ON TRACK 4 update

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© VA N IN


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4

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Els De Clercq Jan-Bart Claus Margaux Coenen Manuel Lehmann Birgen Paredis Jolien Polus Leen Temmerman


Via www.diddit.be heb je toegang tot het onlineleerplatform bij ON TRACK 4. Activeer je account aan de hand van de onderstaande code en accepteer de gebruiksvoorwaarden. Kies je ervoor om je aan te melden met je Smartschoolaccount, controleer dan zeker dat je e-mailadres aan dat account gekoppeld is. Zo kunnen we je optimaal ondersteunen.

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IN

Let op: activeer deze licentie pas vanaf 1 september; de licentieperiode start vanaf activatie en is 365 dagen geldig.

©

Fotokopieerapparaten zijn algemeen verspreid en vele mensen maken er haast onnadenkend gebruik van voor allerlei doeleinden. Jammer genoeg ontstaan boeken niet met hetzelfde gemak als kopieën. Boeken samenstellen kost veel inzet, tijd en geld. De vergoeding van de auteurs en van iedereen die bij het maken en verhandelen van boeken betrokken is, komt voort uit de verkoop van die boeken. In België beschermt de auteurswet de rechten van deze mensen. Wanneer u van boeken of van gedeelten eruit zonder toestemming kopieën maakt, buiten de uitdrukkelijk bij wet bepaalde uitzonderingen, ontneemt u hen dus een stuk van die vergoeding. Daarom vragen auteurs en uitgevers u beschermde teksten niet zonder schriftelijke toestemming te kopiëren buiten de uitdrukkelijk bij wet bepaalde uitzonderingen. Verdere informatie over kopieerrechten en de wetgeving met betrekking tot reproductie vindt u op www.reprobel.be. Ook voor het onlinelesmateriaal gelden deze voorwaarden. De licentie die toegang verleent tot dat materiaal is persoonlijk. Bij vermoeden van misbruik kan die gedeactiveerd worden. Meer informatie over de gebruiksvoorwaarden leest u op www.diddit.be. © Uitgeverij Van In, Wommelgem, 2022 De uitgever heeft ernaar gestreefd de relevante auteursrechten te regelen volgens de wettelijke bepalingen. Wie desondanks meent zekere rechten te kunnen doen gelden, wordt verzocht zich tot de uitgever te wenden. Eerste druk 2022 ISBN 978-94-641-7464-9 D/2022/0078/195 600398/01 NUR 110

Cover: Wendy De Haes Zetwerk: Coco Bookmedia Tekeningen: Lise Vanlerberghe


CONTENTS 9

Check In

10

Main Track Step 1: Couch potato or adrenaline junkie? (describing sports) Step 2: Bending the rules (explaining sports rules) Step 3: Howdy (writing a formal email)

11 11 23 30

On Different Tracks Check 1: describing sports Check 2: explaining sports rules Check 3: writing a formal email

46 46 58 61

Check Out: pitching my sport

67

Check Out: our literary café

131

3 CAUGHT RED-HANDED Check In

70

Check Out: writing a crime story

Main Track Step 1: A new age is coming (discussing coming-of-age) Step 2: T o read or not to read (reviewing fiction) Step 3: I t’s all relative (using relative clauses)

71

©

99

4 Accept the dream

182 182 187

203

198

205

Check In

206

Main Track Step 1: W ho knows what the future holds (describing actions in the future) Step 2: M emories are the treasures of the heart (talking about achievements)

207 207 220

Summary 241 Grammar – HOW TO talk about unfinished 241 actions and experiences – HOW TO talk about the future 243 – HOW TO express reason and purpose 248 Vocabulary 249 – Verbs related to a bucket list 249 – Time and future idioms 249 three

Summary 106 Grammar – HOW TO join clauses and sentences 106 Cultural background 108 – Identifying story elements 108 – Coming-of-age 109 – Literary terms 111 Vocabulary 112 112 – Coming of age – Descriptive adjectives 112 – Avoiding the use of ‘very’ 114 Strategy 115 – HOW TO write a good review 115

134

Summary 171 Grammar – HOW TO tell a story in the past 171 Vocabulary 176 – Crimes and criminals 176 – Other crime words 177 – Words related to ‘motive’ 178 179 – Idioms Cultural background 180 – HOW TO add suspense to a text 180 – HOW TO write a good opening line or paragraph 181

69

87

133

Main Track 135 Step 1: C rime doesn’t pay (describing crime and motive) 135 Step 2: W hat happened? 148 (describing past events) Step 3: T his time there would be no witnesses (reading and writing crime stories) 157

Check In

71

117 119 119 122 127

On Different Tracks Check 1: describing crime and motive Check 2: describing past events Check 3: r eading and writing crime stories

2 AT A CROSSROADS

117

On Different Tracks Check 1: discussing coming-of-age Check 2: reviewing fiction Check 3: using relative clauses

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Summary 37 Grammar – HOW TO talk about rules and give instructions 37 Vocabulary 38 – Endurance sports 38 – Ball sports 38 – Skating sports 39 – Strength sports 40 40 – Table sports – Target sports 40 – Animal sports 41 – Equipment 41 – Sports locations 42 43 – People in sports – Sports idioms 43 Strategy 44 – HOW TO write a formal email 44 Useful expressions 45 – HOW TO make (polite) requests 45

Useful expressions – HOW TO describe different story elements

IN

1 AHEAD OF THE GAME

ON TRACK: CONTENTS

3


251 On Different Tracks Check 1: describing actions in the future 251 Check 2: talking about achievements 259 Check Out: letter to my future self

271

5 R U OK?

273

Check In

274

Main Track Step 1: L et’s talk about mental health (understanding mental health) Step 2: F act check (doing research) Step 3: R each out (giving advice)

275

Summary Grammar – HOW TO express obligation, advice, prohibition and possibility Vocabulary – Emotions – Idioms Strategy – HOW TO find information on the internet – HOW TO check if your sources are reliable and useful

301

On Different Tracks Check 1: understanding mental health Check 2: doing research Check 3: giving advice

307 307 314 322

Check Out: researching and presenting a mental health disorder

327

275 288 293

329 330

Check In

Main Track 331 Step 1: T rash to treasure (learning the language of upcycling) 331 Step 2: H ow to upcycle (giving clear instructions) 353 Summary Grammar – HOW TO give instructions Vocabulary – Climate change – Recycling and reusage – Using synonyms – Tools Strategy – HOW TO make a tutorial video

367

On Different Tracks Check 1: learning the language of upcycling Check 2: giving clear instructions

375

Check Out: creating a tutorial

387

367 368 368 370 371 371 373 373

375 381

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301 303 303 304 305

6 UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

IN

Useful expressions 250 – HOW TO express your hopes and ambitions? 250

305

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306

four

4

ON TRACK: CONTENTS


STARTEN MET ON TRACK Welkom in On Track. We leggen graag even uit hoe je met dit boek aan de slag gaat.

1 / Op weg met On Track Het leerwerkboek bestaat uit zes units en elke unit is op dezelfde manier opgebouwd. Op de voorpagina van elke unit vind je terug wat je zult leren om de taak aan het einde van de unit, de Check Out, goed uit te voeren. Deze voorpagina toont je de weg die je zult afleggen.

IN

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME CHECK IN Step 1:

describing sports

MAIN TRACK

Step 2:

explaining sports rules

In de Check In maak je kennis met het thema van de unit.

SUMMARY Step 3:

writing a formal email

TRACE YOUR STEPS

CHECK IN

RUMSPRINGA

QUINCEAÑERA

BULLET ANT INITIATION

RUMSPRINGA

CULTURAL CAROUSEL

QUINCEAÑERA

BULLET ANT INITIATION

RUMSPRINGABAR AND BAT MITZVAH

QUINCEAÑERA BAR AND BAT MITZVAH BULLET ANT INITIATION

ON DIFFERENT TRACKS

QUINCEAÑERA BAR AND BAT MITZVAH

RUMSPRINGA

BAR AND BAT MITZVAH BULLET ANT INITIATION

RUMSPRINGA

BULLET ANT INITIATION

QUINCEAÑERA

QUINCEAÑERA

BAR AND BAT MITZVAH

RUMSPRINGA

BULLET ANT INITIATION

RUMSPRINGA

BULLET ANT INITIATION

QUINCEAÑERA

CHECK OUT: PITCHING MY SPORT

RUMSPRINGA

BULLET ANT INITIATION

BULLET ANT INITIATION

RUMSPRINGA

BAR AND BAT MITZVAH BULLET ANT INITIATION

1 Whose culture is it? Pair up and try to identify whose cultural tradition the photos and texts are about.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

a Student A will get 4 photos. Student B will get 2 short paragraphs.

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De Main Track is opgebouwd uit verschillende Steps. In elke Step leer je een afzonderlijke bouwsteen om de taak aan het einde van de unit te kunnen maken.

b Student A is only allowed to ask yes/no questions based on the photos they get. c Student B can only answer ‘yes’ or ‘no’ based on the information in the paragraphs.

MAIN TRACK

d Match the photos with the correct text. 2 Now form groups of 4 and fill in the table you will get about cultural traditions. Make sure to ask each other questions so you have all the relevant information.

STEP 1 ⁄ Couch potato or adrenaline junkie? Describing sports

SPOKEN INTERACTION SPOKEN INTERACTION

3 Discuss the following questions with the class. a What are the similarities between these cultural traditions?

1 ⁄ No sport too strange

b What are the differences between these cultural traditions? 1 Whether you are a couch potato or an adrenaline junkie, you have probably already come into c contact Why would such traditions organized? with several sports. be Take the test to see which sport you are actually made for. d Do you know other examples of such traditions?

reading SPOKEN INTERACTION

What tradition are your 3 closest matches?you like to take b Which sports are you less suited for? ea Which would or wouldn’t part in?3 Why (not)?

c Do you agree with the results of the quiz? Why (not)? 2 Take a look at these strange sports. SPOKEN INTERACTION

a Pair up! Try to come up with an original name for each sport. Next, share your ideas with the rest of the group.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Aan het einde van elke Step zie je een verwijzing naar een Check. 2: AT A CROSSROADS Die Check vind je terug in het onderdeel On Different Tracks. In UNITOn Different Tracks ga je na of je de bouwsteen al onder de knie hebt. seventy

CHECK 1, see p. 57

70

GRAMMAR

SUMMARY HOW TO join clauses and sentences

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

eleven

Voor je start met On Different Tracks is er een Summary: een overzicht van de grammatica, woordenschat, strategieën, veelgebruikte uitdrukkingen en extra info over culturele achtergrond.

(Relative pronouns and relative clauses)

11

The Sun Is Also a Star is about Natasha and a boy, who is called Daniel, whom she meets in a tangle-on-the-street moment.

Dumplin’ is a film whose music was largely made by Dolly Parton.

1 Defining relative clauses FORM Relative pronouns Function

CHECK 1 ⁄ Describing crime and motive

writing

a Give the correct word type ((compound) nouns or verbs) or the correct idiom.

(noun)

9

one hundred and eighty-two

(verb)

Total:

(idiom)

10

(noun)

4 5 6

The man who/that you saw on television is a well-known environmentalist. The documentary which/that was shown in class was really powerful. The Sun Is Also a Star features Natasha and a boy, [who/that/whom] she meets in a tangle-on-the-street moment. The film [which/that] Leonardo DiCaprio made is actually a documentary. Zahid is a stoner whose casual approach conflicts with some of Sam’s rigid routines. Dumplin’ is a film whose music/of which the music was largely made by Dolly Parton.

(idiom)

/ 10

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

ON TRACK: STARTEN MET ON TRACK

2 donkey

stupid, determined, stubborn ...

3 bull

dangerous ... scary, sneaky ...

4 snake

7

(noun)

8

1

one hundred and six

(idiom)

182

4

Je kunt je traject in On Different Tracks helemaal zelfstandig doorlopen, met een partner of samen met de klas. Aan de hand van de handige scorewijzers weet je meteen welke oefeningen je moet maken. 6

whose/of which6

106

(noun)

5

which/that/Ø4

whose5

3

to have a with the law

(noun)

which/that2

who(m)/that/Ø3

possession

2

1

(idiom)

3

who/that1

object

[Ø = relative pronoun can be left out]

1 Describe what you see in the pictures.

2

Thing

Je leerkracht zal je zeggen wanneer je de Check, die bij een bepaalde Step hoort, kunt maken in On Different Tracks. Afhankelijk van je resultaat kun je – helemaal volgens jouw tempo en niveau – de leerstof c Give a characteristic you associate with these animals. nog even herhalen, extra oefenen of that meer verdiepende oefeningen Animal Characteristic UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS maken. cute, adorable ... 1 hamster subject

ON DIFFERENT TRACKS

Person

2

Score

< 12

12 – 15

> 15

Next exercise

ex. 2

ex. 4

ex. 5

What characteristics do animals have? a Fill in the adjectives below next to each description. energetic – funny – irritating – scary – sociable b Link the descriptions to the animals. dog – fly – hamster – monkey – snake Description

Adjective

Animal

1 is dangerous

scary

snake

2 is happy to be around people or other animals sociable

dog

3 makes you laugh

funny

monkey

4 moves a lot

energetic

hamster

5 bugs you or gets on your nerves

irritating

fly

five

©

Relative clauses are used to give additional information about something (= the antecedent) without adding another sentence. Texts become more fluent, and you avoid repeating words. Words that link these clauses together are called relative pronouns, such as who, that, which, whose and whom. There are 2 types of relative clause.

5


Als je alle bouwstenen in de Main Track hebt doorlopen en ze voldoende hebt ingeoefend in On Different Tracks, dan ben je zeker klaar voor de Check Out, de taak aan het einde van de unit. Hier kun je alles wat je geleerd hebt, in de unit toepassen.

CHECK OUT PITCHING MY SPORT ORIENTATION You have the chance to spend 4 weeks abroad next summer. Adirondack Camp organizes overnight camps for young people aged 7-17 in the Adirondack Mountains in upstate New York. This means having fun while learning English, since 20 % of visitors are international. You really want to have your sport added to their programme, so that you can spend your summer there while teaching your sport. You will write an email to convince the camp managers. First watch the video and breathe in the atmosphere.

WATCHING

PREPARATION 1 Read about the several camps that are organized and select 3 activities that you would like to do.

Elke Check Out gebruikt de OVUR-strategie:

1 2 3 2 Think of a sport that you invented that would be added value to their programme. Fill in the table with the information about what, where, who, how.

Orientation

Reflection NAME SPORT? PLAYERS?

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Action

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3 Reflect on your task by filling in the checklist. EQUIPMENT? LOCATION? RULES?

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Preparation

Checklist: describing your holiday ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

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Yes

I think so

1 Preparation • I described my friends’ holiday activities. • I wrote my note or postcard in draft first. sixty-seven

2 Content

• THE IGAME wrote UNIT 1: AHEAD OF

Reflection

No

written INTERACTION

about 75 words.

IN

ACTION

3 Write an email to Adirondack Camp. 4 Mention and briefly discuss the 3 activities that you have selected. 5 Add the sport that you are suggesting to the email. Think of the information necessary for them to understand what your sport is all about and how it may be a valuable extension for their programme. 6 Use the Strategy on how to write a formal email. Use correct verb forms to explain the rules of the game.

– Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist.

We willen graag dat je vorderingen maakt • I included all the necessary elements. the rules for writing an informal note or postcard. en dat• jeI respected reflecteert op je taken en leert uit 3 Language use • I used the correct vocabulary to describe the activities and the feedback. 67

Checklist: my opinion about `strange’ sports

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • I selected 3 sports I would like to try. • My text is about 50 words long. • My opinion is clear.

2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

weather. • I used the past simple tense correctly. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I checked my spelling and punctuation.

Feedback

Feedback

d Find your perfect match. Walk around the classroom to find other people who have chosen the same sports as you have. Discuss!

SPOKEN INTERACTION

Ten slotte kun je na elke unit je online portfolio op diddit individueel of samen met je leerkracht invullen. Zijn er dingen die nog niet zo goed lopen, dan krijg je meteen ook digitale oefeningen bij je werkpunten. 3 Time to zoom in on one of these sports. Watch the video and focus on the information you need below.

Trace your steps on diddit.

WATCHING

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• Name of sport: • Popular in:

9 Listen and write down the correct word for these definitions.

listening

• Tools or equipment:

1

Here you can buy second-hand clothing items.

2

A state of net zero carbon emissions; there is no impact on the climate.

• Goal:

3

To cover something.

• Pace:

4

A place where we store trash, usually in a hole under the ground.

• Field:

5

To reduce the amount of something.

6

A substance secreted by bees, usually used to make candles.

7

Buying a lot of cheap clothing and dumping it quite quickly, usually after wearing an item once or twice.

• Team:

2 / Nuttig voor onderweg

• Prizes: • Rules:

10 Analyse the instructions in the TikToks.

a Are the instructions in the TikToks clear? Why (not)?

In de loop van elke unit word je ondersteund door een aantal hulpmiddelen. b How could we improve the instructions?

c Use this information to complete the grammar box on how to give instructions.

To give instructions or to say that someone has to do something, we use .

SUMMARY

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

HOW TO talk about rules and give instructions

(Present simple and imperative)

To say that someone is not allowed to do something, we add e.g. Don’t aim at people with your paper plane!

e.g.

See p. 367

The first player throws the ball a distance between 6 and 10 m. Then the opponent enters the circle. Check the distances after each throw. Don’t cheat!

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

360

pagenumber

There are different ways to talk about rules and to give instructions in English.

1 Present simple

The present simple tense expresses habits and routines. Sports rules are considered a routine: you are supposed to do the sport in the same way every time. e.g. In petanque you throw the small ball (called jack) a distance between 6 and 10 m. The first player throws the first boule. Then the opponent enters the circle. After each throw, they check the distances.

UNIT 4:

OFF W E W ENT

2 Imperative The imperative is used to show obligation or permission, e.g. the rules of a game. – Obligation: base form of the verb e.g. Straighten your legs! e.g. Take 1 step out of the circle to aim your boule. – Prohibition: don’t + base form of the verb e.g. Don’t bend your knees!

©

226

.

to give the order in which we have to do something:

– You can also use modal auxiliary verbs to say what is and is not allowed in a game. e.g. In archery, athletes may not raise the bow arm until the signal to start is given and penalties can be given. HOW TO write a good review – The word ‘modal’ in modal auxiliary verb means that this word expresses a certain meaning, like obligation, advice or prohibition. Writing a (film/book) review is a good way of expressing your opinion. e.g. In chess boxing you should take off your protective gear during the chess part of the game. You can take a shower after PE. The purpose is to help the reader to determine whether they want to watch the film or read – A modal auxiliary verb is followed by the base form of a verb and cannot be used on its own. the book too. The review should give enough details about the film or book so that the reader – Modal auxiliary verbs are explained in more detail in Unit 5, p.xx.

STRATEGY

5 Check the Strategy in the Summary on how to write a good formal email (p. 44). Choose the ‘worst’ email in exercise 4 and rewrite it according to the rules of the Strategy. Use an appropriate expression from the box below in your correction.

Help! Please help. Do me a favour, will you? I need help.

6 Look at the text below.

thirty-seven

Why & what? Why are you writing? What are you writing about?

37

For more information about the structure of a good review, check the Summary of this unit.

See p. 115-116

1 The teacher will give you some excerpts from actual reviews of books and films.

reading

2

While writing

b Highlight words, phrases or expressions to describe characters or the performances of actors in another colour.

Be polite

c Highlight words, phrases or expressions to describe the setting or the atmosphere in yet another colour.

Write in a formal way. Do not use emoticons or abbreviations.

d Highlight words, phrases or expression to describe writing, dialogue, narration or music in yet another colour.

KISS

e Underline words that give the general opinion of the reviewer.

Keep it short and simple!

Organize these words in the graphic organizer you will get.

Mind the structure

2 To describe (aspects of) books and films, you can use many different adjectives.

Omdat je Engels wilt gebruiken in een realistische context, reiken we je graag ook veelgebruikte uitdrukkingen aan.

a What type of text is this?

Write a subject that reflects the message of your email. Salutation Short Introduction Who are you, what is the reason for writing? Main message situation/problem and solution Ending Full name + your class if you are mailing a teacher

Papers sports vocabulary Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms Henderson, (if you know their name) Dear Sir or Madam, (if you don’t know their name) I am writing to you to ask about the taekwondo schedule. I am keen to learn taekwondo, as I think it might be the perfect sport for me. I see from your website me that your sports facility offers taekwondo classes. I was wondering whether you could send me more information. (Yours) sincerely, / Kind regards, / Best regards, / Regards, (if you started with Dear + name) or Yours faithfully, (if you started with Dear Sir or Madam) Mona Amado 4HW

six

b What is the goal of this text?

After writing

c Which information can you get from this text? –

94

– d Which activities would you like to add? e Would you consider taking part in a sports camp in a foreign country? Why (not)?

3 Edit!

ON TRACK: STARTEN MET ON TRACK forty-four

ninety-four

6

Do you have a professional email address? Do you have the email address of the person you are sending a message to?

a Highlight words, phrases or expressions to describe plot, story or message in one colour.

action-packed – adventurous – amusing – astonishing – believable – boring – breathtaking – brilliant – captivating – charismatic – charming – clichéd – complex – complicated – confusing – (un)convincing – dazzling – diverse – easy-to-read – emotional – enchanting – engaging – entertaining – erratic – exciting – exhilarating – far-fetched – fascinating – futuristic – gripping – heartbreaking – heartfelt – hilarious – life-like – magnificent – memorable – nonsensical – poignant – powerful – predictable – realistic – repetitive – riveting – romantic – silly – simple – spectacular – stereotypical – thought-provoking – touching – tragic – unique – witty

reading

Be prepared

2 ⁄ Be descriptive

a Put the following adjectives in the appropriate column first. Use a dictionary or thesaurus if you are not sure.

See p. 45

1

Before writing

A good review is informative and argumentative, but if it’s good, it will also be entertaining.

writing

USEFUL EXPRESSIONS You have to help me. Can/Could you please help me? I was wondering if you could help me. I would appreciate it if you could help me.

HOW TO write a formal email

can make an informed decision, without giving away too many spoilers.

f

HOW TO make (polite) requests

13

Keep in mind:

Omdat leerstrategieën ontzettend belangrijk zijn, vind je die ook in de Main Track terug wanneer je ze nodig hebt. UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME Elke leerstrategie kun je via een handig schema of overzicht nog eens rustig bekijken in de Summary, ook als je er later nog eens gebruik van wilt maken.

STRATEGY

three hundred and sixty

We also use

GRAMMAR

The imperative is the of the verb. e.g. Place the paper on a flat surface in front of you.

Grammaticale regels staan in de Main Track altijd in een kader, met een duidelijk voorbeeld erbij. Hier vul je zelf een aantal basiskenmerken van de regel in. Hoe je de grammatica gebruikt, vind je vervolgens terug in de Summary. Aan de hand van nog meer voorbeelden en illustraties schetsen we de context waarin je de grammatica kunt gebruiken. thirteen

GRAMMAR

HOW TO give instructions

Avoid mistakes: read your email again. Hit the send button.

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS 44

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


uithoudingssporten

athletics

rowing

2 BALL SPORTS

VOCABULARY

VOCABULARY

1 ENDURANCE SPORTS

cycling

running

swimming

De woordenschat van elke unit geven we je graag mee via illustraties of via een overzichtelijke woordenlijst met ruimte om je eigen woorden en zinnen toe te voegen.

1 COMING OF AGE Word

Translation

adulthood

volwassenheid

borders/limits

grenzen/ beperkingen

childhood

kindertijd

to embark/ to set off on (a journey)

beginnen aan (een reis)

maturity

volwassenheid

immaturity

onvolwassenheid

to question

in vraag stellen

a resolution

een oplossing/ resolutie

to resolve

oplossen

self-awareness

zelfbewustzijn

self-discovery

zelfontdekking

My notes

balsporten

2 DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES

football (BrE) / soccer (AmE)

American football

Word

Translation

action-packed

boordevol actie

adventurous

avontuurlijk

amusing

grappig

astonishing

verbazingwekkend

believable

handball

volleyball

hockey

one hundred and twelve

thirty-eight

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

38

My notes

geloofwaardig

boring

saai

breathtaking

adembenemend

brilliant

briljant

captivating

boeiend

charismatic

charismatisch

charming

charmant

clichéd

clichématig

complex

complex

complicated

ingewikkeld

confusing

verwarrend

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

112

IN

basketball

Vaardigheden zijn een belangrijk onderdeel bij het leren van een nieuwe taal. Daarom geven we bij elke oefening aan op welke vaardigheid je het meest aan het oefenen bent: listening, reading, speaking, spoken interaction, watching, writing, written interaction.

listening

READING

SPOKEN INTERACTION

SPEAKING

watching

WRITING

written INTERACTION

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3 / Fijn en handig voor onderweg VARIANTS OF THE SPORT

90

The two main types of buzkashi are ‘tudabarai’ and ‘qarajai’, in the former you try to grab 80 the goat then race away from everyone else whereas in the latter you grab the goat before riding round a marker and throwing the carcass into the goal, known as the ‘Circle of Justice’.

85

In Tajikistan the team element is mainly given over in favor of a free-form variety whereby individuals are all competing against each other.

The Afghan Olympic Federation tried to introduce proper rules, making it a game of 10 versus 10 on a square pitch and two halves of 45 minutes with a 15-minute half time break. Whether they get half-time oranges is not clear.

Wanneer er moeilijke woorden voorkomen in 7 There are 5 idioms that were not used in exercise 6c. What do they mean? Look them up if necessary. het authentieke tekstmateriaal, worden die 1 2 uitgelegd in de glossary.

an anthropologist: someone who studies the human race to disembowel: to remove the organs from a dead animal by means foul and fair: by all means to seize: to take

3 4

Source: www.youngpioneerstours.com

5

5 Reread the text to answer the following language questions.

6 Read sentences below eSports and fill an appropriate collocation from exercise 5. a the Look for adjectives thatabout are used to describe theinsport. Put them in the correct column:

8 Time for ‘Four in a row’! Follow your teacher’s guidelines. Have a classmate ask questions to find out which games you have. Only yes/no questions are allowed!

negative, neutral or positive adjective.

1 eSports looks to have arrived as a modern Negative adjective

.

Neutral adjective

SPOKEN INTERACTION

9 Write your own sports poem.

Positive adjective

2 Sports broadcasters are snapping at the opportunity to integrate

into their schedules. bij een boek, een auteur of Soms krijg je extra uitleg 3 There is a new dimension to gaming, with millions of people tuning in to make it a form of een film. . 4 If your child or student eSports, having a conversation early on about their playare habits can help of promote positive playused behaviours. b Collocations combinations words that are often together. Look for collocations with the positive adjectives above.

5 A common in eSport is the so-called ‘tennis elbow’. The complaints are triggered by an overloading of the muscular system, which performs the bending and stretching of the wrist. 6 Teams have tight schedules and can handle.

regimes that not all gamers

Verb + sport

a Preparation: read and listen to the 2 poems on the next page, taken from The Crossover by

Alexander, and then answer the questions. In de Did You Kwame Know -kaders vind je leuke weetjes en 1 What sport are these poems about? achtergrondinformatie.

Sports + noun

©

Sport or sports? In British English we use the word ‘sport’ as in ‘a sport’. In American English the term is always plural, as in ‘sports’. In British English we only use the word ‘sports’ when it is plural or when it is followed by a noun, e.g. sports field.

reading listening

2 How do you know this?

3 What is ‘the key’?

7 Some sports are rooted in deep traditions. Watch the video about 1 typical form of sport and cultural identity, and then fill in the table below.

WATCHING

De What? volgende iconen helpen jeUNIT ook nog een eind op weg. When? 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

4 What can you say about the layout of the poem?

Since when? Revived by:

in

:

Where?

Het beeldfragment dat hierbij hoort, vind je ook online UNIT 1:terug. AHEAD OF THE GAME

Typical day or event?

twenty-one

Het luisterfragment dat hierbij hoort, vind je ook online terug. Gathering 21

1 2

Als je dit– icoon ziet, moet je iets online opzoeken of vind je extra materiaal terug op diddit. –

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

ON TRACK: STARTEN MET ON TRACK

17

seven

– 3

seventeen

sixteen

16

The Crossover is a 2014 book by American author Kwame Alexander and the winner of the 2015 Newbery Medal and Coretta Scott King Award Honor. The story, which is told entirely through verse, follows 2 African-American twin brothers who find themselves drifting apart as they head into their junior high school year. In March 2021, it was announced that Disney+ had given a pilot order to a television adaptation of the book.

Source: www.wikipedia.com

c Now look for more collocations with the word ‘sport’ and put them in the right category. Use the online tool your teacher gives you.

Adjective + sport DID YOU KNOW?

THE CROSSOVER (KWAME ALEXANDER)

7


Het onlineleerplatform bij OnTrack4

Lesmateriaal Hier vind je het extra lesmateriaal bij OnTrack4, zoals video’s, audio’s, pdf's, ontdekplaten … Oefeningen • De leerstof kun je inoefenen op jouw niveau. • Je kunt hier vrij oefenen.

IN

Materiaal Hier vind je het lesmateriaal en de online-oefeningen. Gebruik de filters bovenaan, de indeling aan de linkerkant of de zoekfunctie om snel je materiaal te vinden.

VA N

Opdrachten Hier vind je de opdrachten terug die de leerkracht voor jou heeft klaargezet. Evalueren Hier kan de leerkracht toetsen voor jou klaarzetten.

Resultaten Wil je weten hoever je al staat met oefenen, opdrachten en evaluaties? Hier vind je een helder overzicht van je resultaten.

Meer info over diddit vind je op www.vanin.diddit.be/nl/leerling.

©

Portfolio Hier kun je je eigen vaardigheden en kennis inschatten. Je leerkracht geeft vervolgens feedback op jouw zelfevaluatie – zodat je weet waar je nog extra op kunt oefenen – en kan op basis daarvan ook opdrachten geven. E-book Het e-book is de digitale versie van het leerwerkboek. Je kunt erin noteren, aantekeningen maken, zelf materiaal toevoegen ...

8

ON TRACK: DIDDIT


UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME CHECK IN Step 1:

describing sports

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IN

MAIN TRACK

Step 2:

explaining sports rules

SUMMARY

Step 3:

writing a formal email

©

TRACE YOUR STEPS

ON DIFFERENT TRACKS

CHECK OUT: PITCHING MY SPORT


CHECK IN WHAT IS YOUR FASTBALL? 1 Answer these questions individually, and then discuss with a partner.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

– Would you describe yourself as a sporty person? – Which sports have you already played (e.g. in a club or team)? – Which sports are you good at? And which are you bad at? – Which rules do you hate in a particular sport? – How would you rate your sports talent? 2 Watch the video and answer these questions. a Which sports do you see in the video?

IN

– Which rules do you (sometimes) break in a sport?

WATCHING

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b What is the message of the video?

c How can you achieve that?

d What will the result be?

©

e Take a minute to try to find what your fastball is.

ten

10

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


MAIN TRACK STEP 1 ⁄ Couch potato or adrenaline junkie? Describing sports

1 ⁄ No sport too strange

a What are your 3 closest matches?

reading SPOKEN INTERACTION

IN

1 W hether you are a couch potato or an adrenaline junkie, you have probably already come into contact with several sports. Take the test to see which sport you are actually made for. b Which 3 sports are you less suited for?

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c Do you agree with the results of the quiz? Why (not)? 2 Take a look at these strange sports.

a Pair up! Try to come up with an original name for each sport. Next, share your ideas with the rest of the group.

2

3

4

5

6

8

9

©

1

eleven

7

SPOKEN INTERACTION

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

11


b Read the explanations for some of these sports and try to match them to the correct sport. Explanation

reading

Sport

Participants race down the 200-yard-long hill after a round of Double Gloucester is sent rolling down it.

2

This sport involves getting placed into a large plastic ball, and then rolling downhill. It can extend into other types, including crossing water and racing.

3

A sport of 2 teams of 7 players each mounted on a broomstick, played on a hockey rink-sized pitch.

4

This sport, also known as octopush, is a globally played limited-contact sport in which 2 teams compete to maneuver a puck across the bottom of a swimming pool into the opposing team’s goal by propelling it with a pusher.

5

A contest in which male competitors race while each carrying a female teammate.

6

People race each other on the backs of these animals. The practice is common in Africa and is relatively unusual elsewhere. They are ridden in the same way as horses with special saddles, reins, and bits. However, they are harder to manage than horses.

VA N

IN

1

7

A sport practised in some parts of the United States. It consists of riders racing down a snowy hill riding on a tool.

8

A hybrid sport that combines 2 traditional pastimes. Contestants compete in alternating rounds.

c What do you think of these sports?

reading

– Action: select at least 3 sports that you would like to try. Is there a sport you would never want to do? Explain why. Write about 50 words.

writing

©

– Preparation: read about these sports online. If you can’t find any information, use the sources your teacher gives you.

twelve

12

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


– Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist. Checklist: my opinion about `strange’ sports

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • I selected 3 sports I would like to try. • My text is about 50 words long. • My opinion is clear.

IN

2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I used correct spelling and punctuation. Feedback

d Find your perfect match. Walk around the classroom to find other people who have chosen the same sports as you have. Discuss!

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3 Time to zoom in on one of these sports. Watch the video and focus on the information you need below.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

WATCHING

• Name of sport:

• Popular in:

• Tools or equipment:

• Goal:

• Pace:

• Field:

• Team:

• Prizes:

©

• Rules:

thirteen

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

13


4 Now read a little bit more about this sport, and then answer the questions below.

reading

a Explain the procedure to prepare the goat for the game.

Similarity

IN

b Compare the role of the animal in this sport to other sports, like bull fighting or cock fighting. Find 1 similarity and 2 differences. Differences

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c In the text several rules of the game are mentioned. List them below.

©

d Explain in your own words what is meant by ‘a metaphor for power, rank and hierarchy’ in lines 67-68.

e What do you think about this sport? Would you like to try it? Why (not)?

fourteen

14

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


Dead Goat Polo – Buzkashi: The National Sport of Afghanistan 1

What is buzkashi? We have come across various interesting customs on our travels, but it’s fair to say that few of them rival the amazing sport of buzkashi.

5

BUZKASHI IN HOLLYWOOD

10

As depicted in the video, imagine dozens of men on horseback carrying and fighting over a goat carcass with the aim of placing it in a goal, that’s buzkashi. It is fast, it is physical, it can be brutal.

Independence Day tour we get to see the final! Amongst the Tajiks in western China a buzkashi match is often held around a wedding and the responsibility of the new bride’s father.

DEAD GOAT POLO

VA N

15

IN

You remember clearly the scene in Rambo III where Sylvester Stallone is playing buzkashi and scores a goal with his mujahideen friends before a Soviet attack, yeah?

20

25

30

To be clear, the goat is very much dead. Sometimes it will have been decapitated and disemboweled and soaked in water for 24 hours to toughen it up before the game, though most of the times when we’ve seen it ourselves, the killing of the goat is as much a part of the experience as the sport itself. (If this part doesn’t take your fancy though don’t worry, it can be avoided.) They pray while cutting the goat’s head off and then kick the game off. After the game, it is roasted and consumed. This makes it quite different from a sport where a live animal is used, like cock-fighting, bull-fighting or fox-hunting. We can’t guarantee an opportunity to see the sport taking place on any individual tour due to security precautions, but when we get a chance, we certainly take it.

50

55

© 40

60

In Kazakhstan it is known as kokpar, and there are professional teams and matches all over the country, though most Kazakhs who want to play in the big leagues cross the border to Kyrgyzstan to do so, where it’s a much bigger deal. Every year on the Kyrgyzstan

65

70

75

Buzkashi didn’t really have many rules, the main rule was not to whip other riders or deliberately knock them off their horse. The anthropologist Dr Whitney Azoy, in his book Buzkashi: Game and Power in Afghanistan, notes that ‘leaders are men who can seize control by means foul and fair and then fight off their rivals. The buzkashi rider does the same.’ Buzkashi is therefore a metaphor for power, rank and hierarchy, with a huge potential for prestige or shame to the man who stages the match. IS THERE A BUZKASHI LEAGUE? Buzkashi players are often sponsored by rich Afghans, and indeed the horses are often owned by the wealthy. Both the players, known as ‘chapandaz’, and the horses go through rigorous training, and it is thought that the best chapandaz are in their 40s. fifteen

45

Buzkashi is of Central Asian origin, with variations known amongst the Kyrgyz, Kazakhs, Turkmens, Uzbeks and Tajiks, as well as Hararas, Pashtuns and Baloch people. It’s played by Afghan Turks (ethnic Kyrgyz) and also Tajiks in Xinjiang, western China.

But it is in Afghanistan where it has become even the national sport. It is often played on Fridays and matches can draw thousands of fans. The Taliban banned it for being immoral, but it has made quite the comeback in recent years. WHAT ARE THE RULES OF BUZKASHI?

WHO PLAYS BUZKASHI?

35

IT IS THE NATIONAL SPORT OF AFGHANISTAN

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

15


Whether they get half-time oranges is not clear.

VARIANTS OF THE SPORT

85

The Afghan Olympic Federation tried to introduce proper rules, making it a game of 10 versus 10 on a square pitch and two halves of 45 minutes with a 15-minute half time break.

Source: www.youngpioneerstours.com

90

In Tajikistan the team element is mainly given over in favor of a free-form variety whereby individuals are all competing against each other.

an anthropologist: someone who studies the human race to disembowel: to remove the organs from a dead animal by means foul and fair: by all means to seize: to take

IN

80

The two main types of buzkashi are ‘tudabarai’ and ‘qarajai’, in the former you try to grab the goat then race away from everyone else whereas in the latter you grab the goat before riding round a marker and throwing the carcass into the goal, known as the ‘Circle of Justice’.

5 Reread the text to answer the following language questions.

a Look for adjectives that are used to describe the sport. Put them in the correct column: negative, neutral or positive adjective. Neutral adjective

Positive adjective

VA N

Negative adjective

b Collocations are combinations of words that are often used together. Look for collocations with the positive adjectives above.

c Now look for more collocations with the word ‘sport’ and put them in the right category. Use the online tool your teacher gives you. Verb + sport

Sports + noun

©

Adjective + sport

sixteen

16

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


6 Read the sentences below about eSports and fill in an appropriate collocation from exercise 5. 1 eSports looks to have arrived as a modern

.

2 Sports broadcasters are snapping at the opportunity to integrate into their schedules. 3 There is a new dimension to gaming, with millions of people tuning in to make it a form of .

IN

eSports, having a conversation early on 4 If your child or student about their play habits can help promote positive play behaviours. in eSport is the so-called ‘tennis elbow’. The 5 A common complaints are triggered by an overloading of the muscular system, which performs the bending and stretching of the wrist. 6 Teams have tight schedules and can handle.

regimes that not all gamers

VA N

DID YOU KNOW? Sport or sports? In British English we use the word ‘sport’ as in ‘a sport’. In American English the term is always plural, as in ‘sports’. In British English we only use the word ‘sports’ when it is plural or when it is followed by a noun, e.g. sports field.

7 Some sports are rooted in deep traditions. Watch the video about 1 typical form of sport and cultural identity, and then fill in the table below.

WATCHING

What?

When?

Since when? Revived by:

in

:

©

Gathering Where?

Typical day or event?

1 2 –

– 3

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

seventeen

17


2 ⁄ Tools and rules in sports 1 Listen to the sounds of these sports and try to work out which sports they are. 1

4

2

5

3

listening

2 Match the rules with the sports from exercise 1.

IN

A Outdoor game played by 2 opposing teams of 11 players, who each use sticks curved at the striking end to hit a small, hard ball into their opponent’s goal. B A sport in which individuals, pairs, or groups perform on ice skates. It was the first winter sport to be included in the Olympic Games, when contested at the 1908 Olympics in London. C A team sport in which 2 teams of 6 players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team’s court under organized rules.

D Sport of plunging into water, usually head foremost, performed with the addition of gymnastic and acrobatic stunts.

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E A winter sport that involves descending a slope that is covered with snow while standing on a board attached to a rider’s feet, using a special boot set onto a mounted binding. 1

2

3

4

5

3 Every sport is played in a specific location. Write down the name of the sport and the name of the location. Look it up if you don’t know.

2

3

4

5

6

8

9

©

1

7

eighteen

18

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


4 To learn vocabulary, it is useful to have different ways of organizing the words you need to study. a Find a separate piece of paper and make a mind map to organize the sports in exercise 3 according to their locations. Then add other sports. b Now rank the sports in order of the number of players. Start with the sports with the fewest players.

5 Each sport requires specific equipment. a Name the items. b List the sports that use this equipment.

2

3

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1

IN

c With a partner, name as many sports as you can that use a ball. Keep going until one of you has to give up.

4

5

6

6 The world of sports has given the English language lots of expressions.

©

a Which idiom do you see in the drawings?

b Can you guess which sport this idiom originally came from?

2

3

nineteen

1

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

19


c These idioms have been mixed up. Match them correctly. to play

A

by the bell

2

to be

B

by the rules

3

out of

C

left field

4

saved

D

on a winning streak

5

the ball

E

in the towel

6

to be out

F

your head above water

7

to throw

G

of someone’s league

8

to keep

H

is in in your court

9

to give

10

to go to

11

to level

12

to step up to

13

to have 2

3

4

5

6

7

I

the plate

J

the playing field

K

bat for someone

L

something your best shot

M

the upper hand

8

9

10

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1

IN

1

11

12

13

d Fill in the correct idiom in the sentences below.

1 You shouldn’t have said that to Kareem; you hurt his feelings. You .

2 ‘Did you see that? Aida looked at me in the hallway. Do you reckon she fancies me?’ ‘Not at all, she

.’

3 The winner of the league is a real thriller. The teams have been

the entire time.

4 I had expected many negative responses when I announced that I was moving, but Dion’s reaction totally

5 Jack and Trey

.

; they seem to have all the luck in the world.

6 Having our own business is so difficult. We can hardly

©

. Maybe we should .

7 Should we go and talk to Jamal again? Not at all, the ball now.

8 Jeez, we have so much work to do. Well, go for it then and

.

9 You shouldn’t be playing with Jeremiah’s feelings. Be nice and , it will be best for all concerned. 10 I thought Mrs Sullivan was going to pierce me with her eyes when I couldn’t answer her twenty

20

question. Thank goodness I was

… literally.

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


7 There are 5 idioms that were not used in exercise 6c. What do they mean? Look them up if necessary. 1 2 3 4 5

9 Write your own sports poem.

THE CROSSOVER (KWAME ALEXANDER)

SPOKEN INTERACTION

IN

8 Time for ‘Four in a row’! Follow your teacher’s guidelines. Have a classmate ask questions to find out which games you have. Only yes/no questions are allowed!

VA N

The Crossover is a 2014 book by American author Kwame ­Alexander and the winner of the 2015 Newbery Medal and ­Coretta Scott King Honor award. The story, which is told entirely through verse, follows 2 African-American twin brothers who find themselves drifting apart as they head into their junior high school year. In March 2021, it was announced that Disney+ had given a pilot order to a television adaptation of the book.

Source: www.wikipedia.com

a P reparation: read and listen to the 2 poems on the next page, taken from The Crossover by Kwame Alexander, and then answer the questions.

reading listening

1 What sport are these poems about?

2 How do you know this?

©

3 What is ‘the key’?

twenty-one

4 What can you say about the layout of the poem?

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

21


5 ‘Dribbling’ uses a particular part of speech very often. What is that part of speech?

6 In ‘Showoff’, a particular sound is used very often. What is that sound?

UP by sixteen with six seconds showing, JB smiles, then STRUTS side steps stutters Spins, and S I N K S a sick SLICK SLIDING sweeeeeeeeeet SEVEN-foot shot.

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At the top of the key, I’m MOVING & GROOVING, POPping and ROCKING— Why you BUMPING? Why you LOCKING? Man, take this THUMPING. Be careful though, ‘cause now I’m CRUNKing CrissCROSSING FLOSSING flipping and my dipping will leave you S L I P P I N G on the floor, while I SWOOP in to the finish with a fierce finger roll … Straight in the hole: Swoooooooooooosh.

Showoff

IN

Dribbling

What a showoff.

©

Source: Kwame Alexander, The Crossover

b

Action: choose a sport you are very familiar with. Then choose one of the 2 poems to model your own poem after. Write your poem. If you need more inspiration, think about the following questions:

writing

– Is there anything special about the place where you play it? – Are there any sounds you associate with this sport? – What movements would you associate with this sport? twenty-two

22

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


c Reflection: check your poem by filling in the checklist. If you are inspired, you can also perform it! Checklist: creative writing

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation • I read the 2 poems from The Crossover. • I answered the questions about the poems. • I chose a sport I’m familiar with.

Feedback

CHECK 1, see p. 46

IN

2 Content and form • I wrote a poem about my sport. • I didn’t mention the name of my sport in the poem. • I paid attention to the layout of my poem.

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STEP 2 ⁄ Bending the rules

Explaining sports rules

1 Listen to the explanation of the rules of these popular sports.

listening

a Fill in the following tables while you are listening, and then guess which sport it could be.

TEAM

GOAL

FIELD / SIZE / OTHER INFO

©

1

twenty-three

TOOLS OR EQUIPMENT

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

23


ACTION

2

TEAM

IN

MY GUESS

VA N

GOAL

FIELD / SIZE / OTHER INFO

TOOLS OR EQUIPMENT

©

ACTION

MY GUESS

b Now watch the videos and correct your answers.

WATCHING

twenty-four

24

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


2 Guess the sport.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

a Preparation: your teacher will give you the name of a sport that you may not be very familiar with. Use online resources to fill in the table below.

TEAM

FIELD / SIZE / OTHER INFO

IN

GOAL

VA N

TOOLS OR EQUIPMENT

ACTION

MY GUESS

©

twenty-five

b Action: talk to your partner using the information from the table in exercise a. Don’t give away the name of the sport.

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

25


c Reflection: check what you said by filling in the checklist. Was your partner able to guess the sport? Checklist: talking about a sport

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation and content • I did research the sport so I knew what it was all about. • I used the table to write down all the key elements about my sport.

Feedback

3 Let’s take a closer look at chess boxing.

WATCHING

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a First watch the video as an introduction to the sport.

IN

2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I paid attention to my pronunciation.

b Now read the text. Highlight how the game is explained and what rules have to be followed.

Chess Boxing Rules

1

Chess Boxing has been in operation since 1992 and is a sport requiring both brain and brawn. Since 1992 the sport has gone global with countries including England, Germany, Netherlands, France, Russia and Japan all embracing the new sport. Players have to be skilled in both boxing and chess to compete at the highest level.

5

OBJECT OF THE GAME The object of chess boxing is to either beat your opponent in alternate rounds of chess or boxing. Matches can be won from either discipline with the chess coming down to check mate or forfeit and the boxing in either a stoppage or points decision. PLAYERS & EQUIPMENT Players go head-to-head in chess boxing and the match starts with a 4-minute round of chess. The players then go into the ring for a 3-minute round of boxing before again returning to the chess board. The match consists of 11 rounds in all (6 rounds of chess and 5 rounds of boxing) with 1-minute intervals between rounds. Each player has boxing gloves which are removed for the chess round. Headphones are given to the players when taking part in chess so they can’t hear advice from the audience. The chess side of the game is played out over a 12-minute clock and is essentially ‘speed chess’. Officials may step in if they believe a player to be stalling in the chess rounds to force them into a move within 10 seconds.

