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Ground Up magazine issue EGSHPA


European Ground Source Heat Pump Association

EGSHPA European Ground Source Heat Pump Association

The Greatest Show on Earth – NGWA Expo 2012 How a GSHP can help protect Britain’s heritage Green Design: A Glimpse into the Future

Solar Power’s Burning Issue

Stars and their Pumps Ground Up magazine / ISSUE 5 / 5.99€ 05

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European Ground Source Heat Pump Association



The Smart Choice of Geothermal Contractors Around the World GEOT HERMAL — AS SIMPLE AS IT GE TS!


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Howdy Pardners W

e’ve given a distinct ‘American’ feel to this issue. Whether that’s because we have been looking west to distract us from our seemingly ever-present financial woes here in Europe, or perhaps because the U.S. has such a powerful influence on our thinking and technology … we’ll let you decide. All I can say is it’s been a pleasure to have spent the last couple of months working with some very positive people. That famous ‘can do’ attitude still exists Stateside. You may also notice that the magazine has been given a make over. We’ve given it a better layout, added new writers and features, and generally done our best to put our reader’s views into action. So I’d like to offer my sincere thanks to everyone who has been in touch with comments (both good and bad). We really do take them into account and try to implement as many as we can. Of course, we’re always looking for more feedback, so please contact me direct on with any thoughts and suggestions. I look forward to hearing from you. We’ll be firmly back in Europe for the next issue, with yet more new features, more new writers and even more pages. So, until then,

European Ground Source Heat Pump Association Argyle House Dee Road Richmond Surrey TW9 2JN Not for Profit Company Limited by Guarantee, Registered in England & Wales, Company No. 7689830 Homepage: Contact Us: Advertising and Editorial enquiries:

Happy trails,

The Team

Paul Kilby

Paul Kilby Editor-in-Chief or Twitter!/EGSHPA Dale Holdback - BEng AMIMechE Technical and Industry Knowledge

This month we would like to thank the following members for their contribution:

Richard Layton - BA ACA Head of Finance

Martyn Bridges Director of Marketing and Technical Support Worcester, Bosch Group 0844 892 4010

Terry Stokes Art Editor

Adrian Bridgwater Technology Writer

Joanne Leach Project Manager University of Birmingham +44 (0)121 414 3544

DWAWU Wiercinski + Wrzeszcz Architects

Ed Lohrenz Geo-Xergy Inc.

Gaile Griffen Peers Manager Marina Alta Business Club

Myles McCarthy Managing Director Carbon Trust Implementation Services Tel: 988 3718

Stephen A. Hamstra Chief Technology Officer Greensleeves LLC Findlay, Ohio Stephen Hibbert Freelance Writer Jackie Lambon Marketing Manager NIBE Energy Systems Ltd. Tel: 0845 095 1200

National Ground Water Association Phil Old Applications Engineer Seaward Solar Ltd. Zachary Shahan Director & Editor CleanTechnica

Nathan Berkley Head of Media and Marketing Disclaimer Ground Up is a trademark and may not be used or reproduced without the prior written consent of EGSHPA. Ground Up is published in the UK by EHGSPA and is sold subject to the following terms: namely that it shall not without the written consent of the Publishers be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise disposed of by way of Trade at more than the recommended selling price shown on the cover and that it shall not be lent, resold or hired out in a mutilated condition or in any unauthorised cover by way of Trade of affixed to or as part of any publication or advertising literary or pictorial matter whatsoever. Ground Up magazine accepts no responsibility for claims made by advertisers or comments made by contributors in any form.

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C ntents issue 5

Throwing light on Solar Power page 6-8 The most burning issue facing Solar Power: we take an in-depth look.


Thought leader in Energy page 9 Voted one of the top energy ‘thinkers’, Stephen Hamstra is highly regarded within the renewable energy industry. And as a guest writer this issue, we wanted to find out what makes him tick. Rio+20 - Review & Analysis page 10-12 The world had low expectations for Rio+20. Sadly, it seems these were met. We look past the spin and discover some hard facts. Tomorrow’s Urban Planning Tool page 14-17 Would you like to know the future? We have details of an incredible new tool that will tell you how your plans for sustainability will work out in 2050. News Roundup page 18-19 Here we catch up with the latest happenings in Wind, Wave and Biomass technology. Stars and their Pumps page 20-21 Jayne Torvill strikes gold again (sorry - Ed) with not one but two ground source heat pumps. Viva Las Vegas, with the NGWA page 22-24 The National Ground Water Association is holding its annual expo in Las Vegas in December. We take a look at all the show has to offer, and why it might be worth booking your place.



Good News for Ground Source Heat Pumps page 25-26 With the UK languishing in a ‘double dip’, money for many projects is tight. However, the Carbon Trust and Siemens Financial Services might just have a solution. Ed Lohrenz: Trying Things Differently page 27-28 We are very pleased to announce a new addition to the Ground Up team: Ed Lohrenz. Here we take a brief look at his career, life and philosophy.


Calculating Peak Loads  page 29-33 New addition to the Ground Up team, Ed Lohrenz, takes us through the calculations needed to determine Peak Loads.


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A Quick and Easy Guide to Ground Source Heat Pumps page 34-36 We were trying to think of a way we could spread the word about GSHPs to the uninitiated. So here it is - in plain language for all to understand. Please pass it on.

British Heritage & Ground Source Heat Pumps  page 48-49 Built in the 1800s, it was feared the good ship Glenlee would be left to rot. But hard work, determination, and a GSHP, saved the day.

The Future of Ground Source Heat Pumps  page 37-43 Stephen Hamstra gives us some insight into the importance of flow control, and how it might impact the future of GSHPs.

Your Say, We Help  page 51 Readers’ Letters: Our experts offer solutions to your problems.

Our NEW Classified Section News Headlines page 54-59  page 44-45 Looking for a trust-worthy professional? Look no Keep abreast of what’s happening in the GSHP sector further! Our re-designed Classified Section has all the with our news section. details on all the best in our industry. Ground Up magazine delivers the latest news and information on the Renewable Energy Industry. Each issue brings you unrivalled indepth features along with exclusive interviews of the biggest players in the game. July 2012 l Ground Up 5

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PV system safety is a burning issue


hil Old, PV applications engineer at Seaward Solar, looks at the electrical safety implications of installing rooftop solar PV systems. Given the growth in solar PV installations worldwide, it should perhaps come as little surprise that international concern regarding the safety and quality of installations has become a consideration that cannot be ignored. In particular, the presence of fire hazards or increased risk of electrocution is a regular reminder of the dangers posed by incorrectly installed or commissioned PV systems. This was the case recently in the UK, when news of what is believed to be the country’s first PV system fire made the headlines.


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On this occasion it was reported that Kent fire-fighters were called out to deal with a solar PV fire in a domestic property. The fire, which is thought to have been triggered by a faulty DC switch, was said to have “wreaked havoc” at a family home. This situation is not uncommon. In recent years there have been a number of reports of fires and of unsafe installations in domestic solar PV installations that could have posed a fire risk. In the USA, after a well-documented solar PV “thermal event” that occurred in Bakersfield, California, in April 2009, the cause was put down to an undetected fault-to-ground in a grounded current-carrying source circuit conductor at the site. A subsequent analysis of utility-owned and operated rooftop PV systems in North Carolina revealed the presence of undetected ground faults in approximately 10% of the systems surveyed. Also in the USA, a report, ‘Fire Fighter Safety and Emergency Response for Solar Power Systems’, published in 2010, prepared by the Fire Protection Research Foundation, detailed several fires caused by PV systems. The believed causes included electrical malfunction, leaves and debris under the solar panels, electrical arcing and electrical faults in inverters. More recently, last year, in Australia, the NSW Government issued details of a survey of solar PV installations in western Sydney that found that 18.5% of the installations had major defects. Of the 658 systems inspected, 122 were found to have significant safety issues and a further 418 (63.5%) were found to have minor defects. These findings mirror that of a similar survey a year earlier in France when safety inspectors from the electrical safety certification agency Conseul found that 51% of all PV installations in the country posed a potential safety risk and did not conform to regulations. Clearly all these cases highlight the fire risks that can be associated with PV systems and support the need for thorough commissioning and regular periodic electrical testing. In many cases simple electrical faults or wiring failures can cause a serious inefficiency in the ability of the system to produce power. Undetected faults may also develop into a fire hazard over time. Without fuse protection against such faults, elimination of a fire risk can only be achieved by both good system design and careful installation alongside appropriate electrical inspection and testing. In the main, proper electrical commissioning procedures are among the best defences against latent fire or electrocution hazards – although once installed, ongoing and effective electrical testing is also vital both to prove the continuing safe installation of a PV system but also to verify ongoing functional performance over extended periods.

IEC 62446

‘IEC 62446: 2009 Grid connected PV systems – minimum requirements for system documentation, commissioning tests, and inspection’, specifies the minimum requirements for PV system documentation‚ commissioning tests and inspections. Although standards are not regulatory or government imposed, they can be used to help support regulations. They are created as a result of experts, professionals and consumers working together to set them for mutual benefit and ensure high quality. In the case of solar PV systems, compliance with IEC 62446 means householders should be assured that the installation they are investing in is safe and adheres to an internationally recognised level of expected quality. IEC 62446 does this by setting out the information and documentation that should be provided to the customer following the installation of a solar panel system and also the

The right tool for the job

initial (and periodic) electrical inspection and testing required. In short the standard sets out measures to ensure that: The PV panels and electrical supply connections have been wired up correctly That the electrical insulation is good The protective earth connection is as it should be There has been no damage to cables during installation This international standard was published in March 2009. When voting was taken on this standard, all member countries voted in favour, including the UK, USA, Russia, China and many other major contributors. However different countries take a different approach. In the USA, for example, there is a variety of regulations often defined by individual states and the picture is more complex. Although the National Electric Code exists as an overall defining document, it has also had to be revised on a regular basis in order to keep pace with the moving demands of the PV market. In Europe, the standard has been adopted as a European EN in many member states and is generally regarded as making a significant contribution to improving the quality and safety of PV systems. In the UK, for example, the British Microgeneration Certification Scheme has adopted the principles of IEC 62446 as the basis for its testing and documentation regime. As a result, the fundamentals of the standard are effectively enforced because no feed-intariff will be paid to a consumer unless the installation has been installed by an MCS

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work was done by an accredited installer. It is interesting to note that the emphasis is on documentation, and this is in effect the evidence used to demonstrate that appropriate precautions and tests were undertaken prior to the handing over of a PV system to the property owner.

Compliance testing

There are many instruments available that are sold under the title of ‘solar testers’ so it is vital to ensure that the instruments selected are capable of performing all of the tests required by the various compliance requirements. The absolute minimum testing that needs to be undertaken involves continuity measurements (where applicable), open circuit voltage, short circuit current, insulation and irradiance. To meet the electrical test needs some contractors have used multiple instruments that typically include an earth continuity and insulation resistance tester‚ a multimeter, DC clamp meter along with various associated connectors and leads. However, the danger with such ‘homemade kits’ is that not all of the tests required by IEC 62446 will be covered and, with different PV system electrical tests potentially requiring the use of different testers, using such an array of instruments can be cumbersome and time consuming.

When it comes to solar PV electrical test instrumentation, the choice for the installer is therefore between using general purpose individual items of equipment against all in one combination PV testers and dedicated electrical test kits that enable measurements to be taken in a fast, safe and efficient fashion. In this respect, given the recent reductions to solar feed in tariffs, the ability of multi-function testers to help installers to work faster and more efficiently without reducing the integrity of testing is set to become even more important in terms of remaining competitive. In terms of working more efficiently dedicated solar PV testers can also record and provide results in a format that is compatible with data recording programs. This assists greatly in the creation of comprehensive system information folders for use in customer test certificates and system commissioning packs. More details from

New solarlink pv test technology The latest solar PV electrical test kit from Seaward Solar has special PV system datalogging and downloading capabilities to enable contractors to install new solar PV installations safely, thoroughly and effectively in line with international standards. The new Solarlink Test Kit includes all the necessary equipment to perform pre-installation site surveys and measure the electrical safety and performance of installed PV systems in line with IEC 62446, MCS MIS 3002, NABCEP and many others. The all-in-one kit combines the comprehensive electrical test capabilities of the new PV150 solar handheld tester with the advanced Solar Survey 200R multifunction environment meter. The PV150 is the most technically advanced and safest solar PV installation tester on the market. In the comprehensive new kit it is accompanied by the Solar Survey 200R environment meter which incorporates a PV reference cell for more representative measurements. Special wireless Solarlink connectivity between the two instruments enables real-time irradiance to be displayed and


measured at the same time as electrical testing is being undertaken. This means that compass bearing and roof tilt can be measured, and irradiance, module and ambient temperature can be recorded in real time within the PV150 as the electrical tests are conducted. Once testing is completed, the USB download of time and date stamped test results, irradiance and temperature measurements provides full traceability and speeds up the completion of PV system documentation and customer handover packs. In addition to solar PV system installation and commissioning, the new Solarlink Test Kit is ideal for conducting site surveys of potential installations, by quickly providing the information needed to calculate estimated annual solar irradiation and system yields of PV and solar thermal systems. As well as the PV150 and the Solar Survey 200R and associated calibration certificates, the comprehensive kit includes an AC/ DC current clamp, various test lead adaptors, test probes and a USB download cable – along with a quick start instruction guide and video.

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Stephen Hamstra Thought Leader in Energy As part of Ground Up magazine’s commitment to bring our readers in-depth interviews with the industry’s top thinkers we are please to present a Q & A with Stephen Hamstra.


tephen Hamstra has been at the head of the curve when it comes to the green building industry since he was a child and his father installed one of the first solar thermal collection systems in Western Michigan. In 1975, Stephen built his first solar collector, and in 2001, he became the first engineer in Michigan to achieve Accredited Professional status from the U.S. Green Building Council LEED. In 2008, he achieved the ASHRAE High Performance Building Design Professional status. He also created the engineering design for Michigan’s first USGBC LEED Gold project. He has since been recognized by the Association of Energy Engineers as Engineer of the Year, and in 2007, he was honored with the organization’s “Legend in Energy” lifetime achievement award. He was also selected by the Association of Energy Engineers as the 2006 Energy Engineer of the Year in Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Stephen has a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from Michigan State University. He is also a Certified GeoExchange Designer. But perhaps most impressive is the fact he was named as one of eight individuals from his region as their 2010 ‘Thought Leader in Energy’ We couldn’t pass up the opportunity to find out more about Stephen Hamstra, and are very pleased he spared us some of his time for an interview.

