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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

David M. Leslie


Š Copyright Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), 2012 All rights for commercial / for profit reproduction or translation, in any form, reserved. SPC authorises the partial reproduction or translation of this material for scientific, educational or research purposes, provided that SPC and the source document are properly acknowledged. Permission to reproduce the document and/or translate in whole, in any form, whether for commercial / for profit or non-profit purposes, must be requested in writing. Original SPC artwork may not be altered or separately published without permission. Original text: English Secretariat of the Pacific Community Cataloguing-in-publication data

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji by David M. Leslie

1. 2. 3. 4.

Soil Resources Soil Classifications Matching Soils with Crop Requirements Crop Suitability Assessment

I. Title II. David M. Leslie III. Secretariat of the Pacific Community

ISBN:

Produced by: Land Resources Division Secretariat of the Pacific Community Private Mail Bag Suva Fiji Website: www.spc.int/lrd For more information please contact: lrdhelpdesk@spc.int Design and layout: SPC Land Resources Publication Unit, Nabua, Fiji

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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji


Table of Contents

Table of Contents......................................................................................................................................3 Acknowledgements...................................................................................................................................5 Abbreviations............................................................................................................................................7 Glossary....................................................................................................................................................8 1.

INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................12

2. 2.1 2.2 2.3

PHYSIOGRAPHIC LEGEND FOR SOIL MAP UNITS AND SOIL SERIES OF FIJI..................13 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 13 Soil map of Fiji – physiographic legend ...................................................................................... 13 List of soil series (in alphabetical order) ..................................................................................... 23

3. 3.1

CLASSIFICATION OF THE SOIL SERIES OF FIJI IN DIFFERENT SYSTEMS........................24 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 24

4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4. 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19

FLOW-DIAGRAM KEYS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF FIJI SOIL SERIES..........................39 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 39 Explanation of the abbreviations .......................................................................................... 39 Keys to the identification of Fiji soil series ........................................................................... 40 Lowland soils <600m, i.e. isohyperthermic ST ..................................................................... 41 Soils of the marine marsh with aquic SMR .......................................................................... 41 Soils of the beach strands, dunes and estuaries ................................................................. 42 Soils of the major floodplains ............................................................................................... 44 Soils of the relict terraces ..................................................................................................... 46 Soils of the plateaux ............................................................................................................. 47 Soils of the secondary floodplains and depressions ............................................................ 48 Soils of the fans and outwash surfaces ............................................................................... 51 Soils of the Karst landscapes ............................................................................................... 52 Soils of the ‘young’ volcanic landscapes .............................................................................. 53 Soils of the hill country ......................................................................................................... 56 Upland soils >600m, i.e. isothermic STR ............................................................................. 66 Soils of the upland swamps ................................................................................................. 66 Soils of the floodplains and terraces .................................................................................... 67 Soils of the ‘young’ volcanic landscapes .............................................................................. 68 Soils of the upland hill country ............................................................................................. 69

5. 5.1

FIJI SOIL MAPPING UNITS, LAND USE CAPABILITY CLASSES AND THE MAIN SOIL LIMITATIONS......................................................................................................................70 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 70

6. 6.1

LAND AND SOIL ATTRIBUTES SIGNIFICANT FOR CROP GROWTH....................................93 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 93

7. 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7

APPLICATION OF THE FERTILITY CAPABILITY SOIL CLASSIFICATION...........................133 The system ........................................................................................................................ 133 Type ................................................................................................................................... 133 Substrata type .................................................................................................................... 133 Condition modifiers ............................................................................................................ 133 Interpretation of modifiers .................................................................................................. 139 Interpretations of FCSC nomenclature .............................................................................. 139 Analysis of Fijian FCSC units ............................................................................................. 139

8. 8.1 8.2

MATCHING OF SOIL ATTRIBUTES WITH CROP REQUIREMENTS; SOIL SUITABILITY ASSESSMENTS........................................................................................141 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 141 Process for determining crop suitability ratings ................................................................. 143

9.

REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED FURTHER READING......................................................156

APPENDIX 1: Land Use Capability Classification (Land Use Section, MPI, 1977)………..…........158

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Construction of a complete family name……………………………………. ................. 25 Figure 2: Key soil and climate attributes used in the crop suitability analysis……… ............... 142 Figure 3: Suitability classes……………………………………………………………... .............. .144 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6:

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Classification of the Soil Series of Fiji………………………………………… ............. 26 Fiji Soil Map Units, Land Use Capability Classes and Main Soil Limitations……………………………………………………………………….. .............. 71 Extended Legend : Land and Soil Attributes Significant for Crop Growth... ............. 96 Fertility Capability Soil Classification Applied to Fiji Soils………………… .............. 135 Analysis of Type, Substrata Type, and Modifier for Fijian FCSC Units…. .............. 140 Soil Suitability Classification for 78 Crops………………………………….. .............. 145

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji


Acknowledgements

This manual could not have been produced without the information collected by soil scientists in the New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) with support from Fiji Ministry of Primary Industries staff during the soil surveys conducted in the early 1980s. The initial soil survey of Fiji undertaken in the 1960s is acknowledged for establishing the basic concepts, soil definitions and soil and land use maps. I am most grateful to the New Zealand Agency for International Development (NZAID) for supporting soil research in Fiji for two decades from 1980. The analytical support from the Soil Bureau of the DSIR, Fijiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Koronivia Research Station and the University of the South Pacific (Institute of Applied Sciences) is also acknowledged. Throughout preparation of the manuscript, I have had the support of Inoke Ratukalou, Acting Director of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community Land Resources Division; and Luke Ratuvuki, former Chief Executive Officer of Fijiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ministry of Agriculture, Sugar and Land Resettlement (now the Ministry of Primary Industries). I am indebted first and foremost to NZAID, through their bilateral assistance programme to Fiji, for funding the compilation and layout of this manual; and to the Secretariat of the Pacific Community-European Union project for meeting printing costs. Finally, I wish to thank Margaret Leslie, who was responsible for word processing and providing support during the preparation of the manual. David M. Leslie

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Foreword The Land Resources Division of SPC remains committed to integrated and sustainable agriculture and forestry resource management and development; this is a key objective in the LRD Strategic Plan. Soil resources information is a primary underpinning pillar in support of this objective. This publication provides a broad framework for understanding and interpreting the soil resources of Fiji in bringing together into one document all the relevant available soil data. It describes these data in a user-friendly format designed for use by farmers, institutional extensionists, researchers, agribusiness managers, and land use planners. A useful component of the manual is the matching of land qualities with crop requirements, leading to a determination of suitability classes for 78 crops. In separate formats, single-factor maps for each crop have been generated, and enterprise gross margins have been prepared in Excel spreadsheets. Much of the information was collected by soil scientists from the Soil Bureau of New Zealandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, who, in the 1980s, conducted detailed soil surveys of the nine Ministry of Primary Industries (MPI) agricultural research stations in Fiji. This was followed by the national soil survey of Fiji (Seru and Leslie 1986), with supporting information published in the Fiji Soil Taxonomic Unit Description Handbook (Leslie and Seru 1998). These soil surveys were indebted to an earlier national soil resources survey (Twyford and Wright, 1965). This most comprehensive bulletin with accompanying soil and land use maps provided the basis for understanding the genesis and pattern of Fiji soils. The manual will be of value to the MPI, other government departments, the sugar industry institutions, international agencies and non-government organisations in planning future land development assistance programmes and formulating rural sector and land use policies. LRD is confident this publication will make a significant contribution to sustainable land development in the Republic of Fiji.

Inoke Ratukalou Acting Director, Land Resources Division Secretriat of the Pacific Community Nabua, Fiji

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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji


Abbreviations

BS

base saturation

BSP

Benchmark Soils Project

CEC

cation exchange capacity

DSIR

Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (New Zealand)

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization (United Nations)

FCSC

fertility capability soil classification

GIS

geographical information systems

IBSNAT

International Benchmark Soils Network for Agrotechnology Transfer

LUC

land use capability

MASLR

Ministry of Agriculture, Sugar and Land Resources (now Minstry of Primary Industries)

MDS

minimum data set

MPI

Ministry of Primary Industries (Fiji)

NZAID

New Zealand Agency for International Development

SMR

soil moisture regime

SMU

soil map unit

SPC

Secretariat of the Pacific Community

STR

soil temperature regime

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

USDA

United States Department of Agriculture

USP

University of the South Pacific

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Glossary

Alluvium

Material, including clay, silt, sand and gravel, deposited in riverbeds, alluvial fans and valley floors by contemporary streams

Base saturation (BS)

May be used as a general measure of soil fertility and leaching. The term base refers to those metallic elements that have basic oxides (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium). A low BS indicates strong leaching.

Beach strand

A sand-covered plain between the coastal zone and inland landforms (fans, terraces, etc.)

Cation exchange capacity (CEC)

This measures the total number of sites in a soil available for cation exchange, and so is a measure of the ability of the soil to retain added nutrients such as calcium, magnesium and potassium. Nearly all the action exchange sites are on the surfaces of clay particles or organic matter (OM). Soils with large amounts of clay or OM usually have a higher CEC than soils low in clay and OM.

Clayey texture group Soil material with >35% clay. It is very plastic and moderately or very sticky. Includes silty clay, loamy clay and clay. Refer to 6 (vii). Colluvium Material that has moved downhill mainly by the force of gravity and has accumulated on lower slopes. Drainage Usually four drainage classes are used: well drained, moderately well drained, imperfectly drained and poorly drained. The terms are an indication of how long a soil, or part of a soil, is saturated with water, and how quickly it can rid itself of excessive water. Refer 6 to (vi). Drought risk The risk of drought in normal years is expressed as the days of soil moisture deficit and the period (months) when deficits occur. Dune A low mound or ridge of loose sand piled up by wind Erosion hazard The risk of soil erosion occurring under specified conditions, or in a specified area. Erosion hazard is expressed in qualitative terms (severe, moderate, slight, etc.) and type (rill, debris slide, etc.). Estuaries Wide tidal mouths of a river where the tide meets the river current; an area where fresh and marine waters mix Fan A gently sloping, fan-shaped mass of alluvial material deposited by a stream at a place where a notable decrease in gradient occurs Field capacity The moisture content of a soil after it has been saturated and has drained freely 8

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji


Flooding risk

The risk of flooding is expressed as the frequency or return period for floods depositing sediment (years) and for other floods.

Floodplain

Nearly level land situated on either side of a channel that is subject to overflow flooding

Horizon

A soil layer that has a texture, colour or other property that distinguishes it from other layers in the soil profile

Iron pan

A subsurface continuous horizon containing cemented iron concretions or nodules

Karst

Topography characterised by closed depressions or sink holes in limestone from which surface waters drain by underground routes

Land use capability (LUC)

The LUC classification is a systematic arrangement of different kinds of land according to those properties that determine the capacity for permanent sustained production. The eight LUC classes cover a simple land classification useful for many purposes. Each LUC class includes a specified range in degree of its natural limitations with respect to use. Refer to Appendix 1.

Loamy texture group

Soil material containing 9–35% clay and <40% silt. Includes sandy loam, sandy clay loam, clay loam. Refer to 6 (vii).

Marine marsh

Coastal lowland subject to diurnal tidal flooding. ‘Soft’ wet soils with high water tables commonly supporting mangrove.

Matching

The process of comparing crop requirements, land qualities and/or soil characteristics to arrive at a land suitability classification

Matrix

The fine-earth ground mass that in mottled soil materials surrounds the mottles (it need not have the dominant colour)

Minimum rooting depth

Soils — in which shallowness, stones, low moisture-holding capacity, low fertility difficult to correct, or salinity are permanent features — are regarded as having limitations in the rooting zone.

Mottles

Discrete area of fine-earth material surrounded by a matrix of contrasting colour. Mottle colour(s) may be the dominant colour.

Parent material (PM)

The unconsolidated chemically weathered mineral or organic matter from which the solum of soils has developed by pedogenic processes

Permeability

The quality of a soil horizon that enables water to move through it

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pH

A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a soil. The pH of a soil is a measure of the acid groups associated with clay or organic matter. Strong leaching, or the accumulation of large amounts of organic matter (OM) causes the pH to decrease. pH controls the availability of plant nutrients. The optimum pH level for most plants is about 6.0. Refer to 6 (x).

Plateau

Comparatively flat extensive and elevated land area above the adjacent country

Relict

Describes a topographic feature that was originally part of a more extensive feature of which most has been removed

Rill

An erosion process in which numerous small channels only several centimetres deep are formed. Occurs mainly on recently cultivated soils.

Rock outcrops and surface boulders

Rock outcrop is the in situ bedrock that protrudes through the soil. Boulders are the detached rock masses with diameters >20 cm. The percentage of the ground surface of the site occupied by each is given.

Rotational slip and slump

A slip or slump in which shearing takes place on a well-defined, curved shear surface, concave upward in cross-section, producing backward rotation in the displaced mass

Sandy texture group Soil material consisting dominantly of sand with 8% or less clay and <40% silt. Includes sand, loamy sand. Refer to 6 (vii). Sheet Erosion in which thin layers of surface material are gradually removed evenly from an extensive area of sloping land Silty texture group Soil material with 40% or more silt and 35% or less clay. Includes silt loam, loamy silt and silt. Refer to 6 (vii). Soil mapping unit Any unit describing the spatial distribution of soils, which can be mapped Soil profile (solum) The vertical section of the soil body and although there are exceptions the majority of soil profiles comprise three master horizons (A – topsoil, B – subsoil, and C – parent material). That part that owes its main characters to the soil-forming processes is referred to as the solum. It includes the A and B horizons or the upper part above the parent material horizon.

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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji


Soil moisture regimes

Soil temperature regimes

-

The aquic moisture regime implies a reducing regime that is virtually free of dissolved oxygen because the soil is saturated by ground water.

-

Soils with a udic moisture regime are moist throughout the year due to well distributed rainfalls and the amount of stored water plus rainfall exceeds the amount of evapotranspiration. An extremely wet moisture regime is described as perudic.

-

Soils with an ustic moisture regime have limited moisture, but are moist in the season when the soil is suitable for plant growth. In the isohyperthermic STR soils are dry for >90 cumulative days.

-

Isothermic. The mean annual soil temperature is >15 ºC but <22 ºC and the difference between summer and winter mean temperature is <5 ºC. Isohyperthermic. The mean annual soil temperature is >22 ºC and the difference between summer and winter mean temperature <5 ºC.

-

Terrace

Any relatively flat surface bounded on one edge by a steeper descending slope and along the other by a steeper ascending slope. Rivers are commonly bordered by terraces at different levels.

Translational slide

Downslope displacement of soil-rock material on a surface that is parallel to the general ground surface, in contrast to rotational slips and slumps.

Volcanic rocks

These rocks consist of ash and/or magma that has been blown out of a volcano and has cooled and solidified rapidly

Waterlogging risk

The risk is expressed as the duration (days) of waterlogging, the time it occurs (months) and the position of the water table within the soil profile.

Weathering

The physical and chemical processes in soils that commonly act together. Physical is the breaking of rock into finer and finer particles while the important aspect of chemical weathering is argillisation — the formation of clay. Moisture, temperature, etc. impact the weathering process.

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1.

INTRODUCTION

Publication of A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji represents an initiative to collate and organise the current knowledge about Fiji’s soils and their management. Revisions can be made as more is learnt, particularly about soil fertility, crop options and sustainable farming systems. The main purpose in compiling the manual is to provide agricultural extensionists and researchers, planners, farmers and others working in the rural development sector with a ready guide to the field identification of soils, soil attributes important for optimal crop growth, information about soil fertility, and an assessment of the suitability of the soils to grow a wide range of fruit and vegetable crops. The text, tables and overall format of the manual have been designed and written to be user-friendly. The re-interpreted information in the manual has been derived from the very comprehensive technical report — The Soil Resources of the Fiji Islands (Twyford and Wright 1965) — and the revision of Wright’s soil map with modern laboratory soil characterisation and soil classification of soil series (Seru and Leslie, 1986; Leslie and Seru, 1998). The manual has been structured to provide a logical flow of information as follows:

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physiographic soil legends where soil mapping units and soil series are hierarchically organised according to temperature regime, landscape type, composition and degree of weathering of parent material and, finally, drainage class;

classification of soils series according to soil taxonomy and the FAO/UNESCO system;

key to the identification of soil series; the flow-diagram format also in a hierarchical order as for the physiographic soil legends;

Fiji soil mapping units, land use capability classes and the main soil limitations;

land and soil attributes significant for crop growth are presented in spreadsheet format for each soil mapping unit;

fertility capability soil classification of soil mapping units;

matching of soil attributes with crop requirements, expressed in one of four classes of crop suitability. Based on this analysis, GIS-generated single factor crop suitability maps are available separately; and

important references in support of the foregoing are provided.

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji


2.

PHYSIOGRAPHIC LEGEND FOR SOIL MAP UNITS AND SOIL SERIES OF FIJI

2.1

Introduction

In the physiographic legend (below) for the soil map of Fiji, the soil series have been mainly arranged under physiographic headings with the initial subdivision separating soils of the lowlands and foothills from those of the uplands. This separation reflects the change in soil temperature regime at 600 metres altitude, viz. isothermic soil temperature regime (STR) above 600 metres altitude and isohyperthermic STR below. The second level separation groups soils into major landform categories, e.g., soils of the marine marshes, soils of the fans and outwash surfaces. At the third category level, soils are further differentiated on the basis of the parent material from which they develop, e.g. river alluvium from acidic soils. The fourth category subdivides soils on the basis of their internal drainage class, e.g. imperfectly drained, poorly drained. Where appropriate, a final differentiation is made based on the soil moisture regime (SMR) under which they form: aquic, udic, perudic or ustic. The physiographic legend is that developed to accompany Soil Map of Fiji, scale 1:50,000 (Seru and Leslie 1986).

2.2

Soil map of Fiji – physiographic legend

SOILS OF THE LOWLANDS AND FOOTHILLS (<600m altitude, isohyperthermic soil temperature regime) SOILS OF THE MARINE MARSH (Aquic SMR) • from marine and estuarine alluvium Imperfectly drained LABASA SOILS Poorly drained TIRI SOILS SOSO SOILS DREKETI SOILS Very poorly drained DOGO SOILS

SOILS OF THE BEACH STRANDS, DUNES AND ESTUARIES • from calcareous sands Excessively drained Udic / Perudic SMR NUKU SOILS Ustic SMR YASAWA SOILS Poorly drained Udic / Perudic SMR TACILEVU SOILS •

from sands of high quartz content Well drained to excessively drained Udic / Perudic SMR VUNIBAU SOILS WAIKALOU SOILS Udic SMR VOLIVOLI SOILS VUNAVUTU SOILS

Soil Series Symbol

1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8

9 10 11 12

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Very poorly to poorly drained Aquic SMR DEUBA SOILS

13

from sands of low quartz content Excessively drained Udic / Perudic SMR DAWASAMU SOILS

14

from river alluvium from basic and intermediate rocks over calcareous sands Poorly drained Aquic SMR VUNILAGI SOILS

15

from mixed calcareous sands and organic materials Poorly drained Aquic SMR RANA SOILS

16

from organic materials over sands of high quartz content Poorly drained Aquic SMR QARIBUTA SOILS

17

from estuarine alluvium from basic and intermediate rocks Poorly drained Aquic SMR NAKELO SOILS

18

from estuarine alluvium from acidic rocks Poorly drained Aquic SMR TOGORU SOILS

19

from mixed ‘black’ sands and calcareous sands over coral beach rock Well drained Udic / Perudic SMR NASELESELE SOILS

20

SOILS OF THE MAJOR FLOOD PLAINS • from river alluvium from basic and intermediate rocks (a) Levees Well drained Udic / Perudic SMR MUAINASE SOILS REWA SOILS Ustic SMR LAWAI SOILS

14

(b) ‘Relict’ river channels Moderately well drained Udic / Perudic SMR TAMANUA SOILS Imperfectly drained Udic / Perudic SMR NADURU SOILS (c) Terraces Well drained Udic / Perudic SMR WAINIBUKA SOILS Ustic SMR SIGATOKA SOILS A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

21 22 23

24 25

26 27


Imperfectly drained Udic / Perudic SMR WAINIVESI SOILS Poorly drained – very poorly drained Aquic SMR NAVAU SOILS TOKOTOKO SOILS NAUSORI SOILS

from organic materials Very poorly drained Aquic SMR MELIMELI SOILS

SOILS OF THE RELICT TERRACES • from river alluvium from acidic rocks (a) High terraces Imperfectly drained Udic / Perudic SMR WAINIKAVOU SOILS Aquic SMR SAUNAKA SOILS (b) Slope margins of dissected high terraces Well drained Ustic SMR NAMAKA SOILS •

from river alluvium from basic and intermediate rocks Terraces Well drained Ustic SMR NADI SOILS KOROVULI SOILS

SOILS OF THE PLATEAUX • from basic and intermediate rocks (a) Plateaux surfaces Well drained Udic / Perudic SMR NASEGAI SOILS Ustic SMR NAMOSAU SOILS BUA SOILS VUNICIBICIBI SOILS KOROKADI SOILS (b) Slope margin of dissected plateaux Well drained Ustic SMR BA SOILS •

from rocks of acid composition (a) Plateaux surfaces Imperfectly drained Udic / Perudic SMR KORONIVIA SOILS Ustic SMR LOVONIVIA SOILS

28 29 30 31

32

33 34

35

36 37

38 39 40 41 42

43

44 45

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SOILS OF THE SECONDARY FLOODPLAINS AND DEPRESSIONS • from river alluvium from basic and intermediate rocks Well drained Udic / Perudic SMR SEREA SOILS Imperfectly drained Udic / Perudic SMR WAIDRADRA SOILS SAWAKASA SOILS Ustic SMR VATUMA SOILS Poorly drained Aquic SMR NAREWA SOILS BUCAISAU SOILS MATAVELO SOILS SAWENI SOILS Ustic SMR NIKA SOILS Very poorly drained Aquic SMR BATIKI SOILS •

from river alluvium from mixed composition rocks Poorly drained Aquic SMR NADRUKA SOILS

from river alluvium from andesitic rocks Poorly drained Aquic SMR VEISARU SOILS Ustic SMR RAWITI SOILS

from river alluvium from basaltic rocks Well drained Udic / Perudic SMR WAIBULA SOILS

from river alluvium from acidic rocks Well drained Udic / Perudic SMR NAVUNIKODI SOILS SALIADRAU SOILS Ustic SMR LATO SOILS LAGILAGI SOILS Imperfectly to poorly drained Aquic SMR NACOKULA SOILS KEDRA SOILS TALACAGI SOILS NAQILAI SOILS

from mixed organic and mineral materials from basic and intermediate rocks Very poorly drained Aquic SMR WAINIKAI SOILS VUREVURE SOILS

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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

56

57 58

59

60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67

68 69


SOILS OF THE FANS AND OUTWASH SURFACES • from river alluvium from basic and intermediate rocks Well drained Ustic SMR NASOU SOILS DRASA SOILS MOLAMOLAU SOILS Imperfectly drained Ustic SMR LAUTOKA SOILS

70 71 72

SOILS OF THE KARST LANDSCAPE • from marine limestones and elevated calcareous reef rock Well drained Udic / Perudic SMR WAILOTUA SOILS LAMI SOILS Ustic SMR TAU SOILS VATULELE SOILS

74 75

73

76 77

from residual materials over raised coralline limestone Well drained Ustic SMR CIKOBIA SOILS OGEA SOILS TUVUCA SOILS NAYAU SOILS NAEVUEVU SOILS

78 79 80 81 82

from colluvium of mixed limestone and basic rocks Well drained Ustic SMR EKUBU SOILS

83

SOILS OF THE ‘YOUNG’ VOLCANIC LANDSCAPE (Udic / Perudic SMR) • from andesite ash Well drained LOMAJE SOILS

84

from very young ‘aa’ lava Excessively drained VUNA SOILS

85

from very young ‘pahoehoe’ lava Somewhat excessively drained LOSA SOILS

86

from basaltic ash Somewhat excessively drained WAIQERE SOILS WAIOBA SOILS ONO SOILS DULEVI SOILS

87 88 89 90

from basaltic ash over scoria Well drained REREE SOILS LAUCALA SOILS

91 92

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

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from young ‘pahoehoe’ lava Somewhat excessively drained TAVEUNI SOILS KORO SOILS URA SOILS NACAMAKI SOILS RAVILEVU SOILS

from young ‘aa’ lava Somewhat excessively drained VAKAWAU SOILS KIRIKIRI SOILS HAFHAFU SOILS

98 99 100

from older ‘pahoehoe’ lava Well drained NABEKA SOILS WAIORU SOILS TABAKA SOILS QELENI SOILS NASAU SOILS

101 102 103 104 105

from basaltic scoria cones Well drained NACAUGAI SOILS TAVUYAGA SOILS MAFUA SOILS

106 107 108

from basaltic tuffaceous cones Well drained ROROA SOILS

109

SOILS OF THE HILL COUNTRY • from in situ calcareous tuffs, sandstones and marls Well drained Udic / Perudic SMR SAMABULA SOILS NALOTU SOILS Ustic SMR KOROMAVU SOILS KEIYASI SOILS NADROGA SOILS MOMI SOILS SABETO SOILS NAQALOTU SOILS Poorly drained Ustic SMR EMURI SOILS •

from colluvium derived from calcareous tuffs, sandstones and marls Moderately well drained Udic / Perudic SMR SUVA SOILS Ustic SMR YAKO SOILS

from basic and intermediate sedimentary rocks Well drained Udic / Perudic SMR BURENITU SOILS DOBUILEVU SOILS MATAWAILEVU SOILS LOBAU SOILS

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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

93 94 95 96 97

110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118

119 120

121 122 123 124


VISA SOILS SOTE SOILS WAIMARO SOILS SERUA SOILS WAIDINA SOILS NACULA SOILS Ustic SMR VASILAULAU SOILS Imperfectly drained Udic / Perudic SMR WAISAVA SOILS DARIA SOILS

from quartz rich and acidic tuffs Well drained Udic / Perudic SMR NAMUANA SOILS SAROWAQA SOILS GAIGAI SOILS DRITI SOILS NAMATIU SOILS NAMARA SOILS

from in situ quartz porphyry and quartzite rocks Somewhat excessively drained Udic / Perudic SMR LUTU SOILS Ustic SMR MALOLO SOILS

from silicified and indurated tuffs, sandstones, marls and agglomerates Well drained Udic / Perudic SMR VATUBABA SOILS NADAWA SOILS RAURIKO SOILS YAKITA SOILS Ustic SMR CUKU SOILS NABUONO SOILS DOGOTUKI SOILS KORONIQALA SOILS

from in situ acidic rocks (granite, andesite and dacite) Well drained Udic / Perudic SMR NAMOSI SOILS NAULUVATU SOILS NARAYAWA SOILS SAVUDRODRO SOILS VUNATOTO SOILS

Ustic SMR WAINIKORO SOILS NUKUDAMU SOILS NUKUSA SOILS VATUVONU SOILS KURUKURU SOILS KELIKOSO SOILS VEREVERE SOILS Imperfectly drained Ustic SMR UAUA SOILS

125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133

134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147

148 149

150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157

158 159 160 161 162

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from in situ from in situ argillaceous and contact metamorphic rocks argillaceous and contact metamorphic rocks Well drained Well drained Ustic SMR Ustic SMR TABUQUTO SOILS TABUQUTO SOILS

from basic and intermediate igneous rocks from basic and intermediate igneous rocks Well drained Well drained Udic // Perudic SMR Perudic SMR NAILOCA SOILS NAILOCA SOILS VAIDOKO SOILS VAIDOKO SOILS LODONI SOILS LODONI SOILS GAU SOILS GAU SOILS TAILEVU SOILS TAILEVU SOILS SOLEVU SOILS SOLEVU SOILS SEATURA SOILS SEATURA SOILS WAINUNU SOILS WAINUNU SOILS NAKAVIKA SOILS NAKAVIKA SOILS GALOA SOILS GALOA SOILS LOMAIVITI SOILS LOMAIVITI SOILS NAVAVA SOILS NAVAVA SOILS Ustic SMR Ustic SMR RAVIRAVI SOILS RAVIRAVI SOILS NAIRAI SOILS NAIRAI SOILS LAKEBA SOILS LAKEBA SOILS TUVA SOILS TUVA SOILS LAU SOILS LAU SOILS DELAIMATAI SOILS DELAIMATAI SOILS NAMALATA SOILS NAMALATA SOILS VUYA SOILS VUYA SOILS KAVULA SOILS KAVULA SOILS NAWAI SOILS NAWAI SOILS MAKOMAKO SOILS MAKOMAKO SOILS TABIA SOILS TABIA SOILS KUBUNA SOILS KUBUNA SOILS TOTOYA SOILS TOTOYA SOILS NANUKULOA SOILS NANUKULOA SOILS NABITI SOILS NABITI SOILS LEKUTU SOILS LEKUTU SOILS VARACIVA SOILS VARACIVA SOILS REWASA SOILS REWASA SOILS TAVUA SOILS TAVUA SOILS VATUKOULA SOILS VATUKOULA SOILS YAQARA SOILS YAQARA SOILS MACUATA SOILS MACUATA SOILS RUKURUKU SOILS RUKURUKU SOILS Moderately well drained Moderately well drained Udic/Perudic SMR Udic/Perudic SMR DELAIBO SOILS DELAIBO SOILS Poorly drained Poorly drained Aquic SMR Aquic SMR NAWENI SOILS NAWENI SOILS

from in situ basic tuffs situ basic tuffs from in Well drained Well drained Udic / Perudic SMR Udic / Perudic SMR BATIWAI SOILS BATIWAI SOILS BURENI SOILS BURENI SOILS Somewhat excessively drained Somewhat excessively drained Ustic SMR Ustic SMR KOROTUKU SOILS KOROTUKU SOILS

20

Ustic SMR Ustic SMR VITAWA SOILS VITAWA SOILS YAVUNA SOILS YAVUNA SOILS

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163 164

165

166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203

204 205 206


from in situ from in situ mixed acidic and basic tuffs mixed acidic and basic tuffs Well drained Well drained Udic // Perudic SMR Perudic SMR DELAINACAU SOILS DELAINACAU SOILS

207

from mixed basic and acidic in from mixed basic and acidic in situ situ rocks rocks Well drained Well drained Ustic SMR Ustic SMR LEDRUTUA SOILS LEDRUTUA SOILS

208

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SOILS OF THE UPLANDS (>600m altitude, isothermic soil temperature regime) SOILS OF THE UPLAND SWAMPS • from organic materials Very poorly drained Aquic SMR KUTA SOILS NADRANU SOILS

SOILS OF THE FLOODPLAINS AND TERRACES • from alluvium derived from basic rocks Well drained Udic / Perudic SMR NADALA SOILS NAVAI SOILS Imperfectly drained Udic / Perudic SMR NADRAU SOILS SOILS OF THE YOUNG VOLCANIC LANDSCAPE (Udic / Perudic SMR) • from subrecent basaltic ‘aa’ lavas Somewhat excessively drained NAITATA SOILS

209 210

211 212 213

214

from young basaltic ‘pahoehoe’ lavas Well drained MANUKA SOILS UCUNILAWE SOILS

215 216

from basaltic scoria cones Somewhat excessively drained SOQULU SOILS

217

from in situ basaltic ash Somewhat excessively drained MATANA SOILS SALIALAILAI SOILS

218 219

from colluvium derived from basaltic rocks Well drained TAGIMAUCIA SOILS

220

SOILS OF THE HILL COUNTRY (Udic / Perudic SMR) • from in situ basic and intermediate rocks Well drained LEWA SOILS WAIBICI SOILS MONASAVU SOILS NADARIVATU SOILS WAILULU SOILS NABUESA SOILS •

22

from alluvium from basic and intermediate rocks (high terraces) Well drained QALINAOLO SOILS

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227


2.3

List of soil series (in alphabetical order)

Ba Batawai Batiki Bua Bucaisau Bureni Burenitu Cikobia Cuku Daria Dawasamu Delaibo Delaimatai Delainacau Deuba Dobuilevu Dogo Dogotuki Drasa Dreketi Driti Dulevi Ekubu Emuri Gaigai Galoa Gau Hafhafu Kavula Kedra Keiyasi Kelikoso Kirikiri Koro Korokadi Koromavu Koroniqala Koronivia Korotuku Korovuli Kubuna Kurukuru Kuta Labasa Lagilagi Lakeba Lami Lato Lau Laucala Lautoka

Lawai Ledrutua Lekutu Lewa Lobau Lodoni Lomaiviti Lomaje Losa Lovonivia Lutu Macuata Mafua Makomako Malolo Manuka Mataiwailevu Matana Matavelo Melimeli Molamolau Momi Monasavu Muainase Nabeka Nabiti Nabuesa Nabuono Nacamaki Nacaugai Nacokula Nacula Nadala Nadarivatu Nadawa Nadi Nadranu Nadrau Nadroga Nadruka Naduru Naevuevu Nailoca Nairai Naitata Nakavika Nakelo Nalotu Namaka Namalata Namara

Namatiu Namosau Namosi Namuana Nanukuloa Naqalotu Naqilai Narayawa Narewa Nasau Nasegai Naselesele Nasou Nauluvatu Nausori Navai Navava Navua Navunikodi Nawai Naweni Nayau Nika Nuku Nukudamu Nukusa Ogea Ono Qalinaolo Qaributa Qeleni Rana Rauriko Ravilevu Raviravi Rawiti Reree Rewa Rewasa Roroa Rukuruku Sabeto Saliadrau Salialailai Samabula Sarowaqa Saunaka Savudrodro Sawakasa Saweni Seatura

Serea Serua Sigatoka Solevu Soqulu Soso Sote Suva Tabaka Tabia Tabuquto Tacilevu Tagimaucia Tailevu Talacagi Tamanua Tau Taveuni Tavua Tavuyaga Tiri Toguru Tokotoko Totoya Tuva Tuvuca Uaua Ucunilawe Ura Vaidoko Vakawau Varaciva Vasilaulau Vatubaba Vatukoula Vatulele Vatuma Vatuvonu Veisaru Verevere Visa Vitawa Volivoli Vuna Vunatoto Vunavutu Vunibau Vunicibicibi Vunilagi Vurevure Vuya

Waibici Waibula Waidina Waidradra Waikalou Wailotua Wailulu Waimaro Wainibuka Wainikai Wainikavou Wainikoro Wainivesi Wainunu Waioba Waioru Waiqere Waisava Yakita Yako Yaqara Yasawa Yavuna

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3. 3.1

CLASSIFICATION OF THE SOIL SERIES OF FIJI IN DIFFERENT SYSTEMS Introduction

This report presents the three systems of soil classification most used in Fiji and provides tables that allow correlation of soils of tropical countries with the soil series of Fiji. In these tables Fijian soils are classified according to Twyford and Wright (1965), the FAO/UNesco scheme (1971) and Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff 1975) and its subsequent keys, i.e. the ninth edition, published in 2003. Before examining the three classifications it is important, firstly, to understand the five main reasons for soil classification. These are listed below. 1.

To organise knowledge about soils. Organising our knowledge of soils helps us to think more clearly and efficiently about them.

2.

To understand relationships between soils, and between soils and the environment in which they have formed. By understanding these relationships it can be seen why certain soils are similar and why others are different.

3.

To remember the main properties of the soils being classified.

4.

To learn new relationships between soils within the same class and between soils in different classes.

5.

To use classification to make interpretations for land use. Soil classification helps establish groups of soils that can be used for practical applied purposes in: (a) predicting soil behaviour; (b) estimating soil productivity and likely response to management; (c) providing a basis for extending or extrapolating results of research or accumulated land use experience. Results of agricultural research conducted on one site should be generally applicable to other sites that have the same soil.

The Twyford and Wright (1965) soil classification developed for Fiji is a hybrid system based on the primary elements of the New Zealand Genetic Soil Classification (Taylor and Pohlen 1970) while incorporating features from the Hawaiian soil classification (Cline 1955). Twyford and Wright’s classification is unique to Fiji and different from taxonomic systems used extensively since 1975. The classification has served Fiji well but it places limitations on the ability of Fiji scientists, planners, extension officers, and other users of soil information to fully assimilate and correlate with overseas literature that classify soils primarily to international soil classification systems, i.e. FAO/UNESCO, Soil Taxonomy. The two systems now widely used in international soil science literature and technical reports related to soil and land resources are the map legend associated with the FAO/UNesco Soil map of the world (1971) and Soil taxonomy developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (Soil Survey Staff 1975). The FAO/UNESCO classification is a hybrid system incorporating certain aspects of genetic soil systems, but including certain features of key-out schemes. While developed as a soil map legend, it is used extensively as a soil classification system. The FAO/UNESCO system is hierarchal in structure, but as it has only two category levels it has serious limitations in soil mapping at scales of less than 1:100,000. Soil taxonomy focuses on describing soils as they actually appear at present without undue emphasis on soil genesis. The classification is multi-categoric with few classes in the highest categories and large numbers in the lowest categories. Classes are precisely defined, based on analyses of real soils and measurable properties. The hierarchal structure of soil taxonomy is described below. The initial category — Order — is determined by surface or subsurface diagnostic horizons or features. Suborders consider properties affecting current processes, e.g. moisture and temperature. Suborders are then subdivided into Great Groups that reflect the dominant properties of the soil. Subgroups define the less important properties to show relationships to other soils — typic, intergrade, extragrade. The family name identifies all the higher categories of the family, namely, subgroup, great group, suborder and order. For example, the Vatuvonu series is in the coarse-loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic family of Lithic Ustorthents (Fig. 1).

