flagship festival, Folkstock, was held in Hertfordshire, UK in September 2013. Kotler et al’s (2013) model of the communications process provides a framework for the investigation, prompting discussion of senders, messages, media, receivers and feedback. McDonald and Wilson’s (2002) emphasis on the importance of interactivity and dialogue with customers also provides inspiration, while Finnegan (2014) reminds us that communication is not only about words, images and digital media, but also about communicating using sounds, sights and material objects in physical space. Data collected from a survey of Folkstock event attendees, conducted partly online and partly face to face, inform the conclusions. Interviews with the Director of Folkstock, as well as with members of the organising team, also provide evidence. Analysis of mentions of Folkstock by a range of stakeholders on a range of online and traditional media channels, including Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, Instagram and Tumblr, as well as consideration of the role of the Folkstock events all help in the investigation of the communication of values. It was found that Facebook was the key social media channel in terms of message receipt and feedback for Folkstock, while Twitter and YouTube were also well used. The sending of messages was dominated by the Director, although several other key players were also very active in encoding and re-circulating messages. The cluster of music-related values was by far the most effectively transmitted. Folkstock events stood out as the top channel by which the Folkstock values were received, while hearing the music of the Folkstock artists was also cited as high in influencing the formation of stakeholders’ opinions about Folkstock values. This suggests that sounds, sights and material objects in physical space still have a vital role to play in the communication of values, even in today’s social media-rich world.

U2’s 360° Tour: The Spectacularization of a Rock Music Event Michael Williams, University of Brighton In July 2011, U2 ended the ‘Greatest Spectacle in Stadium-Rock History’ (Jones 2012), which generated an estimated $736 million dollars and was seen by over 7 million people at over 110 shows in 30 countries around the world. U2 and their previous tours have been subject to significant academic analysis and are considered pioneers of live rock music as spectacle. However understanding of how and why their events become spectacles is underdeveloped. This paper draws extensively on Cultural Studies and examines the complex and multilayered process of spectacularization in the context of rock music events. The paper focuses on U2 shows, which combine technological, performative, temporal and spatial elements to create commercial entertainment and individual consumer experiences. U2 concerts also enable the band to engage with their audience and promote particular socio-political campaigns. Furthermore, they bring fans together and create opportunities to participate in the creation of a spectacle. The genre of the spectacle has been discussed in the contexts of a range of events, for example the American Superbowl, World Expos, Olympic Games, festivals and carnivals. Gotham and Krier (2008: 179) suggest that the production of spectacle involves investment, circulation and profit, which is generated through the ‘commodification of images, space and so on’. Despite this, few authors address the process of spectacularization directly and empirical studies of particular events are scarce. Consequently, there is no clear understanding of this process in the context of a planned event in general and a rock concert in particular. Although there has been little attention to the spectacularization of events, there seems to be a consensus that a number of key elements contribute to this process. MacAloon (1984) highlights distinctive characteristics of spectacle including scale, visual and symbolic aspects and the involvement of actors and audiences, movement and excitement. These provide a useful starting point to understand how a rock music event becomes a spectacle. However, this paper argues that various other components including theming, architecture, theatre and audio and visual effects form part of process of spectacluarization of rock music events. References: • Gotham, K. and Krier, D. (2008) ‘From the culture industry to the society of the spectacle: Critical theory and the Situationist International’ in Dahms, H. F. (ed.) No Social Science without Critical Theory (Current Perspectives in Social Theory, Volume 25): 155-192. • Jones, D. (2012) From the Ground Up: The Official Story of the Greatest Spectacle in Stadium-Rock History. London: Random House. • MacAloon, J. (1984) ‘Introduction: Cultural Performances, Culture Theory’, in J. MacAloon ed. Rite, Drama, Festival, Spectacle: Rehearsals Toward a Theory of Cultural Performance, Philadelphia: The Institute for the Study of Human Issues: 1-15.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Sochi 2014: A Soft Power Vehicle for a New Russian Identity Daniel Wolfe, European University St Petersburg With an estimated cost of over 50 billion USD, Russia has broken all previous spending records in its preparations for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi; it is the most expensive Olympics in history (Grove, 2013). This paper investigates the motivations behind Russia’s unprecedented investment in Sochi, starting from an upgraded definition of mega-events based on the work of Roche (2002) and Müller (2013). It examines the historical and cultural contexts of hosting the world’s most prestigious mega-event, based on a constructivist interpretation of Russian identity that comes from Wendt and Hopf, with work from Russian experts Jeffrey Mankoff, Dmitry Trenin, Lilja Shevtsova, Andrew Wood, and Martin Müller to help explain the Russian experience. This paper then elucidates several critical aspects of the process of transformation in Sochi and its environs, based on my own field research, ethnographic interviews, and participant observation. My work has explored the effects of these changes on the local people in two small villages located in the center of the storm of construction, directly between the two clusters of Olympic venues. Using Joseph Nye’s concept of political soft power, I argue that the Olympic project in Sochi is part of an effort to mark the end of the post-Soviet transition period while simultaneously introducing a new, upgraded Russian identity to the domestic population and the world. While opinions on the ground of course are not uniform, the enormous difficulties endured by Sochi locals during the course of Olympic preparations have soured many residents on the value of hosting the games; indeed, a majority of people I interviewed believed that the Olympics were “not for us”. It is contended that this represents a failure to graft the local population with this new, Olympic identity, despite years of effort and opportunity. It is concluded that, at the micro level, the difficulties experienced by individual residents on the ground in Sochi outweigh the perceived benefits from Olympic development. Nevertheless, after the conclusion of the games a number of positive outcomes are possible - not just in the region itself, but in Russia’s relationship with the outside world - and these are discussed in turn. References: • Grove, T., February 21, 2013. Special Report: Russia’s $50 Billion Olympic Gamble. Reuters. <> • Hopf, T., 1998. The Promise of Constructivism in International Relations Theory. International Security 23, 171–200. • Mankoff, J., 2009. Russian foreign policy: the return of great power politics. Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, Md. • Müller, M., 2009. Making Great Power Identities in Russia: An Ethnographic Discourse Analysis of Education at a Russian Elite University. Transaction Publishers, Rutgers University. • Müller, M., 2012. Popular perception of urban transformation through megaevents: understanding support for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 30, 693–711. • Müller, M., 2013. The seven deadly sins of mega-event planning - and what to do about them. Lecture given at Kazan Federal University on 14 October 2013. Available from • Nye, Jr., J.S., 1990. Soft Power. Foreign Policy 80, 153–171. • Nye, Jr., J.S., 2008. Public Diplomacy and Soft Power. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 616, 94–109. • Nye, J.S., 2013. What China and Russia Don’t Get About Soft Power. Foreign Policy. < don_t_get_about_soft_power> • Roche, M., 2002. Megaevents and Modernity: Olympics and Expos in the Growth of Global Culture. Routledge. • Shevtsova, L., Wood, A., 2011. Change or Decay: Russia’s Dilemma and the West’s Response. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. • Trenin, D., 2009. Russia Reborn: Reimagining Moscow’s Foreign Policy. Foreign Affairs. <> • Wendt, A., 1992. Anarchy is what States Make of it: The Social Construction of Power Politics. International Organization 46, 391–425.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Sports stadia tourism: from sleeping giant to active edutainment Richard Keith Wright, AUT University, New Zealand The concept of employing elements of entertainment to educate others is far from new (Tufte, 2001; Lapouras & Vasillakis, 2004), and the carefully choreographed (re)presentation of a local community’s cultural heritage remains a popular topic for public debate and academic discourse (Timothy & Boyd, 2003; Smith, 2006). Though many have questioned the validity of the final product/ production, the viability of mixing learning with laughter and leisure experiences is visible for all to see. The edutainment era is alive and kicking, with new attractions and activities appearing in local communities the world over (e.g. museums, galleries, zoos, theatres etc.) (White, 2003; Addis 2005). This paper evaluates the use and usage of edutainment activities and attractions within local sports stadia (once referred to as the sleeping giant of the global sport tourism sector) (Gammon, 2010; Ramshaw & Gammon 2010; Wright 2012). Qualitative data was gathered over a five-year period through a series of semi-structured interviews, informal conversations and a mixture of overt and covert observations, all conducted within venues of various size and status. The producers and consumers of English sport stadia tourism activities were asked to consider and compare the importance of mixing entertainment and education within the visitor experience. The producers were open to the adoption of edutainment, especially if it enabled them to target specific groups (e.g. school groups and international visitors). The consumers were equally enthusiastic, believing it would aid the guides when it came to the provision of relevant and reliable information. The enjoyment gained from the opportunity to co-create the visitor experience through informal, unscripted, conversations and the sharing of stories was a key finding to emerge from this explorative study. The final recommendations focus on the importance of placing authenticity and accuracy (of the educational experience) ahead of activities and attractions that are designed purely to entertain. The replacement of guides with digital technology, for example, may enable stadiums to edutain even more people, but should only be considered as an exciting addition as opposed to an equally effective alternative. References: • Addis, M. (2005) New technologies and cultural consumption – edutainment is born!, European Journal of Marketing, 39, 7/8, pp.729–736. • Gammon, S. (2010). Sporting new attractions The commodification of the sleeping stadium. In R. Sharpley & P. Stone (Eds.), Tourism Experiences: Contemporary Perspectives (115-126). London: Routledge. • Lepouras, G. & Vassilakis, C. (2004) Virtual museums for all: employing game technology for edutainment, Virtual Reality, 8, 2, pp.96-106. • Ramshaw, G. & Gammon, S. (2010) On Home Ground? Twickenham Stadium Tours and the Construction of Sport Heritage. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 5, 2, pp.87- 102. • Smith, L. (2006) Uses of Heritage. London: Routledge. • Timothy, D. J. & Boyd, S. W. (2003) Heritage Tourism: Themes in Tourism. Harlow: Prentice Hall. • Tufte, T. (2001) Entertainment-education and participation: Assessing the communication strategy of Soul City. Journal of International Communication, 7, 2, • White, R. (2003) ‘That’s Edutainment’, White Hutchinson Leisure and Learning Group, Available online at shtml [Accessed 4th February 2010] • Wright, R. K. (2012) Stadia, identity and belonging: Stirring the Sleeping Giants of Sports Tourism. In R.Shipway & A.Fyall (Eds.), International Sports Events: Impacts, experiences and identities (195-207). Oxon: Routledge.