©

10

15

20

twenty-six

26

SCORING The boxing rounds are scored as per a normal boxing match on points. Unless the chess game has seen a conclusion – and this is very rare in the sport – then the game will go to count back on boxing points. If the boxing is a draw, then the win will go to the player playing the black chess pieces.

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

reading


30

WINNING THE GAME To win you either gain check mate or receive a withdrawal from the chess game. Alternatively, you can knock your opponent out in boxing or win on points to receive the win if the chess is a draw. RULES OF CHESS BOXING 1 Don’t deliberately waste time when playing the chess discipline of the game. If the referees deem that they are, a 10-second penalty will be placed. 2 Players have to wear protective gear during boxing but should take it off while playing chess. They are given 1 minute to take their gear off and put it back on. 3 Players should have a chess rating of at least 1800 to compete in the sport. 4 There are 6 rounds of chess and 5 rounds of boxing, unless the contest is stopped with a winner in a previous round.

Source: www.rulesofsport.com

IN

25

4 Let’s focus on the language used to describe these games.

a Focus on the first paragraph of ‘Players and equipment’. Highlight the verb forms. Which tense is used to talk about how to play the game?

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b Now focus on the paragraph ‘Rules of chess boxing’. Highlight the verb forms that are similar to ‘can knock’ (line 26). What do you notice about these verbs used to talk about the rules?

5 Fill in the grammar box.

GRAMMAR

HOW TO talk about rules and give instructions

– is used to explain how a game is played and how the actions follow one another. e.g. In petanque you throw the small ball (called jack) a distance of between 6 and 10 m. The first player throws the first boule. Then the opponent enters the circle. After each throw, they check the distances. .

©

– Rules can also be expressed by using e.g. Concentrate and throw your first boule. Take 1 step out of the circle to point your boule.

Keep in mind: We can also use modal auxiliary verbs to say what is and is not allowed in a game. e.g. In archery, athletes may not raise the bow arm until the signal to start is given and penalties can be given. The word ‘modal’ in modal auxiliary verb means that this word expresses a certain meaning, like obligation, prohibition or possibility. A modal auxiliary verb is followed by the base form of a verb and cannot be used on its own. See p. 297 twenty-seven

Modal auxiliary verbs are explained in more detail in Unit 5.

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

27


6 What about this sport? a Watch the video your teacher assigns to you and complete the table below.

WATCHING

TEAM GOAL

FIELD / SIZE / OTHER INFO TOOLS OR EQUIPMENT

IN

VA N

DURATION

ACTION

NOT ALLOWED

©

SPORT

INTERESTED IN THIS SPORT? WHY (NOT)? twenty-eight

28

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


b Now read the extract from the graphic novel your teacher will give you. Answer the following questions about it.

reading

1 Which sport is featured? 2 Which adjectives do you associate with this sport?

IN

3 Describe the style of the graphic novel with a few adjectives.

4 Look up who the writer of the graphic novel is.

VA N

5 Who would be interested in reading the entire graphic novel? (Are you?) Explain why.

c Now pair up. Use the information from exercises a and b to pitch the sport to your partner. Use the questions below to structure your pitch. Talk for about 1 minute.

speaking

Part 1: the sport

• What sport did you watch a video about? • What equipment do you need? • How do you have to play it?

• Why would you be interested in it (or why not)?

©

People who are interested in this sport, might also be interested in this graphic novel:

Part 2: the graphic novel • What is the title and who is the author? • How would you describe the sport?

twenty-nine

• How would you describe the graphic novel?

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

29


d Reflection: check your pitch by filling in the checklist. Checklist: pitching a sport

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • I used the information from the video and the graphic novel. • I prepared what I wanted to say. • I talked for about 1 minute. • I showed enthusiasm.

IN

2 Language • I used correct sports vocabulary. • I used correct grammar to explain the sport. • I paid attention to my pronunciation. Feedback

CHECK 2, see p. 58

VA N

STEP 3 ⁄ Howdy

Writing a formal email

1 Have you ever thought how an email would sound if you told the person what you wrote? Watch the video about email in real life. What do these characters do wrong? Choose from the list.

WATCHING

adding an unneccessary quote – not rereading for mistakes – using emoticons – writing in capital letters – writing sentences that are too long

1 Andy Allcaps

2 Roger Runnon

3 Dr. Otto Korrekt

4 Shelly Siggnatoor 5 Edna Emotiblinky

©

2 Read these parts of emails and decide whether the sentence is formal or informal language. Formal

Informal

1 Dear Mr Adams 2 lmao

3 cn u help me 4 Thank you for your help. 5 Sincerely 6 thirty

30

7 Buh bye!

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

reading


Did you know?

IN

When you are writing or talking to a friend, a family member or someone you know well, you are using informal language. You can use emoticons and abbreviations in your w ­ riting. When you speak, you will often use shorter or simpler forms. Certain words are also mainly used in informal language (e.g. chill, stuff, dude, etc.). When you are writing or talking to someone who outranks you (e.g. a teacher, a ­headmaster/headmistress) or someone you don’t know well, you should use formal ­language. Respect all grammar and spelling rules, write full sentences and be polite.

3 Look at these parts of emails. Rank them according to their level of formality.

reading

Hey Anna, help me out here! I don’t know what to study!!!

B

Dear Miss, I spent some time thinking about why the score of my test of English is so low. I had ­expected a 16/20 but I got 11. Can you please explain where I lost my marks?

C

Hey Kyle, I can’t find the place to upload our homework. Can you tell me? Thanks!

VA N

A

D

Dear Mrs Henderson, I am deeply sorry to inform you that I have not written down what we have to study for the test. Is there a chance that you will find a moment to inform me what I have to study? If you don’t have the time, I will understand completely. Yours sincerely, Janna Reese

E

Dear Mr Stevens, In the summer holidays I read this great novel One by Sarah Crossan. Is there a chance that I could use it for my book report later this year? Thank you in advance. Kind regards, Sarah.

very formal

thirty-one

©

very informal

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

31


4 Look at these emails from students of Mrs Lamot. All students have a reason why they haven’t studied for the English test. Work with a partner and highlight the inappropriate and/or incorrect parts.

1

reading

annelamot@englishschool.org papers test

Could I swing by tomorrow?

VA N

Sincerily, Noah, 4HW

IN

Miss Lamot, I forget my course for the English test last night, because we had to play a match with the sport club i’m in and i had to hurry.

2

annelamot@englishschool.org papers

I was out with the team all weekend. Give me the papers please.

©

Esther, 4NW

thirty-two

32

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


3

annelamot@englishschool.org test papers Dear mr. Lamot, We have a test tomorrow but i forgot my papers at the sport club. Can u send them please?

IN

thanks in advance. Imrane, 4TW

annelamot@englishschool.org Papers for the test

VA N

4

Dear Mrs. L

So first of all I didn’t know that there was a test, so I didn’t took my papers with me. Nobody bothered to inform me while I was defending the school in the match we winned. Could you plss send me the papers for the test so I can study.

thirty-three

©

Greets jax, 4EW

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

33


5 Check the Strategy in the Summary on how to write a good formal email (p. 44). Choose the ‘worst’ email in exercise 4 and rewrite it according to the rules of the Strategy. Use an appropriate expression from the box below in your correction.

writing

USEFUL EXPRESSIONS

HOW TO make (polite) requests

You have to help me. Can/Could you please help me? I was wondering if you could help me. I would appreciate it if you could help me.

See p. 45

IN

Help! Please help. Do me a favour, will you? I need help.

6 Look at the text below.

reading

a What type of text is this? b What is the goal of this text?

c Which information can you get from this text? –

VA N

– – – –

d Which activities would you like to add?

e Would you consider taking part in a sports camp in a foreign country? Why (not)?

P M A C D OO FIRW

RWOOD CAMP FTIRATION REGIS

©

E 5 OUFF ZIP LIN 2 $ N L D CTIO AL B INE RE HV21 T L N N O I FW PA CODE: G SAILIN e have mp! W a c r S e E e IP r summ will giv HALFP premie ff that ’s a t t s s P e g w t M in th JU 10 grea and car he Nor AQUA e have en to t d a fun e W n L t . a r L r s e u A e o m $329. iti m Send y ING W rting at at activ ek of their su a e t r s g s f e o CLIMB S ic s e CRAFT all kind per the best w 6 June, with pr 2 m a m c o G r r f u RAFTIN yo ions to choose s s G e s N SWI GIANT AD AIRHE OB THE BL E RSTAG E T N E C RY ARCHE CIRCLE DRUM

g

d.or oo w r i f mp

thirty-four

34

at ca y a d o t ister

reg

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


written INTERACTION

7 You will write an email to your PE teacher. a Preparation: choose one of the following situations and make a draft version first. – You forgot your school sport kit and you want to let your teacher know. – You have a knee injury and won’t be able to take part in the school’s annual sports day. – You can’t participate in PE, but you feel like the assignments you are getting instead aren’t all that interesting. You have a better idea. – You don’t think your school has the right sports equipment and you want to let your teacher know what they should buy.

IN

b Action: write your email (about 75 words) and respect the rules for email writing. Use your creativity to make your email as real as possible.

VA N

©

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

thirty-five

35


c Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist. Give your email to a classmate who will give you some feedback too. Checklist: writing an email to your teacher

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation • I picked the situation that suited me best. • I checked the guidelines on writing an email. • I wrote a draft of the email.

IN

2 Content • I wrote about 75 words. • I followed the rules for structuring an email. • I followed the rules for writing a formal email.

3 Language use • I used correct vocabulary. • I formulated a suggestion built on valid arguments. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I used correct verb forms. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

VA N

Feedback

written INTERACTION

8 Now read the email the teacher gives you. Formulate a good reply.

a Preparation: read the email and highlight the main arguments your partner made. b Action: formulate an answer to the suggestion using the arguments given. Respect the rules for email writing. c Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist. Checklist: replying to an email

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation • I carefully read the email I got. • I highlighted the arguments my partner made.

©

2 Content and structure • I formulated a realistic answer. • I made my point clear by replying to the arguments given. • I followed the rules for writing a formal email. 3 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I used correct verb forms. • I used correct spelling and punctuation. Feedback

thirty-six

36

CHECK 3, see p. 61

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


SUMMARY

IN

(Present simple and imperative)

GRAMMAR

HOW TO talk about rules and give instructions

VA N

The first player throws the ball a distance between 6 and 10 m. Then the opponent enters the circle. Check the distances after each throw. Don’t cheat!

There are different ways to talk about rules and to give instructions in English.

1 Present simple

The present simple tense expresses habits and routines. Sports rules are considered a routine: you are supposed to do the sport in the same way every time. e.g. I n petanque you throw the small ball (called jack) a distance between 6 and 10 m. The first player throws the first boule. Then the opponent enters the circle. After each throw, they check the distances.

2 Imperative

©

The imperative is used to show obligation or permission, e.g. the rules of a game. – Obligation: base form of the verb e.g. Straighten your legs! e.g. Take 1 step out of the circle to aim your boule. – Prohibition: don’t + base form of the verb e.g. Don’t bend your knees!

– You can also use modal auxiliary verbs to say what is and is not allowed in a game. e.g. In archery, athletes may not raise the bow arm until the signal to start is given and penalties can be given. – The word ‘modal’ in modal auxiliary verb means that this word expresses a certain meaning, like obligation, advice or prohibition. e.g. In chess boxing you should take off your protective gear during the chess part of the game. You can take a shower after PE. – A modal auxiliary verb is followed by the base form of a verb and cannot be used on its own. – Modal auxiliary verbs are explained in more detail in Unit 5, p. 297.

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

thirty-seven

Keep in mind:

37


athletics

uithoudingssporten

rowing

swimming

VA N

cycling

running

IN

VOCABULARY

1 ENDURANCE SPORTS

2 BALL SPORTS

balsporten

basketball

football (BrE) / soccer (AmE)

©

volleyball

handball

American football

hockey

thirty-eight

38

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


lacrosse

squash

Quidditch

water polo

IN

polo

rugby

schaatssporten

VA N

3 SKATING SPORTS

roller blading

©

figure skating

speed skating

roller derby

thirty-nine

ice hockey

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

39


4 STRENGTH SPORTS

wrestling

krachtsporten

tug of war

IN

boxing

VA N

weightlifting

Highland Games

5 TABLE SPORTS

tafelsporten

billiards

snooker

6 TARGET SPORTS

table tennis

©

sporten waarbij je moet mikken

archery

boules

forty

40

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


7 ANIMAL SPORTS

sporten met dieren

ostrich racing

horse racing

buzkashi

IN

rodeo

VA N

uitrusting

bat

stick

©

mouth guard

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

helmet

puck

pads

club

racket

dumbbells

forty-one

8 EQUIPMENT

41


basket

cone

IN

shin guard

shuttlecock

whistle

sportlocaties

VA N

9 SPORTS LOCATIONS

shoes with cleats

rink

court

©

lanes

track

field

course

ring forty-two

42

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


10 PEOPLE IN SPORTS Translation

athlete

atleet

coach

coach

cyclist

fietser

gymnast

turner

player

speler

racer

wielrenner

referee

scheidsrechter

rider

ruiter

umpire

scheidsrechter (bij tennis en baseball)

My notes

IN

Word

mensen in sport

VA N

11 SPORTS IDIOMS

neck and neck

nek aan nek

the ball is in your court

de bal ligt in jouw kamp

to be on a winning streak

aan de winnende hand zijn

to be out of someone’s league

iemand niet kunnen krijgen

to be saved by the bell

net op tijd gered worden

to come out of left field

de bal misslaan

to give something your best shot

je uiterste best doen

to go to bat for someone

iemand verdedigen

to have the upper hand

de beste kans hebben om te winnen

to hit below the belt

iemand onder de gordel raken

to keep your head above water

je hoofd boven water houden

to level the playing field / a level playing field

zorgen dat iedereen gelijke kansen heeft / met dezelfde wapens kan strijden

to play by the rules

volgens de regels spelen

to step up to the plate

verantwoordelijkheid opnemen

to take the bull by the horns

de koe bij de horens vatten

to throw in the towel

de handdoek in de ring gooien, opgeven

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

My notes

forty-three

Translation

©

Idiom

43


STRATEGY

HOW TO write a formal email 1

Before writing

Why & what?

IN

Why are you writing? What are you writing about?

Be prepared

Do you have a professional email address? Do you have the email address of the person you are sending a message to?

2

While writing

VA N

Be polite Write in a formal way. Do not use emoticons or abbreviations.

KISS

Keep it short and simple!

Write a subject that reflects the message of your email. Salutation

©

Short Introduction Who are you, what is the reason for writing? Main message situation/problem and solution Ending

Full name + your class if you are mailing a teacher

Mind the structure

Papers sports vocabulary

Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms Henderson, (if you know their name) Dear Sir or Madam, (if you don’t know their name)

I am writing to you to ask about the taekwondo schedule.

I am keen to learn taekwondo, as I think it might be the perfect sport for me. I see from your website me that your sports facility offers taekwondo classes. I was wondering whether you could send me more information. (Yours) sincerely, / Kind regards, / Best regards, / Regards, (if you started with Dear + name) or Yours faithfully, (if you started with Dear Sir or Madam) Mona Amado 4HW

After writing

3 Edit!

forty-four

44

Avoid mistakes: read your email again. Hit the send button.

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


Can I ...? Could I ...? Could I possibly ...? Is it all right if I ...? Do you think I could ...?

Saying yes Yes, sure.

Saying no Well, I'm afraid ... + reason.

Yes, of course. Yes, that's fine. Certainly.

Well, the problem is ...

IN

1 Asking to do things

No, not at all. No, of course not.

Do you mind if I ...?

2 Asking others to do things

Saying yes Yes, sure.

Sorry, but ...

Saying no Well, I'm afraid ... + reason.

VA N

Can you ...?

USEFUL EXPRESSIONS

HOW TO make (polite) requests

Could you ...? Is it all right if you ...? Do you think you could ...? Will you ...? Would you ...?

Yes, of course. Certainly.

Do you mind carrying the dumbbells for me? Would you mind helping me?

No, not at all. Of course not.

Well, the problem is … Sorry, but ...

3 Making formal requests

... you could help me sign up for the sports camp. ... we could set a date for the tournament.

I was wondering ...

... i f you could explain the rules of axe throwing because I’m really interested. ... i f you could send me a price list for a membership at your gym.

©

I was hoping ...

... I could take a free trial lesson first? ... I might use my own hockey equipment?

forty-five

Do you think ...

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

45


ON DIFFERENT TRACKS CHECK 1 ⁄ Describing sports 1 Your teacher needs your help to put together a challenging team building activity for your class.

writing

a Preparation: think of a sport you are familiar with that is both challenging and team building. Think of some reasons you think this sport would be perfect for the day.

VA N

IN

b Action: write a paragraph (about 50 words) for your teacher in which you present your suggestions. Don’t forget to mention the necessary equipment and the exact location.

c Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist. Checklist: a suggestion for a teambuilding activity

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • The sport I am suggesting is both challenging and a team building activity. • I mentioned equipment and location. • I wrote about 50 words.

©

2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I used correct verb forms. • I used correct spelling and punctuation. Feedback

Score

<6

6-8

>8

Next exercise

ex. 2

ex. 6

ex. 3

forty-six

46

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


2 Find the odd one out and explain why. a archery – table tennis – padel – soccer – volleyball

b buzkashi – ostrich racing – chess boxing – Quidditch – lacrosse

d a pitch – a field – a rink – a puck – a track

IN

c freediving – underwater hockey – snorkeling – water polo – rafting

VA N

e field target – caber toss – hammer throw – bagpipe – Highland dancing

f

a stick – a broom – a bat – a club – a glove

Score

≤4

>4

Next exercise

ex. 4

ex. 5

3 What is the deal with eSports? Read the text and answer the questions. a Are the following statements true or false? Correct if false. Statement Novak Djokovic won the Fortnite World Cup.

2

eSports began in South Korea.

3

The stakes are high as it is the intention to let the eSports business grow exponentially.

4

The world of eSports is complete with recruiters and managers.

True

False

forty-seven

©

1

reading

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

47


Statement 5

True

False

The level of technique of an eSports player can be compared to that of a regular sports player.

b Define the moment when it became clear that eSports had made it.

VA N

IN

c Briefly explain the growth of eSports over the years.

d Give 3 examples of how eSports might assimilate with the real sports world. 1

2 3

Total:      / 13

Game changer: How eSports became big business Last weekend, when Novak Djokovic lifted the Wimbledon trophy, he also pocketed a tidy $2.8 million in prize money. In two weeks’ time the Fortnite World Cup, the biggest eSports event of the year, will find its own champion — and that winner will be handed a cheque for $3 million.

©

1

5

10

forty-eight

48

That’s a whole $200,000 more than Djokovic earned for risking physical injury and defeat under the scrutiny of over 10 million viewers. And it could be won — by a competitor as young as just 13 years old — without breaking a sweat. Welcome to the baffling, button-bashing world of eSports. But why is this multiplayer enterprise so popular? How did it get to be so lucrative for the players who plug in, and how can we benefit from the eSports boom?

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


20

25

Streaming coverage boosted the business even further, with high-speed fibre-optic WiFi and increasingly sophisticated platforms and gameplay elevating releases such as Mortal Kombat, Call of Duty and Fortnite to sporting status. Suddenly, rather than playing video games themselves, people were watching others play — and on a regular basis, too. eSports had made it. With a market size expected to reach $1.65 billion by 2020, eSports is no longer a leisure activity. Today, knowing your way around a controller can be as lucrative as mastery over a tennis racket, golf club — or even Formula One race car.

And here’s the proof. Founded in 2017, the Formula One eSports Series was created with the aim of persuading Formula One video game players to tune into the actual races — something they’d stopped doing when they realised how easy it was to get behind the wheel themselves. But the ploy soon overtook its original purpose, and the official Formula One teams began to enter into the eSports spirit.

In fact, last year, every Formula One team but Ferrari entered their own eSports team into the Formula One eSports Series. The tournament’s managing director, Sean Bratches, reveals that last year’s competition was watched by more than 5.5 million viewers, and this year they have more than doubled the prize money — to $500,000 — to attract even more attention.

VA N

30

Back in the 1990s and early 2000s large competitions became popular with video game fans — both online and offline. By the time the 2010s hit, these competitions were regularly attended by structured international teams of players, and a culture of eSports television coverage that started in South Korea had begun to spread around the world.

IN

15

35

“We are committed to exponential growth in the world of eSports,” says Bratches. “The 2019 season is going to be even bigger and better. Having more than doubled the prize fund, we plan to attract even more talent to the series and continue the upward trajectory we are on.”

40

“You could fix a problem,” he adds. “New platforms such as FaceIT have helped players turn professional and they work directly with the teams to recruit. Upcomer informs audiences about the news within the industry, and companies like Gameye provide infrastructure to developers to ensure their tournaments run smoothly.” “There will also always be a need for managers and agents in eSports,” Hambro continues. “Being a professional eSports player requires the same amount of time and skill as regular sports players, and the experience requirements for these players to manage themselves or find new business opportunities is difficult.”

©

45

Hambro, whose company provides insights and analytics on eSports teams, players and tournaments — as well as educating brands and identifying new sponsorship opportunities that match their demographic and company objectives — goes on to explain that investment isn’t the only way to make money in the eSports industry.

50

55

But this audience is looking for a more immersive experience than that of logging on to YouTube or Twitch can provide. For years, stadiums hosting eSports events have been selling out. In 2013, the League of Legends World Championship sold out the Staples Center in Los Angeles — pulling in a crowd bigger than Beyoncé would attract at the same venue just months later.

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

forty-nine

And the appeal of eSports is stretching beyond the screens of laptops, says Hambro. The entrepreneur reveals that the 2018 League of Legends Championship had a reported viewership of 200 million — more than the 2019 NFL Superbowl — and that the global audience isn’t far off half a billion fans.

49


65

70

In 2018, MGM Resorts International got in on the digital action by constructing a 30,000-square-metre eSports arena in Las Vegas’ Luxor Hotel. Touted as ‘the eSports equivalent of the Yankee Stadium, Madison Square Garden or Wembley’, the HyperX eSports Arena opened last year and boasts a 50 ft LED video wall, rentable equipment — and the chance to play where the professionals do for just $15 an hour. But, despite building their own stadiums and elevating their players to superstar status, fans of eSports are still not satisfied — for their ultimate goal is to be recognised as a sport by the Olympics.

On the face of it, including eSports in the Olympics seems like a laughable idea, not least of all because it doesn’t fit the ‘Faster, Higher Stronger’ mantra on which the games are based. But the International Olympic Committee (IOC) has had their ears pricked, and have for years been considering the calls for inclusion. During the 2018 Winter Olympics, Intel sponsored eSports events that, although not technically part of the games, culminated in five eSports players carrying the Olympic Torch during the official procession. Japan, despite being leaders in video game development, also shot down lobbies for eSports’ inclusion at the 2020 Summer Games — but will arrange a number of events in the lead up to the competition. Even Paris 2024 convened a committee to debate the matter, but decided that eSports were still too ‘new’ to be introduced as medal events.

VA N

75

As a result of a popularity still on the rise, more and more money is being funneled into the construction of bricks-and-mortar eSports arenas. The first of these dedicated stadiums was built in Santa Ana, California, in 2015 — and has a capacity of 1,400 people. Allied eSports funded another arena in Oakland, California the following year, and a Thai conglomerate, Infofed, set up their stadium in Bangkok the year after that.

IN

60

80

But, even with arena ticket sales, gambling, online pay-per-view and even just buying the games to play yourself, the most lucrative sector of the eSports industry is still sponsorship, and the gaming teams that benefit as a result. But the most telling associations come from actual sports teams and governing bodies, such as Formula One. Football teams from Paris Saint-Germain to West Ham United own eSports teams. Almost all NBA basketball teams have eSports players on the payroll. And the NFL have even announced a partnership with ESPN to create a competitive subsidiary league played out on the digital pitches of their very own video game series.

90

So, with interest, backers and a fanbase of such an enthusiastic calibre, it’s no wonder that the money being pumped into eSports is sky high. And, if the money and popularity continue to rise, soon even Wimbledon won’t be comparable — that is, unless Djokovic puts in some serious practice time on his Wii …

©

85

Source: www.thegentlemansjournal.com

e How is it said in the text? 1

he won the prize money

2

astonishing

fifty

50

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


3

the audience wants to feel part of the experience

4

the sector is making lots of money

You learned about sports collocations. Find at least 2 eSports collocations in the text.

Total:      / 5 g Give your opinion about eSports.

IN

f

writing

– Preparation: think of the following questions: are eSports real sports? Should these players be treated as athletes? Come up with at least 3 arguments for your opinion.

VA N

– Action: write a paragraph of about 60-75 words long to state your opinion on eSports.

– Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist.

Checklist: my opinion about eSports

Yes

I think so

No

©

1 Content and structure • I formed my opinion on eSports: there are 3 clear arguments. • My text is about 60-75 words long. • I used paragraphs to structure the text.

2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

fifty-one

Feedback

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

51


Total:      / 10 Score

< 20

≥ 20

Next exercise

ex. 7

Check 2, p. 58

4 Comment on the action in the graphic novel Dragon Hoops by Gene Luen Yang.

writing

DRAGON HOOPS (GENE LUEN YANG)

Adapted from: www.goodreads.com

IN

In his 2020 graphic novel Dragon Hoops Gene Luen Yang follows the real-life Bishop O’Dowd Dragons, an Oakland high school basketball team, in its quest to win the California state championship. Yang was the computer science teacher there at the time. Dragon Hoops is both a fast-paced documentary and an autobiography. In 2021 it won a Michael J. Printz Honor award for young adult literature. Gene Luen Yang was named Ambassador for Young People’s Literature by the Library of Congress in 2016.

VA N

a Preparation: read the panels and decide what is going on in the scene. b Action: write a short (coherent) description of, or comment on, the action in the panels (about 50 words long). Make sure to use at least 4 idioms in your text that mean the following: – to win

– to try your hardest

– tied, equal

– to do something difficult in a determined way

– to follow the rules

– to give up

– a situation in which everyone has a fair and equal chance of succeeding

©

– to have a better chance of winning

fifty-two

52

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


c Reflection: reread your text, and then swap with a partner. Do you have the same idioms in your text? Did you describe the same action? Checklist: commenting on a graphic novel panel

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • My text is about 50 words long. • I used paragraphs to structure the text. • I described the action using at least 4 (sports) idioms.

IN

2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I used correct spelling and punctuation. Feedback

Score

<7

ex. 5

VA N

Next exercise

≥7

5 Read about Shannon's adventures in the Scottish Highland Games and answer the questions.

reading

a Are the following statements true or false? Correct if false. Statement

This text is a newspaper article.

2

Shannon lives in Scotland.

3

She fell in love with Scotland from a book series.

4

You could buy local products at a market.

False

©

1

True

fifty-three

b Is this a regular topic on Shannon’s blog?

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

53


c Where does Shannon live?

d Put the events of the day in the chronological order. A Shannon goes to the Fraser booth.

C The musicians perform in group. D The Games themselves are taking place. A

B

IN

B Shannon has meat pies for lunch.

C

D

VA N

e How does Shannon describe the Games? Did she like it?

f Shannon describes her lunch as ‘scrumptious’. Which of the following descriptions do you think matches? an overload of food typical food

delicious food strange food

In Wh i ch I Pretend to B e S co t t is h fo r a Day Hello lovely people, I’d like to take a little break from my traditional book-related posts here on Reflections of a Reader to tell you about something exciting I did the other day: I went to the Highland Games! Now if you know anything at all about me, you will know I am obsessed with a little book series called Outlander, which has fostered an overall love for just about everything Scottish. That being said, you can imagine how excited I was to find out there was a traditional Highland Games being held just half an hour away from where I live. Unfortunately, there were no stone circles, and I didn’t find my Jamie Fraser, however, I took loads of pictures and thought it would be fun to show you guys.

©

1

5

10

fifty-four

54

The day started off with the Opening Ceremony, which consisted of bagpiping groups from the United States and Canada joining together for a beast of a group performance.

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


15

After stopping off for a scrumptious lunch of Scotch meat pies and scones, it was time for the main attraction of the day: the games themselves (which mainly consisted of giant men in kilts seeing who could throw heavy objects the farthest). This was the first time seeing any of these events in person, and it was definitely a different experience compared to just seeing videos online.

20

As well as the games themselves, there was a variety of other entertainments, including Highland dancing, a multitude of vendors selling their wares, and Celtic-inspired bands playing live music all day long.

IN

And, of course, I had to stop at the Clan Fraser booth (sadly no Jamie, however).

All in all, the day was highly entertaining, and I will definitely be attending these Highland Games next year. I will include a slideshow of the rest of my pictures from the event below, and I’d love to know if any of you have ever been to anything like this before!

25

Shannon Burton

VA N

Source: https://reflectionsofareader.net

Score

<9

≥9

Next exercise

ex. 7

Check 2, p. 58

6 Watch the video about the strangest sports in the world and answer the questions.

WATCHING

a Fill in the grids.

1

NAME:

���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

WHAT?

�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

LOCATION:

�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

INVENTED IN:

�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

THE FINISH LINE IS …

PARTICIPANTS:

NAME:

����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

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WHAT?

�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

LOCATION: HEIGHT:

�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

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fifty-five

2

������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

©

ANGLE:

in

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

55


NAME:

���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

WHAT?

IN

3

�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

PLAYERS:

��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

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A:

������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

O:

�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

VA N

P:

4

NAME:

���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

WHAT?

�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

ORIGINATED IN: SPEED:

�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

ALSO KNOWN AS: OBJECTIVE:

���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

PARTICIPANTS: DURATION:

NAME:

����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

©

5

�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

ORIGINALLY:

��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

BECAME A SPORT IN: EQUIPMENT: GOAL:

���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

fifty-six

56

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


b Which of these sports would you like to try and why? Write about 3 sentences and give at least 2 reasons.

< 21

≥ 21

Next exercise

ex. 4

Check 2, p. 58

IN

Score

7 Sportsman, spokesperson, public figure: meet Tom Daley. Watch the video and answer the questions.

WATCHING

a How does Daley describe his sport? Write down the 2 descriptive adjectives he uses.

VA N

b How does Daley focus before a jump?

c What has been the effect of the fact that he felt different for reasons that were not his sport?

d Give 1 clear example of how Daley’s dad has been such an important figure.

©

e Explain why 2012 was a very difficult year for Daley.

Explain how Daley has been an example for many young people.

Score

D

C

Next exercise

ex. 6

Check 2, p. 58

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

fifty-seven

f

57


CHECK 2 ⁄ Explaining sports rules 1 Your teacher will give you 3 cards. Invent a new sport with the information on the cards. Add some (nonsensical?) rules.

writing

a Preparation: look at the 3 cards and look for some common ground. Make a mind map to find associations if necessary.

VA N

IN

b Action: write a text of about 50 words long in which you describe the game and explain the rules. Demonstrate your understanding of sports vocabulary by writing clear and complete sentences. Make sure to use the correct verb forms.

c Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist. Show your text to the teacher who will give you some feedback. Checklist: inventing a sport

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation and content • I used the information on the 3 cards. • I thought of a non-existing sport. • I invented some (nonsensical) rules. • I explained how the game is played.

©

2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences: I used the present simple and imperative correctly. • I used correct spelling and punctuation. • I wrote a fluent text of about 50 words long. Feedback

Score

<6

6−8

>8

Next exercise

ex. 4

ex. 2

ex. 5

fifty-eight

58

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


2 Let’s talk sports. a Name the Olympic sports that you see in the pictures below.

2

3

IN

1

b Choose one of these sports to discuss equipment, location and rules.

NAME OF SPORT: EQUIPMENT: LOCATION:

���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

VA N

RULES:

��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

Score

<6

Next exercise

6−8

>8

ex. 3

ex. 5

3 No stone should ever be unturned; no sport should ever remain uninvented.

writing

a Preparation: pick 1 item, 1 season and a number of players, and think of a good name for your sport. winter

1-1

a dustbin

spring

8-8

a guitar

summer

12-12

autumn

20-20

©

a shoelace

fifty-nine

b Action: write at least 5 rules for your sport.

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

59


c Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist. Checklist: my invented sport

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content • I picked a word from each column. • I thought of a good name for this sport. • There are 5 rules.

Feedback

Score

<7

≥7

IN

2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I used correct verb forms. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

Check 3, p. 61

VA N

Next exercise

4 No rule, no sport. Match the rule with the correct sport.

To score a point the shuttlecock has to hit within the parameters of the opponent’s court.

A

thumb wrestling

2

Sweeping may be done by 2 members of the team up to the tee line, whilst after that point, only 1 player can brush.

B

badminton

3

Each fighter attempts to knock out their opponent or score points by landing blows on their opponent’s torso or head.

C

rowing

4

At the start of the pull, the centre line of the rope should be immediately above a line marked on the ground.

D

curling

5

As soon as the chant is over, the contest begins and lasts for a total of 60 seconds as each player attempts to pin their opponent's thumb.

E

tug of war

F

taekwondo

©

1

6

Boats must not leave the starting line until the firing gun goes off.

1

Score Next exercise

2

D

3

4

5

6

C Check 3, p. 61

sixty

60

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


IN

5 Sit with a partner. Each of you watches a different video. Try to describe the rules, the equipment and the objective of the game. Have your partner guess the sport. You get 2 attempts each.

D

C

Next exercise

ex. 4

Check 3, p. 61

VA N

Score

WATCHING

SPOKEN INTERACTION

CHECK 3 ⁄ Writing a formal email

1 You will get some emails. Read them, and then respond below.

reading

a Preparation: rank the emails according to their level of formality. very informal

very formal

b Action: choose one of the emails to write a reply to. Make sure your answer is formal!

written INTERACTION

©

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

sixty-one

61


c Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist. Checklist: replying to an email

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation • I ranked the 3 emails according to their level of formality. • I picked one of the 3 emails.

IN

2 Content • I wrote a text in which I formulated a good answer to the request. • I made sure my email has a proper opening and ending. • I followed the rules for formal email writing. 3 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I used correct verb forms. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

VA N

Feedback

Score

<9

8 − 12

> 12

Next exercise

ex. 3

ex. 2

ex. 5

2 Write a formal email.

a Preparation: pick one of these subjects and write down what you are going to say. – You are interested in taking a gym membership, but you want to have a free trial lesson first. – You signed up for a hockey camp and you don’t know whether you should bring your own stick. – You would really like an autograph from your favourite athlete. – You have heard of a new sport, and you would like to know where in your area you can do it.

©

b Action: write your email below.

sixty-two

62

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

written INTERACTION


IN

VA N

c Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist. Checklist: writing a formal email

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation • I picked the subject that I’m most interested in. • I took notes on what I want to say.

2 Content • I wrote a text in which I made my point clear. • I made sure my email has a proper opening and ending. • I followed the rules for formal email writing.

©

3 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I used correct verb forms. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

Score

<7

≥7

Next exercise

ex. 3

All done!

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

sixty-three

Feedback

63


3 Look at these parts of emails. Rank them according to their level of formality.

A

Hey Kit, help me out here, I don’t know when swimming classes are!!!

B

Dear Miss,

reading

I spent some time thinking about why my score on the Cooper test is so low. I had expected a 16/20 but I got 11. Can you please explain where I lost my marks?

C

Hey Kyle, I can’t find the place to register for the School Cross Championships. Can you tell me? Thanks!

D

Dear Mrs Henderson,

IN

I am deeply sorry to inform you that I have broken my leg and that I will not be able to attend PE classes for at least 6 weeks. Is there a particular assignment I can work on? If you don’t have time to answer, I will understand completely. Yours sincerely, Janna Reese Dear Mr Stevens,

E

VA N

In the summer holidays I was able to try this new sport. Is there a chance that we could do it in one of the PE lessons? Thank you in advance. Kind regards, June

very informal

Score

<4

very formal

≥4

ex. 4

Next exercise

4 Read the bits of emails and answer the questions. Which openings and endings go together?

©

a

reading

1

Dear Ms Martin,

A

Kind regards

2

Dear Alex,

B

Yours sincerely

3

Hi Alex,

C

Yours faithfully

4

Dear Sir or Madam,

D

Bye!

1

2

3

4

sixty-four

64

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


b Which openings and endings match with which email message? 1

Your best friend was too late to sign up for the sports camp and couldn’t join you.

2

You’re a huge fan of an Olympian and you want their autograph.

3

You want a discount from your local gym because you didn’t go very often. <5

≥5 All done!

Next exercise

IN

Score

5 Sports and their ‘uniforms’. Watch the video and then answer the questions.

P!nk

@Pink

WATCHING

VA N

I’m VERY proud of the Norwegian female beach handball team FOR PROTESTING THE VERY SEXIST RULES ABOUT THEIR “uniform”. The European handball federation SHOULD BE FINED FOR SEXISM. Good on ya, ladies. I’ll be happy to pay your fines for you. Keep it up.

a Preparation: answer the questions. Who?

What?

©

Where? Why?

sixty-five

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

65


b Action: many people have expressed their thoughts and feelings about this. Write your own comment, but you are limited to 280 characters.

writing

IN

11:32 AM

VA N

c Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist. Checklist: replying with a tweet

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation • I watched the video and answered the questions. • I formed my opinion.

2 Content and Language • I wrote a tweet and kept to the character limit. • I used correct vocabulary. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I used correct verb forms. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

Feedback

D

C

Next exercise

ex. 4

All done!

© Score

sixty-six

66

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


CHECK OUT PITCHING MY SPORT ORIENTATION

IN

You have the chance to spend 4 weeks abroad next summer. Adirondack Camp organizes overnight camps for young people aged 7-17 in the Adirondack Mountains in upstate New York. This means having fun while learning English, since 20 % of visitors are international. You really want to have your sport added to their programme, so that you can spend your summer there while teaching your sport. You will write an email to convince the camp managers.

First watch the video and breathe in the atmosphere.

PREPARATION

WATCHING

VA N

1 Read about the several camps that are organized and select 3 activities that you would like to do. 1

2 3

2 Think of a sport that you invented that would be added value to their programme. Fill in the table with the information about what, where, who, how.

NAME SPORT: PLAYERS:

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EQUIPMENT: LOCATION:

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©

RULES:

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ACTION

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME

written INTERACTION

sixty-seven

3 Write an email to Adirondack Camp. 4 Mention and briefly discuss the 3 activities that you have selected. 5 Add the sport that you are suggesting to the email. Think of the information necessary for them to understand what your sport is all about and how it may be a valuable extension for their programme. 6 Use the strategy on how to write a formal email. Use correct verb forms to explain the rules of the game.

67


REFLECTION 7 Reflect on your task by filling in the checklist. Checklist: pitching my sport

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation • I read about the several camps that are organized. • I made a list of the top 3 sports that I would like to do. • I thought of an invented sport. • I used the table to sum up the key elements of my sport.

IN

2 Content and structure • I structured my message with an opening, a main part and an ending. • I mentioned the 3 sports that I selected. • I introduced my sport. • I talked about the rules of my sport. • I convinced them to add my sport to their programme. • The email is formal and has the correct structure.

VA N

3 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I used correct grammar. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I used correct spelling and punctuation. Feedback

©

Trace your steps on diddit.

sixty-eight

68

UNIT 1: AHEAD OF THE GAME


UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS CHECK IN Step 1:

discussing coming-of-age

VA N

IN

MAIN TRACK

Step 2:

reviewing fiction

SUMMARY

Step 3:

using relative clauses

©

TRACE YOUR STEPS

ON DIFFERENT TRACKS

CHECK OUT: OUR LITERARY CAFÉ


CHECK IN

RUMSPRINGA

QUINCEAÑERA

BULLET ANT INITIATION

RUMSPRINGA

CULTURAL CAROUSEL

QUINCEAÑERA

BULLET ANT INITIATION

RUMSPRINGABAR AND BAT MITZVAH

QUINCEAÑERA BAR AND BAT MITZVAH BULLET ANT INITIATION

QUINCEAÑERA BAR AND BAT MITZVAH

RUMSPRINGA

BAR AND BAT MITZVAH BULLET ANT INITIATION

RUMSPRINGA

BULLET ANT INITIATION

QUINCEAÑERA

QUINCEAÑERA

BAR AND BAT MITZVAH

IN

RUMSPRINGA

BULLET ANT INITIATION

RUMSPRINGA

BULLET ANT INITIATION

QUINCEAÑERA

RUMSPRINGA

BULLET ANT INITIATION

BULLET ANT INITIATION

RUMSPRINGA

BAR AND BAT MITZVAH BULLET ANT INITIATION

1 Whose culture is it? Pair up and try to identify whose cultural tradition the photos and texts are about.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

a Student A will get 4 photos. Student B will get 2 short paragraphs.

b Student A is only allowed to ask yes/no questions based on the photos they get.

VA N

c Student B can only answer ‘yes’ or ‘no’ based on the information in the paragraphs. d Match the photos with the correct text.

2 Now form groups of 4 and fill in the table you will get about cultural traditions. Make sure to ask each other questions so you have all the relevant information.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

3 Discuss the following questions with the class.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

a What are the similarities between these cultural traditions? b What are the differences between these cultural traditions? c Why would such traditions be organized?

d Do you know other examples of such traditions?

©

e Which tradition would or wouldn’t you like to take part in? Why (not)?

seventy

70

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS


MAIN TRACK STEP 1 ⁄ A new age is coming

Discussing coming-of-age

1 ⁄ No one like me 1 Read the following quotes and answer the questions.

reading

IN

a What are some common themes in these quotes?

b Which feelings are associated with ‘childhood’? Which quote(s) suggest those feelings?

VA N

c Which feelings are associated with ‘growing up’ or ‘being an adolescent’? Which quote(s) suggest those feelings?

d Do you agree with the feelings associated with growing up, which are expressed in the quotes? Why not?

e List your top 3 quotes. Explain why you like them. 1 Quote

speaking

because

©

2 Quote

because

3 Quote

because

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

seventy-one

71


1

‘I don’t want to be a man,’ said Jace. ‘I want to be an angst-ridden teenager who can’t confront his own inner demons and takes it out verbally on other people instead.’ ‘Well,’ said Luke, ‘you’re doing a fantastic job.’

I walked over to the hill where we used to go and sled. There were a lot of little kids there. I watched them flying. Doing jumps and having races. And I thought that all those little kids are going to grow up someday. And all of those little kids are going to do the things that we do. And they will all kiss someone someday. But for now, sledding is enough. I think it would be great if sledding were always enough, but it isn’t.

3

Scott: ‘I don’t think I’m ready to be a grown-up.’ Kim: ‘I don’t think you are either, buddy. But hey, you’ll get it. It just takes practice.’ ― Bryan Lee O’Malley, Scott Pilgrim, Volume 6: Scott Pilgrim’s Finest Hour

VA N

2

IN

― Cassandra Clare, City of Ashes

― Stephen Chbosky, The Perks of Being a Wallflower

5

4

Growing up is such a barbarous business, full of inconvenience ... and pimples. ― J.M. Barrie, Peter Pan

I stopped speaking. There was no point trying to argue. There was no way she was going to even attempt to listen to me. They never do, do they? They never even try to listen to you.

©

6

― Alice Oseman, Radio Silence

Since my earliest memory, I imagined I would be a chef one day. When other kids were watching Saturday morning cartoons or music videos on YouTube, I was watching Iron Chef, The Great British Baking Show, and old Anthony Bourdain shows and taking notes. Like, actual notes in the Notes app on my phone. I have long lists of ideas for recipes that I can modify or make my own. This self-appointed class is the only one I’ve ever studied well for. ― Elizabeth Acevedo, With the Fire on High

7

When you are young, they assume you know nothing. ― Taylor Swift, Cardigan (Folklore)

seventy-two

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UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS


Now I think it’s one of the most useless questions an adult can ask a child: ‘What do you want to be when you grow up?’ As if growing up is finite. As if at some point you become something and that’s the end.

8

9

Sometimes it seems like everyone knows who I am except me. ― Becky Albertalli, Simon vs. the Homo Sapiens Agenda

IN

― Michelle Obama, Becoming

10

I think you gotta be who you want to be until you feel like you are whoever it is you’re trying to become. Sometimes half of doing something is pretending that you can.

VA N

― Julie Murphy, Dumplin‘

2 Now discuss the following questions about the quotes.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

a Are there any quotes you don’t agree with at all? If so, which ones and why?

seventy-three

©

b Which quote would you choose about your childhood, your own growing up or adulthood? Why?

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

73


3 Growing up – or coming of age – is a part of every culture. A lot of writers have tried to capture what it means to ‘grow up’. It has even become its own genre in fiction, which you will explore in this unit.

reading

a Read the text you will get and answer the questions. b Find a partner. Use the information from your text to fill in the table.

Growing up in society

WHERE?

IN

COMING OF AGE =

in

in

(= genre in literary art (books, films))

VA N

(= coming-of-age ceremonies)   WHEN?

BUT:

HOW IS THIS CELEBRATED?

e.g.

e.g.

CHARACTERISTICS OF:

YOUTH

©

A

ADULTHOOD

A

B

B

C

C

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UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS


Growing up in fiction BILDUNGSROMAN =

stories.

IN

Often called

4 STAGES IN THESE COMING-OF-AGE STORIES:

STAGE 1

(mostly psychological and spiritual)

=

VA N

or

STAGE 2

setting off on

STAGE 3

societal

values

=

and struggle for

vs

=

e.g. between the protagonist and a parent

©

consequences?

personal

and gaining

=

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STAGE 4

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

75


LINKS WITH THE CLASSIC STORY ARC:

climax

falling action rising action

IN

resolution

exposition

4 Use the words below to complete the word web.

VA N

to accept − to adjust − adventure − Bildungsroman − coming-of-age − conflict − development − loss of innocence − loss of naivety − physical or metaphorical − psychological – to push to the limits − resolution − society – spiritual − to struggle − to suffer – transition − values

Stage 1: asking questions

Stage 2: setting off on a journey

©

or

Stage 3: conflict and struggle

story

Stage 4: growth and maturity

seventy-six

76

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS


5 Do you remember? Combine the literary term with the correct explanation. Term

Definition

setting

A

one who tells the story, the point of view

2

plot

B

the underlying or stated main idea of a story, central message, ‘moral of the story’, and underlying meaning of a fictional piece; the message the author wants us to understand

3

mood

C

t he feeling or the atmosphere that the writer of the story has put in the story

4

theme

D

t he main character of the story; all major events are important to this character

5

topic

E

the major problem in the story

6

protagonist

F

the feeling that the reader gets when reading the story

7

conflict

G

the point of highest tension in a story

8

tone

H

the issue, idea, or question the text is about

9

climax

I

the sequence of events

10

narrator

J

when and where a story takes place

VA N

IN

1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

6 Give a synonym (=) or an antonym (↔) for the words in bold. Use a thesaurus or dictionary if necessary.

to (adulthood =)

a The transition from (childhood =)

is an important transition that everyone has to make.

b Often, this journey will end up pushing the protagonist to the (edge =) of their identity.

c This journey can be (physical or ↔)

.

d Another key event that may set the protagonist off on his journey will be an emotional loss.