24

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji


Figure 1: Construction of a complete family name Family modifiers

Coarse-loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Subgroup name Lithic Ustorthents

Order Entisols Suborder Orthents

Great Group Ustorthents The name gives us the following information about the Vatuvonu soil series: They have no significant pedogenic horizons and only moderate to small amounts of organic matter (from entisols). They are on recent slopes, subject to erosion (from orthents). They are well drained and are dry for >3 months during the growing season (from ustorthents). They have a mean annual soil temperature >22 °C (from hyperthermic) and the annual range is <5 °C (from isohyperthermic). The mineralogy is not dominated by any one mineral; it is a mixture of several (from mixed). 15% or more of the particles are fine sand or coarser, including fragments up to 7.5 cm in diameter; <18% clay (from coarse loamy). In 1982, Soil Taxonomy was adopted by the Government of Fiji as the national soil classification system. The primary reason for this was to provide a mechanism through which experiences from the tropics could be applied in order to help the rural economy and to use these new agro-production technologies from similar farming systems to develop Fiji’s land resources for increased food production and better nutrition. It also bypasses three key constraints faced by Fiji’s lack of trained personnel, lack of investment capital for the rural sector and, above all, lack of time to catch up with Fiji’s needs. Poor farmers and marginal cane growers do not have the luxury of waiting decades for the results of slowly developing in-country agricultural technology. The USAID-funded Benchmark Soils Project (BSP), developed and managed by the University of Hawaii, demonstrated that agro-production technology can be transferred from one tropical region to another on the basis of Soil Taxonomy at the soil family level of the classification. The implication for food production is significant. First, millions of dollars’ worth of research information will be available for immediate tapping. Second, costs of site-specific global trials will be saved, and the waste of human and other resources will be alleviated. Thirdly, the BSP has developed a worldwide network of expertise and a Soil Data Bank to expedite and provide the needed information and communication for rural development. Lastly, agro-technology transfer is all-encompassing: it includes transfer of information on soil management practices and all that goes with it — information on crops and cropping systems, water management practices, erosion control measures, suitability for new crops, economics of crop production, use and problems of irrigation, tikina and national planning and priorities, and so on. The strengths of Soil Taxonomy are: use of quantitative criteria; concepts of diagnostic horizons; emphasis on criteria not readily altered by man; and its logical system of nomenclature.

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25


26

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

FAO/UNESCO Ferralic Cambisols Ferralic Cambisols Dystric Gleysols Eutric Planosols Mollic Gleyols Humic Nitosols Eutric Nitosols Rhodic Ferralsols Eutric Cambisols Humic Cambisols Arenosols Eutric Cambisols Dystric Nitosols Dystric Cambisols Dystric Gleysols Haplic Phaeozems Thionic Fluvisols

Soil Taxonomy

Oxic Dystrustepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Oxic Dystrudepts fine, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Typic Hydraquents fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Kanhaplustalfs very fine, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Typic Epiaquolls fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Kanhaplohumults clayey, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Typic Hapludalfs fine, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Inceptic Eutrustox clayey, gibbsitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Haplustepts fine-silty, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isoheperthermic

Typic Quartzipsamments ferritic, isohyperthermic

Typic Entrudepts coarse-loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Kanhaplustults clayey, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts fine, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Humic Epiaquents sandy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Hapludolls fine-loamy, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Sulfaquents loamy over clayey, mixed, isohyperthermic

Series

Ba

Batawai

Batiki

Bua

Bucaisau

Bureni

Burenitu

Cikobia

Cuku

Daria

Dawasamu

Delaibo

Delamatai

Delainacau

Deuba

Dobuilevu

Dogo

Table 1: Classification of the soil series of Fiji

Saline soils of the marine marsh

Nigrescent soils weak to mod. dry season

Gley related to red yellow podzolic soils weak or no dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils weak to mod. dry season

Humic latosols str. dry season

Steepland related to nigrescent soils weak dry season

Recent soils from coastal sands weak to mod. dry season

Humic latosols no dry season

Steepland related to red yellow podzolic soils str. dry season

Latosolic soils mod. to str. dry season

Humic latosols mod. dry season

Humic latosols no dry season

Gley related to latosols mod. to str. dry season

Ferruginous latosols str. dry season

Gley soils v. weak or no dry season

Humic latosols weak or no dry season

Ferruginous latosols mod. to str. dry season

Twyford and Wright (1965)


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27

Humic Cambisols Eutric Nitosols Thionic Fluvisols Xanthic Ferralsols Ochric Andosols Haplic Kastanozems Pellic Vertisols Humic Nitosols Dystric Nitosols Eutric Nitosols Vitric Andosols Dystric Cambisols

Dystric Gleysols Haplic Kastanozems Eutric Planasols Ochric Andosols Eutric Cambisols Rhodic Ferralsols

Typic Dystrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Ultic Haplustalfs fine, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Sulfic Endoaquepts clayey, mixed, isohyperthermic

Inceptic Eutroperox clayey, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Hydric Hapludands medial, isohyperthermic

Lithic Haplustolls fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Udic Haplusterts fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Kanhaplohumults clayey, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Typic Rhodudults clayey, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Typic Hapludalfs fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Udic Vitric Hapludands ashy-skeletal, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrustepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Aeric Epiaquepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Haplustolls fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Kandic Paleustalfs fine, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Hydric Hapludands hydrous-skeletal, isohyperthermic

Typic Eutrudepts fine-silty, halloysitic, isohyperthermic

Anionic Acrustox clayey, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Dogotuki

Drasa

Dreketi

Driti

Dulevi

Ekubu

Emuri

Gaigai

Galoa

Gau

Hafhafu

Kavula

Kedra

Keiyasi

Kelikoso

Kirikiri

Koro

Korokadi

Ferruginous latosols str. dry season

Steepland related to latosolic soils weak dry season

Latosolic soils no dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils str. dry season

Nigrescent soils str. dry season

Gley related to red yellow podzolic soils str. to mod. dry season

Steepland related to humic latosols str. dry season

Latosolic soils no dry season

Humic latosols weak dry season

Ferruginous latosols weak dry season

Steepland related to red yellow podzolic soils no dry season

Nigrescent soils str. dry season

Nigrescent soils moderate dry season

Latosolic soils weak dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils no dry season

Saline soils of the marine marsh

Humic latosols str. dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils mod. dry season


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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Eutric Regosols Orthic Acrisols Humic Nitosols Luvic Phaeozems Dystric Nitosols Dystric Cambisols Rhodic Ferralsols Dystric Histosols Dystric Gleysols

Dystric Cambisols Dystric Cambisols Eutric (Lithic) Cambisols Dystric Fluvisols Rhodic Ferralsols Ochric Andosols Luvic Phaeozems Eutric Fluvisols Haplic Kastanozems

Lithic Ustorthents loamy-skeletal, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Haplustults clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Kandihumults clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Argiustoll very-fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Paleustults clayey, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrustepts fine, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Rhodic Kandiustox clayey, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Hydric Tropofibrists dysic, isothermic

Humic Epiaquepts clayey over sandy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Haplustepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrustepts very-fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Humic Lithic Eutrudepts clayey-skeletal, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Fluventic Dystrustepts sandy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Kandiustox clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Vitric Hapludands medial, isohyperthermic

Udic Argiustoll very-fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Fluventic Haplustepts loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Haplustolls fine over loamy-skeletal, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Koromavu

Koroniqala

Koronivia

Korotuku

Korovuli

Kubuna

Kurukuru

Kuta

Labasa

Lagilagi

Lakeba

Lami

Lato

Lau

Laucala

Lautoka

Lawai

Ledrutua

Nigrescent soils str. dry season

Recent soils from alluvium mod. to str. dry season

Humic latosols mod. to str. dry season

Latosolic soils weak dry season

Ferruginous latosols mod. to str. dry season

Recent soils from alluvium str. to mod. dry season

Steepland related to latosolic soils no dry season

Steepland related to ferruginous latosols mod. to str. dry season

Recent soils from alluvium str. to mod. dry season

Saline soils of the marine marsh

Upland organic soils

Red yellow podzolic soils str. dry season

Ferruginous latosols mod. to str. dry season

Humic latosols str. dry season

Humic latosols str. dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils v. weak or no dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils mod. dry season

Steepland related to nigrescent soils str. dry season


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29

Dystric Regosols Dystric Cambisols Dystric Cambisols Orthic Acrisols Eutric Cambisols Humic Andosols Humic Andosols Orthic Podzols Humic Nitosols Dystric Cambisols Mollic Andosols Orthic Acrisols Dystric Regosols Humic Andosols Orthic Luvisols Humic Andosols Dystric Gleysols Dystric Histosols Dystric Cambisols

Typic Ustorthents fine-loamy, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Oxic Dystrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts fine, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Humic Hapludults clayey, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Typic Eutrudepts fine, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Pachic Vitric Melanudands medial, isohyperthermic

Lithic Hapludands ashy-skeletal, isohyperthermic

Ultic Haplorthods sandy over clayey, siliceous, isohyperthermic

Typic Kandihumults fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Ustorthents fine-loamy, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Eutric Fulvudands ashy-skeletal, isohyperthermic

Typic Haplustults clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Ustipsamments mixed, non-acid, isohyperthermic

Acrudoxic Hydric Fluvudands medial, isothermic

Typic Argiudolls very-fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Acrudoxic Hydric Fulvudands thixotropic, isothermic

Aeric Epiaquepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Hydric Tropofibrists dysic, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrustepts fine, mixed, isohyperthermic

Lekutu

Lewa

Lobau

Lodoni

Lomaiviti

Lomaje

Losa

Lovonivia

Lutu

Macuata

Mafua

Makomako

Malolo

Manuka

Mataiwailevu

Matana

Matavelo

Melimeli

Molamolau

Gley related to latosols mod. to str. dry season

Organic soils

Gley related to latosols str. dry season

Upland latosolic soils no dry season

Nigrescent soils weak to mod. dry season

Upland latosolic soils no dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils str. dry season

Humic latosols str. dry season

Latosolic soils no dry season

Ferruginous latosols str. dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils weak or no dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils str. dry season

Latosolic soils no dry season

Latosolic soils weak dry season

Humic latosols v. weak or no dry season

Humic latosols weak dry season

Steepland related to humic latosols no dry season

Upland ferruginous latosols weak dry season

Ferruginous latosols str. dry season


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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Eutric Cambisols Dystric Nitosols Dystric Cambisols Humic Cambisols Dystric Cambisols Humic Andosols

Humic Andosols Dystric Gleysols Humic Acrisols Eutric Cambisols Dystric Cambisols Eutric Cambisols Orthic Ferralsols Dystric Histosols Gleyic Cambisols

Typic Eutrudepts coarse-loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Hapludults clayey, halloysitic, isohyperthermic

Oxic Dystrustepts very-fine, mixed, isohyperthermic

Oxic Dystrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isothermic

Typic Dystrustepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Eutric Thaptic Hapludands medial-skeletal over ashy-skeletal, isohyperthermic

Vitric Hapludands medial-skeletal, isohyperthermic

Typic Epiaquepts fine, mixed, isohyperthermic

Orthoxic Palehumults clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Eutrudepts fine-loamy, mixed, isothermic

Typic Dystrudepts fine-silty, kaolinitic, isothermic

Typic Eutrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Eutrustox clayey, mixed, isohyperthermic

Hemic Tropofibrists dysic, isothermic

Oxyaquic Eutrudepts fine, mixed, isothermic

Nabeka

Nabiti

Nabuesa

Nabuono

Nacamaki

Nacaugai

Nacokula

Nacula

Nadala

Nadarivatu

Nadawa

Nadi

Nadranu

Nadrau

Humic Cambisols

Oxic Dystrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isothermic

Monasavu

Muainase

Eutric Cambisols

Typic Haplustepts fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Momi

Upland gley related to humic latosols no dry season

Upland organic soils

Humic latosols str. dry season

Nigrescent soils weak or no dry season

Upland steepland related to humic latosols weak to mod. dry season

Upland humic latosols no dry season

Steepland related to humic latosols weak dry season

Gley related to red yellow podzolic soils no dry season

Steepland related to latosolic soils weak dry season

Latosolic soils mod. dry season

Steepland related to red yellow podzolic soils str. dry season

Upland humic latosols no dry season

Ferruginous latosols str. dry season

Latosolic soils weak dry season

Recent soils from alluvium v. weak or no dry season

Upland steepland related to humic latosols no dry season

Nigrescent soils str. dry season


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Haplic Kastanozems Mollic Gleysols Eutric Fluvisols Eutric Nitosols Humic Cambisols Orthic Acrisols Vitric Andosols Humic Acrisols Eutric Gleysols Eutric Cambisols Ferric Acrisols Haplic Kastanozems Dystric Nitosols Dystric Cambisols Acric Ferralsols

Humic Cambisols Dystric Cambisols Eutric Cambisols

Udertic Haplustolls fine, mixed, isohyperthermic

Cumulic Epiaquolls very-fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Eutrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Lithic Haplustalfs clayey-skeletal, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts fine, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Typic Kandiustults clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Acrudoxic Hapludands medial over medial-skeletal, isothermic

Typic Kanhaplohumults clayey, gibbsitic, isohyperthermic

Fluvaquentic Eutrudepts fine-loamy, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Eutrudepts fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Paleustults clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Udic Haplustolls clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Paleudults clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts fine-loamy, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Acrustox clayey, gibbsitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Haplustepts fine, mixed, isohyperthermic

Nadroga

Nadruka

Naduru

Naevuevu

Nailoca

Nairai

Naitata

Nakavika

Nakelo

Nalotu

Namaka

Namalata

Namara

Namatiu

Namosau

Namosi

Namuana

Nanukuloa

Nigrescent soils mod. to str. dry season

Steepland related to red yellow podzolic soils mod. dry season

Humic latosols weak or no dry season

Ferruginous latosols str. dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils weak dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils weak dry season

Humic latosols mod. to str. dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils str. dry season

Nigrescent soils mod. dry season

Gley related to latosols weak or no dry season

Humic latosols no dry season

Upland latosolic soils no dry season

Steepland related to ferruginous latosols mod. to str. dry season

Steepland related to humic latosols no dry season

Latosolic soils str. dry season

Recent soils from alluvium v. weak to no dry season

Gley related to latosols mod. to str. dry season

Nigrescent soils str. dry season


32

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Eutric Cambisols Eutric Gleysols Dystric Cambisols Eutric Gleysols Humic Cambisols Dystric Cambisols Cambic Arenosols Dystric Cambisols Eutric Cambisols Eutric Gleysols Eutric Fluvisols Orthic Luvisols

Eutric Cambisols Dystric Cambisols Vertic Cambisols Eutric Gleysols Ferralic Cambisols Pellic Vertisols

Typic Haplustepts fine-loamy, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Aeric Epiaquepts fine, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts sandy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Vertic Epiaquolls fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Andic Dystrustepts fine-silty, halloysitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Udipsamments carbonatic, isohyperthermic

Fluventic Dystrustepts fine, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Eutrudepts fine-loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Epiaquepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Fluventic Hapludolls fine, mixed, isothermic

Mollic Hapludalfs fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Fluvaquentic Eutrudepts very-fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Fluventic Dystrudepts fine, mixed, isothermic

Vertic Haplustepts very-fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Epiaquepts fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Haplustepts fine, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Udic Haplusterts fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Naqalotu

Naqilai

Narayawa

Narewa

Nasau

Nasegai

Naselesele

Nasou

Nauluvatu

Nausori

Navai

Navava

Navua

Navunikodi

Nawai

Naweni

Nayau

Nika

Gley related to nigrescent soils str. dry season

Latosolic soils mod. dry season

Nigrescent soils v. weak or no dry season

Nigrescent soils str. dry season

Recent soil from alluvium weak dry season

Gley soils v. weak or no dry season

Nigrescent soils v. weak or no dry season

Recent upland soil from alluvium v. weak or no dry season

Gley soils v. weak or no dry season

Steepland related to humic latosols no dry season

Humic latosols str. dry season

Recent soils from coastal sands weak dry season

Humic latosols weak dry season

Steepland related to latosols mod. dry season

Gley related to latosols str. dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils v. weak or no dry season

Gley related to red yellow podzolic soils str. to mod. dry season

Steepland related to Nigrescent soils mod. dry season


A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

33

Cambic Arenosols Dystric Cambisols Dystric Cambisols Eutric Ferralsols Mollic Andosols Humic Cambisols Dystric Histosols Orthic Acrisols Eutric Histosols

Dystric Cambisols Dystric Cambisols Dystric Cambisols Gleyic Cambisols Mollic Andosols Eutric Cambisols (Eutric) Luvisols Eutric Cambisols Eutric Nitosols

Typic Udipsamments carbonatic, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrustepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrustepts fine-loamy, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Eutrustox clayey, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Hydric Hapludands hydrous, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts fine, mixed, hypothermic

Terric Tropofibrists dysic, sandy, isohyperthermic

Typic Hapludults clayey, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Troposaprists euic, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Andic Dystrudepts loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrustepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Fluventic Dystrudepts fine, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Eutric Fulvudand hydrous over fragmental, isohyperthermic

Fluventic Eutrudepts fine-silty, mixed, isohyperthermic

Udic Haplustalfs fine, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Eutrudepts sandy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Ultic Paleustalfs very-fine, mixed, isohyperthermic

Nuku

Nukudamu

Nukusa

Ogea

Ono

Qalinaolo

Qaributa

Qelini

Rana

Rauriko

Ravilevu

Raviravi

Rawiti

Reree

Rewa

Rewasa

Roroa

Rukuruku

Humic latosols str. dry season

Latosolic soils no dry season

Nigrescent soils mod. dry season

Recent soils from alluvium v. weak or no dry season

Latosolic soils no dry season

Recent soils from alluvium str. dry season

Ferruginous latosols str. dry season

Steepland related to latosolic soils no dry season

Steepland related to red yellow podzolic soils mod. dry season

Organic soils v. weak or no dry season

Latosolic soils weak dry season

Organic soil

Upland humic latosols no dry season

Latosolic soils no dry season

Latosolic soils mod. dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils str. dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils str. dry season

Recent soils from coastal sands weak dry season


34

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Eutric Cambisols Eutric Fluvisols (Lithic) Andosols (Lithic) Phaeozems Dystric Cambisols Dystric Cambisols

Humic Cambisols Gleyic Cambisols (Vertic) Gleysols Humic Cambisols Eutric Cambisols Humic Acrisols Eutric Fluvisols Dystric Cambisols Humic Andosols (Thionic) Gleysols Humic Cambisols Haplic Phaeozems

Typic Haplustepts fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Fluventic Eutrudepts coarse-loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Lithic Fulvudands medial, isothermic

Lithic Hapludolls fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Aquic Dystrustepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Oxyaquic Eutrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Epiaquepts fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Oxic Dystrudepts fine, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Fluventic Eutrudepts coarse-loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Kanhaplohumults clayey, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Cumulic Haplustoll fine-silty, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts fine, mixed, isohyperthermic

Hydric Fulvudands medial over ashy-skeletal, isothermic

Humic Epiaquepts clayey, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts very-fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Cumulic Hapludolls fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Sabeto

Saliadrau

Salialailai

Samabula

Sarowaqa

Saunaka

Savudrodro

Sawakasa

Saweni

Seatura

Serea

Serua

Sigatoka

Solevu

Soqulu

Soso

Sote

Suva

Nigrescent soils v. weak or no dry season

Humic latosols v. weak or no dry season

Saline soils of the marine marsh

Upland steepland related to latosolic soils no dry season

Humic latosols weak or no dry season

Recent soil from river alluvium mod. to str. dry season

Steepland related to humic latosols no dry season

Recent soils from river alluvium no dry season

Steepland related to humic latosols no dry season

Gley related to nigrescent soils strong dry season

Gley related to latosols weak dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils weak or no dry season

Gley related to latosols str. dry season

Steepland related to red yellow podzolic soils mod. dry season

Nigrescent soils weak or no dry season

Upland steepland related to latosolic soils no dry season

Recent soils from river alluvium weak dry season

Nigrescent soils mod. dry season


A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

35

Humic Cambisols Humic Ferralsols Humic Acrisols

Arenosols Vitric Andosols Dystric Cambisols Dystric Gleysols

Eutric Fluvisols Haplic Kastanozems Humic Andosols Eutric Nitosols Mollic Andosols Thionic Fluvisols Dystric Gleysols Eutric Gleysols Orthic Luvisols Orthic Acrisols Haplic Kastanozems

Andic Dystrudepts fine-silty, halloysitic, isohyperthermic

Humic Kandiustox clayey, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Typic Kanhaplustults clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Udipsamments carbonatic, isohyperthermic

Acrudoxic Hapludands medial, isothermic

Typic Dystrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Aeric Epiaquepts coarse loamy over clayey, siliceous, isohyperthermic

Fluvaquentic Eutrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Lithic Haplustolls fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Hydric Melanudands hydrous, isohyperthermic

Typic Haplustalfs fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Thaptic Fulvudands ashy, isohyperthermic

Typic Sulfaquept clayey over fine loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Humic Epiaquepts sandy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Epiaquepts very-fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Udic Haplustalfs fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Kanhaplustults fine, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Cumulic Haplustolls fine-loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Tabaka

Tabia

Tabuquto

Tacilevu

Tagimaucia

Tailevu

Talacagi

Tamanua

Tau

Taveuni

Tavua

Tavuyaga

Tiri

Toguru

Tokotoko

Totoya

Tuva

Tuvuca

Latosolic soils mod. dry season

Ferruginous latosols str. dry season

Ferruginous latosols mod. to str. dry season

Gley related to latosols v. weak or no dry season

Gley related to red yellow podzolic soils weak or no dry season

Saline soils of the marine marsh

Latosolic soils no dry season

Nigrescent soils str. dry season

Latosolic soils weak dry season

Steepland related to nigrescent soils str. to mod. dry season

Recent soils from alluvium v. weak to no dry season

Gley related to red yellow podzolic soils str. to mod. dry season

Steepland related to humic latosols weak dry season

Upland latosolic soils no dry season

Recent soils from coastal sands weak dry season

Ferruginous latosols str. dry season

Humic latosols str. dry season

Latosolic soils no dry season


36

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Orthic Acrisols Humic Andosols Humic Andosols Haplic Phaeozems Humic Andosols Orthic Acrisols Dystric Cambisols Eutric Cambisols Ferric Luvisols Haplic Kastanozems Haplic Kastanozems Eutric Regosols Dystric Gleysols Eutric Cambisols Dystric Cambisols

Orthic Luvisols Humic Cambisols Vitric Andosols

Kanhaplic Haplustults clayey, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Hydric Fulvudands hydrous, isothermic

Thaptic Fulvudands ashy, isohyperthermic

Lithic Hapludolls fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Hydric Melanudands medial-skeletal, isohyperthermic

Typic Kanhaplustult clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrustepts loamy-skeletal, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Eutrudepts loamy-skeletal, mixed, isohyperthermic

Udic Rhodustalf fine, mixed, isohyperthermic

Lithic Haplustolls clayey-skeletal, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Fluventic Haplustolls fine, mixed, isohyperthermic

Lithic Ustorthents coarse-loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Aeric Epiaquepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Haplustepts fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Haplustalfs fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrustepts sandy, siliceous, isohyperthermic

Typic Fluvudands medial over medial-skeletal, isohyperthermic

Uaua

Ucunilawe

Ura

Vaidoko

Vakawau

Varaciva

Vasilaulau

Vatubaba

Vatukoula

Vatulele

Vatuma

Vatuvonu

Veisaru

Verevere

Visa

Vitawa

Volivoli

Vuna

Latosolic soils weak dry season

Recent soils from sands of high quartz content str. to mod. dry season

Steepland related to red yellow podzolic soils str. dry season

Humic latosols v. weak or no dry season

Nigrescent soils str. dry season

Gley related to latosols mod. to str. dry season

Nigrescent soils str. dry season

Recent soils from alluvium str. dry season

Steepland related to nigrescent soils mod. dry season

Nigrescent soils str. dry season

Steepland related to red yellow podzolic soils mod. dry season

Nigrescent soils str. dry season

Steepland related to ferruginous latosols str. dry season

Latosolic soils no dry season

Steepland related to nigrescent soils mod. dry season

Latosolic soils no dry season

Upland steepland related to latosolic soils no dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils str. dry season


A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

37

Eutric Cambisols Haplic Kastanozems Humic Cambisols Rhodic Ferralsols Gleyic Phaeozems

Eutric Gleysols Dystric Nitosols Dystric Cambisols Haplic Phaeozems Eutric Cambisols Gleyic Cambisols Eutric Gleysols Eutric Cambisols Humic Cambisols Dystric Cambisols Haplic Phaeozems Humic Gleysols Humic Acrisols

Typic Eutrudepts coarse-silty, mixed, isohyperthermic

Udic Haplustolls loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts sandy, siliceous, isohyperthermic

Anionic Acrustox clayey, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Typic Argiaquolls clayey over loamy-skeletal, mixed, isohyperthermic

Humic Epiaquepts fine, mixed, non-acid, isohyperthermic

Typic Rhodustults clayey, mixed, isohyperthermic

Oxic Dystrudepts fine, mixed, isohyperthermic

Fluventic Hapludolls fine-loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Eutrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Fluventic Eutrudepts fine, mixed, isohyperthermic

Aeric Epiaquepts sandy, mixed, isohyperthermic

Typic Eutrudepts clayey-skeletal, smectitic, isohyperthrmic

Oxic Dystrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isothermic

Typic Dystrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Fluventic Hapludolls fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

(Histic) Hydraquents fine, kaolinitic, non-acid, isohyperthermic

Epiaquic Tropohumults fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Vunatoto

Vunavutu

Vunibau

Vunicibicibi

Vunilagi

Vurevure

Vuya

Waibici

Waibula

Waidina

Waidradra

Waikalou

Wailotua

Wailulu

Waimaro

Wainibuka

Wainikai

Wainikavou

Red yellow podzolic soils weak or no dry season

Gley soils v. weak to no dry season

Recent soils from river alluvium weak to mod. dry season

Humic latosols v. weak or no dry season

Upland humic latosols weak dry season

Steepland related to nigrescent soils weak dry season

Gley related to latosols no dry season

Recent soils from river alluvium v. weak or no dry season

Humic latosols v. weak or no dry season

Recent soils from alluvium weak dry season

Upland humic latosols no dry season

Humic latosols mod. to str. dry season

Gley related to latosols weak dry season

Saline soil of the marine marsh

Ferruginous latosols str. dry season

Recent soils from coastal sands weak dry season

Recent soils from coastal sands and alluvium str. dry season

Steepland related to red yellow podzolic soils mod. dry season


38

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Orthic Acrisols Eutric Cambisols Humic Cambisols Humic Andosols Humic Cambisols

Humic Andosols Haplic Phaeozems Dystric Cambisols Haplic Kastanozems Eutric Nitosols Arenosols Dystric Cambisols

Typic Kandiustults clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Fluventic Eutrudepts fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Oxic Dystrudepts very-fine, ferruginous, isohyperthermic

Hydric Thaptic Fulvudands hydrous, isohyperthermic

Humic Pachic Dystrudepts clayey over loamy-skeletal, halloysitic, isohyperthermic

Acrudoxic Hapludands medial, isohyperthermic

Fluventic Hapludolls fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Dystrudepts very-fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Entic Haplustolls fine, smectitic, isohyperthermic

Kanhaplic Haplustalfs fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Ustipsamments carbonitic, isohyperthermic

Typic Haplustepts sandy-skeletal, siliceous, isohyperthermic

Wainikoro

Wainivesi

Wainunu

Waioba

Waioru

Waiqere

Waisava

Yakita

Yako

Yaqara

Yasawa

Yavuna

Red yellow podzolic soils str. dry season

Recent soils from coastal sands str. dry season

Nigrescent soils str. dry season

Nigrescent soils str. dry season

Nigrescent soils mod. dry season

Nigrescent soils weak to mod. dry season

Latosolic soils no dry season

Steepland related to latosolic soils weak dry season

Steepland related to latosolic soils weak dry season

Humic latosols no dry season

Gley related to latosols no dry season

Red yellow podzolic soils str. dry season


4.

FLOW-DIAGRAM KEYS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF FIJI SOIL SERIES

4.1

Introduction

This chapter seeks to explain, in a flow-diagram format, keys to the Fiji soil series. The keys are intended to permit easier identification of the soil series and are likely to be particularly useful to persons not familiar with the structure of the National Soil Physiographic Legend (Seru and Leslie, 1986) and the associated soil taxonomic unit descriptions (Leslie and Seru, 1998). The key firstly separates soils on the basis of soil temperature regime (STR), viz. soils occurring above (isothermic STR) and below (isohyperthermic STR) 600 m altitude. The second step groups soils into major landscape types, e.g. soils of the major floodplains, soils of the plateaux, soils of the marine marsh, etc. Further identifiers applied to help arrive at the soil series include: parent material (e.g. weathered colluvium from basaltic rocks); soil moisture regime (aquic, udic/ perudic, ustic); internal drainage class, e.g. poorly drained through to excessively drained; slope; and finally to those soil profile properties that define the soil series.

An example for the Yasawa series: Lowland soil <600 m, i.e. isohyperthermic STR Soils of the beach strands, dunes and estuaries From calcareous sands Excessively drained Ustic SMR Dark brown sand over white sand

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yasawa series

Yes

The keying out procedure to follow is to start on page one and then, logically responding to the yes/no questions, progressively eliminate soils related to the hierarchal order of altitude, landscape types, parent materials, etc. until arriving at the soil series for which a match is sought.

4.2

Explanation of the abbreviations Blk. (blk.)

black

Br. (br.)

brown

co.

coarse

conc.

concretion

Dk. (dk.)

dark

Gr. (gr.)

grey

mod.

moderate

SMR

soil moisture regime

str.

strong

STR

soil temperature regime

v.

very

WT

water table

yellow

Yell. (yell.)

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39


4.3

40

Keys to the identification of Fiji soil series Yes

Lowland soil <600m, i.e. isohyperthermic STR

No

GO TO 4.5

Yes

Soils of the marine marsh with Aquic SMR

No

GO TO 4.6

Yes

Soils of the beach strands, dunes and estuaries

No

GO TO 4.7

Yes

Soils of the major floodplains

No

GO TO 4.8

Yes

Soils of the relict terraces

No

GO TO 4.9

Yes

Soils of the plateaux

No

GO TO 4.10

Yes

Soils of the secondary floodplains and depressions

No

GO TO 4.11

Yes

Soils of the fans and outwash surfaces

No

GO TO 4.12

Yes

Soils of the karst landscape

No

GO TO 4.13

Yes

Soils of the 'young' volcanic landscape

No

GO TO 4.14

Yes

Soils of the hill country

No

GO TO 4.15

Yes

Upland soils >600m, i.e. isothermic STR

No

GO TO 4.16

Yes

Soils of the upland swamps

No

GO TO 4.17

Yes

Soils of the floodplains and terraces

No

GO TO 4.18

Yes

Soils of the 'young volcanic landscape

No

GO TO 4.19

Yes

Soils of the upland hill country

No

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

GO TO 4.15


4.4. Lowland soils <600m, i.e. isohyperthermic ST

4.5

Soils of the marine marsh with aquic SMR

Yes

From marine marsh with Aquic SMR

No

DOGO

Yes

Poorly drained. Support mangrove, subject to tidal flooding. Dk gr. humic sandy clay.

No

DREKETI

Yes

Drained Dogo soil behind sea walls. High water table (70cm). Blk peaty clay with yellow mottles.

No

TIRI

Yes

Drained Dogo & Soso soils. Protected by sea wall. Water table fluctuates with tides. Yell. br. humic loamy clay.

No

SOSO

Yes

Free of mangrove - natural state. Water table at 40cm. Blk peaty silt loam on gr. mottled clay.

No

LABASA

Yes

Imperfectly drained. Oldest drained saline soils. High fluctuating water table. Dk br. clay on dk yell. br. sandy loam.

GO TO 4.6

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41


4.6

Soils of the beach strands, dunes and estuaries

Yes

Soils of the beach strands, dunes and estuaries

No

Yes

From calcareous sands

No

Yes

Excessively drained

No

NUKU

Yes

Udic/Perudic SMR. Dk gr. loamy sand on yell. br. coarse sand.

No

YASAWA

Yes

Ustic SMR. Dk. br. sand on white sand.

TACILEVU

Yes

Poorly drained, Udic/Perudic SMR. Dk gr. br. sandy loam on pale br. sandy loam.

Yes

From sands of high quartz content

Yes

Udic/Perudic SMR. Sand dune systems.

No

VUNIBAU

Yes

Brown friable sandy loam over dk brown loamy sand

No

WAIKALOU

Yes

Dk brown sandy clay loam over red brown mottled yellow loamy sand

No

VOLIVOLI

Yes

Dk grey brown coarse sand over dk yellow brown coarse sand

No

VUNAVATU

Yes

Black silty clay over fine sandy clay loam (assoc. Volivoli series)

No

DEUBA

Yes

Aquic SMR, poorly drained. High water table. Gleyed sands with red mottling.

No

Yes

42

From sands of low quartz content

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

No

No

GO TO 4.7


Yes

Udic/Perudic SMR, excessively drained

Yes

Loose black sands. E. Viti Levu.

Yes

Aquic SMR. Poorly drained.

No

VUNILAGI

Yes

From river alluvium over calcareous sands. Dk br. clay on shells.

No

RANA (Rotuma)

Yes

From mixed calcareous sands and organic materials. Lot at surface. Dk br. peaty sandy loam.

No

QARIBUTA

Yes

From organic materials over sands of high quartz content supporting Kuta sedge. Blk peat on greenish gr. co. sands.

No

NAKELO

Yes

From estuarine alluvium from basic rocks. Dk br. sandy clay loam with grey mottles.

No

TOGURU

Yes

From estuarine alluvium from acidic rocks. WT at 75cm. Dk gr. sandy loam.

No

Yes

Udic/Perudic SMR, well drained

Yes

From mixed black and calcareous sands over coral beach rock

DAWASAMU

NASELESELE (Taveuni)

No

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43


4.7

44

Soils of the major floodplains

Yes

Soils of the major flood plains

No

Yes

Levees from river alluvium. Well drained.

No

Yes

Udic/Perudic SMR (Rewa & Navua R systems)

No

MUAINASE

Yes

Dk br. sandy loam on crests of levees. Floods periodically.

No

REWA

Yes

Dk br. silty clay loam over dk yell. br. silty clay loam with buried soils

LAWAI

Yes

Ustic SMR. Levees. Dk br. silt loam on olive br. sandy loam.

No

Yes

Relict river channels in alluviums

No

Yes

Udic/Perudic SMR

TAMANUA

Yes

Moderately well drained (mottled Rewa). Dk br. silty clay loam on mottled gr., yell. br. clay.

NADURU

Yes

Imperfectly drained. Old river channels. Dk gr. br. silty clay loam.

Yes

Terraces from river alluvium

Yes

Well drained

WAINIBUKA

Yes

Udic/Perudic SMR. Deep fine alluvium. Dk gr. clay on brown humus stained clay loam.

SIGATOKA

Yes

Ustic SMR. Rarely floods. Dk br. clay loam on dk gr. br. clay loam.

WAINIVESI

Yes

Imperfectly drained, Udic/Perudic SMR. Relict terrace. Dk br. mottled yell. red clay loam on massive clay.

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

No

No

No

No

GO TO 4.8


Yes

Very poorly drained, Aquic SMR

NAVUA

Yes

Water table 1.2m in dry season. Mottled dk red br. silt loam on olive br. mottled clay loam.

No

TOKOTOKO

Yes

Water table 50cm in dry season. Dk gr. br. mottled yell. br. clay loam on mottled olive gr. clay.

No

NAUSORI

Yes

Water table at or near surface throughout year. Dk gr. br. mottled clay loam on gr. mottled red clay.

Yes

From organic materials

Yes

Aquic SMR, v. poorly drained. Br. peat on grey sand at 1.5m.

MELIMELI

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

45


4.8

Soils of the relict terraces

Yes

Soils of the Relict Terraces

No

Yes

River alluvium from acidic rocks

No

Yes

On high terraces, imperfectly drained

No

WAINIKAVOU

Yes

Udic/Perudic SMR. Yell. br. silty clay loam on yell. mottled str. br. clay.

No

SAUNAKA

Yes

Aquic SMR. Footslopes of old terraces. Dk br. sandy clay loam on gr. clay loam mottled yell. br.

Yes

Slope margins of dissected high terraces, well drained.

Yes

Ustic SMR. Dk red br. loamy fine sand on yell. red clay.

Yes

River alluvium from basic and intermediate rocks

NADI

Yes

On terraces, well drained Ustic SMR. Dk red br. silty clay loam on yell. red silty clay loam.

KOROVULI

Yes

On terraces, well drained Ustic SMR. Red br. silty clay with yell. br. mottles below 70cm.

NAMAKA

46

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

No

GO TO 4.9


4.9

Soils of the plateaux

Yes

Soils of the Plateaux

No

Yes

From basic and intermediate rocks

No

Yes

On plateau surfaces, well drained

No

Yes

Udic/Perudic SMR. Dk br. clay loam on red br. clay.

No

Yes

Ustic SMR. Talasoga vegetation. Strongly weathered and degraded soils.

NAMOSAU

Yes

Red br. silty clay loam on red clay with iron pan

BUA

Yes

Dk red br. clay loam on red gravelly clay loam mottled yell. red

No

VUNICIBICIBI

Yes

Dk br. gritty silt loam on yell. red firm clay loam

No

KOROKADI

Yes

Dk gr. br. gravelly silt loam on olive br. gravelly clay loam. Iron pan.

BA

Yes

On slope margins of dissected plateaux. Well drained. Ustic SMR. Dk red br. gritty clay on massive red gr. clay loam.

Yes

From acidic rocks on plateaux surfaces

Yes

Imperfectly drained, Udic/Perudic SMR

No

Yes

Dk gr. br. fine sandy loam on gr. massive loamy sand. Iron pan at 70cm.