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I love having the ability to be creative and create a total solution by thinking out of the box. I strongly believe that engineers are called to impact society in a positive way and my position at Greensleeves allows me to do that.


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What does your job involve? My job is not a typical mechanical engineering role. Our company is creating affordable energy efficient solutions for the commercial market. I am constantly thinking about how large buildings can utilize new and innovative combinations of solutions that balance first cost and on-going energy usage while applying off-the-shelf hardware solutions. This requires unique control software. These capabilities are prepackaged by Greensleeves into hybrid-ready systems preconfigured to use multiple heating, cooling and storage devices working together. How did you get into this line of work? I have been interested in the green building industry since I was a child when my father, a mechanical contractor, installed one of the first solar thermal collection systems in Western Michigan. In 1975, I built my first solar collector, and in 2001, became the first engineer in Michigan to achieve LEED Accredited Professional from the U.S. Green Building Council. In 2008, I achieved the ASHRAE High Performance Building Design Professional status. In addition, I created the engineering design for Michigan’s first USGBC LEED Gold project. Sustainability has been a passion for the majority of my career, but for many years our marketplace was simply not interested. That has changed. What do you enjoy most about your job? I love having the he ability to be creative and create a total solution by thinking out of the box. I strongly believe that engineers are called to impact society in a positive way and my position at Greensleeves allows me to do that. We have been able to assemble a uniquely powerful group of people blending software development experience with geothermal heat pump experience. This summer we have three PhD candidates helping to refine our optimization software – it’s exciting to work with all of this talent! What makes Greensleeves different? Greensleeves LLC was created to make alternative energy affordable for conditioning buildings – to make clean energy systems cost competitive with conventional HVAC systems. The company invests in designing and marketing systems that use advanced energy modeling, mechanical engineering and artificial intelligence to deliver a new type of local energy management equipment. Greensleeves has patents pending on sophisticated energy management technology. What did being named as a ‘thought leader in energy’ mean to you? Being named “thought leader in energy” was an incredible honor. My goal has never been to receive recognition but to impact society by reducing fossil fuel dependence and the impact it has on the earth. I am flattered to be recognized for this work. The expression that “we stand upon the shoulders of those that came before us” is very true. We are positioned at a unique time in history where the world is beginning to understand that our current energy consumption patterns are not sustainable – we finally have a receptive audience eager to hear what we have to say. What would you say are the most pressing issues in our industry at the moment? I do not think we have to accept that sustainability is too expensive. We routinely get high returns on our investments in energy efficiency. Unfortunately, the concept that design-bidbuild is the way to get the best for the cheapest often interferes with good investment and sustainability returns. We know that

buildings are better designed as whole systems and when we try to optimize each component price, we sub-optimize the system. Future energy costs frequently increase in a hidden form when the building design goes out to bid and components are “value engineered” to the point that the system no longer works efficiently. When a system is looked at as a whole – including the financial trade-offs - the best return on investment can be achieved.

A 100-year plan! I was flabbergasted!

Here in the United States, as we compare ourselves to Europe, we see a different mentality with regards to energy investments. The United States has been far too focused on very short term returns instead of long term returns that reflect the anticipated life of our buildings. I often use the example of meeting with a CEO of a well-established boiler manufacturer in Germany and he was explaining their “100 year plan”. I was flabbergasted – here in the US we can barely get past “quarterly earnings reports” and have a mental time horizon that is typically limited to 3 or 4 years. We are finally seeing that position beginning to change and our clients are slightly more open to investments that can bring huge returns over the life of a building, but might not fit the “2 year simple payback” mentality. Much of our technology development at Greensleeves is focused on shortening payback periods, but we could do so much more if we could all look just a little bit beyond a 2-3 year horizon. Where do you see our industry in 10 years? It will be integrating entirely new methods for managing the energy cycle. There will have to be a greening of the world using more sophisticated technology to manage the energy cycle. Energy is all around us, we will learn to channel it with less cost. I often use the analogy of the hybrid car that recovers and stores energy as the brake pedal is pressed – we are employing this concept as well using geothermal technology – we seasonally and daily set energy aside for either later use or for later dissipation when conditions allow us to do that using less energy. What do you think Europe can learn from America? And vice versa? Europe is often ahead of America in green initiatives especially geothermal. 85% of the homes in Sweden use geothermal and they are very good at installing it cost effectively. However, the United States leads the world in computer technology, artificial intelligence and designing products that work the way the market wants them to work. We need to embrace geothermal heat pump technology as the only clean, constant source of renewable energy, but apply US expertise to making it easier and cheaper. What’s the best piece of advice you’ve received? Be still and listen. July 2012 l Ground Up 11

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on the same planet, but are we on the same page?


he United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Rio+20) was supposed to give world leaders, governments, NGOs and the private sector a platform for reducing poverty, advancing social equity and ensuring environmental protection on an increasingly crowded planet. Did it succeed? We take a look past the spin and ask what really happened at Rio+20‌

Crisis! What crisis?

Although having lofty ideals, and attracting upwards of 50,000 participants, U.S. President Barack Obama, Prime Minister David Cameron of Britain and Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany were not at Rio+20. Why? Financial turmoil in Europe and a presidential race in America seem the most likely reasons. Obama has probably been advised that attending the conference would project an image of him being more concerned with global problems than domestic issues. President Bush’s presence at the original summit 20 years ago did little to help his election campaign - he lost to Clinton later that year. Also, with their current economic worries, all three leaders would have little or no money to offer. Perhaps staying at home made better political sense than a trip to Brazil?

Brazil joins the Jet Set

For Brazil, hosting the conference created an ideal chance to project its influence into different parts of the developing world. How? Well Brazil kindly sent Embraer jets to transport


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the delegations from 10 countries in Africa and the Caribbean, including Malawi, Sierra Leone, Dominica and Grenada. This act shows Brazil’s emergence as a financial powerhouse in Latin America, which is in stark contrast to its economic situation during the first Earth Summit. Then, Brazil was still struggling with soaring inflation and economic instability. While the growth of the Brazilian economy has recently slowed, along with that of other BRIC countries, like China and India, President Dilma Rousseff has found herself having to defend her government’s development model, which involves the assertive use of state-controlled companies and banks to advance antipoverty projects. “It’s possible to have a country that develops economically, with growth and inclusion of its population, while also respecting the environment,” Ms. Rousseff said in an address at the conference. Brazilian diplomats staked out an assertive role in preliminary talks, resisting proposals from rich industrialized countries that developing nations should be required to pay more to reduce environmental degradation. Perhaps they should sell off some of their jets?

Record Breaking Rio

Despite much of the press coverage of the conference having a distinctly negative slant, the figures behind the event are truly breathtaking. As well as being the biggest UN conference ever held, other facts include: In attendance were 57 heads of state, 8 vice presidents, 31 prime ministers, 9 deputy prime ministers and 487 ministers; In total, accredited representatives of 191 states showed up; 3989 accredited journalists; 205km of fibre optic cable installed for the event; 32,000 simultaneous users of the Wi-Fi system; Fleet of 350 buses to transport participants; 17 restaurants in the food court; Occupancy rate of hotels in Rio over 95% during the event; Tips for tourism in the city, transport options, the Conference agenda, maps and other information services, amounting to thousands of documents, all translated into Portuguese, English and Spanish; More than $513 billion mobilised in commitments for sustainable development, including in the areas of energy, transport, green economy, disaster reduction, desertification, water, forests and agriculture.

But Perhaps Most Telling of All …

One thing that struck us as emblematic of the whole conference was the name given to the final written result from all the discussions and consultations, speeches and seminars. Was it a declaration? How about pronouncement? Did they issue a proclamation? Sadly, none of the above. It didn’t even merit that most meaningless of titles: a ‘roadmap’. It was awkwardly, uninspiringly, insipidly and perhaps unsurprisingly called: Rio+20 Outcomes Document.

How Well Did The First Rio Conference Do?

Let’s not be too hard on Rio+20. Since the first time world leaders gathered in Rio de Janeiro, back in 1992, temperatures have climbed and disasters have mounted. Here’s how the world has changed in the 20 years after the first conference in Rio:

TEMPERATURES: The average annual global temperature has increased 0.58 degrees Fahrenheit (0.32 degrees Celsius) since 1992 based on 10-year running averages, according to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Every year since 1992 has been warmer than the year of the original Rio conference. POLLUTION: Global levels of the chief heat-trapping gas, carbon dioxide, climbed 10 percent from nearly 358 parts per million in April 1992 to 394 ppm this past April, NOAA said. DISASTERS: Since 1992, natural disasters have affected 4.4 billion people worldwide, killed 1.3 million people, and cost $2 trillion in damages, according to the United Nations. Earthquakes, storms, extreme temperatures and floods were the biggest killers. FORESTS: Since 1990, the world’s primary forest areas have decreased about 740 million acres (300 million hectares), according to the United Nations. That’s an area larger than Argentina.

Will There Be A Rio+30 or Rio+40?

A follow-up to the Rio+20 summit of the same scale in 10 years or even another 20 years has not been set, but many observers at the summit say progress on some of the issues in the final agreement needs to be measured. Some of the timelines in the Rio+20 agreement are so far into the future that measures may be too late to avoid the worst impacts of climate change and globalisation. “We don’t have 20 years or even 10,” said Kumi Naidoo, executive director of Greenpeace International. “History tells us little will happen in real terms and definitely not at the timescale of urgency climate science tells us is needed,” he added.

And finally …

UK shadow environment secretary Mary Creagh said of Rio+20: “Expectations were low for this summit and those expectations were met.”

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Designing resilient cities good practice guidance C

ivil engineers create the infrastructure on which cities depend, with design lives stretching towards 100 years. The question of whether these are good investments can only be answered with ‘it depends on how the future develops’. However, predicting the future is complicated: perhaps the only certainties are change and that we must live within our planetary boundaries. Current influencing factors include climate change, the UK Government’s emphasis on localism, the global recession, peak oil, rising world populations, and the continuing urbanisation trend. How civil engineers respond to these factors will underpin the resiliency of our cities and how we live, work and play in the future. The Urban Futures research programme has provided a means to address these challenges by focusing on the likely long-term performance of today’s urban design solutions. It aims to change the way that engineers deal with long design lives, and thus the way they think about the relevance and shape of their projects. Urban Futures is a four year research project which started in May 2008, funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. The project consortium is led by Professor Chris Rogers at the University of Birmingham and includes researchers from Birmingham, Exeter, Lancaster, Birmingham City and Coventry Universities. Professor Rogers is also Chair of the ICE’s Innovation & Research Expert Panel, which has created a vision for the future research needed to advance the industry: “Engineering to Live within Planetary Boundaries: Civil Engineering


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The Urban Futures research programme has provided a means to address these challenges by focusing on the likely long-term performance of today’s urban design solutions.

Necessary Conditions

New Sustainability Paradigm (NSP)

Policy Reform (PR)

Market Forces (MF)

Fortress World (FW)

Non-potable water demands must exist

Sustainable water using behaviour and willing adoption of highly water efficient technologies greatly reduce non-potable water demands

Policy requires adoption of highly water efficient technologies, but behaviours remain unchanged; non-potable water demands reduce

No change in user behaviour and no adoption of water efficient technologies; nonpotable water demands remain high

Non-potable demands are high inside the fortress (technology and behaviour mirror MF) and low outsider the fortess (poverty and scarcity drive very low water use

Enough water must be collected to meet nonpotable water demands

Even with relatively low volumes of water collected in summer months demands can be met all year round

Ability to meet nonAbility to meet nonpotable demands in potable demands in summer months (when summer months (when daily collection < supply) daily collection < supply) is unlikely to be practical ; very requires large RWH large RHW tanks needed tanks

In dense high occupancy areas outsider fortress both demand and potential for collection are low. Large RWH tanks inside fortress might not be adequate to meet demand

Enough water must be available (from existing supplied and stored water) to meet nonpotable water demands

Supplies are unchanged and demands greatly reduced ; there is surplus potable water to cover for summer water shortages, but it is unlikely to be needed

System must be aceptable to the community

Highly aceptable solution, since people accept sustainability arguments and are willing to change their behaviours

Supplies are unchanged and demands reduced; there would be some surplus potable water to cover for summer water shortages; small RWH tanks might run dry Variable acceptablility, but wide uptake; policy dictates this

Inside fortress the situation If potable water supplies is as for MF if potable water remain unchanged and supplies remain unchanged. since demand is high, Outside fortress limited RWH tanks are likely to collection and storage run dry for long periods might not meet demand, in the summer even though it is low Low acceptability and little uptake of RHW as water is relatively cheap and systems are expensive (unless the cost of water increases)

High acceptability and uptake as security of supply is important both inside and outsider the fortress

KEY: Red = condition does not continue in the future; Black = condition is at risk of not continuing in the future; Blue = condition does continue in the future

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Research Needs”. The initiatives are wholly complementary. The Urban Futures Method provides a way to assess the resilience of today’s engineering solutions, many developed in the name of sustainability, by exploring their ability to continue to deliver their function in the face of future change. If the solution works across a range of alternative futures, the investment is likely to prove robust; if not, the solutions can be altered in an informed way, or they can be implemented in the knowledge that they might prove a risky investment. Either way, enhanced confidence in urban design should result. By incorporating a scenarios analysis based upon four distinct, extremeyet-plausible, future scenarios, the Method guides the user through the complexities of thinking about the impacts of changes in society, technology, economy, environment and policy. This is made possible because the characteristics of all four futures have been established in considerable detail, and thus it is possible to ‘enter’ each future to explore a solution’s performance. The four futures build on the work of the Global Scenarios Group: New Sustainability Paradigm, in which individuals and communities share common values around sustainable living within the resource limitations of the planet; Policy Reform, in which strong governance and policy directives forces society to operate more sustainably even though values remain largely unchanged; Market Forces, in which the market is freely allowed to dictate policies and behaviours; Fortress World, in which a wealthy elite secure the resources they want inside fortresses and the impoverished majority live outside the fortresses subsisting on whatever resources remain. The basis of the Method is that, for each sustainability solution, the intended benefits are defined and the conditions necessary for their continued delivery are determined. Each necessary condition is then assessed in the four futures.