©

Often death or another tragedy ends up (starting =) the protagonist on his journey of (self-discovery =) ) (embarks =) on some sort of journey.

seventy-seven

e The protagonist (↔

.

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

77


7 Word building: complete the table with the correct form. Use an online dictionary if necessary. Noun

Verb

Adverb

Adjective

identity

IN

mature

immature

to grow / to become wiser experience

VA N

to resolve

2 ⁄ Darius the Great is not okay

DARIUS THE GREAT IS NOT OKAY (ADIB KHORRAM)

Darius the Great is not okay follows the story of Darius, who lives in ­Portland (Oregon, USA) and isn’t much in contact with his Persian roots. Then he goes to Iran to visit his grandfather who has a brain tumor. There, he begins to learn more about himself while navigating the themes of family, friendship, and identity. Darius the Great is not okay is the 2018 debut novel of Adib Khorram and won the ALA’s William C. Morris Debut Award.

Adapted from: www.goodreads.com

©

1 Read the extract of Darius the Great is not okay and answer the questions. a Who are the characters in the extract?

b What is the relationship between Darius and his father like?

seventy-eight

78

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

reading


d Is Darius connected to his cultural heritage?

VA N

e How is Laleh different from Darius?

IN

c What is the relationship between Darius and his grandmother and grandfather like?

f

What happens towards the end of the extract?

1

Every night, Dad and I watched exactly one episode of Star Trek. We watched them in broadcast order, starting with The Original Series, though things got complicated after the fifth season of The Next Generation, since its sixth season overlapped Deep Space Nine. […] One episode a night, every night.

5

That was our thing.

©

It felt good to have a thing with Dad, when I could have him to myself for forty-seven minutes, and he could act like he enjoyed my company for the span of one episode. […] Captain Picard was delivering his first monologue of the episode when the doot-doot klaxon of Mom’s computer rang through the house. She was getting a video call. Dad paused the show for a second and glanced up the stairs.

10

“Uh-oh,” he said. “We’re being hailed.” Dad smiled at me, and I smiled back. Dad and I never smiled at each other—not really—but we were still in our magic forty-seven-minute window where the normal rules didn’t apply. Dad preemptively turned up the volume on the TV. Sure enough, after a second, Mom started yelling in Farsi at her computer. “Jamsheed!” Mom shouted. I could hear her even over the musical swell right before the act break. […]

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

seventy-nine

15

79


20

“Chetori toh?” she bellowed. That’s Farsi for “How are you,” but only if you are familiar with the person you are speaking to, or older than them. Farsi has different ways of talking to people, depending on the formality of the situation and your relationship to the person you’re addressing. The thing about Farsi is, it’s a very deep language: deeply specific, deeply poetic, deeply context-sensitive. […] My knowledge of Farsi consisted of four primary vectors: (1) familial relations; (2) food words, because Mom always called the Persian food she cooked by its proper name; (3) tea words, because, well, I’m me; and (4) politeness phrases, the sort you learn in middle school foreign language classes, though no middle school in Portland has ever offered Farsi as an option.

IN

25

The truth was, my Farsi was abysmal. I never really learned growing up. 30

“I didn’t think you’d ever use it,” Mom told me when I asked her why, which didn’t make any sense, because Mom had Persian friends here in the States, plus all her family back in Iran.

VA N

Unlike me, Laleh did speak Farsi, pretty much fluently. When she was a baby, Mom talked to her in Farsi, and had all her friends do the same. Laleh grew up with the ear for it—the uvular fricatives and alveolar trills that I could never get quite right.

35

When she was a baby, I tried to talk to Laleh in Farsi too. But I never really got the hang of it, and Mom’s friends kept correcting me, so after a while I kind of gave up. After that, me and Dad talked to Laleh exclusively in English. It always seemed like Farsi was this special thing between Mom and Laleh, like Star Trek was between Dad and me.

40

That left the two of us in the dark whenever we were at gatherings with Mom’s friends. That was the only time Dad and I were on the same team: when we were stuck with Farsispeakers and left with each other for company. But even when that happened, we just ended up standing around in a Level Seven Awkward Silence. Stephen Kellner and I were experts at High Level Awkward Silences. […]

45

My grandmother loomed large on the monitor, her head tiny and her torso enormous.

©

I only ever saw my grandparents from an up-the-nose perspective. She was talking to Laleh in rapid-fire Farsi, something about school, I thought, because Laleh kept switching from Farsi to English for words like cafeteria and Heads Down, Thumbs Up. […] “Maman,” Mom said, “Darius and Stephen want to say hello.” […]

50

“Eh! Hi, maman! Hi, Stephen! How are you?” “Hi, Mamou,” Dad said. “Hi,” I said. “I miss you, maman. How is your school? How is work?”

eighty

80

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS


“Um.” I never knew how to talk to Mamou, even though I was happy to see her. 55

It was like I had this well inside me, but every time I saw Mamou, it got blocked up. I didn’t know how to let my feelings out. “School is okay. Work is good. Um.” “How is Babou?” Dad asked. “You know, he is okay,” Mamou said. She glanced at Mom and said, “Jamsheed took him to the doctor today.”

IN

60

As she said it, my uncle Jamsheed appeared over her shoulder. His bald head looked even tinier. “Eh! Hi, Darioush! Hi, Laleh! Chetori toh?” “Khoobam, merci,” Laleh said, and before I knew it, she had launched into her third retelling of her latest game of Heads Down, Thumbs Up. 65

Dad smiled and waved and stood up. My knees were getting sore, so I did the same, and edged toward the door.

VA N

Mom nodded along with Laleh and laughed at all the right spots while I followed Dad back down to the living room. It wasn’t like I didn’t want to talk to Mamou.

70

I always wanted to talk to her.

But it was hard. It didn’t feel like she was half a world away, it felt like she was half a universe away—like she was coming to me from some alternate reality. It was like Laleh belonged to that reality, but I was just a guest. I suppose Dad was a guest too.

75

At least we had that in common. […]

©

I took my empty cup of genmaicha to the kitchen and washed and dried it by hand. Then I filled a regular glass with water from the fridge and went to the cabinet where we kept everyone’s medicine. I sorted through the orange capsules until I found my own. […]

80

Dad and I both took medication for depression. Aside from Star Trek—and not speaking Farsi—depression was pretty much the only thing we had in common. […] I took my pills and gulped down the whole glass of water. Dad stood next to me, watching, like he was worried I was going to choke. He had this look on his face […]. He was ashamed of me. He was ashamed of us. Übermensches aren’t supposed to need medication. eighty-one

85

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

81


Dad swallowed his pills dry; his prominent Teutonic Adam’s apple bobbed up and down as he did it. And then he turned to me and said, “So, you heard that Babou went to the doctor today?”

90

He looked down. A Level Three Awkward Silence began to coalesce around us, like interstellar hydrogen pulled together by gravity to form a new nebula. “Yeah. Um.” I swallowed. “For his tumor?”

Tumor. Babou had a brain tumor. 95

IN

I still felt weird saying the word out loud.

Dad glanced at the turbolift door, which was still closed, and then back to me. “His latest tests didn’t look good.”

VA N

“Oh.” I had never met Babou in person, only over a computer screen. And he never really talked to me. He spoke English well enough, and what few words I could extract from him were accented but articulate. 100

He just didn’t have much to say to me.

I guess I didn’t have much to say to him either. “He’s not going to get better, Darius. I’m sorry.” I twisted my glass between my hands.

I was sorry too. But not as sorry as I should have been. And I felt kind of terrible for it.

105

The thing is, my grandfather’s presence in my life had been purely photonic up to that point. I didn’t know how to be sad about him dying. Like I said, the well inside me was blocked. “What happens now?”

©

“Your mom and I talked it over,” Dad said. “We’re going to Iran.” Source: Adib Khorram, Darius the Great is not okay, p. 18-29

2 Which stages of a typical Bildungsroman did you recognize in the extract? Stage 1: questioning or loss Stage 2: setting off on a journey Stage 3: conflict and struggle for identity Stage 4: personal growth and maturity

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UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

reading


3 The young adult novel, with a focus on coming of age, evolved from the Bildungsroman. Sometimes, the different stages have a different name, or the events happen at different times, but the classic story arc is always present. Summarize the main idea for the stages below.

3 2 1

conflict and struggle

setting off on a journey

loss or questioning

exposition

turning point climax

5

personal growth

IN

4

falling action

rising action

reading

6

maturity

resolution

VA N

1

©

2

eighty-three

3

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

83


3 ⁄ Do you have moxie?

MOXIE (JENNIFER MATHIEU)

IN

Vivian Carter is fed up. Fed up with her small-town Texas high school that thinks the football team can do no wrong. Fed up with sexist dress codes and hallway harassment. But most of all, Viv Carter is fed up with always following the rules. Inspired by her mom’s rebellious past, Vivian anonymously publishes an underground ‘zine’ called Moxie to bring about change and expose the wrongdoings at her high school. Moxie (2017) is the 4th YA novel by Jennifer Mathieu. In 2021 it was turned into a Netflix film directed by Amy Poehler.

Adapted from: www.goodreads.com

SPOKEN INTERACTION

1 Before you start reading discuss the following questions with a partner. a What comes to mind when you hear the following terms?

VA N

– equality – sexism

– feminism

b In your experience, are men and women treated in a fair and/or equal way?

c Do you consider yourself to be a feminist? Why (not)?

2 Form groups. Each of you will get 1 or 2 book extracts. Read your extracts and answer the questions.

reading

a Summarize your extracts: what is going on exactly? Use a separate sheet of paper. b Put the extracts in chronological order. 1

2

3

4

5

6

©

c Work together to fill in the story elements that you recognized in the extracts. Use the ‘Story Elements’ worksheet you will get.

3 Based on the information in the extracts, complete the graphic organizer. What did you learn from the different Moxie extracts?

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84

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

reading


2

setting off on a journey

3

conflict and struggle

IN

loss or questioning

VA N

1

turning point

5

personal growth

©

4

maturity

eighty-five

6

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

85


4 Watch the trailer of the film Moxie and answer the questions.

WATCHING

b What happened to Lucy in the trailer?

IN

a Where does Viv get inspiration from for her ‘journey’?

VA N

c What advice does Vivian give Lucy at first?

d What is Lucy’s reply?

e Does Vivian’s attitude change in the trailer?

f

Pay attention to Viv’s tone of voice when she says this. What can you conclude from this?

©

g Which stage(s) of the Bildungsroman is/are introduced here?

h Complete the Bildungsroman graphic organizer in exercise 3 with the additional information you got from the trailer.

CHECK 1, see p. 119 eighty-six

86

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS


STEP 2 ⁄ To read or not to read Reviewing fiction

1 ⁄ What makes a good review? SPOKEN INTERACTION

1 How do you decide if a book is worth reading or a film is worth watching? a Answer the questions. Choose between: always, often, sometimes or never.

I read the title of the book/film.

2

I read the blurb of the book/film.

3

I watch the trailer of the film.

4

I read some reviews of the book/film.

5

I look at the cover of the book/poster of the film.

Often

Sometimes

Never

Rating

VA N

1

Always

IN

Question

I read an extract from the book.

7

I know the author of the book/the director of the film.

8

I count the pages of the book.

9

I think the genre of the book/film is interesting.

10

I think the theme of the book/film is important.

11

My friends and/or family convince me to watch the film/ read the book.

©

6

Other:

eighty-seven

12

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

87


b Now rate the statements from the questionnaire, according to importance: 5 – very important, 4 – important, 3 – somewhat important, 2 – not really important, 1 – not at all important c What is your top 3? Compare your results with a partner’s. What similarities and differences are there? Me

My partner 1

2

2

3

IN

1

3

d Report back to the class. In your class, what are the 3 most important criteria used to decide if a book is worth reading or a film is worth watching? Class

VA N

1 2 3

2 Reading a review can be a good way to determine whether a book is worth reading or a film is worth watching. What information can you get from a review? Brainstorm with a partner.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

3 Read the book blurb of the young adult novel Simon vs. the Homo Sapiens Agenda. Is this a book (or film) you would be interested in reading, based on the blurb? Why (not)?

SPOKEN INTERACTION

SIMON VS. THE HOMO SAPIENS AGENDA (BECKY ALBERTALLI)

©

Simon vs. the Homo Sapiens Agenda is a 2015 young adult novel and the debut book by American author Becky Albertalli. The coming-of-age story focuses on Simon Spier, a closeted, gay, high school-aged boy who is forced to come out after a blackmailer discovers Simon’s emails written to another closeted classmate with whom he has fallen in love. The book was adapted into a film titled Love, Simon, which was released by 20th Century Fox in the United States on March 16, 2018, and was met with critical and commercial success.

Adapted from: www.goodreads.com eighty-eight

88

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS


4 Read the review and answer the questions.

reading

a Who is the reviewer?

b What platform was the review published on? How do you know?

d What is the purpose of the text?

IN

c What version of the book is the review based on? How do you know?

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e What is the overall opinion of the reviewer? How do you know this?

f

Do you consider this review successful? Why (not)?

YOUNG DELIGHT AUDIOBOOK REVIEW: SIMON VS. THE HOMO SAPIENs AGENDA BY BECKY ALBERTALLI POSTED JUNE 16, 2019 BY SOPHIA ROSE IN AUDIO DELIGHT, REVIEWS, YOUNG DELIGHT / TAGS: BECKY ALBERTALLI, YA M/M CONTEMPORARY ROMANCE

Simon vs. the Homo Sapiens Agenda

©

By Becky Albertalli Narrated by Michael Crouch

5

Published by Harper Audio Released on April 7, 2015 Format: Audiobook Source: Library

Simon vs. the Homo Sapiens Agenda tells the story of a boy (Simon) who figures out he’s gay but is content to let things play out at their own pace. He has an online friend who attends his school and who shares this secret world. All that is threatened when another student accidentally sees an email exchange between Simon and ‘Blue’. Martin decides to blackmail Simon into helping him ‘get the girl’ – one of Simon’s friends. Swirling around this situation are Simon’s involved and enthusiastically supportive parents, his two sisters, his circle of average-kid fun friends and Simon’s participation in the school play with his blackmailer and the girl the guy wants.

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1

Series: Creekwood # 1 Genres: YA M/M Contemporary Romance

89


15

20

25

Simon vs tHSA is one of those books that nails it. I had no doubt when I was listening that the voice of the story was a sixteen-year-old boy and the activities and spin on things were from the teen perspective. Yet, the writing and dialogue never felt melodramatic. Instead, the author did this in such a way that there was a universal quality to it that touches the heart of readers/listeners of all ages. I’m not a sixteen-year-old boy trying to figure out life and love, but I could still relate to Simon and his friends. And that is the trick: relatability. This is also true for Simon’s brooding, vulnerable friend Leah, who was jealous of his friendship with Blue, but also of ‘bad guy’ Martin, who’s blackmailing Simon. I could hate their actions yet still root for them to learn and get a clue. Such is the power of Albertalli’s insight into the teenage mind.

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10

The romance is stretched out over the course of several months. In that span of time Simon goes from friendship to yearning to desperately needing Blue to come out with him into the open and let Simon see him. I really appreciated that the author allowed for a long denouement after the initial reveal: the reader has to wait a long time for the off-line romance to begin. I’m not sure, but I think the reader is meant to know who it is all along. Or, at least, I didn’t find it tough to figure out who Blue was. Maybe it was who I wanted it to be.

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Michael Crouch is a narrator that I really enjoy so I was thrilled when I realized he was narrating this book. He does teen voices and this style of story so well. I could easily get lost in the writing and story with that bit of extra I got from his narration work paired with the book.

30

All in all, Simon vs tHSA made me feel and think about so many things while I kept having a feel-good mood throughout. It covers sexuality, identity, friendship, alcohol, bullying & family, but somehow it manages not to be an ‘issues’ book. Those who enjoy YA Contemporary Romance about a gay teen figuring it all out or those wanting an LGBTQA gateway book, here you go.

Adapted from: www.delightedreader.com

5 Check the structure of the review. a How does the review start?

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b When is the first time the reviewer expresses her opinion? Which words specifically?

c Which other elements, besides the summary of the story, does the reviewer discuss?

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d Go through the body paragraphs of the text and highlight: – the elements of plot (= summary), – the elements that show opinion. e What can you conclude from this?

How does the reviewer end the review?

IN

f

g Does the reviewer give the book a rating? If so, how?

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h Which elements of a review are present here? Put the letter in one of the boxes next to the corresponding part of the text. A general information (e.g. title, release/publication date, author, etc.) B a short summary of the plot C information about the theme or genre D creative or literary elements (e.g. dialogues, characters, mood, tone, language choice, etc.) E a final opinion or conclusion F a rating

i

Which elements are not discussed in the review?

j

Do you feel like anything is missing from this review? If so, what?

6 Analyse these beginnings and endings of other reviews.

reading

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a There are different ways in which you can start a review. Consider the following examples and write the corresponding letter(s) next to the paragraph. Choose from the following (more than one answer is possible): A short summary of plot B opinion about the book or film C references to other books or films with a similar theme D reference to previous work of the author (or director, actors/actresses in case of a film) E reference to a current trend or a comment on society F reference to genre G rating

1

The Outsiders

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Like the Corleones, like Kurtz in Apocalypse Now, and like Hank and Frannie in One From the Heart, the kids in The Outsiders (adapted from S.E. Hinton’s novel) are looking for a better world.

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P.S. I Still Love You

The end of To All the Boys I’ve Loved Before was downright John Hughes-ian, including a big kiss between Lara Jean Song-Covey and Peter Kavinsky on a football field meant to echo Judd Nelson’s pumped fist at the end of The Breakfast Club.

4 ‘On My Block’ Is

It review – charming Netflix teen comedy takes on Cyrano A talented trio of young actors enliven a familiar yet engaging tale of a queer love triangle at high school. There’s a satisfying ease to Netflix high school comedy The Half of It, a charming twist on the Cyrano de Bergerac formula that deserves slightly more attention than most of the streamer’s other made-to-order sleepover pics.

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a Remarkable Coming-of-Age Story

3 The Half of

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2 To All the Boys:

Earnest, sometimes ungainly, but always funny and appealing, the Netflix comedy-drama On My Block seems to be warped in from an alternate reality – one in which sitcoms starring people of colour had been allowed to develop on equal footing alongside white ones throughout TV history.

5 The girl with the

louding voice

A Nigerian teenager determined to get an education escapes an arranged marriage in her village but finds that life in the city is dangerous, too.

6 To All The Boys

I’ve Loved Before Review

©

Every generation gets the high school rom-com it deserves – from the John Hughes canon of the ‘80s, to Clueless and 10 Things I Hate About You in the ‘90s, to Mean Girls in the ‘00s and beyond. For the late 2010s, it’s To All The Boys I’ve Loved Before – a film that indulges in all the traditions of the genre, with some time-specific updates (Instagram, cyber-bullying, emojis). Most importantly, it’s on Netflix – where the majority of today’s teenagers are streaming their content.

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7 Love, Simon Love, Simon is a mainstream-styled teenage rom-com that uses every cliché in the book. There’s the nerdy Vice Principal, the bacchanalian high school party, supportive yet somewhat clueless parents, witty voice-over from the protagonist, public declarations of love in front of the whole school, all held together by a stream of catchy pop tunes.

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b There are different ways you can end a review. Consider the following examples and write the corresponding letter(s) next to the paragraph. Choose from the following (more than one answer is possible): A reference to the next instalment or sequel B final opinion C rating D reference to other books/films with a similar theme/element/effect E reference to a particular (exciting) scene/performance in the film/book F reference to the performances of the actors/director/author I wanted to like On My Block more than I did, because it centers brown and black folks who are dealing with the kinds of ups and downs everyone faces as they come of age. I also think the actors assembled are charming and hold their own, especially considering that most of the cast is new to the field. But I want more for them and I hope the creators of the show will trust them and their audience with more depth.

2

Like last November’s surprisingly efficient comedy Let It Snow, The Half of It is a strong, warmhearted and quietly progressive addition to the expanding Netflix teen movie pack which treats its target audience with the respect they deserve.

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IN

1

At turns uplifting and devastating, How It All Blew Up is Arvin Ahmadi’s most powerful novel yet, a celebration of how life’s most painful moments can live alongside the riotous, life-changing joys of discovering who you are.

4

With its mean girls, preposterously lavish school trips, ludicrous teen parties, and weird American sports (prepare for a good dollop of lacrosse), To All The Boys ends up being familiar in all the right ways – even invoking Sixteen Candles, while acknowledging its offensive racist stereotypes. Johnson delivers it all with such pace, heart, and style that it’s hard not to fall for.

5

Aristotle and Dante discovered more than the secrets of the universe – they also discovered the secrets to my reading heart. Rating: 10 – PERFECTION.

©

3

Condor’s performance has a sense of wonder behind it, of Lara Jean gracefully finding her way through new experiences, and the film applies it to this guy? It’s hard to get past the hope that Lara Jean will someday soon get something better – a better boyfriend, and a better movie.

7 Use an online mindmapping tool to organize the phrases the teacher gives you. What categories should your mind map have? Why?

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6

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STRATEGY

HOW TO write a good review Writing a (film/book) review is a good way of expressing your opinion.

The purpose is to help the reader to determine whether they want to watch the film or read the book too. The review should give enough details about the film or book so that the reader can make an informed decision, without giving away too many spoilers. A good review is informative and argumentative, but if it’s good, it will also be entertaining. For more information about the structure of a good review, check the Summary of this unit.

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2 ⁄ Be descriptive

See p. 115-116

1 The teacher will give you some excerpts from actual reviews of books and films.

a Highlight words, phrases or expressions to describe plot, story or message in one colour.

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b Highlight words, phrases or expressions to describe characters or the performances of actors in another colour. c Highlight words, phrases or expressions to describe the setting or the atmosphere in yet another colour. d Highlight words, phrases or expression to describe writing, dialogue, narration or music in yet another colour. e Underline words that give the general opinion of the reviewer. f

Organize these words in the graphic organizer you will get.

2 To describe (aspects of) books and films, you can use many different adjectives. a Put the following adjectives in the appropriate column first. Use a dictionary or thesaurus if you are not sure.

©

action-packed – adventurous – amusing – astonishing – believable – boring – breathtaking – brilliant – captivating – charismatic – charming – clichéd – complex – complicated – confusing – (un)convincing – dazzling – diverse – easy-to-read – emotional – enchanting – engaging – entertaining – erratic – exciting – exhilarating – far-fetched – fascinating – futuristic – gripping – heartbreaking – heartfelt – hilarious – life-like – magnificent – memorable – nonsensical – poignant – powerful – predictable – realistic – repetitive – riveting – romantic – silly – simple – spectacular – stereotypical – thought-provoking – touching – tragic – unique – witty

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Neutral

Negative

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Positive

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b Choose words from exercise a to fill in the crossword. Down 1 something that will be remembered 2 attracting and holding your attention or interest 5 done in the same (boring) way 7 affecting or moving the emotions

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Across 3 synonym for captivating, something that holds your attention 4 expected, you know how it is going to happen before it happens 6 very unlikely to be true and difficult to believe 8 able to make you believe that something is true 9 synonym for attractive and charming 10 containing lots of stereotypes

1

2

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3

4

5

6

7

8

9

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10

c Use words from exercise a to fill in the sentences. 1 One reason people like Leonardo DiCaprio become stars is that they are highly talented and

.

2 The book is not a chronological biography but an reference book that explains the principles of Mahatma Gandhi. 3 13 going on 30 a very watchable and ninety-six

96

film if you can get by some of

the flaws.

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4 The book tells 6 linked stories that are at times

, but still laugh out

loud funny. 5 This

thriller gives a unique look behind the scenes at the White

House. 6 Moore’s character is the

bubbly suburban housewife who doesn’t

even realize how empty her life is. 7 Nothing is worse than having to endure one-dimensional characters, but luckily there is a female characters, and

Sex Education is definitely one of them.

IN

slew of series this season featuring

8 The complete attention of this actor to every second of action, to every one of her movements, made a

performance.

9 In some scenes, Depp’s white, polyester leisure suits and humongous gold-rimmed shades are so

that it is hard to take him seriously.

cast and ‘woke’ storylines fails to

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10 The Gossip Girl reboot with its revive the classic.

3 ‘Very’ is one of the most common words used in English to show you feel strongly about something: very funny, very bad, etc. However, ‘very’ is a vague word, so using good synonyms for ‘very’ might improve your English. a Link a collocation of ‘very + adjective’ to a suitable alternative adjective. Collocation: very + adjective

Alternative adjective

very interesting

A

compelling

2

very powerful

B

gifted

3

very special

C

excellent

4

very talented

D

terrific

5

very simple

E

exhilarating

6

very great

F

tedious

7

very good

G

captivating

8

very exciting

H

dull

9

very dull

I

basic

10

very boring

J

exceptional

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1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

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b There are also other adverbs besides ‘very’ you can use to strengthen an adjective. Look up at least 5 adverbs you could use instead of ‘very’. Keep the context of book or film reviews in mind and write 2 sentences for each of these adverbs.

1

2

3

IN

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4

5

4 Watch the trailer of Love, Simon and give your opinion about it.

a Preparation: watch the trailer and write some keywords about the following categories.

WATCHING

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– Content: – Setting: – Actors / Performances: – General opinion:

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b Action: write your opinion (=mini-review) about the trailer. Use at least 5 different descriptive adjectives and at least 2 alternatives for the word ‘very’. Make sure the 4 categories from exercise a are in your mini-review. Write about 50-70 words on a separate piece of paper.

writing

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c Reflection: share your mini-review with a partner. Check their mini-review by filling in the checklist and give some tips about the use of language. Edit your own text if necessary. Checklist: writing a review

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • I wrote about content, setting and actors/performances. • My general opinion is clear. • My text is about 50-70 words long.

Feedback

IN

2 Language • I used at least 5 descriptive adjectives. • I used at least 2 alternatives for ‘very’. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

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CHECK 2, see p. 122

STEP 3 ⁄ It’s all relative

Using relative clauses

1 Read the following sentences from the book blurb and review of Simon vs. the Homo Sapiens Agenda. a To what other words do the words in bold refer? Highlight them in the sentences. 1 The coming-of-age story focuses on Simon Spier, a closeted, gay, high school-aged boy who is forced to come out.

2 A blackmailer discovers Simon’s emails written to another closeted classmate with whom he has fallen in love.

©

3 The book was adapted into a film titled Love, Simon, which was released by 20th Century Fox in the United States on March 16, 2018. 4 Simon vs. tHSA is one of those books that nails it. 5 Michael Crouch is a narrator that I really enjoy.

b What are the words in bold (who, whom, which, that) called?

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c What is special about ‘that’ in sentence 5?

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2 Read the following book or film blurbs and do the tasks. a Underline the relative clause in each sentence. Look at the example. b Highlight the relative pronouns in one colour. Look at the example. c Say what words they refer to. Highlight them in another colour. Look at the example. What do we call the words the relative pronoun refers to?

a Paper Towns is an American romantic mystery comedy-drama film, which was directed by Jake Schreier.

IN

1

b It is based on the novel of the same name by John Green. The film was adapted for the

screen by the same team that wrote the first film adaption of another of Green’s novels, The Fault in Our Stars.

c The film follows the coming of age and search by the protagonist, Quentin ‘Q’ Jacobsen

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(Wolff), for Margo Roth Spiegelman (Delevingne), whom he has loved since childhood.

2

a The Hate U Give is Thomas’s debut novel, which she had expanded from a short story she wrote in college in reaction to the police shooting of Oscar Grant.

b The book is narrated by Starr Carter, a 16-year-old black girl from a poor neighborhood who attends an elite private school in a predominantly white, affluent part of the city.

c In writing the novel, Thomas attempted to expand readers’ understanding of the Black Lives Matter movement as well as difficulties faced by black Americans who employ code switching.

d The book was adapted into a film, which received positive reviews, by Fox 2000.

a Firekeeper’s Daughter, written by Angeline Boulley, tells the story of a half-native, half-

©

3

white 18-year-old girl who gets involved in an undercover police investigation into the drug trade within her community.

b The book, which was published in March 2021, is also planned as a limited series, to be streamed on Netflix. The Obamas’ Higher Ground Production Company acquired the rights of the book for cinematic adaptation. c Mickey Fisher (Reverie, Extant) will adapt the book with Wenonah Wilms, who is also from

one hundred

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the Ojibwe tribe.

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4

a Paper Spiders is an American drama film, which was directed by Inon Shampanier and written by Natalie and Inon Shampanier. b The film stars Lili Taylor and Stefania LaVie Owen and tells the story of a high school girl struggling to help her mother, whose paranoid delusions spiral out of control. c This film is highly recommended to anyone for whom coping with the mental illness of a

IN

loved one is a familiar topic.

d Check the sentences again. What can you say about the antecedent of the following pronouns? Relative pronoun

Can refer to people

who

Can refer to things

Can refer to people and things

which

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that

e There are 2 other relative pronouns in the blurbs. Which ones? When are they used?

f Decide if the information in the relative clauses is necessary to understand the message in the sentences. Sentences a b c

2

a b c d

3

a b c

4

a b c

Extra

Defining relative clauses

Non-defining relative clauses

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1

Necessary

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3 Complete the grammar box below, using the information from the previous exercises.

GRAMMAR

HOW TO join clauses and sentences

are used to give additional information about something (=

) without adding another sentence. Texts become more fluent,

and you avoid repeating words. Words that link these clauses together are called

, such as

There are 2 types of relative clause:

.

IN

and

Defining relative clauses

Non-defining relative clauses

– The information in the relative clause is

– The information in the relative clause

to know who or what the antecedent actually is.

gives

information about the antecedent. – Relative pronouns

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– Relative pronouns

and

and

can

can

be used.

– Usually there are no commas.

be used.

– Usually there are commas. See p. 106

4 Look at these sample sentences from other reviews. Identify the relative pronouns and the relative clauses. Mark the antecedent. Say what the function of the pronoun is in each of the clauses. Look at the example.

©

e.g. I wanted to like On My Block more than I did, because it centers brown and black folks who are dealing with the kinds of ups and downs everyone faces as they come of age. subject 1 Danielle A. Scruggs breaks down what works and what doesn’t work in her review of the halfhour Netflix dramedy, On My Block, which premieres today.

2 But such is your lot when you are 16-year-old Otis (Asa Butterfield) and your mother is Jean one hundred and two

102

(Gillian Anderson), a sex therapist whose work has brought enough unwanted knowledge into the home to have turned you off sex for life.

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3 There is plenty to enjoy about this British dramedy that explores the woes of puberty, awkward sexual encounters, and just the complications of being a young adult.

4 You know those stories that keep you awake at night?

5 Then, she meets Mick, a complicated and beautiful young woman,

IN

who seems to speak right to Veronica’s soul.

6 Sam is trying to keep up with his college work, which is harder than he thought it would be.

7 Now, Sam has moved out of the family home and in with his best friend Zahid, a stoner

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whose casual approach conflicts with some of Sam’s more rigid routines.

8 In The Sun Is Also a Star, Natasha and her family are a day from being deported to Jamaica. Then there is Daniel Jae Ho Bae, the boy who she meets in a tangle-on-the-street moment.

9 In Dumplin’, we witness the sinister ways in which the norms of the beauty pageant leak off the stage and into the malls, high schools, and homes of Clover City, Texas.

10 As the movie progresses, we see Rosie and Willowdean overcoming the barriers they have with each other, knowing that while they are very different people, that’s okay because they will always love each other.

©

5 Read the following sentences and fill in a correct relative pronoun. Choose between ‘who’, ‘which’, ‘that’ and ‘whose’.

2

To all the boys I’ve loved before is a beautifully written book about a high-school girl has been in love with three boys throughout her life.

I loved The Hate U Give! I read its ePub version, but I recently ordered a physical copy because it’s definitely a book the movie,

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I would reread. I had to cry so hard watching

was as beautiful as the book.

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103


3

I loved how Erika Sánchez wrote Julia in I am not your perfect Mexican daughter: a teenage Mexican American girl someone

4

is bold, independent, and a bit judgmental and grows throughout the course of the novel.

Suggested reading is a thought-provoking book in

a voracious reader and

high school senior fights back when the principal bans more than 50 books, among

5

Dolly Parton,

IN

are modern classics like Speak and The Perks of Being a Wallflower.

music and personality infuse Dumplin’, is pretty much the fairy

godmother of the whole movie.

6 Look at the following sentences and join them together using a relative clause. Don’t change the meaning of the sentences.

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1 The Perks of Being a Wallflower follows the story of Charlie. Charlie is the most lovable character I have read since Dante from Aristotle and Dante Discover the Secrets of the Universe.

2 The first part of the book had a flashback. The flashback was a fun scene because it shows glimpses of the rest of the story.

3 He meets Alaska Young. Alaska Young is basically the girl of his dreams.

©

4 This book is inspired by the #BlackLivesMatter movement. Sixteen-year-old Starr witnesses her best friend be killed by a police officer. Her best friend is an unarmed black boy.

5 The outsiders is a book about a group of youthful greasers living in Oklahoma, and about their struggles to exist in a society. This society seems designed to dismiss them.

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7 Play the relative clauses speaking game.

speaking

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8 Write the book/film blurb of your own life.

writing

IN

a Preparation: what would the book or film of your life be about? Which people or events have shaped your life? If your life is a film, who stars as you? If it is a book, what is the writing like? Also think of at least 3 descriptive adjectives for ‘the story of your life’.

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b Action: write your book or film blurb. This should be short and simple (about 50 words) yet descriptive and draw people in. No spoilers! Use 2 to 3 relative clauses in your blurb.

c Reflection: check your blurb by filling in the checklist, and then share with a classmate or the class. Checklist: writing the blurb of your life

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • My blurb is about 50 words long. • I introduced some people or events that shaped my life. • I talked about who would play my character or what the style of the book of my life would be like.

©

2 Language • I used varied vocabulary: at least 3 descriptive adjectives. • I used 2 to 3 relative clauses correctly. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

CHECK 3, see p. 127

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Feedback

105


HOW TO join clauses and sentences The Sun Is Also a Star is about Natasha and a boy, who is called Daniel, whom she meets in a tangle-on-the-street moment.

(Relative pronouns and relative clauses)

IN

GRAMMAR

SUMMARY

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Dumplin’ is a film whose music was largely made by Dolly Parton.

Relative clauses are used to give additional information about something (= the antecedent) without adding another sentence. Texts become more fluent, and you avoid repeating words. Words that link these clauses together are called relative pronouns, such as who, that, which, whose and whom. There are 2 types of relative clause.

1 Defining relative clauses

FORM

Relative pronouns

Person

subject

who/that

which/that2

object

who(m)/that/Ø3

which/that/Ø4

whose5

whose/of which6

©

Function

possession

Thing

1

[Ø = relative pronoun can be left out] The man who/that you saw on television is a well-known environmentalist. The documentary which/that was shown in class was really powerful. 3 The Sun Is Also a Star features Natasha and a boy, [who/that/whom] she meets in a tangle-on-the-street moment. 4 The film [which/that] Leonardo DiCaprio made is actually a documentary. 5 Zahid is a stoner whose casual approach conflicts with some of Sam’s rigid routines. 6 Dumplin’ is a film whose music/of which the music was largely made by Dolly Parton. 1 2

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USE – They give necessary information to know who or what the antecedent actually is. – There are usually no commas.

2 Non-defining relative clauses FORM Relative pronouns Person

Thing

subject

who1

which2

object

who(m)3

which4

possession

whose5

whose/of which6

[Relative pronouns can never be left out!]

IN

Function

Starr witnesses her best friend Khalil, who is an unarmed black boy, get killed by a police officer. 2 Paper Towns is a 2015 American romantic mystery comedy-drama film, which was directed by Jake Schreier. 3 Leonardo DiCaprio, who/whom I like very much as an actor, does a lot for the environment. 4 The Hate U Give is Thomas’s debut novel, which she expanded from a short story. 5 Dolly Parton, whose music infuses Dumplin’, is the fairy godmother of the whole movie. 6 The Harry Potter series, whose author/of which the author has suffered a big backlash in recent years, has been a huge influence on many aspiring young writers.

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1

USE

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– They give extra information to know who or what the antecedent actually is. – They usually have commas.

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107


There are several elements that can make up a good (fictional) text. This text can be a written text, such as a novel, but also a spoken text, such as a film.

1 Characters Characterization is how we get to know the characters, e.g. name, age, occupation, appearance, talents, etc. There are main characters and secondary or supporting characters in a story. Often we also make a distinction between: – – – –

IN

CULTURAL BACKGROUND

1 Identifying story elements

protagonist: main character; antagonist: ‘opponent’ of main character; dynamic character: character who changes as a result of the story’s action; static character: character who does not show much change in the story.

2 Narrator

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The narrator is who or what tells the story. There are different points of view a narrator can take (e.g. first person point of view). – Sometimes the narrator is also a (main) character in the book, but sometimes that is not the case. – Sometimes the narrator has the same information as the characters in the book, but sometimes the narrator knows a lot more than the characters.

3 Plot, topic, theme

The plot of a story is the narrative of events: the order in which things happen. The classic story arc consists of the following elements: climax

falling action

©

rising action resolution

exposition

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– – – – –

Exposition: introduction to the story in which characters and setting are presented. Rising action: the action/tension in the story builds up. Climax: point in the story where the action reaches its peak. Falling action: the action becomes less intense. Resolution: conclusion of the story.

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If you want to analyse a story, it is also important to think about the following elements.

4 Setting

IN

– Topic: what the story is about, e.g. justice, love. – Theme: the central idea of the story = the big idea about people, life, the world. e.g. Actions have consequences, beauty is in the eye of the beholder. – Conflict: the main problem in the story. e.g. In Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, there is a conflict between the ‘good’ (Harry Potter) and ‘the bad’ (Voldemort). But in the whole series there is also an internal conflict for Harry: he has to discover who he really is.

Setting is the time and place (or when and where) of the story.

– Time: when the story takes place. • Flashback: a scene from the past is inserted into the present. • Flash forward: a scene from the future is inserted into the present. – Place: when the story takes place.

VA N

5 Mood and tone

Mood and tone both deal with the emotions of a piece of writing but there is an important difference. – Mood: the feeling that the reader gets when reading the story. – Tone: the feeling or the atmosphere that the writer of the story has put in the story.

2 Coming-of-age

Coming-of-age is the period in a person’s life when they make the transition from the innocence of childhood to the maturity of adulthood. In society coming of age is celebrated with rituals or ceremonies (e.g. Bar Mitzvah, Rumspringa, graduation, sweet 16).

©

In literary fiction, the Bildungsroman is a genre of novel that shows a young protagonist’s journey from childhood to adulthood (or immaturity to maturity). These stories are often called ‘coming-of-age’ stories. There are typically 4 stages in these stories.

Stage 2: setting off on a journey The journey can be physical or metaphorical (a psychological or a spiritual one) to find the answer to a big question. In the process, they will gain life experience that helps them better understand life and the world.

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

one hundred and nine

Stage 1: asking questions (mostly psychological and spiritual) or loss The protagonist often experiences an emotional loss (e.g. a death, the end of an important relationship) at the beginning of the novel. Consequently, the protagonist is questioning something in their life.

109


Stage 3: societal conflict and struggle for identity The values of the protagonist are not the same as those in ‘society’. The result is a conflict, e.g. between the protagonist and a parent or another authority figure. There is a struggle to adjust to the values of society or the norms of the environment. The protagonist is pushed to their limits while trying to find themselves or complete their task.

There is a link with the classic story arc:

4 3

setting off on a journey

turning point

climax

5

falling action

personal growth

VA N

2

conflict and struggle

IN

Stage 4: personal growth and gaining maturity By the end of the novel, the protagonist demonstrates significant change, psychological growth, and maturity. Often this goes hand in hand with a resolution between the protagonist and society.

1

loss or questioning

rising action

6

maturity

resolution

©

exposition

one hundred and ten

110

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS


3 Literary terms

an antagonist

een tegenspeler, meestal de vijand of slechterik

a blurb

een flaptekst

characterization

karakteriseren, het beschrijven van een personage

characters

personages

a conflict

een conflict, een uitdaging waarvoor het hoofdpersonage wordt gesteld doorheen het verhaal

a dynamic character

een dynamisch of veranderend karakter/ personage

My notes

IN

Translation

een flashforward, een blik in de (verre) toekomst van een verhaal

a flashback

een flashback, een gebeurtenis uit het verleden wordt verteld

a main character

een hoofdpersonage

mood

stemming, het gevoel dat de lezer krijgt bij het lezen van het verhaal

a narrator

een verteller

a plot

een plot, verhaallijn

a protagonist

een hoofdpersonage, meestal de held

setting

setting; waar, wanneer en onder welke omstandigheden de gebeurtenissen in een verhaal plaatsvinden

a static character

een statisch karakter/ personage

theme

thema

tone

toon, de houding van de auteur ten opzichte van het onderwerp, karakters of de gebeurtenissen in een verhaal

a topic

een onderwerp

©

a flash forward

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

one hundred and eleven

VA N

Word

111


Translation

adulthood

volwassenheid

borders/limits

grenzen/ beperkingen

childhood

kindertijd

to embark/ to set off on (a journey)

beginnen aan (een reis)

maturity

volwassenheid

immaturity

onvolwassenheid

to question

in vraag stellen

a resolution

een oplossing/ resolutie

to resolve

oplossen

My notes

IN

Word

VA N

VOCABULARY

1 COMING OF AGE

self-awareness

zelfbewustzijn

self-discovery

zelfontdekking

2 DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES Translation

action-packed

boordevol actie

adventurous

avontuurlijk

amusing

grappig

astonishing

verbazing­ wekkend

believable

geloofwaardig

boring

saai

©

Word

one hundred and twelve

112

breathtaking

adembenemend

brilliant

briljant

captivating

boeiend

charismatic

charismatisch

charming

charmant

clichéd

clichématig

complex

complex

complicated

ingewikkeld

confusing

verwarrend

My notes

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS


(un)convincing

(niet) overtuigend

dazzling

oogverblindend

diverse

divers

easy-to-read

makkelijk te lezen

emotional

emotioneel

enchanting

betoverend

engaging

innemend

entertaining

onderhoudend

erratic

grillig

exciting

spannend

exhilarating

opwindend

far-fetched

vergezocht

fascinating

fascinerend

My notes

IN

Translation

futuristisch

gripping

aangrijpend

heartbreaking

hartverscheurend

heartfelt

oprecht

hilarious

hilarisch

life-like

levensecht

magnificent

magnifiek

memorable

gedenkwaardig

nonsensical

onzinnig

poignant

aangrijpend

powerful

krachtig

predictable

voorspelbaar

realistic

realistisch

repetitive

repetitief

riveting

meeslepend

romantic

romantisch

silly

gek

simple

eenvoudig

spectacular

spectaculair

stereotypical

stereotypisch

thoughtprovoking

tot nadenken stemmend

©

futuristic

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

one hundred and thirteen

VA N

Word

113


Word

Translation

touching

aangrijpend

tragic

tragisch

unique

uniek

witty

ad rem

My notes

Adjective

very boring

dull

very dull

tedious

very exciting

exhilarating

very good

excellent

very great

terrific

very interesting

captivating

Translation

saai

eentonig

opwindend

excellent

geweldig

boeiend

VA N

Very + adjective

IN

3 AVOIDING THE USE OF ‘VERY’

compelling

meeslepend, overtuigend

very simple

basic

simpel

very special

exceptional

exceptioneel

very talented

gifted

begaafd

©

very powerful

one hundred and fourteen

114

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS


Before writing

STRATEGY

HOW TO write a good review 1

What? Do you have the basic information about the work you are reviewing? Book: title, author, year of publication Film/series: title, director/actors/actresses, year/date of release, platform Do you have all the details you need to write your review? What other books has the author written? What is the author’s usual genre? What other films/series has the director made or have the actors been in? Do you see any links with other works or current trends?

IN

– – – – – – –

Who?

Keep your readers in mind. Who is the intended audience of your review?

VA N

Why?

What is your purpose? –  To inform? To persuade? To entertain?

Have you made up your mind about your opinion? – Positive, negative, in between?

While writing

2

Pay attention to the structure Components of a good review:

Introduction The introductory paragraph of a review usually includes: – bibliographic information about a book (title, author, year of publication), – basic information about a film or series (title, director, actors/actresses, date of release, platform …), – a thesis: opinion of the reviewer. Body paragraphs The body paragraphs usually include: – a brief summary (no spoilers!), – the reviewer’s reaction to the book or film/series = your opinion, – concrete examples to support your opinion = arguments. There can be additional paragraphs that deal with: – comparisons to other works by the author/director, – links with other works in the same genre or a current trend, – the exploration of the issues the book or the film/series raises.

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

one hundred and fifteen

©

Headline This is the title of your review. It should draw your readers in.

115


Conclusion The conclusion usually includes: – a summary of the main point of the reviewer, –  a direct comment on the book, film or series: e.g. a recommendation, a question, a piece of advice, a rating.

Check your language use

IN

Be descriptive when talking about plot, characters, setting, writing, narration, etc.

Use varied vocabulary: check your use of adjectives and adverbs and specific phrases.

VA N

After writing

3

Choose a title

Leave the writing of the title for the end. This is when you know best what is in your text. – Make it powerful, yet clear and simple. – Consider the keywords of your review. – What is your tone of voice? – Try to use a pun.

Edit

©

Avoid mistakes: read your text again and correct spelling mistakes.

one hundred and sixteen

116

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS


VA N

IN

USEFUL EXPRESSIONS

HOW TO describe different story elements

1 Plot and characters

2 Setting

‘In the book we’re introduced to Frank, a high school senior, who falls in love with Britt.’ We are introduced to … / The writer introduces … The book is divided into … parts/chapters. Section one of the book details ... The opening chapter focuses on ... The second section explores ... In the next/final part/chapter…

‘The story is set in Southern California.’

3 Acting/performances (for a film or series)

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

‘Lana Condor is perfectly cast as the shy and romantic Lara Jean Covey.’ … does a very good job as … The performances in … are excellent. The character development is excellent. … gives the part much personality. It is a very moving portrayal of ...

one hundred and seventeen

©

… is set in … The story unfolds in … … provides the setting for …

117


4 Writing/style (for a book)

‘Told in the first person, present tense means the reader ‘sees’ the events filtered through the eyes of our main character, Lara Jean.’

5 Music

IN

… has a very conversational style. The narration of the book is … The language use is very flowery and descriptive. … sticks to the old adage of, ‘Show, don’t tell.’ I would describe the style as lyrical/poetic.

‘The soundtrack captures the overall spirit and energy of the film.’ The music conveys a … atmosphere. The music underlines the mood / evokes feelings / shows a character’s emotions / connects scenes. The music and the lyrics support the plot.

‘Frankly in love is highly recommended to anyone who’s ever felt caught between cultures.’