No

Yes

Imperfectly drained, Ustic SMR

Yes

Dk gr. br. fine sandy loam on massive br. gr. firm loamy sand. Iron pan at 70cm.

NASEGAI

KORONIVIA

LOVONIVIA

GO TO 4.10

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

47


4.10

48

Soils of the secondary floodplains and depressions

Yes

Soils of the Secondary Floodplains and Depressions

No

Yes

River alluvium from basic and intermediate rocks

No

SEREA

Yes

Low terrace and levees. Well drained, Udic/Perudic SMR. Dk yell. br. loamy fine sand on dk. br. fine sand.

No

WAIDRADRA

Yes

Imperfectly drained, Udic/Perudic SMR. Mottled gr. clay loam on mottled dk. yell. br. clay loam. Sandy paleosols.

No

SAWAKASA

Yes

Imperfectly drained, Udic/Perudic SMR. Dk. br. mottled red br. clay loam on yell. red mottled pink gr. clay loam.

No

VATUMA

Yes

Imperfectly drained, Ustic SMR. Blk clay loam on gr. br. clay with humus coatings.

No

Yes

Poorly drained, Aquic SMR. Valley floors/depressions.

No

NAREWA

Yes

Blk clay on dk gr. clay mottled yell. br.

BUCAISAU

Yes

Dk br. from clay (many iron conc.) on dk gr. mottled soft clay

MATAVELO

Yes

Yell. br. clay mottled red yell. On yell. massive silty clay with gr. mottles

SAWENI

Yes

Blk firm clay on white mottled olive yell. firm clay

BATIKI

Yes

Dk br. massive clay loam on green gr. clay with br. mottles

NIKA

Yes

Poorly drained Ustic SMR. Blk firm clay on dk br. clay on massive gr. fine sandy loam.

Yes

River alluvium from mixed composition

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

No

GO TO 4.11


NADRUKA

Yes

Poorly drained, Aquic SMR. Dry zone. Dk. gr. firm clay with red mottles on blk mottled yell. red clay.

No

VEISARU

Yes

Poorly drained, Aquic SMR. Strongly mottled and gleyed. Dk br. clay on red firm gritty clay.

No

RAWITI

Yes

Imperfectly drained. Red br. silty clay on str. br. firm clay. Paleosols.

No

Yes

River alluvium from basaltic rocks. Well drained, Udic/Perudic SMR.

No

Yes

Dk gr. br. v. friable co. sandy loam on sandy clay loam with layered gravels

Yes

River alluvium from acidic rocks

No

Yes

Well drained, Udic/Perudic SMR

No

NAVUNIKODI

Yes

'Old' high terraces. Br. sandy clay loam on str. br. stony sandy clay.

No

SALIADRAU

Yes

Low terraces. Dk br. loamy sand on olive loose loamy sand. Paleosols.

Yes

Well drained, Ustic SMR

No

LATO

Yes

Contemporary floodplains. Dk gr. br. sandy clay loam on dk br. stony sand.

No

LAGILAGI

Yes

Low terraces and valley floors. Dk br. gritty clay on gr. br. gritty clay mottled yell. red.

NACOKULA

Yes

River alluvium from acid rocks. Poorly drained, Aquic SMR.

KEDRA

Yes

V. dk br. sandy clay loam on dk red br. massive soft mottled yell. red clay.

TALACAGI

Yes

Dk yell. br. friable sandy loam on br. sandy loam mottled yell. red on yell. firm mottled clay loam

WAIBULA

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

49


Yes

Wet season WT at 35cm. Dk gr. br. firm clay mottled red on pale br. massive clay with grey and white mottles.

Yes

Mixed organic and mineral materials from basic and intermediate rocks

Yes

Very poorly drained, Aquic SMR

WAINIKAI

Yes

Tributary valley floors. Dk br. peat on dk gr. br. massive clay loam on mottled olive gr. clay.

VUREVURE (Taveuni)

Yes

Back swamps and depressions. Soft br. peaty clay on massive soft grey peaty clay.

NAQILAI

50

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

No


4.11

Soils of the fans and outwash surfaces

Yes

Soils of the Fans and Outwash Surfaces

Yes

River alluvium from basic and intermediate rocks

Yes

Well drained, Ustic SMR

No

NASOU

Yes

Colluvium on depressions and toeslopes draining Raviravi soils. Red br. and red grey friable clay on red br. gritty silt loam. Paleosols.

No

DRASA

Yes

Colluvium on low angle outwash fans. Red br. clay with Mn nodules on red yell. v. firm clay.

No

MOLAMOLAU

Yes

Alluvium on terraces and floodplains. Red clay on dk red br. clay on dk red and br. clay.

Yes

Imperfectly drained, Ustic SMR

Yes

Colluvium on coalescing fans and low terraces. Dk gr. br. clay loam on mottled dk gr. clay loam on red br. firm clay.

LAUTOKA

No

GO TO 4.12

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

51


4.12

Soils of the Karst landscapes

Yes

Soils of the Karst Landscapes

No

Yes

From marine limestones and raised calcareous reef rock

No

WAILOTUA

Yes

Well drained, Udic/Perudic SMR. Dk br. bouldery silty clay loam on dk yell. br. bouldery clay loam.

No

LAMI

Yes

Well drained, Udic/Perudic SMR. Dk gr. br. bouldery clay loam on dk yell. br. bouldery clay.

No

TAU

Yes

Well drained, Ustic SMR. Rock at 40cm. Dk gr. clay loam on br. stony clay loam.

No

VATULELE

Yes

Well drained, Ustic SMR. Dk red br. stony clay on rock at 25cm.

Yes

From residual materials over raised coralline limestone

Yes

Well drained, Ustic SMR

Yes

Andesitic colluvium over coralline limestone at 80cm. Dk red br. bouldery clay loam on red bouldery clay.

No

Yes

Guano (phosphate nodules) over coralline limestone. Dk br. stony sandy loam on str. br. sandy clay loam.

No

TUVUCA (Nayau and Tuvuca)

Yes

Manganese sands and coralline limestone. Blk loose gritty sandy loam.

No

NAYAU (Kabara)

Yes

Surface iron/manganese surface gravels over coralline limestone. Red br. loamy clay on dk red friable clay with Fe/Mn gravels.

No

NAEVUEVU

Yes

Terraces cut in raised coralline limestone. Dk yell. br. clay on yell. red from clay on limestone at 50cm.

No

Yes

Colluvium of mixed limestone and basic rocks. Well drained, Ustic SMR. Well drained, Ustic SMR.

Yes

V. dk. br. gravelly clay on dk yell. br. gravelly clay on limestone at 40cm.

CIKOBIA

OGEA (Ogea)

EKUBU (Vatulele)

52

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

GO TO 4.13


4.13

Soils of the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;youngâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; volcanic landscapes

Yes

Volcanic landscapes

Yes

Udic/Perudic SMR

LOMAJE (Kadavu)

Yes

From deep andesitic ash, well drained. Blk friable sandy loam on dk red br. friable loam.

No

VUNA (Taveuni)

Yes

From young 'aa' lava with uneven surfaces, excessively drained. Dk br. friable loamy sand on fragmented rock.

No

LOSA (Rotuma)

Yes

From somewhat excessively drained young 'pahoehoe' lava on ring plains around cones. Dk br. friable bouldery loam on lava rock at 25cm.

No

Yes

From basaltic ash

No

WAIQERE (Taveuni)

Yes

From deep ash, no stones. V. dk gr. friable silt loam on red br. silty clay loam.

No

WAIOBA (Taveuni)

Yes

From ash with stones. Dk br. friable stony loam on yell. br. friable stony clay loam.

No

ONO (Rotuma)

Yes

From ash with stones on ring plains around cones. Dk br. stony silt loam.

No

DULEVI ( Koro & Taveuni)

Yes

From deep ash with few stones. Blk stony clay loam on dk yell. br. sandy clay loam.

REREE (Rotuma)

Yes

From basaltic ash over scoria. Dk gr. stony silt loam on dk br. stony sandy loam.

No

LAUCALA (Koro & Laucala)

Yes

From mixed basaltic ash and scoria. Red br. stony loam on red gr. and blk weathered scoria.

No

Yes

From 'older' pahoehoe lava

Yes

Ash over basalt lava on ring plains. Blk humic stony loam on dk br. stony clay loam.

TAVEUNI (Taveuni)

No

GO TO 4.14

No

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53


54

KORO (Koro & Taveuni)

Yes

Older weathered basalt on steep slopes. Dk br. stony silt loam on gr. weathered rock.

No

URA (Taveuni)

Yes

Deep ash on ring plains. Dk br. loose sandy loam on dk br. sandy loam.

No

NACAMAKI (Koro, Kabara, Taveuni)

Yes

Thin ash over basalt. Dk gr. gravelly sandy clay loam on dk gr. br. stony fine sandy loam.

No

RAVILEVU (Taveuni)

Yes

Moderately weathered basalt under forest. Dk gr. br. stony clay loam on dk yell. br. firm stony clay.

No

Yes

From 'older' 'aa' lava

No

VAKAWAU (Taveuni)

Yes

Bouldery lava with some ash. Dk gr. br. stony silty clay loam on dk br. bouldery loam.

No

KIRIKIRI (Rotuma)

Yes

In situ lava with some ash. Dk br. stony silt loam on dk yell. br. bouldery sandy loam.

No

HAFHAFU (Rotuma)

Yes

In situ lava with some ash. Dk gr. stony loam on dk br. stony loam.

No

Yes

Well drained

Yes

From oldest 'pahoehoe' lavas

No

NABEKA (Taveuni)

Yes

Weathered in situ basalt. Dk br. silty clay on br. clay loam.

No

WAIORU (Taveuni)

Yes

Weathered in situ basalt with some ash. Dk br. friable silty clay loam.

No

TABAKA (Taveuni)

Yes

Weathered in situ basalt, very stony under forest. Dk br. stony loamy clay on yell. br. stony loamy sand.

No

QELENI (Taveuni)

Yes

Strongly weathered in situ rock, stone free. Str. br. firm silty clay loam on yell. red firm clay loam.

No

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji


NASAU (Cicia, Koro, Lomaiviti, Taveuni)

Yes

Moderately weathered in situ rock on steep slopes. Dk br. friable silty clay on dk yell. br. massive clay loam.

Yes

From basaltic scoria cones

NACAUGAI (Laucala & Taveuni)

Yes

Stony bouldery ash and scoria on steep slopes. Dk br. stony sandy clay loam on dk br. stony and bouldery silty clay loam.

No

TAVUYAGA (Taveuni)

Yes

Layered lapilli with ash and basaltic gravels on steep slopes. Dk gr. br. sandy clay loam on dk br. sandy loam.

No

MAFUA (Rotuma)

Yes

Volcanic ash over scoria on cone slopes. Dk br. stony clay loam on red br. stony sandy loam.

No

ROROA (Rotuma)

Yes

From basaltic tuffaceous cones. Dk br. stony sandy loam on str. br. gravelly loamy sand on olive br. coarse sand.

No

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

55


4.14

Soils of the hill country

Yes

Soils of the Hill Country

No

Yes

Well drained, Udic/Perudic SMR

No

SAMABULA

Yes

From in situ calcareous tuffs and marls. Dk br. clay on dk yell. br. stony clay on rock at 30cm.

No

NALOTU

Yes

From calcareous quartz rich andesidic tuffs. Red blk sandy heavy clay on brown sandy clay.

No

Yes

Well drained, Ustic SMR

No

Yes

From silified marls and sandstones. Dk gr. br. gravelly silt loam on yell. br. loose coarse sandy loam on sandstone at 20cm.

No

Yes

From calcareous tuffs and marls

KEIYASI

Yes

Shallow. Rock within 65cm of soil surface. Blk stony clay loam on olive br. mottled massive clay loam.

No

NADROGA

Yes

Shallow. Rock within 65cm of soil surface. Blk gritty clay loam on dk br. stony silt loam.

No

SABETO

Yes

Shallow. Rock within 65cm of soil surface. Blk firm clay on br. gr. stony clay on marl.

No

NAQALOTU (Kadavu)

Yes

Shallow. Rock within 65cm of soil surface. Red stony sandy clay on gr. br. stony sandy clay on sandy marl.

No

MOMI

Yes

Deep. Rock >100cm of soil surface. Blk firm clay on br. gr. stony clay on marl.

No

EMURI

Yes

Poorly drained, Ustic SMR. Gilgai. 100cm blk sticky firm clay with slicken sides.

No

Yes

Colluvial soils from calcareous tuffs, sandstones and marls

No

Yes

Mod. well drained, Udic/Perudic SMR. Blk firm sticky clay over dk br. firm sticky clay with grey and red mottles.

No

KOROMAVU

SUVA

56

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

GO TO 4.15


Yes

Mod. well drained, Ustic SMR. Dk gr. br. sticky and plastic stony clay loam over grey rock at 30cm.

No

Yes

From basic and intermediate sedimentary rocks

No

Yes

Well drained, Udic/Perudic SMR

No

BURENITU

Yes

Dk br. friable and sticky clay on 80cm yell. red firm silty clay loam.

No

DOBUILEVU

Yes

Dk gr. friable clay on 80cm dk br. friable sandy clay loam on loamy sand.

No

MATAWAILEVU

Yes

V. dk gr. friable, sticky and plastic clay loam on humus stained str. br. friable clay.

No

NACULA

Yes

Dk br. clay loam on dk. yell. br. clay loam on massive yell. red firm, sticky clay.

No

LOBAU

Yes

Yell. red silty clay on red stony silty clay with manganese coatings.

No

VISA

Yes

Dk br. sticky, plastic clay on str. br. sticky, plastic clay loam on weathered rock at 65cm.

No

SERUA

Yes

Dk br. sticky clay loam on red sticky clay on massive dk red clay.

No

WAIDINA

Yes

Br. friable, sticky, plastic clay loam on red friable plastic and sticky clay.

No

SOTE

Yes

Dk br. sticky clay loam on red firm sticky and plastic clay.

No

WAIMARO

Yes

Dk br. friable and plastic clay loam on red friable, sticky, plastic clay.

No

Yes

Ustic SMR. Well drained.

Yes

Blk v. friable clay loam on dk red br. friable stony clay loam. Profuse Fe/humus coated stones.

Yes

Udic/Perudic SMR. Imperfectly drained.

YAKO

VASILAULAU

No

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57


WAISAVA

Yes

Blk firm plastic clay on dk gr. br. firm sticky and plastic clay.

No

DARIA

Yes

Br. clay loam on br. yell. clay with grey mottles on red firm clay mottled blue gr.

No

Yes

From quartz rich and acidic tuffs

No

Yes

Well drained, Udic/Perudic SMR

No

NAMUANA (Kadavu)

Yes

Red friable plastic fine sandy clay on red br. massive very plastic sandy clay.

No

NAMATIU (Kadavu)

Yes

Br. sticky and plastic sandy clay on red yell. sticky and v. plastic sandy clay on rock at 80cm.

No

NAMARA (Kadavu)

Yes

Dk br. firm plastic sandy clay loam on str. br. firm, sticky, v. plastic sandy clay

No

SAROWAQA

Yes

Dk red friable clay on red clay on weathered rock at 75cm

No

GAIGAI

Yes

Dk br. firm clay loam on yell. br. firm clay loam

No

Yes

Dk br. friable silt loam on red br. firm clay loam

No

Yes

Well drained, Ustic SMR

No

WAINIKORO

Yes

Dk red br. v. friable sticky sandy clay loam on red friable sticky sandy clay with Fe/Mn coatings

No

NAKUSA

Yes

Talasiga. Dk gr. firm sandy clay loam on yell. red very firm, sticky sandy loam.

No

KELIKOSO

Yes

Slopes <7째. Red very friable clay loam on red firm clay with clay coatings.

No

NUKUDAMU

Yes

Slopes <15째. Red friable sandy clay loam on yell. red friable clay loam.

No

VATUVONU

Yes

V. dk. gr. friable sandy clay loam on white friable sandy loam. Rock at 15cm.

No

DRITI

58

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji


KURUKURU

Yes

Slopes <15째. Dk red friable clay loam on red v. friable silty clay loam.

No

VEREVERE

Yes

Slopes <11째. Dk gr. firm sandy clay on dk gr. br. firm stony clay on rock at 50cm.

No

UAUA

Yes

Imperfectly drained, Ustic SMR. Slopes <7째. Pink grey friable sandy loam with red yell. mottles on dk red massive firm sticky sandy clay.

No

Yes

From in situ quartzite rocks

No

LUTU

Yes

Somewhat excessively drained, Udic/Perudic SMR. Br. sticky plastic gritty clay loam on yell. red firm v. sticky clay.

No

MALOLO

Yes

Somewhat excessively drained, Ustic SMR. Yell. br. v. friable stony fine sand on rock at 60cm.

No

Yes

From silicified tuffs, sandstones, marls and agglomerates

No

Yes

Well drained, Udic/Perudic SMR

VATUBABA

Yes

Dk gr. clay loam on dk yell. br. very firm plastic bouldery loam

No

NADAWA

Yes

V. dk gr. plastic sticky sandy clay on br. firm sticky plastic sandy clay

No

RAURIKO

Yes

Dk br. friable sandy clay loam on red br. massive clay on soft rock at 70cm

No

YAKITA

Yes

Blk firm sticky v. plastic sandy clay on dk gr. firm plastic clay mottled red and pink

No

Yes

Well drained, Ustic SMR

CUKU

Yes

Dk gr. br. firm silty clay on dk red br. and red firm silty clay on soft rock at 30cm

No

NABUONO

Yes

Dk br. v. firm gritty clay loam on red firm gritty clay

No

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59


DOGOTUKU

Yes

Dk br. clay loam on red v. sticky clay on soft rock at 35cm

No

KORONIQALA

Yes

Red br. sandy clay on red br. massive sticky v. plastic sandy clay on soft rock at 60cm

No

Yes

From in situ acidic rocks, e.g. granite

No

Yes

Well drained, Udic/Perudic SMR

NAMOSI

Yes

Dk gr. clay loam on dk yell. br. firm stony silty clay

No

NAULUVATU

Yes

V. dk br. loam on str. br. friable clay loam

No

NARAYAWA

Yes

Dk br. sandy loam on yell. red v. friable sandy loam on soft rock at 40cm

No

SAVUDRODRO

Yes

Br. friable sandy clay loam on yell. br. mottled v. firm sandy clay.

No

VUNATOTO

Yes

Dk gr. br. v. friable clay loam on yell. br. v. firm sticky bouldery silt loam

No

Yes

Well drained, Ustic SMR

VITAWA

Yes

Dk gr. br. clay loam on str. br. friable stony clay loam

No

YAVUNA

Yes

Dk gr. silt loam on gr. gritty sandy loam on soft rock at 25cm

No

Yes

From in situ argillaceous and metamorphic rocks

No

Yes

Dk br. v. friable v. sticky clay on red firm v. sticky v. plastic stony clay

No

Yes

From basic and intermediate igneous rocks

No

Yes

Well drained, Udic/Perudic SMR

No

TABUQUTO

60

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji


Yes

Weathered in situ rock, i.e. basalts

No

NAICOLA

Yes

Yell. red firm silty clay loam on red friable clay

No

LODONI

Yes

Red br. clay loam on red firm sticky plastic clay

No

GAU

Yes

Red br. clay loam on dk red br. gritty clay

No

TAILEVU

Yes

Dk yell. br. silty clay loam on red v. firm sticky clay

No

SOLEVU

Yes

Red br. firm clay on yell. red firm clay on soft rock at 50cm

No

SEATURA

Yes

Dk yell. br. humic clay loam on red yell. massive v. firm sticky, stony silty clay

No

WAINUNU

Yes

Dk yell. br. v. friable humic clay loam on red br. v. firm sticky clay

No

VAIDOKO

Yes

Red friable stony clay loam on dk red br. firm clay on rock at 50cm

No

NAKAVIKA

Yes

Yell. red friable clay loam with Fe conc. on red v. firm sticky plastic stony clay

No

LOMAIVITI

Yes

Dk red br. sticky plastic clay on red firm sticky plastic clay

No

NAVAVA

Yes

Dk gr. br. firm sticky plastic clay on dk br. sticky plastic clay

No

Yes

Red firm sticky plastic clay on red massive sticky plastic mottled grey clay

No

Yes

From deep weathered in situ basalt

No

Yes

Well drained, Ustic SMR

Yes

Red br. Clay loam on 90cm red friable silty clay

GALOA (Gau & Galoa)

DELAIMATAI

No

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61


VUYA

Yes

Red friable clay on red br. firm sticky clay with Mn coated stones

No

NABITI

Yes

Red v. friable silty clay loam on soft rock at 80cm

No

TAVUA

Yes

Blk sticky plastic clay loam on dk br. sticky plastic clay

No

Yes

From shallow weathered in situ basalt

Yes

Well drained Ustic SMR

VARACIVA

Yes

Yell. red gravelly clay loam on iron pan on red friable gritty clay on soft rock at 30cm

No

REWASA

Yes

Red br. sticky plastic stony clay on dk gr. firm massive sandy loam

No

VATUKOULA

Yes

Dk br. friable stony clay on red firm v. sticky stony/bouldery clay

No

NANUKULOA (Viti Levu, Lomaiviti & Lau)

Yes

Dk br. sticky gritty clay on str. br. plastic sticky gritty clay on soft rock at 30cm

No

LEKUTU (Viti Levu, Lomaiviti & Lau)

Yes

Talasiga. Br. v. friable silt loam on pinkish grey plastic soft clayey rock

No

Yes

From deep weathered colluvium from basalt

No

YAQARA

Yes

Dk red br. friable sticky plastic silty clay loam

No

RUKURUKU

Yes

Dk red br. v. friable clay loam in red friable clay loam

No

Yes

From deep weathered in situ andesites

No

Yes

Red v. friable sticky clay loam on red firm sticky clay loam

No

RAVIRAVI

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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji


Yes

Red br. firm, plastic, sticky clay on red friable, plastic, sticky clay

No

Yes

From shallow weathered in situ andesites

No

LAKEBA

Yes

Red friable sticky, plastic gritty clay on red firm clay on soft rock at 55cm

No

MAKOMAKO

Yes

Dk br. friable clay on red firm clay with weathered rock

No

Yes

From deep weathered colluvium from andesites

No

Yes

Dk br. firm plastic sticky clay loam with coarse structures and polished surfaces

No

Yes

From deep weathered undifferentiated in situ basalts and andesites

No

LAU

Yes

Blk v. friable silty clay loam on 70cm dk br. friable silt loam

No

NAMALATA

Yes

Red br. friable sticky clay on red friable clay loam

No

KAVULA

Yes

From deep weathered undifferentiated in situ basalts and andesites

No

Yes

From shallow weathered undifferentiated in situ basalts and andesites

Yes

Talasiga. Dk. yell. br. gritty clay loam on grey soft rock at 15cm

No

Yes

From deep weathered undifferentiated colluvium from basalts and andesites

No

Yes

Well drained Ustic SMR

TABIA

Yes

Red friable clay on dk red br. v. friable clay loam with paleosols

No

KUBUNA

Yes

Red v. friable silty clay loam on red massive soft rock

No

NAIRAI

NAWAI

MACUATA

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

63


Yes

Dk red br. sticky gritty clay on dk red br. sticky plastic gritty clay

No

Yes

From shallow weathered undifferentiated colluvium from basalts and andesites

No

Yes

Dk red br. friable silty clay loam on red friable clay

No

Yes

Poorly drained, Aquic SMR

Yes

From weathered in situ basalt

No

Yes

Blk sticky plastic clay on dk br. sticky mottled sandy clay

No

Yes

From weathered colluvium from basalt

Yes

Blk sticky plastic sandy clay loam on dk gr. br. plastic sticky clay loam

No

Yes

From weathered in situ basic tuffs

No

Yes

Well drained, Udic/Perudic SMR

BATIWAI

Yes

Yell. red v. friable clay loam on red silty clay loam on soft rock at 45cm

No

BURENI

Yes

Yell. red friable silty clay loam on 80cm red friable and mottled clay

No

Yes

Somewhat excessively drained. Ustic SMR.

Yes

Thick red blk friable clay loam on red firm clay

TOTOYA

TUVA

DELAIBO

NAWENI

KOROTUKU

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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

No


DELAINACAU

LEDRUTUA

Yes

From weathered in situ mixed acidic and basic tuffs

No

Yes

Well drained, Udic/Perudic SMR

No

Yes

Dk red br. sandy clay on red sandy clay on soft rock at 70cm

No

Yes

From weathered acidic and basic in situ rocks

Yes

Well drained, Ustic SMR

Yes

Thick blk friable stony silt loam on yell. br. bouldery sandy silt loam on bouldery sands at 70cm.

GO TO 4.15

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65


4.15

Upland soils >600m, i.e. isothermic STR

4.16

Soils of the upland swamps

66

Yes

Upland swamps from organic materials

Yes

Very poorly drained, Aquic SMR

KUTA (Taveuni)

Yes

Giant kuta reeds. V. dk. gr. br. Soft fibrous peat.

NADRANU

Yes

Bog. Olive gr. soft mucky peat with abundant sedges.

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

No

No

GO TO 4.17


4.17

Soils of the floodplains and terraces

Yes

Soils of the Floodplains and Terraces

Yes

Alluvium from basic rocks on floodplains and terraces

Yes

Udic/Perudic SMR

Yes

Well drained

NADALA

Yes

Small terraces. Dk yell. br. bouldery clay loam on dk br. firm bouldery clay.

No

NAVAI

Yes

Levees in narrow valleys. Dk br. v. friable clay loam on v. dk gr. br. clay loam.

No

NADRAU

Yes

Imperfectly drained. Alluvial fringes to Nadrau swamp. Dk br. firm clay on dk yell. br. from clay.

No

GO TO 4.18

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67


4.18

Soils of the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;youngâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; volcanic landscapes

Yes

Young volcanic landscapes with Udic/Perudic SMR

No

Yes

From sub recent basaltic 'aa' lavas. Excessively drained. Dk yell. br. peaty silt loam on red br. stony silty clay loam.

No

Yes

From young basaltic 'pahoehoe' lavas. Well drained.

No

MANUKA (Taveuni)

Yes

In situ basalt. v. dk br. stony silt loam on rock at 90cm.

No

UCUNILAWE (Taveuni)

Yes

On steep slopes fringing scoria cones. V. dk gr. loam on blk stony loam.

No

Yes

Excessively drained

Yes

From basaltic scoria cones. Blk peaty silt loam on yell. br. gritty loam on gravelly scoria.

Yes

From in situ basaltic ash

MATANA (Taveuni)

Yes

Deep ash. Dk br. v. friable loam on friable clay loam.

No

SALAILAILAI (Taveuni)

Yes

Steep slopes fringing scoria cones. V. dk gr. firm peaty silt loam with boulders.

No

TAGIMAUCIA (Taveuni)

Yes

Basaltic ash. Well drained. Red br. massive mottled yell. clay loam on red br. gravelly clay.

NAITATA (Taveuni)

SOQULU (Taveuni)

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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

No

GO TO 4.19


4.19

Soils of the upland hill country

Yes

Soils of the Upland Hill Country

Yes

Well drained hill country soils from in situ basic and intermediate rock with Udic/Perudic SMR

LEWA

Yes

Terraces. Talasiga. Dk br. clay loam with iron nodules on red br. firm clay.

No

WAIBICI

Yes

Mixed forest (Dakua). Dk br. v. friable clay loam on red br. clay loam.

No

MONASAVU

Yes

Dense forest. Dk br. bouldery clay loam on dk red br. Firm clay.

No

NADARIVATU

Yes

Dukua forest. Dk br. v. friable clay loam on yell. red bouldery silty clay loam.

No

WAILULU

Yes

Mission grass. Yell. red bouldery clay loam on yell. red firm bouldery clay.

No

NABUESA

Yes

Dukua forest. Dk yell. br. clay on yell. red bouldery clay loam.

No

QALINAOLO

Yes

Weathered colluvium on fans. Dk br. clay loam on red br. firm clay.

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

69


5. 5.1

FIJI SOIL MAPPING UNITS, LAND USE CAPABILITY CLASSES AND THE MAIN SOIL LIMITATIONS Introduction

Arising out of preliminary trials of classification in Fiji, study of the classification in New Zealand, and advice of visiting New Zealand scientists, the Fiji MPI adopted, with modifications to suit Fiji conditions, the eight-class standard land use capability (LUC) classification as described in New Zealandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Land use capability survey handbook (Water and Soil Division 1974). The NZ classification system is itself a modified version of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) LUC system, on which a number of other national classification systems in use today are based. In its present form, the Fiji LUC classification is soundly based and well placed to meet Fijiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current and future needs for land development planning, land evaluation, soil conservation and promotion of sustainable land use practices. Appendix 1 provides some of the key definitions in the Fiji LUC classification as prepared by F.F. Kafoa and senior staff of the MPI Land Use Section (1977). Table 2 lists the 227 soil series and names their associated soil map unit code as they are shown in Soil map for Fiji (Seru and Leslie 1986), land use capability classifications for each soil map unit, and the main soil limitations for each unit. Detailed soil information for Fiji can be found in Fiji soil taxonomic unit description handbook (Leslie and Seru, 1998).

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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

71

Soso

Dreketi

Dogo

Nuku

Yasawa

Tacilevu

Vunibau

Waikalou

Volivoli

Vanavutu

Deuba

Dawasamu

Vunilagi

Rana

Qaributa

Nakelo

Toguru

Naselesele

Muainase

Rewa

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

Lawai

Tamanua

Naduru

Wainibuka

23

24

25

26

Soil Series Name

Tiri

2

Series ID

Labasa

Soil Series Name

1

Series ID

11E, 11H

26

25

24

23A, 23B

Soil Map Unit Code

22

21

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

Is

Is

IIw

Is

Land Use Capability Class

Is

Is

IIs

IVw

IVw

VIw

IVw

IVw

IIs

IIIw

Is

IVe VIIe

11C, 11D

12

IIIs

IVw

IIIs

IIIs

IIIs

IIIs

VIIIw

VIIw

VIIw

VIIw

IVs

Land Use Capability Class

11A, 11B

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Soil Map Unit Code

Main Soil Limitations

Clayey, slow subsoil permeability, rare flooding

Some nutrient deficiencies, rare flooding

Slight flood risk, imperfect drainage, wet season subsoil waterlogging

Some nutrient deficiencies, low subsoil water holding capacity

Main Soil Limitations

Some nutrient deficiencies, rare flooding

Coarse textures, nutrient deficiencies, liable to flood

Coarse textures, low water holding capacity, alkaline, nutrient deficiencies

Floods, high water table, nutrient deficiencies

Floods, high water table, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Floods, high water table, peat swamp, acid

High water table, poorly drained, nutrient deficiencies

High water table, poorly drained, salinity

Low water holding capacity, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Flooding, high water table, acid, nutrient deficiencies

High clay content, nitrogen deficiencies

Severe erosion, past erosion, moisture deficits

Wind and sheet erosion, nutrient deficiencies

Excessively drained, soil moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Floods, high water table, nutrient deficiencies

Low water holding capacity, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Alkaline, nutrient deficiencies, poorly drained

Excessively drained, soil moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Alkaline, nutrient deficiencies, soil moisture deficits

Daily flooding, mangrove swamp

High water table, salinity

High water table, salinity

High water table (fluctuates daily), salinity

Nutrient deficiencies, acid

Table 2: Fiji soil map units, land use capability classes and main soil limitations


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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Serea

Waidradra

Sawakasa

47

48

Bua

40

46

Namosau

39

Lovonivia

Nasegai

38

45

Korovuli

37

Koronivia

Nadi

36

44

Namaka

35

Ba

Saunaka

34

43

Wainikavou

33

Korokadi

Melimeli

32

42

Nausori

31

Vunicibicibi

Tokotoko

30

41

Navua

29

Soil Series Name

Wainivesi

28

Series ID

Sigatoka

27

48

47

46

45A, 45B

IVw

IIIw

IIw

IIs

IIs IIIs

44C

VIe

43E, 43F

44A, 44B

IVe

43B, 43C, 43D

IVs

IVe

41B, 41C, 41D

42A, 42B

IVs

41A

Land Use Capability Class

Ve

40E

Soil Map Unit Code

IVe

40B, 40C, 40D

IVe IVs

39B, 39C

40A

IVs

IIe

38C

39A

IIs

38A, 38B

IIs

IIe

36C, 36D

37

IIs

IIs

IIw

IIIw

VIIIw

VIw

IVw

IIIw

IIIw

Is

36A, 36B

35

34

33

32

31

30

29

28

27

Frequent flooding, high water table, imperfect drainage

Frequent flooding, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Frequent flooding, rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits, erosion risk when cultivated

Slope, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, imperfect drainage

Clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, imperfect drainage

Slope, severe past and potential erosion risk, nutrient deficiencies, acid

Severe past and potential erosion risk, nutrient deficiencies, acid

Nutrient deficiencies, acid, seasonal moisture deficits

Severe erosion risk, nutrient deficiencies, acid, seasonal moisture deficits

Nutrient deficiencies, acid, seasonal moisture deficits

Main Soil Limitations

Nutrient deficiencies, acid, seasonal moisture deficits, severe erosion risk

Severe erosion risk, nutrient deficiencies, acid, seasonal moisture deficits

Nutrient deficiencies, acid, seasonal moisture deficits

Severe erosion risk, nutrient deficiencies, acid, limited rooting volume

Nutrient deficiencies, acid, limited rooting volume

Erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Acid, nutrient deficiencies

Clayey, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Sheet/rill erosion on slopes >8째, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Nutrient deficiencies, severe seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Imperfectly drained, surface flooding in wet season, nutrient deficiencies

Surface ponding and subsurface waterlogging in the wet season, imperfect drainage, acid

Peat swamp not feasible to develop

Frequent flooding, permanent high water table, poor internal drainage, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Floods, poor internal drainage, high seasonal water table, acid

High seasonal water table, imperfectly drained, frequent flooding, clayey

Frequent flooding, imperfectly drained, acid, some nutrient deficiencies

Moderately acid, minor nutrient deficiencies


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73

65

Naqilai

Wainikai

Vurevure

Nasou

Drasa

Molamolau

Lautoka

Wailotua

Lami

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

IIIw

VIIs

VIIIs

74H

75E, 75F, 75G

VIIs

IIs

74D, 74E, 74F, 74G

73

IIIs

IIe

71B, 71C

72

IIs

IIIe

70B, 70C

71A

IIs

IVw

IVw

IVw

IVw

IVw

IIIw

IIw

IIs

IIs

Land Use Capability Class

IIs

IIs

IIw

IIw

IIw

IIw

IIw

IIIw

IIIw

IVw

IVw

70A

69

68

67

66

63

62

61

Soil Map Unit Code

Talacagi

Soil Series Name

Series ID

60

Kedra

Navunikodi

60

59A, 59B

65

Waibula

59

58

66

Rawiti

58

57

64

Veisaru

57

56

55

Nacokula

Nadruka

56

64

Batiki

55

54

Lagilagi

Nika

54

53

63

Saweni

53

52

Lato

Matavelo

52

51

62

Bucaisau

51

50

49A, 49B

Saliadrau

Narewa

50

61

Vatuma

49

Shallow soils, surface and profile builders, nutrient deficiencies

Very steep slopes, shallow soils, jagged limestone outcrops, trace element deficiencies

Shallow soils, jagged limestone outcrops, trace element deficiencies

Clayey, seasonal moisture deficits, some nutrient deficiencies, imperfectly drained

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, severe seasonal moisture deficits, rare flood risk

Slight erosion risk, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate erosion risk, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Acid, nutrient deficiencies

Frequent flooding, very poorly drained, high water table for most of year

Frequent flooding, very poorly drained, high water table for most of year, soft

High seasonal water table, very poorly drained, slow permeability, clayey, acid

Frequent flooding, poorly drained, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Frequent flooding, poorly drained, high seasonal water table, slow permeability

Frequent short-duration flooding, poorly drained, high seasonal water table, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Slight flood risk, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate flood risk, coarse textures, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, coarse textures, minor flood risk

Main Soil Limitations

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, coarse textures, minor flood risk

Nutrient deficiencies, uneven surface with boulders, minor flood risk

Slight flood risk, imperfectly drained, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Slight flood risk, poorly drained, high seasonal water table

Slight flood risk, poorly drained, high seasonal water table, clayey

Slight flood risk, very poorly drained, high water table in wet season

Slight flood risk, poorly drained, wet season waterlogging, gilgai, clayey

Frequent short-duration flooding, poorly drained, high seasonal water table, vertic properties

Frequent short-duration flooding, poorly drained, high seasonal water table, nutrient deficiencies

Frequent flooding, poorly drained, high seasonal water table, acid

Frequent flooding, poorly drained, high seasonal water table, gilgai

Frequent flooding, imperfect drainage, nutrient deficiencies


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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

VIIIe

76H

89A, 89B

Nayau

Naevuevu

Ekubu

Lomaje

Vuna

Losa

Waiqere

Waioba

Ono

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

Series ID

Soil Series Name

Tuvuca

80

89

88G, 88H

Ogea

79

Soil Map Unit Code

VIe

87E

Land Use Capability Class

IIs

VIIIe

IVe

IVs

87C, 87D

86B, 86C, 86D

VIIe

85E, 85F, 85G

VIe

84D, 84E IVs

IIIe

84C

85C, 85D

IIs

84B

IIIs

VIe

82D, 82E

83

Vs

IIIs

IIIs

IIIs

IVs

VIIIs

82A, 82B, 82C

81

80

79

78A, 78B, 78C

Cikobia

78

77H

Land Use Capability Class

VIIs

76D, 76E, 76F, 76G

Soil Map Unit Code

VIs

VIIIs

76C

Vatulele

Soil Series Name

Tau

77

Series ID

76

75H

Main Soil Limitations

Nutrient deficiencies, few boulders and stones

Slope, severe erosion risk, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, moderate to severe erosion, surface boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate to severe erosion, surface boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Very shallow soil, very stony, low available water holding capacity, nutrient deficiencies