After the Arab Spring and towards the African Nations Cup: Libya’s Tourism Prospects Jamal Youssef, George Lafferty and Gregory Teal, University of Western Sydney Before the Arab Spring, international tourism to Libya had been increasing gradually for two decades. Tourism growth provided a potential avenue towards reduced reliance on oil revenues and greater integration within the global economy. However, in the wake of civil war and continuing unrest, international tourism arrivals have inevitably plummeted. The current government has reasserted Libya’s commitment to tourism growth, with a particular focus on planning for the African Nations Cup, to be held in Libya in 2017. This paper assesses the prospects for international leisure tourism recovery during the period leading up to the African Nations Cup. The paper argues that a major factor inhibiting Libya’s tourism growth (particularly in comparison to neighbours such as Tunisia) has been the poor quality of service in Libyan hotels. Drawing on the concept of organisational climate, through document analysis, a questionnaire survey and a series of interviews (for example, with hotel managers and government ministers), the paper examines how improved organisational climate in 4- and 5-star Libyan hotels might contribute to higher quality of service and to a resurgence in leisure tourist activity.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIES Daryl Adair is Associate Professor of Sport Management at UTS. His research focuses on sport and the challenges of, as well as the opportunities for, ethnocultural diversity. He has published on the intersection of sport with ‘race’, ethnicity, indigeneity, and masculinity. In recent years he has edited several special issues of journals around the theme of sport and diversity: Australian Aboriginal Studies (2009), Sporting Traditions (2009), International Review for the Sociology of Sport (2010), Sport Management Review (2010), Cosmopolitan Civil Societies (2010), and Sport in Society (2011). Dr Andrew Adams is a Senior Lecturer in the Centre for Event and Sport Research at Bournemouth University. Andrew teaches across a range of sport and social policy modules and has published in the same area. Recent publications have focused on the examination of sport, policy and the social impacts for grass roots sport organisations. Andrew’s current research focuses on sport, Big Society and social capital, human rights in sport and grass roots sport and community development. Dr Sarah Taylor Agate is an adjunct faculty member at The College at Brockport, State University of New York where she teaches courses in tourism and special event management. She is also an affiliate faculty member at Southwestern College in Winfield, Kansas where she teaches qualitative research methods online. She received her PhD from Clemson University in Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management. She received her B.S. and M.S. from Brigham Young University in Family Studies and Youth and Family Recreation, respectively. Her research focus is creating enjoyable family recreation experiences in various settings. Her work has been published in journals including Journal of Leisure Research, International Journal of Business Innovation and Research, Marriage and Family Review, and Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. Faruk Alaeddinoglu has been working at the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Yuzuncu Yil University, Turkey as an Associate Professor and the Vice Dean. His research interests are tourism geography (culture and nature based tourism), planning, geographic information systems (GIS), and city geography. He has worked in 11 scientific projects (4 of them are still continuing), has 23 published articles in both national and international journals, and submitted 24 papers in domestic and international conferences. He is also co-author of an ecotourism book and 6 book chapters. Dr. Jane Ali-Knight is a founding member and Director of the Edinburgh Institute: Festivals, Events and Tourism (EIFET) at Edinburgh Napier University, Scotland. She is currently leading and developing EIFET operations in Scotland as well as lecturing at Universities internationally and facilitating training and development. She has presented at major international and national conferences and has published widely in the areas of festival and event marketing and management. She has also edited seminal text books in the area of Festival and Event Management. Silvia Cristina Franco Amaral, Undergraduate diploma in Physical Education from Universidade Federal de Santa Maria/Brazil (1989), Master’s degree in Physical Education from Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (1995) and PhD in Physical Education from Universidade Estadual de Campinas/Brazil (2003). Title of Full Professor (Livre Docente) from Faculdade de Educação Física of Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEF-UNICAMP) (2011). Currently teaches at FEF-UNICAMP. Experience in the field of Physical Education, with emphasis on Leisure and Public Policies, working mainly on the following topics: Leisure, Public Policy, Body Culture, Physical Education and Sports. Marília Martins Bandeira: Doctorate student of Physical Education at Universidade Estadual de Campinas/Unicamp/Brazil, Department of Physical Education and Humanities. Master’s Degree in Social Anthropology from Universidade Federal de São Carlos/ UFSCar/Brazil (2012), line of research: Anthropology of Health, Sports and Corporality. Attended a lato sensu post-graduate program in Theory and Practices of Communication at Fundação Cásper Líbero with emphasis on Sports Journalism (2007). Bachelor and Teaching Degree (Licenciatura) in Physical Education from Universidade de São Paulo/USP/Brazil (2006). Research interests: Body and Sports Anthropology; Gender and Embodiment; Leisure Politics, Intercultural Education and Alternative Sports. Susan Barnett is a Leisure Behavior PhD student in the Recreation, Park and Tourism Studies department at Indiana University. Susan has a background in recreation therapy with adolescents in camp, schools, and church settings, and in event management. While at California State University, Chico, Susan taught courses in therapeutic recreation and inclusive recreation, foundations of recreation, leisure and life, and event management. In addition, Susan led several teams of students to perform event management services to partners such as the National Park Service, Dakota Events, Autodesk Software Company, and other local non-profit agencies. Her main research areas include socialization, social networks, and media use, generational differences, transition, and mental health. Her dissertation topic is on social networks, freshman transition, stress, and media leisure behavior. Peter Barrer has been teaching a range of cultural and language subjects at the Department of British and American Studies, Faculty of Arts, Comenius University in Bratislava since 2009. His research interests centre on popular culture (particularly sport, popular music and television) and how it redefines local and national identities. He has previously published work on ice hockey, popular music and reality television in Slovakia.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Angela Beggan has been a lecturer at the University of the West of Scotland since its emergence in 2007, and teaches Physical Activity and Health on the BSc (Hons) in Sport Coaching, BA (Hons) in Sport Development, and BSc (Hons) Sport and Exercise Science. Before moving to Higher Education, she worked across the Health and Fitness sector in posts involving clinical exercise prescription and health and wellness programme management. Angela is currently undertaking a PhD in the design, implementation, and evaluation of physical activity interventions and is particularly interested in intergenerational physical activity and retirement behaviours in older adults. Lisbeth A. Berbary is an Assistant Professor in Recreation and Leisure Studies at the University of Waterloo. Prior to her current position, she taught qualitative inquiry at the University of Memphis where she established the Graduate Certificate in Qualitative Studies in Education and the Qualitative Inquiry Circle. She holds a Ph.D. in Leisure Studies with graduate certificates in both women’s studies and interdisciplinary qualitative research. Her overall line of inquiry uses critical and post-structural feminist theories to deconstruct discursive discipline within community spaces around dominant expectations of gender, race, ability, class, and sexuality. She is particularly drawn to qualitative research informed by the postmodern and narrative turns, and creative analytic practices. For the past ten years, she has taught classes in the fields of qualitative research, leisure studies, therapeutic recreation, and women’s studies. Currently, she serves as an associate editor for Leisure Sciences. Cecilia Bertuol completed her Bachelor’s degree in physical education at the State University of Santa Catarina (UDESC), Brazil, in 2013. Currently she is a member of the Leisure and Physical Activity Research Laboratory, working in the research field “Environment, Recreation, Physical Activity and Health”. She also teaches/coaches with volleyball in community projects and in clubs. Ana Viñals Blanco is a PhD researcher at the Institute of Leisure Studies at the University of Deusto (Basque Country – Spain). She is currently doing her doctoral thesis provisionally entitled: “The e-leisure of youth (16-18 years) of Biscay: Identification, Influences and Guidelines for Educational Performance” (Granted by the Basque Government). Her research areas of interest are: young people and digital leisure, leisure education, digital literacy, ICT and school, youth leisure policies and digital culture. Her recent publications are: “Las redes sociales virtuales como espacios de ocio digital” (Fonseca, Journal of Communication, 2013); “El ocio digital como recurso para el aprendizaje, la socialización y la generación de capital social” (junto a Aguilar, E, y Rubio, I. en Revista de la Asociación de Sociología de la Educación, 2013); “Promoting digital competences for the enjoyment of culture: new literacy challenges” (4thAnnual ENCATC Research Session, 2013). Dr Jason Bocarro received a Ph.D. in Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences at Texas A&M University and earned a M.A. in Recreation and Physical Education from Dalhousie University. Prior to his appointment at N.C. State, Dr. Bocarro worked four years as an Assistant Professor at the University of New Hampshire. His research focuses on childhood and adolescent obesity and inactivity and specifically how recreation and sport can contribute to alleviating public health problems. Dr. Bocarro has publications in American Journal of Health Promotion, Journal of Leisure Research, Health and Place, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Journal of Physical Activity and Health, Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, and Therapeutic Recreation Journal. Before entering academia, Dr. Bocarro supervised youth adventure and sport programs in England, Canada, and the U.S. Dr. Guillaume Bodet is a Senior Lecturer in Sport Management also based at the School of Sport, Health & Exercise Sciences in Loughborough University. From 2000 to 2006, he taught sport management and marketing at the Sport Sciences Faculty of Dijon, and worked within the group of Socio-Psychology & Management of Sport (SPMS) research group at the University of Burgundy, Dijon. Dr Bodet joined the School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences at Loughborough University in 2006 as a lecturer in Sport Marketing and Management where he teaches sport marketing, managing service quality, managing sport organisations and quantitative research skills. Guillaume’s principal research interests are focused on issues related to sport marketing, sporting events’ strategies and consumer behaviour. Anna Borley is a senior lecturer in tourism and event management at the University of Northampton Business School. Anna’s primary academic background is tourism management and aviation studies, but her research interests have evolved since completing an MA in Cultural Events Management at De Montfort University. Anna’s key research interests lie within the areas of sustainable and ‘green’ events, audience and tourist behaviour, sustainable and responsible tourism, and the impacts of tourism and event development. Anna has published a book chapter in Research Themes for Events (2014); titled ‘Events and Environmental Awareness’ that she co-authored alongside Debra Wale and Peter Robinson. Tim Bottelberghe: Tim Bottelberghe is head of the marketing and communications department for the tourism board of EastFlanders in Belgium. He has been involved in several projects connecting the Tour of Flanders sports event with tourism marketing and product development. Orian Brook: Her PhD is funded by an ESRC CASE studentship with audience development agencies in England and Scotland. She previously held ESRC-funded User Fellowships in St Andrews, a secondment to the Department for Culture, Media and Sport to explore international comparisons in cultural participation in Europe, and was Research Director at Audiences London. Her research interests centre on the geography of cultural participation, and how neighbourhoods operate as opportunity structures for cultural engagement. She is on the editorial board of the journal Cultural Trends.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Graham Brown is a Professor of Tourism Management in the School of Management, University of South Australia. He currently serves as a Director of UniSA’s Centre for Tourism and Leisure Research. Professor Brown is one of the lead authors of Tourism Marketing: an Asia Pacific Perspective (2008), published by Wiley and serves on the editorial board of leading sport and tourism journals. Andrea Bundon is a postdoctoral researcher at the Peter Harrison Centre for Disability Sport at Loughborough University. Her research spans the fields of sport sociology and critical disability studies and uses qualitative digital methods to explore the intersections of sport, physical activity, disability and social inclusion/exclusion. Her work has been published in Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, the Journal of Women and Aging, and Ageing and Society. Rob Burton is a Principal Lecturer with responsibility for courses in Events Management, Outdoor Adventure and Tourism Management at Southampton Solent University. He is an Executive Committee member of the Leisure Studies Association (Treasurer 2002 to 2007; Secretary 2011 to 2012). Rob’s teaching and research interests centre on extreme and lifestyle sports where he has published work on subculture and identity in skiing and snowboarding. He has also published research on student learning through field trips and ran a TQEF project developing a model of best practice for student field trips. Rob’s consultancy work includes: An audit of waterbased recreation on The Solent; Analysis of working practices within the Hampshire and Isle of Wight Sports Partnership; Economic Impact Analysis of an International Sailing Event at the National Sailing Academy, Weymouth; advisor to Usborne Publishing for a book about Extreme Sports. Rob has been interviewed for BBC TV and radio programmes about extreme sports. Ali Selcuk Can has currently working as the attache for culture information afffairs at the Turkish Culture and Information Counselor’s Office in London. He obtained his MBA degree from University of Wolverhampton (UK) and BAs in Finance from Ankara University (Turkey). His research interests include sustainable tourism, consumer behaviour, and tourism marketing. He has 8 published articles in national and international journals such as Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences [SSCI] and Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, submitted 12 papers in international conferences such as Advances in Business-Related Scientific Conference 2012 in Olbia, Italy, Inaugural Conference on Sustainable Business in Asia, Thailand, and 2011 Global Business Conference in Croatia, and worked in 3 scientific projects so far. He is also co-author of one book related to ecotourism. Dr. Sandro Carnicelli is a Lecturer in Events Management at the University of the West of Scotland and his main academic interests are: sport tourism, adventure tourism, serious leisure, volunteering and emotional labour. Sandro has published articles in international journals, including Annals of Tourism Research, Tourism Management, Annals of Leisure Research and World Leisure. He is a member of the ABRATUR (International Academy for the Development of Tourism Research in Brazil), a member of the Advisory Board of the Annals of Leisure Research, and he is also on the Executive Board of the Leisure Studies Association. Cristina Carvalho has a graduate degree in Tourism Information, a masters in English Studies, and a Ph.D. in History. Her thesis is entitled Tourism in the Estoril-Cascais Coastal Axis (1929-1939): Equipments, Events, and Destination Promotion, and the paper proposed will be based on the research included on the thesis she defended in May 2013. Having worked for several years as a Tour Guide, she has been teaching English to future tourism professionals for over a decade as an Assistant Professor at Estoril Higher Institute for Tourism and Hotel Studies (ESHTE), besides participating in national and international conferences with published papers focusing on Portuguese and English tourist, historic, cultural, artistic and literary matters. Professor Alan Clarke is a British Professor of Tourism working at the University of Pannonia in Veszprém, Hungary. He has worked on the cultural aspects of tourism for many years and published widely on community festivals. Alan has recently been exploring the parallels between wine and whisky tourism, including the developments of wine routes and whisky trails. David Clifton is a PhD candidate in the Department of Geography and Sustainable Communities at the University of Wollongong. His research interests are in the fields of leisure studies and human geography. His PhD project explores the geographies of running festivals. Beth Cross is based within the School of Education, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton Campus. Her research is based in the areas of citizenship, service user participation in policy making, and identity using ethnographic and creative methodologies. She has also taught social policy and children’s services in England and Scotland, and has been involved with a number of interdisciplinary projects exploring issues over the life course using visual and dramatic arts in order to expand opportunities for participation. Karine Dalsin is in the fourth year of her PhD at Dublin City University - Business School. Her PhD research focuses on consumption of goods, socialization, leisure, identity and group formation among Brazilian immigrants in Dublin. It sheds light on notions of Brazilianness by discussing how Brazilian feasts function as spaces where people make sense of their own migration experience. She holds a master in research in Sport Sciences by University of Porto, Portugal. The thesis focused on the relationship between modern football and Goan rural society discussing sport as a core element in the making of Goan and Indian identities. Karine Dalsin has published on socio-cultural aspects of sports in Portuguese and Brazilian peer-reviewed journals.