VA N 6 Audience

The book/film should appeal to those who ... The book/film is particularly interesting for ... The book/film will be of interest to ... This book/film is highly recommended to ... ... are likely to find the book/film useful. ... would find it valuable.

7 General opinion

©

Positive • … adds a lot to the film/book … • must-see/must-read/a box-office success • an audience pleaser • well worth seeing/reading • not to be missed • an impressive debut • I definitely recommend this film/book to everybody … • The film/book is a worthwhile watch/read. • … brought tears to my eyes. • If you like …, this is the film/book for you. • If you found films/books like … or … compelling, then be sure to give … your full attention. • It’s a film that will change the way you think about … • I was impressed by …

one hundred and eighteen

118

Negative • I certainly wouldn’t recommend the film/book, because … • I’m afraid … is a complete waste of time and money. • The book would benefit from ... • A nice addition to the book would be ... • The weakest area of the book is ... • The only/main/greatest weakness/drawback of the book is ...

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS


ON DIFFERENT TRACKS CHECK 1 ⁄ Discussing coming-of-age 1 Read and analyse an extract from the young adult novel Frankly in love by David Yoon.

reading

a First, read the extract you will get and fill in the table with the story elements (on a separate piece of paper).

IN

b Then, make a note of the different stages of the coming-of-age novel.

4 3

climax

5

2

falling action

6

VA N

rising action

1

resolution

exposition

c Finally, based on the information in the extract, explain which elements from the ‘typical’ coming-of-age story are present. Use a separate piece of paper. Checklist: analysing an extract from a coming-of-age story

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • I filled in the table with the information about the different story elements. • I named the different stages of the coming-of-age story. • I explained which of the stages are present in the extract.

©

2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I used correct grammar. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

Score

< 14

≥ 14

Next exercise

ex. 2

ex. 3

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

one hundred and nineteen

Feedback

119


2 Read the following extracts. Which story elements do you learn about? Choose from the box. Explain your answers. Write about 3 sentences per extract.

reading

characters – mood – plot – setting – theme – tone – topic

1

BLACK LIKE ME

5

But on the flip side, folks wonder if I’m Black American enough. As if my Puerto Rican side cancels out any Blackness although if we go only according to skin, my Puerto Rican side is as Black as my Black American side.

VA N

10

I’ve lived my whole life having people question what race I am. Not necessarily the homies I grew up with. In Fairhill, we are mostly Spanish-speaking Caribbeans and Americans with Philly-raised Black Americans with roots in the South. Which means, in my hood everyone’s parents or great-grandparents got some kind of accent that ain’t a Philly one. But when people from a different neighborhood first meet me, they wonder why I don’t fit certain modes. The Latina grandmothers at the Papi store tsk tsk when they ask me a question in Spanish and I answer with my chopped-up tongue, or worse, in English. And I don’t have enough skills to tell them ‘Buela didn’t raise me speaking much Spanish’. I can understand a lot of it because of her, but English is the language I learned at school and watched on TV and, for the most part, even the one we speak at home. I try not to be selfconscious about how little Spanish I know, but some days it feels like not speaking Spanish automatically makes me a Bad Boricua. One who’s forgotten her roots.

IN

1

15

Source: Elizabeth Acevedo, With the fire on high, p. 68-69

2

A TALE OF TWO CITIES

I come from a place in Philadelphia that reminds me of a Charles Dickens book we read in English. ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ one that is set in Paris and London during and after the French Revolution. But the place l come from ain’t nowhere close to Europe. I’m from Fairhill. It sounds pretty, don’t it? And for a lot of outsiders, the name is the only pretty thing about it.

©

1

5

10 one hundred and twenty

120

Most folks are Puerto Rican. Julio tells me this neighborhood has the highest rate of Puerto Ricans outside of the island. I don’t know why, though. It doesn’t look anything like pictures of the island I’ve seen. Blocks and blocks of two-story row houses, concrete, fenced-in yards, and vacant lots. People have had a lot to say about our neck of the woods, but in general, they should probably keep their neck out our business. This part of North Philly has one of the highest crime rates in the city, or at least that’s what the newspaper reports. They call us part of the Badlands, but when you stay here, you know there’s a lot more goodness than is reported in the news.

Source: Elizabeth Acevedo, With the fire on high, p. 85-86

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS


3

IN THE WILD LIGHT

5

VA N

10

“We gotta go,” Delaney says, her voice taut. “Won’t take but a minute,” Cloud drawls. His mouth smirks. His eyes don’t follow. “We’re already late,” I say in a low voice. Cloud slides toward me and spits. I can smell him as he nears – expensive cologne, weed, cherry vape smoke, and something stale and sour. “We’re talking now.” I try to slip past him to get in my truck. He steps to cut me off, and I almost run smack into him. “Scuse me,” I mutter. “I gotta –” “You her daddy?” His tone is equal parts mocking and menace. “No.” “Hmm? Boyfriend? Y’all smashin” He gives me a death’s-head grin with his grille and humps the air a couple of times. “Man, I don’t want no trouble.” “Naw?” Cloud gets in my face, staring me down. “What’s your name, mane?” He’s near enough I can feel the sweat evaporating from his skin. “Cash,” I say, avoiding his eyes. Cloud snickers. It sounds like a call from a buzzard to come feast on a carcass. “Cash. Sheeeit.” He lifts his heavy gold chain with both thumbs and lets it drop back down on his chest with a muted thud. “It’s me should be named Cash. Look like the only cash you got is your name, bitch.” I look him dead in the eyes. I know the peril, but I do it anyway. “My name’s my name. Ain’t ashamed.”

IN

1

15

20

Source: Jeff Zentner, In the wild light, p. 12-13. Copyright (c) 2021 by Jeff Zentner. Used by permission of Crown Publishers, an

©

imprint of Random House Children’s books, a division of Pengui Random House LLC. All rights reserved.

Score

<6

Check 2, p. 122 one hundred and twenty-one

Next exercise

≥6

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

121


3 Watch the trailer for mid90s and answer the questions.

WATCHING

IN

a Summarize the trailer. Write some notes. Focus on plot and characters.

VA N

b Which elements of a typical coming-of-age story did you recognize? Explain.

c D iscuss your answer to b with a classmate. Did you recognize the same elements? Is this a film you would be interested in seeing? Why (not)? Score

D

C

Next exercise

ex. 2

Check 2, p. 122

SPOKEN INTERACTION

CHECK 2 ⁄ Reviewing fiction

1 Write a review of the extract from Frankly in Love.

a Preparation: reread the extract and check the information you noted down in exercise 1, Check 1, p. 119.

©

b Action: write your review on a separate piece of paper. Make sure to follow these instructions:

– Pay attention to the structure of your review: think of a good beginning and ending for your review, and a catchy title. Write a minimum of 2 body paragraphs in which you discuss at least 2 of the following elements: character, plot and setting, topic and theme, mood and tone.

one hundred and twenty-two

122

– Use at least 5 different descriptive adjectives. – Use at least 2 alternative ways of saying ‘very’. – Make sure your opinion is clear. – Write about 75-100 words.

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

writing


c Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist. Checklist: writing a review

Yes

I think so

No

IN

1 Content and structure • My opinion about the extract is clear. • I used the appropriate review structure: strong beginning, 2 body paragraphs, good ending. • I discussed all the necessary story elements. • My review has a catchy title. • I used paragraphs to structure the text. • My text is 75-100 words long. 2 Language • I used at least 5 different descriptive adjectives. • I used at least 2 alternatives for the word ‘very’. • I used correct grammar. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

VA N

Feedback

< 14

≥ 14

Next exercise

ex. 2

ex. 4

one hundred and twenty-three

©

Score

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

123


2 Fill in the crossword below with a suitable descriptive adjective. Use the Summary on p. 114 if necessary. Across 4 very moving or touching 6 very stimulating 7 very boring 9 very fascinating 10 very impressive or bright

1

IN

Down 1 very interesting 2 very talented 3 very funny 5 very beautiful 8 very stereotypical

2

3 4

VA N

5

6

7

8

9

©

10

Score

Next exercise

one hundred and twenty-four

124

<7

≥7 ex. 4

3 In the following grid you will find different elements you can discuss in a book or film review. a Choose 3 adjectives you can use for each of these elements. Use the Summary of this unit or a dictionary or thesaurus if necessary. b Do these words have a positive or negative connotation, or are they neutral?

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS


c Write 1 example sentence with one of the adjectives you chose. Remember the context!

2

Characters (book and film) –

Performances (film) –

Plot / story (book and film) –

VA N

3

IN

1

Writing (style, dialogue; book)

©

5

Setting (book and film)

6

Mood (book and film)

Score

< 18

Next exercise

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

≥ 18 Check 3, p. 127

one hundred and twenty-five

4

125


4 Rewrite this book blurb to make it more appealing.

writing

a Preparation: read this short – dull – summary of Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone.

HARRY POTTER AND THE PHILOSOPHER’S STONE (J.K. ROWLING)

IN

Harry Potter’s life is very bad. His parents are dead. He lives with his bad relatives. His life changes when he receives a letter. The letter says he’s a wizard. A visitor rescues him from his relatives and takes him to his new home, Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Now Harry feels like a normal kid. But even within the Wizarding community, he is very ­special. He is the boy who lived: the only person to have ever survived a curse by Lord­ ­Voldemort. Though Harry’s first year at Hogwarts is very good, not everything is perfect. Full of nice characters, imaginative situations, and many d ­ etails, the first installment in this series assembles a very magical world and sets the stage for many adventures to come.

©

VA N

b Action: rewrite the summary as a more exciting book blurb that makes a reader want to pick up this book. Make sure to use at least 4 different (descriptive) adjectives and 2 alternatives for the word ‘very’. Have a look at the checklist in the reflection before you start writing.

c Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist.

one hundred and twenty-six

126

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS


Checklist: writing a book blurb

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • My book blurb is short and punchy. • My book blurb references the protagonist, the genre and the main theme. • I created some intrigue around the main conflict.

Feedback

IN

2 Language • I used at least 4 different descriptive adjectives. • I used at least 2 alternatives for the word ‘very’. • I used correct grammar. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

< 11

≥ 11

Next exercise

ex. 3

Check 3, p. 127

VA N

Score

CHECK 3 ⁄ Using relative clauses

DUMPLIN’

Dumplin’ is a 2018 American coming-of-age comedy film, based on the young adult novel of the same name by Julie Murphy. The film stars Danielle Macdonald as Willowdean ‘Dumplin’’ Dickso and Jennifer Aniston as her mother.

1 Look at the following sentences and join them together using relative clauses. Don’t change the meaning of the sentences.

©

1 Lucy introduced her niece to Ellen. Ellen became Willowdean’s best friend.

one hundred and twenty-seven

2 We control female bodies. Both film and novel move away from noting this. They explore how we control women’s thoughts about their bodies.

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

127


3 A person’s weight can exclude them from certain places, cultures and experiences. Throughout the novel, Murphy highlights the hidden ways this can happen.

NEVER HAVE I EVER

IN

4 Dumplin’ is about a girl. She feels bad about her body, but she also feels bad about feeling bad about her body.

VA N

Never Have I Ever is an American coming-of-age comedy-drama television series starring Maitreyi Ramakrishnan and created by Mindy Kaling and Lang Fisher. It is about an Indian-American high school student dealing with the sudden death of her father.

5 In the first episode of Mindy Kaling and Lang Fisher’s series, McEnroe introduces himself as our guide to Devi. McEnroe was her father, Mohan’s, favorite tennis player.

6 ‘Never have I ever … been the loneliest boy in the world’ is an episode. It trades Devi’s inner monologue for that of her school rival Ben. Ben’s voiceover came courtesy of comedian Andy Samberg.

©

7 Devi’s friend Eleanor is a theater kid. She loves acting and ends up dating Malcolm. Malcolm is a classmate. He just came back from a stint as a Disney Channel star.

one hundred and twenty-eight

128

Score

<8

8 − 11

> 11

Next exercise

ex. 2

ex. 3

ex. 4

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS


2 Fill in a correct relative pronoun. Choose between: who, which, that, whom and whose. 1 Willowdean was taught to never let other people’s opinions of her body affect her. This is a hard thing (1) mother is a

for Will, former beauty queen, and

(2) works very hard to maintain her looks and figure. (3) take the pageant seriously without

IN

2 Dumplin’ respects the girls

letting them or us think that they are defined by winning or losing the crown.

(4) said each of

3 Lucy taught her to live large and to love Dolly Parton,

us must figure out who we really are and then ‘do it on purpose’.

4 Willowdean is hurt when Ellen begins to enjoy the pageant and embarrassed when Millie has (5) she cannot seem to find.

VA N

the confidence and panache

(6) is highly relevant in the current

5 Dumplin’ carves its own niche,

discussion of body image and beauty.

6 There are so many emotional stirring moments, well-developed characters (7) I could root for, and an ending that brought me to goosebumps.

7 Jennifer Aniston and writer of Dumplin’ Kristin Hahn founded the company Echo Films, (8) is the production company for the movie.

8 Puddin’ is a companion novel to Dumplin’,

(9) follows supporting

characters from the first book.

(10) real-life experiences inspired some of the events in

9 Julie Murphy,

©

her novels, even published another companion novel to Dumplin’, called Pumpkin.

Score

<7

ex. 3 one hundred and twenty-nine

Next exercise

≥7

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

129


3 Link a beginning with an ending. Pay attention to the sentence structure, the use of commas and the relative pronoun. e returned to our screens to continue W on the journey

A

hich is amplified by John McEnroe’s w voiceover.

2

I f season 1 of ‘Never have I ever’ surfed on the loss of a parent, this time Devi has few excuses for her irrational behaviour,

B

hose life revolved around choosing w which boy she liked better.

3

Each episode created more of a dilemma for the main protagonist, Devi,

C

who is contending with sexism in the workplace.

4

Ramakrishnan is still impressive as a deeply flawed teenager of questionable judgment

5

All the central female characters are given respectable screen share including cousin Kamala

6

er new friend Aneesa has an eating H disorder

IN

1

t hat is Devi’s (Maitreyi Ramakrishnan) very chaotic life.

E

t hat is accidentally brought to the attention of the whole school.

F

who can be all kinds of crazy.

VA N

D

1

Score

2

<4

Next exercise

3

4

5

6

≥4

All done!

4 Play ‘the longest sentence’ with a classmate. Face off to find out who knows more information about a given person.

D

C

Next exercise

ex. 3

All done!

©

Score

one hundred and thirty

130

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

speaking


CHECK OUT OUR LITERARY CAFÉ ORIENTATION

PREPARATION

IN

You are going to choose a coming-of-age novel, short story, film or series and pitch it in the class’s literary café. It is your job to convince your classmates that the story you read, or saw is worth it! During the literary café you will choose other ‘favourites’ and come up with a good ‘companion’ book or film/series to pair with your chosen work.

reading

WATCHING writing

VA N

1 Choose a suitable coming-of-age story. This can be a (Young Adult) novel, a graphic novel, a short story, a film or a series. Consult your teacher for tips. 2 Read the book or watch the film or series. Keep notes! 3 Fill in the information table about your story. 4 Add the different elements of the coming-of-age story to the graphic organizer. 5 Use the information from exercises 3 and 4 to write a short review using the structure learned during this unit. This will become the basis for your pitch. 6 Prepare your pitch for the literary café.

ACTION

7 Set up the classroom for your literary café: a few cozy corners will do the trick but if you want to go all out and get coffee or tea, check with your teacher. 8 Practise your pitch a few times before you go to the literary café. The pitch should be about 1-2 minutes long, and contain the following elements: A brief introduction with: – bibliographic information about a book (title, author, year of publication), – basic information about a film or series (title, director, actors/actresses, date of release, platform, etc.), – a thesis: your opinion in a nutshell.

©

A middle part, including: – a brief summary (no spoilers!), – your opinion about the book or film/series, – some concrete examples to support your opinion.

A conclusion with: – your main point, – a direct comment on the book, film or series: e.g. a recommendation, a question, a piece of advice, a rating.

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS

one hundred and thirty-one

There can be additional information that deals with: – comparisons to other works by the author/director, – links with other works in the same genre or a current trend, – an exploration of the issues the book or the film/series raises.

131


9 The literary café is held in 3 rounds.

speaking

ROUND 1 (15 MINUTES)

ROUND 2 (15 MINUTES)

ROUND 3 (10 MINUTES)

Switch groups again. Pitch your book one more time, but this time around, you will end by choosing the one book or film from the 4 you have on your list that you think would be a good follow up to read/ watch after your own book/film (maybe because the theme is similar, or because it is the complete opposite, or …).

IN

Pitch your book or film/series to the other people in your corner. Careful, your pitch is only 1-2 minutes long so you have to use your best arguments to convince your group. After someone has pitched their book or film/series, ask them some more questions and make a few notes on whether you think that person’s book/film is worthwhile. At the end of round 1, choose your top 2: which other 2 books/films would you like to read/watch and why (2 reasons per book).

VA N

Switch groups and pitch your book or film/series again. Again, come up with 2 books or films/series from this round that you would like to read/watch and why.

REFLECTION

10 Reflect on your task by filling in the checklist. Checklist: our literary café

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation • I filled in the table with the different story elements. • I filled in the coming-of-age graphic organizer. • I wrote a short review, using the rules learned in this unit. • I practised my pitch. 2 Action • I pitched my story times in a fluent way. • I asked questions about my group mates’ stories. • I chose other works in round 1 and round 2. • I picked 1 story as companion to my story in round 3.

©

3 Language • I used varied vocabulary. • I used correct grammar. • I paid attention to my pronunciation. Feedback

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Trace your steps on diddit.

UNIT 2: AT A CROSSROADS


UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED CHECK IN Step 1:

VA N

IN

MAIN TRACK

describing crime and motive

Step 2:

describing past events

SUMMARY

Step 3:

reading and writing crime stories

©

TRACE YOUR STEPS

ON DIFFERENT TRACKS

CHECK OUT: WRITING A CRIME STORY


CHECK IN NEVER HAVE I EVER SPOKEN INTERACTION

1 Which ‘crime’ have you committed? Tick the box. Afterwards take part in the classroom poll. Never have I ever …

I have!

stolen sweets or other small things from a shop.

2

bought a fake, knock-off piece of clothing, handbag or perfume.

3

written or sprayed graffiti on public property.

4

crossed on a red light.

5

snuck into a cinema/amusement park/festival/party without paying.

6

been caught in a fight.

7

illegally bought alcohol or cigarettes (because I was too young).

VA N

IN

1

I have never!

8

egged or tee-peed someone’s house.

9

placed a paper bag filled with dog poo on someone’s doorstep, lit it on fire and rung the doorbell.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

2 Discuss these questions with a classmate. Then report back to the class. a Are these ‘crimes’, in your opinion? b What kind of punishment should you get (if any!) if you get caught (e.g. an apology, paying or giving something back, taking classes, cleaning property, being placed under house arrest, etc.)?

3 Read these short texts about possible consequences. Do you agree with the punishment? Why (not)?

©

Toilet papering a home is not just harmless fun. It’s tiresome work for those on the receiving end and can tear neighborhoods apart. Kids and parents can get in trouble. One mother from Colleyville, Texas was indicted by a grand jury for helping middle school children toilet paper a house and accumulating over $6,000 worth of damage, which she had to pay.

Adapted from: https://linklawphilly.com

indicted: accused of

A group of women were caught on camera leaving a restaurant without paying, then returning a few moments later having realized they left their car keys behind.

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A CCTV clip shows the women, whose identities and ages remain unclear, returning to their table after allegedly running off without paying for what they had ordered. They are jeered at by other diners as they return to their seats and are handed their bill by a waitress. Someone can be heard saying the women had returned after one of the girls left their car keys behind by accident. The women can then be seen getting their wallets out, ready to settle their bill. Adapted from: https://metro.co.uk

jeered at: shouted at in a rude way with mocking remarks

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

SPOKEN INTERACTION

reading


MAIN TRACK STEP 1 ⁄ Crime doesn’t pay

Describing crime and motive

1 ⁄ Crime scene – Do not enter!

IN

1 Create a word web with words you already know about crimes or criminals. Structure your words in lexical fields, such as verbs, nouns, typical expressions, etc. 2 Imagine a crime has been committed. What happens next? Put the steps of the criminal process in the right order (1 = first thing that happens, 5 = last thing that happens).

reading

The offender is tried in court. / There is a trial.

STEP

The police conduct a search / investigate the case.

STEP

The judge sentences the offender.

STEP

The jury hands down the verdict: guilty or not guilty?

STEP

The police arrest the (possible) offender.

STEP

The offender is charged.

VA N

STEP

3 When you get arrested, police have to read you your rights. In the US, these are called the ‘Miranda Rights’. You have probably already heard them in TV series or films. a Complete the Miranda Rights. Choose from the following words:

afford – against – answering – appointed – attorney – present – say – silent

‘You have the right to remain

. Anything you

you in a court of law. You have the right to an If you cannot

.

an attorney, one will be for you. If you decide to answer questions now

without a lawyer

, you have the right to stop at any time.’

b Watch the extract from the TV series Brooklyn 99 to check your answers.

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

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©

can and will be used

135


4 Watch the video surveillance videos. Which crimes were committed? Tip: check the scrambled words!

WATCHING

ERDAM EORRYBB

2

RGBUALRY

3

(ERDAM) ACKRCANGJI

4

CKPOITEGNICKP

5

ESTRSSNGPAI

6

LIPOCE UBRLATTIY

IN

1

7

SAORN

8

AANVDSMLI / YKNGEI A ACR

9

LLSEIGN RDGUS

10

UDI / CKRLSSEE NGRDVII

assault

2

attempted murder

3

conspiring to kidnap

4

domestic abuse

5

DUI / drink-driving

Chris Brown

Cole Sprouse

Jen Shah

Debby Ryan

©

1

Alex Caruso

James Charles

VA N

5 Read the following articles about celebrities who committed crimes or who were charged with a particular crime. Which crime was each of these celebrities accused of? Tick the box.

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6

extortion

7

grooming

8

looting

9

money laundering

10

possession of narcotics

11

robbery

12

scamming

13

violating / breaking curfew

14

wire fraud

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

reading


1

Beauty YouTuber James Charles has admitted sending sexually explicit messages to two 16-year-old boys. ‘I fully understand my actions and how they are wrong,’ the 21-year-old influencer said in a video posted to his YouTube channel on Thursday. Allegations against Charles first emerged on social media earlier this year. In February, the influencer – who has 25 million subscribers to his YouTube channel – was accused by one teenager of grooming, which Charles denied, saying he flirted with the person because he believed the boy to be 18.

IN

Charles had denied previous accusations, but in Thursday’s video, titled ‘Holding myself accountable’, he admitted wrongdoing. He says there were two incidents – one last year and one more recently – where he came to be aware that the person he was exchanging messages with was underage. ‘These conversations should have never happened,’ Charles said in the 14-minute video. He admitted he could have searched for them on other social media platforms and found their real ages. He also publicly apologised to the boys and said he would take time away from posting on social media to ‘educate’ himself about these issues.

VA N

Adapted from: www.bbc.com

Lakers guard Alex Caruso was arrested on June 22, 2021, for possession of marijuana and drug paraphernalia, Texas A&M police reported. Caruso had been trying to board a flight at Easterwood Airport in College Station, TX, when the Transportation and Security Administration searched his bags and found a herb grinder that contained weed.

©

He was reportedly arrested for possession of less than 2 ounces of the drug. Caruso was released after posting bond.

Source: https://usports.org

3

Debby Ryan, one of Disney’s biggest stars, was arrested for felony drunk driving, TMZ has learned. The star of Jessie was driving in L.A. last week at around 11 p.m. when she made a left in her Audi and slammed into a Mercedes. Our law enforcement sources say the driver claimed injury. Cops came, gave the actress a field sobriety test and promptly arrested her for felony DUI. It’s standard operating procedure for cops to arrest for a felony when there’s injury. Debby got a break: authorities decided to bump it down to a misdemeanor because the injury was minor and she blew a .11, which is not that much over the .08 legal limit. Debby – who’s out on $100k bail – has been charged with 2 criminal offences: driving under the influence and driving with a .08 blood alcohol level or higher.

Adapted from: www.tmz.com

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

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2

137


4

Real Housewives of Salt Lake City star Jen Shah was arrested by the feds on March 30, 2021, for allegedly ripping off people in a telemarketing scam. She is facing charges of conspiracy to commit wire fraud and conspiracy to commit money laundering, for which she could end up with up to 30 years in prison, if found guilty.

Source: ww.ranker.com

IN

According to an indictment, Shah and her associates ‘allegedly ripped off hundreds of victims across the country, many of whom were over 55, encouraging them to invest in dubious online projects and selling bogus business services from 2012 to as recently as this month.’

On 1 June 2020, Riverdale actor Cole Sprouse was arrested during a Black Lives Matter protest in Santa Monica. The protests had remained peaceful for the majority of the day. But as the group began to shrink and the event wound down, looters descended upon the area. It was in this fray that Sprouse was detained.

VA N

5

He said in a statement to Buzzfeed News: ‘We were given the option to leave, and were informed that if we did not retreat, we would be arrested. When many did turn to leave, we found another line of police officers blocking our route, at which point, they started zip tying us.’ He went on to express that ‘This is ABSOLUTELY not a narrative about me,’ and instead redirected focus onto the movement and greater consequences suffered by people of color during this time. Officers ended up arresting around 400 others during this time for causes including looting, assault, and breaking curfew. David Brown, another demonstrator who was also arrested and put in the same holding cell as Sprouse, said they were held for about 90 minutes, charged with a misdemeanor count of violating curfew, and then released soon after.

Source: www.insider.com

One of the most talked-about examples of domestic violence occurred in 2009 when rapper Chris Brown tried to push his then-girlfriend, pop star Rihanna, out of his car. The night before the Grammy awards that year, he banged her head against a passenger window and punched her repeatedly. He threatened to beat her again once they got home, but Rihanna had her assistant call the police, who arrested Brown and charged him with two felonies.

©

6

Brown pled guilty to felony assault by means likely to cause great bodily injury and was sentenced to five years’ probation and 180 days of community labor. He was also ordered via restraining order to stay away from Rihanna.

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138

But, Rihanna later had the restraining order against Brown lifted, and the two briefly reconciled — a scenario that’s not uncommon among victims of domestic violence, the NCADV reports.

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


‘I was that girl,’ said Rihanna in a November 2015 story in Vanity Fair. ‘That girl who felt that as much pain as this relationship is maybe I’m one of those people built to handle s*** like this. Maybe I’m the person who’s almost the guardian angel to this person, to be there when they’re not strong enough … when they just need someone to encourage them in a positive way and say the right thing.’ Eventually, Rihanna told Vanity Fair, she realized she couldn’t change Brown and deserved to be treated better by a romantic partner. She walked away from the relationship for good in 2013.

bogus: not genuine or true the crux: the decisive or most important point at issue; point of difficulty an indictment: (American English) a formal charge or accusation of a serious crime paraphernalia: different articles, especially the equipment needed for a particular activity to zip tie: to secure (something) with a zip tie or zip ties

VA N

Source: www.everydayhealth.com

IN

Still, her emotional scars lingered. In 2015, Rihanna told Vanity Fair, ‘I’m always concerned about whether people have good or bad intentions.’

6 Who is it?

SPOKEN INTERACTION

a Pair up!

b Choose one of the celebrities from the texts.

c Your classmate can ask you a maximum of 3 yes/no questions to find out which celebrity they picked. d Afterwards, switch roles.

Did you know?

Classification of crimes in the US

In general, the potential punishment for a crime determines its classification.

Jails are most often run by local governments and are designed to hold individuals awaiting or serving a short sentence. Prisons are operated by state governments and are designed to hold individuals convicted of crimes.

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

one hundred and thirty-nine

©

– Infraction: a low-level crime that does not carry any jail time but involves fines. – Misdemeanour: a crime that has a maximum jail sentence of a year or less. Punishment can also include payment of a fine, probation and community service. – Felony: the most serious type of criminal offence. It involves serious physical harm to victims and can lead to imprisonment of more than one year.

139


7 Word formation: complete the table. Fill in the nouns and verbs that are missing. Don’t forget to add articles (a/an) to the nouns when appropriate or to write the infinitive (e.g. to commit). Use a thesaurus or online dictionary, if necessary.

1

Crime

Criminal

Verb

e.g. a felony

e.g. a felon

e.g. to commit a felony

2 3

a kidnapping

4

looting

5

IN

6

money

a robbery

7

a conspirator

8

a scammer

9

to drive under the influence

10

an extortionist

11

an assailant fraud

13

a murder

14

(an) abuse

15

arson

to defraud

VA N

12

16

17

to carjack

pickpocketing

18

to trespass

a vandal

20

a burglar

©

19

one hundred and forty

140

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


8 Word formation: complete the table. Fill in the missing noun or complete the verb with a (fixed) preposition. Also complete the third column with related adjectives, adverbs or expressions. Check the texts if you need help. Don’t forget to add articles (a/an) to nouns when necessary or to write an infinitive. Use a thesaurus or online dictionary, if necessary. Verb 1 to abuse

Other (adjective, adverb, expression …)

an allegation (against)

She was arrested by the feds for ripping off people. behaviour

(domestic)

3

custody to bail (

5

to accuse someone be accused

)

She was

$100k bail.

He pointed an the suspect.

(or )

finger at

Don't worry, we will appeal the judge's sentence.

6

to appeal

7

to be arrested

8

to release

The police were instructed to release the prisoner his family.

9

to be sentenced

The judge was about to sentence on Max—10 years in prison.

VA N

Stop where you are! You are arrest!

10

a curfew

11

to charge someone (to be charged )

12

to claim

13

to conspire (

14

to convict someone (or to be convicted ) to deny

16

to detain

©

15

17

curfew charges

The went to court to recover damages that were sustained while working for the defendant.

)

They exchanged

,

glances.

a

murderer

a convict

to deny , a detainee

He was arrested and questioning.

for

to hold

to account

18

a bond

19

a verdict

bond Has the jury

a verdict?

20

to restrain

a restraining

21

to try for

Every website is speaking as if the actor's guilt is a forgone conclusion, when no criminal charges have even been made yet. This sort of needs to stop!

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

one hundred and forty-one

4

custody at the time.

He was

IN

2

Noun

141


9 Pair up! You will each get a card. Follow your teacher’s instructions.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

10 Play the relay game.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

11 Divide into groups. You will each watch a short true crime story. Fill in the table. Use the information to report back to your group and class.

WATCHING

Story n°

Information

Who? (culprit)

IN

Who? (victim) What? (crime)

Where? When?

VA N

Why? (motive)

Punishment?

12 Play the Bingo! game.

2 ⁄ Book ‘em!

1 Instead of saying ‘arresting someone’ you can say ‘book ‘em’. Which other idioms are pictured below? Complete the crime idioms. The pictures may help you! a Which verb is missing? Choose from the verbs below. Not all verbs can be used.

©

blow – come – cover – do – get – keep – make – put/remain – spill – take

1

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142

2

3

time

behind bars

your tracks

=

=

=

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


4

5

the rap for something

=

=

IN

the whistle

6

7

the beans

=

=

VA N

clean

b Which word, which these idioms have in common, is missing here?

1

2

3

to be above the

to have a run-in with the

=

=

=

©

to take the into your own hands

c Do the same as in exercise b.

2

to cook the

to do something by the

=

=

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

one hundred and forty-three

1

143


d Complete these idioms with the appropriate body-part word.

2

to get caught red=

3

to keep your

to the music

clean

=

=

5

VA N

4

IN

1

to get a slap on the

to point the at someone

=

=

e Complete these phrases with the correct animal.

©

1

2

to on someone

a

=

=

3

burglar

a stool =

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144

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


2 What do the idioms in exercise 1 mean? Look them up in an (online) dictionary. Add the meaning to exercise 1. 3 Complete the sentences with an appropriate idiom. 1 Until the court hearing, the suspect will remain

. with everybody about what I’d been

2 I thought it was time to doing. So, I told them the truth.

. She will have to deal with

the consequences of her actions.

IN

3 If she lied to me, she’ll just have to

to the

4 He always seemed scared to death that I was going to

cops, and he would be charged with fraud. But I am not a rat!

5 She knew that when the auditors looked over the books there would be no hiding the fact that and £3 million was missing.

she had

VA N

6 The killer returned to the scene of the crime to

.

He wiped all surfaces clean to remove possible fingerprints.

with the law. He was arrested for burglary.

7 José finally had

Luckily, he won’t have to

, since this was his first offence.

8 The FBI finally got a break when one of the mob boss’s top gang members turned .

9 These gangsters robbed someone on the street and all they got was

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©

. What is this world coming to?

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

145


4 Write a short paragraph describing what you see in the picture.

writing

a Preparation: choose at least 5 crime-related idioms and write them next to the picture.

IN

b Action: write your paragraph (at least 50 words).

VA N

c Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist. Share with a classmate. Checklist: writing a short paragraph

Yes

I think so

No

©

1 Content and structure • I used 5 idioms correctly. • My paragraph is well-structured and logical. 2 Language • I used correct (crime) words and idioms. • I used correct grammar. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

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146

Feedback

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


3 ⁄ Whydunnit? SPOKEN INTERACTION

1 What was the motive? a Work with a partner or in small groups. b You will each get a card with a true crime story and the motive (why did that person commit the crime?). c Have your partner guess what the motive was by asking yes/no questions.

IN

d Switch roles when they guess correctly. 2 Brainstorm the question ‘Why do people commit crimes?’. Write down motives you can think of. Try to come up with at least 4.

VA N

3 Watch the video Factors affecting criminal behaviour and answer the questions.

WATCHING

a Explain: ‘No crime is monocausal’.

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©

b The video mentions 6 factors. Add them to the head of each column.

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

147


c Add these words to the corresponding column. crimes involving drugs – DNA – greed – lack of education – measure the heads of criminals – mitigating factor – people you hang out with – people suffering from mental illnesses – poverty – rioting – treason – trying to assassinate the king – unemployment – white-collar crimes d Were your possible motives in exercise 2 mentioned in the video? If not, add them to the correct column. 4 Roleplay a conversation between an arresting officer and a detainee.

IN

a Preparation: work with a partner. You will each get a ‘Record of arrest’ and a different mugshot. Think of a possible crime and motive. Fill in the record of arrest.

writing

b Action: the detainee gives all the required information and describes the crime and motive to the officer. Afterwards, switch roles.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

c Reflection: reflect on your task by filling in the checklist. Checklist: describing crime and motive

Yes

I think so

No

VA N

1 Content and structure • I filled in the record of arrest. • I gave all the required information. • I clearly described the crime I committed. • I had (good) motive to commit the crime. 2 Language • I used correct words to describe crime. • I used correct words to describe motive. • I used correct grammar. • I paid attention to my pronunciation.

Feedback

©

CHECK 1, see p. 182

STEP 2 ⁄ What happened?

Describing past events

1 Read the short story the case of the lower case letter by Jack Delany and answer the questions.

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148

a What are homophones? Give an example.

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

reading


b What is Mrs. Nettleston looking for?

the case of the lower case letter 1

She breezed into my office one cold September morning. I was enjoying a hot cup of Starbuck’s finest and surfing the web for local news. The famous lexical semanticist Professor Edgar Nettleston had been found dead, a gunshot wound to the head. The police verdict was suicide. She held out an elegant hand as she floated towards me and I glimpsed a wedding band with a stone the size of a peanut M&M.

VA N

5

IN

c How does the main character know where to look in the wine cellar?

“I’m Edith Nettleston.”

“Sorry about the old man.”

“I’m not. He loved me, but he loved words more. I’ll be brief. My husband was working on a paper that will rock the very foundation of lexical semantics. It’s worth a fortune in 10 lecture tours, but nobody can find it. I believe his suicide note is a clue to its whereabouts.” She removed a scrap of paper from her blouse.

©

“edith. i’m not going to whine, i’ve had a good life. i’ve found wealth and happiness as a teacher, a seller of knowledge. but i find myself depressed beyond hope ... and so i’m choosing the hour and manner of my own demise. i have treated you badly. i demanded 15 you dyed your brown curls blonde. i thought i could buy you when i should have won your love. i called you a witch. i’d complain: where’s the woman i married? i said you ate too much. if i wanted change, i could have used a carrot rather than a stick. you probably wanted to wring my neck. forgive me. farewell.”

20

“It’s all written in lower case. My husband was a stickler for correct grammar. I refuse to believe it doesn’t mean something.”

25

“Secondly, it has a more than usual number of homophones, words where there is another word with the same sound but different spelling and meaning. When dealing with a lexical semanticist, that’s surely no accident.” “If we read those homophones in order, we have: whine, seller, hour, manner. And translating to their homophones: Wine cellar our manor.”

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

one hundred and forty-nine

“Mrs. Nettleston, I think I can help you. There’s a couple of odd things about this letter. Firstly, as you say, it’s written entirely in lower case. Mr. Nettleston was a world-renowned lexical semanticist, not a teenager texting his BFFs.”

149


Several hours later, we arrived at the Nettlestons’ country house and immediately headed 30 for the basement. A flip of a light switch revealed tunnels filled with rows of dark bottles. “Where is it? It would take years to search this place.” “Not so fast, Mrs. Nettleston. First I have to ask you something: your wedding ring diamond, how large is it? 35

“It’s eight carats. Edgar wouldn’t stop talking about it.”

IN

“That’s what I feared.” I pulled out my trusty revolver. “How you must have hated him and his lexical semantics! You figured you’d kill him and keep the money from the paper yourself. You forced him to write that suicide note, thinking you knew where it was. But he was suspicious and he’d already hidden it. And he had another surprise for you: the rest of the note, it doesn’t reveal where the paper is, it reveals his killer. The final homophones: 40 dyed buy won witch where’s ate carrot wring. That is: died by one which wears eight carat ring.”

VA N

As the cops left with Mrs. Nettleston I took a quick trip round the maze of tunnels. It didn’t take me long to find it. Most of the wine lay unpacked on racks but in one corner two cases sat stacked, one on top of each other. Carefully, I opened the lower one. Source: www.eastoftheweb.com

2 Look at these sentences taken from the text. She breezed into my office.

I took a quick trip round the maze of tunnels.

a Which tense do you recognize?

b What is the difference between the 2 verb forms?

c Do you remember how to form this tense? Complete the tables.

Form of the past simple: regular verbs (e.g. to pull)

Positive (+)

Negative (-)

Question (?)

(I / to pull out / my revolver.)

(I / not / to pull out / my revolver.)

(I / to pull out / my revolver?)

©

Example:

Rule:

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150

Keep in mind! Mind the spelling! Check the Summary of this unit, p. 171.

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


Form of the past simple: irregular verbs (e.g. to leave, to take, to be) Positive (+)

Negative (-)

Question (?)

(The cops / to leave / with Mrs. Nettleston.)

(It / not / to take / long.)

where the ring was? (Mrs. Nettleston / to know)

Example:

IN

Rule:

Example:

(The police verdict / to be / suicide.)

(It / not / to be / suicide.)

(It / to be / murder?)

VA N

Rule:

3 Fill in the past simple tense. Watch out for irregular verbs!

1

Beneath the silvery moonlight, our skin gleams like bones. Skinny-

dipping in the frigid waters of North Lake after the Halloween dance is a Bates Academy tradition, though not many students have the guts to honor it. Three years ago, I

5

(1 to be)

the first freshman to not only jump but stay under so long they (2 to think) I’d drowned. I

©

(3 not to mean) to.

I

(4 to jump) because I could, because I was bored, because one of the

seniors had made fun of my pathetic dollar-store costume and I

10

(6 to kick) down to

(5 to want) to prove I was better than her. I

(7 to stay) there, crumbling silt until my lungs

(8 to sink) my fingers into the soft, (9 to twist) and

(10 to convulse), because even though the freezing water 15

(11 to cut) like

knives, it was soundless. It was peaceful. It was like being encased safely in a thick block of

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the bottom, pushing past clumps of moss and silky strands of pondweed. And I

151


ice, protected from the world. I might have stayed if I could. But my body (13 to break) the surface and the upperclasswomen

(12 not to allow) it. I screamed my name and

(15 to scatter) as campus police

we 20

(14 to pass) me a bottle of flat champagne, and (16 to break up)

the scene. That was my official ‘arrival’ at Bates. It was my first time away from home, and I was no one. I was determined to redesign myself completely into a Bates girl, and as soon (18 to know) exactly what

IN

(17 to take) that dive, I

as I

kind of girl I would be. The kind who jumps first and stays under ten seconds too long. Adapted from: Dana Mele, People Like Us

SPOKEN 4 Work with a partner. Read the short articles in ‘Dumbest criminals and how they got caught’. INTERACTION Roll the question word dice. Make a question with that question word about the articles. Use the past simple tense in your question. Your partner can look up the correct answer in the texts. e.g. Who vandalized a children’s campsite?

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written 5 Check the articles again. Write down 1 question starting with each of the question words. Swap INTERACTION papers with a different classmate. Have them write down the answer. Do the same for them, of course. Write full sentences. Use the past simple tense correctly.

1 When

?

2 Why

?

3 How

?

4 What

?

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5 Where

?

6 Who

?

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6 Answer the following questions and then fill in the grammar table. a Do you remember what the tense is in the example below? e.g. I’m choosing the hour and manner of my own demise. Tense: b Now look at these examples. What is this tense called then? Think logically. e.g. I was enjoying a hot cup of Starbuck’s finest and [was] surfing the web for local news.

Tense: c How is the tense in exercise b formed?

IN

My husband was working on a paper (…).

d Use the information from exercises a to c to fill in the table about the past continuous. Form of the past continuous (e.g. to work) Positive (+)

Question (?)

I was working.

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1st p. sing.

Negative (-)

2nd p. sing. 3rd p. sing.

1st p. plur.

We weren’t working.

2nd p. plur.

3rd p. plur.

Was he/she/it working?

Were you working?

They were working.

Rule:

1 The killer victim to walk past. 2 Where Nobody knows. 3 I just know he planned it all while I

4 ‘What a coincidence! I a dark, eerie voice. 5 What a stupid idea!

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(to lurk) in the bushes, waiting for his next (he to go) that night? What was his plan? (to sleep). (just to think) about you’, he said in (they really to consider) running away from home?

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7 Complete these sentences with the correct past continuous form.

153


8 Read these opening lines taken from different crime novels. Fill in the correct form of the past simple or past continuous.

1

“Mrs Bantry

(to dream). Her sweet peas had just taken a First at the

flower show. The vicar, dressed in cassock and surplice, the prizes in church. His wife

(to give out)

(to wander) past, dressed in a bathing

suit, but, as is the blessed habit of dreams, this fact

(to arouse not) the

– Agatha Christie, The Body in the Library

2

“It

IN

disapproval of the parish in the way it would assuredly have done in real life …”

(to be) five o’clock on a winter’s morning in Syria. Alongside the

platform at Aleppo

(to stand) the train grandly designated in railway

(to consist) of a kitchen and dining-

guides as the Taurus Express. It

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car, a sleeping-car and two local coaches.”

– Agatha Christie, Murder on the Orient Express

3

When I finally

(to catch up) with Abraham Trahearne, he

(to drink) beer with an alcoholic bulldog named Fireball Roberts in

a ramshackle joint just outside of Sonoma, California, drinking the heart right out of a fine spring afternoon.

– James Crumley, The Last Good Kiss

We

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4

(to be) about to give up and call it a night when somebody (to drop) the girl off the bridge.

– John D. MacDonald, Darker than Amber

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5

I

(to stand) on my head in the middle of my office when the door (to open) and the best-looking woman I’d seen in three weeks (to walk) in.

– Robert Crais, Stalking the Angel

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9 Listen to the crime podcast The Disappearance of Lisa Marie Young and describe what happened. listening a Preparation: complete the fact file. First, write the wh-questions in full (use the past simple tense). Then, write the answers to the questions.

writing

(WHO / TO DISAPPEAR)

(WHAT / TO HAPPEN)

(WHERE / IT / TO TAKE PLACE)

IN

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(WHEN / SHE / TO BE HEARD OF / LAST)

b Action: write a short summary of the events. Use the past tenses correctly. Use the verbs provided.

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to become concerned – to club – to drive – not to drive – not to feel – to leave – to meet – to mention – to offer – to text

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c Reflection: check your summary by filling in the checklist. Checklist: summarizing a podcast

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • My summary clearly describes all key elements. • I used all 10 verbs. • My summary is logical.

Feedback

IN

2 Language • I used correct (crime) words. • I used correct past tenses (past simple and past continuous). • I used correct grammar. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

10 Listen to the last part of the podcast and answer the questions.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

b Now listen. Do you share the same opinion?

listening

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a Before you listen to the podcast, ask yourself what you think happened to Lisa Marie. Do you think there was a motive? If so, what was it? Discuss with a partner.

c Imagine you are the officer interrogating Christopher Adair. Write down at least 5 questions you would ask him. Use different WH-question words. Use past tenses. 1 2 3 4

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5

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156

CHECK 2, see p. 187

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STEP 3 ⁄ This time there would be no witnesses Reading and writing crime stories

1 ⁄ In my book SPOKEN INTERACTION

1 Discuss with a partner. Report back to class. a Look at the 2 book covers. Which book cover appeals to you most? Why? b Look at the titles. What do you think the books will be about?

IN

2

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1

2 Read the first paragraphs of both books. Decide which story you would like to continue reading.

1

reading

I HUNT KILLERS – BARRY LYGA

1

It was a beautiful day. It was a beautiful field. Except for the body. CHAPTER 1

By the time Jazz got to the field outside town, yellow police tape was everywhere, strung from stake to stake in a sort of drunken, off-kilter hexagon.

The field was thick with cops—state troopers in their khakis, a cluster of deputies in their blues, even a crime-scene tech in jeans and a Windbreaker. That last one really impressed Jazz; the town of Lobo’s Nod was too small for its own official crime-scene unit, so usually the deputies handled evidence collection at the scene. The fact that they’d 10 actually called in a real, live tech from two towns over—and on a Sunday morning, no less— meant they were taking this seriously. Some of the deputies were down on all fours, heads down, and Jazz was amused to see a guy with a metal detector just outside the crimescene tape, slowly pacing back and forth. One of the staties had a cheap little digital video camera and carefully paced the perimeter of the scene.

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5

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2

MONSTER – WALTER DEAN MYERS The best time to cry is at night, when the lights are out and someone is being beaten up and screaming for help. That way even if you sniffle a little they won’t hear you. If anybody knows that you are crying, they’ll start talking about it and soon it’ll be your turn to get beat up when the lights go out. There is a mirror over the steel sink in my cell. It’s six 5 inches high, and scratched with the names of some guys who were here before me. When I look into the small rectangle, I see a face looking back at me but I don’t recognize it. It doesn’t look like me. I couldn’t have changed that much in a few months. I wonder if I will look like myself when the trial is over.

IN

1

reading

3 Do the reading and listening quest based on the book you chose. 4 What did you think?

listening writing

a Preparation: what was the story about? Describe characters, plot and setting. Fill in the table your teacher gives you.