Consider a relatively simple example of implementing rainwater harvesting (RWH) as a sustainable local water management strategy for a redevelopment project. This has an intended benefit of reducing the volume of potable water required by the site and, for this example, would mean that the existing supply capacity might be sufficient whereas without RWH additional supplies and associated infrastructure would be needed. There would, of course, be infrastructure costs associated with the use of rainwater for toilet flushing, for example, but in areas of water scarcity this could prove attractive. There might be other intended benefits (e.g. mitigating flooding); these would be assessed separately. The table lists four necessary conditions that must be maintained in the future if RWH solution is to remain effective, and their assessment in the four futures. The outcomes are listed in the table, yet the reasoning can only be definitively established by consulting the detailed characteristics of the futures. Each assessment reflects the far future (say 40 years hence) and is done in isolation, i.e. without consideration of how the current situation morphs into the future. Other influences, such as climate change, will alter the context in which a solution is judged (e.g. higher temperatures, more intense rainfall events, longer periods of drought); it is simply a matter of overlaying high, medium and low impact variants to elucidate what the changes might be. In this case RWH will likely work well in three scenarios as long as the tanks are large; it will only likely work in the Market Forces scenario if pricing controls regulate water use. The Urban Futures Method is the subject of a new BRE publication: Designing Resilient Cities: a Guide to Good Practice that was launched in April 2012. It sets out the framework for implementing robust, futureproofed solutions at any regeneration scale. For more information about the project contact Joanne Leach at: University of Birmingham (0121 414 3544 or 07785 792187; E-mail:, or visit www. © 2011, Innovation & Research Focus (www. uk – Issue No. 87)


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EGSHPA European Ground Source Heat Pump Association

Air Canada Makes Its First Biofuel Flight A

ir Canada made its very first biofuel flight in June, heading from Toronto to Mexico City, in an effort to focus the spotlight on the industry’s commitment to greener transportation. The flight was made by an Airbus 319 using recycled cooking oil and jet fuel for the journey. According to the aircraft maker, this could cut carbon dioxide emissions by more than 40 percent. The flight took place to coincide with the Rio+20 summit, a United Nations sustainable development conference in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro (see page 12), and it was organised by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). “Today’s flight with Air Canada proves that the aviation industry is in a strong position to reduce emissions,” said Fabrice Bregier, president and CEO of Airbus. “To make this a day-to-day commercial reality, it now requires political will to foster incentives to scale up the use of sustainable biofuels and accelerate modernization of the air traffic management system,” Bregier said. “We need a clear endorsement by governments and all aviation stakeholders to venture beyond today’s limitations.”

Floating Wind Turbine Installed off Portuguese Coast

Inaugurated on Friday, June 16, this project marks a new dawn in offshore wind development. “In addition to being the first offshore wind turbine in Portugal, this is the first offshore wind turbine to be installed without the use of any heavy lift vessels or piling equipment at sea,” Principle Power announced. “All final assembly, installation and precommissioning of the turbine and substructure took place on land in a controlled environment. The complete system was then wet-towed offshore using simple tug vessels.” The WindFloat is equipped with a Vestas v80 2.0MW turbine capable of producing enough electricity for 1,300 households. The system is located 5km off the coast of Aguçadoura, Portugal, and has already produced in excess of 1.7 GWh. The WindFloat ushers in a new era in the offshore wind industry permitting utilities to target the highest quality wind resources, independent of water depth. In addition, projects can realise significant cost and risk reductions as a result of the onshore fabrication and commissioning scheme. The successful installation and on-going operations of the WindFloat in Portugal is the result of hard work and foresight on part of the WindPlus joint venture, comprised of EDP, The Repsol, Principle Power, ASM, Vestas Wind Systems A/S and InovCapital including a subsidy from the Innovation Support Fund (Fundo de Apoio à Inovação – FAI). Additionally, over 60 other European suppliers, 40 of them Portuguese, supplied key components to the project. Repsol has recently joined the Windplus JV as a significant shareholder bringing additional


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offshore experience and operational capabilities to the project team.

Top Eco-Apps that put Technology to work for the Environment

Richard Matthews of ‘Global Warming is Real’ has put together a list of the Top 40 Eco-Apps for Smartphones. Although technology may not be a panacea to solve the climate crisis, green applications (eco-apps) are helping to drive awareness and foster responsible action. There was a time when eco-apps did little more than provide lists of so-called “green” products and services. Now green-themed apps have turned mobile devices into portals for environmental education and sustainable action. The Smartphone market share is now estimated to be more than 40 percent in the U.S., and around the world Smartphones are proliferating and green apps are growing along with them. Ecoapps can help people be more efficient and reduce their energy consumption. Matthew compiled his list from a variety of respected sources, including the U.S. Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, Living Green Magazine, Clean Techies, Good & Green Guides, ecofriend, Solar Energy and the Globe and Mail. Most of the Apps on the list are free or cost less than one dollar. For more information on the list please go to www.cleantechnica. com and search ’40 Top Eco-Apps’.

German Solar Industry Getting Hammered by Cheap Chinese Imports

Cheap imports of silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) panels from China, sharp cuts in subsidies, and the ongoing euro zone debt crisis is taking a heavy toll on Germany’s once world-beating solar energy industry. “The golden era of the German solar energy sector is over,” according to a June 16 Deutsche Welle (DW) article. “At its peak, Germany had a 20-percent share of the global solar energy market, but now the figure stands at just 6 percent. After a rapid decline in recent months, more job cuts are expected to hit the industry. Solar PV supply has grown faster even than fast-growing demand. Chinese silicon solar PV manufacturers have been exporting some 95% of the silicon solar panels they produce. They’ve now captured more than 50% of the global market for silicon solar cells and panels. Ironically, Germany and other European governments’ pioneering

Portugal’s floating wind turbine.

solar energy Feed-in Tariffs (FiTs) created the demand and market growth that led the Chinese government to launch a massive solar PV manufacturing subsidy program geared specifically at ramping up exports. While that’s been the primary driver in bringing about a dramatic drop in the price of solar panels worldwide, it’s also come with a substantial downside for domestic manufacturers, essentially putting the foundation of the entire industry value and supply chain in Chinese hands. German and other European Union countries with FiTs — which stimulate demand regardless of product origin — have made the EU the primary destination for Chinese exports. Their low cost and easy availability have led German and other EU solar PV project developers and installers to buy them as opposed to solar panels made in Germany or other countries. Essentially, a significant portion of EU solar subsidies have been flowing through to Chinese silicon solar PV manufacturers. News supplied by

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Dancing with ice Tv star enjoys olympic performance from renewable energy


ancing on Ice star Jayne Torvill is a winner once again, though this time thanks to a different sort of ice than the one she’s most usually associated with. Jayne, who with skate partner Christopher Dean achieved Olympic glory at the 1984 Winter Games, is now enjoying clean, green, cost-effective heating thanks to Ground Source Heat Pumps, supplied and installed by the UK’s leading renewable energy heating company, Ice Energy Technologies.   Concerned over uncontrollable rising fuel costs, Jayne contacted Ice Energy to see how renewable energy could help.  “We previously ran a gas central heating system which was costing a significant amount each year so decided to investigate the available options. After conducting some initial research on the internet, we contacted Ice Energy who advised us ground source heat pumps could be a far more cost-effective alternative which would also be better for the environment and provide peace of mind over future fuel costs.”   Ice Energy Technologies, who have been supplying and installing heat pumps across the UK for the past decade, conducted a survey at Jayne’s home and recommended the installation of two ground source heat pumps to provide all the heating and hot water requirements for the property. The heat pumps use a system of pipe work known as a ‘Ground Loop’ buried in Jayne’s garden to collect stored solar energy from beneath the earth. The collected ground source heat is then compressed by the heat pump and distributed via the existing radiator system to heat the property.   “The installation went amazingly well and we have been extremely pleased with the performance of the heat pumps” says Jayne. “They provide all of our heating and hot water needs keeping the house warm and comfortable whatever the weather so I would wholeheartedly recommend this technology to others.”  


Ice Energy Managing Director Andrew Sheldon was naturally pleased to hear of Jayne’s comments saying “It’s obviously been a privilege for us to work on a project for such a well known individual and a sporting great. However, the most satisfying aspect for us has been our ability to meet the requirements Jayne specified and to deliver a system which will provide reliable, cost-effective heating for many years to come.” “It is also a demonstration not only that heat pumps really do work and in fact they can help reduce running costs by over 60% compared to oil for example, but also that they can be installed on a retrofit basis and work efficiently with radiators, as one of the most common heat pump misconceptions is that this is not possible.” For more information contact: Paul Watson, Marketing Manager T: 01865 882202 E:

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About Ice Energy Ice Energy had the vision to introduce ground source heat pumps to the UK over a decade ago, pioneering this technology through our national network of professional Microgeneration Certification Scheme (MCS) accredited installers. Since then we have supplied and installed more heat pumps to homeowners and commercial developers than any other company and continue to lead the market. Today we are firmly established as the UK’s leading renewable energy heating company with a portfolio that includes air source heat pumps, solar PV and underfloor heating. Ice Energy brings together best of breed products and brands with unrivalled experience and professionalism to deliver optimum heating results.

Ultra Modern and Sustainable Turbine Bridge in Amsterdam by DWAWU Wiercinski & Wrzeszcz The ‘Turbine Bridge’ located in Amsterdam, the Netherlands is a connection between the traditional bridge and a hydroelectric power station developed by architectural practice DWAWU Wiercinski + Wrzeszcz. The concept is to create a multifunctional space on the Amstel River. The form is designed as a giant ship’s hull floating on the channel. The main level of the link is a public space with a pedestrian and bicycle path, with a cafe, bicycle repair ship and administration offices. On top of these functions is the roof with leisure terraces and playground spaces. Underneath the deck, the plant rooms, turbine engines and stores are located. The characteristic shape of the bridge refers to an hourglass that is formed by the flow of a boat in the middle of the Amstel Canal. In the centre of the structure is a meeting point for different decks and paths. The moving facade creates a dynamic, living architecture between the historic areas of the city. The rotating turbine is powered by the river’s current and generates electricity making the link self-sufficient and able to accumulate energy for the additional needs of the community. The curved shape of the blades allow the water to flow back into the river after emersion.

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The Greatest Show on Earth The National Ground Water Association returns to Las Vegas for its 2012 Groundwater Expo, December 4-7, 2012. Ground Up magazine has gained a sneak preview â&#x20AC;Ś


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e’re looking ahead to the 2012 NGWA Groundwater Expo and Annual Meeting in Las Vegas, December 4-7 to “Discover — Connect — Grow!” It’s here at the industry’s leading annual event with its cutting-edge educational programming, an exhibit hall with the latest in equipment and technological innovations, a multitude of networking opportunities and more that groundwater professionals from all industry segments and all geographic areas will gather. This marks the 18th time the industry’s premier event will be in the City of Lights. And as all of the biggest shows in the event’s history have happened in Las Vegas, this one should be no different. The Expo offers 80-plus hours of educational opportunities, such as workshops and panel discussions, that are designed to make you a better industry professional, spread over four days. There are also notable speakers who will give presentations and an exhibit hall packed with the newest products and tools from the top manufacturers and suppliers in the groundwater industry. Topics include: Business management Drilling operations and well construction Geothermal operations Innovative approaches Professional development Safety/compliance/safe practice Sustainable and available groundwater Water quality and treatment Water systems Well maintenance and rehabilitation.

true. He will share his journey from small town beginnings in Bishopville, South Carolina, to making it to the PGA Tour and the importance of staying true to your form.

New Product Showcase

Seeing the hottest new groundwater industry products, services, and technologies is easy to do at the New Products Showcase. The showcase will feature information and details about the newest items in groundwater industry. Look for it in the pre-function area right outside of the Exhibit Hall.

2013 McEllhiney Lecture Kickoff Presentation

John Jansen, Ph.D., PG, principal and senior hydrogeologist for Cardno ENTRIX, will kick off his 2013 lecture series with his talk “Is Your Aquifer Sustainable and How Would You Know?” Learn how sound science and clearly defined goals are necessary as starting points to build the political consensus needed to use our aquifers in a sustainable manner.

2012 Darcy Lecture Farewell Presentation S. Majid Hassanizadeh, Ph.D., will cap off another successful year of the Darcy Lecture series as he presents his talk

The 2012 NGWA Groundwater Expo and Annual Meeting — Las Vegas • Nevada • USA • December 4-7 —

offers something for everyone!

Exhibit Hall

The Exhibit Hall will be packed with the latest wares of the groundwater industry. The top manufacturers and suppliers will be on thousands of feet of exhibit space in the hall. In 2011, a record number of exhibiting companies and organizations (325) turned out for the NGWA Groundwater Expo, where despite the ongoing recession the Expo posted one of its strongest showings ever.

D i s c o v e r.

ne Con

Learn from industry experts during 70-plus hours of educational workshops and presentations. • Business management • Drilling operations and well construction

Explore the latest in products and services from hundreds of exhibitors. • Special informational sessions with exhibitors Tuesday, December 4 • Exhibit hall

• Innovative approaches

Wednesday, December 5, 12 noon to 6 p.m.

• Professional development

Thursday, December 6, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.

• Safety/compliance/safe practice • Sustainable and available groundwater • Water quality and treatment

• New Product Showcase Conveniently located in the convention center lobby

• Water systems • Well maintenance and rehabilitation


Keynote Address — “Living His Dream” Tommy “Two Gloves” Gainey (so called because of his two-gloved grip), former A.O. Smith Corp. employee-turnedpro golfer, will recount his story of making his dream come


It’s here at the Expo that professionals from all sectors of the groundwater industry—water well contractors, scientists and engineers, manufacturers and suppliers—come together in one setting to work side-by-side for the betterment of both the industry and the resource.