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Dr. Shawn Daly is presently Dean, College of Business Administration and Professor of Marketing at Niagara University, Niagara Falls, USA. His experience includes time at Villanova and Temple Universities (both PA, USA). The winner of two Fulbright scholarships, Dr. Daly has researched and lectured extensively on medical tourism, business-to-business marketing, and business education, traversing 60 countries, with longer stays in China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Romania, and Finland. He has published and presented over fifty papers, including a heavily cited article in the Journal of Marketing Education, and several in Industrial Marketing Management. Kate Dashper is Senior Lecturer in the Carnegie Faculty at Leeds Metropolitan University. Kate’s research interests include gender and sexuality within sport and leisure practices, with a particular focus on equestrianism and rural recreation. Her current research focuses on the interactions between humans, animals and the natural environment within sport and active leisure. She is editor of Rural Tourism: An international perspective and Sports events, society and culture (with Thomas Fletcher and Nicola McCullough) and has published in a range of international journals. Sjanett de Geus, MSc – PhD candidate at the Leisure Studies department from Tilburg University, the Netherlands. PhD topic: the effect of social interaction in event and festival experiences (under supervision of prof. dr. Greg Richards and dr. L. A. van der Ark). And also lecturer tourism research methods at NHTV university of applied sciences Breda, the Netherlands; Dr. Alison Doherty is a Professor of Sport Management in the School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Health Sciences at Western University, Canada. Her research focuses on organizational capacity in community sport, with a particular interest in volunteerism. Related publications include: Doherty, A., Misener, K., & Cuskelly, G. (2013). Toward a multidimensional framework of organizational capacity in community sport. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. Misener, K., & Doherty, A. (2013). Understanding capacity through the outcomes and processes of interorganizational relationships in nonprofit community sport organizations. Sport Management Review, 16(2), 135-147. Misener, K., & Doherty, A. (2012). Connecting the community through sport organization partnerships. International Journal of Sports Policy and Politics, 4(2), 243-256. [Reprinted in G. Nichols (Ed.), (2014). Volunteers in sport: International perspectives (pp. 89-101). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-85519-8] Henry Dorling: As an early career researcher Henry is currently developing his areas of academic interest. He completed his MA in Sport and Development with a dissertation assessing the mechanisms and processes of the EduMove programme exploring the use of movement games as a method to teach core curriculum subjects. He is about to embark on a longer term research project to ascertain the impact of developing an outdoor learning environment and an active movement based curriculum to teach core academic subjects in a local Primary School. Henry also has an interest in pursuing and researching implications around the ‘social coach’ and how this manifests itself in educational settings. He is also passionate about the idea of the student as a sport development practitioner, developing and encouraging student led projects and assessing the potential impact on all vested interest groups. Dr Mat Duerden received a Ph.D. in Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences from Texas A&M University and a M.S. in Youth and Family Recreation from Brigham Young University. Prior to his appointment at BYU Mat worked for two years as an Assistant Professor-Extension Specialist at Texas A&M University. His research focuses on understanding the design, implementation, and evaluation of meaningful leisure experiences. Mat’s publications have appeared in a variety of journals including Leisure Sciences, Journal of Leisure Research, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Journal of Adolescent Research, and Journal of Park and Recreation Administration. He has also presented research and conducted professional workshops at numerous association conferences including the National Recreation and Park Association, American Camp Association, National Association for Research in Science Teaching, and Association of Experiential Educators. Dr Mike Edwards received a Ph.D. in Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management from North Carolina State University and earned a M.A. in sport management from East Carolina University. Prior to his appointment at N.C. State, Dr. Edwards worked four years as an Assistant Professor at Texas A&M University. His research interests center on social inequality in access to physical activity, sport, and recreation environments and leisure’s impact on community health. Dr. Edwards’s publications have appeared in a variety of multi-disciplinary journals including Journal of Leisure Research, Preventing Chronic Disease, Sport Management Review, Journal of Physical Activity and Health, Youth & Society, Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, Recreational Sport Journal, and International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing. Dr. Edwards was a recipient of the Oak Ridge Associated Universities’ 2011 Ralph E. Powe Junior Faculty Award in Policy, Management, and Education as one of the top early career researchers in the U.S. Prior to entering academia, Dr. Edwards managed professional baseball organizations in the U.S. Juliana De Paula Figueiredo is a lecturer in the Physical Education Department at Santa Catarina State University (UDESC), Brazil, and a member of the Leisure and Physical Activity Research Laboratory in this institution. She completed her Bachelor’s and Teaching degree in physical education at the Catholic University of Campinas (PUC-CAMPINAS) in 2009, and her Master’s degree in 2012 at São Paulo State University (Unesp). Neil Findlay is a surveyor of 20 years’ experience. He is Estates Development Manager for Punch Taverns.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Dr Rebecca Finkel is Programme Leader and Lecturer, Events Management, at Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh. Her main field of study centres on gender, social justice and events management. Key research interests include the strategic analysis of government socio-economic policies for funding and development with regard to social capital and social equality. New research is framed within conceptualisations of cultural identity, symbolic boundaries and resistance to globalisation, as well as mapping human rights and mega sporting events, currently focusing on the links between sex work, sex tourism, human trafficking and the Olympic Games. She is a co-editor of Research Themes in Events (CABI 2013) and co-author of Human Rights and Global Events (Routledge 2014). Key publications include ‘A Picture of the contemporary combined arts festival landscape’ (Cultural Trends 2009) and ‘Sex Trafficking and the Vancouver Winter Olympic Games: Perceptions and Preventative Measures’ (Tourism Management 2013) with Dr Catherine M. Matheson. Jenny Flinn is a Lecturer in Events Management within the Department of Business Management at Glasgow Caledonian University. She is Programme Leader for the BA (Hons) International Events Management, teaching across the areas of events and sports management at both Undergraduate and Postgraduate level. Her research interests lie in the area of festivals and events, particularly in relation to identity and community cohesion. Jenny is currently undertaking a PhD which examines the construction of identity within the newly emerging sport of Mixed Martial Arts. Malcolm Foley is Vice Principal and Pro Vice Chancellor (Education) at University of the West of Scotland. Tom Forsell: Tom is a lecturer in Sport and Recreation Management, and focuses heavily on concept of leisure and its incorporation of both sport and recreation in his lectures. Tom teaches programming theory and practice, Social Psychology of Leisure, Community Development in Sport and Recreation programs and Inclusive Sport and Recreation. These units provide a sound grounding for students in a number of areas for future work in the sport sector and in the large recreation and leisure sectors represented by local and state government(s) and the non-profit sector. Joy Fraser: Folklorist Joy Fraser is Assistant Professor in the Department of English at George Mason University, specialising in folk narrative, foodways, folk custom and drama, and the folk culture of tourism. Much of her research focuses on ethnicity and its representations in folk and popular cultural discourses, with an emphasis on Scotland and the Scottish diaspora. Fraser is working on her first book project, Addressing the Haggis: Culture and Contestation in the Making of Scotland’s National Dish. Her essays have appeared in the journals Contemporary Legend, Scottish Studies, and Ethnologies, among others. Dr Patti Freeman is a professor of Recreation Management at Brigham Young University. She earned her Ph.D. in Human Performance with an emphasis in Leisure Behavior from Indiana University. Her M.S. and B.S. are also in the recreation discipline. She has held faculty appointments at Brigham Young University, University of Utah, and Murray State University. Her research focus has been primarily related to understanding family leisure experiences and the role they play in individual, couple, and family life. Her work has been published in several journals including Leisure Sciences, Journal of Leisure Research, Therapeutic Recreation Journal, Adoption Quarterly, and Family Studies. She had developed and directed several study abroad programs and extended outdoor leadership programs for university students. Dr Matt Frew is a Senior Lecturer in Event Management within the School of Tourism at Bournemouth University. He comes to academia with over 15 years of industrial experience gleaned across the cultural industries. This resonates with his eclectic research trajectory, having published in areas of health and fitness, sport, adventure recreation, events and festivity, with applied sociocultural theory at its core. Recent and current work takes his penchant for poststructuralist theory into the terrains of mega-events, music festivity and the embodied impact of new media technologies in the production and consumption of cultures of co-created convergence. Prof. Simone Fullagar, Sport and Physical Cultural Studies, University of Bath. Simone is an interdisciplinary sociologist who has published widely within across the areas of health/wellbeing, leisure, sport and tourism, using post-structuralist and feminist perspectives. She is currently completing a co-authored book with Adele Pavlidis for publication in 2014 - Sport, Gender and Power: The Rise of Roller Derby, Farnham and Burlington: Ashgate. Dr Paul Gilchrist is a Senior Research Fellow in the School of Environment and Technology, University of Brighton. His research interests explore the historical and spatial dimensions of sport and leisure cultures, concentrating on people-environment relationships. He has published widely in sport and leisure studies, in edited monographs and peer-reviewed publications including the Journal of Leisure Research, Leisure Studies, Sport in History, Society and Natural Resources and Environment and Planning D. Paul is a co-founder and joint convenor of the Political Studies Association’s Sport and Politics Study Group ( and is currently serving as the LSA Publications Officer. His current research interests include the social regulation of leisure in public space; connecting people and communities through food and farming; British climbing histories; labouring-class poetry as a leisure practice; and, lifestyle sports and environmental citizenships.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Dr. James (“Jay”) Gladden is Dean of the School of Physical Education and Tourism Management at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI). Dr. Gladden’s research expertise lies in the areas of sport brand management, sport sponsorship planning and evaluation, and college athletic fundraising. Dr. Gladden has published numerous articles and book chapters on these topics in a wide variety of outlets including the Journal of Sport Management, Sport Marketing Quarterly, Sport Management Review, and the International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, and trade publications such as Athletic Management and Sports Business Journal. Laura Graham has been a lecturer at the University of the West of Scotland since its emergence in 2007, and teaches Sport Sociology on the BSc (Hons) in Sport Coaching and BA (Hons) in Sport Development. Before moving to Higher Education, she held posts in health promotion and in adult literacy. Laura is currently undertaking a PhD in the sociology of sport coaching and is particularly interested in gender studies and inclusive pedagogy in sport. Tom Griffin is a PhD Candidate at Ryerson University Alanna Harman is an Assistant Professor in Sport Studies at Lock Haven University. Her research focuses on organizational behaviour, specifically the impact of psychological contracts in the context of volunteer sport organizations. Alanna is also interested in the role that social media plays in consumers perceptions and consumption of sport. Dr Rob Harris is the Director of the Australian Centre for Event Management, University of Technology, Sydney. Rob has published extensively in the event management field having co-authored the texts Festival and Special Event Management, Event Management and the Regional Event Management Handbook. His most recent book (co-authored with Richard Cashman), is The Australian Olympic Caravan. Rob also has an international reputation as an event management educator having developed and/or delivered programs in a variety of locations around the world including London, Edinburgh, Singapore and Beijing, as well as throughout Australia. Dr Brian Hill received his Ph.D. in Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management from Clemson University. He worked for 10 years at the University of Nebraska teaching tourism, directing the Nebraska Travel and Tourism Center, and assisting rural tourism businesses as an extension specialist in community and economic development. At BYU he as served as department chair, graduate coordinator, and experience industry management undergraduate coordinator among other administrative assignments. Brian’s research efforts have focused on rural tourism development and family recreation. He has over 30 peer reviewed articles and book chapters appearing in Leisure Sciences, Marriage and Family Review, the Annals of Tourism Research and other publications. He has secured over US $460,000 in external and internal grant funds. Brian led a commemorative wagon train 1000 miles across the western United States in 93 days with 30 wagons, 10 handcarts, and 10,000 overall participants. He has directed 6 study abroad programs to the South Pacific and Europe. For fun he teaches canyoneering, white water rafting, and Dutch oven cooking and volunteers with a local search and rescue team. Harry H. Hiller is Director of the Cities and the Olympics Project and Professor of Urban Sociology at the University of Calgary in Canada. He has been doing research and writing about the Olympics since the Winter Olympics were held in Calgary in 1988. A frequent speaker at conferences and academic forums around the world and especially in bid cities and cities awarded the Games, Hiller has also been a participant in the meetings of the World Union of Olympic Cities. As an urban sociologist, his specialization is on how cities and their residents are impacted by the Olympics. Among his many publications is his most recent book Host Cities and the Olympics: An Interactionist Perspective (Routledge, 2011). David P Howe is Senior Lecturer in Anthropology of Sport. He graduated from Trent University (Canada) with an BSc honours in general anthropology in 1989. In 1991 David was awarded a MA in social/cultural anthropology at the University of Toronto. After moving to the UK to undertake a PhD in medical anthropology at UCL he was awarded this degree in 1997 for his work examining the social implications of the professionalisation of sports medicine. He joined the staff of Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education (subsequently the University of Gloucestershire) in 1997 in the School of Sport and Leisure as Lecturer then Senior Lecturer in the Anthropology of Sport. Before arriving at Loughborough in January 2006 David spent two years as Senior Lecturer in Sport and Leisure Cultures at the Chelsea School, University of Brighton. Dr. Russell Hoye is a Professor of Sport Management, Associate Dean (Research) and Director of the Centre for Sport and Social Impact in the Faculty of Business, Economics and Law at La Trobe University, Australia. His research focuses on governance, volunteer management, public policy and the role of social capital in nonprofit sport organizations. Dr. Claire Humphreys is a Principal Lecturer in Tourism and Events at the University of Westminster. Her PhD research focused on golf tourism and she has published articles on a variety of golf tourism aspects including gender issues (Humphreys, 2010), reputation (Humphreys, 2011) and decision making (Humphreys and Weed, 2012). Her current research work is focused on attendance at sporting events. She is still researching other aspects of golf tourism. Claire is also co-author of a key academic text on the Business of Tourism {Holloway, 2012 #934}.