Erosion risk, slope, bouldery surface, profile boulders and stones, rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies

Bouldery surface, profile boulders and stones, rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, slope, rapid soil permeability

Slight to moderate erosion risk, rapid soil permeability

Rapid soil permeability

Shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits

Erosion risk, rock outcrops, surface boulders, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits

Rock outcrops, surface boulders, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits

Shallow soil, rapid permeability, seasonal moisture deficits, alkaline, nutrient and trace element deficiencies

Seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient and trace element deficiencies, alkaline, manganese toxicity

Very stony, nutrient and trace element deficiencies, alkaline, seasonal moisture deficits

Limestone outcrops, surface and profile boulders, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies, rapid permeability

Very steep slopes, shallow soils, very stony, limestone rock outcrops, alkaline, severe seasonal soil moisture deficits

Main Soil Limitations

Very steep slopes, erosion risk, shallow soils, very stony, rock outcrops, alkaline

Slope, shallow soils, very stony, rock outcrops, alkaline

Shallow soils, very stony, rock outcrops, alkaline

Slope, shallow soils, surface and profile builders, nutrient deficiencies


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75

Kirikiri

99

Hafhafu

Nabeka

Waioru

100

101

102

Soil Series Name

Vakawau

98

Series ID

Ravilevu

97

Koro

94

Nacamaki

Taveuni

93

96

Laucala

92

Ura

Reree

91

95

Dulevi

90 VIe

90D, 90E

VIIe VIIIe

102H

VIe

101E

102G

IVe

IIIs

Land Use Capability Class

IIs

VIs

101C, 101D

100B, 100C, 100D

Soil Map Unit Code

99A, 99B

98E, 98F

VIIIe

97H

VIe

96E VIIe

IVe

96C, 96D

97G

IIIs

VIe

95E, 95F

96B

IVe

94H

95D

VIIe VIIIe

94G

IIIs VIe

VIe

92E

93E

IVe

92C, 92D

93C, 93D

IIs

92B

IIIs

IIIe

90B, 90C

91A, 91B

IIs

90A

Very steep slopes, severe erosion risk, acid, moderate nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, acid, moderate nutrient deficiencies

Slope, moderate erosion risk, acid, slight to moderate nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, acid, slight to moderate nutrient deficiencies

Shallow rooting depth, stony, low available water holding capacity, slight nutrient deficiencies

Main Soil Limitations

Stony, low available water holding capacity, slight nutrient deficiencies

Slope, rock outcrops, surface boulders, profile stones and boulders, high phosphorous fixation

Very steep slopes, very severe erosion risk, acid, slight nutrient deficiencies

Very severe erosion risk, acid, slight nutrient deficiencies

Slope, severe erosion risk, surface boulders, profile stoniness, rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies, high phosphorous fixation

Severe erosion risk, surface boulders, profile stoniness, rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies, high phosphorous fixation

Surface boulders, profile stoniness, rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies, high phosphorous fixation

Slope, moderate erosion risk, rapid permeability, high phosphorous fixation, slight nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, rapid permeability, high phosphorous fixation, slight nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, moderate erosion risk, very steep slopes, rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, steep slopes, rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, slope, slight nutrient deficiencies, acid

Slight nutrient deficiencies, acid

Slope, severe erosion, slight nutrient deficiencies, rapid permeability

Severe erosion, slight nutrient deficiencies, rapid permeability

Slight nutrient deficiencies, rapid permeability

Moderate nutrient deficiencies, stones and boulders

Slope, severe erosion risk, rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, moderate erosion risk, rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies

Rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies


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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Nacaugai

Tavuyaga

106

107

Mafua

Roroa

Samabula

108

109

110

Soil Series Name

Nasau

105

Series ID

Qeleni

Tabaka

104

103

IVe VIIe VIIIe

110B, 110C, 110D

110E, 110F, 110G

110H

IIIs

VIIIe

109H

110A

VIIe

109E, 109F, 109G

VIIIe

108H IVs

VIIe

108E, 108F, 108G

109D

IVs

108D

Land Use Capability Class

VIIIe

107H

Soil Map Unit Code

VIIe

VIIIe

106H

107G

VIIe

VIIIe

105H

106G

VIIe

VIe

104E

105F, 105G

IIIs

VIe

103E

104C, 104D

IVe

103C, 103D

Very steep slopes, severe erosion risk, shallow soil, clayey, alkaline

Slope, moderate to severe erosion risk, shallow soil, clayey, alkaline

Moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, clayey, alkaline

Shallow soil, clayey, alkaline

Very steep slopes, very severe erosion risk, shallow rooting depth, low available water holding capacity, moderate nutrient deficiencies

Slope, moderate erosion risk, shallow rooting depth, low available water holding capacity, moderate nutrient deficiencies

Shallow rooting depth, low available water holding capacity, moderate nutrient deficiencies

Slope, shallow rooting depth, stony, low available water holding capacity, moderate nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, shallow rooting depth, stony, low available water holding capacity, moderate nutrient deficiencies

Shallow rooting depth, stony, low available water holding capacity, moderate nutrient deficiencies

Main Soil Limitations

Very steep slopes, moderate to severe erosion risk, rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies, high phosphorous retention

Moderate to severe erosion risk, rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies, high phosphorous retention

Very steep slopes, moderate erosion risk, rapid permeability, surface boulders, acid, high phosphorous retention, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, rapid permeability, surface boulders, acid, high phosphorous retention, nutrient deficiencies

Very steep slopes, severe past erosion, severe erosion risk, shallow profile, surface boulders, slight nutrient deficiencies

Severe past erosion, severe erosion risk, shallow profile, surface boulders, slight nutrient deficiencies

Slope, slight to moderate erosion risk, clayey, acid, slight nutrient deficiencies, aluminium toxicity

Clayey, acid, slight nutrient deficiencies, aluminium toxicity

Slope, severe past erosion, very severe erosion risk, surface boulders, acid, slight nutrient deficiencies, very high rainfall

Severe past erosion, very severe erosion risk, surface boulders, acid, slight nutrient deficiencies, very high rainfall


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77

Keyasi

Nadroga

113

114

Soil Series Name

Koromavu

112

Series ID

Nalotu

111

VIIe VIIIe

112G

112H

IVe VIe VIIe VIIIe

114E, 114F

114G

114H

VIIIe

113H

114D

VIIe

113G

IVs

VIe

113E, 113F

114C

VIe

113E, 113F

Land Use Capability Class

VIe

112E, 112F

Soil Map Unit Code

IVs

VIe

111E

112D

IVs

111C, 111D

Very steep slopes, erosion risk, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Steep slopes, erosion risk, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, erosion risk, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Soil erosion risk, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Very steep slopes, erosion risk, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Steep slopes, erosion risk, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, erosion risk, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, erosion risk, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Main Soil Limitations

Very steep slopes, severe erosion risk, shallow soil, nutrient deficiencies, severe seasonal moisture deficits

Steep slopes, moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, nutrient deficiencies, severe seasonal moisture deficits

Slope, moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, nutrient deficiencies, severe seasonal moisture deficits

Shallow soil, nutrient deficiencies, severe seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate erosion risk, slope, shallow soil, clayey, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, slight nutrient deficiencies

Shallow soil, clayey, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, slight nutrient deficiencies


78

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Naqalotu

Emuri

Suva

Yako

Burenitu

Dobuilevu

Matawailevu

118

119

120

121

122

123

Soil Series Name

Sabeto

Momi

117

Series ID

116

115

115H

VIIe VIIIe

122G

122H IIs

VIe

122E, 122F 122E, 122F

123A, 123B 123A, 123B

IIs IVe

VIIe

121G

122D

VIe

121E, 121F 121E, 121F

122B, 122C 122B, 122C

IVe

121D

VIe

120E IIIs

IVe

120C, 120D 120C, 120D

121B, 121C 121B, 121C

IIIs

120B

IIIs

IIIs

118B, 118C 118B, 118C

119B, 119C 119B, 119C

IIIw

VIIe

117G

118A

VIe

Land Use Capability Class

117F

Soil Map Unit Code

VIe

VIIIe

115G

116E, 116F 116E, 116F

VIIe

115E, 115F 115E, 115F

IVe

VIe

115D

116C, 116D 116C, 116D

IIIs IVe

115B, 115C 115B, 115C

Clayey, nutrient deficiencies, slow subsoil permeability Clayey, nutrient deficiencies, slow subsoil permeability

Severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, nutrient deficiencies Severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, slope, nutrient deficiencies Moderate erosion risk, slope, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, erosion risk Slope, erosion risk

Erosion risk, slope, nutrient deficiencies Erosion risk, slope, nutrient deficiencies

Nutrient deficiencies Nutrient deficiencies

Steep slopes, erosion risk, clayey, nutrient deficiencies Steep slopes, erosion risk, clayey, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, erosion risk, clayey, nutrient deficiencies Slope, erosion risk, clayey, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, clayey, nutrient deficiencies Moderate erosion risk, clayey, nutrient deficiencies

Clayey, nutrient deficiencies Clayey, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, erosion risk, shallow soil, low water holding capacity, season moisture deficits Slope, erosion risk, shallow soil, low water holding capacity, season moisture deficits

Severe past and potential erosion risk, shallow soil, low water holding capacity, season moisture Severe past and potential erosion risk, shallow soil, low water holding capacity, season moisture deficits

Shallow soil, low water holding capacity, season moisture deficits Shallow soil, low water holding capacity, season moisture deficits

Clayey, nutrient deficiencies Clayey, nutrient deficiencies

Clayey, vertic properties, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies Clayey, vertic properties, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Wet season waterlogging, clayey, vertic properties, nutrient deficiencies Wet season waterlogging, clayey, vertic properties, nutrient deficiencies

Steep slopes, erosion risk, shallow soil, stony, seasonal moisture deficits Steep slopes, erosion risk, shallow soil, stony, seasonal moisture deficits

Erosion risk, shallow soil, stony, seasonal moisture deficits Erosion risk, shallow soil, stony, seasonal moisture deficits

Main Soil Limitations

Slope, erosion risk, severe past erosion, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits Slope, erosion risk, severe past erosion, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits

Erosion risk, severe past erosion, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits Erosion risk, severe past erosion, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits

Very steep slopes, erosion risk, clayey, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies Very steep slopes, erosion risk, clayey, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Steep Steep slopes, erosion risk, clayey, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies slopes, erosion risk, clayey, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, Slope, erosion risk, clayey, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies erosion risk, clayey, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, erosion risk, clayey, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies Slope, erosion risk, clayey, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Clayey, Clayey, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies


A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

79

Serua

Waidina

128

129

Soil Series Name

Waimaro

127

Series ID

Sote

Visa

Soil Series Name

Lobau

126

125

Series ID

124 VIe VIIe VIIIe

124E, 124F 124E, 124F

124G

124H

VIe

129E, 129F 129E, 129F

Land Use Capability Class

IVe

129D

Soil Map Unit Code

IIIs

VIIIe

128H

129B, 129C 129B, 129C

VIIe

VIIIe

127H

128G

VIIe

127G

VIe

VIe

127E, 127F 127E, 127F

128E, 128F 128E, 128F

IVe

127D

VIIIe

126H IIIs

VIIe

126G

127B, 127C 127B, 127C

VIe

126E, 126F 126E, 126F

VIIIe

125H IVe

VIIe

125G

126C, 126D 126C, 126D

VIe

125E, 125F 125E, 125F

IIIs

IVe

125D

126B

IIIs

125B, 125C 125B, 125C

Soil Map Unit Code

IVe

124D

Land Use Capability Class

IIIs

124C

Main Soil Limitations

Slope, moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, slow permeability, pugs Slope, moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, slow permeability, pugs

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, slow permeability, pugs Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, slow permeability, pugs

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, slow permeability, pugs Acid, nutrient deficiencies, slow permeability, pugs

Very steep slopes, severe erosion risk, moderate erosion risk, strong acid, nutrient deficiencies Very steep slopes, severe erosion risk, moderate erosion risk, strong acid, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, moderate erosion risk, strong acid, nutrient deficiencies Slope, moderate erosion risk, strong acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, strong acid, nutrient deficiencies Moderate erosion risk, strong acid, nutrient deficiencies

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies, clayey, limited rooting Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies, clayey, limited rooting volume

Slope, severe erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, clayey, limited rooting volume Slope, severe erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, clayey, limited rooting volume

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, clayey, limited rooting volume Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, clayey, limited rooting volume

Erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, clayey, limited rooting volume Erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, clayey, limited rooting volume

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, clayey, limited rooting volume Acid, nutrient deficiencies, clayey, limited rooting volume

Very steep slopes, very severe erosion, acid, nutrient deficiencies Very steep slopes, very severe erosion, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Erosion (including land slides), slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies Erosion (including land slides), slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies Erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Acid, nutrient deficiencies Acid, nutrient deficiencies

Very steep slopes, very severe erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies Very steep slopes, very severe erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, severe erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies Slope, severe erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies Slope, moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies Slope, erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Acid, nutrient deficiencies Acid, nutrient deficiencies

Main Soil Limitations

Very steep slopes, very severe erosion, acid, severe nutrient deficiencies Very steep slopes, very severe erosion, acid, severe nutrient deficiencies

Slope, very severe erosion risk, acid, severe nutrient deficiencies Slope, very severe erosion risk, acid, severe nutrient deficiencies

Slope, erosion risk, acid, severe nutrient deficiencies Slope, erosion risk, acid, severe nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, acid, severe nutrient deficiencies Severe erosion risk, acid, severe nutrient deficiencies

Acid, severe nutrient deficiencies Acid, severe nutrient deficiencies


80

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Sarowaqa

Soil Series Name

135

Series ID

Driti

Namuana

134

137

Daria

133

Gaigai

Waisava

132

136

Vasilaulau

Nacula

131

130

IIIe VIe

137D

137E

136H IIIs

VIIIe

136G

137B, 137C

VIe VIIe

136E, 136F

IVs

136D

Land Use Capability Class

VIIIe

135H

Soil Map Unit Code

VIIe

VIIIe

134H

135G

VIIe

134G VIe

VIe

134E, 134F

135F

IIIs

IIIs

134C, 134D

133A â&#x20AC;&#x201C; D

IIIe

132C

VIIIe

131H IIIs

VIIe

131G

132A, 132B

VIe

130H

131E, 131F

VIIIe

130G IVs

VIIe

130E, 130F

131D

IVs VIe

130C, 130D

Severe erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies, moderately rapid permeability

Moderate erosion, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies, moderately rapid permeability

Shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies, moderately rapid permeability

Very severe erosion, very steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity

Steep slopes, severe erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity

Main Soil Limitations

Very steep slopes, very severe erosion, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Steep slopes, severe erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Very steep slopes, very severe erosion, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Steep slopes, severe erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, moderate erosion risk

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, slight erosion risk on slopes >12° when cultivated

Clayey, imperfectly drained, acid, nutrient deficiencies, slight erosion risk on slopes >12° when cultivated

Moderate erosion risk under cultivation, clayey, slow subsoil permeability, nutrient deficiencies

Clayey, slow subsoil permeability, nutrient deficiencies

Very steep slopes, very severe erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Steep slopes, severe erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Very steep slopes, very severe erosion, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Steep slopes, severe erosion, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Acid, nutrient deficiencies


A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

81

Nukusa

Vatuvonu

Kurukuru

Kelikoso

Verevere

Uaua

142

143

144

145

146

147

Soil Series Name

Series ID

Wainikoro

140

Nukudamu

Namara

139

141

Namatiu

138

147A, 147B

146A, 146B, 146C

IIIs

IIIs

IIIs

IVe

144D

145A, 145B

IIIe

144B, 144C

VIe

143E, 143F IIs

IVe

143D

144A

IIIs

IVe

142C, 142D

143B, 143C

IIIs

142A, 142B

Land Use Capability Class

IVe

141B, 141C, 141D

Soil Map Unit Code

IIIs

VIIIe

140H

141A

VIIe

VIe

140E, 140F

140G

IVs

VIe

139E

140C, 140D

IVe

139D

VIe

138E IIIs

IIIe

138C, 138D

139B, 139C

IIIs

138B

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Shallow soil, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits, slight erosion risk under cultivation

Severe erosion risk, acid, low P and K, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate erosion risk, acid, low P and K, seasonal moisture deficits

Acid, low P and K, seasonal moisture deficits

Severe erosion risk, slope, shallow soil, acid, low available P, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, low available P, seasonal moisture deficits

Shallow soil, acid, low available P, seasonal moisture deficits

Severe erosion risk, severe past erosion, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Main Soil Limitations

Severe erosion risk, past topsoil loss, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity, seasonal moisture deficits

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity, seasonal moisture deficits

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, low moisture-holding capacity, acid, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Past erosion, severe erosion risk, low moisture-holding capacity, acid, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Past erosion, moderate erosion risk, low moisture-holding capacity, acid, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Low moisture-holding capacity, acid, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, slope, shallow soil, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity

Moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity

Shallow soil, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity

Severe erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies


82

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Nadawa

Rauriko

Yakita

Cuku

151

152

153

154

Soil Series Name

Vatubaba

150

Series ID

Malolo

Lutu

149

148

VIIIe

150H

VIe VIIe VIIIe

154E, 154F 154E, 154F

154G

154H

IIIs IVs

154D

153B, 153C 153B, 153C

VIIIe

152H

VIe

151E VIIe

IVe

151C, 151D 151C, 151D

152F, 152F, 152G 152G

IIIs

151B

Soil Map Unit Code

VIIe

150G Land Use Capability Class

VIe

150F

VIe

148H

149E, 149F 149E, 149F

VIIIe

148G IVs

VIIe

148E, 148F 148E, 148F

149D

IVe VIe

148C, 148D 148C, 148D

Very severe erosion, very steep slopes, shallow soil, low water holding capacity, nutrient defiVery severe erosion, very steep slopes, shallow soil, low water holding capacity, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits, severe past erosion ciencies, seasonal moisture deficits, severe past erosion

Steep slopes, severe erosion risk, shallow soil, low water holding capacity, nutrient deficiencies, Steep slopes, severe erosion risk, shallow soil, low water holding capacity, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits, severe past erosion seasonal moisture deficits, severe past erosion

Moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, low water holding capacity, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal Moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, low water holding capacity, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits, severe past erosion moisture deficits, severe past erosion

Shallow soil, low water holding capacity, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits, severe Shallow soil, low water holding capacity, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits, severe past erosion past erosion

Clayey, Clayey, high plasticity, acid, nutrient deficiencies high plasticity, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Past erosion, severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, past erosion, moderate erosion risk, shalPast erosion, severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, past erosion, moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies low soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, past erosion, moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies Slope, past erosion, moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, slope, shallow soil, nutrient deficiencies, serious past erosion Severe erosion risk, slope, shallow soil, nutrient deficiencies, serious past erosion

Moderate-severe erosion risk, shallow soil, nutrient deficiencies, serious past erosion Moderate-severe erosion risk, shallow soil, nutrient deficiencies, serious past erosion

Shallow soil, nutrient deficiencies, serious past erosion Shallow soil, nutrient deficiencies, serious past erosion

Main Soil Limitations

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Past erosion, severe erosion risk, shallow soil, sandy, rapid permeability, low water holding caPast erosion, severe erosion risk, shallow soil, sandy, rapid permeability, low water holding capacity, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies pacity, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Shallow soil, sandy, rapid permeability, low water holding capacity, seasonal moisture deficits, Shallow soil, sandy, rapid permeability, low water holding capacity, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies acid, nutrient deficiencies

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk (including debris slides), slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies Severe erosion risk (including debris slides), slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies Slope, moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies


A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

83

Soil Series Name

Koroniqala

Namosi

Nauluvatu

157

158

159

Dogotuki

156

Series ID

Nabuono

155

VIe VIIe VIIIe

159E, 159F 159E, 159F

159G

159H

VIIIe

158H IVs

VIIe

158G

159D

VIe

158E, 158F 158E, 158F

157E IVs

IVe VIe

157D

158C, 158D 158C, 158D

IVs

157B, 157C 157B, 157C

Land Use Capability Class

VIe

156E, 156F 156E, 156F

Soil Map Unit Code

IIIe

156D

VIIIe

155H IIIs

VIIe

155G

156B, 156C 156B, 156C

VIe

155F

Very serious erosion, very steep slopes, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies Very serious erosion, very steep slopes, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Steep slopes, severe erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies Steep slopes, severe erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies Moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies Shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Very severe erosion, very steep slopes, surface and profile boulders, rock outcrops, acid, nutriVery severe erosion, very steep slopes, surface and profile boulders, rock outcrops, acid, nutrient deficiencies ent deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, surface and profile boulders, rock outcrops, acid, nutrient Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, surface and profile boulders, rock outcrops, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, surface and profile boulders, rock outcrops, acid, nutrient deficiencies Moderate erosion risk, surface and profile boulders, rock outcrops, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Surface and profile boulders, rock outcrops, acid, nutrient deficiencies Surface and profile boulders, rock outcrops, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies, severe past erosion Severe erosion risk, slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies, severe past erosion

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, severe past erosion Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, severe past erosion

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, severe past erosion Acid, nutrient deficiencies, severe past erosion

Main Soil Limitations

Severe erosion risk, slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies Severe erosion risk, slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Acid, nutrient deficiencies Acid, nutrient deficiencies

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, shallow soil, Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, shallow soil, seasonal moisture deficits


84

A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Soil Series Name

Savudrodro

Vunatoto

Vitawa

Yavuna

Tabuquto

161

162

163

164

165

Narayawa

Series ID

160

VIIe

VIIIe

160G

160H

IVe

165C, 165D

VIe

164E IIIs

IVe

164C, 164D

165A, 165B

IIIs

VIIIe

163H

164B

VIIe

163G

162H VIe

VIIe VIIIe

162G

163F

VIe

VIIIe

161H

162E, 162F

VIIe

161G

IVs

VIe

161E, 161F

162D

IIIs

161C, 161D

Land Use Capability Class

VIe

160E, 160F

Soil Map Unit Code

IVs

160C, 160D

Moderate erosion risk, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Severe erosion risk, past erosion, low water holding capacity, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, past erosion, low water holding capacity, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Low water holding capacity, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Very severe erosion risk, past erosion, very steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Severe erosion risk, past erosion, steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate erosion risk, past erosion, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, profile boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, profile boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, profile boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Profile boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies, slight erosion potential

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies, slight erosion potential

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, slight erosion risk

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, slight erosion risk

Main Soil Limitations

Very severe erosion, very steep slopes, coarse textures, rapid soil permeability, low moistureholding capacity, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Steep slopes, severe erosion risk (including rotational slumping), coarse textures, rapid soil permeability, low moisture-holding capacity, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, coarse textures, rapid soil permeability, low moisture-holding capacity, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Coarse textures, rapid soil permeability, low moisture-holding capacity, acid, nutrient deficiencies


A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

85

Tailevu

Solevu

170

171

Soil Series Name

Gau

169

Series ID

Lodoni

Vaidoko

167

168

Nailoca

Soil Series Name

166

Series ID

Land Use Capability Class

VIe

171E, 171F

Soil Map Unit Code

IVe

VIIIe

170H

171C, 171D

VIIe

170G

IIIs

VIe

170E, 170F

171B

IVs

170C, 170D

IIs

VIIIe

168H IIIs

VIIe

168G

169A, 169B

VIe

168E, 168F

169C, 169D

IVe

168C, 168D

VIIIe

167H IIIs

VIIe

167G

168B

VIe

167E, 167F

IVe

VIIIe

166H

167C, 167D

VIIe

166G

IIIs

VIe

166E, 166F

167B

IVs

Land Use Capability Class

166D

Soil Map Unit Code

Main Soil Limitations

Slope, severe erosion, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, surface boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, surface boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, surface boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Surface boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, slight erosion risk if cultivated

Acid, nutrient deficiencies

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Erosion risk, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Very severe erosion, very steep slopes, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Erosion risk if cultivated, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity, surface boulders

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity, surface boulders

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity, surface boulders

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity, surface boulders

Main Soil Limitations


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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Galoa

Lomaiviti

Navava

175

176

177

Soil Series Name

Nakavika

174

Series ID

Wainunu

Seatura

173

172

VIe VIIe VIIIe

177E, 177F

177G

177H Land Use Capability Class

IIIe

177C, 177D

Soil Map Unit Code

IIs

VIe

176E, 176F

177A, 177B

IIIs

VIe

175E

176C, 176D

IIIs IVe

175B

VIe

174E, 174F

175C, 175D

IIIs IVe

174A, 174B

VIe

173E, 173F

174C, 174D

IVe

173C, 173D

VIIIe

172H IIIs

VIIe

172G

173A, 173B

IVs VIe

172D

172E, 172F

Main Soil Limitations

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, slight nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, slight nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk (including soil slips), slope, slight nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, slight nutrient deficiencies

Slight nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate to severe erosion risk, slope, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity

Moderate erosion risk, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity

Clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity

Severe erosion risk, slope, clayey, slow permeability, acid, nutrient deficiencies, P fixation

Moderate erosion risk if cultivated, clayey, slow permeability, acid, nutrient deficiencies, P fixation

Clayey, slow permeability, acid, nutrient deficiencies, P fixation

Moderate to severe erosion risk, slope, clayey, slow permeability, acid, nutrient deficiencies, P fixation

Moderate erosion if cultivated, clayey, slow permeability, acid, nutrient deficiencies, P fixation

Clayey, slow permeability, acid, nutrient deficiencies, P fixation

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, surface boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies, stony

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, surface boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies, stony

Moderate erosion risk, surface boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies, stony

Surface boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies, stony


A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

87

Lakeba

Tuva

180

181

182

Lau

Soil Series Name

Nairai

179

Series ID

Raviravi

178

IIIs IVe VIe

182B

182C, 182D

182E

Land Use Capability Class

Vie

181E, 181F

Soil Map Unit Code

IVe

VIIIe

180H

181C, 181D

VIIe

180G

IIIs

VIe

180E, 180F

181A, 181B

IVs

180D

VIIIe

179H

VIIIe

178H

VIIe

VIIe

178G

179E, 179F, 179G

VIe

178E, 178F

IVe

IVe

178C, 178D

179C, 179D

IIIs

178B

Severe erosion risk, past erosion, slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate erosion risk, past erosion, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Main Soil Limitations

Severe erosion risk, past erosion, slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate erosion risk, past erosion, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Very severe erosion, very steep slopes, shallow soil, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, shallow soil, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Shallow soil, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, past erosion, severe erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Slope, past erosion, severe erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Past erosion, severe erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Very severe erosion, very steep slopes, rapid permeability, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, rapid permeability, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity

Moderate to severe erosion risk, slope, rapid permeability, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity

Moderate erosion risk, rapid permeability, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity

Rapid permeability, seasonal moisture deficits, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity


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Kavula

186

Nawai

Makomako

Tabia

187

188

189

Soil Series Name

Vuya

185

Series ID

Namalata

Delaimatai

184

183

IIIs IVs

189C, 189D

VIe

188E

189A, 189B

IIIs IVe

188B

IVs

187C, 187D

188C, 188D

IIIs

Land Use Capability Class

187B

Soil Map Unit Code

VIIIe

186H

VIIIe

185H

VIIe

VIIe

185G

186G

VIe

185E, 185F

VIe

IVe

185C, 185D

186E, 186F

IIIs

VIe

184E

185B

IVe

VIIIe

183H

184C, 184D

VIIe

183G

IIIs

VIe

183E, 183F

184B

IVs

183C, 183D

Slight erosion risk, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, clayey, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate to severe erosion risk, slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate erosion risk, slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Clayey, slope, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Clayey, vertic properties, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Main Soil Limitations

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, acid, seasonal moisture deficits, nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate to severe erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate to severe erosion risk, slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Severe erosion risk, slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate erosion risk when forest cleared, acid, seasonal moisture deficits

Acid, seasonal moisture deficits

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits, clayey

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits, clayey

Moderate erosion risk, slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits, clayey

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits, clayey


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Nanukuloa

192

Nabiti

Lekutu

Varaciva

Rewasa

193

194

195

196

Soil Series Name

Totoya

191

Series ID

Kubuna

190

VIIe VIIIe

192G

192H

IVs VIe

196E

VIIIe

195H

196B, 196C, 196D

VIIe

195E, 195F, 195G

VIe

194E, 194F

VIe

193E IVe

IVe

193C, 193D

194C, 194D

IIIs

193B

Land Use Capability Class

VIe

192E, 192F

Soil Map Unit Code

IVs

192B, 192C, 192D

IIIe

191C, 191D

VIe

190E IIs

IVe

190C, 190D

191B

IIIs

190B

Moderate erosion risk, rock outcrops, surface and profile boulders, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Rock outcrops, surface and profile boulders, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, uneven surface due to past erosion, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity, seasonal moisture deficits

Severe erosion risk, uneven surface due to past erosion, slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity, seasonal moisture deficits

Slope, past erosion, severe erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Past erosion, severe erosion risk, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Severe erosion, slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity, seasonal moisture deficits, rapid permeability

Moderate to severe erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity, seasonal moisture deficits, rapid permeability

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, Al. toxicity, seasonal moisture deficits, rapid permeability

Main Soil Limitations

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, shallow soil, surface rock outcrops and boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, shallow soil, surface rock outcrops and boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, surface rock outcrops and boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Shallow soil, surface rock outcrops and boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate to severe erosion risk when cultivated, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Severe erosion risk, slope, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate to severe erosion risk, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits


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Yaqara

199

Macuata

Rukuruku

Delaibo

Naweni

Batiwai

200

201

202

203

204

Soil Series Name

Vatukoula

198

Series ID

Tavua

197

IIs IIIs Vie VIIe

204B

204C, 204D

204E, 204F

204G

IIIw

VIIIe

202H

203B, 203C

VIIe

202G

IIw

VIs

202E, 202F

203A

IVs

202D

IVe

201C, 201D

VIIIe

200H IIIs

VIIe

200E, 200F, 200G

201B

IVs

Land Use Capability Class

200C, 200D

Soil Map Unit Code

IIIs

199C

VIIIe

198G, 198H IIs

VIe

198E, 198F

199A, 199B

IVs

197E, 197F

198C, 198D

IVs VIe

197C, 197D

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate to severe erosion risk where forest cleared, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Clayey, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Poorly drained, slow permeability, slope

Poorly drained, slow permeability, infrequent flooding

Moderate to severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, bouldery and stony soils, limited rooting depth, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, steep slopes, bouldery and stony soils, limited rooting depth, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, slight erosion risk, bouldery and stony soils, limited rooting depth, nutrient deficiencies

Bouldery and stony soils, limited rooting depth, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Very severe erosion, very steep slopes, nutrient deficiencies, Al, toxicity, seasonal moisture deficits, past erosion (uneven ground surface)

Severe erosion risk, slope, nutrient deficiencies, Al, toxicity, seasonal moisture deficits, past erosion (uneven ground surface)

Slope, nutrient deficiencies, Al, toxicity, seasonal moisture deficits, past erosion (uneven ground surface)

Main Soil Limitations

Slope, clayey, seasonal moisture deficits

Clayey, seasonal moisture deficits

Severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, rock outcrops, surface and profile boulders, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate erosion risk, rock outcrops, surface and profile boulders, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Rock outcrops, surface and profile boulders, shallow soil, acid, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate to severe erosion risk, surface boulders, clayey, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Surface boulders, clayey, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits


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Navai

Nadrau

Naitata

Manuka

Ucunilawe

Soqulu

Matana

Salialailai

212

213

214

215

216

217

218

219

Soil Series Name

Nadala

211

Series ID

Nadranu

210

Ledrutua

208

Kuta

Delainacau

207

209

Soil Series Name

Korotuku

206

Series ID

Bureni

205

Soil Map Unit Code

219G, 219H

Land Use Capability Class

VIIIe

IVs VIe

218E

VIIIe

VIIIe

218D

217G, 217H

216G, 216H

IVs

VIIe

214G

215D, 215E

VIs

IIIw

IIs

IIs

IVw

214E, 214F

213

212

211

210

VIIIw

VIIIe

208H

209

VIIe

VIe

208E, 208F

208G

IVs

VIe

207E, 207F

208C, 208D

IVs

207C, 207D

Land Use Capability Class

IIIe

206C

Soil Map Unit Code

IIs

Vie

205E, 205F

206A, 206B

IVs

205C, 205D

Main Soil Limitations

Severe erosion risk, surface boulders, steep slopes, rapid permeability, acid, P fixation, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, rapid permeability, acid, nutrient deficiencies, P fixation

Rapid permeability, acid, nutrient deficiencies, P fixation

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, acid, P fixation, nutrient deficiencies

Very severe erosion risk, steep slopes, surface boulders, rock outcrops, acid, P fixation, nutrient deficiencies

Rock outcrops, surface boulders, rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies, acid, P fixation

Moderate erosion risk, steep slopes, rock outcrops, surface and profile boulders, rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, rock outcrops, surface and profile boulders, rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies

Poorly drained, infrequent flooding

Acid, subsoil boulders, P fixation, infrequent flooding

Acid, nutrient deficiencies

Floods, imperfectly drained

Permanently flooded, nutrient deficiencies

Very severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, shallow soil, stony, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, shallow soil, stony, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Moderate erosion risk, shallow soil, stony, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits

Shallow soil, stony, nutrient deficiencies, seasonal moisture deficits, slight erosion risk

Moderate to severe erosion risk, slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Acid, nutrient deficiencies, slope, slight to moderate erosion risk if cultivated

Main Soil Limitations

Erosion risk when cultivated, rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies, P retention

Rapid permeability, nutrient deficiencies, P retention

Moderate erosion risk when forest cleared, slope, clayey, slow permeability, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Clayey, slow permeability, acid, nutrient deficiencies


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Tagimaucia

Lewa

Waibici

Monasavu

Nadarivatu

Wailulu

Nabuesa

Qalinaolo

220

221

222

223

224

225

226

227

VIIIe

225G, 225H

IIIs VIe

227C, 227D

227E

226G, 226H IIs

VIIIe

226E, 226F

227A, 227B

IIIs VIe

226C, 226D

IIs

VIe

225E, 225F

226B

IIs IIIs

VIIIe

224G, 224H

225A, 225B

VIe

224E, 224F

225C, 225D

IVs

VIIIe

223G, 223H

224C, 224D

VIe

223E, 223F

VIIe

222G IIIs

VIe

222E, 222F

223D

IIIs

VIIIe

221H

222C, 222D

VIe VIIe

221G

IVe

221C, 221D

221E, 221F

IIs

Vc

221A, 221B

220A, 220B

Moderate erosion risk, stony, acid, nutrient deficiencies, P fixation

Slope, stony, acid, nutrient deficiencies, P fixation

Stony, acid, nutrient deficiencies, P fixation

Severe erosion risk, very steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Acid, nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Acid, nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, rock outcrops, surface boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, rock outcrops, surface boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Rock outcrops, surface boulders, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Acid, nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion, steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion, slope, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Acid, nutrient deficiencies

Very severe erosion, very steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Severe erosion risk, steep slopes, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Slope, moderate to severe erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Moderate erosion risk, acid, nutrient deficiencies

Acid, nutrient deficiencies

Constant wetness, acid, P fixation, nutrient deficiencies


6. 6.1

LAND AND SOIL ATTRIBUTES SIGNIFICANT FOR CROP GROWTH Introduction

The process of interpreting basic soil survey and laboratory characterisation of soils data through the key steps of assessing suitability of soils for crop production, then ultimately gross margins for crops required a compilation of soil attributes significant for crop growth into a user-friendly format. Note the soil technical information is available elsewhere, viz. Fiji Soil Taxonomic Unit Description Handbook (Leslie and Seru, 1998). The extended legend (Table 3) endeavours to present information in a format that can be easily utilised by extension officers, planners, etc. to promote agro-production with farmers and agri-business developers. To give interpretative background to the columns in the extended legend explanatory notes follow. (i)

Slope microrelief

Slope class and range of slopes are given in terms of slope classes defined by the Land Use Section of Koronivia Research Station (Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries 1977): - Flat to gently undulating (0° to 3°) - Undulating (4° to 7°) - Easy rolling (8° to 11°) - Rolling (12° to 15°) - Strongly rolling (16° to 20°) - Moderately steep (21° to 25°) - Steep (26° to 35°) - Very steep (>35°) Microrelief is used to describe small-scale differences in relief on the macrorelief, and is not to be confused with low relief. The general surface may be nearly uniform or it may be interrupted by steps, minor depressions and mounds that are commonly no more than a few metres across and have significant differences in elevation of 50 cm to 1 m or even less. The small terracettes on hillsides where soil creep is active, and miniature hummocks, are typical examples. (ii)

Susceptibility to flooding

Describes the severity and susceptibility, or otherwise, to flooding experienced by the soil. The frequency (times per year) of flooding, the duration (days) flood waters pond and the period (month) in the year when flooding occurs. The majority of soils never experience flooding. (iii)

Susceptibility to erosion

Gives the severity and type of soil erosion under the major present land uses. It records evidence of accelerated removal or deposition of material as the result of erosion processes and distinguishes between water erosion (sheet, rill, gully), mass movement (debris slides and avalanches, mud flows, rotational slumps), water deposition, wind erosion and wind deposition. The degree or severity of erosion is given in relative terms of nil, slight, moderate, severe and very severe. (iv)

Susceptibility to waterlogging

Describes the severity and susceptibility for soils to waterlog. The position or depth in the soil at which waterlogging occurs in normal years, the duration (days) and period (months) in the year when waterlogging occurs are given. The majority of soils never experience waterlogging. (v)

Susceptibility to drought

Describes the probability in normal years for moisture deficits to be experienced in soils. The duration (days) of soil A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

93


moisture deficit and the period (months) in the year when deficits occur are given. Many soils never experience moisture deficits in normal years. (vi)

Overall drainage

Gives the overall drainage classes for the soil based on those given by Taylor and Pohlen (1979). The classes are defined by the frequency and duration of wet periods and the speed at which water is removed from the soil. Profile features such as presence or absence of ferruginous mottles and greyish colours are used in the identification of classes. The soil drainage classes are: very poorly drained; poorly drained; imperfectly or somewhat poorly drained; moderately well drained; well drained; somewhat excessively drained; and excessively drained. The class refers to natural drainage conditions prevailing at sites where the soil occurs. (vii) Profile textural pattern Gives any variations in soil texture within the profile to a soil depth of 120 cm. The thickness (cm) and depth (cm) from the soil surface of the different horizons are described. Alluvium or weathered or unweathered in situ rock, if encountered within the 120 cm, is also described. The texture classes follow Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff 1975) and are defined as follows: (a)

classes with less than 18% clay: • sand: 80% or more sand and 8% or less clay • loamy sand: less than 80% sand, 8% or less clay, and less than 40% silt • sandy loam: more than 8% clay and less than 40% silt • loamy silt: between 40% and 82% silt • silt: more than 82% silt

(b)

classes with 18% to 35% clay: • sandy clay loam: 15% or less silt • clay loam: more than 15% and less than 40% silt • silt loam: 40% or more silt

(c)

classes with more than 35% clay: • silty clay: less than 60% clay and 30% or more silt • loamy clay: less than 60% clay and less than 30% silt • clay: 60% clay or more

A size qualifier may be used as a prefix in sand, loamy sand, sandy loam and sandy clay loam soil texture classes: coarse, medium, fine. Estimates of the percentage of organic matter in topsoils are made, based on the feel and colour of the material. Soil material with 17% organic matter or more is recorded as follows: 17-30% slightly peaty silt loam (or other textural class) 30-50% sandy peat (with >50% sand in mineral fraction) 30-50% loamy peat (with <50% sand in mineral fraction)

>50% peat (viii) Minimum effective rooting depth Effective rooting depth describes the soil volume available for plant roots to penetrate and take up water, nutrients, etc. and to give stability to the plant. On compact rock, the volume of soil penetrated by roots is limited by the depth of soil, though a few roots can break out through cracks and fissures. On loose or weathered rocks and alluvium, such as gravels and sands, roots penetrate beyond the soil. Ease of rooting depends primarily on soil structure, texture and consistency. Iron pans, concretions, very thick clay-rich horizons, high water tables (can be seasonal) or impeded drainage, salinity, etc. can confine roots to only part of the soil. Depths to the impediment are given and the nature of the feature controlling this, such as high water table, aluminium toxicity, low nutrient status, are described.