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b Action: write down your opinion about what you read and listened to. Use a separate piece of paper. Make sure that you refer to the elements from the plot and the characters. Use present and past tenses correctly. Write about 75 words. c Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist. Then share your opinion with a classmate who read / listened to the other extracts. Checklist: describing events

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • I wrote about 75 words. • I clearly described the main events from the novel. • My summary is logical and well-structured. • I gave my opinion and referred to the elements of the story. 2 Language • I used correct words. • I used correct present and past tenses. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

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Feedback

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158

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IN

2 ⁄ Cooking up the perfect mystery story

1 Think of a good crime novel you have read or crime series/film you have watched. Discuss it with a partner.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

a What made the story so good or memorable?

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b Which scene(s) do you particularly remember? Why do you think that is?

2 Read the text on how to write crime fiction and answer the questions.

reading

a Some words have been deleted. Complete the text, using the keywords below. Note: use the same missing keyword per paragraph. characters – conflict(s) – foreshadowing – limits and constraints – reader(s) – red herring(s) – stake(s) – urgency

7 elements of gripping suspense

Writing crime fiction

By Jordan Kantey: an education writer and fiction editor at Now Novel,

who has his Honours in English Literature from the University of Cape Town.

Suspense is a critical aspect of writing crime fiction. All the elements outlined below can

© 1

help to increase suspense over the course of your novel: Create suspense in crime via

.

5

suspense throughout your crime novel, you need to have a handle on its central . The main question of your novel might be answering who the murderer of a character was. You can use this question and the tension it creates as a starting point for building suspense.

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. Before you can effectively create

Suspense arises from

159


Branching out from your major

, there may be smaller that also create tension. The investigator may interview two

10

suspects, for example, who hate one another. Each might imply that the other may have been involved. Suspense may be built around efforts to cover up unsavoury facts about the deceased. Suspense may also be generated as the investigative protagonist gets closer to the answer since this places their life in danger. Choose a timeframe that adds

.

IN

15

Unfolding your novel within a tight time frame is one of the best methods for building

suspense. Whether your protagonist is in a 24-hour race against time like Robert Langdon in

The Da Vinci Code or has all of 61 hours to save the day like Jack Reacher in the Lee Child novel 61 Hours, putting your protagonist on a ticking clock will likely make readers turn pages. 20

There are a few pitfalls to be cautious of in a time-focused approach to writing crime

fiction. One is that effective suspense requires some let-up. If you’ve ever been through an

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extended period of very high stress, you know that there comes a point where you begin to disengage from the situation to reduce stress. The same thing can happen with fiction. It’s seldom effective to sustain a constant mood of highest-level suspense for the entire

25

duration of a novel. Giving your protagonist a short period of time to solve a problem is an excellent approach to building suspense but be sure to create contrasts. Downtime gives readers a chance to catch their breath. It can even lull them into a false sense of security as you prepare the next surprise that will leave them even more interested and invested. The other issue you must deal with is the implication of having something unfold in a

30

short period of time. If your protagonist is on the run for 48 hours, is there time to eat or sleep? If not, what effect will this have? Be sure that you do not push beyond your readers’ suspension of disbelief.

Giving your character a limited amount of time to solve a problem is a great way to build suspense, but you can place constraints on your character that increase tension in other ways as well.

©

35

Explore other

.

Writing crime fiction that transpires in a limited physical space is another effective way to create tension. Stephen King does this in some of his novels: in Cujo, a woman and her son are trapped in a car by a rabid dog, and in Gerald’s Game a woman is handcuffed to a bed.

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40

The central characters in Elizabeth Engstrom’s novel Lizard Wine are snowbound in a car with a dangerous ex-convict. You can challenge your character in other ways, too. The protagonist of King’s The Girl Who Loved Tom Gordon is lost in the woods. What happens if your protagonist is in a foreign

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country where they cannot speak the language, or has run out of money? By reducing the 45

options available to your main character, you will build suspense. Incorporate crime-complicating ‘

.

’ are clues that intentionally mislead readers,

and they can be used to great effect in writing crime fiction. For example, one may involve the murderer’s identity. David Lynch’s cult TV show Twin Peaks made masterful use of this method. If you have created several

IN

50

plausible suspects, the reader may become particularly engrossed when the protagonist is alone with any of them.

so that there are a number of

You might plan your

, the

potential alternatives answers. If you just have one 55

savvy suspense fan might see it coming, but if you include multiple ones, you can keep readers guessing.

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do not just relate to murder suspects. Almost anything including a piece of information or a situation.

can be a

For example, you can create a series of

60

as a protagonist is

walking down a street at night. A female protagonist might think a man is following her but he ends up entering a local restaurant. A short while later she might think she hears his footsteps again but it’s only a piece of newspaper scudding behind her. can work with other elements to increase suspense.

Create atmosphere and mood with

.

involves suggestions of things that may happen. It may

65

be direct or indirect. For example, an example of indirect

might be the protagonist’s arrival at a house during a terrible storm (a well-known cliché). The storm is a suggestion of the terrible experience the protagonist will have when a crime

©

is committed at the house.

70

can take other forms as well. For example, characters can

be given information that acts as

. This information might

prison sentence for a violent crime, and this may end up being a red herring intended to misdirect the reader’s attention away from the actual perpetrator of the crime. Another 75

more direct type of foreshadowing would be one character learning that another has a terrible secret.

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one hundred and sixty-one

be misleading, or not. The protagonist might learn that one character served a lengthy

161


You can use atmosphere and mood to great effect creating suspense. Examples: an oppressive atmosphere in an old house where a murder has taken place; a gloomy deserted urban street or country lane, or a tense police precinct where everyone is on 80

edge as a killer threatens to strike again. Keep raising the

. must be crucial. This might be a

Things that are at

IN

character’s life or livelihood, a long-held dream or something else, but it cannot be unimportant. Furthermore, over the course of the novel, the 85

must go up rather than stay the same or decrease. For example, a crime novel might

begin with a police detective being given a murder case. Over the course of the novel, the

detective’s job could start to rest on solving this single crime, and the detective’s marriage become higher than the initial

might begin to suffer. The motivations for solving the crime.

: an amateur detective starts

Another example of raising

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90

out interested in solving a crime. Over time, the protagonist’s loved ones might become potential targets of the antagonist. This format of raising

was used successfully by the writers of Showtime’s crime thriller series Dexter. Suddenly .

the protagonist’s actions have much higher

95

Honor the unwritten contract with your

.

trusts you to play fair.

You can only build suspense if the

’s trust by fulfilling any promises that you make

Build the

throughout the book. This means you must follow through on any major set-ups. This might feel tricky in the context of red herrings, but red herrings are not so much meant to

100

.

trick as to mislead

©

In other words, red herrings should always have an alternate explanation so that the does not feel cheated. Anti-climax has been used by many

writers effectively, but you should weigh departing from common genre expectations against the possible displeasure of

105

If you spend a lot of time on some detail so that it seems like it is going to be significant and then you abandon it, your

other hand, if you show your one hundred and sixty-two

162

. may feel frustrated. On the early on that your set-ups

pay off, then you can build suspense with longer and more complex set-ups with story arcs across the entire book (or series) and sustain your 110

’s

interest throughout.

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Create stronger

.

All of this foreshadowing and suspense-building does little if the reader does not care about what happens in the climax of your novel. The best way to make sure that the reader cares is by creating strong 115

that are real to the reader. When

characters feel real, the reader will care what happens to them and about the suspenseful situations they encounter.

behaviour should seem

reasonably plausible to the reader.

IN

Building suspense requires mastering a number of writing techniques. It also requires

making sure that you have engaging characters whose challenges matter to them and to 120

your readers. Suspense needs conflict and drama to grow. Compressing time or limiting the character’s freedom or means in some other way can help build suspense. Planting

false clues via red herrings that leave the reader and characters unsure as to who can be trusted is also effective. Authors writing crime fiction must create strong motivation for readers to invest in seeing suspenseful setups through to their conclusion.

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Source: www.nownovel.com

b Are the following statements true or false? Correct if false. Statement

When you add the element of urgency to your novel, be sure to add some scenes where tension is reduced and your reader can relax.

2

Trapping your protagonist on an island, for example, also adds suspense and tension to your novel.

3

Weather descriptions are a popular way of adding the element of urgency.

False

4

It is better to use one good red herring in your novel than several.

5

The stakes in a story can either go up or stay the same.

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1

True

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3 Which element described in the text in exercise 2 do you recognize in the following pictures and excerpts?

1

PROLOGUE

IN

FROM THE JOURNALS OF DR. LESTER SHEEHAN MAY 3, 1993 I haven’t laid eyes on the island in several years. The last time was from a friend’s boat that ventured into the outer harbor, and I could see it off in the distance, past the inner ring, shrouded in the summer haze, a careless smudge of paint against the sky. I haven’t stepped foot on it in more than two decades, but Emily says (sometimes joking, sometimes not) that she’s not sure I ever left. She said once that time is nothing to me but a series of bookmarks that I use to jump back and forth through the text of my life, returning again and again to the events that mark me, in the eyes of my more astute colleagues, as bearing all the characteristics of the classic melancholic. Emily may be right. She is so often right.

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– Dennis Lehane, Shutter Island

2

Frodo: It’s a pity Bilbo didn’t kill [Gollum] when he had the chance. Gandalf: Pity? It was pity that stayed Bilbo’s hand. Many that die deserve life, and some that live deserve death. Can you give it to them, Frodo? Do not be too eager to deal out death in judgment. Even the very wise cannot see all ends. My heart tells me that Gollum has some part to play, for good or ill, before this is over. The pity of Bilbo may rule the fate of many. – J.R.R Tolkien, The Fellowship of the Ring

3

As it turns out, Sirius Black isn't out to hurt Harry but is actually seeking to protect Harry from the real evil hiding under his nose. Peter Pettigrew, the person truly responsible for the death of Harry's parents, transformed himself into a rat and became the Weasley family's pet rat, Scabbers.

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– J.K. Rowling, Harry Potter and the prisoner of Azkaban

4

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reading

At the end of Batman Begins, Batman receives a joker card from Jim Gordon. This card was recovered by a policeman named J.Kerr, a common alias of The Joker.

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5

In the blink of an eye, everyone disappears. Gone. Except for the young. There are teens, but not one single adult. Just as suddenly, there are no phones, no internet, no television. No way to get help. And no way to figure out what’s happened. Hunger threatens. Bullies rule. A sinister creature lurks. Animals are mutating. And the teens themselves are changing, developing new talents—unimaginable, dangerous, deadly powers—that grow stronger by the day. It’s a terrifying new world. Sides are being chosen, a fight is shaping up. Townies against rich kids. Bullies against the weak. Powerful against powerless. And time is running out: on your 15th birthday, you disappear just like everyone else ...

IN

– Michael Grant, Gone

4 Describe tricks used in one of your favourite novels or TV series.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

a Preparation: think back to the novel or TV series you had in mind in exercise 1. Which ‘tricks of the trade’ you read about in the article in exercise 2 were used?

b Action: describe at least 3 ‘tricks’. Look up the information online if you don’t remember everything. Then discuss your findings with a partner. Example from my book/TV series

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Trick of the trade

3 ⁄ A good opener

1 Read the following opening paragraphs.

reading

a Which of these would you say are ‘good’ opening lines? Which ones would you consider ‘bad’? Give them a thumbs up or thumbs down! Line n°

C D

Jacky Eubanks’ DOs or DON’Ts

1

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2

3

5

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4

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Line n°

C D

Jacky Eubanks’ DOs or DON’Ts

6

7

The blood seeped out of the body like bad peach juice from a peach that had been left on one side so long the bottom became rotten while it still looked fine on the top but had started to attract fruit flies, and this had the same effect, but with regular flies, that is not say there weren’t some fruit flies around because, after all, this was Miami.

3

She slinked through my door wearing a dress that looked like it had been painted on … not with good paint, like Behr or Sherwin-Williams, but with that watered-down stuff that bubbles up right away if you don’t prime the surface before you slap it on, and – just like that cheap paint – the dress needed two more coats to cover her.

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2

It was the bright yellow tape that finally convinced me my sister was dead. When the police had called me, I’d cried for her, but afterward a slender thread of suspicion had snaked into my brain and coiled itself around my thoughts. Claudia was deceitful, like every junkie has to be, but she also had a temper and hated to be ignored. I’d kept my distance from her since September; maybe being the butt of the world’s worst practical joke was the price I would pay for four months of silence.

IN

1

6

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5

Ten days after the war ended, my sister Laura drove a car off a bridge. The bridge was being repaired: she went right through the Danger sign. The car fell a hundred feet into the ravine, smashing through the treetops feathery with new leaves, then burst into flames and rolled down into the shallow creek at the bottom. Chunks of the bridge fell on top of it. Nothing much was left of her but charred smithereens.

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4

When the phone rang, Parker was in the garage, killing a man. His knees pressed down on the interloper’s back, his hands were clasped around his forehead. He heard the phone ring, distantly, in the house, as he jerked his forearms back; heard the neck snap; heard the phone’s second ring, cut off, as Claire answered, somewhere in the house.

7

It was a dark and stormy night; the rain fell in torrents – except at occasional intervals, when it was checked by a violent gust of wind which swept up the streets (for it is in London that our scene lies), rattling along the housetops, and fiercely agitating the scanty flame of the lamps that struggled against the darkness.

It was a cold night in late autumn when they dumped the body in the disused quarry. They knew that it was an isolated spot, and that the water was very deep. What they didn’t know is that they were being watched.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

b Discuss your findings with a partner. Do you agree?

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2 Read the following text about writing a good opening scene of a crime novel. Look back at the opening lines in exercise 1. Which ‘rule(s)’ from the Jacky Eubanks text below is/are broken? Add the number(s) from the text to the table in exercise 1.

reading

HOW TO WRITE A KILLER FIRST SENTENCE & OPENING SCENE JACKY EUBANKS There is nothing more important in the first chapter of your book than hooking the reader from Page 1, Sentence 1. If you can keep them reading past the first sentence, half your battle is over. They’ve committed to your story.

IN

1

There are so many different ways to start a story, but some of them could kill the reader’s 5 interest. The last thing any writer wants to do is turn a reader off to their story! Here are some dos and don’ts for you to consider when first putting pen to paper.

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First Sentence DOs 1. Read several first sentences from your favorite books to get a feel for what’s been done right. 10 2. Practice writing out a whole list of first sentences and test them out on beta readers to find the best one. 3. Make the sentence evoke a question in the reader – Who is this character? What does this mysterious letter contain? Why are they talking about murder? 4. Make it exciting, funny, or shocking – something that will grab the reader’s attention. 15 5. Reflect the narrator’s or main character’s voice as accurately as possible. 6. Make it active and character-centered – something they are doing/thinking/sensing, or something that is said/done to them. First Sentence DON’Ts 7. Start with a character introduction that breaks the fourth wall. Ex: ‘Hi! My name is Susie 20 Jones, and this is the story of how I ______.’ 8. Use onomatopoeia. Ex: ‘BANG! The door slammed open.’ 9. Begin with describing a character’s physical appearance. Ex: ‘Her long, golden locks flowed in the breeze, glittering in the evening sun.’ 10. Begin with over-describing the setting down to the most minute, insignificant detail. 25 11. Write something purely for shock value, that has nothing to do with the actual story.

Opening Scene DON’Ts 18. Use backstory or flashbacks to explain things to the reader. Instead, act like your reader 35 already knows what the characters know. This adds an air of intrigue. Slowly throughout the story you can reveal a character’s past, but never in the opening scene. 19. Use prologues. I’m guilty of this (because I personally love prologues), but they’re currently considered a major literary faux pas. 20. Delay the action. Get to the inciting incident ASAP!

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Opening Scene DOs 12. Open at, or as close to as possible, the inciting incident. 13. Drop the reader directly into the scene so they’re immediately in the action. 14. Intentionally implement foreshadowing (but make sure it’s not obvious). 30 15. Introduce important characters. 16. Set the setting (create an authentic world). 17. Establish voice.

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40

21. Fill the scene with lots of inner monologue or prose. 22. Make it overdramatic or trite. And, like any writing advice, once you know the rules, you can break them.

Source: www.jacquelyneubanks.com

IN

So if you’ve written a first sentence or opening scene that’s full of DON’Ts, but feel like it’s still stinkin’ awesome, then go ahead and use it. Just be sure to test it out with readers to 45 get a feel for what they like best. These aren’t hard & fast rules, but more like guidelines to write within the boundaries of. The best part about first sentences & opening scenes is that there are endless ways to tackle them. You can be as creative or as textbook as you want. There is no ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ here. a faux pas: a blunder or mistake trite: dull and boring because it has been said or told too many times

3 Do you recognize these opening lines from famous films? Match lines to film scenes!

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I was sheriff of this county when I was 25 years old. Hard to believe. My grandfather was a lawman. Father too. Me and him was sheriffs at the same time, him up in Plano and me out here. I think he’s pretty proud of that. I know I was. Some of the old-time sheriffs never even wore a gun. Folks find that hard to believe. Jim Scarborough never carried one. That’s the younger Jim. Gaston Boykins wouldn’t wear one up in Comanche County. I always liked to hear about the oldtimers. Never missed a chance to do so. You can’t help but compare yourself against the old-timers. Can’t help but wonder how they’d have operated these times.

1

©

2

I believe in America. America has made my fortune. I raised my daughter in the American fashion; I gave her freedom but taught her never to dishonor her family. She found a boyfriend, not an Italian. She went to the movies with him, stayed out late. Two months ago, he took her for a drive, with another boyfriend. They made her drink whiskey and then they tried to take advantage of her. She resisted; she kept her honor. So, they beat her like an animal. When I went to the hospital her nose was broken, her jaw was shattered and held together by wire, and she could not even weep because of the pain.

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168

3

When I think of my wife, I always think of her head. I picture cracking her lovely skull, unspooling her brains, trying to get answers. The primal questions of a marriage: What are you thinking? How are you feeling? What have we done to each other?

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

reading


IN

4

MALORIE We are going on a trip now. Taking the rowboat down the river. It could be a long trip. It could be quick. But the important thing is that you both do every single thing I say. Understand? BOY Yes. GIRL Yes. MALORIE It’s cold now, but it will warm up when the sun is high. You have your blankets. You have your folds. There is nothing more you need from here. Do you understand me? BOY Yes. GIRL Yes. MALORIE Under no circumstances will either one of you remove your blindfolds. If I find that you have, I will hurt you. Do you understand? BOY Yes. MALORIE I need you both to listen as close as you can. On the river. Listen beyond the water, into the woods. If you hear anything in those woods, tell me. If you hear something in the water, you tell me. Understand?

VA N

5

My husband used to tell me I have an overactive imagination. I can’t help it. I mean, haven’t you ever been on a train and wondered about the lives of the people who live near the tracks? The lives you’ve never lived. These are things I want to know. Twice a day I sit in the third car from the front where I have the perfect view into my favorite house: Number 15 Beckett Road ...

A

C

B

E

1

2

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

3

4

5

one hundred and sixty-nine

©

D

169


4 Rewrite an opening paragraph.

writing

a Preparation: go back to exercise 1. Pick one of the examples of bad opening lines.

IN

b Action: rewrite the paragraph (about 30-50 words), sticking to the dos and don’ts you read about in the article in exercise 2.

c Reflection: check your paragraph by filling in the checklist. Afterwards, ask a classmate for some feedback.

VA N

Checklist: rewriting an opening paragraph

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • I wrote about 30-50 words. • I stuck to the dos on how to write an opening paragraph. 2 Language • I used correct words. • I used correct past tenses. • I used correct grammar. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

Feedback

You clearly stuck to do or don’t n° What you did really well:

What you could work on:

©

CHECK 3, see p. 198

one hundred and seventy

170

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


SUMMARY

1 Past simple

IN

The detective was enjoying a cup of coffee when Mrs. Nettleston walked into his office.

(Past simple and past continuous)

GRAMMAR

HOW TO tell a story in the past

FORM Positive (+)*

Negative (-)

Question (?)

1st p. sing.

I laughed.

I didn’t laugh.

Did I laugh?

VA N

Subject

2nd p. sing. You laughed.

You didn’t laugh.

Did you laugh?

3rd p. sing.

He/She laughed.

He/She didn’t laugh.

Did he/she laugh?

1st p. plur.

We laughed.

We didn’t laugh.

Did we laugh?

2nd p. plur.

You laughed.

You didn’t laugh.

Did you laugh?

3rd p. plur.

They laughed.

They didn’t laugh.

Did they laugh?

Rule:

Subject + base form of the verb + -(e)d

Subject + didn’t/did not + base form of the verb

Did + subject + base form of the verb

*Irregular verbs: Mind the irregular verbs in the positive form. You have to learn them by heart.

USE – Consecutive actions in the past e.g. The detective pulled out his revolver and called the cops. – The events in a story that is told in the past e.g. When the detective read the letter he immediately knew who had killed Mr. Nettleston.

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

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©

Keep in mind: – M ind the spelling of regular verbs like ’try’ (tried), ’stop’ (stopped), ’arrive’ (arrived), ’travel’ (travelled) in the positive form. – I n the negative, the auxiliary can have a long or short form: e.g. It didn’t take the detective long to figure out who killed Mr. Nettleston. – ’To be’ is a special verb: there is no ’did (not)’ for negative sentences and questions. e.g. It wasn’t suicide. e.g. Was it suicide?

171


2 Irregular verbs Past simple

Past participle My notes

arise

arose

arisen

be

was/were

been

bear

bore

born/borne

beat

beat

beaten

become

became

become

begin

began

begun

bend

bent

bent

bet

bet

bet

bid

bid/bade

bid/bidden

bite

bit

bitten

blow

blew

blown

break

broke

broken

bring

brought

brought

build

built

built

burst

burst

burst

buy

bought

bought

cast

cast

cast

catch

caught

caught

choose

chose

chosen

come

came

come

cost

cost

cost

cut

cut

cut

deal

dealt

dealt

dig

dug

dug

do

did

done

draw

drew

drawn

drink

drank

drunk

©

VA N

IN

Base form

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172

drive

drove

driven

eat

ate

eaten

fall

fell

fallen

feed

fed

fed

feel

felt

felt

fight

fought

fought

find

found

found

fly

flew

flown

forget

forgot

forgotten

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


Past simple

Past participle My notes

forgive

forgave

forgiven

freeze

froze

frozen

get

got

got/gotten

give

gave

given

go

went

gone

grow

grew

grown

hang

hanged/hung

hanged/hung

have

had

had

hear

heard

heard

hide

hid

hidden

hit

hit

hit

hold

held

held

hurt

hurt

hurt

keep

kept

kept

know

knew

known

laid

laid

lead

led

led

leave

left

left

lend

lent

lent

let

let

let

lie

lay

lain

light

lit/lighted

lit/lighted

lose

lost

lost

make

made

made

mean

meant

meant

meet

met

met

pay

paid

paid

prove

proved

proved/proven

put

put

put

quit

quit

quit

read

read

read

ride

rode

ridden

ring

rang

rung

rise

rose

risen

run

ran

run

say

said

said

see

saw

seen

seek

sought

sought

©

lay

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

one hundred and seventy-three

VA N

IN

Base form

173


Past simple

Past participle My notes

sell

sold

sold

send

sent

sent

set

set

set

shake

shook

shaken

shine

shone/shined

shone/shined

shoot

shot

shot

show

showed

shown

shut

shut

shut

sing

sang

sung

sink

sank

sunk

sit

sat

sat

sleep

slept

slept

slide

slid

slid

speak

spoke

spoken

spend

spent

spent

VA N

IN

Base form

split

split

spread

spread

spread

stand

stood

stood

steal

stole

stolen

stick

stuck

stuck

strike

struck

struck

swear

swore

sworn

swim

swam

swum

take

took

taken

teach

taught

taught

tear

tore

torn

tell

told

told

think

thought

thought

throw

threw

thrown

understand

understood

understood

undertake

undertook

undertaken

upset

upset

upset

wake

woke

woken

wear

wore

worn

win

won

won

wind

wound

wound

write

wrote

written

©

split

one hundred and seventy-four

174

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


3 Past continuous FORM Positive (+)

Negative (-)

Question (?)

1st p. sing.

I was talking.

I wasn’t talking.

Was I talking?

2nd p. sing. You were talking.

You weren’t talking.

Were you talking?

3rd p. sing.

He/She was talking.

He/She wasn’t talking.

Was he/she talking?

1st p. plur.

We were talking.

We weren’t talking.

Were we talking?

2nd p. plur.

You were talking.

You weren’t talking.

Were you talking?

3rd p. plur.

They were talking.

They weren’t talking.

Were they talking?

Rule:

Subject + was/were + -ing form of the verb

Subject + wasn’t (was not)/weren’t (were not) + -ing form of the verb

Was/Were + subject + -ing form of the verb

IN

Subject

VA N

USE

– Longer actions going on in the past e.g. Her husband was working on a paper. – (Background) descriptions e.g. Mrs. Nettleston was wearing a wedding band with a stone the size of a peanut M&M. Keywords: – ’while’ and ’as’ + past continuous e.g. As he was looking around the basement, the detective found the case of wine.

– ’when’ and ’suddenly’ + past simple e.g. I was sitting in my office when suddenly someone knocked on my door.

4 Past simple and past continuous

©

USE Combine the 2 tenses if you want to make clear something happened while you were in the middle of a longer action going on.

Past

was enjoying past continuous

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

walked past simple

Now

Future

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e.g. The detective was enjoying a cup of coffee when Mrs. Nettleston walked into his office.

175


Criminal

Verb

Translation

(domestic) abuse

an abuser

to abuse

(huiselijk geweld), misbruik – een misbruiker – misbruiken

arson

an arsonist

to commit arson

brandstichting – een brandstichter – brand stichten

assault

an assailant

to assault

aanval – een aanvaller – aanvallen

burglary

a burglar

to burgle

inbraak – een inbreker – inbreken

carjacking

a carjacker

to carjack

carjacking – een carjacker – carjacken

conspiracy

a conspirator

to conspire (to)

samenzwering – een samenzweerder – samenzweren

DUI

a drunk driver

to drive under the influence

rijden onder invloed – een dronken bestuurder – dronken rijden

extortion

an extortionist

to extort

afpersing – een afperser – afpersen

felony

a felon

to commit a felony

een zwaar misdrijf – een zware misdadiger – een zwaar misdrijf plegen

fraud (wire fraud)

a fraud

to defraud

fraude – een fraudeur – frauderen

to groom

grooming, lokken – groomen, lokken

IN

Crime

VA N

VOCABULARY

1 CRIMES AND CRIMINALS

grooming

a kidnapper

to kidnap

ontvoering – een ontvoerder – ontvoeren

looting

a looter

to loot

plunderen – een plunderaar – plunderen

money laundering

a money launderer

to launder money

geld witwassen – een geldwitwasser – geld witwassen

murder

a murderer

to murder

moord – een moordenaar – vermoorden

pickpocketing

a pickpocket

to pickpocket

zakkenrollen – een zakkenroller – zakkenrollen

©

kidnapping

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176

police brutality

politiegeweld

possession of narcotics

drugbezit

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


Crime

Criminal

Verb

Translation

robbery (armed robbery)

a robber

to rob

(gewapende) overval – een overvaller – overvallen

scam

a scammer

to scam

oplichterij – een oplichter – oplichten

to sell drugs

drugs verkopen

a trespasser

to trespass

verboden terrein betreden – een overtreder – verboden terrein betreden

vandalism

a vandal

to vandalise

vandalisme – een vandaal – vernielen

2 OTHER CRIME WORDS

andere

Noun

Expression

Translation

an allegation (against)

allegedly

een beschuldiging (tegen) – zogezegd

custody

to be/remain in custody

voorlopige hechtenis, voorarrest – in voorarrest zitten/blijven

a curfew

to break curfew

een avondklok – de avondklok overtreden

a bond

to post bond

een borg – een borg betalen

a verdict

to reach a verdict

een vonnis – tot een besluit komen

an offender

een overtreder

a misdemeanour

een misdrijf

(domestic) abuse

abusive behaviour

misbruiken – misbruik (huiselijk geweld) – mishandeling

to account (for)

an account

to hold accountable

zich verantwoorden (voor) – rekenschap – verantwoordelijk houden

©

to abuse

to accuse someone (of)

an accusation

iemand beschuldigen (van) – een beschuldiging

to appeal against

an appeal

in beroep gaan tegen – een beroep

to arrest someone (for)/ to be arrested (for)

an arrest

iemand arresteren (voor)/ gearresteerd worden (voor) – een arrestatie

to bail (out)

bail

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

to be out on bail

op borgtocht vrijkopen – borgsom – op borgtocht vrij zijn

one hundred and seventy-seven

VA N

Verb

IN

trespassing

177


Verb

Noun

to be released (on)

a release

vrijgelaten worden – een vrijlating

to be sentenced (to)

a sentence

veroordeeld worden (tot) – een veroordeling, vonnis, uitspraak

to charge (with)

a charge, charges

to claim

a claim

to face charges

Translation

beschuldigen (van) (ten laste leggen) – een beschuldiging (een tenlastelegging) – berecht worden

IN

to conduct a search

Expression

beweren – een bewering een zoekactie uitvoeren

conspiracy (to)

to convict someone (of)

a conviction/ a convict

to deny

denial

samenzweren – een samenzwering

iemand veroordelen (tot) – een veroordeling, vonnis/ een veroordeelde

to deny accusations

ontkennen – ontkenning – beschuldigingen ontkennen

VA N

to conspire (to)

to detain

detention/ a detainee

vasthouden – aanhouding, hechtenis/een gedetineerde

to investigate

an investigation

onderzoeken – een onderzoek

to restrain

a restraint

to sentence (to)

a sentence

veroordelen (tot) – een veroordeling, vonnis

to try (for)

a trial

berechten (voor) – een rechtszaak, proces

a restraining order

beperken – een beperking – dwang/straatverbod

3 WORDS RELATED TO ‘MOTIVE’

©

Word

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178

Translation

to assassinate (the king)

(de koning) vermoorden

greed

hebzucht

lack of education

gebrek aan onderwijs/opvoeding

mental illness

geestesziekte

mitigating factor

verzachtende factor, verzachtende omstandigheid

peer pressure

groepsdruk

poverty

armoede

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


Word

Translation

rioting

rellen, oproerig worden

treason

landverraad

unemployment

werkloosheid

white-collar crimes

witteboordencriminaliteit (bv. fraude, oplichting, geldverduistering …)

IN

4 IDIOMS Translation

a cat burglar

een inbreker, geveltoerist

a stool pigeon

een verklikker, een verrader, een mol

to be above the law

boven de wet staan

to blow the whistle

verklikken, verlinken

to come clean

schoon schip maken, bekennen, opbiechten

to cook the books

knoeien met de boeken, de boekhouding vervalsen

to cover your tracks

je sporen uitwissen

to do something by the book

iets volgens het boekje doen, de regels volgen

to do time

moeten zitten, in de gevangenis zitten

to face the music

de gevolgen onder ogen zien

to get a slap on the wrist

een tik op de vingers krijgen, berispt worden

to get caught red-handed

op heterdaad betrapt worden

to have a run-in with the law

in aanraking met de wet komen

to keep your nose clean

uit de problemen blijven, je gedeisd houden

to point the finger at someone

iemand met de vinger wijzen, beschuldigen

to put/remain behind bars

achter tralies zetten/moeten blijven

to rat on someone

iemand verraden

to spill the beans

uit de biecht klappen, alles vertellen

to take the law into your own hands

het recht in eigen handen nemen

to take the rap for something

voor iets opdraaien

one hundred and seventy-nine

©

VA N

Word

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

179


1 Elements of gripping suspense Create suspense in crime via conflict. – Who is the murderer? – Did the victim have enemies? – Does your main character have a hidden secret?

IN

CULTURAL BACKGROUND

1 HOW TO add suspense to a text

Choose a timeframe that adds urgency. – Is the clock ticking? Is time the enemy? – Will the victim die within 24 hours?

Explore other limits and constraints.

VA N

– Is your victim trapped or lost in the woods? – Is your story set on an island?

Incorporate crime-complicating red herrings.

– Which clues will mislead your reader?

Create atmosphere and mood with foreshadowing.

– What will predict something bad is about to happen: a terrible storm, a gloomy street or deserted house? – Or will someone warn your main character? Keep raising the stakes.

– What will become harder for your main character? – Who else will be in danger as the story unfolds?

©

2 Honour your reader

3 Create strong characters

one hundred and eighty

180

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


2 HOW TO write a good opening line or paragraph

1 First sentence DOs

2

3

Read several first sentences from your favourite books to get a feel for what has been done right.

Practise writing out a whole list of first sentences and test them out on beta readers to find the best one.

Make the sentence evoke a question in the reader. Who is this character? What does this mysterious letter contain? Why are they talking about murder?

4

5

6

IN

1

1

2

3

Open at, or as close to as possible, the inciting incident.

Drop the reader directly into the scene so they’re immediately in the action.

Intentionally implement foreshadowing (but make sure it’s not obvious).

4

5

6

Introduce important characters.

Set the setting (create an authentic world).

Establish voice.

VA N Reflect the narrator’s or main character’s voice as accurately as possible.

Make it active and character-centered – something they are doing/thinking/sensing, or something that is said/done to them.

Make it exciting, funny, or shocking – something that will grab the reader’s attention.

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

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©

2 Opening scene DOs

181


ON DIFFERENT TRACKS CHECK 1 ⁄ Describing crime and motive 1 Describe what you see in the pictures.

writing

1 (idiom) to have a with the law

3

4

VA N

2

IN

a Give the correct word type ((compound) nouns or verbs) or the correct idiom.

(noun)

5

(noun)

6

©

(idiom)

8

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182

(verb)

(noun)

7

(noun)

9

(idiom)

10

(noun)

(idiom)

Total:      / 10

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


Checklist: writing a short paragraph

IN

b Pick 5 words (of which at least 2 are idioms) from exercise a. Use them in a coherent paragraph.

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • I wrote a coherent and logical paragraph.

2 Language • I used correct words and idioms. • I used correct grammar. • I used correct to my spelling and punctuation.

VA N

Feedback

Total:      / 10 Score

< 12

12 - 16

> 16

Next exercise

ex. 3

ex. 4

ex. 6

2 Fill in the correct (crime) word or idiom.

1 Someone set fire to an empty building early this morning. Police . are still out there looking for the

2 Casper’s wallet was stolen this morning while he was on his way to work. Of course, he did not see the face of the .

©

3 Someone had

broke into 5 shops last night. They took money and goods. 2 of the shops before.

4  During last summer’s blackout, supermarkets and took food and tools.

broke into

behaviour drove her to despair. After 6  Her husband’s violent and months of domestic violence, she finally found the courage to make a formal complaint to the police. She got a order and now he is not allowed to come within 300 feet of her house. 7 The CEO’s former assistant is facing murder found dead at their office.

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

after his boss was

one hundred and eighty-three

several cars and park benches. Why they 5  Some youngsters have get a kick out of destroying public property is a mystery to me.

183


8 When money went missing from the coffeeshop’s cash register, Mona took , but did she really do it? 9 The company stopped using certain chemicals only after some workers blew on it. when he had stolen 10 The elected official thought he was above money from taxpayers to sustain his expensive and luxurious lifestyle. Total:      / 12 <7

≥7

IN

Score

Check 2, p. 187

Next exercise

3 First write the correct crime idiom under each picture. Then write 5 sentences in which you use these idioms.

2

3

VA N

1

4

5

1 2

©

3 4 5

one hundred and eighty-four

184

Score

<6

≥6

Next exercise

ex. 5

ex. 2

4 Find a partner or form a group of 3. Play the crime vocabulary board game. Score

D

C

Next exercise

ex. 2

Check 2, p. 187

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


5 Fill in the crossword puzzle. Across

7 9 10 13 14 15 17 19

Down

M. Roberts ... his tracks by throwing the knife in the river. Mr. Cruz set up a phony business to ... money from drug dealing. We’ll all be there at 6 for the surprise party – now don’t spill ... ! Walking home, he was run over by a ... . It was a miracle he got away with only a few scratches and bruises. According to research, almost 1 in 3 women aged 16-59 will experience ... abuse in her lifetime. He was charged with possession of ... after police found 2.5 kg of cocaine in the boot of his car. No one is ... the law. Neil keeps ... that he broke the window, but I’m sure he did. After 5 days of deliberations, the jury decided on a ... of not guilty. They robbed someone on the street and they got a ... on the wrist – 30 days in jail.

1 2 3 4 6 8 11 12

He was shot for breaking ... . ... smashed windows and overturned cars in the downtown shopping district. I had a ... with the law yesterday. Police arrested me for shoplifting. The 2 men were ... with armed robbery after robbing a newsagent’s at gunpoint. The ... stealthily gained access to the bank via its roof. How he climbed all the way to the top remains a mystery. Jax B. was ... to 10 years in prison for kidnapping the Prime Minister’s son. Is burglary a .... or a misdemeanour? ... can happen in online spaces as well as in person, by a stranger or someone known. It is a growing problem that needs addressing! We all have to follow the rules and keep our ... clean. Nanou was involved in an insurance ..., collecting on false accident claims.

IN

4 5

1

16 18

3 2 4

VA N

5

6

7

8

9

11

©

12 13

15

16

17

18

19

Score

< 15

≥ 15

Next exercise

ex. 4

Check 2, p. 187

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

one hundred and eighty-five

14

185


6 You are going to give your opinion on motive in a comments thread. a Preparation: watch the trailer and read the article about that same puzzling crime. Read the comments section. b Action: share your opinion in the comments thread, referring to the information you got from the trailer and the article. You can react to another person or start a new comment. Write at least 50 words.

WATCHING reading written INTERACTION

COMMENTS Sort by

Newest

IN

9 Comments Add a comment

VA N

c Reflection: reflect on your text by filling in the checklist. Checklist: giving your opinion about motive

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • I had a good motive to explain the murders. • I clearly explained why I think so. I used good arguments. • I referred to the content of the trailer and/or article. • I wrote a coherent and logical paragraph. • I wrote at least 50 words.

©

2 Language • I used correct words. • I used correct grammar. • I used correct spelling and punctuation. Feedback

one hundred and eighty-six

186

Score

<7

≥7

Next exercise

ex. 5

Check 2, p. 187

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


CHECK 2 ⁄ Describing past events 1 It’s murder! A murder was committed at school. You are going to describe what happened using past tenses.

writing

object 2:

VA N

location:

IN

a Preparation: pick cards from different envelopes (or spin a wheel) to determine: - the victim, - the 3 objects found at the scene of the crime, - the location. Write them on the board. Think of a logical motive and culprit.

victim:

object 1:

object 3:

one hundred and eighty-seven

©

b Action: use the information to write a short whodunnit report about what happened and what the motive was, adding an explanation for all the objects found. Write about 75 words on a separate piece of paper.

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

187


c Reflection: reflect on your text by filling in the checklist. Checklist: writing a report on a murder

Yes

I think so

No

IN

1 Content and structure • My story clearly describes who did it (culprit). • My story clearly describes who got killed (victim). • My story clearly describes where it took place (location). • My story clearly describes the motive. • My story clearly explains the 3 objects that were found at the scene of the crime. • My whodunnit report is logical and well-thought-out. • I wrote about 75 words.

2 Language • I used correct (crime) vocabulary. • I used correct past tenses (past simple and past continuous). • I used correct grammar. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

VA N

Feedback

Score

<6

6-8

>8

Next exercise

ex. 2

ex. 3

ex. 7

2 Read the excerpt from the first chapter from the YA novel I killed Zoe Spanos. a Fill in the correct form of the past simple or past continuous.

I KILLED ZOE SPANOS (KIT FRICK)

©

When Anna Cicconi arrives at a small village for a summer nanny gig, she has high hopes for a fresh start. What she finds instead is a community on edge after the disappearance of Zoe Spanos, a local girl who has been ­missing since New Year’s Eve. Anna bears an eerie resemblance to Zoe, and her presence in town stirs up still-raw feelings about the unsolved case. As time progresses, Anna becomes increasingly convinced that she and Zoe are connected – and that she knows what happened to her. When later Zoe’s body is found in a nearby lake, Anna is charged with manslaughter ...

Adapted from: www.goodreads.com

one hundred and eighty-eight

188

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


1

“Why don’t you start at the beginning.” It’s not really a question. Detective Holloway extends her hand toward Anna, then seems to think better of it, and drops it down to the chair’s metal arm. “On New Year’s Eve.” “Okay.” There’s a catch to Anna’s voice, a scraped-out quality. On the recording, it

5

sounds like she has a cold, but really, it’s because she’s been talking to the police for hours already, before anyone decided to press record. They’ve been through quite a dance, (1 to be) midafternoon when Anna

the girl and Detective Holloway. It

IN

(2 to get) here, shaken but brimming with a resolve that quickly wavered inside the station walls. Now, if there were any windows in this room, she’d know it’s been 10

dark outside for more than an hour.

“We started the night at Kaylee’s. Early, like six thirty. She’s five blocks down from my mom’s place, in Bay Ridge.” “That’s in Brooklyn?”

(3 to start) a lot of nights at

VA N

“Yeah. Yes. In Brooklyn. We, um … we 15

Kaylee’s. Her dad’s gone too, and her mom works nights. We’d drink there for a couple hours, then go out. Meet up with Starr and everyone. There are a few bars around that know us, or we’d get on the train, head down to Coney Island. Go dancing.” (4 to go) on New Year’s Eve? To Coney Island?”

“And that’s where you

Detective Holloway’s face is still smooth for a woman of forty. But mascara clumps in the

20

corners of her eyes and a stale film is beginning to coat her tongue and teeth. They’ve been at it since three, and she’s eager to finish this. Place the girl under arrest. (5 to make) it farther than Starr’s

“Yeah, but not out dancing. I never

place. She’s older, like twenty-two? Starr kind of

(7 to move) down to Orlando.”

me under her wing last year, until she

25

(6 to take) Kaylee and

“When was that?”

(8 to get) a job at one of the parks.”

“Soon after New Year’s. Starr

©

“Okay. But that night, it was you, Kaylee, and Starr at her apartment in Coney Island.” “And a couple other people. Kaylee’s sort-of boyfriend, Ian. And this guy Mike we know

from around.”

30

“Around?”

Anna tugs at a thread on her cutoffs until it snaps free from the denim. “I see. And what time

(9 you to leave) Starr’s apartment?”

For a moment, Anna is quiet. She leans forward, elbows pressed into bare knees, hair

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

one hundred and eighty-nine

“Like, around Brooklyn. Not from school.”

189


35

falling back across her eyes. She looks younger than her seventeen years, made small by the camera’s greedy eye and the imperial presence of adults in uniform. “It must have been nine or nine thirty.” “Must have been, or it was?” The detective’s voice is sharp. (10 to snag) in

Anna’s voice, in turn, is a low mumble, the words 40

her hair. “I don’t really remember. But if I got a ride out to Herron Mills, and got there by midnight, I must have left around then. Or even earlier if I took the train.”

IN

The detective lets out a low breath. “Fine. Then what do you remember?” She sits back in her seat but keeps her hand on the arm of Anna’s chair.

(11 to be) on the balcony at Windermere. The long one that

“We 45

wraps around the front of the house, on the third floor.” “Who’s we, Anna?” “Me and Kaylee. And Zoe.”

VA N

“Just the three of you?” “Just the three of us.”

50

(12 to be) the Talbots?”

“And where

“In the city, at their friend Doreen’s, I think. Not home.”

Detective Holloway stares at Anna for a moment. The girl holds her gaze. “Fine,

continue.” “We

55

(13 to drink) whiskey. Glenlivet, the good stuff. Better than Kaylee

and I could ever buy back home.” Something bitter, so slight you might miss it, slips in, then out of her words. “Caden always

(14 to keep) a bottle stashed in

this unused stall in the Windermere stable. I guess that’s where we got it.” “You guess or you remember?”

(15 to pass) the bottle around, up on

“I guess. I just remember we

60

the balcony.”

©

“And who

(16 to drink) beer?” the detective asks.

“What?” Anna’s chin jerks up, hair parting once again. For a quick moment, she meets

the older woman’s eyes. Then her gaze drops to the pale glint of her knees. “Before, you

65 one hundred and ninety

190

(17 to tell) me you

(18 to drink) whiskey and beer.”

“I did?” On the recording, you can see Anna press her lips between her teeth. She runs

her tongue over the cracked, flaking skin. “I guess so,” she says after a moment. “I’d been drinking for hours—it’s not very clear. I guess there was also beer.”

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


“Tell me about how Zoe fell,” Detective Holloway says. She lifts her hand from the arm of the chair and places it lightly on Anna’s shoulder. Anna doesn’t seem to notice, doesn’t 70

react. Her eyes are unfocused, but when she speaks, her voice is clearer than it’s been all night. (19 to mess)

“The railing’s kind of low. Only up to your thigh? We around, the three of us. I remember Kaylee pinching me, like she

(21 to be) pretty out of it. And I

(20 to try) to keep me awake. I guess I

(22 to have) one of those infectious laughs,

remember Zoe laughing. She

IN

75

(23 to make) you feel all warm inside.”

like silver. It

(24 she to fall), Anna?” Detective Holloway squeezes the

“And how girl’s shoulder, not quite gently.

“Oh.” Anna looks up for a moment, not at the detective, but straight into the camera. 80

It’s like she’s remembering, for the first time, where she is. What she

(26 to go) inside. I think she

VA N

(25 to come) here to say. “Kaylee (27 to get) us a snack. Zoe and I

(29 to cross) in an X between

balcony. I remember twirling, our arms us, holding hands. We

85

(28 to stay) on the

(30 to twirl) and laughing and it was fun until I

(31 to start) to feel sick. I think I

(32 to let) go of her

hands.”

“You think? You need to be honest, Anna.” Her words slice the air. Anna flinches, just

slightly.

“I remember she

90

(33 to hit) the balcony rail. It was too low. Her knees

(34 to buckle), and then it was like she

(35 to fly).”

“Cut the pretty language,” Detective Holloway snaps. “Just tell the truth.”

Source: Kit Frick, I killed Zoe Spanos, p. 5-8

one hundred and ninety-one

©

Total:        / 35

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

191


b Are the following statements true or false? Correct if false.

reading

Statement

True

Anna spent the evening with Zoe, Kaylee and Starr at a friend’s apartment.

2

Anna, Zoe, Kaylee and Starr were the only people there.

3

Anna is 17.

4

Anna left the apartment at exactly 9 p.m.

VA N

IN

1

5

False

Anna thinks she pushed Zoe off the balcony.

Total:        / 5 Score

< 28

≥ 28

Next exercise

ex. 4

ex. 5

3 Listen to the crime podcast, The Unsolved Murder of Lindsay Buziak.

listening

a While listening, highlight the words/phrases you hear in the podcast. the basement

lured to the home for a property showing

born in Oxbow

small town in Ontario

realtor

her sister was considered a suspect

upstairs bedroom

stabbed multiple times

believed to be Caucasian

Saanich, British Columbia

team of killers

strangled to death

Jason Rodriguez

Paulo Rodriguez

a $500,000 reward

on February 2, 2008

no connections to the drug trade

drug related

on February 28, 2002

24-year-old

orchestrated by her boyfriend

at approximately 5:40 p.m.