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Dr Nigel Jamieson has vast knowledge and experience in events in both Australia and overseas. His practical experience has been gained in a series of positions held in a variety of organisations and his own businesses such as In the ZONE Sport Management and Event Management 101. Dr. Jamieson has a DBA and MBA (Sports Administration) from Southern Cross University, Masters in Leisure Studies and Services from the University of Oregon and a B.A. and Diploma in Education from the University of Adelaide. In addition to his experience in the Higher Education sector both in Australia (TAFESA Bachelor of Business, University of SA School of Education) and the USA (Daniel Webster College) he has taught in the VET sector in both South Australia and Victoria since 1995. He has presented at conferences in the USA, Australia, Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia in a career in education that started in 1978. David Jarman is the programme leader for Edinburgh Napier University’s undergraduate degree programmes in Festival and Event Management, a post he has held since 2007. His primary research and teaching interests are arts and cultural festivals, the application of social network analysis methods in these environments and the role of digital technologies in the experience of events. Prior to joining Edinburgh Napier David worked with the Edinburgh Festival Fringe Society and other festivals in the UK and Australasia. Graham Jeffery is Reader in Music and Performance in the School of Creative and Cultural Industries at UWS. His research examines cultural participation, creative pedagogies and radical/critical tactics and strategies for community development, including urban networks, design and collaborative, cross-sectoral practices. He keeps a blog at Dr Allan S. Jepson was awarded his PhD in 2009; which investigated community festival planning and decision making practices. He is currently a senior academic in Event Studies & Tourism, and researcher in Event Studies within the Marketing Insight research Group (MIRU) at the University of Hertfordshire in the UK. Over the last decade he has developed undergraduate and post graduate degree programmes, in Tourism, Hospitality, and Event Management. He also has extensive experience in festival and events praxis and research; and is currently developing networks locally, regionally and nationally to enhance the linkages between the events courses at the University and the practitioner communities within his role as vice-chair of the Association of Events Management Education (AEME). Ian Jones is Associate Dean for Sport at Bournemouth University. He is author of Research Methods for Sport Studies (Routledge, 2014), and co-author of Qualitative Research in Sport and Physical Activity (Sage, 2012). His research interests focus on sport behaviour, particularly sport fan behaviour, and sport and well-being. He is a member of the editorial advisory boards for the Journal of Sport & Tourism, the Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, and the International Journal of Festival and Event Management, and has acted as reviewer for a number of journals including The Journal of Sport Management, Leisure Studies, Leisure Sciences, The International Journal of Sport Management and The European Journal of Sport Science. He is a member of the scientific committee for the 2015 Leisure Studies Association conference. Jennifer Jones is currently the project coordinator for the Big Lottery Funded Glasgow 2014 Legacy project “Digital Commonwealth” and is based at the University of the west of Scotland. She is a part-time researcher, completing a PhD on major events and social media with a focus on citizen journalism as a community engagement tool and how digital tools are used in an events and cultural context. She is a digital media practitioner who has delivered digital materials, training and resource support for a number of third sector and cultural organisations including the Big Lottery Fund, British Council, Carnegie Trust, CILIPS, Robert Burns World Federation, Renfrewshire Council and a number of Universities around the UK. Dr Michael Kanters received a Ph.D. in Human Performance and a M.S. in Recreation and Park Administration from Indiana University. Prior to his appointment at N.C. State, Dr. Kanters was an Assistant Professor at Western Illinois University and Brock University. His research interests center on children’s sport and physical activity behavior. Dr. Kanters refereed articles have been published in American Journal of Health Promotion, Preventing Chronic Disease, Journal of School Health, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, Recreational Sports Journal, Academic Exchange Quarterly, Journal of Youth Sports, Journal of Sport Behavior, and Journal of Park and Recreation Administration. Before entering academia, Dr. Kanters was executive director of the Indiana Park and Recreation Association. Dr. Kanters is renowned for his expertise in integrating technology in the classroom, winning the 2012 Gertrude Cox Award for Innovative Excellence in Teaching and Learning. Emma Kavanagh is a lecturer in sports psychology and coaching sciences at Bournemouth University. As a BASES Accredited performance psychologist she has worked with a number of athletes at National and International level and is currently part of the BASES child protection task group. She is in the final stages of her PhD entitled: A Narrative Inquiry into the Experience of Maltreatment in Competitive Sport. Mihalis Kavaratzis is Lecturer in Marketing at the School of Management of the University of Leicester in the UK. He has lived and worked in Greece, the Netherlands, Hungary and the UK. His research focuses on the theory and practice of place marketing and place branding and he has published extensively on those topics in geography and marketing journals. Mihalis is regularly invited to address practitioner- and academic audiences on the topic of place branding and his publications include the forthcoming volume ‘Rethinking Place Branding’ that he has co-edited (with G.J Ashworth and G. Warnaby). His main interest lies within the role of local communities in place branding and the ways in which place branding initiatives restructure the relationship of local people to their place and redefine place identity.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Dr Millicent Kennelly is a Lecturer in the Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management at Griffith University, Australia. Her research interests are sport events and sport tourism, with a particular focus on stakeholder perspectives and management. Her recent research has considered participant perspectives of participation-based sport events, specifically triathlons. Topics explored range from constraints to serious amateur participation in sport and events, to constraint negotiation, motivation, and event travel careers in serious leisure. Dr. James Kenyon has been an Assistant Lecturer in Sport Management, based at the School of Sport, Health & Exercise Sciences in Loughborough University, since October 2013. In 2010, James joined the Centre for Olympic Studies & Research (COS&R) at Loughborough University to undertake a research studentship (PhD) in sport management and marketing, which he then completed in 2013. During his PhD, James was also employed part-time at Liverpool Hope University as a lecturer in sport studies (sport sociology and football studies), part-time at Loughborough University as a research assistant, and on a casual basis at TARGET Football CIC, Liverpool as a consultant. James’s principal research interests are focused on issues related to: sport development (and developing communities through sport), sport marketing, fandom and spectatorship, and various aspects of sports-based and nonsports-based events. Masood Khodadadi is a Teaching Fellow in Tourism and Events at the University of the West of Scotland. Masood holds a BA in Hotel and Hospitality Management and an MSc in Tourism (University of Strathclyde). He is currently in the final stages of his PhD (Tourism) at Glasgow Caledonian University. His research explores how institutional/popular discourses of Iran/Persia are constructed and perceived in Britain. Masood’s main research interests are; tourism marketing, destination branding, destination image formation process and cultural tourism. He is a member of London Middle East Institute and the British Institute of Persian Studies. Robert Kielty is a Lecturer in Sports Management within the Department of Business Management at Glasgow Caledonian University. He is Programme Leader for the BA (Hons) International Sports Management, teaching across the areas of events and sports management at both Undergraduate and Postgraduate level. His research interests lie in the area of sports policy and exclusion, football pedagogy and models of sporting internships. Robert is currently undertaking a PhD which explores the influence of social relationships of personnel within the Scottish Professional Youth Football structure. He has been collaborating international student mobility for 13 years across various educational sectors. Dr Katherine King is a Senior Lecturer in Leisure Studies at The School of Tourism at Bournemouth University. Her research interests focus on the geographies of sport and leisure, in particular the inter connections between identities, lifestyles and sport and leisure spaces. She specialises in qualitative research and her recent work explores participation in cycling. She is currently working on two international cycling related research projects with colleagues from Australia and with European partner organisations. Paul Kitchin was appointed to a lectureship in Sport Management at the Ulster Sports Academy within the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland. He is the author and editor of numerous publications concerning the business of sport and has worked on a number of academic titles. He is a graduate of University of Tasmania and Deakin University in Australia and is awaiting his viva for his PhD at Loughborough University on research investigating institutional pressures on the practice of disability cricket within England. Dr. Brian Krohn is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Tourism, Conventions and Event Management at Indiana UniversityPurdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI). Dr. Krohn began his professional career in the golf industry fulfilling the roles of golf professional and general manager. His research is focused on consumer behavior in the contexts of sport tourism, especially golf tourism, and includes the areas of motivation, satisfaction and decision-making. Dr. Krohn has also published articles involving statistical analysis in the areas of leisure, sport and athletic administration. His research has been presented and published through various outlets including consumer psychology, marketing, tourism, recreation, education, leisure, and sport management. George Lafferty is Professor, Employment Relations, in the School of Business, University of Western Sydney. His main areas of research and publication are industrial relations, service sector employment, and political-economic theory. Email: g.lafferty@uws. Dr David Lamb currently works as a Senior Lecturer in Sport, Recreation and Events Management at Edith Cowan University in Perth, Western Australia. Prior to academic life, he worked in the leisure and recreation industry at supervisory and management levels, primarily in sport management, leisure facility management and consultancy work in events. He recently completed a major 5 year study of family leisure in New Zealand and has previously spoken on this issue at industry forums and academic conferences. He is a keen advocate of using focus groups at all stages of the research process and has had some success in adopting this method in a number of different research projects, including studies on family leisure. Dave has spent time in academia in the UK, New Zealand and now in Western Australia. As a parent he is a keen advocate of family leisure and has academic interest in teaching and research in this area.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Stefan Lawrence is Senior Lecturer in Football Studies with Business at Southampton Solent University. Before taking up this role, he worked in various capacities at Leeds Metropolitan University as a Qualitative Research Assistant, Associate Lecturer in Socio-cultural Aspects of Sport and Sport Development and Lecturer in Entertainment and Leisure Management. Additionally, he has been a member of the LSA executive committee since 2011 and is currently the Digital Communications Officer. In this capacity he oversees both the LSA newsletter and website. Stefan’s research interests and areas of expertise are in ‘race’, racialisation(s) and racism(s) in sport and leisure, discourses of masculinities in popular culture, Critical Race Theory, post-structuralism and critical media studies. Recent publications include: Lawrence, S. (2013) Whiteness, white people and sport and leisure. Leisure Studies Association Newsletter, 94 (1), pp.25 -31; and Lawrence, S. (2011) Representation, racialisation and responsibility: Male athletic bodies in the (British) sports and leisure media. In: Watson, B. & Harpin, J. eds. Identities, cultures and voices in leisure and sport. Eastbourne, Leisure Studies Association, pp. 109-124. Katie Lebel is an Assistant Professor in the Division of Sport Management at St. John’s University. Her research is focused in the area of sport media with a particular interest in the impact of social media on sport. Dr Insun Sunny Lee is a Lecturer in Event and Tourism Management in the School of Management, University of South Australia. Her research interests include the role/impact of events (business events, festivals, sport events) visitor experiences, youth tourism, ethnic identity issues in the tourism industry, destination branding, and regional development. Moira Lewitt is based within the School of Health, Nursing and Midwifery, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley Campus. Her research interests are focussed on the role of insulin-like growth factors on growth and metabolism, in health and disease. She is also interested in the scholarship of learning and teaching, research-teaching linkages and interprofessional learning. Yating Liang, Ph.D: Recreation, Sport, and Park Administration, Missouri State University Dr Chelsea Litchfield is a lecturer with the School of Human Movement Studies at Charles Sturt University in New South Wales, Australia. Dr Litchfield teaches in the areas of sport sociology, sports media and sport ethics, and her research interests lie in sport and gender, sport and sexuality and the relationship between sport and media. Dr Litchfield holds a Bachelor of Applied Science Physical Education (Honours) degree, and a PhD in sport sociology through Victoria University. Alexandre Paulo Loro: Graduated in Physical Education (2005), Specialist in Educational Management (2009) and Master of Education (2008) at the Federal University of Santa Maria. Doctoral student at Associate Program UEM/​​UEL in Physical Education. Is Assistant Professor at the Federal University of Southern Frontier, Chapecó/SC/Brazil. Dr Neil Lundberg earned his Ph.D. from Indiana University, emphasizing in Therapeutic Recreation. Neil began work in the “Transformation Industries” as a Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialist in 1997 at the National Ability Center (NAC) located in Park City, UT. From 2001 to 2003 he served as the Program Director for the NAC, where he managed year-round adaptive sports and recreation programs for people with disabilities and their family and friends. Neil consults with various organizations on the development of evidence based practices and outcome measurement. His work has been published in the Journal of Leisure Research, the Therapeutic Recreation Journal, Disability and Rehabilitation, the Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, and the Annual in Therapeutic Recreation. He is a Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialists and a member of the National Recreation and Parks Association, American Therapeutic Recreation Association, and Professional Ski Instructors of America. Clare Mackay is a PhD student at Glasgow Caledonian University and a Teaching Research Assistant at the University of Northampton. Her field of study is Events, and her main research interests include Major Sporting Events, the Mediatisation of Events, and Sports Event Volunteering. Her publications to date include ‘Back the Bid: The London Olympic Bid Committee’ published in the Journal of Sport and Social Issues, and a book chapter published in Research Themes for Events titled ‘Events and Volunteerism’ that she co-authored alongside Professor Gayle McPherson and Professor David McGillivray. Jo Mackellar is a post doctoral fellow at Griffith University, Australia where she pursues her interest in sport and cultural events. Jo’s interest in leisure events includes the economic and tourism value of events and their place within the landscape of regional communities. However her main research lies in the exploration of psycho/social characteristics and behaviours of event audiences, as featured in her recent book Event Audiences and Expectations (2013). Jo is currently exploring the legacy of the Commonwealth Games to regional areas in a comparative study between Scotland and Australia. Christopher I MacKintosh completed his first degree in socio-cultural geography at Sheffield University before moving into government sport policy evaluation with the Sport Council for Wales and then worked as a sport researcher in private consultancy. He has undertaken over 50 empirical sport development and policy research projects over the last 17 years specialising in community, school and national governing body sport project evaluation. His PhD is in this area and look at challenging notions of evidence-based policy and the rhetoric of networked governance and partnership working that underpins much of contemporary sport policy. More recently he has moved towards re-examining the cultural politics of sport and physical activity that inhabit the core and peripheral nuanced spaces of sport policy. In particular outdoor table tennis and the national PING! Programme in cities and parks have been a focus of recent publications. But, his evolving research interests lie in community resistance against the hegemonic patterns of delivery and modes of provision dictated by current policy frameworks and funding regimes in sport.