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A soil on which roots penetrate to only 10 cm would be described as very shallow; 10–25 cm, shallow; 25–50 cm, medium; 50–100 cm, deep; and over 100 cm, very deep. The depth to which roots penetrate also depends, obviously, on the type of plant.

(ix)

Outcrops and surface stones and boulders

Rock outcrops and surface boulders and stones influence access and workability in the case of mechanisation. In the extended legend, the percentage of the ground surface of the site occupied has been estimated:

(i)

rock outcrops: in situ bedrock that protrudes through the soil;

(ii)

boulders: detached rock masses with diameters of more than 200 mm.

(x)

Acidity/Alkalinity

Soil reaction, the intensity of soil acidity or alkalinity, is an indicator of many other soil qualities. It is expressed in units of pH where pH7 is neutral, lower values indicate acidity, and higher values alkalinity. The general terms for describing the range of pH are:

Extremely acid

<4.5

Slightly alkaline

7.1-7.5

Strongly acid

4.5–5.2

Mod. alkaline

7.6–8.3

Mod. acid

5.3–5.9

Strongly alkaline

8.4–9.0

Slightly acid

6.0–6.5

Extremely alkaline

>9.0

Near neutral

6.6–7.0

Acidity or alkalinity status is given for whole soil profile or, where there is variation, for the individual horizon(s) with soil depths. (xi)

Salinity

Saline soils are of relatively small extent in Fiji. They are restricted to the saline gley (acid sulphate) soils of coastal mangrove marshes. Only a few kinds of plants survive in soils strongly affected by salt. Only five soil series are moderately or strongly affected by salt. (xii) Known limiting nutrients An important outcome of the national soil survey and full characterisation of soils is to make as good an estimate as possible of the fertility of the soil series recognised. A fertile soil may be defined as one whose properties enable it to grow good crops over a long period of time, and soil fertility is the attribute of a soil concerned with its capacity to grow useful plants. • Many of the soils in Fiji do not attain the ideal, and it is the purpose of this report to estimate which soil series fall short in this respect. Based on laboratory analyses designed to fully characterise soils and facilitate soil classifications, those soil attributes of relevance to soil fertility were also derived. The key soil attributes limiting crop production considered were:

Cation-exchange properties (exchange capacity – CEC;

base saturation;

exchangeable bases – calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium);

total nitrogen;

extractable phosphorous and phosphorous retention;

exchangeable aluminium;

adsorbed sulphate.

Only those attributes giving limiting values are listed in the extended legend expressed as low or very low values and, if relevant, where in the profile (depth) these limitations occur.

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Rolling to moderately Never floods. steep (12-25°). Very uneven microrelief due to windthrow, deep rilling and slides.

43D, 43E, 43F

204B, 204C

204D, 204E

204F, 204G

55

40A, 40B

40C

40D, 40E

Ba

Batawai

Batawai

Batawai

Batiki

Bua

Bua

Bua

Never floods.

Never floods.

Never waterlogs.

Experienced severe past erosion. Very severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never waterlogs.

Experienced severe past Never waterlogs. erosion. Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Slight past erosion. Never waterlogs. Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential on slopes >3°.

Water table at or near the ground surface during the months November to April and rarely drops below 60cm depth in the remaining months.

Moderate to severe sheet Never waterlogs. and rill erosion potential. Moderate debris slide erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential. Slight soil slip erosion potential.

Slight sheet and rill erosion Never waterlogs. potential.

Minor soil slips and debris Never waterlogs. slides. Extreme past sheet and rill erosion. 50% of area has total soil loss. Very severe erosion potential.

Extreme past sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion. Very severe erosion potential.

Susceptibility to Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Extreme past sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion. Very severe erosion potential.

In normal years frequent (5 No erosion risk. times per year) surface flooding with water ponding for up to 10 days may occur sometime in the period November to April.

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Uneven microrelief.

Easy rolling (8-11°). Generally uneven microrelief.

Flat to undulating (0-7°). Generally smooth microrelief.

Flat (0°). Few hummocks (<30cm amplitude).

Moderately steep to Never floods. steep (21-35°). Uneven microrelief.

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Smooth microrelief.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Easy rolling (8-11°). Never floods. Very uneven microrelief due to windthrow and past rill erosion.

Slope Microrelief Susceptibility to Flooding Undulating (4-7°). Very Never floods. uneven microrelief due to windthrow and past erosion.

43C

Soil Map Unit 43B

Ba

Soil Series Ba

0-150cm strongly acid.

0-220cm strongly acid.

0-20cm friable gravelly clay loam. 20-62cm firm gravelly clay loam. 62-125cm friable clay loam.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of >120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

>125cm. Note No surface rock very low subsoil outcrops. Common lag nutrient status gravels. and aluminium toxicity.

0-20cm friable silty clay >125cm. Note No surface rock loam. 20-60cm firm gravelly very low subsoil outcrops. Common lag clay loam. nutrient status gravels. 60-120cm friable clay loam. and aluminium toxicity.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits >120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

0-17cm friable silty clay >125cm. Note No surface rock loam. 17-49cm firm gravelly very low subsoil outcrops. No surface clay loam. nutrient status stones or boulders. 49-109cm friable to firm clay and aluminium loam. 109-149cm friable toxicity. clay loam.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of >120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

0-30cm silty clay loam. 30- <60cm. Note 125cm+ clay. Note 'n' value high seasonal >0.7. water table.

0-125cm strongly acid. Note variable charge.

0-120cm strongly acid. Note variable charge.

0-149cm strongly acid. Note variable charge.

0-125cm strongly acid.

<125cm. Note No surface rock 0-150cm low subsoil outcrops except in areas strongly acid. nutrient status. of mass movement. No surface stones or boulders.

<125cm. Note No surface rock low subsoil outcrops. No surface nutrient status. stones or boulders.

<140cm. Note No surface rock low subsoil outcrops. No surface nutrient status. stones or boulders.

Soil moisture deficits are Very poorly never experienced in normal drained. years.

Soil moisture deficits are Well drained. 0-120cm silty clay loam. never experienced in normal 120-150cm strongly years. weathered in situ rock (silt loam).

Soil moisture deficits are Well drained. 0-15cm clay loam. never experienced in normal 15-125cm silty clay loam. 125-150cm+ strongly years. weathered in situ rock (silt loam).

Soil moisture deficits are Well drained. 0-13cm clay loam. never experienced in normal 13-143cm silty clay loam. years. 143-220cm strongly weathered in situ rock (silt loam).

%BS, organic carbon, calcium, potassium, phosphorus and sodium very low. CEC low.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Very low nitrogen and potassium. Also, possible aluminium toxicity.

Very low nitrogen and potassium. Possible aluminium toxicity.

Very low nitrogen and potassium. Possible aluminium toxicity.

Not analysed.

Very low phosphorus throughout. Very low potassium below 16cm.

Very low phosphorus throughout. Very low potassium below 15cm.

Non saline. Very low phosphorus throughout. Very low potassium below 13cm.

No surface rock 0-60cm strongly Non saline. outcrops. Strongly acid. weathered regolith exposed in 50% of area. Surface stones and boulders cover 20% of area.

%BS, organic carbon, calcium, potassium, phosphorus and sodium very low. CEC low.

No surface outcrops. 0-60cm strongly Non saline. acid. Strongly weathered regolith exposed in 20% of area. Surface stones and boulders cover 10% of area.

<25cm In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-23cm gritty clay loam. 23-63cm+ clay loam (in situ deficits >120 days are weathered rock). experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-23cm gritty clay loam. <20cm deficits >120 days are 20-60cm+ clay loam (in situ experienced sometime in the weathered rock). period May to October.

Known Limiting Nutrients %BS, organic carbon, phosphorus, calcium, potassium and sodium very low. CEC low.

Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Stones and Boulders Alkalinity Salinity 0-63cm strongly Non saline. No surface rock acid. outcrops. Strongly weathered regolith exposed in 10% of area. Surface stones cover 10% of area.

Overall Min. Effect. Susceptibility to Drought Drainage Profile Textural Pattern Rooting Depth In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-30cm gritty clay loam. <30cm deficits >120 days are 30-60cm+ clay loam (in situ experienced sometime in the weathered rock). period May to October.

Table 3: Extended legend : land and soil attributes significant for crop growth


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205D, 205E, Strongly rolling to steep Never floods. 205F (16-35°). Smooth microrelief.

121B, 121C

Bureni

Burenitu

78A, 78B, 78C

154D, 154E, Rolling to moderately Never floods. 154F steep (12-25°). Uneven microrelief.

154G, 154H Steep to very steep (26- Never floods. 40°). Uneven microrelief.

133A

133B, 133C

133D

Cuku

Cuku

Daria

Daria

Daria

Never floods.

Rolling (12-15°). Never floods. Uneven microrelief with hummocky surface.

Undulating and easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Hummocky microrelief.

Flat (0-3°). Generally uneven microrelief.

From flat to easy rolling Never floods. 0-11°). Generally even microrelief in natural state.

Never floods.

Cikobia

Moderately steep to steep (21-35°). Terracettes. Uneven microrelief.

121F, 121G

Burenitu

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Generally uneven microrelief due to soil creep.

121D, 121E

Never floods.

Burenitu

Undulating to easy rolling (4-11°). Generally smooth microrelief.

Flat to gently undulating Never floods. (0-3°). Easy rolling to rolling (8-15°). Smooth microrelief.

205C

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

0-12cm silty clay loam. 12-80cm clay loam. 80-125cm silty clay loam.

0-10cm silty clay loam. 10-100cm clay loam. 100-150cm silty clay loam.

Profile Textural Pattern 0-28cm firm sticky clay. 2850cm soft sticky clay. >50cm soft sticky massive clay.

In normal years In normal years soil moisture Imperfectly waterlogging below 70cm deficits are not experienced. drained. may be experienced for up to 60 days sometime in the period November to April.

In normal years In normal years soil moisture Imperfectly waterlogging below 50cm deficits are not experienced. drained. may be experienced for up to 60 days sometime in the period November to April.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits of >100 days are well drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits of >100 days are well drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

0-15cm clay loam. 15-100cm clay.

0-18cm clay loam. 18-120cm clay.

0-20cm clay loam. 20-125cm clay.

0-10cm firm silty clay loam. 10-24cm firm silt loam. 24-50+ friable weathered in situ rock.

0-12cm firm silty clay. 12-26cm firm silt loam. 26-50cm+ friable weathered in situ rock.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-22cm clay loam. deficits >120 days are 22-95cm clay. experienced sometime in the On coralline rock. period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-100cm clay loam. deficits of 80-90 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-120cm clay loam. deficits of 60-90 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-16cm clay. deficits are never 16-125cm silty clay loam. experienced.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits are never well drained. experienced.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits are never well drained. experienced.

Slight sheet and rill erosion In normal years In normal years soil moisture Imperfectly potential. waterlogging below 70cm deficits are not experienced. drained. may be experienced for up to 40 days sometime in the period November to April.

No erosion risk.

No erosion risk.

Significant past erosion. Never waterlogs. Moderate to severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Significant past erosion. Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Occurrence only on gently Never waterlogs. sloping land negates any potential erosion.

Severe sheet, soil creep, debris slide and slump erosion potential.

Moderate to severe sheet, Never waterlogs. rill, soil creep and debris slide erosion potential.

Slight sheet and rill erosion Never waterlogs. potential. Potential soil creep where grazed.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential when forest cleared.

Slight to moderate sheet Never waterlogs. and rill erosion potential on slopes >2° when forest cleared.

Susceptibility to Overall Susceptibility to Flooding Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Susceptibility to Drought Drainage Floods regularly associated No erosion risk. Water table at 50cm during Soil moisture deficits are Very poorly with high intensity storms. months November to April. rarely experienced in normal drained. High water table and slow years. runoff.

Bureni

Slope Microrelief Level or near level (0-1°).

Soil Map Unit 51

Soil Series Bucaisau

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

Surface rock outcrops occupy 8% of the area. No surface stones or boulders.

Surface rock outcrops occupy 8% of the area. No surface stones or boulders.

Surface rock outcrops cover <10% of area. Surface stones and boulders cover 10% of area.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

<100cm. Note No surface rock seasonal outcrops. No surface waterlogging. stones or boulders.

<100cm. Note No surface rock seasonal outcrops. No surface waterlogging. stones or boulders.

<100cm. Note No surface rock seasonal outcrops. No surface waterlogging. stones or boulders.

<25cm. Weathered in situ rock at 25cm.

<25cm. Weathered in situ rock at 25cm.

<75-100cm

<100cm

<100cm

<100cm

<80cm. Firm No surface rock and weakly iron outcrops. No surface cemented stones or boulders. horizon at 80cm.

<100cm. Iron pan at 100cm.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Salinity Non saline.

0-100cm strongly acid.

0-120cm strongly acid. Note variable charge.

0-125cm strongly acid.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

0-24cm slightly Non saline. acid. 24-50cm+ near neutral.

0-26cm slightly Non saline. acid. 26-50cm+ near neutral.

0-50cm slightly Non saline. alkaline. 50-95cm moderately alkaline.

Moderately acid.

Moderately acid.

Moderately acid.

0-125cm strongly acid.

0-150cm strongly acid.

Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders Alkalinity <50cm. Note No surface rock 0-50cm high seasonal outcrops. No surface moderately water table. stones or boulders. acid.

Low BS% and potassium.

Low BS% and potassium.

Low BS% and potassium.

Very low phosphorus and potassium.

Very low phosphorus and potassium.

Very low potassium throughout. Low calcium and magnesium below 50cm. Very low CEC >50cm depth.

Potassium very low.

Potassium very low.

Very low potassium.

Very low phosphorus.

Very low phosphorus.

Known Limiting Nutrients High %BS. Calcium and magnesium medium. Potassium very low.


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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Soil Map Unit

202G, 202H Steep to very steep (26->35°). Smooth microrelief.

183C

183D, 183E

183F, 183G

207C

207D, 207E

207F

Delaibo

Delaimatai

Delaimatai

Delaimatai

Delainacau

Delainacau

Delainacau

Never floods.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Moderately steep (21-25°). Uneven microrelief.

Never floods.

Rolling and strongly Never floods. rolling (12-20°). Uneven microrelief.

Easy rolling (8-11°). Uneven microrelief.

Moderately steep to steep (21-35°). Generally even microrelief.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage In normal years soil moisture Somewhat deficits of 60-70 days are excessively experienced sometime in the drained. period May to October.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never waterlogs.

0-10cm silt loam. 10-40cm clay loam. 40-125cm clay.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits >100 days are well drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

0-12cm friable slightly sandy clay. 12-32cm friable clay. 32-44cm friable very slightly sandy clay. 44-69cm friable to firm sandy clay. On weathered tuff. In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-12cm friable sandy clay. deficits of up to 60 days are 12-35cm friable clay. experienced sometime in the 35-70cm firm sandy clay. period May to October. On weathered tuff.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 50 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

<70cm. In situ No surface rock rock at 70cm. outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

<70cm. In situ No surface rock rock at 70cm. outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

Non saline.

Non saline.

0-70cm strongly Non saline. acid.

0-32cm moderately acid. 32-69cm strongly acid.

0-40cm moderately acid. 40-70cm strongly acid.

Non saline.

Non saline.

0-140cm Few surface rock outcrops. Few surface strongly acid. boulders.

<100cm. Firm Few surface rock 0-125cm outcrops. Few surface strongly acid. weathered in boulders. situ at about 100cm.

<100cm

Non saline.

No surface rock 0-125cm outcrops. Rare surface strongly acid. stones and boulders.

0-31cm slightly Non saline. acid. 31-125cm slightly alkaline.

<50cm. Note No surface rock seasonal subsoil outcrops. No surface waterlogging. stones or boulders.

<100cm

0-20cm slightly Non saline. acid. 20-55cm near neutral. 55-125cm slightly alkaline.

0-30cm slightly Non saline. acid. 30-65cm near neutral. 65-100cm slightly alkaline.

Salinity Non saline.

<55cm. Note No surface rock seasonal subsoil outcrops. No surface waterlogging. stones or boulders.

<65cm. Note No surface rock seasonal subsoil outcrops. No surface waterlogging. stones or boulders.

Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders Alkalinity >100cm No surface rock 0-120cm outcrops. No surface slightly acid. stones or boulders.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-40cm friable sandy clay. <70cm. In situ No surface rock deficits of up to 45 days are 40-70cm firm sandy clay. rock at 70cm. outcrops. No surface experienced sometime in the On weathered tuff. stones or boulders. period May to October.

0-6cm clay loam. 6-125cm silty clay.

0-25cm clay loam. 25-125cm silty clay.

0-14cm clay. 14-48cm sandy clay. On in situ weathered rock (coarse sand).

0-20cm clay. 20-55cm sandy clay. On in situ weathered rock (coarse sand).

0-30cm clay. 30-65cm sandy clay. On in situ weathered rock (coarse sand).

Profile Textural Pattern 0-8cm loose sandy loam. 8-120cm loose sand.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately well drained. deficits >100 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits >90 days are well drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years In normal years soil moisture Moderately waterlogging below 15cm deficits of up to 15 days may well drained. (due to subsoil lateral flow be experienced sometime in and impermeable substrate) the period May to October. may be experienced for up to 60 days sometime in the period November to April.

In normal years In normal years soil moisture Moderately waterlogging below 30cm deficits are never well drained. (due to subsoil lateral flow experienced. and impermeable substrate) may be experienced for up to 60 days sometime in the period November to April.

Moderate to severe sheet Never waterlogs. and rill erosion potential.

Slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Soil slides in some areas. Moderate to severe sheet and rill erosion potential and moderate debris slide potential.

Topsoil losses have been experienced in some areas. Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Slight sheet and rill erosion In normal years In normal years soil moisture Moderately potential. waterlogging below 20cm deficits are never well drained. (due to subsoil lateral flow experienced. and impermeable substrate) may be experienced for up to 90 days sometime in the period November to April.

Susceptibility to Susceptibility to Flooding Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Never floods. No erosion hazard. Never waterlogs.

Rolling to strongly Never floods. rolling(12-20°). Smooth microrelief.

Easy rolling (8-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Strongly rolling to moderately steep (16-25°). Smooth microrelief.

202E, 202F

Delaibo

Rolling (12-15°). Smooth microrelief.

Slope Microrelief Flat to near level (0-2°). Smooth microrelief.

202D

14

Delaibo

Soil Series Dawasamu

Low phosphorus and potassium.

Low phosphorus and potassium.

Low phosphorus and potassium.

Phosphorus and potassium very low.

Phosphorus and potassium very low below 6cm.

Phosphorus and potassium very low below 15cm.

Low potassium.

Low potassium.

Low potassium.

Known Limiting Nutrients Low potassium and phosphorus.


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99

156B, 156C

156D, 156E, Rolling to moderately Never floods. 156F steep (12-25°). Uneven microrelief.

71A

71B

Dogotuki

Dogotuki

Drasa

Drasa

Severe to very severe sheet and rill erosion potential. Have experienced past erosion.

Never floods.

Slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Moderate to severe sheet Never waterlogs. and rill erosion potential. Have experienced past erosion.

Permanently waterlogged.

Moderate sheet and soil Never waterlogs. creep erosion potential. Severe slumping potential.

Flat to gently undulating In normal years and on Slight sheet erosion (0-3°). Smooth slopes <2° flooding for up to potential on slopes >2°. microrelief. 3 days duration may occur on 2 occasions sometime in the period November to April.

Undulating (4-7°). Smooth microrelief.

Never waterlogs.

Very poorly drained.

0-25cm friable clay loam. 25-50cm friable clay. On weathered in situ parent material of heavy clay.

0-8cm friable clay loam. 8-28cm friable clay. 28-33cm friable silty clay. On weathered in situ parent material of heavy clay.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-125cm clay. deficits of >120 days may be experienced sometime during May to October.

Non saline.

Non saline.

0-80cm strongly Non saline. acid. 80125cm slightly acid.

0-30cm Non saline. extremely acid. 30-75cm strongly acid. 75-125cm slightly acid.

Surface rock outcrops Strongly acid. cover 5% of the surface. No surface boulders or stones.

>125cm. Note No surface rock low subsoil outcrops. Few fine nutrient status. surface stones and gravels.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Salinity Non saline.

0-12cm slightly Strongly alkaline. saline. 12-35cm strongly acid. 35-130cm near neutral. 130150cm slightly alkaline.

Moderately acid.

Moderately acid.

Moderately acid.

Acidity/ Alkalinity 0-18cm moderately acid. 18-46cm strongly acid. 46-69cm moderately acid. 69-89cm strongly acid. 89-115cm moderately acid.

Surface rock outcrops Strongly acid. cover 3% of the surface. No surface boulders or stones.

>125cm. Note No surface rock low subsoil outcrops. Few fine nutrient status. surface stones and gravels.

<50cm. Strongly weathered in situ rock at 50cm.

<35cm. Strongly weathered in situ rock at 35cm.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

<85cm. Few surface rock Paralithic outcrops. No surface contact at about stones or boulders. 85cm.

<100cm. Few surface rock Paralithic outcrops. No surface contact at about stones or boulders. 100cm.

Few surface rock <90cm. Paralithic outcrops. No surface contact at about stones or boulders. 90cm.

0-12cm humic sandy clay 0cm. Due to loam. permanent 12-70cm peaty silty clay. 70- flooding. 130cm fine sandy clay loam. 130-180cm+ very fine sandy clay loam.

0-30cm clay. 30-85cm sandy clay. 85-100cm loamy sand (in situ rock).

0-46cm clay. 46-103cm sandy clay loam. 103-130cm loamy sand (in situ rock).

0-50cm clay loam. 50-90cm sandy clay loam. 90-120cm loamy sand (in situ rock).

Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Profile Textural Pattern Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders 0-18cm fine sandy loam. 18- <90cm. Note No surface rock 46cm medium sand. 46high seasonal outcrops. No surface 115cm coarse sand. water table and stones and boulders. low subsoil nutrient status.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-125cm clay. deficits of up to 100-120 days may be experienced sometime during May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 70 days are experienced sometime during May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 70 days are experienced sometime during May to October.

Soil moisture deficits are never experienced.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 80-90 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 60 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 60 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Susceptibility to Overall Waterlogging Susceptibility to Drought Drainage In normal years the water Soil moisture deficits are Very poorly table fluctuates between never experienced. drained. 60cm (summer) and 90cm (winter) but can be at the surface for short periods.

Moderate sheet and soil Never waterlogs. creep erosion potential. Severe slumping potential.

Slight sheet erosion potential.

Permanently flooded No erosion risk. though fluctuating diurnally with the tides.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Flat to near level (0-1°). Uneven microrelief due to mangrove roots.

5

Dogo

Never floods.

122F, 122G, Moderately to very 122H steep (21-40°). Terracettes. Uneven microrelief.

Dobuilevu

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Small terracettes.

Never floods. Undulating to easy rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Susceptibility to Flooding Susceptibility to Erosion In normal years, and No erosion risk. because of high water table and topographical position, flooding can occur for up to 10 days on 3-4 occasions sometime in the period November to April.

122D, 122E

122B, 122C

Dobuilevu

Slope Microrelief Flat to near level (0-1°). Weakly expressed ridge and swale microrelief.

Dobuilevu

Soil Map Unit 13

Soil Series Deuba

Very low potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen.

Low nitrogen, very low potassium, low phosphorus.

Low phosphorus and potassium.

Low phosphorus and potassium.

Low phosphorus.

Low potassium in subsoils.

Low potassium in subsoils.

Low potassium in subsoils.

Known Limiting Nutrients Very low phosphorus and potassium throughout.


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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Soil Map Unit

From flat to gently 3-4 floods per year (water No erosion risk. undulating to undulating only) occur sometime in the (0-7°). Surface period November to April. hummocks (Gilgai).

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Forest dimpled microrelief.

Moderately steep to very steep (21-35°). Forest dimpled microrelief.

90A

90B, 90C

90D, 90E

83

118A, 118B

136D, 136E

136F, 136G

Dulevi

Dulevi

Dulevi

Ekubu

Emuri

Gaigai

Gaigai

Never floods.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Flat to gently undulating Never floods. (0-3°). Smooth microrelief.

Rolling and strongly rolling (12-20°). Microrelief forest dimpled.

Undulating and easy rolling (4-11°). Microrelief forest dimpled.

Flat to gently undulating Never floods. (0-3°). Uneven microrelief.

Rolling and strongly Never floods. rolling (12-20°). Uneven microrelief.

In normal years waterlogging may occur for up to 60 days on slopes <4° sometime in the period November to April.

Can waterlog in the subsoil for up to 30 days sometime in the period November to April.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Moderate to severe sheet Never waterlogs. and rill erosion potential when forest cleared. Moderate debris slide erosion potential.

0-14cm peaty silty clay. 14-72cm clay. 72-95cm silty clay. 95-141cm silty clay loam.

0-15cm very friable clay >120cm loam. 15-70cm very friable sandy clay loam. 70-120cm friable gravelly clay loam.

0-18cm very friable clay >120cm loam. 18-42cm very friable very sandy clay loam. 42-108cm very friable sandy clay. 108-120cm gravelly clay loam.

0-20cm very friable clay >120cm loam. 20-80cm very friable sandy clay. 80-120cm friable to firm gravelly clay loam.

0-18cm moderately acid. 18-120cm slightly acid.

0-20cm moderately acid. 20-120cm slightly acid.

0-50cm moderately acid.

0-45cm moderately acid.

Non saline.

Non saline

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

0-14cm strongly Strongly acid. saline. 14-32cm extremely acid. 32-95cm strongly acid. 95-120cm slightly acid.

Surface rock outcrops 0-15cm cover 5% of the surface. moderately acid. No surface stones or 15-120cm boulders. slightly acid.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

<50cm. In situ No surface rock tuff at 50cm. outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

<50cm. In situ No surface rock tuff at 50cm. outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

<60cm. Note No surface rock high water table outcrops. No surface fluctuating with stones or boulders. tides.

Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders Alkalinity Salinity >125cm. Note No surface rock 0-25cm strongly Non saline. low subsoil outcrops. No surface acid. 25125cm slightly nutrient status. stones. acid.

0-110cm clay.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 5 days are experienced on 2-3 occasions sometime in the period May to October.

0-55cm firm clay loam. 55-92cm friable fine sandy loam. 92-200cm friable bouldery sandy loam.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-50cm firm clay loam. deficits are never 50-86cm friable very fine experienced. sandy loam. 86-150cm bouldery very fine sandy loam.

In normal years soil moisture Poorly deficits >100 days are drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

>125cm

>125cm

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

0-200cm strongly acid.

Non saline.

Non saline.

0-20cm Non saline. moderately acid. 20-60cm slightly acid. 60110cm slightly alkaline. No surface rock 0-150cm outcrops. Few surface strongly acid. stones or boulders.

<60cm. No surface rock Waterlogging at outcrops. No surface depth during stones or boulders. wet season. Smectitic clays inhibit rooting.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-3cm loose pumice grits. 3- <40cm. In situ Limestone rock outcrops 0-38cm slightly Non saline. deficits of up to 100 days are 18cm friable gravelly clay. limestone at cover 3% of the surface. alkaline. experienced sometime in the On limestone. 40cm. Few surface boulders. period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Somewhat deficits of up to 40 days are excessively experienced sometime in the drained. period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Somewhat deficits of up to 30 days are excessively experienced sometime in the drained. period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Somewhat deficits of up to 30 days are excessively experienced sometime in the drained. period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-25cm friable silty clay deficits are never loam. 25-50cm firm clay experienced. loam. On weathering tuff.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-8cm friable silt loam. deficits are never 8-30cm friable silty clay experienced. loam. 30-45cm firm clay loam. On weathering tuff.

Very poorly drained.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage Profile Textural Pattern In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-125cm clay. deficits of >120 days are experienced sometime during May to October.

In normal years and due to Soil moisture deficits are drainage water table never experienced. maintained at about 6570cm. Can experience short duration waterlogging at the surface during flood and spring tide events.

Moderate to severe sheet Never waterlogs. and rill erosion potential when forest cleared.

No erosion hazard.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

No erosion hazard.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

137D, 137E

Undulating and easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Uneven microrelief.

Driti

No erosion risk.

137B, 137C

Artificially drained. Water table still affected by tidal fluctuations. In normal years would suffer 4-5 floods, each lying for 2-3 days sometime in the period November to April.

Susceptibility to Susceptibility to Flooding Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Never floods. Moderate sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion potential.

Driti

Flat to near level (0-1°). Uneven microrelief due to reclamation and drainage works.

Slope Microrelief Easy rolling (8-11°). Smooth microrelief.

4

71C

Dreketi

Soil Series Drasa

Very low phosphorus.

Very low phosphorus.

Very low potassium below 20cm. Very low phosphorus throughout.

None identified.

Low potassium. High phosphate retention.

Low potassium. High phosphate retention.

Low potassium. High phosphate retention.

Low phosphorus and potassium.

Low phosphorus and potassium.

Low phosphorus. Very low nitrogen below 14cm.

Known Limiting Nutrients Very low nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus status.


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101

169A, 169B, Flat to easy rolling 169C (0-11°). Even microrelief.

169D

Gau

Gau

Never floods.

186E, 186F, Strongly rolling to very Never floods. 186G, 186H steep (16-40°). Uneven microrelief.

Flat to near level (0-1°). Even microrelief.

Easy rolling (8-11°). Commonly smooth microrelief.

100D

65

113C

113D, 113E, Rolling to very steep (12- Never floods. 113F, 113G, 38°). Uneven microrelief (terracettes). 113H

145A

145B

Hafhafu

Kavula

Kedra

Keiyasi

Keiyasi

Kelikoso

Kelikoso

Never floods.

Never floods.

Flat to gently undulating Never floods. (0-3°). Smooth microrelief.

Undulating (4-7°). Smooth microrelief.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet erosion potential following forest clearance.

Slight sheet erosion potential when cleared of forest and cultivated.

Slight sheet erosion risk when forest cleared.

No erosion risk.

Never waterlogs.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never waterlogs.

Slight to moderate sheet Never waterlogs. and rill erosion potential on slopes >2°.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential. Moderate soil slip and debris slide potential.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 100 days are experienced in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Somewhat deficits are never excessively experienced. drained.

In normal years soil moisture Somewhat deficits are never excessively experienced. drained.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits of 100 days are well drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits of 90-100 days are well drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of >110 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 100-110 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

<100cm. Profuse (>75%) boulders below 12cm.

<100cm. Profuse (>75%) boulders below 15cm.

<80cm

0-17cm clay loam. 17-125cm clay.

0-18cm clay loam. 18-125cm clay.

0-37cm silty clay loam. 27-65cm clay loam. 65-125cm in situ weathered rock (sandy clay loam).

0-35cm silty clay loam. 3568cm clay loam. 68-125cm in situ weathered rock (sandy clay loam).

0-23cm friable sandy clay loam. 23-40cm firm to friable sandy clay. 40-90cm soft clay.

0-80cm moderately acid.

0-100cm moderately acid.

Surface rock outcrops 0-125cm cover 15% of the area. slightly acid. Surface boulders and stones cover 10-12% of the area.

>125cm. Note No surface rock low subsoil outcrops. No surface nutrient status. stones or boulders.

0-125cm moderately acid.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Very low potassium.

Very low potassium below 18cm.

Very low phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen.

Surface rock outcrops 0-20cm strongly Non saline. cover 5-8%. No surface acid. 20stones or boulders. 125cm slightly acid. 0-125cm moderately acid.

Very low phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen.

0-21cm strongly Non saline. acid. 21-125cm slightly acid. No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

>125cm. Note No surface rock low subsoil outcrops. No surface nutrient status. stones or boulders.

<65cm. Weathered in situ rock at 65cm.

<65cm. Weathered in situ rock at 65cm.

Low in nitrogen and phosphorus.

Potassium very low below 12cm. Very high P retention.

Potassium very low below 15cm. Very high P retention.

Very low phosphorus and potassium.

Low phosphorus and potassium.

Low phosphorus.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Very low nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Known Limiting Nutrients Very low nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

0-90cm Non saline. moderately acid

<60cm. Water No surface rock table at 60cm outcrops. No surface during the wet stones or boulders. season.

Salinity Non saline.

0-90cm strongly Non saline. acid.

Surface rock outcrops 0-100cm cover 10-15% of the slightly acid. area. Surface boulders and stones cover 1215% of the area.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

0-37cm friable clay loam. <100cm. In situ Surface rock outcrops 0-37cm 37-93cm friable silty clay. rock at 100cm. cover 5% of the surface. moderately Surface stones and 93-111cm firm gravelly silty acid. boulders cover 5% of clay. 37-111cm the surface. strongly acid.

0-52cm stony loam. 52-125cm stony loamy sand.

0-58cm stony loam. 58-100cm+ stony loamy sand.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-20cm friable clay loam. deficits of <90 days are 20-80cm very friable gritty experienced sometime in the clay. period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-40cm friable clay loam. <100cm deficits of <60 days are 40-100cm very friable gritty experienced sometime in the clay. period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-8cm friable clay loam. <100cm deficits of 20-30 days are 8-35cm firm clay. experienced sometime in the 35-90cm friable to firm clay. period May to October.

Overall Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Susceptibility to Drought Drainage Profile Textural Pattern Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders Alkalinity In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-12cm friable to firm clay. <100cm No surface rock 0-103cm deficits of 20-30 days are 12-42cm firm clay. outcrops. No surface strongly acid. experienced sometime in the 42-103cm friable clay. stones or boulders. period May to October.

Waterlogs below 60cm for In normal years soil moisture Poorly 4 months in the period deficits are never drained. November to April. experienced.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Moderate to severe sheet Never waterlogs. and rill erosion potential. Slight soil slip erosion potential.

1 in 20 year return period No erosion risk. for floods depositing alluvium. 2 in 1 year return period for other floods.

Rolling (12-15°). Very Never floods. uneven microrelief due to protruding rock outcrops and boulders.

100B, 100C

Hafhafu

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Very uneven microrelief due to protruding rock outcrops and boulders.

Rolling (12-15°).

Very short duration (24 hours) flooding on slopes <2° during the period November to April.

Have experienced past soil Never waterlogs. erosion. Very severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Susceptibility to Susceptibility to Flooding Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Never floods. Have experienced past soil Never waterlogs. erosion. Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Uneven microrelief.

175D, 175E

Galoa

Slope Microrelief Undulating to easy rolling (4-11°). Even microrelief.

Soil Map Unit 175B, 175C

Soil Series Galoa


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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Soil Map Unit

Steep and very steep Never floods. (26-40°). Very uneven microrelief.

94G, 94H

42A

42B

112E, 112F, Strongly rolling to very Never floods. 112G, 112H steep (16-40°). Uneven microrelief with terracettes and small soil slips.