• Geothermal operations

Highlights of the 2012 Expo include:


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EGSHPA European Ground Source Heat Pump Association

“Capillarity in Porous Media, on Micro- and Macroscale, Revisited.” The series — which has reached more than 70,000 groundwater students, faculty members, and professionals — honours Henry Darcy of France for his 1856 investigations that established the physical basis upon which groundwater hydrogeology has been studied ever since. Optional Course “Geothermal Forum: Beyond the Basics” Friday, December 7, 8 a.m. – 5 p.m. Additional registration and fees required If you’d like more information on the Expo please visit www. Who are the NGWA? The National Ground Water Association is the hallmark organization for anyone affiliated with the groundwater industry. A nonprofit organization, NGWA is composed of U.S. and international groundwater professionals — contractors, scientists and engineers, equipment manufacturers and suppliers. Their purpose is to provide guidance to members, government representatives, and the public for sound scientific, economic, and beneficial development, protection, and management of the world’s groundwater resources. The NGWA is a voluntary organization whose stated mission is to enhance the skills and credibility of all groundwater professionals, develop and exchange industry knowledge and promote the groundwater industry and understanding of groundwater resources. By adherence to these aims it has become the premier organization for anyone associated with the groundwater industry. Contact details: The National Ground Water Association 601 Dempsey Road Westerville, Ohio 43081-8978 USA Tel: 614 898.7791 Fax: 614 898.7786 E-mail: Useful websites: — home site of NGWA — information for well owners — for kids — online home of Water Well Journal® — online home of NGWA’s annual Ground Water Summit

For more information contact the NGWA for a copy of their Exhibitor Prospectus.

Join us in Las Vegas this December! From exhibits and education to activities and awards, you’ll not want to miss a minute of this year’s stellar groundwater industry event. “I was very satisfied with this year’s . . . Expo. The classes which I attended were full of valuable information . . . My only disappointment was that I couldn’t attend every class . . . ” — Bill Himes, Himes Drilling Co.

“Expo is the premiere groundwater event for education and new equipment technology.” —Andy Cato California Department of Toxic Substance Control +1 614 898-7791

Discover the tried-and-true, as well as all that’s new . . . learn from industry experts during cutting-edge educational offerings . . . explore the latest in products and services from exhibitors.



Connect with old friends . . . make new ones . . . forge partnerships across all sectors of the industry.


Grow your business and your industry, as well as professionally and personally.


t. c e n n o C

The seminars that I attended were . . . excellent and well worth the time . . . The exhibition hall was awesome . . . What a wonderful opportunity to connect with drillers not only from around the United States but also from other countries.” — Mike Wahlfield Wahlfield Drilling Co.

Gr o w .

2012 NGWA Groundwater Expo and Annual Meeting Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S.A. December 4-7, 2012

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Reach Your Target Audience 64th Annual NGWA Groundwater Expo and Annual Meeting Las Vegas Convention Center Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

Discover. Connect. Grow. Exhibitor Prospectus


Conference Dates: Dec 4-7, 2012 Exhibit Hall Dates: Dec 5-6, 2012


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A bright future for Ground Source Heat Pumps Myles McCarthy (below), Managing Director of the Carbon Trust has some exciting news ...


he Carbon Trust is a world-leading organisation helping businesses, governments and the public sector to accelerate the move to a low-carbon economy through carbon reduction, energysaving strategies and commercialising low-carbon technologies. Here, Myles McCarthy, Managing Director of the Carbon Trust Implementation Services reveals the details behind an exciting new method of financing installations. The European Market for Ground Source Heat Pumps, increasing fossil fuel prices and a deeper understanding of environmental issues are creating a greater demand for energy-efficient heating and cooling systems such as Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs). In the UK, the increased uptake of this technology has also been driven by a combination of factors, notably – the introduction of the Merton rule in 2008 (which requires new developments above a certain size to generate 10% of their energy needs from on-site renewables) as well as a growing number of new entrants in the utility market which have driven up the number of domestic installations. Despite the challenging economic climate, GSHPs have seen a dramatic increase in popularity as a renewable source of energy across Europe. The market for GSHPs is well established in a number of European countries, particularly

Sweden, Germany, France, Switzerland and Austria. The UK, Finland, Poland and the Netherlands also have great potential for this technology. The outlook for GSHPs remains positive, as evidenced by the figures published by the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland, which show that total sales in the twenty EU countries with advanced heat pump markets totalled 752,106 units at the end of 2010. Further deployment of GSHPs, would be beneficial for less developed GSHP markets, with valuable lessons to be drawn from the market leaders. Undoubtedly, the exchange of technical ‘know-how’ and market strategy would facilitate the establishment of more selfsustaining markets and help remove the initial barriers of limited awareness and high capital cost.

Cash positive every month of the project

Affording GSHPs investments In spite of the positive development in the GSHP markets, the credit squeeze has restricted the availability of credit to fund investments. The latest Bank of England report shows that the annual rate of growth in the stock of lending to UK businesses was negative, and the stock of lending to SMEs has continued to contract in the first quarter of 2012. To enable companies to raise finance for energy-efficiency

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GSHPs are predicted to reach a customer base of 2.6 million

investments, the Carbon Trust and Siemens Financial Services Limited (SFS) have joined forces and launched the Energy Efficiency Financing scheme (EEF) in the UK. In recognising the key function that GSHPs play in meeting carbon emissions targets, this scheme will help businesses seize the opportunities presented by green growth through cutting costs and developing greener products and services. The EEF scheme is designed to provide finance for energy efficient equipment, where the expected energy cost savings are arranged so that they offset the cost of the equipment, effectively meaning the equipment pays for itself. Moreover, in some cases, the monthly savings can be greater than the monthly costs, therefore businesses taking advantage of the scheme can be in effect cash positive every month of the project. The scheme offers customers an alternative to outright cash purchase, and helps heat pump suppliers close their discussions with customers faster as efforts can be focused on providing the best solution for the customer’s needs and achieving the desired energy savings, rather than the upfront costs. The scheme also gives recognised suppliers the ability to integrate the financing offering in their overall customer proposition. Due to the pipework and bore holes necessary to collect the heat, GSHPs cost more to install than traditional heating systems. However, with new, more energy efficient GSHP systems, customers can expect to experience lower energy bills and the operational cost savings can enable them to recoup the capital investment relatively quickly. Along with the EEF scheme, UK customers can expect to benefit from government initiatives such as the recently launched ‘Renewable Heat Incentive’ scheme. Set up in a bid to encourage businesses to install renewable heat technologies, customers who are eligible for the RHI can earn a fixed income for every kilowatt hour of heat they generate. Promoting growth of GSHPs


In Europe’s quest to reduce its carbon footprint, the construction industry will perform an essential role in achieving the goal of becoming a low carbon industry. This will influence the way in which buildings are designed and constructed in the future and existing infrastructure might also need to be adapted and modified to improve energy efficiency. The installation of GSHPs can sometimes require a large amount of civil engineering works and, as such, is best suited to new builds due to the amount of groundwork required. The use of specialist consultants in the early planning stages of a project will save therefore not only time, money, but also energy too. GSHPs are predicted to reach a customer base of close to 2.6 million units by 2020 in Europe, illustrating the key role it plays in helping to reduce nation’s carbon emissions. Many organisations appreciate that energy and environmental initiatives are potentially of vital importance to their businesses; however, practical advice and support are not always forthcoming in actually identifying and delivering those projects. When considering whether to install a GSHP, many businesses will be concerned about the issues of funding such a project. Therefore, in addition to offering expert advice about the running and maintenance of GSHPs, technology suppliers who are capable of integrating a financing option into their package will certainly strengthen their customer value proposition which, in turn, can help translate customers’ investment intention into a well monitored, cost effective, efficient system. With the introduction of the EEF scheme in the UK, the Carbon Trust is hoping to do just that. This will help ensure that GSHPs can continue its growth path in the country while helping the UK to reduce its carbon footprint. For more information, please visit www.energyefficiencyfinancing. or from the UK call 0800 988 3718.

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Ed Lohrenz

Trying Things Differently With training becoming an ever important part of our industry, we’re pleased to announce a new addition to the Ground Up team: trainer extraordinaire Ed Lohrenz. We thought we’d better find out a bit about him …


ho are you? I studied architecture at university and took enough engineering courses to be reasonably dangerous. Since university I’ve had the opportunity to work with quite a few people who like to think outside the box and were willing to try silly things like taking heat from the ground. Since getting involved in the industry in the early ‘80s, I’ve learned a lot of methods and techniques that don’t work and some that do. I want to see this industry grow and want to see more welldesigned and well-built installations. What do you do? In my day job I’m a partner in an engineering design firm and geothermal design/build company specializing in the design and installation of integrated geothermal systems. In addition to my typical day to day activities, I’m involved in several industry and professional associations that promote the design of costeffective geothermal systems, including the Geothermal Industry Council of Canada (GICC), the American Society for Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the European Ground Source Heat Pump Association (EGSHPA), the International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA) and the Association for Energy Engineers (AEE). In an effort to promote the design of cost-effective and efficient geothermal systems, I provide on-site and online training courses with

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several like-minded individuals through the Geothermal Training Institute. What does your company do? Geo-Xergy works with clients to design integrated mechanical systems. Most of the systems we get involved in include heat pumps and ground heat exchangers. The majority of the projects our firm is involved in are larger commercial systems. Projects completed by the range from single family homes to district geothermal energy systems. We are currently designing and building a horizontal bore GHX for a 150,000 m2 shopping mall in Canada. The firm has completed projects across Canada and in the United States, as well as some international projects. What makes your company stand out? If I had to suggest one thing that makes our firm different than other mechanical design firms, it would be the emphasis we place on developing an understanding of the buildings we work on. First and foremost, we develop a detailed energy model of our client’s proposed building or project, and then using the energy model as a design tool to work with the client and his or her design team to reduce the energy loads, and more importantly, to balance the energy loads that will be seen by the ground heat exchanger. This allows us to answer the two questions almost every client wanting a more efficient mechanical system want answered: what will an efficient geothermal system cost and what will it cost to install it? What do you hope this series of article will achieve? I hope to help individuals and contracting firms coming into the geothermal industry avoid making the same kinds of mistakes I’ve made in 30 years in the industry. I’ve had the opportunity to work with and learn from a number of innovative and passionate individuals who have had the courage to think outside the box, and feel it is important to help other passionate individuals move the industry forward. How would you describe yourself in just three words? Trying things differently What’s the best piece of advice you’re ever been given? Surround yourself with smart people and ask questions. How green is your life? I try and consider the environment as much as possible. For about 6-7 months of the year I ride a bike to work rather than take a car. Where I live it typically snows by the end of October and snow is on the ground till April, and winter temperatures can hit -40°C, so riding in winter is a bit more than I’m prepared to tackle. I’ve had a geothermal system in our home since 1983. I drive a relatively small diesel vehicle sparingly. I travel by plane but rationalize the travel by the kind of work we are involved in. How can our readers contact you?


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Peak Heating I & Cooling Loads What are they, and how do you calculate them?

Our industry expert delivers a masterclass

n the first of what we hope will be many articles for Ground Up Ed Lohrenz takes us through the calculations needed to determine Peak Loads. Designers of conventional fossil fuel heating systems have a distinct advantage over geothermal system designers. The heat loss calculations they need are much simpler than the calculations needed to optimize a geothermal system. Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s look at the differences. When designing a typical heating, ventilation and air conditioning system for a building it must be capable of heating the building on the coldest night and cooling it on the hottest summer day. Those are the peak design days and are referred to as peak heating & cooling loads. Equipment is selected to meet the peak loads. The gas line is sized to deliver enough energy on the coldest day. The chiller is selected to provide enough cooling on the hottest days. As long as the building is connected to gas

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EGSHPA European Ground Source Heat Pump Association

New addition to the Ground Up team, Ed Lohrenz.


& electrical lines there will be enough energy to heat/cool the building (as long as the bill is paid). If it can heat and cool the building on the coldest and hottest days, it can heat and cool it all year. But when we’re designing a ground heat exchanger (GHX), we are dealing with a finite mass of earth. The GHX can only draw heat a few meters from the pipe. That’s why the fluid circulating through GHX drops in temperature through the winter. In summer, when the building is being cooled, the temperature increases. Heat rejected to the ground doesn’t move away from the GHX piping quickly. If it did, the fluid temperature wouldn’t change much through the year. This indicates energy rejected to the GHX when the building is being cooled is stored in the ground. When the heat rejection stops, the heat gradually dissipates to the earth away from the GHX piping, but it takes time – weeks or months. It’s similar to a leaky bucket. How quickly the water leaks out depends on the size of the holes. How quickly the heat leaks away from the GHX depends on how well the soil or rock conducts heat. Energy stored in the GHX during the day when the building is being cooled can be retrieved at night when heat or hot water is needed. Energy stored in the summer air conditioning season can be retrieved in fall or winter when heat is needed. To design a GHX to take advantage of the energy storage capacity of the earth we have to know how much energy is needed to heat a building for the year, and how much energy can be removed from the building and

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stored in the GHX over the year. These loads are referred to as the building’s annual energy loads. The peak heating load is fairly simple to calculate. Knowing the construction details of a building, the mechanical system and the indoor and outdoor design temperatures, it is possible to determine the design heat loss of the building. Calculating the peak cooling load requires additional information about building occupancy, internal heat gains (lighting and electrical equipment) and orientation of glass to determine solar gains, but it’s still fairly simple to calculate. Determining annual energy loads is more time consuming and tedious since we are calculating the heat loss and gain for each hour of the year. Two methods of calculating the annual energy loads are commonly used. These calculations are referred to as the bin method or an hourly load analysis.

Bin Method

is at an average of 7°C (the temperature bin between 5.5°C and 8.5°C). The graph shows there are about 1,485 hours in Birmingham that at the average temperature of 7°C. If the heat loss of a home in Birmingham is 10kW with an indoor design temperature of 22° C and an outdoor design temperature of -4°C, the temperature difference is 26°C. When the temperature is 7°C, the heat loss is 4.23 kW. If there are 1,485 hours in the 7°C temperature bin, the home will use approximately 1,485 X 4.23 = 6,282 kWh of energy in this temperature bin. By repeating this calculation for each temperature bin, the total heating annual heating energy requirement can be determined. The same approach is taken to determine the cooling load energy requirement. The bin method provides reasonably accurate annual heating energy loads. For average residential projects, the cooling energy load calculations are adequate, but for larger buildings, especially those with high internal

The bin method begins with a calculation of the peak heat loss and gain of a building. It is based on the assumption that the heat loss of a building is directly proportional to the difference between the indoor and outdoor design temperatures. When the temperature difference doubles, the heat loss doubles. Data is showing the number of hours the temperature is between specific temperatures. These are referred to as a temperature bins. On the graph (right) we can look up the number of hours the temperature in Birmingham, UK,

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gains, this approach is not adequate.