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Maraira Noal Manfroi is a physical education postgraduate student at the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Brazil, working in the research field “Pedagogical Theory and Practice in Physical Education”. She is also a member of the Leisure and Physical Activity Research Laboratory (LAPLAF) at the State University of Santa Catarina (UDESC). She completed her Bachelor’s degree in physical education at the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Brazil, in 2011. Alcyane Marinho, PhD, is a lecturer in the Physical Education Department at Santa Catarina State University (UDESC) in Brazil and leader of the Leisure and Physical Activity Research Laboratory in this institution. She completed her Bachelor’s degree in physical education at São Paulo State University (Unesp) in 1995, her Master’s degree in 2001 and her PhD in 2006 at Campinas State University (Unicamp) in Brazil. She is also a lecturer in the physical education postgraduate program at the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), focusing on “Pedagogical Theory and Practice in Physical Education”. Dr Joanne Mayoh is a Senior Lecturer in Sport, Physical Activity and Health at Bournemouth University. Her areas of interest are physical activity and empowerment, the experience of wellbeing, and research methods. She is currently involved in a number of cross-school projects that focus on active ageing and physical activity intervention design and evaluation for older adults with chronic health conditions. Alison McCandlish is the educational coordinator for the Digital Commonwealth project working with schools throughout Scotland to enhance digital literacy of young people. She also has a background in regeneration, town planning, creative media, education and conservation. Previous to this Alison was a Teaching Fellow at Historic Scotland and continues to write newsblogs for the Institute of Historic Building Conservation. Alison also runs a freelance illustration and digital interpretation business for arts and heritage related activities. Alex McDonagh is a PhD student in Heritage Studies at the University of Salford. He is currently researching the role of new media simulation in heritage interpretation. His research interests include: Intangible heritage, natural heritage, ancient history, social power, reality theory, simulacra, digital media, heritage access. Aaron McIntosh, Lecturing in the related thematic areas of sport and events management, coming from a sports development background. Main research interests: Workforce development in events and sport; sports and events business; the sociology of sport. Julie McKeown is director of learning and teaching at Aberystwyth University’s School of Management and Business. A Chartered Marketer Julie worked for IBM for many years marketing their products across EMEA before becoming a marketing consultant in the SME arena and then moving into academia. Julie is an equine shiatsu practitioner and owns a small herd of rescue horses, mainly from the racing industry. Her research interests centre on consumer behaviour within the equestrian arena, particularly focusing on yard culture at the grass roots level and horse-human relationships. She has shared her life with horses for over 30 years and she is now starting endurance riding with her young Arabian gelding. Professor Gayle McPherson holds a Chair in Events and Cultural Policy. She leads and works on a wide range of research, knowledge transfer and consultancy projects within the Creative Futures Institute at UWS. She has recently completed the impact evaluation of Scotland’s London 2012 Cultural Programme for Creative Scotland and is working on the evaluation of Glasgow’s Commonwealth Games Cultural and Festival Programme. She is currently researching the social and cultural impact of Leveraging Parasport Events for sustainable community participation at Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games and is working on the Digital Commonwealth Big Lottery funded project enhancing digital literacy throughout Scotland. Patti Millar is a third year PhD Candidate in Sport Management at Western University. Her research focuses on the organizational capacity of sport organizations, specifically the strategies involved in building capacity at the community sport level and the professional development of provincial and national sport managers. Patti is also interested in the role that social media plays in athlete and brand promotion, and sport consumption. Dr. Katie Misener is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies at the University of Waterloo, Canada. The focus of her research is the development and impact of community sport. Dr. Laura Misener’s research focuses on the social impacts of sporting events; sport and events as tools for community and sport development; sport as a tool to promote healthy lifestyles. Her work has been published in scholarly outlets such as Journal of Sport Management, Managing Leisure, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, and Current Issues in Tourism. Steven E. Mock, PhD: Position: Assistant Professor, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies. Field of study: lifespan development, leisure studies. Main research interests: sexual minority development, leisure as a coping resource. Key publications: Mock, S. E., Plante, C. N., Reysen, S., & Gerbasi, K. C. (2013). Deeper leisure involvement as a coping resource in a stigmatized leisure context. Leisure/Loisir, 37, 111-126.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Pearl Morrison currently lectures at Bournemouth University on the BA (Hons) Events Management and BA (Hons) Events and Leisure Marketing courses. Having come from Industry with a Marketing and Management background her focus has been on curriculum innovation and industry engagement to improve the student learning experience. Having completed her MSc in Events Management with Distinction she has currently committed to signing up for her PhD studies while teaching. Her area of research looks at the attraction of Celtic festivity and the role of cultural events for the diaspora and non-connected cultural groups. An Ethnographic study at the Earagail Arts Festival, as part of Tourism Ireland’s ‘Gathering 2013’ is the foundation of the abstract. The research tools included: participant observation, interviews, case study, on-line platforms and document collection. The research has highlighted the importance of place, space and landscape to events in addition to some interesting facts relating to the socioeconomic factors prevalent to the area (the most deprived county in Ireland); on the boundary of Northern Ireland and the rich cultural heritage with its remote location on the NW coast of Ireland home to Internationally acclaimed artists: Enya, Clannad, Altan and an important inspirational location for many artists. Dr. Ziene Mottiar is a lecturer in the School of Hospitality Management and Tourism, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin 1, Ireland. Ziene has a range of research interests, in particular in the areas of entrepreneurship, inter-firm relations and regional development. She has publications in a variety of journals including Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Current Issues, Leisure Studies, International Small Business Journal and Journal of Vacation Marketing. In addition she has written a number of book chapters in the area of tourism entrepreneurs and regional development. Dr Brianna Newland, Assistant Professor in Sport Management at the University of Delaware. Dr Newland’s research interests focus on the study of sport development in various capacities. From a broad perspective, this includes 1) how sport events can be leveraged to develop sport and community, especially at the grassroots level. More specifically, how events can be leveraged to attract and retain participants, improve social and economic benefits to the community, and improve tourism; 2) how sport organizations sustain their future by attracting and nurturing participation within the organization and via events; and 3) what fosters/hinders adult participation in sport and how our sport delivery systems might be modified to foster growth. Geoff Nichols is a senior lecturer at the Management School at the University of Sheffield, UK, where he has worked since 1990. He has been researching sports’ volunteering since 1996 and contributed to three national surveys. Recent research has included the volunteering legacy of the 2002 Commonwealth Games, the experience of Games Maker volunteers at the 2012 Olympic Games, the management and legacy of the 2012 Olympic Ambassador programmes, the impact of Clubmark accreditation on sports clubs, changes in the number of sports clubs, and volunteers in mountain rescue. Nathalie Ormrod is a senior lecturer in marketing in the department of Business and Management studies at MMU Cheshire. She currently teaches marketing strategy and planning as well as services marketing. Before retraining in Marketing, Nathalie used to lead the languages team of her Faculty, thus has retained a strong interest in French civilisation. In this respect, she has published articles on French drinking and on French bars (Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes). In addition to her academic duties, Nathalie is Head of International Business Development at MMU Cheshire; she also coordinates her department’s international relations and Erasmus programme. Dr Jaquelyn Osborne is a lecturer and course director in the School of Human Movement Studies at Charles Sturt University, Australia. Dr Osborne teaches in sport philosophy, sport history and sport sociology as well as in economics, politics and global perspectives of sport. Dr Osborne holds a Bachelor’s degree in Applied Science, a Masters in sport philosophy and a PhD in sport history. Sevgi Ozturk has working Assistant Professor in Faculty of Engineering and Architecture at Kastamonu University in Turkey. She worked for School of Tourism and Hospitality Management between 2011-2013. She received her bachelor degree from the Department of Landscape Architecture in 2000 and her master degree from the same department in 2003 on the field of Management of National Parks. Her doctorate dissertation topic was related to the river basin management plan in department of urban and regional planning in 2011. She has 11 published articles in national and international journals, and 26 papers in several conferences. Her area of interest includes natural resource management, management planning, ecotourism, culture tourism and quality of life. Dr. Adele Pavlidis, Griffith University, Australia. Adele Pavlidis has recently been awarded her PhD from Griffith University, Australia. Adele is an interdisciplinary sociologist with an interest in sociocultural theories of affect and has published several articles in the area of sport, leisure and gender studies. Her book (co-authored with Simone Fullagar), Gender, Sport and Power: The Rise of Roller Derby will be published in late 2014 with Ashgate Publishers. Francesca Piazza is an honours degree graduate (First class) from Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology, Dublin and is presently a Master’s degree candidate at the University of Technology. Francesca has also held various managerial positions in the public event field.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Giuliano Gomes de Assis Pimentel: Bachelor and Graduated in Physical Education in Federal University of Viçosa (1996), M.Sc. (1999) and PhD (2006) in Physical Education at State University of Campinas/Brazil. Has a PhD at University of Coimbra and Postdoctoral at Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. Actualy, is Professor at the State University of Maringa Undergraduate and Associate Program in Physical Education UEM/UEL (Masters and Doctoral). Coordinates GEL - Leisure Study Group (2000). Dr Louise Platt completed her PhD at Liverpool John Moores University in 2011 and teaches on the BA (hons) Tourism and Leisure Management and BA (hons) Events Management programmes at LJMU. She is programme leader for the Events Management programme. Her PhD is an ethnographic study of the performance of local identities in relation to the European Capital of Culture in Liverpool 2008. The theoretical underpinnings derive from social anthropology and performance studies. It considered the balance between creative improvisation and the constraints of social and cultural norms in forming identities. Her research interests include: identity performance, mundane/informal leisure and urban ‘happenings.’ Prior to commencing her PhD, Louise completed a BA (hons) Drama at the University of Manchester and an MA Arts and Museum Management at Salford University. Dr Bernadette Quinn is a lecturer and researcher in the School of Hospitality Management and Tourism at the Dublin Institute of Technology. She is a Human Geographer whose current research interests lie in festivals and social capital, tourism and culture, heritage and memory and leisure & social inclusion. Her research has been published in leading geography, leisure and tourism journals including Gender, Place and Culture, Social and Cultural Geography, Leisure Studies, Urban Studies and Annals of Tourism Research. In 2013 she contributed to Sage’s Key Concepts series with the title Key Concepts in Event Management. Rita Ralston recently retired from Manchester Metropolitan University, UK, where she was a senior lecturer and visiting research fellow in the Department of Food and Tourism Management. She has researched and published widely on the psychology, management, social inclusion and legacy of volunteers in major sporting events, heritage tourism, cultural industries and national cycle trails. She was the project director of the MMU/UK Sport study of the Manchester 2002 Commonwealth Games volunteers. Recent research has included the volunteering legacy of the 2002 Commonwealth Games, the experience of Games Maker volunteers at the 2012 Olympic Games and the management and legacy of the 2012 Olympic Ambassador programmes. Rita was an advisor to the research team evaluating the 2011 Rugby World Cup volunteer programme and is a research advisor to the International Centre for Tourism, MMU. Dr. Gregory Ramshaw is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management at Clemson University, South Carolina, USA. He explores the cultural production of heritage, with a particular interest in sport-based heritage. His research has been published in numerous academic texts and journals, including the International Journal of Heritage Studies, the Journal of Heritage Tourism, Current Issues in Tourism, Tourism Geographies, and the Journal of Sport & Tourism, among many others. He is also the co-editor of Heritage, Sport and Tourism and Heritage and the Olympics, both published by Routledge. Arianne C. Reis, PhD, is a research fellow with the School of Tourism and Hospitality Management at Southern Cross University, Australia. Dr Reis is originally from Brazil, where she completed her undergraduate and Master’s studies in physical education. Before doing her PhD at the University of Otago, New Zealand, she worked for several years for public and private institutions in Brazil in the fields of nature-based recreation and sports management. Her research interests developed from these professional experiences, focusing on outdoor recreation and the sustainability issues of sport events. Kyle A. Rich is a PhD student in Kinesiology at Western University in London, Ontario, Canada, working under the supervision of Dr. Laura Misener. His doctoral research focuses on the socio-cultural significance of sport and sport/recreational events in rural Canadian communities. Kyle’s previous and ongoing research projects involve cultural aspects (inclusion, sensitivity, etc.) of sport/ recreational events and programs (e.g., Rich, 2013). His work has been published in the Canadian Journal of Native Studies (Rich & Giles, 2013) and the International Journal of Aquatics Research and Education (Golob, Giles, & Rich, 2013). Martin Robertson is Lecturer in Event Management at Victoria University, Melbourne (Australia). His research and publications focus on four area: a) sport events, festivals and the destination; b) socio-cultural impact evaluation and development of events; c) event leadership and professionalism, and d) event and festival futures. He has edited and co-edited several books and special issue peer-reviewed journals. Alexander Ronzhyn: I am a PhD student and researcher at the University of Deusto in Bilbao, Spain. My academic interests include social media and research of tolerance and intercultural interactions online. My recent publications include study of identity construction on the social network. Dr. Joel Rookwood: I am a senior lecturer in the School of Health Sciences at Liverpool Hope University. I hold a PhD in football fandom from the University of Liverpool and masters degrees in sports management from the University of Leicester and notational analysis from LJMU. My research interests include football fandom, sports mega events, tourism, identity, peace building and social development, and I have published several related books and articles (see for details).