$1 million home

©

mistakenly targeted by professional contract killers

one hundred and ninety-two

192

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


b Use the keywords you marked to complete the sentences in the summary below. c Put the verbs between brackets in the correct past tense (past simple or past continuous). Lindsay Buziak

1

(1 to be) murdered on

Lindsay

.

(2 to work) as a

while she

for ReMax Camosun,

(3 to show) a

in

at 1702 De Sousa Place.

5

. She’d been

IN

Lindsay’s body was found in an

and likely attacked from behind. Police

(4 to say) the young realtor was

by an unknown couple: a Caucasian woman with short 10

blond hair, and a male,

, with dark hair.

(5 to explain) that the unidentified couple

Authorities

VA N

(6 to make) the appointment using a cellphone bought under the false name .

Lindsay’s boyfriend, Jason Zailo,

15

(7 to come) to meet her at the

house after the appointment. When she

messages, he

(8 not to respond) to his text

(9 to call) 911. Then, he and a friend

(10 to enter) the home and

(11 to find) Lindsay’s body. Again, 911 was

called to report the murder.

20

At one point, authorities

(12 to mention) that perhaps the

unidentified couple that

(13 to murder) Lindsay travels the world

killing young realtors.

(14 to state) that Lindsay may have been

or the criminal underworld.

25

©

(15 to have)

Lindsay’s father seems convinced that someone Lindsay (17 to hire) a

In August 2017, someone anonymously

(16 to know)

to murder his daughter. (18 to post) a message on the

website devoted to solving Lindsay’s murder, stating they “

30

(19 to kill)

Lindsey and stupid cops will never prove it”. Lindsay’s dad

(20 to feel) a glimmer of hope upon receiving this taunting message.

There is currently

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

in this case.

one hundred and ninety-three

Police do believe Lindsay

.

Source: The Unsolved Murder of Lindsay Buziak

Police have also

193


Correct keywords used:         / 15 Correct tenses used:          / 20 Score

< 28

≥ 28

Next exercise

ex. 5

ex. 6

4 Read the crime story. Fill in the correct form of the past simple or past continuous.

1

IN

The disappearance of Brandon Swanson Brandon was a 19-year-old who

(1 to live – past simple) in Marshall,

MN. He

(2 to return – past continuous) home from a

party recently celebrating his graduation from a community college up in a town north of Marshall called Canby and

Along the way home he

(4 to crash – past simple) in a ditch. For

VA N

5

(3 to be – past simple) on his way home.

some reason he

(5 to take – past continuous) gravel roads even

though the highway between the two towns was a straight shot North to South. Maybe he

(6 to take – past simple) this route as a joy ride type of thing

since he

10

(7 to love – past simple) his car and driving in general

or maybe he

(8 to have – past simple) a little too much to drink at

the party and

(9 not to want – past simple) to deal with any state

troopers on patrol. He

and eventually

(10 to call – past simple) his dad for a ride

(11 to get – past simple) tired of waiting inside his

crashed car and

15

He

(12 to start – past simple) to walk towards Marshall.

(13 to claim – past simple) to his dad to see ‘lights’ of something

nearby then abruptly

(14 to exclaim – past simple) “Oh shit!” to his dad

©

while still on the phone and his call day no one knows what

(15 to end – past simple). To this (16 to happen – past simple) to him. No body or

any of his belongings were found, nothing.

20

one hundred and ninety-four

194

There’s more to the story but that’s my summary. If you want to learn more just dig around.

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


My guess on what happened to Brandon is either he simple) and

(18 to fall – past simple) in a river due to not being able

to see in the darkness, 25

(17 to slip – past

(19 to get – past simple) shot and buried

somewhere by a belligerent farmer who

(20 not to want – past simple)

people trespassing on his property and would rather shoot then ask questions or was abducted by aliens (which would explain the lights). This case just creeps me out because

IN

I too live in Southern MN and I’m semi familiar with the Marshall area. It’s mostly flat farmlands around here so I really do not understand how someone can just disappear into 30

thin air in the middle of nowhere without a body or any remains being found.

Source: https://thoughtcatalog.com

Total:        / 20 Score

< 13

≥ 13 ex. 5

VA N

Next exercise

5 Read the crime story. Use the past simple or past continuous correctly.

The unsolved murder of Dana Bradley

1

On December 14th, 1981, 14-year-old Dana Bradley

(1 to disappear)

from St. John’s Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Dana

(2 to decide) to hitchhike home from a friend’s house along

Topsail Road around 5 p.m., reportedly so she could get home for her mother’s birthday

5

celebration. A pair of brothers

(3 to see) her entering a vehicle

©

described as a 4-door 1973 to 1976 Dodge Dart or Plymouth Valiant. Witnesses also (4 to provide) authorities with a description of the driver.

When Dana never

(5 to make) it home, her parents

(6 to report) her missing. Less than a week before Christmas, on Friday December 18th at approximately 3 p.m., Dale Smith while he

(7 to stumble) upon Dana’s body

(8 to search) for a Christmas tree in a wooded area in Maddox

Cove, a small community just south of St. John’s.

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

one hundred and ninety-five

10

195


The autopsy 15

(9 to reveal) that Dana

(10 to die) from a

skull fracture as a result of repeated blows to her head with a blunt instrument. Her time of death is thought to be consistent with the day of her disappearance. The RCMP have not revealed if Dana was sexually assaulted. Dana’s murder remains unsolved.

Score

<7

Next exercise 6 Who do you think killed Lindsay Buziak?

≥7

IN

Source: https://thetruecrimefiles.com

Check 3, p. 198

writing

a Preparation: listen to the podcast in exercise 3 again if necessary.

VA N

b Action: write a short paragraph (min. 50 words) in which you explain who you think did it and why. Use the past tenses correctly.

c Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist. Then ask your teacher for some feedback. Checklist: describing a crime theory

Yes

I think so

No

©

1 Content and structure • I clearly described who I think did it. • I clearly described the motive. • My paragraph is logical and well-thought-out. • I wrote at least 50 words.

one hundred and ninety-six

196

2 Language • I used correct words. • I used correct past tenses (past simple and past continuous). • I used correct grammar. • I used correct spelling and punctuation. Feedback

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


Score

D

Next exercise

C Check 3, p. 198

7 You are going to record your own podcast, based on Roald Dahl’s short story, ‘Lamb to the slaughter’.

reading

b Action: record your podcast (2 to 3 minutes), using the information from the police report. Send it to your teacher, who will give you some feedback.

speaking

IN

a Preparation: read the short story ‘Lamb to the slaughter’. Fill in the crime report your teacher gives you based on the story: crime, victim, culprit, weapon, location, motive and short description of events. Make up the information if it was not mentioned in the story.

VA N

c Reflection: reflect on your speaking skills by filling in the checklist.

Checklist: recording a podcast

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • I filled in correct information (based on the story) in the police report. • I clearly described the events in my podcast. • The podcast is 2 to 3 minutes long. 2 Language • I used correct words. • I used correct past tenses. • I used correct grammar. • I spoke fluently. • I paid attention to my pronunciation.

©

Feedback

<7

≥7

Next exercise

ex. 3

Check 3, p. 198

one hundred and ninety-seven

Score

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

197


CHECK 3 ⁄ Reading and writing crime stories 1 You are going to fill in a crime fiction planning sheet and write a follow-up scene, based on the first chapter of Holly Jackson’s YA novel A Good Girl’s Guide to Murder.

A GOOD GIRL’S GUIDE TO MURDER (HOLLY JACKSON)

IN

The case is closed. Five years ago, schoolgirl Andie Bell was murdered by Sal Singh. The police know he did it. Everyone in town knows he did it. But having grown up in the same small town that was consumed by the murder, Pippa Fitz-Amobi isn’t so sure. When she chooses the case as the topic for her final year project, she starts to uncover secrets that someone in town desperately wants to stay hidden. And if the real killer is still out there, how far will they go to keep Pip from the truth? Source: www.goodreads.com

reading

b Action: write (part of) the follow-up to the excerpt from A Good Girl’s Guide to Murder on a separate piece of paper. Write about 75 words.

writing

VA N

a Preparation: read the first chapter of the YA novel A Good Girl’s Guide to Murder. Fill in the planning sheet you will get. Invent the information needed for your story. Use the strategies on how to write gripping suspense. Check the Summary on p. 180.

c Reflection: check your planning sheet and text by filling in the checklist. Then ask your teacher for feedback. Checklist: writing a follow-up

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation, content and structure • I read the text and filled in the planning sheet to prepare myself. • I wrote a follow-up text of about 75 words. • I used my notes from the planning sheet and clearly referred to at least 3 of them in my writing.

©

2 Language • I used correct words. • I used correct past tenses. • I used correct grammar. • I used correct spelling and punctuation. Feedback

one hundred and ninety-eight

198

Score

< 14

≥ 14

Next exercise

ex. 2

ex. 3

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


2 Read part of the first chapter from the YA novel Killer Instinct by Jennifer Lynn Barnes.

reading

a Fill in the missing sentences in the correct gaps.

KILLER INSTINCT (JENNIFER LYNN BARNES)

Source: www.goodreads.com

A The person who’d taken Mackenzie. B “No distractions,” I said firmly. C “We’re not wrong,” Michael said softly.

IN

Seventeen-year-old Cassie Hobbes has a gift for profiling ­people. Her talent has landed her a spot in an elite FBI programme for teens with innate crime-solving abilities, and into some harrowing situations. After barely escaping a confrontation with an unbalanced killer obsessed with her mother’s murder, Cassie hopes she and the rest of the team can stick to solving cold cases from a distance.

VA N

D hoping she’d catch someone in a revealing lie. E I knew that by the time a case was classified “cold” and found its way to us, we were probably looking for a body – not a little girl.

F and he’d gotten shot for his trouble.

G a parolee who’d disappeared around the same time Mackenzie had. H I knew the exact numbers. I

“I’m fine,” I said.

J It didn’t add up.

1

The majority of children who are kidnapped and killed are dead within three hours of the abduction. Thanks to my roommate, the walking encyclopedia of probabilities and statistics,

. I knew that when you went

©

from discussing hours to days and days to weeks, the likelihood of recovery dropped so far that the FBI couldn’t justify the manpower necessary to keep the case active.

But … But Mackenzie McBride was six years old. 10

But her favorite color was purple.

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

. one hundred and ninety-nine

5

199


But she wanted to be a “veterinarian pop star.” You couldn’t stop looking for a kid like that. You couldn’t stop hoping, even if you tried. “You look like a woman in need of amusement. Or possibly libation.” Michael Townsend eased himself down onto the sofa next to me, stretching his bad leg out to the side. .

15

20

IN

Michael snorted. “The corners of your mouth are turned upward. The rest of your face is fighting it, like if your lips parted into even a tiny smile, it might clear the way for a sob.” That was the downside to joining ‘The Naturals’ program’. We were all here because we saw things that other people didn’t. Michael read facial expressions as easily as other people read words. He leaned toward me. “Say the word, Colorado, and I will selflessly provide you with a much-needed distraction.”

VA N

The last time Michael had offered to distract me, we’d spent half an hour blowing things up and then hacked our way into a secure FBI drive. 25

Well, technically, Sloane had hacked our way into a secure FBI drive, but the end result had been the same. .

“Are you sure?” Michael asked. “Because this distraction involves Lia, Jell-O, and a vendetta that begs to be paid.”

30

I didn’t want to know what our resident lie detector had done to provoke the kind of vengeance that came laden with Jell-O. Given Lia’s personality and her history with Michael, the possibilities were endless. “You do realize that starting a prank war with Lia would be a very bad idea,” I said.

35

“Without question,” Michael replied. “If only I weren’t so overly burdened with good sense and a need for self-preservation.”

©

Michael drove like a maniac and had a general disdain for authority. Two months earlier, he’d followed me out of the house knowing that I was the subject of a serial killer’s obsession,

40

.

Twice.

Self-preservation was not Michael’s strong suit.

two hundred

200

“What if we’re wrong about this case?” I asked. My thoughts had looped right back around: from Michael to Mackenzie, from what had happened six weeks ago to what Agent Briggs and his team were out there doing right now.

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


.

45

Let the phone ring, I thought. Let it be Briggs, calling to tell me that this time—this time—my instincts were right. The first thing I’d done when Agent Briggs had handed over the Mackenzie McBride file was profile the suspect: .

50

Behavior. Personality. Environment. 55

IN

Unlike Michael’s ability, my skill set wasn’t limited to facial expressions or posture. Given a handful of details, I could crawl into another person’s skull and imagine what it would be like to be them, to want what they wanted, to do the things that they did.

The suspect in Mackenzie’s case had no focus. The abduction was too well planned.

.

VA N

I’d combed through the files, looking for someone who seemed like a possible fit. Young. Male. Intelligent. Precise. I’d half begged, half coerced Lia into going through witness testimony, interrogations, interviews—any and every recording related to the case,

60

.

And finally, she had. The McBride family’s attorney had issued a statement to the press on behalf of his clients. It had seemed standard to me, but to Lia, lies were as jarring as offkey singing was to a person with perfect pitch. “No one can make sense of a tragedy like this.”

65

The lawyer was young, male, intelligent, precise—and when he’d said those words, he’d been lying. There was one person who could make sense of what had happened, a person who didn’t think it was a tragedy.

©

b Answer the questions.

.

disdain: the feeling that someone or something is unworthy of one’s consideration or respect jarring: incongruous in a striking or shocking way; clashing libation: alcohol

1 How is it said in the story? - Cassie’s roommate is good with numbers.

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

two hundred and one

- Lia is excellent at telling whether people are telling lies or not.

201


2 What is ‘The Naturals’ program’, you think?

3 What is Michael’s talent/skill?

Score

< 10

IN

4 And what is Cassie’s talent/skill?

≥ 10

All done!

Next exercise

3 Complete a scene from the graphic novel Monster.

reading

b Action: complete the boxes and speech bubbles.

writing

VA N

a Preparation: read the chapter your teacher gives you. Think about where you will put this information in the graphic novel. Remember that not every word or paragraph should be put in the graphic novel.

c Reflection: check your task by filling in the checklist. Checklist: completing a graphic novel

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • I filled in all the speech bubbles and boxes. • I used all the given information. • My sentences are well structured and appropriate for a graphic novel. 2 Language • I used correct words. • I used correct past tenses. • I used correct grammar. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

©

Feedback

Score

D

C

Next exercise

ex. 2

All done!

two hundred and two

202

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


CHECK OUT WRITING A CRIME STORY ORIENTATION You are going to write (the beginning chapter of) a crime story.

PREPARATION

He packed his bags and left.

There was only one way to keep her quiet, and it was going to cost us.

VA N

In my bag, I had a map, lip gloss, and $74.

IN

1 Choose one of the story starters below, if you need inspiration.

He should have never let her into the apartment.

It was the last time I’d try that again.

No one would believe what happened that night.

It’s not every day you wake up in a puddle of blood.

2 Make up the information and take notes on your planning sheet.

ACTION

3 Write your story on a separate piece of paper.

writing

©

– Use the past simple and past continuous in your text. Mind the irregular verbs. – Check the dos and don’ts on how to write a good beginning. – Write at least 300 words.

two hundred and three

– Come up with a good, catchy title for your story.

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED

203


REFLECTION 4 Reflect on your writing by filling in the checklist. Checklist: writing (part of) a crime story

Yes

I think so

No

2 Language • I used correct (crime) words. • I used correct past tenses. • I used correct grammar. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

VA N

Feedback

IN

1 Content and structure • I prepared my text by filling in a planning sheet. • I used paragraphs in my text for structure. • I wrote at least 300 words. • I clearly stuck to the dos or don’ts on how to write a good beginning of a crime story.

©

Trace your steps on diddit.

two hundred and four

204

UNIT 3: CAUGHT RED-HANDED


UNIT 4: ACCEPT THE DREAM CHECK IN STEP 1:

VA N

IN

MAIN TRACK

describing actions in the future

STEP 2:

talking about achievements

SUMMARY

©

TRACE YOUR STEPS

ON DIFFERENT TRACKS

CHECK OUT: A LETTER TO YOUR FUTURE SELF


CHECK IN DARE TO DREAM 1 Meet Mark. What can you derive from his profile? Discuss!

markjthepoet

reading SPOKEN INTERACTION

Follow

Mark J. Artist Jesus.> / Fam 🏽🏽🏽🏽🏽 People @offlineorg Poetry @markjpoetry Plants @littlecreations916 6 yrs. Porn free Courses, poems & stuff linktr.ee/markjthepoet

👦👰 👧 👧 👧

🌱

👇

IN

2.875 messages   8.533 followers   678 following

2 Watch Mark’s video. Then, answer the following questions.

VA N

WATCHING

a Highlight the words that you hear.

abbreviations achiever acting ancient appeal BA blood bully ceremony create

despite dream DVD except excepting fables followers game glamorous government

headphones health instrument knot mainstream marriage masterpiece memorable messy mirror

mountain neighbour obnoxious purpose shock significance skyscraper smile unfreeze won

©

b What is the video about?

c After reading Mark’s profile, was this the type of video you expected? Why (not)? d What is the message?

3 What form of art is this?

two hundred and six

206

4 Do you like it? Why (not)?

Unit 4: Accept the dream


MAIN TRACK STEP 1 ⁄ Who knows what the future holds Describing actions in the future

1 ⁄ Dry 1 Watch the book trailer of Dry and read the blurb. Does this book trailer appeal to you? Why (not)?

WATCHING

IN

reading For years people in California have been warned to conserve water because of drought conditions. Alyssa’s suburban neighborhood quickly turns into a warzone with people desperate for water. The breakdown of society – hoarding, profiteering, evacuation centers – is laid out in Dry, a collaboration between father and son Neal and Jarrod Shusterman, as they image what would happen if the wells actually ran dry.

VA N

Adapted from: www.booklistqueen.com

2 Read the opening pages of the novel Dry and answer the questions below.

reading

a Put these events in chronological order: A B C D

Garret grabs a Glacier Freezer Gatorade. The press conference is taking place. Dad is working on his car. We learn that Uncle Basil has had many nicknames.

1

2

3

4

b Who are the characters we meet inside the house?

©

c Which personality traits would you attribute to which characters? Find 3 appropriate adjectives for each character. Choose from the adjectives below. amiable – apathetic – balanced – caring – clear-headed – compassionate – confident – cooperative – critical – down to earth – enthusiastic – hardworking – humorous – intelligent – mischievous – optimistic – paranoid – selfish

Dad

Garrett

Uncle Basil two hundred and seven

Mom

Unit 4: Accept the dream

207


d Which character(s) can you relate to most? Why?

5

VA N

10

IN

1

DAY ONE SATURDAY, JUNE 4TH 1) Alyssa The kitchen faucet makes the most bizarre sounds. It coughs and wheezes like it’s gone asthmatic. It gurgles like someone drowning. It spits once, and then goes silent. Our dog, Kingston, raises his ears, but still keeps his distance from the sink, unsure if it might unexpectedly come back to life, but no such luck. Mom just stands there holding Kingston’s water bowl beneath the faucet, puzzling. Then she moves the handle to the off position, and says, “Alyssa, go get your father.” Ever since single-handedly remodeling our kitchen, Dad has had delusions of plumbing grandeur. Electrical, too. Why pay through the nose for contractors when you can do it yourself? he always said. Then he put his money where his mouth was. Ever since, we’ve had nothing but plumbing and electrical problems. Dad’s in our garage working on his car with Uncle Basil—who’s been living with us on and off since his almond farm up in Modesto failed. Uncle Basil’s actual name is Herb, but somewhere along the line my brother and I began referring to him as various herbs in our garden. Uncle Dill, Uncle Thyme, Uncle Chive, and during a period our parents wish we would forget, Uncle Cannabis. In the end, Basil was the name that stuck. “Dad,” I shout out into the garage, “kitchen issues.” My father’s feet stick out from underneath his Camry like the Wicked Witch. Uncle Basil is hidden behind a storm cell of e-cig vapor. “Can’t it wait?” my father says from beneath the car. But I’m already sensing that it can’t. “I think it’s major,” I tell him. He slides out, and with a heavy sigh heads for the kitchen. Mom’s not there anymore. Instead she’s standing in the doorway between the kitchen and the living room. She’s just standing there, the dog’s empty water bowl still in her left hand. I get a chill, but I don’t yet know why. “What’s so important that you gotta drag me out of—” “Shush!” Mom says. She rarely shushes Dad. She’ll shush me and Garrett all day, but my parents never shush each other. It’s an unspoken rule. She’s watching the TV, where a news anchor is blathering about the “flow crisis.” That’s what the media’s been calling the drought, ever since people got tired of hearing the word “drought.” Kind of like the way “global warming” became “climate change,” and “war” became “conflict.” But now they’ve got a new catchphrase. A new stage in our water woes. They’re calling this the “Tap-Out.” Uncle Basil emerges from his vapor cloud long enough to ask, “What’s going on?” “Arizona and Nevada just backed out of the reservoir relief deal,” Mom tells him. “They’ve shut the floodgates on all the dams, saying they need the water themselves.” Which means that the Colorado River won’t even reach California anymore. Uncle Basil tries to wrap his mind around it. “Turning off the entire river like it’s a spigot! Can they do that?” My father raises an eyebrow. “They just did.” Suddenly the image switches to a live press conference, where the governor addresses a gathering of antsy reporters. “This is unfortunate, but not entirely unexpected,” the governor says. “We have people working around the clock attempting to broker a new deal with various agencies.” “What does that even mean?” Uncle Basil says. Both Mom and I shush him. “As a precautionary measure, all county and municipal water districts in Southern California are temporarily rerouting all resources to critical services. But I cannot stress

15

20

25

©

30

35

40 two hundred and eight

208

45

Unit 4: Accept the dream


55

60

VA N

65

IN

50

enough the need to keep calm. I’d like to personally assure everyone that this is a temporary situation, and that there is nothing to be concerned about.” The media begins to bombard him with questions, but he ducks out without answering a single one. “Looks like Kingston’s water bowl isn’t the only one that’s run dry,” Uncle Basil says. “I guess we’re gonna have to start drinking out of the toilet, too.” My younger brother, Garrett, who’s been sitting on the couch waiting for normal TV to return, makes the appropriate face, which just makes Uncle Basil laugh. “So,” Dad says to Mom halfheartedly, “at least the plumbing problem isn’t my fault this time.” I go to the kitchen to try the tap myself—as if I might have the magic touch. Nothing. Not even the slightest dribble. Our faucet has coded, and no amount of resuscitation will bring it back. I note the time, like they do in the emergency room: 1:32 p.m., June 4th. Everyone’s going to remember where they were when the taps went dry, I think. Like when a president is assassinated. In the kitchen behind me, Garrett opens the fridge and grabs a bottle of Glacier Freeze Gatorade. He begins to guzzle it, but I stop him on the third gulp. “Put it back,” I tell him. “Save some for later.” “But I’m thirsty now,” he whines, protesting. He’s ten—six years younger than me. Tenyear-olds have issues with delayed gratification. It’s almost finished anyway, so I let him keep it. I take note of what’s in the fridge. A couple of beers. Three more bottles of Gatorade, a gallon of milk that’s down to the dregs, and leftovers. You know how sometimes you don’t realize how thirsty you are until you take that first sip? Well, suddenly I get that feeling just by looking in the refrigerator. It’s the closest thing I’ve ever had to a premonition. I can hear neighbors out in the street now. We know our neighbors—run into them occasionally. The only time whole bunches of them come out into the street at the same time is July Fourth, or when there’s an earthquake. My parents, Garrett, and I gravitate outside as well, all of us standing, strangely, looking to one another for some kind of guidance, or at least validation that this is actually happening. Jeannette and Stu Leeson from across the street, the Maleckis and their newborn, and Mr. Burnside, who’s been eternally seventy years old for as long as I can remember. And as expected, we don’t see the reclusive family next door—the McCrackens— who have probably barricaded themselves inside their suburban fortress upon hearing the news. We all kind of stand there with our hands in our pockets, avoiding direct eye contact, like my classmates at the junior prom. “Okay,” my dad finally says, “which one of you pissed off Arizona and Nevada?” Everyone chuckles. Not because it’s particularly funny, but it eases some of the tension. Mr. Burnside raises his eyebrows. “Hate to say I told ya so, but didn’t I say they’d hoard what’s left of the Colorado River? We let that river become our only lifeline. We should never have let ourselves become so vulnerable.” Used to be no one much knew or cared where our water came from. It was just always there. But when the Central Valley started to dry up and the price of produce skyrocketed, people started to pay attention. Or at least enough attention to pass laws and voter propositions. Most of them were useless, but made people feel as if something was being done. Like the Frivolous Use Initiative, which made things like throwing water balloons illegal. “Las Vegas still has water,” someone points out. Our neighbor, Stu, shakes his head. “Yeah—but I just tried to book a hotel in Vegas. A million hotel rooms, and not a single one available.”

70

75

80

90

95

Unit 4: Accept the dream

two hundred and nine

©

85

209


105

110

115

VA N

120

IN

100

Mr. Burnside laughs ruefully, as if taking pleasure in Stu’s misfortune. “One hundred twenty-four thousand hotels rooms, actually. Sounds like a whole lot of people had the same idea.” “Ha! Can you imagine the traffic on the interstate trying to get there?” says my mom, in a sour grapes kind of way. “I wouldn’t want to be caught in that!” And then I put my two cents in. “If they’re diverting the remaining water to ‘critical services,’ it means there’s still a little bit left. Someone should sue to get them to release a fraction of it. Make it like rolling blackouts. Each neighborhood gets a little bit of water each day.” My parents are impressed by the suggestion. The others look at me with an isn’t-sheadorable kind of expression, which ticks me off. My parents are convinced I’m going to be a lawyer someday. It’s possible, but I suspect if I am, it will just be a means to an end— although I’m not sure what that end would be. But that doesn’t help us now—and though I think my idea is a good one, I suspect there’s too much self-interest among the Powers That Be for it to ever happen. And who knows, maybe there isn’t enough water left to share. A phone chimes, receiving a text. Jeannette looks at her Android. “Great! Now my relatives in Ohio found out. Like I need their stress on top of my own.” “Text them back: ‘send water.’” My father quips. “We’ll get through this,” my mom says reassuringly. She’s a clinical psychologist, so reassurance is second nature to her. Garrett, who’s been standing quietly, brings his Gatorade bottle up to his lips … and for a brief moment everyone stops talking. Involuntary. Almost like a mental hiccup, as they watch my brother gulp the quenching blue liquid. Finally, Mr. Burn- side breaks the silence. “We’ll talk,” he says as he turns to leave. It’s the way he always ends a conversation. It signals the conclusion of this loose little fellowship. Everyone says their goodbyes and heads back to their homes … but more than one set of eyes glance at Garrett’s empty Gatorade bottle as they leave.

125

Source: Neal and Jarrod Shusterman, Dry, p. 6-12

3 Read the extract again, if necessary, and answer these questions. a What is the problem in the extract?

©

b Explain in your own words what ‘tap-out’ means.

c The extract evokes a certain feeling. Which elements in the text set the atmosphere?

two hundred and ten

210

Unit 4: Accept the dream

reading


d Is the water shortage a recent problem? Explain.

IN

e Find 3 pieces of evidence that the drought in this extract is a gigantic problem.

f

What is meant by ‘which one of you pissed off Arizona’ in line 85?

VA N

4 Listen to a second extract from the novel and answer the questions below.

listening

a Are the following statements true, false or not mentioned in the text? Correct if false. Statement

1

There are 4 people in the car.

2

The car is running out of gas.

True

False

Not in text

3

Henry is handcuffed.

Kelton has won many 1st prizes in music competitions.

©

4

5

Garrett thinks he is going to die.

6

Garrett falls asleep and dreams he is someone else.

Unit 4: Accept the dream

two hundred and eleven

211


b How long after the previous part would you situate this extract?

c Which symptoms do these characters suffer from?

IN

d What do you think will happen next?

5 Read the 2 extracts below and answer the questions.

a Highlight the verb forms. Use a different colour for past, present, present perfect and future forms.

VA N

b Are these extracts set in the past, present or future? Explain.

1

1

5

Headache, rapid heartbeat, exhaustion, burning eyes, dizziness. I know the symptoms of acute dehydration. We could go maybe six or seven more hours without water now. Then we fall into a coma. Then we die. Simple as that. How much water will it take to save us? More than a thimbleful, less than a cup. It won’t really hydrate us, but it will keep us from dying. It will give us time.

Source: Neal and Jarrod Shusterman, Dry, p. 320

2

1

©

5

“We don’t want any trouble …,” I say, although out of the corner of my eye, I can see Jacqui ready for all sorts of trouble. “That’s good, that’s good,” says the inked one. “We don’t want trouble either. But I’m afraid you’re gonna have to step away from our property.” “Excuse me?” says Jacqui. Then the inked one holds up my uncle’s key chain. “We’ve just bought it,” he says. “Your friend sold it to us for a nice guzzle of water.” The bald one laughs when he sees the look on Jacqui’s and my faces. “Yeah, we poured it right into his hands and he sucked it all down. Some of it spilled on his shoe, so he took his shoe off and licked the rubber dry. Damnedest thing. Then he took off down the mountain, one shoe on, one shoe off. Funny kid.” And I think how unfair it is that of the five of us, Henry’s the only one who’s had water. Probably enough for him to get out of this forest alive. “I’ll ask you one more time,” says the inked one. “Step away from our property.” And he pulls out a no-nonsense handgun.

10

two hundred and twelve

212

15

He’s not going to use it, I tell myself. It’s to make a point. Like everything else about these two, it’s meant to intimidate. But I will not give in to the intimidation. “We’re going to the San Gabriel Reservoir,” I tell him, not moving away from the door. “Let us get there, and then you can have the truck.” The inked one shakes his head. “Already a done deal. Nothing more to talk about.”

Source: Neal and Jarrod Shusterman, Dry, p. 330-331

Unit 4: Accept the dream


6 What do we use these tenses for? a Fill in the name of the tense in the boxes below. A We use this tense to express habits, routines and permanent situations. B This tense is used to talk about unfinished actions that started in the past and continue to the present. C We use this tense to talk about our future intentions or plans. D This tense is the basic way to talk about the future. We use it for future facts and things that are not very certain.

A

B

– –

VA N

IN

b Look for 3 examples of each type in the first extract of Dry on p. 208-210 and write them down.

– – –

C

D

– –

©

– – –

7 Fill in the correct form of the future simple or going-to future in the sentences below.

(definitely to go) Disneyland and we relatives in France. I hope I up with some old friends as well.

Unit 4: Accept the dream

(to see) some (to have) the time to catch

two hundred and thirteen

1 Hey Noah, what are your plans for the holidays? Well, we

213


2 ‘Tell me all about your plans for the future!’ ‘Well, I have it all planned out. First, I then I

(to graduate), (to go) to university, and then I hope I (to find) myself a high-end job. What about you?’

‘Well, I’m not that certain. I

(probably to apply) for

university as well.’ 3 Wow, look at these clouds! It

(definitely to rain).

IN

8 Fill in the correct verb forms in the article below. Choose between the present simple, present continuous, future simple, past simple or present perfect simple.

Forecasters: New Mexico should brace for worsening drought 1

ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. (AP) - The last three months

(1 to be)

(2 only to get) worse.

VA N

very dry in New Mexico and it

That

(3 to be) the word from forecasters with the National

Weather Service and other climate experts in the state. They

5

(4 to say) during a meeting last week that New Mexico reservoirs

(5 to continue) to be far below historical averages and that ranchers

(6 to brace) for a winter with little moisture out on the range.

Some snow is expected in the higher elevation on Christmas Eve, but it

(7 to be) less than the precipitation that

(8 to help) to ease drought conditions elsewhere in the West

10

in recent weeks. Parts of California

(10 to show) nearly half of

©

snow, but the latest drought map

(9 to be) in line for even more

two hundred and fourteen

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Unit 4: Accept the dream


the western region

(11 still to deal) with the most severe

categories of drought.

15 Stream

flows? Soil moisture levels? Mangham said it’s the same story and it (12 not to look) good heading into the next year, because the (13 not to expect) much rain.

IN

weather forecast

(14 just to get) drier,” he repeated. “We start to need

“Everything

a miracle in order to get this situation straight.” Adapted from: www.dailymail.co.uk

9 Look at the examples in bold in exercise 8 and fill in the grammar box below.

GRAMMAR

VA N

HOW TO express reason and purpose Some linking words help you connect the ideas in a sentence. 1 Expressing reason:

,

– ‘Because’ is followed by

and

(= subclause or

).

e.g. Kingston raises an ear because he heard the kitchen faucet coughing.

– ‘ Because of’ is followed by

.

e.g. Kingston raises an ear because of the noise of the kitchen faucet.

2 Expressing purpose:

,

– ‘So’ and ‘so that’ are followed by

,

and

(= subclause or

).

©

e.g. Mom is holding Kingston’s water bowl beneath the faucet so (that) she could fill it.

– The most common type of purpose clause is a

.

e.g. Mom is holding Kingston’s water bowl to fill it. .

See p. 248

two hundred and fifteen

Sometimes ‘to’ can be replaced by

Unit 4: Accept the dream

215


10 Fill in a correct linking word in the sentences below. 1 It is a bizarre thing going through old photos of my past self it is like looking through a window into a past memory. 2 Store your memorabilia collected over the years in one box you can access it when you want to and enjoy it. 3 My nan kept her old teddy bear for all those years

give it

to me when I was little.

IN

4 This is another reason I think it is so important to keep a family album; just

the family can look back and remember things in their lives. 5 The headline said: ‘Man loses all of his childhood memories a rare condition.’ 11 Discuss these questions with a partner. a Do you worry about freshwater scarcity in our country? Why (not)?

SPOKEN INTERACTION

VA N

b ‘We should never have let ourselves become so vulnerable’ is a line said in Dry. How can our country avoid being too vulnerable when it comes to water? c What measures can be taken to avoid using too much water? Use a variety of ways to express your reasons.

12 What do you think the future of our country will be like in terms of drought? a P reparation: brainstorm with a partner about possible climate conditions. If you need help, you can use an online resource to look up (scientific) facts.

©

b Action: write a paragraph of about 50 words in which you discuss climate conditions for our country and possible actions that can or should be taken.

two hundred and sixteen

216

Unit 4: Accept the dream

writing


c Reflection: reflect on your writing skills by filling in the checklist below. Then share your text with a classmate. Do you have similar actions that can be taken? Checklist: predicting climate conditions

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation and content • I brainstormed with a partner. • I looked up (scientific) facts. • I mentioned climate conditions and possible actions to be taken. • My text is about 50 words long.

VA N

Feedback

IN

2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I used correct grammar. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences, including linking words. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

2 ⁄ A trip back in time

1 Discuss these questions with a partner.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

a What kind of job would you like to have in 20 years?

b What expectations do you have of yourself 20 years from now?

c Do you want to get married or settle down with 1 partner? Why (not)?

two hundred and seventeen

©

d Have you ever read your old diaries or letters? What did they sound like?

Unit 4: Accept the dream

217


2 Watch the video of the class of 2020 and answer the questions below.

WATCHING

a Who is who? Write the name above the corresponding picture. b Tick off the topics they talk about. c All these students have a first response after having read their letters. Write them down below their picture.

1 sports

personality/identity

school/job

friends/love/family

physical appearance

First reaction:

2

IN

technological (r)evolution

sports

VA N

technological (r)evolution personality/identity

school/job

friends/love/family

physical appearance

technological (r)evolution

sports

personality/identity

school/job

friends/love/family

physical appearance

technological (r)evolution

sports

personality/identity

school/job

friends/love/family

physical appearance

First reaction:

3

©

First reaction:

4

two hundred and eighteen

218

First reaction:

Unit 4: Accept the dream


5 technological (r)evolution

sports

personality/identity

school/job

friends/love/family

physical appearance

6

IN

First reaction:

technological (r)evolution

sports

personality/identity

school/job

friends/love/family

VA N

First reaction:

physical appearance

d Which extras did the students add to their letters?

e Who can you relate to most? Explain why.

3 Go online and explore the website your teacher gives you. Fill in the table below.

reading

©

What?

Why?

Unit 4: Accept the dream

two hundred and nineteen

How?

219


SPOKEN INTERACTION

4 Discuss these questions with a partner. a What kind of emails do you think people send to themselves? b Do you think sending such an email affects their future? Why (not)? c Would you consider sending a message to your future self? Why (not)?

SPOKEN INTERACTION

5 Interview at least 5 classmates about their future selves in about 35 years from now. a Preparation:

IN

- Brainstorm what you would like your life to be like at the age of 50. Think of your personal life, your (school) career, your identity, your friends and loved ones or perhaps technological revolutions. - Think of at least 5 good interview questions for a partner. What would you like to ask them? Add your questions to the table you will be given.

b Action: interview at least 5 classmates about their life 35 years from now. Put the keywords from their answers in the table to help you report back to the class. c Reflection: reflect on your spoken interaction skills by filling in the checklist below. Checklist: interviewing my classmates about their future

Yes

I think so

No

VA N

1 Preparation and content I brainstormed about what I would like my life to be at the age of 50. • • I wrote down at least 5 good interview questions. • I interviewed at least 5 people. • I took notes to report back to the class. 2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I used correct grammar. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I paid attention to my pronunciation.

Feedback

©

CHECK 1, see p. 307

STEP 2 ⁄ Memories are the treasures of the heart Talking about achievements

1 ⁄ What have you done today to make you feel proud? 1 Watch the video and answer the questions below.

two hundred and twenty

220

WATCHING

a Which of the achievements do you consider the best? b Which of them were not worth mentioning in your opinion? c What would you answer if you were asked the same question? d Now answer the question in the title.

Unit 4: Accept the dream


2 Form groups and read about these people’s achievements.

reading

a Prepare your text thoroughly. Look up difficult words if necessary. b Think of how you are going to present the text to the members of your new group. c Fill in the table below after your classmate has explained their text. d Which do you find the hardest to achieve? Tick it off in the table. Achievement

Difficulties

Hardest?

VA N

IN

Name

e What would you write about if you were asked to write about your biggest personal achievement?

WATCHING

two hundred and twenty-one

©

3 Some achievements are clearly bigger than others. Watch the video and then fill in the worksheet you will get.

Unit 4: Accept the dream

221


4 Listen to the last person again and answer the questions.

WATCHING

a How exactly does he formulate his accomplishment?

b Which tense does he use?

c Scan the text on p. 209 and find another example.

IN

d Complete the grammar table with the correct form of the verb to form a sentence in the present perfect simple. Then complete the rule. Form of present perfect simple Subject/Verb

I / to struggle

2

You / to take

Negative (-)

Question (?)

VA N

1

Positive (+)

3

She / to grow

4

We / to experience

5

You / to catch

6

They / to have

©

Rule:

e What is the difference between sentences 1 and 4 on the one hand and 2, 3, 5 and 6 on the other hand?

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5 Complete the grammar box below. Add your own personal example as well.

HOW TO talk about unfinished actions, consequences, experiences and accomplishments

GRAMMAR

The present perfect (simple) tense is used: – To talk about something that started

and continues

(unfinished actions).

e.g. N oah has caught all of the Pokémon so far.

IN

Keywords:

Have you ever thought of visiting the ‘New 7 Wonders of the World’?

– To talk about actions that happened at an unspecified time in the past and that have now.

VA N

e.g. Mona has learned how to drive.

 Careful: when you want to indicate when it happened, you have to use the past simple. e.g. Mona learned how to drive on her 18th birthday.

– To talk about

or

up until now.

Keywords:

e.g. ‘ Have you ever swum with dolphins?’ ‘I haven’t up to this point, but it’s on my bucket list.’ See p. 241-242

6 Fill in the correct form of the present perfect (simple) tense. Mind the (irregular) past participle! (never to read) a Harry Potter book?’

1 ‘Did you know that Finn

©

‘You have to be kidding!

(everyone our age,

already, not to read) at least one?’

2 ‘

(you to be) to New York?’ ‘No, I

3 I 4 ‘Jax I

(just to finish) my senior year and now I’m going to uni. (never to have) surgery.’ ‘Wow, that’s crazy. (already to break) my leg twice and (to tear) my ligaments while skiing.’

Unit 4: Accept the dream

two hundred and twenty-three

(not to be) there yet, but it’s definitely on my bucket list for next year.’

223


5

(you, ever, to think) which job

you want to do later? 6 ‘ What is the most daring sport you (ever to try)?’ ‘I

(to go) bungee

jumping once, but I’ll never do that again.’ 7 ‘

(you, ever, to wear) a kimono?’ (never to try) one on.’

IN

‘No, I

(just to finish) writing their letters to their

8 Kit and Casper future selves. 9 ‘ ‘ 10 ‘

(only just to see) Spider-Man: Far from Home, but I surely will.’ (June, ever, to visit) Niagara Falls?’ (give a short answer!), but she

VA N

‘No,

(you to watch) the new Spider-Man movie?’ ‘No, I

(to be) to other National Parks in the US.’

7 What is your greatest accomplishment?

a Preparation: brainstorm and think of everything that you have accomplished that you are proud of. Pick the accomplishment that you are most proud of and think of the details: who, what, where, when and how?

©

b Action: write a short text (about 50 words) in which you explain your biggest accomplishment. Don’t forget to add why you are so proud of it. Use the correct tenses.

two hundred and twenty-four

224

Unit 4: Accept the dream

writing


c Reflection: reflect on your writing skills by filling in the checklist below. Then share your accomplishments with the class. Checklist: my greatest accomplishment

Yes

I think so

No

2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I used the correct tenses. • I used correct spelling and punctuation. Feedback

8 Read a fourth extract from the novel Dry.

IN

1 Content and structure • I brainstormed to think of my accomplishments. • I answered the topical questions. • My text is about 50 words long.

VA N

a Fill in the correct form of the verb. Choose between a present perfect tense or a past tense (simple or continuous).

1

I

(1 to take) in my surroundings.

Crowds

(2 still to get) thicker, and things

(3 to vanish) from the shelves at an alarming

rate. Even the sodas were gone now. Stupid! I should have grabbed some. I (4 to hurry) back to my empty cart before someone else

5

could take it. There

(5 to be) no sign of Uncle Basil yet,

and Garrett was probably off stuffing his face with something greasy. The Gatorade he had requested was all gone, too. Finally I

(6 to spot) Garrett. He was down one of the

10 frozen aisles, pizza sauce all over his face. He

(7 to wipe)

©

his mouth with his shirt, knowing I’d comment. But I (8 not to bother) —because I

(9 to see) something.

Just past the frozen vegetables and ice cream, there (10 to be) a chest packed with ice. Enormous bags of it. “I can’t believe people are such limited

15 thinkers that they

Or maybe they had, but

(12 to deny) that they could

possibly be so desperate. I

(13 to open) the door and (14 to reach) for a bag.

“What are you doing? We need water, not ice.”

Unit 4: Accept the dream

two hundred and twenty-five

(11 not to think) of this themselves!”

225


“Ice is water, Einstein,” I

20

I

(15 to tell) him. (16 to go) for a bag, and (17 to realize) they’re a lot heavier than I had anticipated.

“Help me!” Together Garrett and I heaved one bag of ice after another into our cart, until it was piled as high as it could get. By now other people 25 (18 to take) notice,

(19 to crowd) the ice case, beginning

to empty it.

IN

The cart was ridiculously heavy, and almost impossible to push—especially with a bad wheel. Then, as we

(20 to struggle)

with the cart, the jammed wheel scraping across the concrete floor, a man in a 30 business suit

(21 to come up) behind us. He

(22 to smile). “That’s quite a load there,” he

(23 to say). “Looks like

you could use some help.” He

VA N

(24 not to wait) for us to

answer before grabbing the cart’s handle, and wrestling it forward far more effectively than we (25 to do).

35

“Crazy here today,” he said jovially. “Crazy everywhere, I’ll bet.” “Thank you for helping us,” I

(26 to tell) him.

“Not a problem. We all need to help one another.” He

(27 to smile) again, and I

(28 to return) the grin. It’s good to

40 know that difficult times can bring out the best in people.

Source: Neal and Jarrod Shusterman, Dry, p. 16-17

b Answer the questions below.

1 Where does this scene take place?

©

2 How does Garrett behave?

3 What do you think of the man in the business suit?

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226

4 What would you do in this situation?

Unit 4: Accept the dream

reading


9 Go back to the Check in of this unit (p. 206) and watch the slam poem again. Mark uses specific literary techniques to stress certain words and to add meaning.

WATCHING

a Do you know what these literary techniques mean? Look them up if you are not sure. b Listen and look for examples. 1 Alliteration

EXAMPLES:

2 Assonance

IN

VA N

EXAMPLES:

3 Metaphor

EXAMPLES:

EXAMPLES:

Unit 4: Accept the dream

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©

4 Repetition

227


c Which other literary techniques do you know that are used to stress words in poetry?

10 Write and recite your own slam poem about drought.

writing

b Action: write your poem in full. Make sure your message is powerful. Practise stressing the importance of certain words. Now recite it!

c Reflection: reflect on your poetry skills by having a group member fill in the checklist below. Checklist: my slam poem

Yes

I think so

No

VA N

1 Language, content and structure • My classmate used good vocabulary. • My classmate used the correct tenses. • My classmate structured their sentences correctly. • My classmate discussed drought or water scarcity. • My classmate used some literary techniques.

2 Presentation • My classmate paid attention to the pace and rhythm of the poem. • My classmate used correct intonation to enhance the recitation. • My classmate paid attention to their pronunciation. • My classmate used body language to enhance the recitation. • My classmate seemed confident.

Feedback What I really liked:

©

What you could still improve on:

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228

speaking

IN

a Preparation: look up some keywords about drought or freshwater scarcity. These words will mark the structure of your own slam poem. Use a rhyming dictionary and look for words that rhyme with these keywords.

Unit 4: Accept the dream


2 ⁄ Before I kick the bucket 1 Watch the video on how to make a bucket list and fill in the outline below.

WATCHING

Bucket list =

IN

RANGE

huge

small

e.g.

e.g.

6 steps =

+

VA N

#1

=

Key:

#2

term

term

term

Categories: e.g.

e.g. e.g.

#3

©

#4 – What

?

– What

?

#5

Unit 4: Accept the dream

: the goal is

.

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#6

?

229


2 Have you ever wondered where the term ‘bucket list’ came from? Look up the etymology of the word. a Which idiom is it linked to?

b What does the idiom mean?

3 Learn some more English idioms.

IN

c Would you categorize this idiom as formal or informal?

a Look at the images and see if you can find the right idioms. First try without any help, then use an online resource if necessary. b Derive the meaning of each of the idioms.

2

VA N

1

A

A

B

B

4

©

3

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230

A

A

B

B

Unit 4: Accept the dream


5

6

A

IN

A

B

B

VA N

c Search online for more idioms with a similar meaning.

d Now group the idioms according to their meanings on a separate piece of paper.