157B, 157C

157D, 157E

44A

44B, 44C

206A

Koro

Korokadi

Korokadi

Koromavu

Koroniqala

Koroniqala

Koronivia

Koronivia

Korotuku

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Slight sheet erosion potential when cleared of forest and cultivated.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°).

Flat to gently undulating Never floods. (0-3°). Smooth microrelief.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits >120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits of 130 days are well drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits of 130 days are well drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Never waterlogs.

In normal years soil moisture Somewhat deficits of up to 100 days are excessively experienced sometime in the drained. period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Imperfectly deficits are never drained. experienced.

Due to clayey textures and In normal years soil moisture Imperfectly imperfect drainage water deficits are never drained. may surface pond for short experienced. periods (1-2 days) during the period November to April.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Slight sheet and rill erosion Never waterlogs. potential.

No erosion risk.

No erosion risk.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Flat to gently undulating Never floods. (0-3°). Smooth microrelief. Some pugging where grazed.

Never waterlogs.

Severe soil creep, sheet, Never waterlogs. shallow soil slip and debris slide erosion potential.

Slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Uneven microrelief.

Undulating (4-7°). Even Never floods. microrelief.

In normal years may waterlog for up to 10 days on 4-5 occasions in the period November to April.

Non saline.

Non saline.

0-20cm slightly Non saline. acid.

0-30cm moderately acid. 30-149cm strongly acid.

0-159cm strongly acid. Variable charge.

Non saline.

<90cm. Weathered in situ rock at 90cm.

>100cm. Weathered in situ rock at 100cm.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

0-125cm near neutral.

0-35cm moderately acid. 35-125cm strongly acid.

0-41cm moderately acid. 41-130cm strongly acid.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

<50cm. Surface rock outcrops 0-50cm strongly Non saline. Weathered rock cover 5% of the surface. acid. at 50cm. No surface stones or boulders.

Surface rock outcrops 0-60cm strongly Non saline. cover 3% of the surface. acid. No surface boulders or stones.

Surface rock outcrops cover 10-12% of the area. Few surface stones.

<20cm

<60cm. Weathered in situ parent material at 60cm.

No surface rock outcrops. Surface fine stones and gravels (iron nodules) cover 20% of the surface.

>150cm. Note low subsoil nutrient status and aluminium toxicity.

0-40cm friable clay loam. >125cm 40-110cm firm clay. 110-125cm firm sandy clay loam.

0-35cm silt loam. 35-90cm clay loam. 90-125cm silty clay loam.

0-41cm silt loam. 41-100cm clay loam. 100130cm silty clay loam.

0-8cm friable sandy clay loam. 8-50cm firm clay. On strongly weathered in situ rock.

0-10cm friable slightly sandy clay. 10-60cm firm clay. On compact strongly weathered parent material of very plastic clay.

0-10cm silt loam. 10-20cm coarse sandy loam. On in situ fractured rock.

0-30cm very friable gritty silt loam. 30-61cm friable gritty fine sandy clay. 61-134cm friable to firm gravelly silt loam. 134-149cm firm gritty silty clay loam.

0-27cm friable gravelly silty >150cm. Note No surface rock loam. 27-82cm firm gravelly low subsoil outcrops. No surface nutrient status stones or boulders. clay loam. 82-129cm friable clay loam. and aluminium 129-159cm firm gritty clay toxicity. loam.

0-13cm very friable silty <50cm. In situ Rock outcrops cover 0-30cm clay. weathered 15% of the surface. moderately 13-30cm friable silt loam. basalt at 50cm. Boulders occupy 20% of acid. On weathered in situ basalt. the surface.

0-20cm slightly Non saline. acid. 20125cm near neutral.

Acidity/ Alkalinity Salinity 0-22cm slightly Non saline. acid. 22122cm near neutral.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 50 days may be experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Surface rock outcrops over 12-15% of the area. Surface boulders cover 8-12% of the area.

Outcrops & Surface Stones and Boulders Surface rock outcrops cover 10% of area. Surface boulders cover 5-10% of the area.

Never waterlogs.

<100cm. Boulders abundant below 50cm.

Min. Effect. Rooting Depth <100cm. Boulders abundant below 50cm.

0-60cm stony loam. 60-125cm bouldery sandy loam.

Profile Textural Pattern 0-22cm stony silt loam. 22-50cm stony loam. 50-122cm+ bouldery sandy loam.

In normal years soil moisture Somewhat deficits are never excessively experienced. drained.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage In normal years soil moisture Somewhat deficits are never excessively experienced. drained.

Never waterlogs.

Susceptibility to Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Very slight sheet erosion Never waterlogs. potential when cleared of forest and cultivated.

Flat to gently undulating In normal years floods up to No erosion hazard. (0-3°). Even 3-4 days occur on 4-5 microrelief. occasions during the wet season.

Undulating (4-7°). Never floods. Uneven microrelief due to surface boulders and protruding rock outcrops.

Slope Microrelief Susceptibility to Flooding Flat to gently undulating Never floods. (0-3°). Uneven microrelief due to surface boulders and protruding outcrops.

99B

99A

Kirikiri

Soil Series Kirikiri

Low nitrogen and potassium. High phosphate retention.

Potassium very low throughout. Phosphorus low below 17cm.

Potassium very low throughout. Phosphorus low below 18cm.

Very low phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium.

Very low phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium.

Low organic carbon and potassium.

Very low nitrogen and potassium. Aluminium toxicity.

Very low nitrogen and potassium. Aluminium toxicity.

Very low potassium and nitrogen. High phosphate fixation properties.

Potassium very low below 20cm. Very high P retention.

Known Limiting Nutrients Potassium very low below 22cm. Very high P retention.


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103

190D, 190E

144A

144B, 144C

144D

209

1

Kubuna

Kurukuru

Kurukuru

Kurukuru

Kuta

Labasa

190B

Kubuna

190C

37

Korovuli

Kubuna

Soil Map Unit 206B, 206C

Soil Series Korotuku

Never floods.

Never floods.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

No erosion risk.

Never floods.

Flat to near level (0-1°). Generally smooth microrelief.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Due to heavy clay textures profiles below 80cm may experience some short duration waterlogging sometimes during the months of November to April.

No erosion risk.

Slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never experiences soil moisture deficits.

Poorly drained.

Very poorly drained.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 100-120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 100-120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 90-100 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits 100-120 days are well drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits >100 days are well drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits >100 days are well drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

>125cm

>125cm

>125cm

0-40cm silty clay. 40-128cm sandy loam. 128140cm+ very fine sandy loam.

<40cm. Note No surface rock high water table outcrops. No surface and salinity plus stones or boulders. poor subsoil nutrient status.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

0cm 0-270cm soft weakly decomposed fibrous peat. 270-280cm peaty loamy fine sand.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

>125cm

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones.

0-10cm clay loam. >125cm 10-60cm fine sandy clay. 6068cm silty clay loam. 68-125cm silty clay.

0-10cm clay loam. 10-50cm fine sandy clay loam. 50-125cm silty clay loam.

0-15cm silty clay loam. >125cm 15-45cm fine sandy clay loam. 45-55cm silty clay loam. 55125cm clay loam.

0-10cm clay loam. 10-125cm clay.

0-12cm clay loam. 12-125cm clay.

0-14cm clay loam. 14-125cm clay.

>100cm. Nutrient deficiencies below 50cm.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Salinity Non saline.

0-40cm moderately acid. 40-140cm moderately alkaline.

0-280cm strongly acid.

Moderately saline.

Non saline.

0-60cm strongly Non saline. acid. 60125cm extremely acid.

0-10cm Non saline. extremely acid. 10-50cm strongly acid. 50-125cm extremely acid.

0-125cm Non saline. extremely acid.

0-125cm strongly acid.

0-125cm strongly acid.

0-125cm strongly acid.

0-125cm moderately acid.

Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Profile Textural Pattern Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders Alkalinity 0-38cm friable to very friable >125cm No surface rock 0-137cm near clay loam. outcrops. No surface neutral. 38-107cm friable to firm stones or boulders. clay. 107-137cm firm slightly gritty heavy clay.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-125cm silty clay. deficits are experienced >100 days sometime within the period May to October.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage In normal years soil moisture Somewhat deficits of up to 100 days are excessively experienced sometime in the drained. period May to October.

Water table fluctuates from Soil moisture deficits are 20cm (summer months) to never experienced. 70cm (winter months), but can be at the surface during flood events.

Permanently waterlogged.

Never waterlogs.

Slight sheet and rill erosion Never waterlogs. potential.

In normal years and due to No erosion risk. permanent tidal influenced water table infrequent flooding (4-5 times per year) of medium duration (10-12 days) can occur sometime in the period November to April and coinciding with high spring tides.

Flat. Uneven Permanently flooded. (hummocky) microrelief.

Rolling (12-15°). Smooth microrelief.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Flat to gently undulating Floods rarely sometime in Accumulating site. No (0-3°). Smooth the period November to erosion risk. microrelief. April. Return period 1 in 15 years.

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Smooth microrelief.

Easy rolling (8-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Undulating (4-7°). Smooth microrelief.

Flat to gently undulating Never flooded. (0-3°). Microrelief has slight alluvial ridge and swale.

Susceptibility to Slope Microrelief Susceptibility to Flooding Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Undulating to easy Never floods. Moderate sheet and rill Never waterlogs. rolling (4-11°). Smooth erosion potential. microrelief.

Low phosphorus.

Generally low nutrient status.

Potassium low to very low.

Potassium low to very low.

Potassium low to very low.

Potassium extremely low. Phosphorus and nitrogen low.

Potassium extremely low. Phosphorus and nitrogen low.

Potassium extremely low. Phosphorus and nitrogen low.

Organic carbon is low in topsoil and very low in subsoils. Low %BS at depth. Potassium very low throughout.

Known Limiting Nutrients Low nitrogen and potassium. High phosphate retention.


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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Soil Map Unit

180G, 180H Steep to very steep (26- Never floods. 40°). Uneven microrelief.

75E, 75F, 75G, 75H

62

182B, 182C

182D

182E

92B, 92C

92D, 92E

73

Lami

Lato

Lau

Lau

Lau

Laucala

Laucala

Lautoka

Never floods.

Never floods.

Flat to gently undulating Infrequently flooded. (0-2°). Smooth Return period 1 in 5 years. microrelief.

Rolling and strongly Never floods. rolling (12-20°). Uneven microrelief.

Undulating and easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Uneven microrelief.

Strongly rolling (16-20°). Uneven microrelief.

Rolling (12-15°). Smooth microrelief.

Never waterlogs.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

No erosion risk.

Subject to short duration (23 days). Water logging during November to April. Water table >100cm at all times.

Have experienced past Never waterlogs. erosion. Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate to severe sheet Never waterlogs. and rill erosion potential on slopes >7.

Severe past soil loss with Never waterlogs. rill erosion scars evident. Very severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Significant topsoil loss. Never waterlogs. Very severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Past topsoil loss. Severe Never waterlogs. sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Significant past erosion. Never waterlogs. Very severe sheet, rill and debris slide erosion potential.

Significant past erosion. Never waterlogs. Very severe sheet, rill and debris slide erosion potential.

Significant past erosion. Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

1 in 5 year return period for No erosion hazard. floods depositing alluvium. 2 in 1 year return period for other floods.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Flat to near level (0-1°).

Strongly rolling to very Never floods. steep (16-40°). Uneven microrelief.

Never floods.

Lakeba

Strongly rolling to moderately steep (16-25°). Uneven microrelief.

180E, 180F

Never floods.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits are experienced for well drained. 90 days during the months of May to October.

0-80cm clay loam. 80-125cm+ clay.

>100cm. Low available potassium in subsoils.

<100cm

0-15cm friable stony and <100cm gravelly loam. 15-75cm friable gravelly loam. On weathering scoria.

0-27cm moderately acid. 27-110cm strongly acid.

0-30cm moderately acid. 30-125cm strongly acid.

0-30cm moderately acid. 30-125cm strongly acid.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones.

No surface rock outcrops. Surface stones and gravels occupy 5% of the surface.

0-30cm slightly Non saline. acid. 30125cm moderately acid.

0-65cm slightly Non saline. acid.

No surface rock 0-75cm slightly Non saline. outcrops. Surface stone acid. and gravels occupy 3% of the surface.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

<85cm. Low No surface rock nutrient status outcrops. Few surface and weathered stones. rock below 85cm.

<80cm. Low No surface rock nutrient status outcrops. No surface and weathered stones or boulders. rock below 80cm.

0-27cm silty clay loam. <95cm 27-95cm silt loam. 95-110cm fine sandy loam. (Strongly weathered in situ rock).

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-65cm friable stony and deficits of up to 30 days are gravelly loam. On experienced during the weathering scoria. period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 30 days are experienced during the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits >120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

0-30cm silty clay loam. 30-86cm silt loam. 86-125cm fine sandy loam (strongly weathered in situ rock).

0-30cm silty clay loam. 30-80cm silt loam. 80-125cm fine sandy loam (strongly weathered in situ rock).

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits >100 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October. In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits >100 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

<100cm

0-90cm friable stony sand.

In normal years soil moisture Excessively deficits of up to 120 days are drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Non saline.

No surface rock 0-90cm strongly Non saline. outcrops. Surface acid. stones occupy 2% of the surface.

<50cm. In situ Surface rock outcrops Near neutral. rock at 50cm. cover 12% of the surface. Surface boulders occupy 10% of the surface.

Non saline.

>50cm. Few surface rock 0-60cm In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-20cm gritty clay. 20-50cm clay. On strongly Weathered rock outcrops. Few surface moderately deficits >100 days are weathered in situ rock. at 60cm. stones. acid. experienced sometime in the period May to October. In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-6cm firm clay loam. deficits are rarely 6-25cm firm clay. On experienced. cemented in situ rock.

Non saline.

Few surface rock 0-70cm In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-25cm slightly gritty clay. <60cm. 25-55cm clay. On strongly Weathered rock outcrops. Few surface moderately deficits >100 days are weathered in situ rock. at 60cm. stones. acid. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Salinity Non saline.

Non saline.

Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders Alkalinity >75cm. Water No surface rock Strongly acid. table at 75cm outcrops. No surface depth during the stones or boulders. wet season. 0-66cm moderately acid.

Profile Textural Pattern 0-17cm very friable gritty clay. 17-86cm friable gritty clay. 86-116cm firm gritty clay.

No surface rock In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-27cm slightly gritty clay. <60cm. 27-52cm clay. On strongly Weathered rock outcrops. No surface deficits >100 days are weathered in situ rock. at 60cm. stones or boulders. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Susceptibility to Overall Susceptibility to Flooding Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Susceptibility to Drought Drainage 1 in 10 year return period No erosion hazard. Waterlogged below 75cm In normal years soil moisture Moderately for major floods. depth for up to 90 days deficits of up to 100 days are well drained. during the period November experienced in the period to April. May to October.

Lakeba

Rolling (12-15°). Uneven microrelief.

Slope Microrelief Flat to near level (0-1°). Smooth microrelief.

180D

63

Lakeba

Soil Series Lagilagi

Organic carbon is low in topsoil and very low in subsoils. Potassium is low in topsoil and very low in subsoils.

Low nitrogen. High phosphate retention.

Low nitrogen. High phosphate retention.

Very low potassium and organic carbon below 8cm depth.

Very low potassium and organic carbon below 8cm depth.

Very low potassium and organic carbon below 10 cm depth.

Very low phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen.

Possible trace element deficiencies.

Very low phosphorus, potassium and organic carbon throughout. Exchangeable calcium very low.

Very low phosphorus, potassium and organic carbon throughout. Exchangeable calcium very low.

Very low phosphorus, potassium and organic carbon throughout. Exchangeable calcium very low.

Known Limiting Nutrients Not analysed.


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105

208D

208E, 208F

208G, 208H Moderately steep to very steep (21-40°). Uneven microrelief.

194C

194D, 194E

194F

221A

221B, 221C

221D, 221E, Rolling to very steep (12- Never floods. 221F, 221G, 39°). 221H

Ledrutua

Ledrutua

Lekutu

Lekutu

Lekutu

Lewa

Lewa

Lewa

Never floods.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Uneven microrelief.

Flat to gently undulating Never floods. (0-3°). Uneven microrelief.

Moderately steep (21-25°). Uneven where eroded (rilling). Stone pavement in some places.

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Even microrelief with stone pavement in some areas.

Easy rolling (8-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Strongly rolling to moderately steep (16-25°). Smooth microrelief.

Rolling (12-15°). Smooth microrelief.

Never floods.

Ledrutua

Easy rolling (8-11°).

208C

Susceptibility to Flooding 1 in 5 year return period for major floods contributing sediment. Days under water - 2 to 5 days.

Ledrutua

Slope Microrelief Flat to undulating (0-7°). Smooth microrelief.

Soil Map Unit 23A, 23B

Soil Series Lawai

0-15cm very friable clay loam. 15-35cm loose clay loam. 35-75cm friable sandy clay. On weathering parent rock.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 40 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Very severe erosion potential if cultivated.

Never waterlogs.

Very severe sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion potential. Have experienced past erosion.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential. Have experienced past erosion.

Experienced past sheet and rill erosion. Very severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Experienced past sheet and rill erosion. Very severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-30cm friable clay loam. deficits of 50-60 days 30-65cm firm clay on experienced sometime in the weathered rock. period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-20cm friable clay loam. deficits of 40-50 days are 20-120cm firm clay. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-30cm friable clay loam. deficits of 30-40 days are 30-120cm firm clay. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

>65cm

>120cm

>120cm

Surface rock outcrops Strongly acid. cover 10% of the surface. Surface boulders occupy 5% of the surface.

Surface rock outcrops 0-120cm cover 3% of the surface. strongly acid. Surface boulders occupy 3% of the surface.

Few surface rock 0-120cm outcrops. Surface strongly acid. boulders occupy 2% of the surface.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-9cm silty clay loam. 9-100cm+ very fine sandy deficits of >120 days are loam. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

<25cm. In situ No surface rock 0-100cm weathered rock outcrops. Few surface strongly acid. at 10cm. stones and rare boulders.

Non saline.

<25cm. In situ No surface rock 0-100cm In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-10cm silty clay loam. 10-100cm+ fine sandy loam. weathered rock outcrops. Common iron strongly acid. deficits of 120 days are at 10cm. coated surface stones. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

No surface rock outcrops. Many iron coated surface stones (pavement).

Surface rock outcrops Moderately acid Non saline. cover 5% of the surface. to near neutral. Surface boulders occupy 2% of the surface.

0-38cm moderately acid. 38-68cm near neutral.

0-37cm moderately acid. 37-65cm near neutral.

0-45cm moderately acid. 45-60cm near neutral.

Non saline.

<25cm. Fine roots penetrate in situ weathered rock at 10cm.

<75cm. Weathered in situ parent rock at 75cm.

<65cm. In situ No surface rock bouldery and outcrops. Few surface gravelly stones and boulders. formation at 65cm.

<65cm. In situ No surface rock bouldery and outcrops. Few surface gravelly stones or boulders. formation at 65cm.

<65cm. In situ No surface rock bouldery and outcrops. Few surface gravelly boulders and stones. formation at 65cm.

Salinity Non saline.

0-100cm strongly acid.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-8cm silt loam. deficits of 8-100cm+ very fine sandy 90-120 days are loam. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

0-20cm silt loam. 20-38cm stony silty clay loam. 38-68cm bouldery sandy silt loam. 68-200cm+ bouldery sand.

0-22cm silt loam. 22-37cm stony silty clay loam. 37-65cm bouldery sandy silt loam. 65-200cm+ bouldery sand.

0-45cm silt loam. 45-60cm bouldery silt loam. 65-200cm+ bouldery fine sand.

Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Profile Textural Pattern Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders Alkalinity 0-50cm very fine sandy >150cm No surface rock 0-150cm near loam. outcrops. No surface neutral. 50-80cm fine sandy loam. stones. 80-100cm loam. 100-150cm fine sandy loam.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 100-120 days are experienced sometime between May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 100-120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 100 days may occur sometime in the period May to October.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits are experienced for >90 days during the months May to October. Shallow rooting crops go under stress.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Experienced past sheet Never waterlogs. erosion. Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential. Have experienced past erosion.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Slight sheet erosion potential.

Susceptibility to Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Bank erosion adjacent to Subject to short duration rivers. Elsewhere an waterlogging only during accumulating soil. major flood events. Water table >125cm from surface at all times.

Very low phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and potassium.

Very low nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Very low nitrogen phosphorus and potassium.

Potassium very low.

Potassium very low.

Potassium very low.

Very low phosphorus and potassium throughout.

Very low phosphorus throughout and very low potassium below 20cm.

Very low phosphorus throughout and very low potassium below 22cm.

Very low subsoil potassium and phosphorus.

Known Limiting Nutrients Organic matter values very low. Potassium values very low in subsoil.


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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

168D, 168E, Rolling to very steep (16- Never floods. 168F, 168G, 40°). Smooth 168H microrelief.

176C

176D, 176E, Smooth rolling to 176F moderately steep (12-25°). Smooth microrelief.

84B, 84C

84D, 84E

86B, 86C

86D

45A

Lodoni

Lomaiviti

Lomaiviti

Lomaje

Lomaje

Losa

Losa

Lovonivia

Never floods.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Flat to gently undulating Never floods. (0-3°). Even microrelief.

Rolling (12-15°). Very Never floods. uneven microrelief due to surface boulders and rock outcrops.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Very uneven microrelief due to boulders and rock outcrops.

Rolling and strongly rolling (12-20°). Even microrelief.

Undulating and easy rolling (4-11°). Even microrelief.

Easy rolling (8-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

168B, 168C

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

No erosion hazard.

Moderate sheet erosion potential following forest clearance.

Slight to moderate sheet erosion potential when cleared of forest.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Moderate sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion potential on slopes >7°.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion potential when forest cleared. Minor risk of soil slips on slopes >15°.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential when forest cleared.

Very severe sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion potential. Very severe debris slide and debris flow erosion potential.

Susceptibility to Susceptibility to Flooding Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Never floods. Severe sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion potential. Severe debris slide and debris flow erosion potential.

Lodoni

Slope Microrelief Easy rolling (8-11°). Uneven microrelief.

124D, 124E, Rolling to very steep (16- Never floods. 124F, 124G, 40°). Uneven 124H microrelief.

Soil Map Unit 124C

Lobau

Soil Series Lobau

0-16cm silty clay loam. 16-60cm clay loam. 60-100cm silty clay. 100-125cm in situ weathered rock.

Profile Textural Pattern 0-18cm silty clay. 18-50cm clay. 50-110cm stony silty clay. 110-140cm+ in situ weathered rock.

In normal years soil moisture Poorly deficits of up to 150 days are drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Somewhat deficits are never excessively experienced. drained.

In normal years soil moisture Somewhat deficits are never excessively experienced. drained.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 30 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

<90cm. Weathered in situ rock at about 90cm.

<90cm. Weathered in situ rock at 90cm.

<100cm. Weathered in situ rock at 100cm.

<100cm. Weathered in situ rock at 100cm.

0-22cm very friable fine <30cm. sandy loam. 22-31cm firm Extremely firm loamy fine sand. weakly 31-64cm extremely firm cemented loamy sand. 64-76cm horizon at friable loamy very fine sand. 30cm. 76-92cm firm gritty clay. 92111cm friable gritty clay. 111-141cm very friable clay.

<25cm. Massive unweathered rock at 20-25cm.

0-22cm bouldery loam. On <25cm. Un- massive in situ rock. weathered rock at 20-25cm.

0-55cm very friable slightly >125cm sandy loam. 55-80cm friable loam. 80-110cm very friable loam.

0-25cm bouldery loam.

Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Stones and Boulders Alkalinity No surface rock 0-140cm outcrops except in areas strongly acid. of mass movement erosion. No surface stones or boulders.

0-110cm slightly acid.

0-120cm slightly acid.

0-125cm moderately acid.

0-125cm moderately acid.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

0-19cm Non saline. extremely acid. 52-125cm strongly acid.

0-52cm Non saline. extremely acid. 52-150cm strongly acid.

Non saline.

Salinity Non saline.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

Strongly acid.

Non saline.

Surface rock outcrops 0-25cm slightly Non saline. cover 12-15% of the acid. area. Surface boulders cover 12-15% of the area.

Surface rock outcrops 0-25cm slightly Non saline. cover 12-15% of area. acid. Surface boulders cover 10-12% of area.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

Few surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

Few surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

<100cm. In situ No surface rock 0-125cm weathered rock outcrops except in areas strongly acid. at 100cm. of mass movement erosion. No surface stones or boulders.

Min. Effect. Rooting Depth <100cm. In situ weathered rock at 100cm.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-48cm friable loam. >125cm deficits of up to 30 days are 48-120cm very friable loam. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-92cm clay. deficits are never 92-125cm strongly experienced. weathered in situ rock (sandy clay loam).

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-92cm clay. deficits are never 92-125cm strongly experienced. weathered in situ rock (sandy clay loam).

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-19cm friable clay loam. deficits are never 19-100cm friable clay. On experienced. firm silty clay (weathered in situ rock).

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-16cm friable clay loam. deficits are never 16-100cm firm to friable experienced. clay. On firm silty clay (weathered in situ rock).

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 10 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 10 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Strong nutrient and trace element deficiencies.

Very high P retention.

Potassium low. Very high P retention.

High phosphate retention.

High phosphate retention.

None identified.

None identified.

Very low phosphorus and potassium.

Very low phosphorus and potassium.

Very low phosphorus and potassium.

Known Limiting Nutrients Very low phosphorus and potassium.


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107

148D, 148E, Strongly rolling to very 148F, 148G, steep (16-40°). 148H Generally uneven microrelief.

200C

200D, 200E, Rolling to very steep (16- Never floods. 200F, 200G, 40°). Very uneven 200H microrelief due to surface boulders and deeply incised rilling.

108D, 108E

108F, 108G, Moderately steep to 108H very steep (21-40°). Generally even microrelief.

188B, 188C

188D, 188E

149D

Lutu

Macuata

Macuata

Mafua

Mafua

Makomako

Makomako

Malolo

Never waterlogs.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never floods. Rolling and strongly rolling (12-20°). Uneven microrelief.

Severe sheet, rill and debris slide erosion potential. Never waterlogs.

Moderate sheet, rill and soil creep erosion potential.

0-22cm gritty clay loam. 22-60cm clay. 60-125cm silty clay loam.

0-7cm gritty clay loam. 7-20cm loam. 20-55cm clay. 55-155cm silty clay loam.

0-11cm stony fine sand. 11- <70cm. In situ 70cm stony loamy fine sand. rock at about On in situ rock (gritty coarse 70cm. sand).

<125cm

Surface rock outcrops cover 5% of area. Surface stones cover 10% of area.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. Few surface stones and rare boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. Few surface stones and rare boulders.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

<100cm. Weakly cemented gravels and stones at 95110cm.

<100cm. Weakly cemented gravels and stones at 95105cm.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

0-14cm friable clay. 14-43cm very friable clay. 43-84cm friable clay. 84-111cm friable to firm clay. 111-150cm friable clay.

0-125cm strongly acid.

0-125cm strongly acid.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Salinity Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

0-11cm strongly Non saline. acid. 11-90cm slightly acid.

Moderately acid.

Moderately acid.

0-9cm Non saline. moderately acid. 9-40cm slight acid. 40-125cm near neutral.

0-50cm near Non saline. neutral. 50-125cm near neutral.

<20cm. In situ Surface rock outcrops 0-125cm weathered rock cover 20% of area. strongly acid. at 20cm. Surface laterite stones and boulders cover 25% of area.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-35cm very friable clay. 35- <125cm 120cm friable to firm clay. deficits of up to 120 days are 120-150cm friable silty clay. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-35cm clay loam. deficits are never 35-70cm stony sandy loam. experienced. 70-125cm+ stony very coarse sand.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-40cm clay loam. deficits are never 40-80cm stony sandy loam. experienced. 80-125cm stony coarse sand.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-12cm gritty clay loam. deficits >120 days are 12-125cm gritty fine sand experienced sometime in the loam. period May to October.

<20cm. In situ No surface rock weathered rock outcrops. Surface at 20cm. laterite stones and boulders cover 20% of area.

>125cm. Note No surface rock very low subsoil outcrops. No surface nutrient status. stones or boulders.

0-155cm strongly acid.

Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Stones and Boulders Alkalinity No surface rock Strongly acid. outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

>125cm. Note No surface rock very low subsoil outcrops. No surface nutrient status. stones or boulders.

Min. Effect. Profile Textural Pattern Rooting Depth 0-22cm very friable fine <30cm. sandy loam. 22-31cm firm Extremely firm loamy fine sand. weakly 31-64cm extremely firm cemented loamy sand. 64-76cm horizon at 30cm friable loamy very fine sand. depth. 76-92cm firm gritty clay. 92111cm friable gritty clay. 111-141cm very friable clay.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-15cm gritty clay loam. deficits >120 days are 15-125cm gritty fine sandy experienced sometime in the loam. period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits are never well drained. experienced.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits are never well drained. experienced.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage In normal years soil moisture Poorly deficits of up to 150 days are drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Actively eroding. Very In normal years soil moisture Well drained. severe sheet and rill erosion deficits of >120 days are potential. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Current severe rill erosion. Never waterlogs. Very severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Rolling (12-15°). Very Never floods. uneven microrelief due to rill erosion.

Never waterlogs.

Current severe erosion. Never waterlogs. Very severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential, and moderate soil slip and debris slide erosion potential.

Moderate to severe sheet Never waterlogs. and rill erosion potential. Also potential for soil slips.

Undulating and easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Uneven microrelief.

Never floods.

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Generally even microrelief.

Easy rolling (8-11°). Never floods. Very uneven microrelief due to surface boulders and active rill erosion.

Never floods.

Easy rolling to rolling (8- Never floods. 15°). Even microrelief.

148C

Lutu

Susceptibility to Slope Microrelief Susceptibility to Flooding Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Undulating (4-7°). Even Never floods. Slight to moderate sheet Never waterlogs. microrelief. and rill erosion potential.

Soil Map Unit 45B

Soil Series Lovonivia

Very low phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen.

Low phosphorus and potassium.

Low phosphorus and potassium.

Extremely high P retention.

Extremely high P retention.

Potassium very low below 12cm.

Potassium very low below 15cm.

Very low phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium throughout.

Very low phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium throughout.

Known Limiting Nutrients Strong nutrient and trace element deficiencies.


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52

123A, 123B

32

72

115B, 115C

115D, 115E

115F, 115G, Moderately steep to 115H very steep (21-40°). Generally even microrelief.

223D, 223E, Rolling to very steep (12- Never floods. 223F, 223G, 40°). Uneven. 223H

Matavelo

Matawailevu

Melimeli

Molamolau

Momi

Momi

Momi

Monasavu

Moderate sheet and fill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never floods.

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Smooth microrelief.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Can waterlog in the subsoil for up to 30 days sometime in the period November to April.

Never waterlogs.

Very severe sheet, rill and Never waterlogs. mass movement erosion potential.

Moderate to severe sheet Never waterlogs. and rill erosion potential. Slight to moderate soil slip erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Slight sheet and rill erosion Never waterlogs. potential.

Flat to gently undulating 1 in 25 year return period No erosion risk. (0-3°). Generally for floods depositing smooth microrelief. alluvium. 1 in 5 year return period for other floods.

0-20cm friable clay. 20-35cm firm clay. 35-60cm very firm clay. 60-120cm very firm silty clay.

0-8cm friable to firm clay. 8-23cm friable clay. 23-100cm firm clay.

0-76cm fibrous peat. 76-99cm mucky fibrous peat. 99-154cm muck. 154-168cm clayey muck.

Never experiences soil moisture deficits.

Well drained. 0-25cm very friable clay loam. 25-100cm firm clay.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-90cm firm clay. deficits of 120 days are On weathered tuff. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-20cm very firm clay. deficits of 120 days are 20-100cm firm clay. experienced sometime in the On weathered tuff. period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-80cm firm clay. deficits of 120 days are On weathered tuff. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Imperfectly deficits of up to 100 days are drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Ponded.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

<100cm

<85cm. Weathered in situ rock at 80cm.

<85cm. Weathered in situ rock at 80cm.

<85cm. Weathered in situ rock at 80cm.

<100cm

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

0-90cm slightly Non saline. acid.

0-100cm slightly acid.

0-80cm slightly Non saline. acid.

0-100cm strongly acid.

0-99cm Non saline. extremely acid. 99-168cm strongly acid.

Moderately acid.

Rock outcrops cover 0-100cm about 8% of the surface. strongly acid. 100-120cm Surface boulders moderately occupy 5% of the acid. surface.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

<30cm. Note No surface rock seasonal high outcrops. No surface water table and stones or boulders. low nutrient status.

>130cm

0-60cm moderately acid.

Very low nitrogen and phosphorus.

Very low phosphorus.

Very low phosphorus.

Very low phosphorus.

Very low phosphorus and nitrogen.

Potassium very low below 30cm.

None identified.

Very low phosphorus and potassium.

Very low potassium and nitrogen. Very high phosphate fixation properties.

Non saline. Surface rock outcrops 0-28cm cover 8% of the surface. extremely acid. Surface boulders 28-160cm occupy 3% of the moderately surface. acid.

>100cm. Note No surface rock seasonal high outcrops. No surface water table. stones or boulders.

Well drained. 0-28cm very friable clay >100cm loam. 28-76cm friable silty clay loam. 76-103cm friable clay loam.

Known Limiting Nutrients Very low phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium.

Very low nitrogen and potassium. Very high phosphate fixation properties.

Acidity/ Alkalinity Salinity 0-8cm strongly Non saline. acid. 8-80cm moderately acid.

0-20cm strongly Non saline. Rock outcrops cover acid. 20-95cm 10% of the surface. Boulders occupy 30% of moderately the surface. acid.

Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders <60cm. In situ Surface rock outcrops rock at about cover 12% of area. 60cm. Surface stones cover 12% of area.

Well drained. 0-20cm friable stony silt <85cm loam. 20-70cm very firm silt loam. 70-85cm firm medium sandy loam. On weathered basalt.

Profile Textural Pattern 0-8cm stony fine sand. 8-60cm stony loamy find sand. On in situ rock (stony coarse sand).

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-22cm clay loam. deficits of 60 days are 22-127cm clay. experienced at sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years the water Soil moisture deficits are table is at (summer months) rarely experienced. or never within 30cm of the ground surface.

Slight sheet and rill erosion Never waterlogs. potential.

Flat to near level (0-1°). Due to permanent high No erosion risk. Smooth microrelief. watertables flooding can occur for up to 120 days during the months of November to April. Sedimentation floods have a 1 in 100 year return period.

From flat to gently Rarely floods. Return undulating to undulating period 1 in 15 years. (0-5°). Smooth microrelief.

Rarely experiences soil moisture deficits.

Rarely experiences soil moisture deficits.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of >120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years In normal years soil moisture Poorly waterlogging below 40cm is deficits are never drained. experienced for up to 60 experienced. days sometime during the period November to April.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Susceptibility to Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Serious active erosion. Never waterlogs. Extremely severe sheet, rill and creep erosion potential.

Flat to near level (0-2°). In normal years flooding for Accumulating soil. No Smooth microrelief. up to 5 days ponded are erosion risk. experienced on 2-3 occasions sometime in the period November to April.

Rolling and strongly Never floods. rolling (12-20°). Gently undulating microrelief.

218D, 218E

Never floods.

Matana

Rolling and strongly rolling (12-20°). Very uneven surface.

Slope Microrelief Susceptibility to Flooding Strongly rolling and Never floods. moderately steep (16-25°). Very uneven microrelief due to severe rill erosion.

215D, 215E

Soil Map Unit 149E, 149F

Manuka

Soil Series Malolo


A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

109

226B, 226C

226D, 226E, Rolling to very steep (12- Never floods. 226F, 226G, 40°). Uneven microrelief. 226H

155F, 155G, Moderately steep to 155H very steep (21-40°). Uneven microrelief.

96B, 96C

96D, 96E

Nabuesa

Nabuesa

Nabuono

Nacamaki

Nacamaki

Rolling and strongly Never floods. rolling (12-20°). Hummocky microrelief.

Undulating and easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Uneven microrelief.

Never floods.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Uneven microrelief.

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Generally smooth microrelief.

193D, 193E

Nabiti

Undulating and easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Rolling and strongly Never floods. rolling (12-20°). Uneven microrelief.

Never floods.

Susceptibility to Flooding Floods depositing minor amounts of sediment have a 1 in 5 year return period.

193B, 193C

101D, 101E

Nabeka

Easy rolling (8-11°). Uneven microrelief.

Slope Microrelief Flat (0-1°). Smooth microrelief.

Nabiti

101C

Nabeka

Soil Map Unit

21

Soil Series Muainase

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Evidence of past erosion. Never waterlogs. Very severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate to severe sheet Never waterlogs. and rill erosion potential.

Slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Slight sheet and rill erosion Never waterlogs. potential.

Susceptibility to Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging No erosion risk. Potential Never waterlogs. lateral corrasion adjacent to river.

0-30cm very friable gravelly <125cm sandy clay loam. 30-90cm very friable fine sandy loam. 90-125cm loose gravelly sand. 0-29cm very friable gravelly <125cm fine sandy clay. 29-49cm very friable fine sandy loam. 49-77cm very friable gravelly fine sandy loam. 77116cm loose gravelly sand.

In normal years soil moisture Somewhat deficits of up to 60 days are excessively experienced sometime in the drained. period May to October.

<50cm. Weathered in situ rock normally at 50cm.

<125cm

<120cm

In normal years soil moisture Somewhat deficits of up to 60 days are excessively experienced sometime in the drained. period May to October.

0-20cm very firm gravelly clay. 20-27cm firm clay. 27-37cm friable clay. On weathering tuff.