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Dr Debbie Sadd is based within the School of Tourism, Bournemouth University where she teaches Strategic Management and Experiential Marketing. Her specific research interests surround stakeholder engagement and management within events and also the design and management of volunteering projects. She undertook her PhD looking at the impacts on community stakeholders during the planning for London 2012 and was a Games Maker herself. She is currently working on three industry stakeholder engagement projects, both locally and nationally. In the past she has received funding awards from the ESRC to undertake research projects in relation to stakeholder engagement. Priscila Mari Dos Santos is a physical education postgraduate student at the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), in Brazil, working in the research field “Pedagogical Theory and Practice in Physical Education”. She has a scholarship from the National Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) Ministry in Brazil and is also a member of the Leisure and Physical Activity Research Laboratory (LAPLAF) at the State University of Santa Catarina (UDESC). She completed her Bachelor’s degree in physical education in this institution in 2012. Nico Schulenkorf is Senior Lecturer for Sport Management at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). His research focuses on the social, cultural, psychological and health-related outcomes of sport and event initiatives. He is particularly interested in the role sport can play in contributing to social development within and between disadvantaged communities. For several years, Nico has been involved in sport-for-development programmes in countries such as Sri Lanka, Israel and the Pacific Islands. He is Co-Founder and Deputy Editor of the Journal of Sport for Development. David Scott, PhD research student, The Open University (Faculty of Education and Language Studies). Field of study is Sport Sociology, with research interests also in Sport Psychology, Identity, and Existential-Phenomenology in Sport. Pamela Scott is a PhD student within the School of Health, Nursing and Midwifery, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley Campus. Her thesis is concerned with the evaluation and development of multi-component childhood obesity intervention programmes. She is currently using community-based approaches, such as visual and active methodologies, to involve children and families to active participate in the development of their own programmes. Katja Siefken is a Postdoctoral Research Officer at AUT University in the School of Public Health in Auckland, New Zealand. Her professional interests are applied research approaches in the area of non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention and control in low- and middle income countries. In her latest research she focused on empowering Ni-Vanuatu women through healthy lifestyle interventions to reduce chronic diseases in Port Vila, Vanuatu. Since 2008, Katja is consulting the health promotion division of the World Health Organization South Pacific Office. Dr Richard Shipway is Associate Dean for International Engagement in the School of tourism, Bournemouth University. His research interests focus on sport tourism, Olympic studies, the impacts and legacies of international sport events, health promotion, and sport ethnography. His recent work has explored a series of Olympic related research themes connected with the 2012 Games. Dirceu Santos Silva, PhD student of Physical Education at Universidade Estadual de Campinas/Unicamp/Brazil, line of research: Physical Education and Society. Master’s Degree in Physical Education at Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo/UFES/Brazil (2012), line of research: Physical Education and Society. Bachelor and Teaching Degree (Licenciatura) in Physical Education from Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz/UESC/Brazil (2009). Research interests: Leisure, Public Policy, Physical Education and Sports; sport megaevents. Marcos Ruiz da Silva - Graduated in Physical Education from the State University of Londrina (1989) and Masters in Physical Education from the Federal University of Paraná (2007). PhD in Physical Education in the program graduate of EMU (Universidade Estadual de Londrina). Author of books: Leisure in sociorrecreativos and themes for Administration sociorrrecrativos clubs (Ed.) clubs. He is currently Professor - Integrated Colleges of Brazil, Positivo University professor and coordinator of graduate UNINTER University Center. He has experience in Physical Education with an emphasis in Physical Education, acting on the following topics: recreation and leisure, physical activity, leisure-education, tourism - hospitality, sport management and sport. Dr. Theresa Ryan is a lecturer and researcher in the School of Hospitality Management and Tourism at the Dublin Institute of Technology. Her background is in marketing and international business and her current research interests include: tourism, memory and interpretation, tourism history, destination development and entrepreneurship. Her PhD research involved investigating the factors that underpinned tourism development in tourism areas in Ireland. She has presented at a range of international conferences and has published in the area of destination development and entrepreneurship. Dr Karen A. Smith is an Associate Professor in Tourism Management at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. She has published widely on the management of volunteers, including co-authoring Managing Volunteers in Tourism: attractions, destinations and events (published by Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann) and co-editing the forthcoming book Event Volunteering (Routledge Advances in Event Research Series). Her areas of interest include event and tourism volunteering, recruitment and selection of volunteers, and the career paths of managers of volunteers. Karen recently led a Sport New Zealand-funded study on the experiences and legacies of Rugby World Cup 2011 volunteers. She is a Board member of Volunteering New Zealand.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Liz Such works in the field of leisure, lifestyle and social policy. She is currently working at the University of Edinburgh as a Lecturer in Leisure and Sport Policy. She also worked for the UK government for several years in social and labour market policy research, specialising in disadvantage and inequality in employment and has most recently worked as a Parliamentary engagement Fellow at the Scottish Parliament on the topic of physical activity. Gregory Teal is Senior Lecturer, Management, in the School of Business, University of Western Sydney. He has researched and published on a wide range of topics, including the social anthropology of development, international tourism and the impact of globalisation on working conditions. Email: Nuray Turker, D.Phil., is assistant professor at the Department of Tourism Management at Karabuk University, Turkey. She received her undergraduate degree from Uludağ University on Tourism Management (B.Sc.) in 1990. She obtained her MA degree with a concentration of Tourism Management from Hacettepe University in 1995 and her PhD degree on Business Administration in 2002. Her research interests include ecotourism, wine tourism, sustainable tourism, and impacts of tourism. She has written a book on ecotourism in Western Black Sea Region and published 9 articles in several scientific journals. She conducted 3 projects which 2 of them were supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey and one by West Black Sea Development Agency and worked in 2 EU Projects. Darach Turley is professor of marketing at Dublin City University - Business School. He was born and educated on Dublin’s Northside. He joined the Business School in 1989. Prior to that he had lectured at the Dublin Institute of Technology, School of Marketing and Design. Before entering full-time academic life he had worked for a number of years with an Irish based television production unit specialising in social and third world issues. His research interests include: Consumer behaviour with particular interest on the impact of bereavement on consumption, use of qualitative research methods in marketing, older consumers, ethics and marketing. Darach Turley has a vast number of publications in peer-reviewed marketing journals and books. Dr Daniel Turner is the Senior Lecturer in Events Management and Subject Leader for Events, Tourism and Hospitality at Robert Gordon University. His teaching and research interests lie in the fields of event tourism policy and the role of events in consumption and identity construction. Gordon Waitt is Professor of Human Geography, Department of Geography and Sustainable Communities, University of Wollongong. His recent publications in Annals of Tourism Research and Leisure Studies explore the importance of affective and emotional relationships. With Christine Metusela he recently co-authored Tourism and Australian Beach Culture: Revealing Bodies (Channel View Publications). With Kevin Markwell he co-authored Gay Tourism; Culture and Context (Haworth Publications). With Chris Gibson, Carol Farbotko and Nicholas Gill he co-authored Household Sustainability: Challenges and Dilemmas in Everyday Life. Carrianne Wallace is a Senior Lecturer and Programme Leader for the Events Management programmes at MMU Cheshire in the Business and Management Studies Department. Her current work includes co- authored research on events management and marketing case studies along with Nathalie Ormrod at MMU. Carrianne is also currently working alongside Julia McKeown (Aberystwyth University) and Dr Katherine Dashper (Leeds Metropolitan University) on equestrian lifestyle research. Individual research interests surround the study of leisure participation and equestrianism, of which her recent conference presentations feature. Carrianne has presented her preliminary findings that focus upon life histories of amateur horse riders at the Leisure Studies Association and Bolton Museum conference 2011. In 2012 Carrianne presented ‘Serious leisure and Self Development : A case study of serious leisure and self development within ‘happy hacker’ equestrian communities’ at the LSA Conference. During 2013 Carrianne presented her latest findings at the MMU IPR Series in Ethnography and Leisure. Carrianne is an experienced horse owner and rider and is a member of a number of equestrian organisations, both leisure and sports based. Peter Ward received a Ph. D. in Parks, Recreation, and Tourism and a Master in Business Administration from the University of Utah. His research focuses on creating meaningful recreation experiences that will build resilience among adolescents and considering how recreation experiences influence the quality of family life. Peter’s publications have appeared in a variety of journals including Journal of Leisure Research, Leisure Sciences, Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, Schole, New Directions for Youth Development, Marriage and Family Review, Clinical Social Work, and Social Work Research. He has also presented his research and conducted workshops on the national and local levels. Stuart Whigham I am a Lecturer in Physical and Sport Education in the School of Education, Theology and Leadership at St Mary’s University College, Twickenham. I am also currently completing a doctoral thesis at Loughborough University on the political use of the 2014 Glasgow Commonwealth Games. My research interests lie within the sociology and politics of Scottish sport, with current and forthcoming publications on the subject of anti-Englishness in Scottish sport, sport and the Scottish diaspora, and the politics of the Commonwealth Games. Dr Linda Wilks specialises in research which investigates the social dimensions of festivals and events. Linda gained a PhD in the social and cultural capital of music festivals from the Open University in 2009, using Bourdieu and Putnam as theoretical frameworks. Since then she has continued to carry out research on festivals and events, including the London 2012 Olympics, covering social impacts, volunteering, ethnicity, ritual and the role of place. She has lectured in event management at the University of Hertfordshire, the University of Bedfordshire and the University of Greenwich.