4 We all have a limited amount of time to live life to the fullest. Can you make the right idiomatic expressions related to time? A B C D E F G H I J

1

2

3

Unit 4: Accept the dream

4

5

6

eleventh hour are numbered the clock on somebody’s side long run nick of time of the day back the hands of time blink of an eye through the hourglass 7

8

9

10

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Beat Just in the At the end At the Like sand Your days In the In the Time is To turn

©

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

231


5 Use an online dictionary to look up words that are often used with ‘list’. Nouns

Adjectives

Prepositions

Phrases

IN

Verbs

6 Fill in expressions from exercises 4 and 5 in the sentences. a First watch the video and meet Edie Simms, 102 years old.

WATCHING

VA N

b Now fill in the expressions and collocations in the sentences below. Don’t forget to change tenses or pronouns.

At the blessed age of 102 Simms knew (1)

.

That’s why she contacted the local police station to arrest her, something she had always wanted to experience. The local police had never ever received a request like that, and they agreed to arresting her, something she could (2)

. Simms was (3)

that she didn’t

.

‘I’ve been lucky so far that (4)

. But at my age’,

she said, ‘there is not so much time left, I have seen many of my friends and relatives pass away in the past years. It may sound like a cliché, but the rest of my life is

©

(5)

.

I’m really delighted that I’m getting this chance before I (6)

, because I can’t

(7)

.

I have had the opportunity to do so many things in my life but being arrested was

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(8)

’, Simm said.

Unit 4: Accept the dream


7 Look at the bucket list below.

reading

a Tick off the things that you have already done. b Highlight the things that you would like to do.

’s

evitt L w e r d n A

IN

T E K BUC IST L

Find the funniest item on Amazon Get a rock to skip 5 times Send a postcard to someone special Take a photo in front of cool local art Watch live music Visit a historic site

VA N

+1 POINT

Unit 4: Accept the dream

+3 POINTS

ake cash as a street performer M Dye your hair Learn to surf Go ziplining Attend a parade

+5 POINTS

et a photo handcuffed by the police G Get the most responses on an Instagram story Win a game of Fortnite mobile

+10 POINTS Get a tattoo Get a piercing

©ANDREW_LEVITT

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©

Play frisbee golf Have a water balloon fight Have a picnic Watch fireworks Read at least 10 books Watch the sunset Roast marshmallows Visit a farmers’ market Fly a kite Beach bonfire with friends Go swimming Climb a tree Build a sandcastle Find a waterfall Relax in a hammock Ride a rollercoaster Make someone’s day Buy an outfit for a member of the opposite team to wear Synchronized swimming performance in a fountain Shopping cart race Most leap frogs in 60 seconds Sing at a karaoke bar Relax on an inflatable Go on a road trip Go for a hike Leap off a rope swing Get ice cream from a local shop Run through sprinklers Do a random act of kindness

233


8 Watch Andrew talking about his bucket list.

WATCHING

a What kind of bucket list is this?

c How did he do that?

IN

b How did he come up with this idea?

d Which team do you think will get most points, blue or red?

WATCHING

VA N

9 Now watch the second part of the video.

a Which of the challenges would you like to try?

©

b Did you guess right?

c What was the point of making the video?

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10 Answer these questions before watching the video about people writing down their biggest regrets. a What do you think people will write? b Do you think people will be completely open about their regrets? Why (not?) c What do you think the most common topic will be?

Unit 4: Accept the dream

SPOKEN INTERACTION


11 Now watch the video and answer the questions below.

WATCHING

a Which regret do you think is the worst?

b Which regret can you relate to?

c What do all regrets have in common?

IN

d Write down keywords of the reactions of people after having wiped the board clean.

e How do you feel after having seen this video?

12 Read the article about Ben Nemtin and answer the questions below.

reading

VA N

a Explain where Nemtin got the inspiration from to make The Buried Life?

b Prove that Nemtin is a prime example of what he is telling others.

©

c Explain in your own words what the ‘Ripple Effect’ is.

Ben Nemtin, an inspirational speaker and co-creator of the MTV show ‘The Buried Life’, shared with PestWorld attendees lessons he’s learned while checking off items on his ‘bucket list’. FAIRFAX, Va. – What started as Ben Nemtin’s idea to help him ‘get out of a funk’ has turned into a career and – more importantly – a project that has helped him better not

Unit 4: Accept the dream

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‘Live Life with No Regrets’ encourages PestWorld Speaker Nemtin 1

235


10

15

only himself but others. That project is The Buried Life – a chronicled journey of Nemtin and three hometown friends – that became an MTV TV show and philanthropic endeavor that has raised funds for charities and made dreams come true. Nemtin shared his inspirational story to PestWorld attendees in the Thursday general session sponsored by Syngenta. After a successful high school career as a standout rugby player in Canada, Nemtin seemed to have it all figured out. But the pressures of being a student-athlete combined with his lifelong battle with depression took a toll on Nemtin, who ended up dropping out of college and leaving the Canada National Rugby Team. Nemtin’s next move turned his life around. He contacted a neighborhood friend, Jonny, whom he knew was a self-taught amateur filmmaker. The pair added two more neighborhood pals and began brainstorming for film ideas. They found inspiration in four lines from the 1852 poem The Buried Life by Matthew Arnold: But often, in the world’s most crowded streets, But often, in the din of strife, There rises an unspeakable desire

VA N

20

IN

5

After the knowledge of our buried life …

The group decided to make a 100-item ‘bucket list’ – 100 things they wanted to do before they died – and, with camera in tow, set out on an RV tour to document this undertaking.

25

30

These and other experiences led the foursome to expand their focus from just clicking off items on a bucket list, to making a difference in people’s lives and sharing these stories. For example, the group helped Torri, an Ohio teenager born without a hand, achieve her goal of obtaining a bionic hand, by using their influence to get one donated. They have kept in touch with Torri, who enrolled at Bowling Green State University with the goal of becoming a social worker and working in a homeless shelter, a profession she chose because she wanted to ‘pay forward’ the goodness others showed her. Nemtin calls this ‘The Ripple Effect’. He said, ‘You don’t just help that one person, you help the people around them. You help their friends, you help their family and sometimes you help everyone around them.’

©

35

What followed surprised and enlightened them. In soliciting others (via the media) for help in checking off ‘bucket list’ items, the foursome uncovered incredible stories. People recognized that they were receiving attention for their bucket list quest, and they began sharing their wish lists. For example, a local man named Brent emailed them and said his dream was to deliver pizzas to a homeless shelter. ‘It turned out the reason Brent wanted to deliver pizzas to the homeless shelter was because he actually lived in the homeless shelter. [He said] When people came and brought food from out of the blue it was the best feeling ever. It felt like people cared about us.’

40

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45

Nemtin said the ripple effect doesn’t have to occur as a result of big events, and he encouraged PestWorld attendees to keep this in mind when interacting with others. ‘A smile creates a ripple. A compliment creates a ripple. A good deed creates a ripple. Helping out your colleague creates a ripple. Remember, every action creates a reaction and that can either be positive or negative.’

Source: PCT Senior Digital Editor Brad Harbison, Reprinted with permission from PCT magazine (www.pctonline.com)

the din of strife: loud noise during a disagreement a philanthropic endeavor: a challenge that is linked with helping people in need

Unit 4: Accept the dream


13 Watch Ben Nemtin motivate his audience and answer these questions.

WATCHING

a How much time did they originally plan to spend on the bucket list?

b How long has it been going on?

IN

c What is the key principle in his speeches?

d How did they make sure the list would help others too?

VA N

e He mentions a number of items on the bucket list. Which one do you find most interesting?

f

Explain what is meant by ‘the new leadership’.

g What is the most important question that we could ask ourselves, according to Nemtin?

©

h Listen carefully for verbs used to say that they completed something on their list.

How are the items in Nemtin’s original bucket list formulated?

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i

Unit 4: Accept the dream

237


THE LIST 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

Own a fainting goat Take a stranger out for dinner Streak a field Ride a camel in the desert Go on a blind date Make a TV show Donate blood Be interviewed by Oprah Write an article for a major publication Learn how to meditate See a cadaver Ask out the girl of your dreams Go paragliding Paint a mural Join a protest for something that matters Run a successful business Visit Folsom Prison Learn how to sail Walk the red carpet Make wine Swim with sharks Snowball fight on a glacier Skydive over the Alps Take kids on a shopping spree Throw a legendary surprise party Make a music video Help deliver a stranger’s baby Build a house in Joshua Tree, California Visit the Guinness factory in Dublin Go to Burning Man Fall in love Crash the MTV Video Music Awards Sail the Croatian Islands Meet the Lonely Island guys Make a hot chocolate hot tub Win an award Street perform and make $100 Run a marathon Teach an elementary school class Live on a Kibbutz Escape from a deserted island Drive a Fiat across Italy Sleep in a Bedouin tent in the desert Get married Learn how to surf Race dune buggies Party with a rock star Host a lemonade stand Race horses Host Saturday Night Live Go to space

IN

Open the six o’clock news Lead a parade Do the NYC Countdown in Times Square Start a dance in a public place Go down a mountain on a longboard Have a beer with Prince Harry Plant a tree Play ball with President Obama Give a university commencement address Make someone’s dream come true Destroy a computer Swim with giant sea turtles Kiss the Stanley Cup Help someone build a house Grow a mustache Make the cover of Rolling Stone Scuba dive the Great Barrier Reef Start a huge wave in a stadium Tell a joke on late night television Write a #1 New-York-Times Bestselling book Get a song we’ve written on the radio Officiate a wedding Foster a dog Make an epic proposal to my future wife Go to a rock concert in all leather Solve a crime or capture a fugitive Yell in court: you want the truth? You can’t handle the truth! Give a stranger a $100 bill Send a message in a bottle Scream at the top of your lungs Make a big donation to charity Cut a ribbon at a major opening Get something named after you Compete in a krump competition Pay for someone’s groceries Do a sketch with Will Ferrell Throw the first pitch at a major league baseball game Win and yell BINGO! at a bingo hall Climb inside the Egyptian pyramids Stand under a plane while it lands Make the front page of the newspaper Make a toast at a stranger’s wedding Spend a night in jail Be a knight for a day Catch something and eat it Sleep in a haunted house Sing the national anthem before an NBA game Get in the Guinness Book of World Records

VA N

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

©

37

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238

38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

Source: www.bennemtin.com

Unit 4: Accept the dream


14 Take another look at Nemtin and his friends’ original bucket list.

reading

a What have you already done?

c What would you like to do before you die?

IN

b Are there things you would like to do before the age of 25? What?

VA N

15 Form groups and discuss your answers to exercise 15. Then report back to the class. Use the following structures.

HOW TO talk about the future

SPOKEN INTERACTION

GRAMMAR

There are more future forms besides future simple and going to-future to talk about the future. 1/ To talk about actions in progress in the future: e.g. Alice said she will be working

e.g. Kit will be travelling

+

+

+

We call this tense the

as a lawyer. around the world.

+

.

2/ To talk about something that will have happened at or be completed by a certain time in the future: the 6 o’clock news before (s)he dies.

e.g. Nanou will have swum

+

+

We call this tense the

Unit 4: Accept the dream

with sharks before the age of 20.

+

+

.

See p. 241-247

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©

e.g. Finne said she will have opened

239


16 Make a class bucket list and try to realize as many items as you can.

writing

a Preparation: form groups and choose at least 8 goals for the class bucket list. Don’t avoid bold choices! b Action: – Bring together all choices of all groups in a visual way and eliminate doubles. – Decide on the timing.

IN

– Decide who will try to do what. – Document each ticked off item by taking a picture or making a short video. – Comment on your actions. I will try to realize these items:

VA N

c Reflection: reflect on your task by filling in the checklist below. Checklist: class bucket list

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation and content • We decided on 8 goals for our list. • We put all the lists together and deleted the doubles. • We decided who would do what and when. • I completed the goals assigned to me. • I documented each of my realized goals. • I commented on each of my realized goals. 2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I checked spelling and punctuation. • I wrote a fluent text.

©

Feedback

d Come back to this bucket list at the end of the school year and find out what your class has accomplished.

CHECK 2, see p. 259

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Unit 4: Accept the dream


SUMMARY

IN

(Present perfect simple)

GRAMMAR

HOW TO talk about unfinished actions and experiences

No, but I’ve tried many other things on my bucket list.

VA N

Have you ever done anything as crazy as this?

1 Present perfect simple

Positive (+)

Negative (-)

Questions (?)

1st p. sing.

I have worked. I have fallen.

I have not worked. I have not fallen.

Have I worked? Have I fallen?

2nd p. sing. You have worked. You have fallen.

You have not worked. You have not fallen.

Have you worked? Have you fallen?

3rd p. sing.

He has worked. He has fallen.

He has not worked. He has not fallen.

Has he worked? Has he fallen?

1st p. plur.

We have worked. We have fallen.

We have not worked. We have not fallen.

Have we worked? Have we fallen?

2nd p. plur.

You have worked. You have fallen.

You have not worked. You have not fallen.

Have you worked? Have you fallen?

3rd p. plur.

They have worked. They have fallen.

They have not worked. They have not fallen.

Have they worked? Have they fallen?

Rule:

Subject + have/has + past participle*

Subject + have not/has not + past participle*

Have/Has + subject + past participle*?

©

Subject

Unit 4: Accept the dream

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FORM

241


* Irregular verbs have an irregular past participle. e.g. to eat → eaten to go → gone to write → written

USE

Past

Future

VA N

has organized present perfect simple

Now

IN

1 Actions at an unspecified time in the past If you talk about actions that happened at an unspecified time in the past but are important or not over yet at the time of speaking. e.g. Darlin has organized a quinceañera before (= meaning: she has experience now).

→ Careful, when you want to indicate when it happened, you have to use the past simple. e.g. She organized the party for my cousin in 2020.

2 Accomplishments or life experiences If you talk about accomplishments or experiences in your life up until now. Keywords: already, so far, up until now e.g. So far, I have chosen a theme, a dress and a crown. I have already celebrated my quinceañera. 3 Recent events If you talk about something that happened recently.

Keywords: just, recently e.g. I have recently assembled a team for my quinceañera.

4 Unfinished actions If you talk about an action that hasn’t happened, hasn’t started or hasn’t finished yet.

©

Keywords: yet e.g. She hasn’t sent out the invitations for the quinceañera yet. → Careful, you only use this with questions or negative sentences.

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Unit 4: Accept the dream


HOW TO talk about the future

(Future forms)

In 15 years you will be working as a fashion designer in New York and you will have lots of money.

That sounds great!

VA N

IN

What will my future look like?

Sorry, no wait, … that was someone else. I’ll look in my crystal ball again ... You won’t have a job, but I promise you that you will be happy.

1 Future simple

FORM

Positive (+)

Negative (-)

Questions (?)

1st p. sing.

I will work.

I will not work.

Will I work?

2nd p. sing. You will work.

You will not work.

Will you work?

3rd p. sing.

He will work.

He will not work.

Will he work?

1st p. plur.

We will work.

We will not work.

Will we work?

2nd p. plur.

You will work.

You will not work.

Will you work?

3rd p. plur.

They will work.

They will not work.

Will they work?

Rule:

Subject + will + base form of the verb

Subject + will not + base form of the verb

Will + subject + base form of the verb?

©

Subject

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Keep in mind: There are short and long forms in the negative: e.g. I will not work. = I won’t work.

Unit 4: Accept the dream

243


USE – Actions that you think will take place in the future Keywords: I think, I hope, maybe, hopefully, etc. e.g. I hope I will be rich and famous one day. – Predictions e.g. You will have lots of money in the future.

– Promises e.g. I will help you to become a famous designer.

2 Going-to future

IN

– Instant decisions e.g. I made a mistake. I’ll look in my crystal ball again.

FORM Positive (+)

Negative (-)

Questions (?)

1st p. sing.

I am going to work.

I am not going to work.

Am I going to work?

2nd p. sing. You are going to work.

You are not going to work.

Are you going to work?

3rd p. sing.

He is going to work.

He is not going to work.

Is he going to work?

1st p. plur.

We are going to work.

We are not going to work.

Are we going to work?

2nd p. plur.

You are going to work.

You are not going to work.

Are you going to work?

3rd p. plur.

They are going to work.

They are not going to work.

Are they going to work?

Rule:

Subject + ’to be’ in the present simple + going to + base form of the verb

Subject + ’not to be’ in the present simple + going to + base form of the verb

’To be’ in the present simple + subject + going to + base form of the verb?

©

VA N

Subject

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Unit 4: Accept the dream


USE – Intentions or plans. Usually the decision for this has already been made. e.g. After dinner Rachid is going to play some videogames with friends. – To predict something that we think is certain to happen or which we have evidence for now. e.g. With 5 points behind and 2 minutes on the clock, Jesse is going to lose the game for sure.

IN

Keep in mind: If the verb following ‘going to’ is ‘go’ or ‘come’, we usually use a present continuous. e.g. I’m going to go to the park next week. → I’m going to the park next week.

3 Present continuous

USE

– Fixed plans and personal arrangements in the future, often with a specific time reference. e.g. Rachid is participating in a tournament at 2 p.m. this Saturday.

VA N

4 Future forms on a timeline

USE

Future

Now

now (in 2 min.) he’s going to lose (3)

this afternoon at 2 I’m seeing (4)

this weekend I’m going to play (2)

one day you will be (1)

©

Past

You will be rich and famous one day. I’m going to play videogames with my friend this weekend. With 5 points behind and 2 minutes on the clock, he’s going to lose for sure. I’m seeing the doctor this afternoon at 2.

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1) 2) 3) 4)

Unit 4: Accept the dream

245


5 Future continuous FORM Positive (+)

Negative (-)

Questions (?)

1st p. sing.

I will be working.

I will not be working.

Will I be working?

2nd p. sing. You will be working.

You will not be working.

Will you be working?

3rd p. sing.

He will be working.

He will not be working.

Will he be working?

1st p. plur.

We will be working.

We will not be working.

Will we be working?

2nd p. plur.

You will be working.

You will not be working.

Will you be working?

3rd p. plur.

They will be working.

They will not be working.

Will they be working?

Rule:

Subject + will + be + -ing form of the verb

Subject + will not + be + -ing form of the verb

Will + subject + be + -ing form of the verb?

IN

Subject

VA N

USE

– To express that (you think) something will take place in the future with stress on the duration of the action. e.g. You will be working as a waitress for at least 5 years, but then you will quit your job and you will become a fashion designer. you will be working

Past

Now

will quit

will become

Future

©

– Plans or arrangements e.g. Next week we will be presenting our time capsules.

– Keep in mind that we use the present continuous as a future tense to express fixed plans and personal arrangements in the future, often with a specific time reference. e.g. Rachid is participating in a tournament at 2 p.m. this Saturday.

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6 Future perfect simple FORM Positive (+)

Negative (-)

Questions (?)

1st p. sing.

I will have worked.

I will not have worked.

Will I have worked?

2nd p. sing. You will have worked.

You will not have worked.

Will you have worked?

3rd p. sing.

He will have worked.

He will not have worked.

Will he have worked?

1st p. plur.

We will have worked.

We will not have worked.

Will we have worked?

2nd p. plur.

You will have worked.

You will not have worked.

Will you have worked?

3rd p. plur.

They will have worked.

They will not have worked.

Will they have worked?

Rule:

Subject + will have + base form of the verb

Subject + will not have + base form of the verb

Will + subject + have + base form of the verb?

IN

Subject

VA N

Keep in mind: There are short and long forms in the negative: e.g. I will not have worked. = I won’t have worked. USE

– Actions that you think will have taken place before another action in the future. Keywords: for, by, by the time, before e.g. I will have worked there for 5 years by the time I’m 30. I will have swum with dolpins before the age of 20. point in the future by the time I’m 30, before the age of 20

Now

Future

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©

Past

finished action will have worked, will have swum

Unit 4: Accept the dream

247


HOW TO express reason and purpose

(Combining sentences with conjunctions and prepositions)

C’mon, tell me who did this, so that I can punish them.

IN

Who did this? Tell me because I don’t like it.

VA N

Connectors or linking words help you connect the ideas in a sentence. Some linking words are conjunctions, while others are prepositions, but they can be used for the same reasons. USE

FORM

– To express reason

e.g. Laura included the comics because she thought they would become valuable later.

because + subject + verb

e.g. L aura included them because of the value they might because of + noun have later.

– To express purpose

e.g. She included them to sell them later.

The most common type of purpose clause is a to-infinitive clause.

e.g. She included them so (that) she could sell them later. so (that) + subject + (auxiliary verb) + verb

©

Keep in mind: – Using the form ‘cause instead of because is informal and only done in conversation. – The ‘so’-clause is usually put in the second part of the sentence. – If you can replace ‘so’ by: • ‘so that’ = it expresses purpose e.g. I opened the box so I could see the items. = I opened the box so that I could see the items. • by ‘therefore’ = it expresses result e.g. The box can’t be opened, so we will never know what is in it. = The box can’t be opened, therefore we will never know what is in it.

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Translation

My notes

to accomplish

volbrengen

to check off

afvinken

to compile

samenstellen

to cross off

doorstrepen

to draw up

opstellen

to shortlist

op een favorietenlijst zetten

to strike off

doorstrepen

to put together

samenstellen

IN

Word

VOCABULARY

1 VERBS RELATED TO A BUCKET LIST

2 TIME AND FUTURE IDIOMS Meaning

My notes

eventually

at the end of the day

eventually

to beat the clock

to finish a task quickly

to be happy as a clam

to be very happy

to be on cloud nine

to be extremely happy

to bite the dust

to fail or to come to an end (to die)

to cash in (on)

to take advantage of a situation / also: to die (not followed by ‘on’)

in the blink of an eye

very quickly, almost unnoticeable

in the long run

related to a longer period of time

just in the nick of time

just in time

to kick the bucket

to die

like sand through the hourglass so are the days of our lives

we only have a limited amount of time to live

to push up daisies

to be dead

to seize the day

to enjoy every day

time is on somebody’s side

time will make the chance of success bigger

to turn back the hands of time

to go back in time, mostly because you regret something

your days are numbered

we only have a limited amount of time to live

©

at the eleventh hour

Unit 4: Accept the dream

two hundred and forty-nine

VA N

Idiom

249


I will definitely be world champion street skateboarding in the future!

I expect to have become an Olympic gold medalist by the time I’m 25.

VA N

IN

USEFUL EXPRESSIONS

HOW TO express your hopes and ambitions?

very probable

I will definitely be … / I will have had … / I will have become … I’m almost sure I will be … / I will have had … / I will have become … I’m confident I will be … / I will have had … / I will have become … It is likely that I will be … / I will have had … / I will have become … I expect to be … / to have … / to have become … It is my ambition to be …

©

I hope to be … There is a small chance I will be …

very unlikely

two hundred and fifty

250

Unit 4: Accept the dream


ON DIFFERENT TRACKS CHECK 1 ⁄ Describing actions in the future 1 You will write a short email (50-70 words) to your best friend in which you explain your plans for the next holiday.

written INTERACTION

a Preparation: write some of your plans for the next holiday in a mind map. If you can’t think of any, think of the things you usually do during the holidays.

IN

b Action: write your email. Think of the rules for email writing. Pay attention to the use of future tenses. Give reasons for planning the things you want to do. Use a variety of ways of expressing the reasons.

VA N

c Reflection: reflect on your writing skills by filling in the checklist below. Checklist: my holiday plans email

Yes

I think so

No

2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I used at least 2 different ways to explain my reasons. • I used the correct future forms. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

Feedback

Unit 4: Accept the dream

two hundred and fifty-one

©

1 Content and structure • I wrote 50-70 words. • I talked about my plans for the next holiday. • I used a greeting and ending typical of informal writing.

251


Score

<5

5-7

>7

Next exercise

ex. 3

ex. 4

ex. 5

2 All the world’s a stage. Put together a future travel plan of places that you really want to visit.

writing

a Preparation:

©

VA N

IN

– Look at the map and mark at least 5 places (cities, countries or regions) that you want to visit in the future.

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252

Unit 4: Accept the dream


– Decide in which order you want to visit these places by numbering them.

two hundred and fifty-three

©

VA N

IN

– Look up specific information about what you can visit or do in the destinations you have chosen.

Unit 4: Accept the dream

253


IN

b Action: write your travel itinerary (about 75 words). Explain why you want to visit these places.

c Reflection: reflect on your writing skills by filling in the checklist below.

VA N

Checklist: my travel plans

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation and content • I marked at least 5 destinations on the map. • I looked up information about what I could visit there and used this in my text. • I decided on the order of the places I want to visit. • I wrote a text of about 75 words. • I structured the text using paragraphs. 2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I used correct grammar. • I used good ways to express my reasons. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

©

Feedback

Score

< 12

≥ 12

Next exercise

ex. 6

Check 2, p. 259

two hundred and fifty-four

254

Unit 4: Accept the dream


3 Fill in the correct form of the verb. Choose between the future simple or going-to future. 1 You don’t have to carry all those handbags yourself. Wait, I

(to give) you a hand.

2 Do you think the president

(to win) another election?

3 Wow, you look stunning, Nore. Does that mean you (not to eat) in tonight? 4 I

(to help) you with your book assignment as soon as

IN

I get home. 5 It is said that by 2050 there

(to be) more plastic than

fish in the oceans. 6 The path is icy. Look out or you 7

(to fall) and get injured!

(you to text) me when the plane has landed?

8 Look at that lady; she

(you to be) or

VA N

9

(definitely to have) a baby soon.

(you not to be) home for Christmas?

10 He went down on one knee and popped the question: ‘

©

(you to marry) me?’

Score

<7

ex. 2 two hundred and fifty-five

Next exercise

≥7

Unit 4: Accept the dream

255


4 How to throw an epic party? Think of a party that you would like to throw in the near future. a Preparation: first answer these questions in your brainstorm.

– What is the reason for the party? (theme, birthday, special occasion)

– When is the party?

IN

– Who is the party for? (business, family, friends)

VA N

– Where is the party going to be?

– How many people are you inviting?

b Action: now put these vague ideas into concrete actions. Use a separate piece of paper and write a timeline of when you will do what. Write a sentence for each of the actions below.

writing

©

Make a list of people to invite. Choose the exact location. Make a list of equipment needed (rental chairs and tables). Plan the layout of the rooms. (Make sure all the food tables are not right on top of each other to ensure smooth flow for people to mingle.) Plan music. Plan lighting. Plan the menu, including the beverages. Make a shopping list (food, paper goods, decorations).

two hundred and fifty-six

256

SPOKEN INTERACTION

c Action: talk to a classmate about your party plans.

Unit 4: Accept the dream


d Reflection: reflect on your spoken interaction skills by filling in the checklist below. Checklist: my epic party

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation and content • I used the questions to complete my brainstorm. • I made a timeline with the different tasks. • I wrote a sentence for each task. • I described to a classmate how I would organize my party.

IN

2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I used correct grammar. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I paid attention to my pronunciation. Feedback

D

C

ex. 6

Check 2, p. 259

VA N

Score Next exercise

5 Plan your perfect trip to New Orleans.

a Preparation: watch the video and answer the questions.

WATCHING

1 Which event is the video about?

2 When does this event take place?

3 What can you compare it with?

4 What is a ‘krewe’?

two hundred and fifty-seven

©

Unit 4: Accept the dream

257


b Action: start planning!

writing

– Explore the website your teacher gives you. Write down some of the things that you would like to do when in New Orleans. Choose at least 3 things. – Write your plans for the trip in a fluent text of about 75-100 words long. Use a separate piece of paper. c Reflection: reflect on your writing skills by filling in the checklist below. Checklist: my perfect New Orleans trip

Yes

I think so

No

IN

1 Preparation, content and structure • I watched the video and answered the questions. • I explored the website thoroughly. • I took notes of the activities that I found interesting and used at least 3 activities in my text. • My text is about 75-100 words long. • I used paragraphs to structure the text.

VA N

2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I used correct grammar. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • I checked spelling and punctuation.

Feedback

Score

< 14

≥ 14

Next exercise

ex. 4

Check 2, p. 259

6 Link a clause on the left with the most logical ending on the right.

A because I really hate clutter!

2 I’m keeping my report cards ...

B mainly because of all the hard work I put into them.

3 I’m keeping only a few really important pieces of my artwork ...

C because I enjoy looking back at them and I think my son will too when he gets older.

4 I got rid of all the stuff my mum saved for me, and I’ve never regretted it ...

D because a thing is just a thing unless there’s a story behind it.

5 I’m going to keep a few things that prompted a forgotten story when I unboxed them ...

E so they can go to those who would truly love to have them.

©

1 I am donating any clean and usable items to a local church or shelter ...

Adapted from: https://ask.metafilter.com

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258

1

Score Next exercise

2

<4

3

4

5

≥4 Check 2, p. 259

Unit 4: Accept the dream


CHECK 2 ⁄ Talking about achievements 1 You are a hero! What have you done in the last week that you are proud of? Write about 5 different activities in your diary.

writing

a Preparation: think of a (fictional) hero you would like to be. Then think of the things that you have done in the last few days. Write down things that you are proud of.

VA N

IN

b Action: write a short diary entry to yourself in which you discuss the things you are proud of as a hero. Use the correct tense for these accomplishments. Write a minimum of 7 sentences or about 75 words.

c Reflection: reflect on your writing skills by filling in the checklist below. Checklist: my hero diary entry

Yes

I think so

No

©

1 Preparation, content and structure • I thought of at least 5 things that I am proud of (as a hero). • I listed things I’m proud of and added information. • I wrote a coherent diary entry. • My text is a minimum 7 sentences or about 75 words long.

2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I used the correct tense to talk about my accomplishments. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

Score

<5

5-7

>7

Next exercise

ex. 2

ex. 4

ex. 6

Unit 4: Accept the dream

two hundred and fifty-nine

Feedback

259


2 Read this letter from the past. ill in the appropriate tenses in the letter. Choose between the past simple and present perfect a F simple.

TIME TRAVELLED — 5 MONTHS A letter from June 20th, 2021

Binny oh Binny, Dear Me,

IN

1

You and I go way back to the beginning. We’re one hundred percent connected in a way no one will–or could ever–understand. We

(1 to be) there since we

were born, standing together. Sometimes crying in the shower, sometimes wishing life was 5

better, but it

(3 to be) supposed to be, but some time ago I

VA N

Or so it

(2 always to be) you and me. Always and forever …

(4 to leave) you floundering on your own, to rely on love and

encouragement and strength from others–from strangers–when it (5 to be) I who should have held you up. When it

10

(6 to be) I who

should have hugged you and praised you and appreciated you for the wondrous person (7 to bring) to this world.

you are–for all the beauty and life you

I should have told you to ignore the jeans and sneakers. To not care what others think. To not be afraid to be different. To not be ashamed of who you are. Worst of all, I should have ignored the jeans and sneakers. I shouldn’t have cared what people thought. Because in

15

doing so, I

I

(8 to say) horrible things to shame you.

(9 to take) you for granted and

(11 to say) you’re not enough. That if you’d

(10 to dishonour) you. I

©

only be a better teacher, a better husband, a better friend, a better writer, a better lover … then I’d love you. If you were more confident, more social, more assertive, then I’d

20

respect you. If you had fewer sun spots, if you ate less junk, if you were more adventurous and thick-skinned, if you were a father, if you achieved your goals, then I’d want you. (12 to say) things to you I wouldn’t say to my

Throughout the years I two hundred and sixty

260

(13 to take) it, and

worst enemy and you (14 to internalize) every calloused word. 25

And for that I

(15 already to lose) you. I’m so incredibly sorry I (16 to fail) you. I’m sorry for hurting you, for leaving you, for not

Unit 4: Accept the dream


reminding you every second of every day how wonderful you are. How worthy you are. How brave and kind and powerful you are. Please forgive me.

I know you are going through hard times right now. That life 30

(18 not to turn out)

(17 not to give) you what you hoped and

(19 to think) it would. I know you are disappointed

the way you

IN

and sometimes feel like a failure or that it is all your fault. But the truth is: YOU are not a failure nor could you ever be. YOU are strong and brave and honest, and YOU

will overcome. YOU will persevere and come out on the other side more YOU than you (20 ever to be) before.

35

Together WE are enough. WE will conquer this new future. I’ve got you and this time I’m not letting go. Ever. This time, I will put you first.

VA N

I will respect you and honor you and cherish you. Love for eternity,

40

Me.

Source: www.futureme.org

Subtotal:      / 20

b Answer the questions below.

reading

1 What do you think is the connection between Binny and Me?

©

2 Do you think Me is satisfied with himself? Why (not)?

Score

< 15

Next exercise

Unit 4: Accept the dream

≥ 15 ex. 3

two hundred and sixty-one

Subtotal:      / 2

261


3 Fill in the correct verb forms. Choose between the present, present perfect simple or future tenses. 1 Dear FutureMe. Hi, Katie! When you (to read) this, you (to live) in Nebraska. 2 I

(to move) to Nebraska one

week from today. (to miss) everyone in California more

than I think. 4 I am REALLY worried that I

IN

3 I am worried that I

(not to fit) in in my new school.

5 I hope that by the time I read this, I

(to fall) in love.

6 Mom says that I just have trouble settling for anyone that I (to fall) in love with one day. 7 But I’m 16 and I still

(my life to be) like in 10 years?

VA N

8 What

(even not to come) close to it.

9 Well, I hope I

(to find) someone to spend the rest of my life with.

10

(I to be) happy? Hopefully my artistic endeavours (to become) successful.

11 Hopefully I

(to open) galleries in New York City and … Italy.

12

(you to remember) the time you were obsessed with Mitski and

Billie Eilish?

13 What kind of music

(you to listen) to now? Did you get to go to

©

another Billie Eilish concert like you wanted?

two hundred and sixty-two

262

Score Next exercise

< 10

≥ 10 All done!

Unit 4: Accept the dream


4 Fill in the correct verb forms in the letter below. Choose between the present, past, present perfect simple or future tenses. 1

Dear Future Me,

I can’t do the math too well off the top of my head, but I hope (1 to do) well. If it’s 2012 now, 2023 (2 to be) 11 years from now, right? I just

IN

(3 to pick) it because it’s a pretty number and you

5

(4 to know) me, I (5 to love) beautiful things.

(6 not to change); I hope

I hope that

(7 to love) the beautiful things and

you still

(8 to lie down) in (another) track field and

VA N

10

(9 to watch) the clouds with your friends and point out

the weirdest shapes you find.

11 years from now,

(10 you to be) 27. How’s life?

(11 we, finally, to find) a guy? Are we into girls?

15

(12 still to wonder) you know, sometimes, and this is the

I

(13 to admit) it to myself, so who knows?

first time I

Tell me that we

(14 to do) it. Tell me

(15 to graduate) college and

that we

(16 to be) in law school, or at least in the process (17 to have) at least one guy who

of. Tell me that I

©

(19 we, still, to obsess) over pretty shows? Do you

remember summer months spent gleeing over Firefly and Torchwood and Doctor Who?

Tell me we still have those somewhere, that we 25

(20 still to have) the same friends with which to do so.

Score

< 15

Next exercise

Unit 4: Accept the dream

≥ 15 ex. 5

two hundred and sixty-three

(18 to make) me happy, though I’d hope it’s more. Source: www.futureme.org

20

263


5 Read the transcript of a YouTube vlog of a trip to Dubai. a Fill in the correct verb form. Choose between the present, past, present perfect or future tenses.

This is our trip across Dubai 1

REC° (1 to go) on this

So recently I

adventure, and I would very much like to share with you. Two very good friends of mine, Alex and Marc,

5

IN

(2 currently to gallivant) around

the world making videos for YouTube channel The Biggest, Baddest Bucket List; and the other day, they

(3 to call) me up and said:

‘Jack, what’s the number 1 thing on your bucket list?’ And I

(4 to say), ‘Well guys, that would have to be skydiving.’ They then

(5 to respond) by saying: ‘I reckon we can sort that out.’ And sure enough, 2 days later, they (6 to call) back and said: ‘how would you like to travel

10

VA N

through Dubai with us, all expenses paid and you get to chuck yourself out of a plane?’ Dubai (7 to be) a place that

(8 always to fascinate) me, and throwing myself out a plane is something I (9 always to want) to do so we said: ‘Yes please, thank you very

15

much, that sounds nice.’ And off we

(10 to go).

(11 to arrive) at Heathrow Airport early the next morning,

We

(12 to find) our flight,

(13 to check in) at the desk said hi to the woman, (14 to pop) the bags on the weird weight thing,

20

(15 to make) sure there was no loose straps; I hate loose straps. Said goodbye to my bag, (16 to forget) my passport. Checked in again, this time

almost

©

at security, put my bag onto the belt and got told off for having a camera. Picked my bag pack up, looked for the gate, found the gate, jumped on the weird train things, jumped off the weird (17 to run)

train things and onto on an escalator, realized we

25

late, like, really, really late. Finally, found the gate. We made it in time, checked in for what feels like the 20th time, down some escalators, get pointed in the right direction, onto the

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264

plane, belt buckled up, table down, crack open a whiskey. Cheers! Bottle of whiskey had taken effect, I

(18 to come)

up with a mad scheme to draw something on Finn’s face. It’s a penis. That 30

(19 to teach) him.

Unit 4: Accept the dream


So, once we

(20 to get) into the hotel we pretty much just (21 to crash) out from complete and utter exhaustion.

We had just 3 days in Dubai, and although we (23 to be) some activities planned we

(22 to know) there

(24 not to be) exactly sure they would be. Early the next

35

morning, like really, really early we

IN

(25 to drive, passive) out to the desert to experience something pretty special. In (26 to introduce, passive) to Peter

the desert we

who owns this gigantic hot-air balloon. The plan was to go up to watch the sun as it

(27 to rise) in the early morning. Once we were up in the

40

air everything was so incredibly still and quiet. Boys did their thing filming whilst Finn and I (28 to sit) there and

(29 to take) the whole thing in. Then something strange (31 to come) in to land the

VA N

(30 to start) to happen. As we

45

(32 to start) to pick up and Peter started to panic.

wind

Yep, we had a crash landing. So, the next morning we

(33 to wake up) hoping we

might have a bit more of a chill day, maybe lying on a beach, hanging out at the pool. (34 not to happen). You see the hotel

Evidently that

50

(35 to stay) in just so happened to be the home of

we

the Middle East largest aquarium. And due to the fact that we

(36 to make) a little film out there we

(37 to offer,

passive) an incredibly rare opportunity to go into the tank with all the sharks and the stingrays and go scuba diving. So, I’m about to go in the world’s largest fish tank. This (38 to be) awesome! There’s a shark in there.

©

55

It was only when we started to descend into this tank we

(39 to realize) the absolute vast scale of it. This tank is full of a million different types of fish. All of which just swim right by you. It was an incredibly surreal experience and the

60

time. We all now went down in a circle and offered tiny crustaceans. By this time the Dubai Tourism Board had heard what we that we

(40 to do) and the fact (41 to make) a video for YouTube and I think they

(42 to get) a little bit carried away. That afternoon we

Unit 4: Accept the dream

two hundred and sixty-five

other side of the tank to be looking at humans as if you were a fish. Then came feeding

265


(43 to go) and 65

(44 to do)

a series of mad driving expeditions. Hi mister camel! As if this whole experience hadn’t already been so overwhelmingly insane, the time had finally come for us to go skydiving. (45 to go) inside,

We (46 to buckle up),

buggy, onto the tarmac, into the plane and then … it was time!

IN

70

(47 to high five) for good luck, into the

I would like to extend a huge thanks to Marc and Alex for letting us experience all these incredible life experiences that we wouldn’t otherwise have done. I

(48 to feel) super lucky and super spoiled to be able

(49 to do) them, and also to be travelling alongside

to 75

you guys. Marc and Alex are literally doing this type of stuff every single week. I have no idea how they do it, but if you’d like to check it out, make sure you head off to ‘Biggest,

VA N

Baddest Bucket List’; I’ll link it in the description box below. Thanks for watching, I guess I (50 to see) you next week!

b Correct your answers by watching the video. Subtotal:      / 50

c Answer the questions below.

1 Would you like to live a life as a vlogger? Why (not)?

2 Which activity would you like to try yourself? Explain why.

©

3 Which activity do you consider most dangerous? Why?

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266

Subtotal:      / 4 Score

< 40

≥ 40

Next exercise

ex. 3

All done!

Unit 4: Accept the dream

WATCHING


6 Read the extracts from Since you’ve been gone by Morgan Matson and answer the questions.

reading

a Read the first extract and answer the questions. 1 Are the following statements true or false or not mentioned in the text? Correct if false. Statement

True

This scene takes place in a glasses shop.

2

The protagonist responds enthusiastically to the list.

3

The protagonist is female.

Not in text

VA N

IN

1

False

2 What went wrong with the first letter?

3 What do you think ‘lassie’ means?

4 What is the reason the protagonist is getting a list?

©

5 Why do you think has Sloane made the effort of sending this list by mail?

Subtotal:      / 7

Unit 4: Accept the dream

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267


1

JUNE One Year Earlier 1

“You sent me a list?” I asked. Sloane looked over at me sharply, almost dropping the sunglasses—oversize green frames—that she’d just picked up. […]

IN

Sloane smiled at me, even as she put on the terrible green sunglasses, hiding her eyes, and I wondered for a moment if she was embarrassed, which I’d almost never seen. “You 5 weren’t supposed to get that until tomorrow,” she said as she bent down to look at her reflection in the tiny standing mirror. “I was hoping it would be there right before you guys left for the airport. The mail here is too efficient.” “But what is it?” I asked, flipping through the pages. Emily Goes to Scotland! was written across the top. 10

1. Try haggis. 2. Call at least three people “lassie.”

VA N

3. Say, at least once, “You can take my life, but you’ll never take my freedom!” (Say this out loud and in public.)

The list continued on, over to the next page, filled with things—like fly-fishing and asking people if they knew where I could find J.K. Rowling—that I did not intend to do, and not just because I would only be gone five days. One of my parents’ plays was going into rehearsals for the Edinburgh Fringe Festival, and they had decided it would be the perfect opportunity to take a family trip. I suddenly noticed that at the very bottom of the list, in tiny letters, she’d written, “When you finish this list, find me and tell me all about it”. I looked up at 20 Sloane, who had set the green pair down and was now turning over a pair of rounded cat‑eye frames. 15

“It’s stuff for you to do in Scotland!” she said. She frowned at the sunglasses and held up the frames to me, and I knew she was asking my opinion. I shook my head, and she nodded and set them down. “I wanted to make sure you got the most of your experience.”

25

“Well, I’m not sure how many of these I’ll actually do,” I said as I carefully folded the letter and placed it back in the envelope. “But this is awesome of you. Thanks so much.” […]

©

“Hey,” I said, coming to join her in the back, where she was sitting on the ground, already surrounded by options, untying her sandals. I held up the list. “Why did you mail this to me? Why not give it to me in person?” I looked down at the envelope in my hands, at the 30 stamp and postmark and all the work that had gone into it. “And why mail anything at all? Why not just tell me?”

Source: Morgan Matson, Since you’ve been gone

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268

b Now read the second extract and answer the questions. 1 How many letters has Sloane sent in total, do you think?

Unit 4: Accept the dream


2 Which of the items on the list would you dare to do? Explain why. 3 Choose one of the items that you absolutely wouldn’t like to do and explain why. 4 How did Sloane select the items on all her lists?

IN

5 What do you think happened to Sloane? Give reasons for your opinion. Write a minimum of 30 words.

VA N

Subtotal:      / 7

1

Sloane looked up at me and smiled, a flash of her bright, slightly crooked teeth. “But where’s the fun in that?”

1. 2. 5 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 10 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 15 13.

Kiss a stranger. Go skinny-dipping. Steal something. Break something. Penelope. Ride a dern horse, ya cowpoke. 55 S. Ave. Ask for Mona. The backless dress. And somewhere to wear it. Dance until dawn. Share some secrets in the dark. Hug a Jamie. Apple picking at night. Sleep under the stars.

I sat on my bed, gripping this new list in my hands so tightly, I could see the tips of my fingers turning white. I wasn’t sure what it meant, but it was something. It was from Sloane. Sloane had sent me a list.

Unit 4: Accept the dream

two hundred and sixty-nine

©

2

269


As soon as I’d taken it out of the envelope, I’d just stared at it, my brain not yet turning the symbols into words, into things I could parse. In that moment, it had been enough to know that she had sent me something, that she wasn’t just going to disappear and leave me with nothing but questions and memories. There was more to it than that, and it made me feel like the fog I’d been walking around in for the past two weeks had cleared to let in some 25 sunlight. 20

IN

Like the others she’d sent—one appearing every time I went away, even if it was just for a few days—there was no explanation. Like the others, it was a list of outlandish things, all outside my comfort zone, all things I would never normally do. The lists had become something of a running joke with us, and before every trip I’d wonder what she was going 30 to come up with. The last one, when I’d gone to New Haven with my mom for a long weekend, had included things like stealing the bulldog mascot, named Handsome Dan, and making out with a Whiffenpoof (I later found out Anderson had gone to Yale, so she’d been able to include lots of specifics). Over the years, I’d managed to check off the occasional item on a trip, and always told her about it, but she always wanted to know why I hadn’t 35 done more, why I hadn’t checked off every single one.

VA N

I looked down at the list again and saw that something about this one was different. There were some truly scary things here—like skinny-dipping and having to deal with my lifelong fear of horses, the very thought of which was making my palms sweat—but some of them didn’t seem so bad. A few of them were almost doable.

And as I read the list over again, I realized these weren’t the random items that had accompanied my travels to California and Austin and Edinburgh. While many of them still didn’t make sense to me—why did she want me to hug someone named Jamie?—I recognized the reasoning behind some of them. They were things I’d backed away from, usually because I was scared. It was like she was giving me the opportunity to do some 45 things over again, and differently this time. This made the list seem less like a tossed-off series of items, and more like a test. Or a challenge. 40

©

I turned the paper over, but there was nothing on the other side of it. I picked up the envelope, noted her usual drawing where most people just wrote their addresses—this time she’d drawn a palm tree and a backward moon—and that the postmark was too 50 smudged for me to make out a zip code in it. I looked down at the list again, at Sloane’s careful, unmistakable handwriting, and thought about what was sometimes at the bottom of these—When you finish this list, find me and tell me all about it. I could feel my heart beating hard as I realized that this list—that doing these terrifying things—might be the way I would find her again. I wasn’t sure how, exactly, that was going to happen, but for the 55 first time since I’d called her number and just gotten voice mail, it was like I knew what to do with myself. Sloane had left me a map, and maybe—hopefully—it would lead me to her. I read through the items, over and over again, trying to find one that wasn’t the most terrifying thing I had ever done, something that I could do right now, today, because I wanted to begin immediately. This list was going to somehow bring me back to Sloane, and 60 I needed to get started.

Source: Morgan Matson, Since you’ve been gone two hundred and seventy

270

Score

> 10

≥ 10

Next exercise

ex. 5

All done!

Unit 4: Accept the dream


CHECK OUT LETTER TO MY FUTURE SELF ORIENTATION

PREPARATION 1 Brainstorm.

IN

You are going to address your future self in a letter or a video message. You will discuss your achievements from your bucket list as well as your hopes and ambitions for the future.

– What have you already accomplished in your life? – What do you want to have done in your life by the end of your 20s? Write these actions in the form of a bucket list. 2 Choose whether you want to send yourself a video message or a whether you want to write yourself a letter for the future.