The Church requires a GHX almost 70% larger than the MultiFamily Residential building.

By comparing loads a clearer picture is formed.


Hourly Load Analysis Hourly load analysis software is used to calculate the heat loss and gain of a building for each hour. The software uses hourly weather data to determine the heat loss and gain for the building based on the building construction. Then the software user overlays a number of schedules that influence building loads, including: Occupancy schedule Lighting schedule Electrical plug load schedule Ventilation schedule The heat loss and gain and the scheduled overlays are typically performed on a room by room basis and provide a high degree of accuracy. This is the tedious, time consuming part. Internal heat gains (lights, people, etc.) are important. They provide much of the heat needed in a buildingâ&#x20AC;Śheat that doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t need to be provided by the GHX. Conversely, internal heat gains add energy to the GHX when cooling is needed and add heat to the GHX. An hourly energy load analysis allows us to answer two critical questions for a building owner. How large does the GHX have to be, and what is the energy consumption of the building. Knowing the size of the GHX, the site and geological conditions a construction cost estimate can be developed. Energy consumption can be translated into energy cost based on local utility rates and equipment efficiencies. This information allows the owner

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to estimate the return on their investment.

Do Energy Loads Really Make a Difference? By looking at three hypothetical buildings, including a church, a retail store and a multifamily residential apartment building, the impact of detailed energy modeling can be shown. Each of the building energy models have the same peak cooling load of 146 kW in July, and the same peak heating load of 113 kW. The Church requires a GHX almost 70% larger than the Multi-Family Residential building. To design a conventional heating and cooling system, the peak loads provide enough information to select the boiler and chiller equipment. If the geothermal system were to be designed based on the peak loads provided, each building would end up with the same size of GHX. There are significant differences in the three GHX’s designed with the three energy models. The total borehole length for each GHX was adjusted to allow a minimum temperature of 0°C and a maximum temperature of 30°C from the GHX over 20 years. GHX modeling software was used to calculate the temperature profile of each GHX over 20 years. Over time, the minimum temperature of the Church GHX can be expected to gradually drop about 3°C. The temperature of the Retail Store will increase from 19°C to 30°C, while the temperature of the Multi-family Residential

Building can be expected to increase slightly, from 23°C to 26°C over 20 years. The most important difference, however, is that the total amount of drilling is significantly different for each of the buildings, even though the peak heating and cooling loads are identical. The Church requires a GHX almost 70% larger than the Multi-Family Residential building. Conclusion Detailed energy modeling is critical in designing a GHX. Peak heating and cooling loads are required to select equipment, but annual hourly energy loads are necessary to calculate the size of a GHX that will operate efficiently over time. Accurate energy modeling results in a GHX that will perform more efficiently and cost less.

From top to bottom, church, multi family and retail store

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Ground source

heat pump technology explained Martyn Bridges, director of marketing and technical support at Worcester, Bosch Group, explains how ground source heat pumps work and the benefits of installing this type of technology.

Ground Up An Introduction to Ground Source Heat Pumps, by industry expert Martyn Bridges This ‘cut out and give away’ guide has been written by an industry expert, and is designed to be used as introduction to the benefits and technology behind Ground Source Heat Pumps. Using layman’s language and clear examples, it sets out the basics of how they work, some common examples of the systems available, and where to go for more information. Our aim is that this sheet is used to raise awareness of GSHPs, whether this is among potential customers, students, or the wider public in general. Please photocopy and pass on – there is no copyright.


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EGSHPA European Ground Source Heat Pump Association


hat are ground source heat pumps and how do they work?

“Domestic Ground source heat pumps are systems that are designed to take energy from the ground and use it to meet the heating and hot water requirements of an entire household. By harnessing solar energy that is naturally stored in the earth, the pump is designed to extract heat at low temperatures before concentrating it using a compressor to deliver heat to the home. “The technology inside a heat pump works using the same principles as a domestic fridge only in reverse. Heat pumps take advantage of the principles of thermodynamics in order to achieve their results. “In most cases a water and glycol mixture is pumped around the ground collector circuit and the energy contained in this causes the refrigerant in the evaporator to turn to a gas. This refrigerant passes through the compressor, causing the temperature to rise significantly. The hot gas moves to the condenser where it condenses and the latent energy is released into the heating circuit. “Heating engineers are strongly advised to attend a training course on heat pumps before considering any installations.

Energy Collection Methods “The most common options available to obtain energy from the ground include a horizontal collection system, compact collectors and a vertical collection system, which is installed via a bore hole in the ground.

Horizontal Collection System “Horizontal collectors come in a variety of forms but an example is a 40mm diameter plastic pipe, buried to a depth of between 80cm - 100cm below the ground. The length of pipe required depends upon how much energy is to be extracted from the earth, as well as other factors such as the type of soil the pipe is

buried in and the moisture content of the soil surrounding it. As a rough guideline, you can usually expect to extract around 15w of energy from the ground per meter of pipe installed. Typically a 9kw heat pump would require around 600 metres of buried pipe.

Compact Collectors “As an alternative to a horizontal collection, compact collectors are more suitable for installations where external space is limited. These collectors are designed to be buried at an angle beneath the ground, in rows of up to 11 panels in series. This type of collector is usually available in the form of a plastic tubular panel, around 1.5m wide by 2m deep. When estimating the number of compact panels required to supply the heat pump, as a rule of thumb, it is best to work on a requirement of around 3 panels per kW of heat pump output. When buried, the top collector is covered to a depth of 1m and the bottom is sunk to a depth of 1.3m below the ground.

Vertical Collection System “For properties with more limited external space a borehole or a vertical collection system is the best option. This type of installation can vary significantly from situation to situation but in general, a borehole installation is able to generate a higher yield from the ground in watts per metre than a horizontal arrangement. This means the length of active collector required is typically less than that required for the horizontal option.

Specification and Performance “When specifying, it is important to calculate the size of heat pump required based on the raw heat loss of the house. It is generally recommended that pumps are sized to 100% of the peak-heating load of the property – that is, the amount of energy required to heat the house on the coldest day of the year. When specified in this way, a heat pump could provide the total heating

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and hot water requirement of the house. “To cater for prolonged sub-zero temperatures below the design figure, perhaps the remaining 5% energy requirement, Greenstore heat pumps have an internal electric heater. This ensures that additional heat sources, such as a boiler, are not required to work in conjunction with a ground source heat pump. Sizing the heat pump to 100% of the peak load and using a buffer tank also ensures that the compressor does not cycle on and off unduly during operation. “In comparison to a high efficiency condensing boiler, a well designed ground source heat pump system is capable of lowering fuel bills even further and are also effective at reducing carbon emissions. No matter how efficiently a condensing boiler burns gas, it can’t compete with the 300 - 400% efficiency potentially offered by a ground source heat pump.

Delivering efficiency – what is the COP? “The performance of a ground source heat pump is shown by the COP or Coefficient of Performance – the measure of its efficiency. This demonstrates how much energy is being taken from the ground compared to how much is required to run the compressor. “A heat pump could provide between 3kW and 4kW of heat for each kW invested. The return is affected by the temperature achieved from the source and the heat required from the appliance to heat the property. “For example, if 3kW is required by the electrically powered heat pump to run it and 9kW is the end result provided into the heating system, the COP would be 3.

The Extra Benefits As well as reducing purchased energy consumption, resulting in lower CO2 emissions, ground source heat pumps have a number of other environmental and operational advantages.


Long life expectancy “The life expectancy of a Worcester Greenstore GSHP is typically 20-25 years, in comparison to around 12-15 years for a domestic boiler. When installed correctly, the coil or collector buried in the ground has an even longer life-span of around 50 years.

Highly reliable with low maintenance costs “GSHPs have very few moving parts, which means there are no annual servicing requirements unlike boilers, which are recommended to have an annual service.

No boiler required “Installing a GSHP means there is no need for a fuel tank or a boiler to provide heating and hot water. The heat pump generally replaces the boiler system completely. For an even more efficient system, solar water heating can complement a ground source heat pump effectively.

The perfect partner for underfloor heating “Heat pumps work at their most efficient state when the flow temperature is lower and are therefore particularly suitable for installation in conjunction with underfloor heating. Worcester’s Greenstore heat pumps have the advantage of a 65°C maximum flow temperature, which means they are entirely suitable for the production of hot water in addition to the lower flow temperatures required by underfloor heating systems. For more information on Worcester’s Greenstore ground source heat pumps contact 0844 892 4010, or visit www. If you’d like more information on the European Ground Source Heat Pump Association please visit This article is copyright free. It may be used for purposes of education and awareness without preconditions.

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Pumping and Flow Controls in Geothermal Heat Pump Systems This in-depth article examines an often over-looked area of GSHPs


round Up magazine welcomes guest writer Stephen Hamtra to its pages. Steve has a wealth of experience within the industry and is well known for his keen insight. You can read our interview with him on page 9. Here, Steve examines the importance of flow controls, and the impact they may have on the future of heat pumps. As we continue our trek towards cost-effective net-zero facilities, our industry is beginning to embrace the concept of shifting from â&#x20AC;&#x153;real-timeâ&#x20AC;? HVAC energy plants such as boilers and chillers to systems that capture, store, and distribute thermal energy. The accelerated growth of geothermal heat pump market share is evidence of this trend. Research (ref. 1) indicates that in the United States, the geothermal heat pump market has seen an 18% compound annual growth rate and is anticipated to reach 21.7% compound annual growth between 2011 and 2017. In other markets, such as Sweden, the penetration of geothermal heat pump systems in new construction has reached 75%. Geothermal heat pump systems generally fall into two categories: central systems, using fewer but larger heat pumps typically making hot and chilled water to feed to conventional air handlers, and decentralized systems, which use smaller unitary heat pumps. This decentralized system category represents the majority of the applications in the U.S. and is the focus of this review.

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We are positioned at a unique time in history where the world is beginning to understand that our current energy consumption patterns are not sustainable’.

Figure 1. Central variable volume pumping.


Unfortunately, we see many decentralized geothermal heat pump systems with fluid distribution system designs that significantly reduce overall system effectiveness and energy efficiency. It makes little sense to invest in a geothermal heat pump system to allow the net energy savings to be consumed by excess pumping energy. The ASHRAE (the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Engineers – guideline(ref. 2) for geothermal pumping energy is an excellent place to start in the design process and provides a report card grade for the amount of pumping horsepower required per 100 tons of cooling; 5 hp or less merits an “A”, whereas 10 to 15 hp is a “D.” The evaluation of pumping energy should be a standard part of the design process as we consider the configuration of the fluid distribution system, the pressure drop related to pipe sizing, and the geothermal heat exchanger design. Pumping energy also affects the amount of heat rejected to the geothermal heat exchanger. This additional cooling load can be quite significant. A recent study (ref. 3) illustrated that waste heat from pumping can add cooling load to the geothermal heat exchanger on the order of 1.5% to 16% of the total heat rejected.

CENTRALIZED VS. DISTRIBUTED PUMPING In general terms, unitary geothermal heat pump systems having fluid distribution systems applied in larger buildings fall into two categories: centralized or distributed pumping. Centralized pumping applies a central circulating pump (Figure 1) that circulates the fluid through each of the heat pumps and the geothermal heat exchanger. ASHRAE 90.1 indicates that if this pump is 10 hp or greater, a variable volume pumping solution

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is required, which would include two position (open/closed) valves at each heat pump and a VSD at the circulating pump, often controlled by a sensor that allows the pump to maintain a constant differential pressure across the supply and return piping. Ideally, the system would also allow a reset of the differential pressure setpoint based upon actual system load. An advantage of this configuration is the low number of circulating pumps and their central location for maintenance and service. Additionally, larger pumps in this application will have higher wire-to-water efficiency as compared to smaller distributed pumps; however, they generally do not operate below 25% of maximum flow due to limitations on driving the pump motors at these low speeds. Distributed pumping shifts the circulating pumps from a single location to each of the individual heat pumps (Figure 2). Each circulating pump is then sized for the pressure drop through the individual heat pump, the distribution piping, and the geothermal heat exchanger. Don Penn, P.E., CGD, president of Image Engineering Group, Ltd. in Grapevine, TX, has applied this concept with great success on more than 200 school projects since 1992. Don notes that this concept has several advantages over centralized pumping schemes. • Circulating pumps only operate when the heat pumps are on. The best energy management strategy is to turn things off when you don’t need them. • The control concept is very simple. • The net pumping energy is often lowest with this approach. • A recent retrofit project converting from central to distributed pumping is showing a 20% reduction in HVAC energy use. Another advantage of the distributed pumping configuration is the ability to reduce the system flow rate to a single geothermal heat pump, whereas the central pumping scheme is limited by the lower limit (often 25%) of the VSD and the pump motor. The study (ref. 4) cited above also noted that the actual distributed pumping configurations projects submitted averaged pumping horsepower of 6.6 hp/100 tons, whereas the average centralized pumping configurations were 13.5 hp/100 tons — double the pumping energy of the distributed pumping projects.

HYBRID GEOTHERMAL HEAT EXCHANGERS Numerous studies have indicated that the lowest life-cycle cost for geothermal heat pump systems can typically be achieved through the application of a “hybrid” configuration, in which an auxiliary heat sink or source device (fluid cooler or boiler) is added to the design. In a typical commercial or institutional facility, the annual heating/cooling load balance is often cooling dominated, meaning that more heat is rejected to the ground than is removed during the heating season. In these applications, the cooling load drives the geothermal heat exchanger size, requiring more heat exchanger surface area than needed for the heating load. The result is a geothermal heat exchanger that is potentially too large for the site or exceeds the project construction budget. The typical hybrid approach for a cooling-dominated load is to apply a closedcircuit fluid cooler in series with the geothermal heat exchanger (Figure 3). The most common control method is to turn the fluid cooler on if the geothermal loop temperature exceeds a temperature setpoint (for example, 85°F) and continue to operate until the loop temperature drops below this setpoint. Note that this configuration can only reject heat if the outside air drybulb or wetbulb temperature is lower than the fluid temperature. This approach can allow significant geothermal heat exchanger size reductions, often nearing 50%, and, if carefully applied, this configuration can approach the energy efficiency of a full-size geothermal heat exchanger (ref. 5). While this approach is very effective at reducing the first cost of geothermal heat pump systems there are some potential opportunities to make this approach even more efficient and to further reduce the system first cost. The typical hybrid

This approach can allow significant geothermal heat exchanger size reductions, often nearing 50%

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Figure 2. Distributed pumping

Figure 3. Central variable volume pumping with hybrid heat rejection.