Well drained. 0-125cm very friable clay loam.

0-18cm strongly Non saline. acid. 18125cm moderately acid.

0-9cm strongly Non saline. acid. 9-80cm moderately acid. 80-200cm slightly acid.

Salinity Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Rock outcrops cover 8% 0-29cm near of the surface. Surface neutral. boulders occupy 3% of 29-116cm the surface. slightly acid.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Rock outcrops cover 5% 0-30cm near of the surface. Surface neutral. boulders occupy 5% of 30-125cm the surface. slightly acid.

Surface rock outcrops Strongly acid. cover 8% of the area. Surface stones and boulders occupy 4% of the surface.

Surface rock outcrops 0-125cm cover 3% of the surface. strongly acid. Surface boulders occupy 3% of the surface.

Few surface rock 0-120cm outcrops. Surface strongly acid. boulders occupy 2% of the surface.

0-35cm Non saline. extremely acid. 35-100cm strongly acid.

<80cm. No surface rock 0-18cm Non saline. Weathered rock outcrops. Few surface extremely acid. at about 80cm. stones. 18-31cm strongly acid. 31-56cm extremely acid. 56-111cm strongly acid.

Few surface rock outcrops. Boulders occupy 3% of the surface.

0-35cm silty clay loam. <75cm. No surface rock 35-70cm clay loam. Weathered rock outcrops. Few surface 70-78cm silty clay loam. On at about 75stone and rare boulders. in situ rock. 80cm.

0-31cm silty clay loam. 31-65cm clay loam. 65-81 silty clay loam. On strongly weathered in situ rock.

Well drained. 0-120cm very friable clay loam.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 100-120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Never experiences soil moisture deficits.

Never experiences soil moisture deficits.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 90-120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 90-120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-18cm friable silty clay. 18- >125cm deficits of up to 20 days may 125cm firm clay loam. be experienced sometime during the period May to October.

Few surface rock outcrops. Boulders occupy 2% of the surface.

Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders Alkalinity >150cm No surface rock 0-100cm outcrops. No surface slightly acid. stones or boulders. 100-125cm near neutral.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-9cm very friable silty clay. >125cm 9-20cm friable silty clay. 20deficits of up to 20 days may 200cm firm clay loam. be experienced sometime during the period May to October.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage Profile Textural Pattern In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-22cm sandy clay loam. deficits are never 22-52cm clay loam. experienced. 52-100cm+ sandy loam.

Low potassium. High phosphate retention.

Low potassium. High phosphate retention.

Low phosphorus and potassium.

Very low nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus.

Very low nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus.

Potassium low.

Potassium low.

Very low potassium.

Very low potassium.

Known Limiting Nutrients Very low potassium throughout.


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224D, 224E, Rolling to very steep (12- Never floods. 224F, 224G, 40°). Uneven microrelief. 224H

151B, 151C

151D, 151E

36A, 36B, 36C

36D

210

Nadala

Nadarivatu

Nadawa

Nadawa

Nadi

Nadi

Nadranu

Flat to near level (0-2°). Hummocky microrelief.

Rolling (12-15°). Smooth microrelief.

Flat to easy rolling (0-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Continuously waterlogged.

Many areas with a long Never waterlogged. history of sugar cane cultivation have experienced severe topsoil losses by sheet and rill erosion. Severe erosion potential for slopes >2°.

Many areas with a long Never waterlogged. history of sugar cane cultivation have experienced moderate topsoil losses by sheet erosion. Moderate erosion potential for slopes <2°.

Experienced past erosion. Never waterlogs. Very severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Experienced past erosion. Never waterlogs. Very severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Severe sheet, rill and mass Never waterlogs. movement potential.

No erosion hazard.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Almost continuously flooded No erosion hazard. with the water table at or near the surface for most of the year.

Never flooded.

Never flooded.

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Generally uneven microrelief.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Flat to gently undulating Never floods. (0-3°). Even microrelief.

130D, 130E, Rolling to very steep (12- Never floods. 130F, 130G, 40°). Uneven microrelief. 130H

Nacula

Never experiences soil moisture deficits.

Very poorly drained.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones. Rare coral gravel (relict fertiliser).

>150cm. No surface rock Where machine outcrops. No surface cultivated a stones. plough pan commonly develops.

>150cm. Where machine cultivated a plough pan commonly develops.

<25cm. Few surface rock Weathered in outcrops. No surface situ pumiceous stones or boulders. marl at 25cm.

0-25cm soft mucky peat. 25- <50cm. Water No surface rock 75cm very soft peaty muck. table at 50cm outcrops. No surface 75-300cm soft peat. during the dry stones or boulders. season.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-70cm sandy clay loam. deficits are experienced 70-110cm sandy loam. 110>120 days during the period 150cm+ sandy clay loam. May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-60cm sandy clay loam. deficits are experienced 60-100cm sandy loam. 100>120 days during the period 150cm+ sandy clay loam. May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-10cm firm sandy clay. deficits of up to 30 days are 10-22cm firm sandy clay. experienced sometime in the On weathered marl. period May to October.

Very strongly acid.

Non saline.

0-40cm Non saline. moderately acid. 40-150cm near neutral.

0-30cm Non saline. moderately acid. 30-150cm near neutral.

0-22cm slightly Non saline. acid.

Non saline.

<25cm. Few rock outcrops. No 0-25cm slightly Non saline. Weathered in surface stones or acid. situ pumiceous boulders. marl at 25cm.

0-10cm firm to friable sandy clay. 10-25cm firm to very sandy clay. On weathered marl.

Surface rock outcrops 0-140cm cover 20% of the strongly acid. surface. Surface boulders occupy 8% of the surface.

No surface rock 0-45cm strongly Non saline. outcrops. Rare surface acid. 45100cm boulders. moderately acid.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 30 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

>125cm

Non saline.

<100cm

Well drained. 0-45cm friable clay loam. 45-100cm firm clay.

Salinity Non saline.

0-80cm strongly Non saline. acid.

Acidity/ Alkalinity 0-30cm moderately acid. 30-150cm slightly acid.

0-30cm very friable clay <100cm. In situ Surface rock outcrops Strongly acid. loam. weathered rock cover 5% of the area. 30-70cm friable clay loam. at 100cm. Surface stones and 70-120cm firm clay. boulders occupy 2% of the surface.

0-12cm friable to firm gritty <75cm. Water No surface rock clay. table at 75cm outcrops. No surface 12-80cm+ firm gritty clay. during the wet stones or boulders. season.

Outcrops & Surface Stones and Boulders No surface rock outcrops. Boulders occupy 10% of the surface.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-25cm very friable clay deficits of up to 30 days may loam. be experienced sometime in 25-100cm firm silty clay. the period May to October.

Never experiences soil moisture deficits.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 30 days may be experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Poorly drained.

Overall Min. Effect. Susceptibility to Drought Drainage Profile Textural Pattern Rooting Depth In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-30cm very friable gritty >125cm deficits are never clay loam. experienced. 30-130cm very friable very stony and bouldery silty clay. 130-160cm very friable gritty silty clay loam.

Waterlogs below 75cm for In normal years never 4 months in the period experiences soil moisture November to April. deficits.

Susceptibility to Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Moderate to severe sheet, Never waterlogs. rill and debris slide erosion potential.

Flat to near level (0-2°). 1 in 25 year return period No erosion risk. Even microrelief. for floods depositing alluvium. 2 in 1 year return period for other floods.

64

Soil Map Unit Slope Microrelief Susceptibility to Flooding 106G, 106H Steep and very steep Never floods. (26-40°). Very uneven microrelief.

Nacokula

Soil Series Nacaugai

Low calcium magnesium and potassium. Very low BS%.

Organic carbon % very low throughout. Calcium low, and magnesium and potassium values very low. Very low CEC and high CRC.

Organic carbon % very low throughout. Calcium low, and magnesium and potassium values very low. Very low CEC and high CRC.

Low phosphorus and nitrogen.

Low phosphorus and nitrogen.

Very low nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Very low nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus.

None identified.

Low phosphorus and potassium.

Known Limiting Nutrients Very low phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen. Very high phosphate fixation properties.


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111

114D, 114E, Rolling to moderately 114F steep (16-25°). Generally even microrelief.

Nadroga

Never waterlogs.

Moderate soil erosion potential when forest cleared. Moderate to severe soil erosion potential when forest cleared. Very severe sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion potential. Badly eroded in 25% of the area.

82A, 82B, 82C

82D, 82E

166D, 166E, Rolling to moderately Never floods. 166F steep (12-25°). Uneven microrelief.

166G, 166H Steep to very steep (26- Never floods. 40°). Uneven microrelief.

179C

Naevuevu

Naevuevu

Naicola

Naicola

Nairai

Easy rolling (8-11°). Never floods. Uneven microrelief due to erosion.

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Uneven microrelief.

Flat to gently undulating Never floods. to easy rolling (0-11°). Uneven microrelief.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Flat to gently undulating Floods depositing sediment No erosion risk. (0-3°). Smooth have a 1 in 50 year return microrelief. period. Floods (water only) have a 1 in 5 years return period.

Never waterlogs.

<90cm. Limestone at 90cm.

<120cm. Limestone at 120cm.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-13cm gritty clay loam. deficits >100 days are 13-52cm clay loam. experienced sometime in the 52-140cm clay. period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-25cm firm clay loam. deficits are never 25-55cm friable clay. experienced. 55-125cm friable to firm bouldery clay.

>125cm

<125cm

0-52cm moderately acid. 52-125cm slightly acid.

Moderately acid.

0-35cm moderately acid. 35-60cm slightly acid.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

0-13cm moderately acid. 13-140cm strongly acid.

No surface rock 0-125cm outcrops. Surface strongly acid. boulders cover up to 2% of area.

No surface rock 0-140cm outcrops. Surface strongly acid. boulders cover up to 3% of area.

Surface rock outcrops Near neutral. cover 15% of the surface. Surface boulders occupy 5% of the surface.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

0-10cm strongly Non saline. acid. 11-40cm moderate acid. 40-60cm slightly acid.

Surface rock outcrops Near neutral. cover 12% of the surface. Surface boulders occupy 2% of the surface.

<125cm. Note, No surface rock water table at outcrops. No surface 125cm during stones or boulders. part of the wet season.

<100cm. Note No surface rock high seasonal outcrops. No surface water table. stones or boulders.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-30cm firm silty clay loam. <125cm deficits are never 30-60cm friable clay. experienced. 60-140cm friable to firm clay.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-20cm friable clay. deficits of 120 days are 20-90cm firm clay. On experienced sometime in the limestone. period May to October.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-30cm friable clay. deficits of 120 days are 30-120cm firm clay. On experienced sometime in the limestone. period May to October.

Never waterlogs.

0-30cm silty clay loam. 30-52cm clay loam. 52-125cm silty clay loam.

0-100cm clay.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-23cm gritty clay loam. <35cm. Weakly Surface rock outcrops deficits of >120 days are 23-35cm stony silt loam. On weathered in cover 5-8%. Few massive in situ rock. experienced sometime in the situ rock at surface stones. period May to October. 35cm. In normal years soil moisture Poorly deficits are never drained. experienced.

Salinity Non saline.

No surface rock 0-11cm strongly Non saline. outcrops. Few surface acid. 11-35cm stones. moderately acid. 35-55cm slightly acid.

Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders Alkalinity >100cm. Note No surface rock Slightly acid. very firm outcrops. No surface consistence stones or boulders. below 50cm depth.

0-11cm gritty clay loam. <35cm. 11-25cm stony clay loam. Extremely firm 25-35cm stony silt loam. On weakly massive in situ rock. weathered in situ rock at 35cm.

Profile Textural Pattern 0-10cm firm clay loam. 10-35cm firm clay. 35-65cm very firm clay. 65-120cm very firm silty clay.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-20cm gritty clay. <35cm. Weakly No surface rock deficits of 100-120 days are 20-40cm stony silt loam. On weathered in outcrops. Few surface experienced sometime in the massive in situ rock. situ rock at stones. period May to October. 35cm.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 100-120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage In normal years never Imperfectly experiences soil moisture drained. deficits.

Waterlogging below 125cm In normal years soil moisture Moderately occurs in most years deficits are never well drained. sometime in the period experienced. November to April.

Water table fluctuates between 20cm depth (summer months) and 100cm depth (winter months).

25

Infrequent (2-3 per year) Accumulating soil. No short duration (3-4 days) erosion risk. floods occur in normal years sometime between November and April. Sedimentation floods have a 1 in 3 year return period.

Naduru

Flat to gently undulating (0-3°). Commonly smooth microrelief. Shrinkage cracks common in winter months.

56

Nadruka

Severe sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion potential. Moderate soil and shallow debris slide potential.

Moderate to severe sheet Never waterlogs. and rill erosion potential. Slight to moderate soil slip and shallow debris slide potential

Slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Susceptibility to Waterlogging Commonly waterlogs below 75cm for short periods sometime in the months November to April.

114G, 114H Steep to very steep (26- Never floods. 39°). Uneven microrelief (terracettes).

Never floods.

Never floods.

Susceptibility to Flooding Susceptibility to Erosion 1 in 20 year return period No erosion hazard. for floods depositing sediment. 2 in 1 year return period for other floods.

Nadroga

Easy rolling (8-11°). Smooth microrelief.

114C

Nadroga

Slope Microrelief Flat to gently undulating (0-3°). Generally uneven microrelief.

Soil Map Unit 213

Soil Series Nadrau

Very low phosphorus and potassium. Calcium, magnesium, CEC and %BS values very low below 13cm.

Very low potassium and phosphorus.

Very low potassium and phosphorus.

Possible trace element deficiencies.

Possible trace element deficiencies.

Very low potassium throughout.

Very low potassium.

Very low phosphorus.

Very low phosphorus.

Very low phosphorus.

Known Limiting Nutrients None identified.


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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

174A

174B, 174C

174D, 174E, Rolling to moderately 174F steep (12-25°). Generally uneven microrelief.

18

111C

111D, 111E

35

184B, 184C

Nakavika

Nakavika

Nakavika

Nakelo

Nalotu

Nalotu

Namaka

Namalata

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Undulating to easy rolling phase (4-11°). Even microrelief.

Flat to undulating (0-3°). Uneven microrelief due to cultivation furrows.

Rolling and strongly rolling (12-20°). Even microrelief.

Easy rolling (8-11°). Even microrelief.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Slight sheet erosion potential.

Never waterlogs.

Moderate to severe sheet Never waterlogs. and rill erosion potential on slopes >2°.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

0-46cm sandy clay loam. 46-76cm sandy clay. 76-152cm sandy loam. 152203cm sand.

0-15cm firm to friable sandy <50cm. In situ No surface rock heavy clay. rock at 50cm. outcrops. No surface 15-40cm firm sandy heavy stones or boulders. clay. On weathered tuff.

<50cm. In situ No surface rock rock at 50cm outcrops. No surface depth. stones or boulders.

<100cm. Note No surface rock high seasonal outcrops. No surface water table and stones or boulders. low subsoil nutrient status.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits >90 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

0-23cm clay. <110cm. 23-50cm slightly gritty clay. 50-110cm clay loam. On in situ weathered rock.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-48cm friable gritty clay. >125cm. Note No surface rock deficits of >120 days are 48-125cm+ firm sandy clay low subsoil outcrops. No surface experienced sometime in the loam. nutrient status. stones or boulders. period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 60 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-45cm firm sandy heavy deficits of up to 60 days are clay. experienced sometime in the On weathered tuff. period May to October.

Poorly drained.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-15cm very friable clay <125cm. Note No surface rock deficits are never loam. very low subsoil outcrops. No surface experienced. 15-125cm firm gravelly clay. nutrient status. stones or boulders.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-12cm very friable clay <125cm. Note No surface rock deficits are never loam. very low subsoil outcrops. No surface experienced. 12-50cm firm gravelly clay. nutrient status. stones or boulders. 50-125cm firm stony clay.

0-110cm moderately acid.

Non saline.

0-28cm Non saline. moderately alkaline. 28-48cm slightly alkaline. 48-125cm near neutral.

0-40cm strongly Non saline. acid.

0-45cm strongly Non saline. acid.

0-46cm Non saline. moderately acid. 46-112cm strongly acid. 112-152cm extremely acid.

0-15cm Non saline. extremely acid. 15-125cm strongly acid.

0-12cm Non saline. extremely acid. 12-125cm strongly acid.

Very low organic carbon values.

Very low potassium and phosphorus.

Low nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Low nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Potassium very low.

Very low phosphorus.

Very low phosphorus.

Very low phosphorus.

<125cm. Note No surface rock very low subsoil outcrops. No surface nutrient status. stones or boulders.

0-40cm strongly Non saline. acid. 40120cm extremely acid.

Known Limiting Nutrients Very low phosphorus and potassium. Calcium, magnesium, CEC and %BS values very low below 12cm. Very low nitrogen and potassium. Very high phosphate fixation properties.

Salinity Non saline.

Rock outcrops cover 0-45cm slightly Non saline. 20% of the surface. acid. 45-64cm Boulders occupy 30% of moderately the surface. acid.

Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders Alkalinity >125 No surface rock 0-12cm outcrops. No surface moderately stones or boulders. acid. 12-125cm strongly acid.

Well drained. 0-10cm firm slightly peaty >65cm silt loam. 10-45cm very firm silty clay loam. 45-65cm friable gravelly and gritty loam. On basalt boulders.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-10cm very friable clay deficits are never loam. experienced. 10-40cm firm gravelly clay loam. 40-120cm very firm stony clay.

Never experiences soil moisture deficits.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage Profile Textural Pattern In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-12cm gritty clay loam. deficits >100 days are 12-30cm clay loam. experienced sometime in the 30-125cm clay. period May to October.

The water table is at the Soil moisture deficits are surface after heavy rain but never experienced. falls to 100cm in dry periods. The water table fluctuates rapidly but can be at 30cm for up to 30 days during the period November to April.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Slight sheet and rill erosion Never waterlogs. potential on slopes >2°.

Flat to near level In normal years infrequent No erosion risk. (0-1°) Normally smooth (4-5 per year) short duration microrelief. (3-4 days) flooding can occur following high intensity storms sometime in the period November to April.

Never floods.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Flat to gently undulating Never floods. (0-3°). Smooth microrelief.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

214E, 214F, Strongly rolling to steep Never floods. 214G (16-35°). Very uneven microrelief. Very bouldery surface.

Naitata

Never waterlogs.

Susceptibility to Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Very severe sheet, rill and Never waterlogs. shallow debris slide erosion potential. Badly eroded in 35% of the area.

Soil Map Unit Slope Microrelief Susceptibility to Flooding 179D, 179E, Rolling to very steep (16- Never floods. 179F, 179G, 38°). Uneven 179H microrelief due to erosion.

Soil Series Nairai


A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

113

139B, 139C

139D, 139E

138B, 138C

138D, 138E

39A, 39B

39C

158C

158D, 158E, Rolling to very steep (12- Never floods. 158F, 158G, 40°). Smooth 158H microrelief.

134D, 134E, Rolling to steep (12134F, 134G 35°). Uneven microrelief.

Namara

Namatiu

Namatiu

Namosau

Namosau

Namosi

Namosi

Namuana

Easy rolling (8-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Easy rolling (8-11°). Even microrelief.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Slight sheet and rill erosion Never waterlogs. potential.

Very severe rill, sheet and Never waterlogs. wind erosion potential particularly when in fallow or row crops.

Moderate sheet and wind Never waterlogs. erosion potential particularly when in fallow or row crops.

Flat to undulating (0-7°). Never floods. Even microrelief.

Never waterlogs.

Slight sheet and rill erosion Never waterlogs. potential.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never floods.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°).

Undulating to easy rolling (4-11°).

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Uneven microrelief.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Uneven microrelief.

Never floods.

Namara

Strongly rolling (16-20°). Even microrelief.

184E

Namalata

Susceptibility to Slope Microrelief Susceptibility to Flooding Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Rolling (12-15°). Even Never floods. Slight to moderate sheet Never waterlogs. microrelief. and rill erosion potential.

Soil Map Unit 184D

Soil Series Namalata

0-30cm silty clay loam. 30-80cm clay loam. 80-83cm iron pan. 83-93cm clay loam. 93-96cm iron pan. 96-125cm silty clay loam.

0-16cm silty clay loam. 16-64cm clay loam. 64-67cm iron pan. 67-89cm clay loam. 89-92cm iron pan. 92-125cm silty clay loam.

<80cm. No surface rock Discontinuous outcrops. No surface iron pan at this stones or boulders. depth.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 30 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

<100cm. Hard unweathered in situ rock at 100cm.

0-10cm friable to firm fine <100cm. sandy clay. Weathered in 10-28cm firm to friable clay. situ rock at 28-118cm friable slightly 100cm. sandy clay.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-21cm friable clay loam. deficits are never 21-40cm friable clay. experienced. 40-88cm friable to firm silty clay. 88-110cm firm fine sandy clay. On rock.

Surface rock outcrops 0-118cm cover 9% of the area. moderately Surface stones and acid. boulders occupy 3% of the surface.

Surface rock outcrops 0-110cm cover 20% of the area. moderately No surface stones or acid. boulders.

0-80cm moderately acid.

0-125cm strongly acid. Note variable charge.

<65cm. No surface rock 0-125cm Discontinuous outcrops. Rare surface strongly acid. iron pan at this boulder. depth.

<80cm. Hard Surface rock outcrops In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-33cm friable clay. deficits are never 33-80cm firm silty clay loam. unweathered in cover 8% of the area. On rock. situ rock at Few surface boulders. experienced. 80cm.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits >120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits >120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Surface rock outcrops 0-82cm strongly Non saline. cover 3% of the surface. acid. Surface boulders occupy 3% of the surface.

Low nitrogen and phosphorus.

Very low phosphorus and very low potassium below 21cm.

Very low phosphorus and potassium.

Very low nitrogen and potassium. Possible aluminium toxicity.

Very low nitrogen and potassium. Possible aluminium toxicity.

Low nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Low nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

<80cm. In situ weakly weathered rock at 80cm.

0-80cm strongly Non saline. Few surface rock acid. outcrops. Surface stones occupy 2% of the surface.

Very low organic carbon values.

Low nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Non saline.

<65cm. In situ Surface rock outcrops 0-60cm strongly Non saline. rock at 65cm. cover 5% of the surface. acid. Few surface stones.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-17cm friable to firm sandy <80cm. In situ deficits are never clay. weakly experienced. 17-42cm firm sandy clay. weathered rock 42-82cm very firm heavy at 80cm. stony clay. On hard rock.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-52cm firm sandy clay. deficits are never 52-80cm very firm stony experienced. clay.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-10cm friable sandy clay deficits are never loam. experienced. 10-30cm firm sandy clay. 30-60cm firm clay. On in situ rock.

0-95cm moderately acid.

Known Limiting Nutrients Very low organic carbon values.

Low nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

Salinity Non saline.

0-70cm strongly Non saline. acid.

<95cm

Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders Alkalinity <100cm No surface rock 0-100cm outcrops. No surface moderately stones or boulders. acid.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-12cm firm to friable sandy <65cm. In situ No surface rock deficits are never clay loam. rock at 65cm. outcrops. No surface experienced. 12-45cm very firm sandy stones or boulders. clay. 45-70cm firm clay. On in situ rock.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-15cm gritty clay. deficits >100 days are 15-95cm clay loam. experienced sometime in the On weathered in situ rock. period May to October.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage Profile Textural Pattern In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-45cm gritty clay. deficits >90 days are 45-100cm clay loam. experienced sometime in the On weathered in situ rock. period May to October.


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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

Never floods.

Never floods.

160D, 160E

50

105F, 105G, Moderately steep to 105H very steep (21-40°). Uneven microrelief.

Easy rolling (8-11°). Smooth microrelief.

160C

160F, 160G, Moderately steep to 160H very steep (21-40°). Uneven microrelief.

Flat to undulating (0-7°). Smooth microrelief.

67

38A, 38B

38C

Naqilai

Narayawa

Narayawa

Narayawa

Narewa

Nasau

Nasegai

Nasegai

Never floods.

Never floods.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Have experienced severe Never waterlogs. past erosion. Very severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

In normal years waterlogging below 50cm depth and for up to 90 days occurs sometime in the period November to April.

Moderate to severe sheet Never waterlogs. and rill erosion potential. Some rotational slumps on slopes >25°.

Flat to near level In normal years infrequent Accumulating soil. No (0-2°). Uneven (gilgai) (2-3 per year) surface erosion risk. microrelief). floods that may pond for up to 5 days are experienced sometime in the period November to April.

Never floods.

Never waterlogs.

Slight sheet and rill erosion Never waterlogs. potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

0-8cm friable stony sandy clay. 8-46cm firm stony sandy clay. On weathered sandy marl.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 100 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Rock outcrops cover 15% of the surface. Stones occupy 2% of the surface.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-28cm friable to firm clay deficits are never loam. experienced. 28-60cm firm clay. 60-80cm firm clay loam. 80-125cm very firm weathered in situ rock.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-25cm firm clay loam. deficits are never 25-53cm very firm clay. experienced. 53-86cm firm clay loam. 86-125cm+ very firm weathered in situ rock.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

<80cm. No surface rock Weathered rock outcrops. No surface at about 80cm. stones or boulders.

<90cm. Weathered in situ rock at about 90cm.

Non saline.

0-80cm Non saline. extremely acid.

0-86cm Non saline. extremely acid.

0-9cm very friable silty clay <70cm. In situ Surface rock outcrops 0-45cm loam. basalt rock at cover 8% of the surface. moderately 9-15cm very friable silty 70cm. Surface boulders acid. clay. occupy 5% of the 45-70cm 15-45cm friable silty clay. surface. slightly acid. 45-70cm firm clay loam.

Very low phosphorus and potassium.

Very low phosphorus and potassium.

Low phosphorus and potassium. Moderate phosphate retention.

Very low phosphorus and potassium.

Potassium very low below 25cm.

Potassium very low below 30cm.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Potassium very low below 20cm.

Very low phosphorus and potassium.

Low phosphorus and potassium.

Very high %BS, calcium medium, potassium low.

Known Limiting Nutrients Very high %BS, calcium medium, potassium low.

Non saline.

0-95cm slightly Non saline. acid.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 100 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

50-75cm. Note No surface rock seasonal high outcrops. No surface water table. stones or boulders.

0-7cm moderately acid. 70-100cm strongly acid.

0-10cm moderately acid. 10-125cm strongly acid.

0-10cm moderately acid. 10-125cm strongly acid.

0-63cm firm clay. 63-95cm soft clay.

<50cm. No surface rock Strongly outcrops. No surface weathered rock stones or boulders. between 5070cm.

<70cm. Strongly weathered in situ rock between 7080cm.

<70cm. Strongly weathered in situ rock between 7080cm.

In normal years soil moisture Poorly deficits of 30-60 days in the drained. upper 75cm are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-25cm sandy loam. deficits are never 25-56cm loamy coarse experienced. sand. 56-125cm coarse sand.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-30cm sandy loam. deficits are never 30-70cm coarse sandy experienced. loam. 70-125cm coarse sand.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-20cm sandy loam. deficits are never 20-70cm coarse sandy experienced. loam. 70-125cm coarse sand.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Salinity Non saline.

0-52cm strongly Non saline. acid.

Near neutral.

Surface rock outcrops Moderately cover 5-10% of area. acid. Surface boulders cover 10% of area.

0-15cm firm to friable clay. <50cm. Water No surface rock 15-52cm very firm clay. table at or about outcrops. No surface On soft clay. 50cm. stones or boulders.

<50cm. Weathered in situ marl at 50cm.

0-10cm friable sticky gritty <35cm clay. 10-25cm friable sticky gritty clay on strongly weathered rock.

Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders Alkalinity <45cm Surface rock outcrops Moderately cover less than 2% of acid. area. Surface boulders cover 5% of area.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits >120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage Profile Textural Pattern In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-15cm friable sticky clay. deficits >100 days are 15-30cm friable sticky clay experienced sometime in the on firm gritty clay. period May to October.

Waterlogs below 50cm for In normal years soil moisture Very poorly up to 6 months during the deficits are never drained. period November to April. experienced.

Moderate to severe sheet Never waterlogs. and rill erosion potential.

Severe sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion potential where vegetative cover removed.

1 in 25 year return period No erosion hazard. for floods depositing alluvium. 1 in 2 year return period for other floods.

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Uneven microrelief.

Easy rolling (8-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Flat to near level (0-1°). Smooth microrelief.

Moderately steep and Never floods. steep (21-35°). Uneven surface.

117F, 117G

Never floods.

Susceptibility to Susceptibility to Flooding Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Never floods. Slight to moderate Never waterlogs. potential of sheet erosion under cultivation.

Naqalotu

Slope Microrelief Undulating to easy rolling (4-11°).

107D, 107E, Rolling to steep 107F, 107G (12-35°).

Soil Map Unit 107B, 107C

Nanukuloa

Soil Series Nanukuloa


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31

212A, 212B

177A

177B, 177C

Nausori

Navai

Navava

Navava

Undulating and easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion potential where vegetative cover removed.

Very slight sheet erosion potential on slopes >1°.

1 in 20 year return period No erosion hazard. for floods depositing sediment. 1 in 2 year return period for other floods.

Flat to gently undulating Never floods. (0-3°). Smooth microrelief.

Flat to undulating (0-7°). Smooth microrelief.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential. Moderate debris slide potential.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential. Slight debris slide potential on slopes >20°.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Due to near permanent high Accumulating soil. No water table throughout the erosion risk. year surface flooding can occur for >200 days. 1 in 25 year return period for floods depositing sediment.

159G, 159H Steep to very steep (26- Never floods. 42°). Uneven microrelief.

Nauluvatu

Flat to near level (0-2°). Commonly smooth microrelief but hummocky when overlying peat at depth.

159D, 159E, Rolling to moderately Never floods. 159F steep (12-25°). Uneven microrelief.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Nauluvatu

Easy rolling (8-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Undulating (4-7°). Smooth microrelief.

70C

70B

Nasou

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

>125cm. Note No surface rock low subsoil outcrops. No surface nutrient status. stones or boulders.

0-20cm clay loam. 20-40cm gritty silt loam. 40-45cm silt loam. 45-125cm gritty clay loam.

>125cm. Note No surface rock low subsoil outcrops. Few fine nutrient status. surface stones and gravels.

0-9cm clay loam. 9-19cm <125cm. Note No surface rock gritty clay. 19-42cm gritty low subsoil outcrops. Few fine silt loam. 42-45cm silt loam. nutrient status. surface gravels. 45-77cm gritty silt loam. 7779cm silt loam. 79-125cm gritty clay loam.

0-25cm clay loam. 25-50cm gritty silt loam. 50-55cm silt loam. 55-69 gritty silt loam. 90-125cm gritty clay loam.

<50cm. Note high seasonal water table.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-70cm clay. deficits are never 70-102cm fine sandy clay. experienced. On weathered in situ rock (coarse sandy loam).

<100cm. Weathered in situ rock at about 100cm.

<100cm. Weathered in situ rock at about 100110cm.

Well drained. 0-35cm very friable clay >120cm loam. 35-95cm friable clay loam. 95-120cm firm clay.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-60cm clay. deficits are never 60-100cm fine sandy clay. experienced. On weathered in situ rock (coarse sandy loam).

In normal years never experiences soil moisture deficits.

0-16cm clay loam. 16-28cm silty clay loam. 28-93cm clay loam. 93-118cm fine sandy clay.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-5cm friable silty clay loam. <60cm. Hard in deficits are never 5-60cm friable clay loam. situ rock at experienced. On weakly weathered in situ 60cm. rock.

Few surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

Few surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

0-25cm slightly Non saline. acid. 25102cm near neutral. 102129cm slightly alkaline.

0-20cm slightly Non saline. acid. 20100cm near neutral. 100125cm slightly alkaline.

Slightly acid.

0-28cm strongly Non saline. acid. 28-93cm moderately acid. 93110cm strongly acid.

Rock outcrops cover 35- 0-60cm 40% of area. Few moderately surface stones and acid. boulders.

0-79cm moderately acid.

0-125cm strongly acid.

0-125cm strongly acid.

0-125cm strongly acid.

Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Profile Textural Pattern Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders Alkalinity Salinity 0-30cm loose loamy sand. >100cm. Note No surface rock 0-100cm Non saline. 30-60cm loose coarse sand. subsoil nutrient outcrops. No surface slightly alkaline. 60-100cm+ loose stony and deficiencies. stones or boulders. gravelly coarse sand.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-7cm friable loam. <80cm. Hard in Rock outcrops cover deficits are never 7-79cm friable clay loam. situ rock at 30% of area. Few experienced. On weakly weathered in situ 80cm. surface stones and rock. boulders.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of >120 days may be experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of >120 days may be experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 120 days may be experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage In normal years soil moisture Somewhat deficits are never excessively experienced. drained.

In normal years the water In normal years soil moisture Very poorly table fluctuates from at the deficits are never drained. surface (summer) to 50cm experienced. (winter) but where drained to below 100cm in winter.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Susceptibility to Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging During hurricanes may Never waterlogs. Water experience minor scouring. table >150cm depth. Accretion of new sediment more significant at these times.

Flat to gently undulating In normal years and on Very slight sheet erosion (0-3°). Smooth slopes <2° flooding (water potential on slopes >2°. microrelief. only) for up to 3 days duration may occur on 2 occasions sometime in the period November to April.

Slope Microrelief Susceptibility to Flooding Flat to near level Never floods. (0-1°). Generally smooth but surface hummocks where windthrow has occurred.

Nasou

70A

Nasou

Soil Map Unit

20

Soil Series Naselesele

Very low potassium below 9cm.

Very low potassium below 10cm.

Low phosphorus.

Low potassium.

Low phosphorus and very low potassium below 5cm.

Low phosphorus and very low potassium below 7cm.

Nitrogen and phosphorus low. Potassium extremely low.

Nitrogen and phosphorus low. Potassium extremely low.

Nitrogen and phosphorus low. Potassium extremely low.

Known Limiting Nutrients Very low nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.


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187B, 187C

187D

203A

203B, 203C

81

54

Navunikodi

Nawai

Nawai

Naweni

Naweni

Nayau

Nika

Never floods.

Slight sheet erosion potential.

Very slight sheet erosion potential.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

May waterlog for short periods below 75cm sometime during the wet season.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits >100 days are well drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Moderately deficits >100 days are well drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

No erosion hazard.

Flat to gently undulating 3-4 flood events each year No erosion risk. (0-3°). Surface (water only) occur within the hummocks (gilgai). period November to April.

Flat to gently undulating Never floods. (0-3°). Smooth.

Undulating to easy Infrequent (once per Moderate sheet and rill rolling (4-11°). Smooth season) short duration (1-2 erosion potential if microrelief. days) overflow flooding may vegetative cover removed. be experienced sometime in the period November to April.

In normal years waterlogging can occur for up to 60 days sometime in the period November to April.

Never waterlogs.

<100cm. Vertic No surface rock properties outcrops. No surface severely restrict stones or boulders. rooting during the dry season.

<120cm. Vertic No surface rock properties outcrops. No surface severely restrict stones or boulders. rooting during the dry season.

In normal years soil moisture Poorly drained. deficits of 100 days are experienced sometime in the months May to October.

0-80cm clay loam. 80-125cm fine sandy clay loam.

<80cm. No surface rock Waterlogging at outcrops. No surface depth in wet stones. season. Smectitic clays inhibit rooting.

Limestone surface rock outcrops cover 3% of the surface. Boulders occupy 3% of the surface.

0-60cm clay loam. <100cm. Note No surface rock 60-90cm sandy loam. seasonal subsoil outcrops. No surface 90-125cm+ fine sandy clay waterlogging. stones or boulders. loam.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-14cm friable loamy clay. <60cm. Hard in deficits of up to 100 days are 14-59cm very friable clay. situ coralline On hard limestone. limestone at experienced sometime in the 60cm. period May to October.

In normal years In normal years soil moisture Poorly waterlogging below 50cm deficits are not experienced. drained. (due to subsoil lateral flow and landscape position) may be experienced for up to 60 days sometime in the period November to April.

0-93cm moderately acid. 93-143cm slightly acid.

Non saline.

Non saline.

0-20cm slightly Non saline. acid. 20-80cm near neutral. 80-125cm slightly alkaline.

0-14cm near Non saline. neutral. 14-59cm slightly alkaline.

0-12cm near Non saline. neutral. 12-125cm slightly alkaline.

0-10cm near Non saline. neutral. 10-120cm slightly alkaline. 160-180cm moderately alkaline.

0-12cm slightly Non saline. acid. 12100cm near neutral.

0-14cm Non saline. moderately acid. 14-120cm near neutral.

No surface rock 0-100cm outcrops. Few surface strongly acid. stones.

0-10cm sandy clay loam. <100cm. Note No surface rock 10-54cm clay loam. seasonal subsoil outcrops. No surface 54-82cm sandy clay loam. waterlogging. stones or boulders. 82-120cm+ clay loam.

0-70cm clay loam. 70-100cm fine sandy clay loam.

0-60cm clay loam. 60-120cm fine sandy clay loam.

Acidity/ Alkalinity Salinity 0-31cm slightly Non saline. acid. 31-60cm near neutral. 60-180cm slightly alkaline.

Few surface rock 0-20cm slightly Non saline. outcrops. Rare surface acid. 20-70cm boulders. near neutral. 70-110cm slightly alkaline.

<100cm. Note No surface rock high seasonal outcrops. No surface water table. stones or boulders.

<100cm. Weathered in situ rock at about 100cm.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-40cm friable sandy clay >100cm deficits are never loam. experienced. 40-60cm friable stony sandy clay. 60-100cm friable to firm slightly stony sandy clay.