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Michael Williams: Before joining the University of Brighton as a Senior Lecturer in International Event Management, Michael was responsible for managing the festival programme at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. He has previously worked as Events Manager for the Harrogate International Festival and the Wiltshire Festival. After graduating in Events Management, Michael continued his interest in arts and cultural events, presenting papers at the Third International Event Management Research Conference at the University of Technology in Sydney and the fourth Global Events Congress in Leeds. His research interests include the spectacularization of events and socio-cultural and political impacts of events. Michael’s key publications include: Williams, M. (2014) ‘One but not the same: U2 Concerts, Community and Cultural Identity’ in Merkel, U. (ed) Identity Discourses and Communities in International Events, Festivals and Celebrations, London: Routledge (Forthcoming). Williams, M. (2013) ‘Politics as spectacle’: U2’s 360° Tour (2009-2011) as a Contemporary Spectacle. in Merkel, U. (ed) Power, Politics and International Events: Socio-Cultural Analyses of Festivals and Spectacles. London: Routledge. Williams, M., and Bowdin, G. (2007) ‘Festival evaluation: An exploration of seven UK arts festivals’. Managing Leisure, 12(2-3), 187-203. Sven Daniel Wolfe is a master’s student in Russian and Eurasian Studies at the European University at St. Petersburg, Russia. He is interested in the political, personal, and environmental impacts of mega-events, particularly focusing on the dramatic transformations of human communities and the land. His most recent publication was entitled “Life On The Ground: A Comparative Analysis of Two Villages in Sochi During Olympic Transformation,” Euxeinos - Online Journal of the Center for Governance and Culture in Europe, 12/2013. He is currently writing his master’s dissertation on the Sochi Olympics and will begin work on a PhD in summer 2014. Dr Richard Keith Wright is responsible for the event management papers offered within the School of Sport and Recreation at AUT University, New Zealand. His research interests and activities focus on the sustainable production and strategic promotion of amateur and professional sports fixtures. Dr Wright is particularly interested in the ever-changing movements, motivations, manipulation and management of those whose leisure time is largely dominated by the active and/or passive pursuit of sportsrelated activities and/or attractions. He has published and presented papers within the fields of sport, events and tourism, including work conducted on the 2005 British and Irish Lions Tour of New Zealand. His most recent contributions have focused on the production and consumption of sports stadia tourism. Ewa Wylężek: A Ph. D. student working at the Institute of English Cultures and Literatures (University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland). My research is oriented towards literary and cultural theory with special focus on Mikhail Bakhtin’s and Johan Huzinga’s philosophical standings. I use their findings as a methodological tool facilitating my analysis of bullfighting which constitutes the center of my Ph.D. research. Jamal Youssef is currently completing his doctoral thesis on The Influence of Organisational Climate on Service Quality and Performance of Libyan Hotels, in the School of Business, University of Western Sydney.1 He is also a staff member in the Department of Business Administration, University of Benghazi, and he has extensive experience conducting research on Libyan tourism and hospitality. Email:


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Delegate Contact List Surname

First Name





Bournemouth University



Yuzuncu Yil University






University of the West of Scotland



Indiana University


Peter John

Comenius University of Bratislava



Shikoku Gakuin University



University of the West of Scotland



University of Waterloo



Universidad de Deusto



Northampton University



University of St Andrews



Loughborough University



Southampton Solent University



Leisure Studies Editorial Board



University of Wollongong



Dublin City University



Niagara University

de Geus


Tilberg University



Western University



Southampton Solent University



Brighton Young University



North Carolina State University



Queen Margaret University



Leisure Studies Editorial Board



Glasgow Caledonian University



University of the West of Scotland



Victoria University

Franco Amaral

Silvia Cristina

Universidade Estadual de Campinas



George Mason University



Brigham Young University



Bournemouth University



University of Bath



University of Brighton



South Devon College



Ryerson University



University of Technology Sydney



Brigham Young University



University of Calgary



South Devon College



University of Westminster


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014


First Name








University of Hertfordshire



Bournemouth University



Southampton Solent University



Bournemouth University



University of Leicester



Griffith University



Loughborough University



University of the West of Scotland



Glasgow Caledonian University



Bournemouth University



University of Ulster



Indiana University



University of Western Sydney



Edith Cowan University



Southampton Solent University



Robert Gordon University



Missouri State University



Charles Sturt University



Griffith University



State University of Santa Catarina



Bournemouth University



University of the West of Scotland



University of Salford



Robert Gordon University



Western University



Western University



University of Waterloo



Bournemouth University



Sheffield University



Manchester Metropolitan University



University of the West of Scotland



Charles Sturt University



Kastamonu University

Paulo Loro


Federal University of Southern Frontier



State University of Maringa



Liverpool John Moores University



Clemson University



Western University



University of Liverpool



Liverpool Hope University



Dublin Institute of Technology


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014


First Name





Bournemouth University



University of Technology Sydney



Open University



University of the West of Scotland



Victoria University of Wellington



University of Bolton



University of the West of Scotland



University of Edinburgh



Karabuk University



Robert Gordon University



University of Wollongong



Manchester Metropolitan University



Brigham Young University



Leisure Studies Editorial Board



Tilberg University



St Mary’s University



Open University



University of Brighton



European University at Saint Petersburg



AUT University


Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Paisley Campus



Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014

Conference Centre - P Block



Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Conference 2014



Thanks The Organising Committee of the 2014 Leisure Studies Association Conference is grateful for the support offered by our sponsors and partners: Visit Scotland, Creative Futures Institute, Chivas Brothers, Glasgow City Council, Glasgow City Marketing Bureau, Glasgow2014 Ltd, Commonwealth Games, and Taylor and Francis. We would like to show our appreciation to our chairs of sessions, LSA volunteering team and partner HE institutions: Glasgow Caledonian University and Edinburgh Napier University. We are thankful for the support of the University of the West of Scotland for hosting the conference, Faculty Business and Creative Industries, UWS ICT Services, Corporate Marketing, Printing Services, and UWS Events and Hospitality Team. Finally, we would like to thank the Leisure Studies Association, on whose behalf we are running the conference, and all of the delegates for making this an especially vibrant conference

#LSA2014 Design: Corporate Marketing / Print: Printing Services. University of the West of Scotland. University of the West of Scotland is a registered Scottish charity. Charity number SC002520

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