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configuration will allow the geothermal heat exchanger to reach a point of “thermal saturation” before the heat rejection device is engaged. This means that once the fluid temperature has reached the design setpoint, most of the heat rejection is shifted from the geothermal heat exchanger to the heat sink (fluid cooler). Unfortunately, this typically occurs when the fluid cooler is facing the least efficient conditions (high outside air drybulb and wetbulb temperatures) to reject heat and most likely during daytime on-peak electric rate periods. Additionally, fluid cooler heat rejection is tied on a real-time basis to the operation of the heat pumps — it only rejects heat when there is a cooling load. Thus it removes one of the significant advantages of geothermal heat sinks: the ability to absorb and “time shift” thermal energy. Depending upon the geology of the project site, the long-term average temperature of the geothermal heat exchanger may “creep” if each year more thermal energy is pushed into the earth than is removed. In simple terms, this means that each year the average temperature in the ground may be slightly higher than the year before, until some level of thermal equilibrium is reached. This temperature creep is highly variable and greatly dependent upon groundwater movement — less groundwater movement equals a greater potential for the geothermal heat exchanger to “warm up” over time. A good example of this is the Drake Landing Project in Alberta, Canada where granite geology (minimum groundwater movement) is allowing a solar collection system to achieve temperatures nearing 175° in a borehole thermal energy storage system. In this case, it is possible to drive geothermal heat exchanger temperatures to high levels. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to determine the actual groundwater movement on a given site, so the system designer will typically take a conservative approach and assume minimal groundwater flow, which equates to potential temperature creep over time. Addressing this temperature creep requires that the designer consider the duration of his geothermal heat exchanger performance simulations. As the simulation period grows longer, the geothermal heat exchanger typically increases in size and cost. The challenge in the industry is to reduce the size and first cost of geothermal heat pump systems with minimal impacts on both energy efficiency and risk management regarding long-term geothermal heat exchanger performance.

DECOUPLED HYBRID GEOTHERMAL HEAT EXCHANGERS An ideal hybrid geothermal heat exchanger might have the following characteristics: • Ability to reject heat at optimal conditions of outside temperature and lowest electric rates; • Ability to anticipate a future load and pre-condition the geothermal heat exchanger; • Ability to thermally “reset” a geothermal heat exchanger on an annual basis if temperature creep occurs; • Ability to optimize the geothermal heat exchanger temperature for peak overall system efficiency. To achieve these characteristics, we need to consider several modifications to the traditional hybrid approach. The two modifications that are most significant include the ability to separate the geothermal heat exchanger flow from the building heat pump loop flow as well as applying intelligent control technology to track, compare, and anticipate thermal loads on the geothermal heat exchanger and its projected reaction to those loads. Figures 4 and 5 illustrate a simplified configuration of this type of system when applied to either the central or distributed pumping concepts. The geothermal heat exchanger is hydraulically decoupled from the building heat pump loop, and dedicated pumps circulate fluid through the geothermal heat exchanger to control the building loop temperature. In an ideal situation where the building loads are balanced (cooling loads equal to the heating loads), these pumps could actually

the ability to absorb and “time shift” thermal energy

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An intelligent control system that has the sophistication to anticipate and prepare for future events

Figure 4. Central variable volume pumping with decoupled hybrid GHX


shut down. In reality, balanced loads are not that common, so a configuration of staged parallel pumping that allows the flow through the geothermal heat exchanger to drop to 10% to 15% of peak flow allows maximum pumping energy savings, as rarely will the overall system load drop below this minimum. This configuration also allows the operation of the heat rejection device independently of building system flow. This allows potential diurnal and seasonal pre-conditioning of the geothermal heat exchanger when conditions are optimal for heat rejection and electrical rates are lower. The essential component to make this work is an intelligent control system that has the sophistication to anticipate and prepare for future events. Prior to the advent of todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s advanced control technology platforms, this simply was not possible, and as a result, the above approach has been developed as the patent-pending intellectual property of Greensleeves LLC.

CASE STUDY A new 225,000-sq-ft hospital in northern Mississippi is currently being designed with a geothermal heat pump system using distributed pumping as well as a decoupled hybrid configuration. This project has a site with limited area for the geothermal heat exchanger as well as specific project budget limitations. The initial full-size (non-hybrid) geothermal heat exchanger design exceeded both the available area and the project budget. The traditional hybrid approach allowed a significant reduction in geothermal heat exchanger size (nearing 50%) but added significant fluid cooler energy consumption during the summer, allowed higher geothermal loop temperatures, which impact heat pump cooling efficiency and did not address a concern for temperature creep.

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1. Pike Research. “Research Report: Geothermal Heat Pumps and Direct Use.” Executive Summary. Q3 2011. Figure 5. Distributed pumping with decoupled hybrid GHX

Applying a hybrid system comprised of a decoupled geothermal heat exchanger, a hybrid wet/dry fluid cooler, and an intelligent, self-learning control system allows a potential size reduction in the geothermal heat exchanger in excess of 60%. Also, the heat rejection can function nightly and seasonally under optimum conditions. Using a hybrid wet/dry fluid cooler also allows the owner to eliminate the chemical treatment and maintenance associated with a wet fluid cooler. The fluid cooler operates in the dry mode the majority of the time and only uses water if necessary. While there is an energy penalty when a heat rejection system is added to a non-hybrid (full-size) geothermal heat exchanger, the amount of time required to recoup the additional first cost investment of a full-size geothermal heat exchanger on this project was well over 100 years. Due to the site and budget constraints on this project, the initial reaction was to move from geothermal to conventional HVAC technology, but with the decoupled hybrid approach, the project is back on track to leverage geothermal technology and deliver the optimal life-cycle performance the owner is seeking.

CONCLUSION The two pumping schemes outlined herein each contain both positive and negative attributes. The centralized pumping system allows for centralized maintenance and higher wire-to-water efficiency at the pump, but it typically has a more complex control system and higher energy use, potentially two to five times higher than distributed pumping. The distributed pumping system has more pumps in remote locations, but has a simpler control system and has been shown to provide the lowest energy consumption when actual projects are reviewed. As the wire-to-water efficiency of these smaller pumps continues to rise, it appears that much of the market will tend towards a distributed pumping solution to provide maximum energy performance. The application of a decoupled geothermal heat exchanger makes it easier to select a higher efficiency distributed pump due to the reduction in pump head needed at each of the distributed pumps. The decoupling also allows additional thermal management of the geothermal heat exchanger that would otherwise be inaccessible. Advances in design and control technology allow us to continue to push forward in our quest for optimal HVAC system configurations. The availability of sophisticated simulation tools combined with smarter, self-learning control algorithms is allowing both significant reductions in geothermal system first cost while providing better energy efficiency and risk reduction. The most significant market barrier is rarely the availability of advanced technologies or their cost, but instead a limitation of the number of practitioners that seek excellence in their designs. Marketplace options that pre-package this technology into a “plug and play” solution are making the application of optimized geothermal heat pump technology much more affordable and accessible. As these systems achieve widespread application and the performance feedback refines the control strategies, the market will see more reductions in first cost and improved energy efficiency causing the geothermal market to grow even faster than predicted.

2. Kavanaugh, Stephen and Kevin Rafferty. “Ground-Source Heat Pumps: Design of Geothermal Systems for Commercial and Institutional Buildings.” Table 5.1, Benchmarks for GCHP System Pumping Efficiency. ASHRAE. 1997. 3. Kavanaugh, Stephen, Ph.D. “Less Pumping Means Cooler Ground Loops.” ASHRAE Journal. July 2011. 4. ibid. 5.. Hackel, Scott and Amanda Pertzborn. “Hybrid GroundSource Heat Pump Installations: Experience, Improvements and Tools.” Energy Center of Wisconsin. June 30, 2011. By Stephen Hamstra P.E., ASHRAE HBDP LEED AP, Stephen is CTO for Greensleeves LLC (Findlay, OH).

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The Global headlines for the month

Can this one plan help solve the Euro Zone’s debt & Energy Renewable Energy needs Will Power



ith the Euro Zone’s problems firmly in the spotlight this month, after Spain received a bail-out and Cyprus hinting it may also need help, a group of scientists and economists have suggested a possible solution – with a dramatic increase in Green Energy as a positive side effect. Calls for strict austerity measures to cope with the Euro Zone debt crisis, led primarily by Germany, have been called into doubt recently, particularly by the recent election of Francois Hollande as France’s president. Weight has been added to the pro-growth argument by a recent report published by the the Dutch economist Sweder van Wijnbergen and published in NRC Handelsblad which suggests that renewable energy, ‘smart grid’ and clean technologies could both re-start stalling economies and offer long term benefits to the environment.

A Debt-for-Renewables Swap


y offering concession programs to encourage investment in renewable energy projects (such as large-scale and distributed wind, solar, geothermal, waste-to-energy, biogas, marine and other clean, renewable resources) weaker euro zone countries would have the opportunity for economic expansion - which will help them reduce bad debts – while also benefiting society and the environment, the June 4th article suggests. The crux of this renewable energy stimulus-debt reduction program would be to convert existing debts into renewable energy concessions. “A 30% debt reduction should be possible – assuming a 2.5% average yearly inflation, a modest 1.5 Eurocent profit per kWh in the 2020-2045 period and a conservatively estimated yield of 70 Gigawatt hour per square kilometer per year. Having a 40 billion Euro debt, Ireland ought to give 550 square kilometer into concession. This is less than one percent of Ireland’s total surface. For Portugal, with 78 billion Euro debt, this would be 1,000 square kilometer or one percent of its total territory. And Greece with a 210 billion debt would amount up to 2,800 square kilometer which is two percent of Greek territory. The energy projects don’t have to exclusively be large-scale and on a few big pieces of land. They could capitalize on vast opportunities for decentralized energy locally as well.”


he economist proposes the establishment of a ‘special purpose’ investment vehicle through which “creditors should be able to exert their concession rights by financing their renewable energy projects at a low interest rate with the European Investment Bank (EIB),” NKNE writes. This idea seems to chime with the EU’s stated aim of reducing carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas emissions, improving environmental sustainability and reducing fossil fuel dependency. It has also been suggested that it is practical from an operational perspective, as renewable energy projects, like all energy infrastructure, tend to require a lot of capital up-front but have low operating costs over their life cycles, particularly in the case of renewables, where the cost of fuel for such resources as solar, wind and geothermal energy are free. The pieces are all there; they just need to be put in place, van Wijnbergen argues: “A plan as presented here can only work if the creditors are willing to think and act from a long-term perspective, one of at least several decades. The advantages are numerous: the land-lease cheap or for free, a low interest rate and a structurally rising wholesale price for conventional energy. Because the demand for land with favorable circumstances (a lot of sun, wind or geothermal heat) is likely to grow, it would be in fact no more than a clever anticipation.”

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The Case for Heat Pumps Strengthens In Light Of Gas Explosion


he news that six people have been injured in a gas explosion in Gateshead last month is the latest in a string of incidents which highlights the considerable dangers of fossil fuels and strengthens the argument for safer heating methods like those provided by heat pumps.  The huge explosion in Gateshead destroyed one property and shook neighbouring ones resulting in severe burns to several of the casualties. However, it is unfortunately just one of many alarming incidents involving fossil fuels. For example, earlier last month a pensioner in Cheltenham was rescued from the rubble of their house that was destroyed in a suspected gas explosion which also caused severe damage to a further 11 properties. The 81 year old, who suffered cuts and bruising, was rescued by fire fighters who described her escape as “miraculous.” And in April of this year, a family of four was rescued from a house in Clacton after an explosion ripped through the property as they slept. The incident saw the evacuation of some

60 people and rendered adjoining properties unstable. These are just three recent examples of the potential dangers of fossil fuels which highlight the instability of gas and the horrendous results which can occur when things go wrong. So what can people do to protect themselves from potential disasters such as these? Renewable energy products such as heat pumps (both ground and air) can provide all the domestic heating and hot water requirements for a property but with none of the dangers of a gas central heating system. The beauty of both systems is that because they don’t use volatile or combustible substances and are completely free from any contaminants which can cause harm to occupants and the environment, they are considerably safer options than fossil fuel systems. Andrew Sheldon, Managing Director of Ice Energy Technologies, who have pioneered the introduction of heat pumps in the UK for over a decade, said, “Sadly this latest incident is just one

in a long line of similar events across the country. Thankfully on this occasion no one was killed, although unfortunately this is not always the case.” “Not only are heat pumps a much safer alternative to gas and oil fired heating systems, they offer much greater efficiencies, they are cost-effective, can future-proof owners against supply issues and from 2013 can also provide additional revenue to owners of heat pumps via the Renewable Heat Incentive.” “Heat pumps should not be considered simply another component of the renewable energy industry, they should be regarded as a viable, safe and sustainable option for the future of heating in the UK and vital in stopping similar incidents to the one we have seen in Gateshead occurring in the future.” Would you like to subscribe to Ice Energy’s News Letter? If so, please go to and follow the on screen link.