Flat to gently undulating Infrequent (1-2 times per Slight sheet and rill erosion In normal years In normal years soil moisture Poorly (0-3°). Smooth season) short duration (1-2 potential if vegetative waterlogging below 25cm deficits are not experienced. drained. microrelief. days) overflow flooding may cover removed. (due to subsoil lateral flow and landscape position) be experienced sometime may be experienced for up in the period November to to 90 days sometime in the April. period November to April.

Rolling (12-15°). Even Never floods. microrelief. Surface cracks in the dry season.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Surface cracks in the dry season. Minor surface hummocks.

Flat to near level (0-2°). 1 in 100 year return period No erosion hazard. Smooth microrelief. for floods depositing sediment. 1 in 5 year return period for other floods.

0-20cm silt loam. 20-33cm silty clay loam. 33-49cm silt loam. 49-64cm silty clay loam. 64-143cm clay loam.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-10cm clay loam. deficits are never 10-70cm clay. experienced. 70-100cm fine sandy clay loam. On weathered in situ rock (medium sandy loam).

Overall Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Susceptibility to Drought Drainage Profile Textural Pattern Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-60cm clay. <120cm. Few surface rock deficits are never 60-91cm sandy clay. Weathered in outcrops. Rare surface experienced. 91-123cm coarse sandy clay situ rock boulders. between 120loam. 130cm. On weathered in situ rock (coarse sandy loam).

In normal years the water In normal years soil moisture Poorly table fluctuates between deficits are never drained. 40cm (summer) and 120cm experienced. (winter).

Active mass movement in Never waterlogs. some areas. Very severe sheet, rill and soil creep erosion potential. Moderate debris slide erosion potential.

Susceptibility to Susceptibility to Flooding Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Never floods. Moderate sheet, rill and Never waterlogs. soil creep erosion potential.

Flat to gently undulating 1 in 2 years return period Accumulating soil. No (0-3°). Smooth for floods comprising water erosion risk. microrelief. only. During such events water could lie for up to 7 days. 1 in 25 year return period for floods depositing sediment.

29

Navua

Slope Microrelief Rolling and strongly rolling (12-20°). Generally even microrelief.

177F, 177G, Moderately steep to 177H very steep (21-40°). Uneven microrelief.

Soil Map Unit 177D, 177E

Navava

Soil Series Navava

Low potassium throughout. Very low organic carbon below 20cm.

Low phosphorus and potassium. Possible trace element imbalance.

Potassium very low.

Potassium very low.

Potassium low. Organic carbon very low in subsoils.

Potassium low. Organic carbon very low in subsoils.

Low phosphorus and potassium.

Very low potassium throughout.

Very low potassium below 10cm.

Known Limiting Nutrients Very low potassium below 7cm.


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79

89A

89B

227A, 227B, Undulating to easy Never floods. 227C rolling (0-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Ogea

Ono

Ono

Qalinaolo

Undulating (4-7°). Smooth microrelief.

Never floods.

Flat to gently undulation Never floods. (0-3°). Smooth microrelief.

Flat to near level (0-2°). Never floods. Smooth microrelief.

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Uneven microrelief.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Uneven microrelief.

Rolling (12-15°). Never floods. Smooth microrelief and uneven in areas that have experienced rill erosion.

142D, 142E

141D

Nukudamu

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Nukusa

141B, 141C

Nukudamu

Flat to gently undulating Never floods. (0-3°). Smooth microrelief.

Susceptibility to Flooding Never flooded. Subject to wave encroachment during severe storm events.

142B, 142C

141A

Nukudamu

Slope Microrelief Flat to gently undulating (0-2°). Smooth flat microrelief.

Nukusa

6

Soil Map Unit

Soil Series Nuku

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Moderate sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion potential on slopes >7°.

Slight sheet and rill erosion Never waterlogs. potential.

Very slight sheet erosion potential on the 2-3° slopes only.

No erosion risk.

Very severe sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion potential. Have experienced past erosion.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential. Have experienced past erosion.

Experienced sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion in some areas. Very severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Experienced past topsoil Never waterlogs. loss. Moderate to severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Experienced past topsoil Never waterlogs. loss. Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential on slopes >2°.

Susceptibility to Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging In general no erosion risk. Never waterlogs. Subject to some wave scouring during severe storm events in places.

0-12cm loose slightly bouldery gritty and sandy loam. 12-17cm very friable stony sandy loam. 17-167cm very friable fine sandy clay loam.

>150cm

0-10cm firm sandy clay <120cm loam. 10-30cm very firm sandy clay. 30-60cm very friable sandy loam. 60-90cm friable loam. 90-120cm very friable loamy sand.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-18cm very friable clay deficits are never loam. experienced. 18-70cm friable clay. 70-120cm very firm silty clay.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-22cm silt loam. deficits are never 22-125cm loam. experienced.

<120cm. Note very firm consistence below 70cm.

>125cm

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-25cm heavy silt loam. 25- >125cm deficits are never 125cm loam experienced.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits >100 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

0-25cm firm sandy clay. <120cm 25-80cm friable sandy loam. 80-120cm friable loamy sand.

No surface rock Moderately outcrops. Surface acid. boulders occupy 3% of the surface.

Few surface rock 0-125cm outcrops. Few surface slightly acid. stones and rare boulders.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Potassium and phosphorus very low.

Potassium very low below 13cm. Nitrogen very low below 22cm. Extremely high P retention.

Potassium very low below 12cm. Nitrogen very low below 25cm. Extremely high P retention.

Potassium and phosphorus very low.

Potassium and phosphorus very low.

Phosphorus very low. Potassium very low.

Non saline. Few surface rock 0-12cm outcrops. Few surface moderately stones. acid. 12-60cm slightly acid. 60125cm moderately acid.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Phosphorus very low. Potassium low to very low.

Potassium very low.

Strongly acid.

Strongly acid.

0-125cm strongly acid.

0-13cm Non saline. extremely acid. 13-125cm strongly acid.

Phosphorus very low. Potassium low to very low.

Known Limiting Nutrients Very low potassium throughout. Available phosphorus, organic carbon and nitrogen very low below 10cm depth.

Limestone surface rock 0-17cm slightly Non saline. outcrops occupy 10% of alkaline. the area. Few surface stones and boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones and boulders.

<125cm In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-12cm clay loam. 12-65cm sandy clay loam. deficits >100 days are 65-125cm+ clay loam. experienced sometime in the period May to October. In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones and boulders.

Salinity Non saline.

0-15cm Non saline. extremely acid. 15-125cm strongly acid.

Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Stones and Boulders Alkalinity No surface rock 0-10cm outcrops. Few surface moderately coral stones. alkaline. 10-109cm strongly alkaline.

<125cm In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-13cm clay loam. 13-79cm sandy clay loam. deficits >100 days are 79-125cm+ clay loam. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Min. Effect. Rooting Depth >105cm. Note, low nutrient status below 10cm.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones and boulders.

Profile Textural Pattern 0-10cm loamy clay. 10-109cm+ coarse sand.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-15cm clay loam. <125cm deficits >100 days are 15-82cm sandy clay loam. experienced sometime in the 82-125cm+ clay loam. period May to October.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage In normal years soil moisture Somewhat deficits of 30 days are excessively experienced sometime in the drained. period May to October.


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152F, 152G, Moderately steep to 152H very steep (21-40°). Uneven microrelief.

97G, 97H

178B, 178C

178D, 178E

178F, 178G

58

Rana

Rauriko

Ravilevu

Raviravi

Raviravi

Raviravi

Rawiti

Never floods.

Never floods.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Flat to gently undulating (0-3°). Slight alluvial ridge and swale microrelief.

Floods (water only) on average twice sometime in the period November to April. Flood sedimentation events have a 1 in 15 year return period.

Moderately steep to Never floods. steep (21-35°). Uneven microrelief.

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Uneven microrelief.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Steep to very steep (26- Never floods. 40°).

Never floods.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Some lateral stream bank corrasion. Otherwise no erosion potential. Accumulating soil.

Water table fluctuates from 50cm depth (summer months) to 150cm depth (winter months).

Severe past erosion. Very Never waterlogs. severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Evidence of past sheet Never waterlogs. erosion. Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Has experienced past erosion. Moderate sheet erosion on slopes >1°.

Very severe sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion potential.

Have suffered past erosion. Very severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

<70cm. Strongly weathered in situ rock at 70cm.

In normal years soil moisture Imperfectly deficits of up to 30-40 days drained. are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of >120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

0-15cm silty clay. 15-21cm clay. 21-29cm silt loam. 29-37cm clay loam. 37-125cm+ clay.

0-5cm clay loam. 5-60cm clay. 60-100cm silty clay loam. On weathered in situ rock.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-10cm silty clay loam. deficits of 120 days are 10-70cm clay. experienced sometime in the 70-125cm silty clay loam. period May to October.

Strongly acid.

Non saline.

Non saline.

No surface rock outcrops. Few surface stones, no surface boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface boulder, few iron coated surface stones.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Potassium very low throughout.

Phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen very low.

0-60cm strongly Non saline. acid. 60100cm extremely acid. 0-125cm strongly acid.

Phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen very low.

Potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen very low.

Very low potassium.

Low nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus levels low.

Very low phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium. Possible aluminium toxicity.

Very low phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium. Possible aluminium toxicity.

Known Limiting Nutrients Very low potassium below 30cm.

0-70cm strongly Non saline. acid. 70125cm extremely acid.

0-13cm strongly Non saline. acid. 13125cm extremely acid.

Rock outcrops cover 0-90cm 20% of the surface. moderately Boulders occupy 10% of acid. the surface.

Surface rock outcrops 0-20cm Non saline. cover 8% of the surface. moderately acid. Surface boulders 20-44cm occupy 3% of the slightly acid. 44surface. 110cm strongly acid.

No surface rock outcrops or surface boulders.

<125cm. Note No surface rock high seasonal outcrops. No surface water table. stones or boulders.

<100cm. Weathered in situ rock at 100cm.

<125cm

<125cm

<100cm Well drained. 0-16cm firm clay loam. 16-90cm very firm stony and bouldery clay.

0-20cm friable sandy clay loam. 20-44cm friable sandy clay. 44-66cm friable clay. 66-110cm weathered in situ rock.

0-120cm very friable peaty >160cm fine sandy loam. >120cm loose coarse sand.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-13cm silty clay loam. deficits of 90-120 days occur 13-61cm clay loam. sometime in the period May 61-125cm silty clay loam. to October.

Never experiences soil moisture deficits.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 60 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Very poorly drained.

Few surface rock 0-21cm outcrops. Few surface moderately boulders. acid. 21-160cm strongly acid.

Non saline.

Acidity/ Alkalinity Salinity 0-30cm strongly Non saline. acid. 30-53cm moderately acid. 53-77cm extremely acid. 77-100cm slightly alkaline. 100-122cm moderately acid.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-21cm very firm silty clay >125cm deficits are never loam. experienced. 21-220cm firm clay loam. 220-450cm friable to firm silt loam.

Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders 0cm. Due to No surface rock permanent outcrops. No surface water table at or stones or boulders. near the surface.

0-21cm No surface rock outcrops. Few surface moderately acid. boulders. 22-125cm strongly acid.

Profile Textural Pattern 0-53cm peat. 53-77cm clay loam. 77-100cm sandy loam. 100-122cm medium to coarse sand.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-22cm firm silty clay loam. >125cm deficits are never 22-125cm firm clay loam. experienced.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage Soil moisture deficits are Very poorly never experienced. drained.

In normal years water table Soil moisture deficits are is at or near the ground never experienced. surface.

Never waterlogs.

Slight sheet and rill erosion Never waterlogs. potential.

Susceptibility to Susceptibility to Flooding Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging As the water table is at or No erosion risk. In normal years the water near the ground surface for table is at or near the most of the year surface ground surface. flooding is experienced for >180 days in normal years.

Flat to gently undulating Surface floods >50 days No erosion risk. (0-3°). due to topographical position and seasonal high water table.

Rolling and strongly rolling (12-20°). Teracettes.

104D, 104E

Qeleni

Easy rolling (8-11°). Uneven microrelief.

Slope Microrelief Flat to near level (0-1°). Hummocky microrelief.

104C

Soil Map Unit 17

Qeleni

Soil Series Qaributa


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Have experienced severe Never waterlogs. past erosion. Very severe sheet and rill erosion potential. Have experienced severe Never waterlogs. past erosion. Very severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never floods.

201B, 201C

201D

116C

Never floods. 116D, 116E, Rolling to moderately 116F steep (12-25°). Uneven microrelief.

61

Rukuruku

Rukuruku

Sabeto

Sabeto

Saliadrau

Never floods.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Slight sheet and rill erosion Never waterlogs. potential.

Very severe sheet, rill and Never waterlogs. debris slide erosion potential. Debris slides are recognised.

Flat to near level (0-2°). Floods depositing sediment No erosion risk. Slightly undulating have a 1 in 10 year return microrelief. period. Floods (water only) have a 1 in 2 year return period. Water lies for 2-3 days.

Easy rolling (8-11°). Uneven microrelief.

Rolling (12-15°). Smooth microrelief.

Undulating and easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Never floods.

109F, 109G, Moderately steep to 109H very steep (21-40°). Uneven microrelief.

Roroa

Never waterlogs.

Moderate sheet, rill and soil creep erosion potential.

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Uneven microrelief.

109D, 109E

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Roroa

Slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-18cm silt loam. deficits are never 18-70cm sandy loam. experienced. 70-125cm gravelly very coarse sand.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage Profile Textural Pattern In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-19cm silt loam. deficits are never 19-82cm sandy loam. experienced. 82-125cm gravelly very coarse sand.

0-22cm friable clay. 22-65cm firm clay. 65-125cm very firm weathered in situ rock (sandy loam).

0-20cm friable to firm clay. 20-62cm firm clay. 62-100cm extremely firm weathered in situ rock (sandy loam). <65cm. Weathered in situ rock at 65cm.

<65cm. Weathered in situ rock at 65cm.

>125cm

>125cm

0-125cm strongly acid.

0-125cm strongly acid.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-12cm loamy fine sand. 12- >125cm 30cm silt loam. deficits are never 30-45cm loam. experienced. 45-70cm loamy sand. 70-84cm silt loam. 84-125cm loamy sand.

0-30cm strongly Non saline. acid. 30125cm moderately acid.

Rock outcrops cover 0-43cm slightly Non saline. 15% of the surface. acid. Stones cover 2% of the surface.

Rock outcrops cover 0-48cm slightly Non saline. 12% of the surface. acid. Stones cover 3% of the surface.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock Slightly acid. outcrops. Few surface stones.

No surface rock Slightly acid. outcrops. Rare surface stones.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-18cm friable to firm clay. <50cm. deficits of 120 days are 18-43cm firm stony clay. Weathering in experienced sometime in the On weakly weathered marl. situ marl at period May to October. 50cm.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-20cm friable to firm clay. <50cm. 20-48cm firm stony clay. Weathering in deficits of 120 days are experienced sometime in the On weakly weathered marl. situ marl at 50cm. period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-125cm clay loam. deficits of 90-120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-125cm clay loam. deficits of 90-120 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-16cm gravelly loamy very <60cm. deficits are never coarse sand. Cemented tuff experienced. 23-60cm very coarse sand. between 60On indurated tuff. 100cm.

0-20cm moderately acid. 20-100cm slightly acid.

0-28cm moderately acid. 28-126cm slightly acid.

Surface rock outcrops 0-22cm occupy 10% of the area. moderately Common surface acid. boulders. 22-125cm slightly acid.

Surface rock outcrops occupy 6% of the area. Common surface boulders.

<125cm. Note, No surface rock water table at outcrops. No surface 125cm during stones or boulders. part of the wet season.

0-40cm near neutral. 40-125cm slightly acid.

Few surface rock <70cm. Profuse (>75%) outcrops. Few surface stones. weathered scoria gravels at 70cm.

Non saline.

Acidity/ Alkalinity Salinity 0-42cm near Non saline. neutral. 42125cm slightly acid.

Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders <80cm. Few surface rock Profuse outcrops. Few surface weathered stones. scoria gravels at about 80cm.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-30cm fine sandy loam. 30- <75cm. deficits are never 75cm gravelly coarse loamy Cemented tuff experienced. sand. between On indurated tuff. 75-100cm.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of >100 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of >100 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Waterlogging below 125cm In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-106cm silty clay loam. occurs in most years deficits are never 106-126cm silt loam. experienced. sometime in the period November to April.

Never waterlogs.

Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Generally uneven microrelief.

196B, 196C

Rewasa

Flat to gently undulating Floods depositing sediment No erosion risk. (0-3°). Smooth have a 1 in 10 year return microrelief. period. Floods (water only) have a 1 in 2 year return period.

Slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

196D, 196E

22

Rewa

Undulating (4-7°). Even Never floods. microrelief.

Susceptibility to Slope Microrelief Susceptibility to Flooding Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Flat to gently undulating Never floods. Slight sheet erosion Never waterlogs. (0-3°). Even potential. microrelief.

Rewasa

91B

Reree

Soil Map Unit

91A

Soil Series Reree

Very low nitrogen and potassium.

Low nitrogen.

Low nitrogen.

Phosphorus very low.

Phosphorus very low.

Phosphorus and potassium very low.

Phosphorus and potassium very low.

Phosphorus very low.

Phosphorus very low.

Very low potassium throughout.

Potassium very low below 18cm. Extremely high P retention.

Known Limiting Nutrients Very low nitrogen below 42cm. Potassium very low below 19cm. Extremely high P retention.


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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

110D, 110E, Rolling to steep (12110F, 110G 35°). Smooth microrelief.

135F, 135G, Moderately steep to 135H very steep (21-40°). Uneven microrelief.

34A

34B

161D, 161E, Rolling to steep 161F, 161G (12-35°). Uneven microrelief.

48

53

Samabula

Sarowaqa

Saunaka

Saunaka

Savudrodro

Sawakasa

Saweni

Flat to near level (0-2°). Uneven microrelief due to vertic properties.

Flat to near level (0-2°). Even microrelief.

Undulating (4-7°). Smooth microrelief.

In normal years flooding for Accumulating soil. No up to 5 days are erosion risk. experienced on 2-3 occasions sometime in the period November to April.

1 in 10 year return period No erosion hazard. for floods depositing small amounts of fresh alluvium. 1 in 2 year return period for other floods.

In normal years In normal years soil moisture Poorly waterlogging below 50cm is deficits are never drained. experienced for up to 60 experienced. days sometime during the period November to April.

In normal years may In normal years soil moisture Imperfectly waterlog below 75cm for up deficits are never drained. to 60 days during the period experienced. November to April.

<100cm

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

0-20cm very firm heavy clay. <120cm. Note No surface rock 20-45cm extremely firm seasonal high outcrops. No surface clay. water table. stones or boulders. 45-120cm extremely firm silty clay.

0-30cm friable clay loam. 30-70cm firm clay loam. 70-120cm firm clay.

0-125cm strongly acid.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

0-45cm slightly Non saline. acid. 45100cm slightly alkaline.

Slightly acid.

Surface rock outcrops Strongly acid. cover 5% of the surface. Surface boulders occupy 5% of the surface.

>125cm. Note No surface rock low subsoil outcrops. No surface nutrient status stones or boulders. and seasonal waterlogging.

0-125cm strongly acid.

Non saline.

0-10cm near Non saline. neutral. 10-45cm slightly alkaline. Surface rock outcrops 0-10cm cover 8% of the surface. moderately Surface stones and acid. boulders occupy 4% of 10-75cm the surface. strongly acid.

>125cm. Note No surface rock low subsoil outcrops. No surface nutrient status stones or boulders. and seasonal waterlogging.

<75cm. Weathered in situ parent rock at 75cm.

<45cm. Weakly Few surface rock weathered in outcrops. No surface situ rock at stones or boulders. 45cm.

<100cm. In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-8cm friable sandy clay Weathered in deficits are never loam. experienced. 8-40cm very firm sandy clay. situ rock at 40-120cm firm sandy clay. 100cm.

0-25cm loamy sand. 25-125cm+ clay.

In normal years soil moisture Imperfectly In normal years waterlogging below 70cm deficits of up to 90 days are drained. may occur for up to 40 days experienced sometime in the sometime in the period period May to October. November to April.

0-10cm friable to firm sandy clay. 10-75cm friable clay. On firm clay.

0-30cm loamy sand. 30-125cm+ clay.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of 30 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-10cm firm clay. deficits are never 10-45cm friable clay. experienced. On in situ marl.

In normal years In normal years soil moisture Imperfectly waterlogging below 30cm deficits of 60 days are drained. may occur for up to 60 days experienced sometime in the sometime in the period period May to October. November to April.

Very severe sheet, rill and Never waterlogs. mass movement erosion potential. Have experienced past sheet erosion.

In normal years isolated Severe sheet and rill ponding for up to 1-2 days erosion potential. may occur sometime in the period November to April.

Never floods.

Never waterlogs.

Evidence of past erosion. Never waterlogs. Very severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion risk.

0-7cm near Non saline. neutral. 7-35cm slightly alkaline. 35-45cm moderately alkaline.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-35cm firm clay. <45cm. Weakly No surface rock outcrops. No surface deficits are never 35-45cm friable stony clay. weathered in situ rock at stones or boulders. experienced. On in situ marl. 45cm.

Acidity/ Alkalinity Salinity 0-15cm strongly Non saline. acid. 15-40cm moderately acid. 0-5cm near Non saline. neutral. 5-20cm slightly alkaline. 20-30cm moderately alkaline.

Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders <50cm. Weakly Surface rock outcrops weathered in cover 15% of the situ rock at surface. Surface 50cm. boulders occupy 10% of the surface. <30cm. Weakly No surface rock weathered in outcrops. No surface situ rock at stones or boulders. 30cm.

0-5cm firm clay. 5-20cm friable stony clay. 20-30cm friable bouldery clay. On in situ marl.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage Profile Textural Pattern Never experiences soil Well drained. 0-15cm firm slightly peaty moisture deficits. silt loam. 15-40cm friable silty clay loam. On basalt flow rock.

In normal years In normal years soil moisture Well drained. waterlogging for up to 5 deficits are never days duration may occur on experienced. 3-5 occasions sometime in the period November to April.

Slight sheet and rill erosion Never waterlogs. risk.

No erosion risk.

Flat to gently undulating In normal years infrequent Moderate sheet and rill (0-3°). Smooth (1-2 times per year) short erosion potential on slope microrelief. duration (1-2 days) surface >1°. flooding and ponding may be experienced sometime in the period November to April.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Undulating to rolling (4- Never floods. 11°). Smooth microrelief.

110B, 110C

Samabula

Flat to gently undulating Never floods. (0-3°). Smooth microrelief.

110A

Soil Map Susceptibility to Unit Slope Microrelief Susceptibility to Flooding Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging 219G, 219H Steep and very steep Never floods. Very severe sheet and rill Never waterlogs. (26-40°). Very uneven erosion potential. microrelief.

Samabula

Soil Series Salialailai

Very low phosphorus and potassium.

Phosphorus low.

Calcium, magnesium and potassium low.

Very low potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen.

Very low potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen.

Low nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

None identified.

None identified.

None identified.

Known Limiting Nutrients Very low nitrogen and potassium. Very high phosphate fixation properties.


A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

121

Moderate to severe sheet Never waterlogs. and roll erosion potential. Moderate soil slip and debris slide erosion potential.

Susceptibility to Susceptibility to Erosion Waterlogging Moderate sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion potential following forest clearance. Slight soil slip and debris slide erosion potential.

27

171B, 171C

171D

171E, 171F

217G, 217H Steep and very steep Never floods. (26-40°). Very uneven microrelief.

Sigatoka

Solevu

Solevu

Solevu

Soqulu

Strongly rolling to moderately steep (16-25°). Uneven microrelief.

Rolling (12-15°). Uneven microrelief.

Never floods.

Never floods.

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Uneven microrelief.

Very severe sheet and debris slide erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Slight sheet and rill erosion Never waterlogs. potential.

Subject to short duration waterlogging during periods of low frequency major flood events. Water table >125cm from surface at all times.

Very severe sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion potential. Very severe debris slide and soil slip erosion potential.

Severe sheet and rill Never waterlogs. erosion potential. Severe debris slide and soil slip erosion potential.

Flat to gently undulating 1 in 10 year return period No serious erosion. Slight (0-1°). Smooth for major floods contributing wind potential where minor amounts of sediment. structures have broken microrelief. Days under water 4 to 7. down. A slowly accumulating site.

128G, 128H Steep to very steep (27- Never floods. 40°). Hummocky microrelief.

Serua

Never floods.

128E, 128F

Floods depositing sediment No erosion risk. Potential Never waterlogs. have a 1 in 10 year return lateral corrasion adjacent period. Floods (water only) to river. have a 1 in 2 year return period. Water lies for 2-3 days.

Serua

Strongly rolling to moderately steep (16-26°). Uneven microrelief.

Near flat (0-2°). Smooth microrelief.

46

Serea

Slope Microrelief Susceptibility to Flooding Rolling to strongly rolling Never floods. (12-20°). Uneven microrelief.

172F, 172G, Moderately steep to Never floods. 172H very steep (21-40°). Hummocky microrelief.

Soil Map Unit 172D, 172E

Seatura

Soil Series Seatura

0-25cm clay loam. 25-35cm silt loam. 35-100cm clay loam. >100cm fine sandy clay loam.

>150cm

<125cm. Strongly weathered in situ rock at 125cm.

<125cm. Strongly weathered in situ rock at 125cm.

<150cm

In normal years never experiences soil moisture deficits.

Somewhat excessively drained.

0-12cm soft peaty silt loam. <75cm. 12-38cm friable peaty silt Compact scoria loam. at 75cm. 38-57cm firm gravelly and gritty loam. 57-70cm friable loamy fine sandy gravel. 70-150cm weathered in situ scoria.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-18cm friable clay. <60cm. deficits are never 18-60cm firm clay. Weathered in experienced. On weathered in situ basalt. situ rock at 60cm.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-55cm firm clay. <50cm. deficits are never On weathered in situ basalt. Weathered in experienced. situ rock at 50cm.

0-6cm slightly alkaline. 6-17cm near neutral. 17-250cm slightly acid.

Non saline.

No surface rock outcrops. Surface boulders occupy 10% of the surface.

0-38cm moderately acid. 38-70cm slightly acid.

Non saline.

Very low nitrogen and potassium. Very high phosphate fixation.

Potassium low. Surface rocks cover 15% of the area. Few surface boulders.

0-70cm strongly Non saline. acid.

Potassium low.

Low organic carbon values. Low potassium values in subsoils.

Phosphorus very low. Potassium and nitrogen very low below 8cm.

Potassium low.

0-70cm strongly Non saline. acid.

0-150cm slightly acid.

Non saline.

Phosphorus very low. Potassium and nitrogen very low below 10cm.

Very low nitrogen throughout.

Very low phosphorus values.

Known Limiting Nutrients Very low phosphorus. Very low potassium below 15cm.

Surface rock outcrops 0-65cm strongly Non saline. cover 10% of the area. acid. Surface boulders cover 2% of the area.

Few surface rock outcrops. Surface boulders cover 2% of the area.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones.

No surface rock 0-8cm outcrops except in areas moderately of mass movement. No acid. surface stones or 8-125cm boulders. strongly acid.

Non saline.

Non saline.

0-16cm strongly Non saline. acid. 16125cm moderately acid.

Acidity/ Alkalinity Salinity 0-15cm strongly Non saline. acid. 15125cm moderately acid.

No surface rock 0-125cm outcrops except in areas strongly acid. of mass movement. No surface stones or boulders.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

<120cm. Note No surface rock low subsoil outcrops. No surface nutrient status. stones or boulders.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-50cm firm clay. <50cm. deficits are never On weathered in situ basalt. Weathered in experienced. situ rock at 50cm.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits are experienced for >30 days during the months May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-8cm clay loam. deficits are never 8-43cm silty clay loam. experienced. 43-65cm silty clay. 65-125cm clay.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-40cm silty clay loam. deficits are never 40-60cm silty clay. experienced. 60-125cm clay.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-6cm loamy fine sand. deficits are never 6-17cm fine sand. experienced. 17-92cm loamy very fine sand. 92-150cm fine sand.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-16cm friable humic clay deficits are never loam. experienced. 16-65cm firm stony clay loam. 65-125cm firm stony silt loam.

Overall Min. Effect. Outcrops & Surface Susceptibility to Drought Drainage Profile Textural Pattern Rooting Depth Stones and Boulders In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-15cm friable humic clay <120cm. Note No surface rock deficits are never loam. low subsoil outcrops. No surface experienced. 15-70cm firm stony clay. 70- nutrient status. stones or boulders. 125cm firm stony silty clay.


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A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

126D, 126E, Rolling to steep (12126F, 126G 35°). Uneven microrelief.

119B, 119C

103C

103D, 103E

189A, 189B, Flat to gently undulating Sedimentation has occurred Slight sheet erosion 189C to easy rolling (0-11°). in the past, but infrequent potential on slopes >3° Slightly hummocky now. Occasional flooding when cultivated.. microrelief. (with water lying 2-3 days) on slopes <2° may occur 23 times annually sometime in the period November to April.

165A, 165B

165C

Suva

Tabaka

Tabaka

Tabia

Tabuquto

Tabuquto

Never floods.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Have experienced severe Never waterlogs. past soil erosion. Have moderate wind, sheet and minor rill erosion potential. Have experienced severe Never waterlogs. past soil erosion. Have moderate to severe wind, sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never floods. Easy rolling (8-11°). Generally even microrelief. Some unevenness in areas of windthrow.

Profile Textural Pattern 0-8cm peaty silty clay. 8-67cm clay. 67-95cm silty clay. 95-142cm silty clay loam. 142cm+ loamy fine sand.

<125cm

0-9cm clay loam. 9-55cm clay. 55-85cm fine sandy clay loam. On fractured in situ rock.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits >100 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

<85 cm

0-12cm clay loam. <75cm 12-60cm clay. 60-75cm sandy clay loam. On fractured in situ rock.

>125cm

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits >100 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

0-28cm clay. 29-43cm clay loam. 43-51cm silt loam. 51-69cm fine sandy clay loam. 69-125cm clay loam.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-12cm friable clay. <100cm deficits are never 12-60cm friable loamy clay. experienced. 60-90cm loose loamy sand.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-72cm friable clay. deficits are never 72-125cm very friable fine experienced. sandy loam.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

Surface rock outcrops cover 10% of the surface. Boulders occupy 5% of the surface.

Few surface rock outcrops. Boulders occupy 3% of the surface.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Calcium and potassium low in topsoil and very low below 12cm. 0-9cm slightly acid. 9-85cm moderately acid.

Non saline.

Potassium very low throughout. Calcium and magnesium very low in subsoils. %BS low to very low.

Calcium and potassium low in topsoil and very low below 12cm.

Non saline.

Very low phosphorus and potassium.

Very low phosphorus and potassium.

Low nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Potassium very low below 18cm.

Potassium very low below 13cm.

Known Limiting Nutrients Low phosphorus. Very low nitrogen below 8cm.

0-12cm slightly Non saline. acid. 12-75cm moderately acid.

0-125cm moderately acid.

0-12cm Non saline. extremely acid. 12-90cm strongly acid.

0-15cm Non saline. extremely acid. 15-125cm strongly acid.

0-35cm slightly Non saline. acid. 35-75cm near neutral.

0-125cm strongly acid.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface stones or boulders.

<70cm. Strongly weathered in situ rock between 70-75cm.

0-125cm strongly acid.

Outcrops & Surface Acidity/ Stones and Boulders Alkalinity Salinity No surface rock 0-44cm Moderately outcrops. No surface extremely acid. saline. stones or boulders. 44-67cm strongly acid. 67-95cm moderately acid. 95-160cm slightly acid.

<65cm. No surface rock Strongly outcrops. No surface weathered in stones or boulders. situ rock between 65 and 75cm.

Min. Effect. Rooting Depth <40cm. Note high water table and low subsoil nutrient status.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-35cm friable to firm clay. <75cm. In situ No surface rock deficits are not experienced. 35-75cm firm clay. marl (paralithic outcrops. No surface On weathering marl. contact) at stones or boulders. 75cm.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-40cm clay loam. 40-125cm clay. deficits are never experienced.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-22cm clay loam. deficits are never 22-125cm clay. experienced.

Overall Susceptibility to Drought Drainage In normal years soil moisture Very poorly deficits are never drained. experienced.

Waterlogging may occur 2- In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 3 times in wet season on deficits >100 days are slopes <3°. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Very severe sheet erosion Due to continuous heavy potential. rainfall can waterlog for short periods.

Very severe sheet erosion Due to continuous heavy potential. rainfall can waterlog for short periods.

Very slight sheet erosion potential on slopes >7°.

Moderate sheet, rill, soil creep and terracette (under grazing regime) erosion potential.

Flat to gently undulating Never floods. to undulating (0-7°). Smooth microrelief.

Rolling and strongly Never floods. rolling (12-20°). Uneven microrelief.

Easy rolling (8-11°). Uneven microrelief.

Undulating and easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

Never floods.

Susceptibility to Waterlogging In normal years the soil is waterlogged permanently below about 40cm though the water fluctuates daily with the tides.

Slight sheet and rill erosion Never waterlogs. potential.

Sote

Undulating to easy Never floods. rolling (4-11°). Smooth microrelief.

126B, 126C

Susceptibility to Flooding Susceptibility to Erosion Water table permanently No erosion risk. high and fluctuates with the tides. Not flooded above 30-50cm during normal high tide. Major flooding relates to spring tides and major storm events.

Sote

Slope Microrelief Flat to near level (0-1°). Commonly hummocky microrelief.

3

Soil Map Unit

Soil Series Soso


A Reference Manual for Utilising and Managing the Soil Resources of Fiji

123

Soil Map Unit 165D

8

220A, 220B

170D, 170E

170F, 170G

66

24

76D, 76E, 76F

76G, 76H

93C

Soil Series Tabuquto

Tacilevu

Tagimaucia

Tailevu

Tailevu

Talacagi

Tamanua

Tau

Tau

Taveuni

Never floods.

Floods depositing sediment Accumulating site. No have a 1 in 20 year return erosion risk. period. Other floods have a 1 in 2 year return period.

Severe sheet and rill erosion potential.

Moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

No erosion risk.

Easy rolling (8-11°). Never floods. Hummocky microrelief.

Steep to very steep (26- Never floods. 40°). Uneven microrelief.

Rolling to moderately Never floods. steep (12-25°) Uneven microrelief.

Never waterlogs.

Waterlogging below 65cm occurs in most years sometime in the period November to April.

In normal years water perches over the compact subsoil for up to 90 days sometime in the period November to April.

Never waterlogs.

Never waterlogs.

Slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion potential.

Never waterlogs.

0-16cm friable clay loam. 16-38cm firm stony clay loam. On hard limestone.

0-18cm friable clay loam. 18-40cm firm stony clay loam. On hard limestone.

<100cm

<50cm. Hard limestone at 50cm.

<50cm. Hard limestone at 50cm.

Non saline.

Rock outcrops cover 3% 0-114cm of the surface. Boulders moderately occupy 5% of the acid. surface.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

0-18cm moderately acid. 18-40cm slightly acid.

0-38cm moderately acid. 38-97cm slightly acid.

Non saline.

Non saline.

Non saline.

0-16cm moderately acid. 16-38cm slightly acid.

Surface rock outcrops cover 30% of the surface. Stones and boulders occupy 5% of the surface.

Surface rock outcrops cover 15% of the surface. Stones and boulders occupy 10% of the surface.

<65cm. Water No surface rock table at 65cm outcrops. No surface during part of stones or boulders. the wet season.

0-102cm strongly acid.

0-18cm very friable sandy <40cm. No surface rock Compact firm outcrops. No surface loam. clayey subsoil at stones or boulders. 18-36cm friable to firm sandy loam. 40cm. Very low 36-102cm compact firm clay subsoil nutrient loam. status. 0-38cm very fine sandy clay loam. 38-61cm silty clay loam. 61-97cm silty clay.

0-120cm strongly acid.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-11cm very friable humic deficits are never loam. experienced. 11-31cm very friable clay loam. 31-54cm friable loam. 54-75cm friable silty clay loam. 75-114cm friable gravelly loam.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 140 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. deficits of up to 140 days are experienced sometime in the period May to October.

In normal years soil moisture Imperfectly deficits are never drained. experienced.

In normal years soil moisture Poorly deficits of 30 days are drained. experienced sometime in the period May to October.

Non saline.

0-25cm strongly Non saline. acid. 25-90cm moderately acid.

0-140cm <90cm. In situ No surface rock rock at 90cm. outcrops. Few surface strongly acid. Note low subsoil boulders. nutrient status.

No surface rock outcrops. No surface boulders and stones.

0-16cm moderately alkaline. 16-100cm strongly alkaline.

Acidity/ Alkalinity Salinity 0-15cm slightly Non saline. acid. 15-95cm moderately acid.

<90cm. In situ No surface rock rock at 90cm. outcrops. No surface Note low subsoil boulder or stones. nutrient status.

In normal years soil moisture Well drained. 0-40cm friable clay loam. deficits are never 40-90cm firm clay. experienced. 90-120cm bouldery clay (in situ weathering rock).

Outcrops & Surface Stones and Boulders Surface rock outcrops cover 5% of area. Surface stones cover 2% of area.

<100cm. Wet No surface rock season subsoil outcrops. Few surface waterlogging coral stones. and low nutrient status below 16cm.

Well drained. 0-2cm friable slightly sandy <50cm. clay loam. Normally wet 2-25cm firm clay loam. below 50cm. 25-90cm soft slightly gravelly clay.

0-46cm shelly sandy loam. 46-81cm stony sandy loam. 81-100cm stony coarse sand. On cemented beach rock.

Min. Effect. Profile Textural Pattern Rooting Depth 0-15cm