Renewable Energy Open Day Success


n Saturday May 19th, the UK’s leading renewable energy heating company Ice Energy opened its doors for potential customers to learn more about how renewable energy products such as heat pumps could help to reduce fuel costs, in some cases by over

60%. The event was the ideal opportunity for people concerned about uncontrollable rising fuel costs to learn more about the benefits of renewable energy and the availability of grants and incentives such as Renewable Heat Premium Payments, the Feed-in-Tariff and the Renewable Heat Incentive. Visitors were provided with working demonstrations of both ground source heat pumps and air source heat pumps and given the opportunity to learn more about how they can be easily combined with Ice Energy underfloor heating to provide efficient, cost effective heating throughout. Dedicated members of the Ice Energy technical team were also on hand to give insight into the range of solar photovoltaic (solar PV) systems available and how the Feed-inTariff can benefit adopters of these systems. Ice Energy Managing Director Andrew Sheldon was delighted with the event which saw people travel from as far afield as Wales and North Yorkshire to attend. “The fact that people travelled considerable distances to attend demonstrates the real appetite for renewable energy within the UK at the moment.” “Attending our open day gave people tired of uncontrollable rising fuel costs and with concerns over future energy supplies the opportunity to discover more about the range of renewable energy products Ice Energy can provide. Importantly, visitors to the event were able to speak with a team of professionals with real renewables knowledge gained over a period of many years rather than a collection of so-called “experts” with limited real experience of the industry.” If you would like to learn more about the range of renewable energy products and services available from Ice Energy, call free on 0808 145 2340 today. July 2012 l Ground Up 45

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Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s on the site

EGSHPA European Ground Source Heat Pump Association

Great Tools


Unit converter Ground loop sizing Head loss calculator

Find a Pro

Grout calculator Well grout calculator Geological data for GSHP

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Shop Discounts Events July 2012 l Ground Up 47

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The Glenlee Tall Ship, Glasgow

When history and technology meet, the end result can sometimes be amazing. Here we examine how a little bit of 19th century British heritage is being helped by some 21st century equipment.


he Glenlee was built at the Bay Yard in Port Glasgow and was one of a group of 10 steel hulled sailing vessels built to a standard design for the Glasgow shipping firm of Archibald Sterling and Co. Limited. She is a three mast barque and first took to the water as a bulk cargo carrier in 1896. She circumnavigated the globe four times and survived (though not without incident!) passing through the fearsome storms of Cape Horn 15 times before being bought by the Spanish navy in 1922, renamed the Galatea and turned into a sail training vessel. The ship was modified and served in that role until 1969. She then operated as a training school until 1981 when she was laid up in Seville Harbour and largely forgotten! A British naval architect saw her in Seville in 1990 and two years later, the Clyde Maritime Trust succeeded in buying her at auction for 5 million Pesetas (ÂŁ40,000), with the intention of returning her to the Clyde to restore, preserve and display the ship under her original name of the SV Glenlee. The Glenlee is one of only 5 Clyde built, steel hulled, sailing ships that remain afloat in the world and she was restored over a six year period by the Clyde Maritime Trustâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s paid and voluntary crew. In November 1999, the Glenlee was recognised as part of the Core Collection of historic vessels in the UK. Chosen from a list of over 1,500 ships, the Glenlee is one of only 43 vessels recognised by the National Historic Ships Committee as being of pre-eminent national significance in terms of maritime heritage, historic associations or technological innovation. The Glenlee is now the centrepiece to the new Zaha Hadid designed Riverside Transport Museum in Glasgow and operates as visitor attraction, museum and event space


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EGSHPA European Ground Source Heat Pump Association

NIBE F1330-30kW Ground Source Heat Pump

under the name of “The Tall Ship”. Part of the restoration involved finding a suitable method of providing space heating to the vessel and this is where the Clyde Maritime Trust called on Fusion Mechanical Services Limited, who are NIBE VIP Installers and as a company, offer complete micro-renewable solutions. The Clyde Maritime Trust’s brief to Fusion Mechanical Services Limited, was to provide a low cost solution that had the lowest environmental impact. From this, Fusion then designed a system that would be the most environmentally and commercially viable system applicable for such a unique project as this. Fusion specified the NIBE F1330-30kW Ground Source Heat Pump, which is a three phase powerful heat pump, capable of providing for the full heating requirements of the vessel. The installation consists of three NIBE F1330-30kW heat pumps in total, which circulate a glycol fluid at low temperature (-9º deg C) through a bank of “slim jims” heat exchangers (imported from the U.S.A) that are suspended within the river from a pontoon floating alongside the ship. These gather the latent heat from the river water to the heat pumps in the plant room of the ship, where it is used to heat a conventional hot water heating system, which provides the

space heating for the Glenlee from a mix of radiators and fan coil units with local controls.

The word ‘unique’ is often overused The Tall Ship continues to be a cultural asset for the city of Glasgow that offers both local people and visitors to the City the opportunity to discover more about the maritime heritage of the city. She is a dynamic experience with a changing programme of events. The Tall Ship also provides educational and training resources and encourages community involvement at all levels. Among the many features of the ship are themed events and activities, with specially devised talks and tours, school visits and costumed volunteer days, you can also hire the Glenlee for functions and events and her location and interior make her Glasgow’s most original venue for weddings and corporate entertaining. The word unique is often overused, but in the case of the Glenlee, a Nineteenth Century icon containing a 21st Century Fusion designed NIBE F1330-30 Ground Source Heat Pump system and floating majestically on the River Clyde beside Glasgow’s fabulous new riverside Museum, it really is the only word to describe The Tall Ship, Glenlee.

For further information please contact


Tel: 0845 095 1200 Fax: 0845 095 1201 Email: Web:

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EGSHPA European Ground Source Heat Pump Association


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Readers Letters Your say, we help

Dear Ground Up I’m planning some efficiency upgrades for my home over the next few years. The improvements will probably include insulation in some areas, better windows, and a new heating system … either a new boiler or a geothermal system. I’m also adding an extra room. Where should I start? Ethan Reeder, Leic. No matter what kind of heating system you’re planning to install, whether it’s a boiler or a geothermal system, it would be better to determine what your home will require for heating and cooling when addition is done and the upgrades are made to the windows and insulation. This would apply if you’re installing a gas boiler, but even more so if you’re planning to install a geothermal system. A knowledgeable mechanical contractor or designer can calculate the heating and cooling requirements of your home, both the way it is today, and what they will be with your planned changes. They can help you determine if the changes you are making are the most cost-effective, and more importantly, select the most appropriate capacity of heating and cooling system. Using this information a designer can estimate energy consumption and cost of the systems you are considering, as well as determine the cost of installing the system. Since the cost of a ground heat exchanger needed for a geothermal system is quite sensitive to the heating and cooling requirements of your home or building, the calculations and guidance they can provide in the planning stages of your project can help lead you to the most cost effective

solution. Hope this helps. Please let us know how you get on.  Ed Lohrenz Dear Ground Up Is it possible that renewable energy sources such as GSHPs, solar, wind etc. will ever, or can ever, provide all our energy needs? This might sound like a bit of a ‘woolly’ question, but I feel it’s important nevertheless. Graham Leigh, Cambs. Very good question Graham. At present, our best guess on how much of Europe’s energy supply comes from renewable sources is around 10%. Looking into the future is always difficult, but if present trends continue, and if international targets are not too over ambitious, we will be in the year 2050 by the time this reaches 50% (that’s about as far into the future as anyone I spoke to was willing to go). We also have to take into account the increasing efficiency of energy use. Cars, household appliances and homes are improving all the time, and one industry expert I spoke to suggested that advances could still cut 30% from present energy use. Of course, all this is conjecture – only our great grandchildren will know for sure!  Paul Kilby If you have a questions about any aspect of the renewable energy industry send it to paul.kilby@ In the subject heading please state ‘For Publication’.

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Ground Up magazine EGSHPA European Ground Source Heat Pump Association

Ground Up magazine delivers the latest news and information on the Renewable Energy Industry. Each issue brings you unrivalled in-depth features along with exclusive interviews of the biggest players in the game.


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EGSHPA European Ground Source Heat Pump Association

As part of our on-going commitment to offer the best value, we are pleased to make this magazine available to American readers at the unbelievable price of $19.99! This is a genuine offer and is not repeated anywhere else in the world! Along with receiving six magazines (one every two months) you will also be listed in our widely read ‘Find-A-Pro’ section – putting your company in front of thousands of potential customers. You will also receive full access to our website – giving you up-tothe-minute news and information. To take advantage of this incredible deal please email Ground Up magazine is the official publication of the European Ground Source Heat Pump Association (a not-for-profit organisation registered in the UK). Please see for further information.

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EGSHPA European Ground Source Heat Pump Association

RigKits LLC has over 30 years design and build experience in the drilling industry. With innovative technology and cutting edge design tools RigKits manufactures drilling equipment for today’s fast moving market. Specializing in geothermal, water well, foundation, construction and geotechnical drilling equipment. Our rigs have been proven in the industry the world over. With the rapidly growing geothermal market, RigKits is leading the way with new equipment and technologies to improve the industry and increase global sustainability. RigKilts LLC, 204, 6640-I Old Monroe Rd, Indian Trail, North Carolina , United States, 28079 Website: n Email: n Phone: 1-647-345-0609 n Fax: 1-888-364-5891

Geo Environmental Services, 28 Crescent Road,, Brighton, East Sussex, United Kingdom, BN2 3RP Website: Email: Phone: 01273 699399 Fax: 01273 699388 We are a company of Engineering Geologists and Environmental Scientists. Our focus is providing expert advice to our clients – from private individuals to big corporations – on identifying and mitigating the geological and environmental risks and the solutions for a range of developments, covering buildings, reservoirs, viaducts, utilities or GSHPs. For feasibility assessments and design options for renewable energy solutions we offer service in three areas:

n Feasibility, design and installation of ground source We help developers, builders and heating engineers solve their problems. Our investment in the latest technology helps us to give you the cleanest and most efficient drilling services available in the UK. Whether you have a limited access site or you need to drill in difficult ground, we have all the solutions to help your project succeed. Danbar aims to provide high quality, professional, efficient, reliable and cost effective site investigation and environmental drilling. We also undertake water well drilling and dewatering. Since environmental legislation was passed to encourage developers to use greener technologies there has been a huge increase in the use of geothermal energy. So Danbar have been working extensively on large geothermal contracts all over the UK. Danbar use ‘state-of-the-art’ machinery that ensures we work efficiently on all projects. Our employees are highly experienced drillers who have the NVQ in Land Drilling and are CSCS registered. Danbar Drilling Services Ltd., Dawber Delph Industrial Area, Skull House Lane, Appley Bridge, Wigan, United Kingdom, WN6 9DN=

Website: Email: Phone: 01257 255642


heat pumps specifically

n Feasibility assessments and design services for sustainable drainage

n Management and supervision services for all renewable energy and sustainable drainage solutions

We place a great emphasis on the feasibility of all of our proposed renewable energy installations. From experience we know that if the fabric of a building is not right, the full benefits, in terms of performance and return on investment, of any renewable energy solution will not be realised. Our aim is an optimised, high performance solution that prevents unnecessary expense and delivers you the best value for money. We believe that our clients should not pay additional costs for poor design, but get a designed solution that delivers the best performance and therefore the best rate of return.

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EGSHPA European Ground Source Heat Pump Association

AWEB Supply is a full-line geothermal products distributor dedicated solely to the geothermal (GeoExchange) industry, featuring quality geothermal products by Slim Jim® Geo Lake Plate® (Pond Loop In-a-Package) and WaterFurnace® International. We handle everything needed in equipment and supplies (geo piping supplies - polyethylene, pumps and pump kits, valves, fittings, etc.) as well as technical assistance and design of residential and light commercial geothermal heat pump/watersource heat pump (closed and open loop) systems. AWEB Supply is responsible for the design, manufacturer and distribution of the Slim Jim® and Geo Lake Plate® heat exchangers – “Pond Loop In-A-Package” AWEB Supply was named the 2010 Top USA distributor for WaterFurnace® International AWEB Supply handles everything needed in geothermal equipment and geothermal supplies as well as technical assistance and design of residential and light commercial (closed and open loop) geothermal heat pump systems Whether you are a geothermal system designer or installer AWEB Supply’s goal is to make your job easier. As a leader in the geothermal industry our team listens to our customers needs and provides innovative solutions through unequalled customer service. “Do Not Go Where the Path May Lead, Go Instead Where There is No Path and Leave a Trail”

Slim Jim – Geo Plates, 7350 Tom Drive, Baton Rouge, LA, United States, 70806 Website: Phone: (225) 928 2630 / Fax: (225) 928 2087 July 2012 l Ground Up 55

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European Ground Source Heat Pump Association

Geothermal International Ltd was established in 2000 by CEO Brian Davidson. Since then the company has been involved in the design and installation of more than 1,300 heating and cooling systems, ranging from small, single homes to large scale commercial ventures. Geothermal International’s main strength is the ability to carry out all stages of installation, including geological surveys and system design. The expertise of in-house technicians, engineers and specialist drilling and maintenance teams helped to establish Geothermal International as the market leader in ground source heat pumps. Geothermal International has developed an extensive range of more than 130 products, including geothermal heat pumps, air source heat pumps, dry air cooler and air handling units. There are no limits to the size of installation that can be carried out and the company offers a bespoke design and development service for specialist applications. The company’s Head Office is in Coventry and there is an established network of dealers across Europe and Russia. A Spanish subsidiary, Geothermal International Espana was launched in 2010. Geothermal International Ltd., Spencer Court 141-143 Albany Road, Coventry, Warwickshire, United Kingdom, CV5 6ND

Website: Email: Phone: +44 (0) 24 7667 3131 Fax: +44 (0) 24 7667 9999

GeoPro is the worldwide leader in the supply of bentonite-based thermal grouts for GSHP applications. We have maintained this position for more than a decade because of our uncompromising commitment to the quality of our products and the satisfaction of our customers. GeoPro’s bentonite based thermal grouts have been painstakingly crafted to deliver reliable thermal conductivities with unsurpassed pumpability. Our internal quality control program ensures that each production run is carefully evaluated to maintain product consistency and performance. The target thermal conductivity values in our mix tables are representative of the lowest values recorded in the lab. When our specifications are followed, our customers meet or exceed their target every time GeoPro, Inc., 302 E. Warehouse Street, Elkton, SD, United States, 57006 Website: Email: Phone: (877) 580-9348 / Fax: (877) 580-9371

Groundsource Drilling & Contracting Ltd GDC provides a full service for the installation of both vertical and horizontal Ground Source Systems from borehole drilling and trenching through to heat loop installation, grouting and earthworks. Since its launch in 2008, GDC has rapidly developed an enviable reputation for excellence and efficiency in the drilling for and installation of geoloops (heat exchangers) for ground source heat pump solutions. We operate a fleet of EGT1500 and Casagrande C6 Drilling Rigs with extraction force ratings of 9.5 tonnes and drilling depths typically in the region of 100 meters, subject to heating and cooling profiles. Services also include the installation and grouting of geoloops, together with the earthworks and trenching required to link header pipes, manifolds and chambers to the plant room. Flushing, pressure testing and the introduction of glycol or equivalent complete the services on offer. Where appropriate we are also able to offer Thermal Response Testing and the supply of Heat Pumps through our links with the major manufacturers in the industry As a corporate member of the British Drilling Association, Construction Line and the UK and International based Ground Source Heat Pump Associations, the company is committed to the training and development of all its employees. Our site operatives and management are backed up by Divisional Managers and Directors with in excess of 40 years national and international experience within the drilling industry. All drilling operatives have either completed or are currently enrolled on training programmes to achieve NVQ status and DCE were instrumental in conjunction with the CITB in recognising and implementing construction related Occupation (CRO) cards for grouting operatives. We operate to the highest level in Health and Safety with Mentor Services acting as consultants on all projects we undertake.

Groundsource Drilling and Contracting Ltd., Unit 3a Wentworth Way, Wentworth Industrial Estate, Tankersley, Barnsley, United Kingdom, S75 3DH Website: Email: / Phone: 01226 741 843 /Fax: 01226 743 392


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EGSHPA European Ground Source Heat Pump Association

ESI is the UK’s leading independent scientific and environmental consultancy specialising in water resource management, land quality and ground source energy. ESI is a technical specialist advisor to corporate and governmental clients. We are known for pragmatism, sound science and a strong commercial focus applied through our specialist services in the following key areas: Land Quality Investigation, Risk Assessment and Management Landfill and Waste Management Water Resources and Water Supply Development Groundwater Modelling Groundwater Control and Dewatering Flooding Risk Assessment and Management Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Data Management Ground Source Energy

ESI Ltd., New Zealand House, 160 Abbey Foregate, Shrewsbury, United Kingdom, SY2 6FD Website: Email: Phone: 0044 01743 276145 / Fax: 0044 01743 248600

Drilcorp Ltd., Kinley Hill Farm, Hawthorn, Seaham, Co. Durham, United Kingdom, SR7 8SW Website: http://www. / Email: info@ / Phone: 00441915273970 / Fax: 00441915273115

We know ‘change’ is not easy: we’ve become used to heating our homes the way we’ve always done it. But fuel costs more and CO2 emissions are a new part of our thinking. Now, there are options and alternatives – new things to consider. Our aim is to help you decide what your real choices are, based on facts and full information. It’s your decision. We offer high quality, unbiased, support to customers. We respect the decisions our customers make, and aim to support them as they require. We aim to minimise our impact on the environment.

We care for our staff and business partners. GreenACT Ltd., 70 Binswood Avenue, Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, United Kingdom, CV32 5RY Website: Email: Phone: 08455 33 32 31

Drilcorp Ltd was established as a drilling contractor in 1992, to serve the growing demand for commercial and domestic independent water supplies, dewatering and in response to a requirement for renewable forms of energy, particularly geothermal climate control. Over the past 18 years Drilcorp has grown to be one of the most respected drilling companies in the United Kingdom, offering an unmatched range of specialist services to a impressive list of clients with whom we are pleased to have developed excellent working relationships. It is one of our key objectives to develop long-term working relationships with all of our clients by means of providing unrivalled levels of service throughout the whole range of our drilling services. To ensure the company is informed of any new technologies and to communicate best practice, Drilcorp is a corporate member of a number of relevant associations including: The British Drilling Association (BDA), The UK Welldrillers Association (WDA) and The National Ground Water Association (NGWA). Drilcorp’s core business has historically been generally focused on groundwater. This has included drilling water wells to supply high quality cost effective water to a whole range of clients and industries, dewatering for the Civil Engineering and Construction industries and monitoring wells for the Environment Agency or the NERC. Further more specialised services have also included water well associated work such as well rehabilitation, pumping tests, CCTV inspections, and borehole alignment surveys. More recently Drilcorp has made significant investment in training and equipment to service the growing geothermal renewable energy heating and

cooling market and has had a great deal of success in completing a wide range of projects throughout the UK including a number of high profile works. Always at the forefront of new technology, Drilcorp has made a significant investment in advanced ‘sonic drilling’ technology for environmental and contaminated land surveys. This recently developed drilling method obtains soil samples of a quality never before thought possible. The fact that Drilcorp was the first company to bring this technology to the UK demonstrates the company’s commitment to deliver the most cost effective and environmentally friendly solutions to all of our clients through advanced technology and innovative methods. Further investment has been made by Drilcorp into the design and development of a range of T’Mac self-propelled track mounted air compressors. T’Mac features rubber tracks and is specially designed to minimise damage to delicate sites and also make the units maneuverable in restricted built-up areas and provide an ability to reach locations on even the most difficult of terrains. With an extensive fleet of truck, track and trailer mounted rotary and percussive drilling rigs to suit just about any type of terrain, specialist ancillary equipment and a wide range of ancillary in-hole equipment to complement, Drilcorp Ltd has also developed the reputation for its ability “to go where no other drilling contractor can go”. Be it extremely confined operating areas, limited access, difficult terrain, severe traffic congested areas, working within or adjacent to high profile or listed buildings or even remote islands! – Drilcorp Ltd will be there!

Services Drilcorp is one of the UK’s leading Drilling Contractors offering an extensive range of Specialist Drilling Services nationwide. They are leading service providers in the following areas: Independent Domestic and Commercial Water Supplies Geothermal Climate Control Dewatering Drilling Environmental Soil Sampling With over 500 years combined experience in Drilling Contract projects, Drilcorp have the experience and professionalism to ensure that your project is delivered on time to specification and within budget. Our broad skillbase means that by engaging Drilcorp for your drilling project, you will have the reassurance that we will carry out your project from start to finish, from design, construction, testing and pump installation right through to the commissioning for water wells. Drilcorp – outstanding service, outstanding results.

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European Ground Source Heat Pump Association

As the UK’s only manufacturer of a full range of ground source heat pumps capable of handling space heating and domestic hot water production, Kensa Engineering has considerable experience and expertise to help with your project. Kensa offer straightforward and honest guidance about whether a ground source heat pump is right for you. Kensa can also provide you with the latest information concerning the Renewable Heat Incentive Scheme. Kensa Engineering was formed in 1999 and manufactured and installed its first heat pump later that year. The company was formed by ex-superyacht captain Richard Freeborn (now Company Chairman) and Guy Cashmore (now Technical Director) who both felt that the products then available in the UK did not suit the UK climate and could be improved on. Since then the company has manufactured and installed over a thousand heat pumps of various types throughout Europe and manufacture ranges suitable for the domestic market and specifically designed for commercial applications. Kensa are ISO9001 approved for the design and manufacture of heat pumps and hold a unique status as being accredited by the BERR (Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, formally the DTI) for both the manufacture and installation of ground source heat pumps. Kensa were also a founding member of the Ground Source Heat Pump Association and play a major role in helping to raise the profile of heat pumps and formulate industry standards. Kensa also advise many Government Departments and leading companies on the use and suitability of heat pumps in different applications and have become well known within the market for their honest and straightforward advice. Kensa Engineering Ltd., Mount Wellington Mine, Truro, Cornwall, United Kingdom, TR4 8RJ Website: Email: Phone: 01392 826020 Fax: 01872 862440

WSP is a global design engineering and management consultancy specialising in Property, Transport & Infrastructure, Industry and Environment projects. We work with clients worldwide to create built and natural environments for the future. Established in the UK in the ‘70s and listed on the London Stock Exchange since 1987, the company has grown through strategic development into one of the largest international consultancy groups in the world employing around 9,000 staff worldwide. WSP Environment & Energy Ltd., 70 Chancery Lane, London, London, United Kingdom, WC2A 1AF Website: / Email: philip.lewis@wspgroup.comPhone: 02073145000 / Fax: 02073145005


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EGSHPA European Ground Source Heat Pump Association

Energy Environmental Corporation,

Energy Environmental Corporation is a company

8295 South Krameria Way, Centennial,

specializing in worldwide design, installation,

CO, United States, 80112

and consulting of integrated renewable energy systems. We are located near Denver, Colorado, at the base of the beautiful Rocky Mountains. Our goal is 100% account references. As such, we have teamed with some of the leading

Website: Phone: 303-953-2346

experts in the country to provide total solutions to meet our clientsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; needs. We provide a single point of responsibility for design and installation of integrated building envelopes and heating/ cooling/energy systems.

28 Crescent Road, Brighton, United Kingdom, BN2 3RP Website: / Email: Phone: 01273 699 399 / Fax: 01273 699 388 Geo-Environmental is an independent practice of geotechnical engineers, environmental consultants, and investigation contractors, who have been established since 1996. Our clients benefit from the pragmatic and flexible approach we take to delivering services and our ability to combine the geotechnical and environmental expertise that is required to provide cost-effective and focused site assessments. In the South East, London, South West and Anglian regions we have undertaken more than 5,000 investigations. The detailed knowledge base that we have built up from these investigations, allows us to provide an informed view of potential geological and contamination risks to our clients for most sites within these regions, even before visiting site. Our aim is to be the supplier of choice for Geotechnical and Environmental Services for our customers by delivering consistent quality and reliability, taking seriously our obligations to operate safely and sustainably, valuing and supporting our workforce and delivering value for money for our customers. July 2012 l Ground Up 59

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Join us in Las Vegas this December!

EGSHPA European Ground Source Heat Pump Association

From exhibits and education to activities and awards, you’ll not want to miss a minute of this year’s stellar groundwater industry event. “I was very satisfied with this year’s . . . Expo. The classes which I attended were full of valuable information . . . My only disappointment was that I couldn’t attend every class . . . ” — Bill Himes, Himes Drilling Co.

“Expo is the premiere groundwater event for education and new equipment technology.” —Andy Cato California Department of Toxic Substance Control +1 614 898-7791



Connect with old friends . . . make new ones . . . forge partnerships across all sectors of the industry.


Grow your business and your industry, as well as professionally and personally.

Discover. 60

Discover the tried-and-true, as well as all that’s new . . . learn from industry experts during cutting-edge educational offerings . . . explore the latest in products and services from exhibitors.

. t c e n n Co

The seminars that I attended were . . . excellent and well worth the time . . . The exhibition hall was awesome . . . What a wonderful opportunity to connect with drillers not only from around the United States but also from other countries.” — Mike Wahlfield Wahlfield Drilling Co.

Gr o w .

2012 NGWA Groundwater Expo and Annual Meeting Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S.A. December 4-7, 2012

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Energy Review of the UK Cuts in its solar PV power feed-in tariff


ontroversial cuts in its solar

Coal: 42.05 +19.7

Q1 2012, along with percentage changes,

PV power feed-in tariff

Gas: 26.68 -30.4

looked like this, according DECC:

notwithstanding, renewable

Nuclear: 17.20 -11.6

Renewable electricity generation

energy’s share of UK electricity output

Renewables: 11.08 +39.0

Onshore wind: 3.55 +51.1

surged 39% higher to 11.1% in Q1

Total: 99.51 -3.4

Offshore wind: 1.49 +49.8

over the past year, according to the

Supplied to:

Hydro: 1.86 +43.5

Department of Energy and Climate

Industry: 23.94 -8.6

Solar PV, wave and tidal: 0.17 +877

Change (DECC), as the British Isles

Domestic: 33.39 -2.0

Thermal renewables (inc. co-firing):

continue to make rapid headway in

Other Final Consumers: 28.88 +3.1

4.00 +20.9

meeting a goal of 15% renewable energy

All: 86.21 -2.3

All renewables: 11.08 +39.0

by 2020, Bloomberg reported this past

DECC’s full set of Q1 “Electricity

Overall, UK renewable energy capacity


Statistics” is available on its website.

totaled 13 GW at the end of Q1, 36.1%

Overall, so-called “low carbon generation”

Overall, sources of UK electricity

higher than a year ago, with renewable

made up 28.4% of UK electricity

generation for Q1 2012 in percentage

electricity generation capacity totaling

generation in Q1 as compared to 26.6%

terms looks like this, according to DECC:

12.3 GW, up 33%.

in the year-ago period, according to

Coal: 42.3%

In addition to impressive gains in Q1

DECC, while total electricity output

Gas: 26.8%

onshore wind generation (+68%), offshore

dropped 3.4%. End-user electrical power

Nuclear: 17.3%

wind generation (+45%), and hydro power

consumption fell 2.3%, with domestic

Renewables: 11.1%

(+56%, due to high winter rainfall), thermal

use expanding 2%, service sector

Other: 1.3%

renewables, including such things as co-firing

consumption up 3.1%, and industrial use

Oil: 1.2%

of biomass, rose a sharp 20.9% to 4 TWh.

down 8.6%.

Coal-fired power output rose sharply, up

Despite the controversial elimination of its

Onshore wind was the fastest growing

19.7%. Gas’ share dropped sharply, to

solar PV feed-in tariff (FiT), solar PV, wave and

source of electrical power for the UK

30.4%, as domestic UK gas production

tidal power capacity increased a whopping

overall in Q1, jumping 51% to 3.55

fell 14.1%, meaning that UK power

877%, though accounted for a comparatively

Terawatt-hours (TWh), while offshore wind

suppliers had to turn to more expensive

small 0.17 TWh.

total rated capacity increased 49.8% to

imports. These also declined, dropping

Looking at heat and transportation,

1.49 TWh. Hydro power production also

6.3% compared to Q1 2011, with

renewable heat increased 5% in 2011, to

registered impressive gains, rising 43.5%

liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports

1,220 kilotonnes oil equivalent (ktoe), while

to 1.86 TWh.

accounting for 23.2% of the total.

renewable biofuels for transportation dropped

Norway (60%) and Qatar (23%) were the

7% to 1,127 ktoe. Overall, renewable

two biggest suppliers of UK gas imports.

transport fuels accounted for 3.5% of road

UK Electrical Power: Sources and Uses

UK power suppliers turned to coal

transport fuels last year in the UK.

DECC laid out sources and uses of

instead, with Q1 coal demand totaling

DECC’s preliminary estimate of the overall

electricity in the UK in Q1 2012, along

18.2 million metric tons, a rise of 15.8%

share of energy consumption supplied by

with year-over-year percentage changes

from a year ago.

renewable sources was 3.8% in 2011, an

in a table:

Renewable Energy in the UK

increase of 0.6 percentage points from

Electricity Generated from (in TWh):

Sources of renewable energy in the UK in

2010’s 3.2%.


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EGSHPA European Ground Source Heat Pump Association

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63 7/4/12 6:59 PM


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Ground Up Magazine Issue 5  

Ground Up Magazine Issue 5

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