VA N

ACTION

3 Write your letter in a draft version first.

written INTERACTION

– Check whether you have used all the ideas from your preparation. – Check the language in your letter: word order, grammar, spelling and punctuation.

4 Write a neat version of your text (minimum 150 words).

OR

5 Plan your video first.

©

– Write what you want to talk about in your video in keywords. – Check whether you have used all the ideas from your preparation. – Practise your video a few times in front of a mirror or make a test recording. – Find a good spot to do the recording: choose a nice background, make sure the light is good, check the sound quality.

speaking

two hundred and seventy-one

6 Make your final recording (about 5 minutes) and send it to your teacher.

Unit 4: Accept the dream

271


REFLECTION 7 Reflect on your task by filling in the checklist. Checklist: writing a letter or recording a video message

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation • I brainstormed about my life. • I noted down my accomplishments. • I made my bucket list for the future.

IN

2 Content and structure • I structured my message with an opening, a main part and an ending. • I talked about what I have achieved in my life so far. • I talked about my future plans.

VA N

3 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I used the past tenses correctly. • I used the future tenses correctly. • I paid attention to the structure of my sentences. • Letter: I checked spelling and punctuation. • Letter: I wrote a fluent text of a minimum of 150 words. • Video: I paid attention to my pronunciation. • Video: my video is about 5 minutes long.

Feedback

©

Trace your steps on diddit.

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272

Unit 4: Accept the dream


UNIT 5: R U OK? CHECK IN Step 1:

understanding mental health

VA N

IN

MAIN TRACK

Step 2:

doing research

SUMMARY

Step 3: giving advice

©

TRACE YOUR STEPS

ON DIFFERENT TRACKS

CHECK OUT: RESEARCHING AND PRESENTING A MENTAL HEALTH DISORDER


CHECK IN DARE TO ASK

2 OK or not OK?

SPOKEN INTERACTION

VA N

a Your teacher will distribute cards with different traits and characteristics. b Place them on the continuum in relation to the ‘OK’ and ‘Not OK’ cards that are on the board or in the classroom.

©

c Discuss the placement of the cards.

two hundred and seventy-four

274

SPOKEN INTERACTION

IN

1 Do a ‘brainswarm’ with your class on the question: ‘What are some of the signs that someone is not okay?’

Unit 5: R U OK?


MAIN TRACK STEP 1 ⁄ Let’s talk about mental health Understanding mental health

1 ⁄ Talking about feelings 1 W atch the video about teenagers talking about how they felt during the time of the COVID pandemic and complete the table.

Nico

IN

Feelings before the pandemic

WATCHING

Feelings during the pandemic

mental health

to a more

How are your friends doing?

Advice

dysphoria

Even if it feels

­producing

safer to keep to yourself,

version of ­myself,

VA N

. This is not the

Amara

end of the world.

about school

Daliah

friends with

stress between

the closure is

going to extend

,

Tyler

friends with and

mental health issues,

Unit 5: R U OK?

two hundred and seventy-five

©

stress amplified

275


Feelings before the pandemic

Virginia

Feelings during the pandemic

How are your friends doing?

Advice

start to

depression and

Stay away from

about seeing .

friends again, Make a vision

life took a

board to

on me

IN

rethinking future,

.

Ricardo

about getting

VA N

sick

2 The teens in the video use different words to express their feelings and emotions. Which other ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ emotions do you know? Make 2 word webs on a separate piece of paper. 3 Match the feelings to the emojis below.

©

afraid – angry – astonished – confused – delighted – exhausted – happy – hysterical – shy/bashful – weepy

two hundred and seventy-six

276

Unit 5: R U OK?


4 Which feeling or emotion is being described in the sentences? Choose from the box. annoyed – anxious – bored – composed – confused – curious – disappointed – exhilarated – frustrated – miserable – satisfied – withdrawn – worried

angry or annoyed because you have not been able to do/get/ achieve something

2

calm and having one’s feelings under control

3

concerned about something that is happening or might happen

4

f eeling happy about something that happened, or pleased that you did something the way you wanted to

5

f eeling sad and unhappy that something did not happen or did not happen in the way that you wanted or expected

6

feeling worried and nervous

7

not able to think clearly or understand

8

sad and without hope

9

tired and annoyed because you are uninterested in something

10

to feel slightly angry or irritated at someone

11

very happy and excited

12

very quiet and not wanting to talk to others

13

wanting to know about something or someone

VA N

IN

1

5 Choose the correct answer.

1 We were so ___________ that our teacher gave us a test today. annoyed

curious

bored

©

2 My little sister always tries to come into my room when my friends are visiting. She’s very ___________. exhilarated

satisfied

curious

3 Why is Kit so quiet today? She’s normally talkative but today she’s quite ___________. withdrawn

weepy

4 When you are ___________, you feel sad and hopeless. miserable

loathing

composed

5 I had to take my driving test 3 times before finally passing, I’ve never felt more ___________. exhausted 6 Play ‘Emotion Time’s Up’.

Unit 5: R U OK?

hopeful

delighted SPOKEN INTERACTION

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shy

277


SPOKEN INTERACTION

7 Read the feelings idioms. Would you use them in a positive or in a negative situation? Why do you say this? Highlight the positive idioms. A to be a hot mess

J to bite someone’s head off

B to be at the end of one’s rope/tether

K to drive someone up the wall

C to be at your wits’ end

L to feel blue

D to be bored to death

M to fly off the handle

E to be down in the dumps

N to let off steam

F to be in a black mood

IN

O to look on the bright side

G to be/to feel on top of the world

P to pull yourself together

H to be out of sorts to be over the moon

VA N

I

Q to think big

8 Now match the idioms to their meaning.

1

someone or something with a very untidy appearance, or that is not well-organized

6

5

to be sad or depressed

9

© two hundred and seventy-eight

278

to feel unwell or upset

4

5

6

7

8

8

to feel sad

to become calm and behave normally again after being angry or upset

13

12

to have no strength or patience left

16

to react in a very angry way to something that someone says or does

to make someone upset or annoyed 3

11

to be very unhappy

to be extremely happy because everything is going well for you

10

15

14

2

to be delighted

to be so worried, confused, or annoyed that you do not know what to do next

4

to be extremely bored

7

to do or say something that helps you to get rid of strong feelings or energy

1

3

2

to see the positive side of things 9

10

11

12

to have plans to be very successful or powerful, to be ambitious

17

to speak to someone angrily when there is no reason to

13

14

15

16

17

Unit 5: R U OK?


9 Complete the sentences with the correct idiom. 1 My brother keeps interrupting my video calls with my boyfriend; he’s really

.

2 You’ve been all week. Let’s go buy you an ice cream; that’ll cheer you up. 3 I have so many assignments due this week, I’m really .

calm; she really has tried everything.

trying to keep our class

IN

4 Our teacher is really

5 I asked a totally innocent question, and he totally apparently it was a sensitive subject.

;

6 Noah likes to go to the gym after a long day at work so he can .

when she heard I had

VA N

7 My grandmother was passed my exams.

8 Our teacher has been talking about this subject for 25 minutes and I am .

9 After his break-up with Nanou, he was a

,

and he didn’t take care of himself at all.

10 Stay away from mom today if you want to live; she’s in a really

.

11 Nore was feeling

after she got

accepted at Harvard, Princeton and Yale.

12 ‘ Are you okay?’ – ‘No, I slept really badly, and have been feeling

©

all day.’ 13 ‘I just asked if I could help; there’s no need to

!’

14 ‘OK. You know nobody. But

– you’ll make lots of

new friends!’

now. 16 You need to

Unit 5: R U OK?

if you want to succeed.

two hundred and seventy-nine

15 I know it was hard for you to hear that your ex has a new girlfriend, but you need to

279


SPOKEN INTERACTION

10 Checking in with the class again. a Walk around the class and discuss the questions with at least 5 other classmates. b Note their responses on the handout. Use some of the vocabulary from exercises 2 to 9. c Can you draw any conclusions? How has a long crisis, such as the COVID pandemic, affected your classmates? Report back to the class.

IN

2 ⁄ Mental health disorders 1 Watch the video about Leah; then answer the questions. a What is the video about?

b When did she get it?

WATCHING

VA N

c Why did it get worse?

d Fill in the table. Symptoms?

mind:

body:

©

Why is it a problem?

What can you do?

external help:

ways to cope:

two hundred and eighty

280

Unit 5: R U OK?


2 Anxiety is just one mental health disorder, but there are many more. Read the definitions below and link them to the corresponding mental disorder. E bipolar disorder

B phobia

F anorexia nervosa

C bulimia nervosa

G PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder)

D OCD (obsessive-compulsive disorder)

H addiction

Fear is the normal response to a genuine danger. Here, the fear is either irrational or excessive. It is an abnormally fearful response to a danger that is imagined or is irrationally exaggerated.

A psychiatric disorder that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, a serious accident, a terrorist act, war/combat, rape, or other violent personal assault.

2

This disorder is diagnosed when patients weigh at least 15 percent less than the normal healthy weight expected for their height. People with this disorder don’t maintain a normal weight because they refuse to eat enough, often exercise obsessively, and sometimes force themselves to vomit or use laxatives to lose weight.

4

VA N

3

A depression

IN

1

reading

6

This disorder, also commonly known as manic depression, is a brain disorder that causes shifts in a person’s mood, energy, and ability to function.

8

Patients with this disorder binge eat frequently and during these times sufferers may eat an astounding amount of food in a short time. After a binge, stomach pains and the fear of weight gain are common reasons for those with this disorder to purge by throwing up or using a laxative.

©

7

A common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act. It causes feelings of sadness and/or a loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. It can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems and can decrease a person’s ability to function at work and at home.

A chronic brain disease that causes compulsive substance use despite harmful consequences. Health, finances, relationships, and careers can be ruined.

Source: www.psychiatry.org

1

2

Unit 5: R U OK?

3

4

5

6

7

8

two hundred and eighty-one

5

An anxiety disorder in which people have recurring, unwanted thoughts, ideas or sensations that make them feel driven to do something repetitively.

281


3 Link the disorders to the appropriate disorder qualification. Anxiety disorder

Substance-related disorder

Eating disorder

IN

Mood disorder

4 Look at the following words from the definitions in exercise 2. What do they mean based on the context of the definitions? Use a dictionary if necessary. 5 recurring (definition 4) freezing coming back bending

VA N

1 excessive (definition 1) easy to enter more than normal willing to fight

reading

2 laxative (definition 2) something that creates tension something that causes confusion something that stimulates bowel movements

6 compulsive (definition 7) computing propelling unable to hold back

3 traumatic (definition 3) having left an emotional ‘scar’ a musical instrument pleasant

7 binge (definition 8) playing a game burning overdoing something

4 assault (definition 3) an offering of peace a gymnastic move an attack

©

5 Read the excerpts from the novel Turtles all the way down and answer the questions.

TURTLES ALL THE WAY DOWN (JOHN GREEN)

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282

Turtles All the Way Down (2017) is a young adult novel written by American author John Green. The story centres on 16-year-old Aza Holmes, an American high school student, and her search for a fugitive billionaire. At the same time, though, Aza is navigating daily existence within the ever-tightening spiral of her own thoughts.

Adapted from: www.goodreads.com

Unit 5: R U OK?

reading


a Summarize excerpt 1 by answering the WH-questions. Who?

Where?

When?

Why?

IN

What?

VA N

b What kind of a doctor do you think Dr Karen Singh is? dermatologist optometrist hematologist psychiatrist

c What does Aza say is a difference about her compared to everyone else?

d Why does she take off the Band-Aid?

e Why does the Center for Disease Control recommend you sing your ABCs? The song tells you the recommended steps to how to wash your hands. The song is as long as the recommended time you have to wash your hands. The song is a good way to remember your ABCs.

The song helps you ignore how annoying it is to wash your hands.

Which disorder do you think Aza has? Why do you think that?

©

f

The bacteria can hurt you.

You won’t get sick from these bacteria.

You can get the bacteria from someone else.

The bacteria are ones everybody has.

h Why does Aza go to the bathroom after kissing Davis?

i

What do you think will happen after this excerpt?

Unit 5: R U OK?

two hundred and eighty-three

g ‘Some percentage of said bacteria were malicious’: what does ‘malicious’ mean?

283


Excerpt 1:

5

10

15

VA N

20

When I got home, I watched TV with Mom, but I couldn’t stop thinking about Davis looking down at my finger, holding my hand in his. I have these thoughts that Dr. Karen Singh calls ‘intrusives’, but the first time she said it, I heard ‘invasives’, which I like better, because, like invasive weeds, these thoughts seem to arrive at my biosphere from some faraway land, and then they spread out of control. Supposedly everyone has them—you look out from over a bridge or whatever and it occurs to you out of nowhere that you could just jump. And then if you’re most people, you think, Well, that was a weird thought, and move on with your life. But for some people, the invasive can kind of take over, crowding out all the other thoughts until it’s the only one you’re able to have, the thought you’re perpetually either thinking or distracting yourself from. You’re watching TV with your mom—this show about time-traveling crime solvers—and you remember a boy holding your hand, looking at your finger, and then a thought occurs to you: You should unwrap that Band-Aid and check to see if there is an infection. You don’t actually want to do this; it’s just an invasive. Everyone has them. But you can’t shut yours up. Since you’ve had a reasonable amount of cognitive behavioral therapy, you tell yourself, I am not my thoughts, even though deep down you’re not sure what exactly that makes you. Then you tell yourself to click a little x in the top corner of the thought to make it go away. And maybe it does for a moment; you’re back in your house, on the couch, next to your mom, and then your brain says, Well, but wait. What if your finger is infected? Why not just check? The cafeteria wasn’t exactly the most sanitary place to reopen that wound. And then you were in the river. Now you’re nervous, because you’ve previously attended this exact rodeo on thousands of occasions, and also because you want to choose the thoughts that are called yours. The river was filthy, after all. Had you gotten some river water on your hand? It wouldn’t take much. Time to unwrap the Band-Aid. You tell yourself that you were careful not to touch the water, but your self replies, But what if you touched something that touched the water, and then you tell yourself that this wound is almost certainly not infected, but the distance you’ve created with the almost gets filled by the thought, You need to check for infection; just check it so we can calm down, and then fine, okay, you excuse yourself to the bathroom and slip off the Band-Aid to discover that there isn’t blood, but there might be a bit of moisture on the bandage pad. You hold the Band-Aid up to the yellow light in the bathroom, and yes, that definitely looks like moisture. Could be sweat, of course, but also might be water from the river, or worse still seropurulent drainage, a sure sign of infection, so you find the hand sanitizer in the medicine cabinet and squeeze some onto your fingertip, which burns like hell, and then you wash your hands thoroughly, singing your ABCs while you do to make sure you’ve scrubbed for the full twenty seconds recommended by the Center for Disease Control, and then you carefully dry your hands with a towel. And then you dig your thumbnail all the way into the crack in the callus until it starts bleeding, and you squeeze the blood out for as long as it comes, and then you blot the wound dry with a tissue. You take a Band-Aid from inside your jeans pocket, where there is never a shortage of them, and you carefully reapply the bandage. You return to the couch to watch TV, and for a few or many minutes, you feel the shivering jolt of the tension easing, the relief of giving in to the lesser angels of your nature. And then two or five or six hundred minutes pass before you start to wonder, Wait, did I get all the pus out? Was there pus even or was that only sweat? If it was pus, you might need to drain the wound again. The spiral tightens, like that, forever.

IN

1

25

30

©

35

40

45

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284

Source: John Green, Turtles all the way down, p. 42

Unit 5: R U OK?


Excerpt 2:

5

10

15

VA N

20

As the movie reached one of its many climaxes, I giggled at something ridiculous and he said, ‘Are you enjoying this?’ And I said, ‘Yeah, it’s silly but great.’ I felt like he was still looking at me, so I glanced over at him. ‘I can’t tell if I’m misreading this situation,’ he said, and the way he was smiling made me want to kiss him so much. Holding hands felt good when it often hadn’t before, so maybe this would be different now, too. I leaned over the sizable armrest between us and kissed him quickly on the lips, and I liked the warmth of his mouth. I wanted more of it, and I raised my hand to his cheek and started really kissing him now, and I could feel his mouth opening, and I just wanted to be with him like a normal person would. I wanted to feel the brain-fuzzing intimacy I’d felt when texting with him, and I liked kissing him. He was a good kisser. But then the thoughts came, and I could feel his spit alive in my mouth. I pulled away as subtly as I could manage. ‘You okay?’ ‘Yeah,’ I said. ‘Yeah, totally. Just want to …’ I was trying to think of what a normal person would say, like maybe if I could just say and do whatever normal people say and do, then he would believe me to be one, or maybe that I could even become one. ‘Take it slow?’ he suggested. ‘Yeah,’ I said. ‘Yeah, exactly.’ ‘Cool.’ He nodded toward the movie. […] So it was with the tightening spiral of my thoughts: I thought about his bacteria being inside of me. I thought about the probability that some percentage of said bacteria were malicious. I thought about the E. coli and campylobacter and Clostridium difficile that were very likely an ongoing part of Davis’s microbiota. A fourth thought arrived. Then many more. ‘I have to go to the bathroom,’ I said. ‘I’ll be right back.’ I emerged from the basement to find the dying light of the day shining through the windows, making the white walls look a little pink. Noah, playing a video game on the couch, said, ‘Aza?’ I spun around and entered a bathroom. I washed my face, stared at myself in the mirror, watching myself breathe. I watched myself for a long time, trying to figure a way to shut it off, trying to find my inner monologue’s mute button, trying. And then I pulled the hand sanitizer out of my jacket and squeezed a glob of it into my mouth. I gagged a little as I swished the burning slime of it around my mouth, then swallowed.

IN

1

25

30

35

Source: John Green, Turtles all the way down, p. 126

©

6 Watch the video and answer the questions.

WATCHING

a What does Sabrina Benaim suffer from?

c Read the signs and symptoms for depression and compare them to the poem. Which signs and symptoms does Sabrina describe in her poem? Highlight them in the following text.

Unit 5: R U OK?

two hundred and eighty-five

b What does she compare her depression to? What do you think she means by this?

285


SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS You may be depressed if, for more than 2 weeks, you’ve felt sad, down or miserable most of the time, or have lost interest or pleasure in usual activities, and have also experienced several of the signs and symptoms across at least 3 of the categories below.

IN

It’s important to remember that we all experience some of these symptoms from time to time, and it may not necessarily mean you’re depressed. Equally, not everyone who is experiencing depression will have all of these symptoms.

Feelings • overwhelmed • guilty • irritable • frustrated •  lacking in confidence • unhappy • indecisive • disappointed • miserable • sad

VA N

Behaviour •  not going out anymore •  not getting things done at work/school •  withdrawing from close family and friends •  relying on alcohol and sedatives •  not doing usual enjoyable activities •  unable to concentrate

Thoughts • I’m a failure. • It’s my fault. •  Nothing good ever happens to me. • I’m worthless. •  Life’s not worth living. •  People would be better off without me.

Physical • tired all the time • sick and run down •  headaches and muscle pains • churning gut • sleep problems •  loss or change of appetite •  significant weight loss or gain

Source: https://beyondblue.org.au

d Sabrina uses quotes from her mother to explain what her depression is like for her. Which of the signs and symptoms above does Sabrina’s mother refer to in her questions?

©

1 Mom says, ‘Try lighting candles.’

2 Mom says, ‘I thought the problem was that you can’t get out of bed.’

3 Mom says, ‘Why don’t you try going to actual parties, see your friends?’

two hundred and eighty-six

286

4 Mom says, ‘Try counting sheep.’

5 Mom says, ‘Happy is a decision.’

Unit 5: R U OK?


7 Write your own (spoken word or slam) poem.

writing

a Preparation: – Think about a situation or issue you want to explain to someone else. This could be a parent, a sibling, a friend or anyone you would want to have a conversation with. – Write a few questions or quotes this person would say about this situation or issue. – Answer the questions or quotes. Focus on sensory details. Write what you want the audience to be seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting, and smelling throughout your entire piece.

A:

Q: A:

Q:

IN

Q:

VA N

A:

Q: A:

b Action: write your poem using the questions, quotes and answers you wrote down above. If you want, you can perform it (live or on video). c Reflection: check your poem.

Checklist: writing (and performing) a slam poem

Yes

I think so

No

©

1 Content and structure • I chose a situation/issue to explain. • My poem includes the answers from the questions I wrote down. • My poem reflects a conversation.

Feedback

CHECK 1, see p. 307

Unit 5: R U OK?

two hundred and eighty-seven

2 Language • I used varied vocabulary. • I used appropriate spelling and punctuation.

287


STEP 2 ⁄ Fact check

Doing research

1 ⁄ Finding the information you need 1 Do the quick research exercise your teacher will give you.

reading

2 Discuss these questions.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

a Which website(s) do you access the most to find information?

c What information do you not trust?

IN

b Do you believe all the information that is published (available) on the internet? Why (not)?

3 You will get a research sheet. Your teacher will give you instructions. a Compare your answers with a partner.

reading

b What kind of keywords worked best when looking for answers? c What should you do if you want to find an image?

VA N

d Did you learn any other tips? HOW TO find information on the internet

STRATEGY

If you need to do research and find useful information on the internet quickly, check the tips in the Summary. See p. 305

4 Use your research skills to answer these questions. What search string gave you the best result?

reading

a Who is the president of the Mental Health Foundation?

Search string used:

©

b Approximately how many people in the world have depression?

Search string used:

c Which young adult novel should I read if I want to read a story about mental health?

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288

Search string used: 5 Watch the video and answer the questions.

WATCHING

a What can you use the CRAAP test for?

Unit 5: R U OK?


b Fill in the table. C R

was it written? Is this about

?

Is my text written at the right Who is the intended

? ?

A

A P

IN

Who published this?

c T he video warns you that bias exists, but what exactly is bias? Look it up online and formulate a response using your own words. Search string used:

VA N

Source: – title

– author

– website

Explanation and/or example:

6 Form groups. You each get a research topic and a source. Fill in the full CRAAP test worksheet to determine whether these are reliable sources that you can use for your research. Then discuss your sources with the rest of your group.

reading

2 ⁄ Structuring your information

1 Watch the video about bipolar disorder and try to structure the information you get.

WATCHING

two hundred and eighty-nine

©

a Preparation: first watch the video and write down keywords that help you understand what bipolar disorder is. There is no need to structure the information yet.

Unit 5: R U OK?

289


b Action: read the outline and try to fill in what you can based on your notes. Which parts of your outline are still incomplete? Watch the video again and actively listen to note down the missing information. Title: Characterised by =

><

starts Symptoms

IN

Who has it?

/ low mood

/ manic mood

VA N

Types

untreated episode duration:

©

Seeking help

Professional help

Coping skills

two hundred and ninety

290

c Reflection: compare your summaries with another group. Did you fill in the same information? Revise if necessary.

Unit 5: R U OK?


2 Read the factsheet about bipolar disorder and find the information you need.

reading

a Highlight the words in the factsheet that refer to the keywords in the table. b Fill in the table with the information you highlighted. Medication

Types of therapy

Coping methods

only if

IN

e.g.

VA N

3 Fill in the mental health disorder chart about bipolar disorder.

reading

a Use the information from exercises 1 and 2 to fill in as much of the information table as you can. b Go online to find the information you are missing and complete the table.

two hundred and ninety-one

©

c Find at least 2 other sources with reliable information about bipolar disorder. Note the title, author and website of your source.

Unit 5: R U OK?

291


What is it? Name + official definition

How many people have it?

Different types?

IN

Symptoms? What are the symptoms? Physical:

How is it diagnosed?

VA N

Mental:

Treatment?

Drugs/therapy Coping methods How to cope if you have it:

How to help someone cope:

©

Organization that raises awareness or tries to help people with this disorder?

Name of organization

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292

What do they do?

Sources?

CHECK 2, see p. 314

Unit 5: R U OK?


STEP 3 ⁄ Reach out

Giving advice

1 ⁄ Finding the information you need 1 Read the text about how to have an ‘R U OK’ conversation. Choose the correct answer for each question.

reading

a When asking someone if they are ok, …

IN

try to mention specific things that have made you concerned about them to start the conversation. talk to them as soon as you can, even if they aren’t up for it.

you should always give them your honest opinion, no matter how painful it might be. you shouldn’t wait for them to be ready to speak. b If you are listening to someone, …

interrupt the conversation because you don’t agree with what they are saying.

VA N

you can’t take everything they say seriously. you might sit quietly with them for a while if they need time to think. you must repeat everything they say and offer your own story on the topic.

c When you are encouraging action, …

you could suggest they speak to a professional.

you may tell them about your own horrible experiences with your psychologist. you mustn’t offer them tips on how you overcame a similar situation. you have to wait a minimum of 2 weeks before doing anything.

d After having the conversation, …

just be there for them even if they don’t take any action. you have to wait for them to contact you again.

you must stop talking to them if they don’t follow your suggestions.

two hundred and ninety-three

©

you should always wait a few weeks before contacting them again.

Unit 5: R U OK?

293


3. ENCOURAGE ACTION

• Ask: ‘What have you done in the past to manage similar situations?’ • Ask: ‘How would you like me to support you?’ • Ask: ‘What’s something you can do for yourself right now? Something that’s enjoyable or relaxing?’ • You could say: ‘When I was going through a difficult time, I tried this ... You might find it useful too.’ • If they’ve been feeling really down for more than 2 weeks, encourage them to see a health professional. You could say, ‘It might be useful to contact someone who can support you. I’m happy to assist you to find the right person to talk to.’ • Be positive about the role of professionals in getting through tough times. • Some conversations are too big for family and friends to take on alone. If someone’s been really low for more than 2 weeks - or is at risk - please contact a professional as soon as you can.

VA N

• Be relaxed, friendly and concerned in your approach. • Help them open up by asking questions like: ‘How are you doing?’ or ‘How’s it going?’ • Mention specific things that have made you concerned for them, like: ‘You seem less chatty than usual. How are you doing?’ IF – If they don’t want to talk, don’t criticise them. – Tell them you’re still concerned about changes in their behaviour, and you care about them. – Avoid a confrontation. – You could say: ‘Please call me if you ever want to chat’ or ‘Is there someone else you’d rather talk to?’

IN

1. ASK R U OK?

2. LISTEN WITH AN OPEN MIND

©

• Take what they say seriously and don’t interrupt the conversation. • Don’t judge their experiences or reactions but acknowledge that things seem tough for them. • If they need time to think, sit patiently with the silence and don’t rush them. • Encourage them to explain: ‘How do you feel about that?’ or ‘How long have you felt that way?’ • Show that you’ve listened by repeating back what you’ve heard (in your own words) and ask if you have understood them properly.

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4. CHECK IN

• Put a reminder in your diary to call them in a couple of weeks. If they’re really struggling, follow up with them sooner. • You could say: ‘I’ve been thinking of you and wanted to know how you’ve been doing since we last chatted.’ • Ask if they’ve found a better way to manage the situation. If they haven’t done anything, don’t judge them. They might just need someone to listen to them for the moment. • Stay in touch and be there for them. Genuine care and concern can make a real difference.

Source: www.ruok.org.au

Unit 5: R U OK?


2 Check the text in exercise 1 and rewrite the tips by completing the sentences below. Then complete the rules. Examples from exercise 1 The writer says you must avoid

If people don’t want to talk, you can’t . You mustn’t

. You have to take what

the conversation.

Rule: things you can’t or mustn’t do are called

IN

. Rule: things you must or have to do are

.

If they need time, you shouldn’t

called

You should show that

by repeating back what you’ve heard.

VA N

them.

Rule: should is not a real obligation, but more

Rule: shouldn’t is not a real prohibition, but more a piece of

.

.

a piece of

.

When you want to encourage action, you can

to manage similar situations. You could also ask

to support them.

You might want to

You may also

if someone’s been really low.

Rule: can, could, might and may express a but can sometimes also be used to give advice.

Unit 5: R U OK?

.

two hundred and ninety-five

©

them to

295


3 Let’s explore how you can express obligation and prohibition. Use the modal verbs below to complete the table. can’t – has to – must – mustn’t – should – shouldn’t Obligation

How to say that you have to do something

Imperative form

Take your friends’ concerns seriously.

The speaker wants me to …

When you give advice, don’t tell them what you think do, but try and find a solution

they

Giving advice

You

IN

together.

always try to be there for your

friends, without being too pushy. There is a rule or a law that says so.

listen to you without

A therapist

judgement.

How to say that you are not allowed to do something

Negative imperative form

Don’t try and compare your own situation to that of

VA N

Prohibition

others.

General prohibition

tell your friends what to think or

You

say.

The speaker forbids it.

I told you about my issues in confidence; you tell anyone what I said.

Giving advice

try and solve all your friends’

You

problems.

4 Besides obligation and prohibition, modals can also be used to express possibility. Complete the table using these words. can – could – may – might

©

Possibility Something is a general truth or known fact, a high probability.

Something is possible but not certain.

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296

How to say that something is probable or possible make a

Genuine care and concern real difference. You

always try and offer your opinion.

If you are suffering from these symptoms, you have anxiety. (formal) If you go into therapy, you

feel better.

Unit 5: R U OK?


5 In Unit 1 we encountered some of these verbs. Let’s explore what they are all about. Check the sentences in exercises 2 to 4 and complete the grammar box below.

GRAMMAR

HOW TO express obligation, advice, prohibition and possibility In English modal auxiliary verbs can be used to express a certain meaning like ,

,

or

.

The form of these verbs is special: ,

– They are always followed by

or

.

IN

– They only have one form. Never add

.

e.g. You should talk to a professional. – To form the negative:

.

e.g. You must not tell your friends. – To form questions:

. Do not use do/does/did.

e.g. Can you describe your feelings to me?

VA N

The same modal can have more than one ‘meaning’. e.g. ‘can’  for

: You can support your friend by listening to them.

 for

: You can take to up to 2 pills per day.

 for ability: You can express your feelings clearly.

Keep in mind:

You can use the

to show obligation or prohibition as well. Check Unit 1, p. 37.

e.g. Avoid a confrontation!

Don’t judge your friend’s experiences!

We can use the modal

as part of a (second) conditional sentence to make

suggestions or give advice.

e.g. I would go and see a doctor if it gets worse / if I were you.

See p. 301-302

©

6 Fill the gaps in the sentences with a modal of obligation. 1 If someone confides in you that they are having suicidal thoughts, get them some professional help.

2 If you feel you need help, you

3 If you feel unsafe in a situation, you 4 My brother told me I

talk to a teacher you trust. leave immediately. always listen to my teachers.

5 The school counsellor told me he

tell the principal if I have broken any

school rules. 6 You

Unit 5: R U OK?

explain why you are angry instead of just running away.

two hundred and ninety-seven

you

297


7 Fill the gaps in the sentences with a modal of prohibition. 1 If you take this medication, you 2 You

skip a day.

say everything you think.

3 My mother told me I

annoy my brother.

4 My therapist said I

listen to the voices in my head.

5 You

be late for your therapy appointments.

6 You

tell other people about your friend’s issues.

e.g. Wear clothes that make you feel good!

IN

8 You have a younger sibling who is starting secondary school next week. Give them some advice using the imperative (2 positives and 2 negatives).

VA N

9 What could you do? Read the situation and write down what you might try. 1 One of your friends starts acting differently all of a sudden. I can

2 You are invited to a party with some of your classmates, but your best friend is the only one in your friend group who hasn’t been invited.

I could

3 One of your friends texts you that her boyfriend has broken up with her.

I may

©

4 One of your friends tells you that his parents have been fighting all the time. I might

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298

SPOKEN INTERACTION

10 Play the giving advice board game.

Unit 5: R U OK?


11 Watch the excerpt from Dancing with the Devil (Demi Lovato) and answer the questions. a

WATCHING

Is Demi Lovato sober?

IN

b What do they mean with ‘recovery isn’t a one-size-fits-all solution’?

VA N

c What do the other people interviewed think about their ‘drinking in moderation’?

d What does ‘being abstinent’ mean? not listening to your therapist

drinking alcohol / doing drugs occasionally not drinking alcohol or doing drugs at all

drinking too much alcohol / doing a lot of drugs

12 What advice would you give Demi Lovato?

writing

a Preparation: imagine you are one of Demi Lovato’s friends and you have just seen their documentary. Think of 4-6 tips you would give them (about life in general / their addiction / mental illness). b Action: write your message. Use different ways of giving advice. Write about 50-75 words.

©

Unit 5: R U OK?

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299


c Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist. Then read your text to a classmate. Do you have the same advice for Demi Lovato? Checklist: giving advice

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content • I gave Demi Lovato 4-6 good tips. • I wrote 50-75 words. • I used paragraphs to structure my text.

Feedback

©

VA N

CHECK 3, see p. 322

IN

2 Language • I used at least 4 different modals correctly. • I used the correct words to talk about mental health. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

three hundred

300

Unit 5: R U OK?


SUMMARY (Modal auxiliary verbs)

I should just listen to myself!

You can’t do that!

IN

You shouldn’t wear those clothes!

GRAMMAR

HOW TO express obligation, advice, prohibition and possibility

You have to go to school.

VA N

You should listen to your parents!

USE

OBLIGATION = to say that you have to do something

PROHIBITION = to say that you are not allowed to do something

speaker wants it

mustn’t

speaker forbids it

have to

a rule or law that says so or when the circumstances force you to do it

can’t

general prohibition

should

advice

shouldn’t

advice

POSSIBILITY = to say that something is probable or possible

can

general truth/known fact

may

possible but not certain (formal)

might/could

possible but not certain (more informal)

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©

must

301


FORM

IN

Modal auxiliary verbs are special helping verbs that can express a certain meaning like prohibition, obligation, advice or possibility: – They only have one form. Never add -s, -ed, or -ing! – They are always followed by the base form of a verb. e.g. You should talk to a professional. – To form the negative: add ‘not’ after the modal verb. e.g. You must not tell your friends. For the modal ‘can’ we add the ‘not’ to the verb. e.g. You cannot tell anyone! – To form questions: use inversion. Don’t use do/does/did. e.g. Can you describe your feelings to me? * The same modal can have more than one meaning. e.g. ‘can’  for possibility: You can support your friend by listening to them.  for permission: You can take to up to 2 pills per day.  for ability: You can express your feelings clearly.

VA N

Keep in mind: You can use the imperative to show obligation or prohibition as well. Check Unit 1, p. 37. e.g. Avoid a confrontation! = base form of the verb Don’t judge your friend’s experiences! = don’t + base form of the verb

©

We can use the modal ‘would’ as part of a (second) conditional sentence to make suggestions or give advice. e.g. I would go and see a doctor if it gets worse / if I were you.

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Unit 5: R U OK?


afraid

bang

angry

boos

annoyed

geërgerd

anxious

angstig, ongerust

astonished

verbaasd, sprakeloos

bored

verveeld

composed

kalm, bedaard

confused

verward

curious

nieuwsgierig

delighted

verheugd, blij

disappointed

teleurgesteld

My notes

IN

Translation

VA N

Word

VOCABULARY

1 EMOTIONS

uitgeput, doodmoe

exhilarated

opgewonden

frustrated

gefrustreerd

happy

blij

hysterical

hysterisch

miserable

ellendig

satisfied

tevreden, voldaan

shy/bashful

verlegen

weepy

huilerig

withdrawn

schuw, teruggetrokken

worried

bezorgd, ongerust

three hundred and three

©

exhausted

Unit 5: R U OK?

303


2 IDIOMS

to be a hot mess

een wrak/ puinhoop zijn

to be at the end of one’s rope/tether

aan het eind van je Latijn zijn

to be at wits’ end

ten einde raad zijn

to be bored to death

doodverveeld zijn

to be down in the dumps

neerslachtig/ ongelukkig zijn

to be in a black mood

in een heel slecht humeur zijn

to be/to feel on top of the world

je voelen alsof je alles aankunt

My notes

IN

Translation

VA N

Idiom

uit je doen zijn

to be over the moon

in de wolken zijn

to bite someone’s head off

iemand z’n neus afbijten

to drive someone up the wall

iemand gek maken

to feel blue

je slecht voelen

to fly off the handle

uit je slof schieten

to let off steam

stoom afblazen

to look on the bright side

het positief bekijken

to pull yourself together

jezelf herpakken/ terug rustig worden

to think big

groot denken

©

to be out of sorts

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304

Unit 5: R U OK?


1

STRATEGY

HOW TO find information on the internet 2

Use a search engine

Enter keywords

e.g. Google, Bing, Yahoo, Ecosia

Keep it simple!

Use the search suggestions.

Add search items if you don’t find what you are looking for 1st try: bipolar disorder 2nd try: bipolar disorder awareness 3rd try: bipolar disorder awareness organization

IN

3

Start with important words only.

4

VA N

Use the tabs

e.g. looking for images, news articles, videos and much more

5 Filter results

e.g. by size, colour, image type …

6

©

Refine your search – Use quotation marks to look for an exact phrase. e.g. ‘bipolar disorder awareness month’ –

Word order matters. Google ranks the first word higher than the second, the second more than the third, etc.

– Use OR to include multiple keywords. e.g. bipolar disorder symptoms OR bipolar disorder characteristics – Use a plus sign. e.g. ‘Bipolar disorder + awareness’ will search for sites about raising awareness for bipolar disorder.

Unit 5: R U OK?

three hundred and five

– Use ‘site’: to look on specific sites. e.g. bipolar disorder site: nimh.nih.gov will only search ‘the National Institute of Mental Health’ site.

305


HOW TO check if your sources are reliable and useful To determine if you can use the information you find online for your purposes, you can use different methods, such as the CRAAP method. Ask yourself the questions associated with each letter.

C Currency

R Relevance

IN

Check the timeliness of the information. • When was the information published or posted? • Has the information been revised or updated? • Is the information current or out-of-date for your topic? • Are the links functional?

VA N

Is the information on the site important and relevant for your needs? • Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question? • Who is the intended audience? • Is the information at an appropriate level (i.e. not too elementary or advanced for your needs)? • Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is one you will use? • Would you be comfortable using this source for a research paper?

A

Authority

What or who is the source of the information? • Who is the author/publisher/source? • Are the author’s credentials given? What are they? • What are the author’s qualifications to write on the topic? • Is there contact information, such as a publisher or email address? • Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source? Examples: –  .com (commercial), .edu (educational), .gov (U.S. government) –  .org (nonprofit organization) –  .net (network)

A

Accuracy

©

What can you say about the reliability, truthfulness and correctness of the content? • Where does the information come from? • Is the information supported by evidence? • Has the information been reviewed? • Can you verify any of the information in another source or from personal knowledge? • Does the language or tone seem biased and free of emotion? • Are there spelling, grammar or other typographical mistakes?

P

Purpose

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306

What is the reason the information exists? • What is the purpose of the information? To inform? Teach? Sell? Entertain? Persuade? • Do the authors make their intentions or purpose clear? • Is the information fact? Opinion? Propaganda? • Does the point of view appear objective and impartial? • Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional or personal biases?

Unit 5: R U OK?


ON DIFFERENT TRACKS CHECK 1 ⁄ Understanding mental health 1 What are they feeling? a Look at the people in the images, how do you think they are feeling? Write a short sentence for each image in which you describe the emotions the people in the picture might be experiencing. Use at least 2 adjectives per image. Explain your answer.

IN

b Add an appropriate idiom for each person. Make sure this idiom matches your explanation in exercise a.

2

VA N

1

I think this person is and

because

Idiom:

Idiom:

4

©

3

Idiom:

Score

<4

4−6

>6

Next exercise

ex. 2

ex. 4

ex. 3

Unit 5: R U OK?

three hundred and seven

Idiom:

307


2 Over the moon or the sun? Choose the correct option. 1 Kit didn’t hear her alarm clock this morning and she now looks like a hot chocolate / mess / tamale. 2 When Alice’s mother told her about her new boyfriend, she flew / jumped / ran off the roof / handle / plane.

IN

3 If you want to get anywhere in life, you need to think big / large / tiny. 4 When Jax proposed to him, Casper was on top of the moon / trees / world.

5 I would leave June alone today; she is in a black / red / blue mood. I asked her if she wanted a coffee, and she nearly tore / bit / yelled my hair / head / ears off. 6 Finne left class during the break because she was tired / hurt / bored to death.

7 If you want to pass this school year, you need to pull yourself around / together / apart. Score

<7

≥7 ex. 5

VA N

Next exercise

3 Complete the sentences with a fitting feeling adjective or idiom. 1 Grandpa gets pretty

sometimes and

doesn’t even know what day it is.

2 He’s extremely irritable – he at the slightest thing.

3 Her parents were bitterly

in her after she showed them her report card.

4 I really think you should try to

of the situation and try and think of all the positive things that could come of this.

5 I was so

with him for turning up late.

©

6 If you don’t understand, don’t be

to ask.

7 Jana became very quiet and 8 My father is

after her brother died. trying to figure out how to control my sister.

9 Mona was

about her new bike.

10 Please do keep talking; I am extremely

three hundred and eight

308

about the rest of the story.

11 The doctors were

at the speed of her recovery.

12 You shouldn’t get

every time something doesn’t go your way.

Score

<8

≥8

Next exercise

ex. 4

ex. 6

Unit 5: R U OK?


4 Which feeling is it? Fill in the crossword. Down 1 Not able to think clearly or understand. 2 Tired and annoyed because you are uninterested in something. 4 In a state of uncontrolled laughter or extreme excitement. 6 Extremely tired, completely without energy. 8 Feeling worried and nervous. 9 To feel dislike because of something or someone, to feel annoyed.

IN

Across 3 Calm and having one’s feelings under control. 5 Sad and without hope. 7 Very happy and excited. 10 Sad and crying, or about to start crying.

1

2

3

VA N

4

5

6

7

8

9

©

10

Score

≥7 ex. 5

three hundred and nine

Next exercise

<7

Unit 5: R U OK?

309


5 Read the excerpts from articles about various celebrities and answer the questions.

reading

a Fill in the table below with information from the texts. Disorder

Symptoms

Ariana Grande

1

2

IN

Ed Sheeran

VA N

Zayn Malik

3

Halsey

4

b How is it said in the text?

1 She is not sure she wants to tell him the truth.

©

She

to tell him the truth.

2 It can be difficult to avoid the typical dangers that celebrities can face. It can be difficult to avoid the

that celebrities can face.

3 Her artwork is a combination of elements from different art styles. Her artwork is very

.

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310

Unit 5: R U OK?


1

Ariana Grande

Source: www.elle.com

2

IN

– It’s been a while since the UK terrorist attack that claimed 22 lives, injuring 500 more, at the sold-out Manchester show of Ariana’s Dangerous Woman tour. Ariana is hesitant to talk about it. For one thing, the wound is still incredibly raw for her, but she’s also adamant that her story not overshadow those of the victims. So we talk around it. ‘When I got home from tour, I had really wild dizzy spells, this feeling like I couldn’t breathe,’ she begins. ‘I would be in a good mood, fine and happy, and they would hit me out of nowhere. I’ve always had anxiety, but it had never been physical before. There were a couple of months straight where I felt so upside down.’

Ed Sheeran

VA N

– ‘I didn’t really have any growing up time into getting famous. All the pitfalls that people read about, I just found myself slipping into all of them. Mostly like, substance abuse. ‘It just started gradually happening, and then some people took me to one side and were like, “Calm yourself down.” It’s all fun to begin with; it all starts off as a party, and then you’re doing it on your own and it’s not. So, that was a wake-up call and I decided to take a year off.’

Source: www.cosmopolitan.com

Zayn Malik

– ‘It wasn’t as though I had any concerns about my weight or anything like that, I’d just go for days – sometimes two or three days straight – without eating anything at all. It got quite serious, although at the time I didn’t recognise it for what it was. I think it was about control. I didn’t feel like I had control over anything else in my life, but food was something I could control, so I did. I had lost so much weight I became ill. The workload and the pace of life on the road put together with the pressures and strains of everything going on within the band had badly affected my eating habits.’

©

3

three hundred and eleven

Source: www.thesun.co.uk

Unit 5: R U OK?

311


4

Halsey

VA N

IN

– Diagnosed at age 17 after a suicide attempt, she says that she has for some time now been in an extended manic period that she knows won’t last forever. ‘I know I’m just going to get depressed and be bored again soon,’ she tells me, frowning. ‘And I hate that that’s a way of thinking. Every time I wake up and realize I’m back in a depressive episode, I’m bummed. I’m like, ‘Fuck. Fuck! This is where we’re going now?’ The album she made is an eclectic product of her state of mind, the album is a sampling of ‘hip-hop, rock, country, everything — because it’s so manic. It’s soooooo manic. It’s literally just, like, whatever I felt like making; there was no reason I couldn’t make it.’ ‘There’s a lot of exploration of “l’appel du vide”, which is French for “the call of the void”. It’s that thing in the back of our minds that drives us to outrageous thoughts. Like when you’re on top of a building, and you’re like, “What if I just jump?”.’ That, she says, is what her manic periods are like. ‘You are controlled by those impulses rather than logic and reason.’ Source: www.rollingstone.com

Score

<7

Next exercise

≥7

Check 2, p. 314

6 Watch the excerpts of celebrities talking about their mental health issues. Then complete the table. Which disorder do they suffer from?

WATCHING

How do they cope with it? Which treatment did they get? (at least 2 items per celebrity)

Jenette Mc Curdy

©

1

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312

Unit 5: R U OK?


Which disorder do they suffer from?

How do they cope with it? Which treatment did they get? (at least 2 items per celebrity)

Kristen Bell

2

IN

Lady Gaga

VA N

3

Taylor Swift

4

©

Score

<9

≥9

Next exercise

ex. 5

Check 2, p. 314

Unit 5: R U OK?

three hundred and thirteen

313


CHECK 2 ⁄ Doing research 1 You are writing an essay about the mental health of students in secondary school. Structure your information. a Preparation: read the text your teacher gives you. Is this a good source for your purpose? Explain why (not), using the CRAAP method. Source analysis

reading

Useful?

R

IN

C

VA N

A

A

P

Conclusion

©

b Action: structure the information in the article. Choose a method that works best for you (mind map, written summary, Cornell note taking, etc.). Use a separate piece of paper.

three hundred and fourteen

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Unit 5: R U OK?

writing


c Reflection: reflect on your task by filling in the checklist below. Checklist: mind map/summary

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation • I read the text carefully. • I analysed the source for my purpose. • I chose an appropriate method to structure the information in the text.

IN

2 Content and structure • The information in the article is logically structured. • I included the main information from the article. 3 Language • I used correct words. • I used correct grammar (only for written text). • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

VA N

Feedback

Score

< 14

≥ 14

Next exercise

ex. 2

ex. 3

2 Read the text ‘8 ways to determine website reliability’ and answer the following questions.

reading

a Scan the text and look at the layout. What kind of a text is this? b Link each title to a paragraph. 1 Avoid Anonymous Authors 2 Beware of Bias

3 Check the Date

4 Check the Links

5 Consider the Site’s Look

©

6 Look for Established Institutions

7 Look for Sites with Expertise

8 Steer Clear of Commercial Sites

c Which type of text is this?

e What is the goal of this text?

Unit 5: R U OK?

three hundred and fifteen

d Who is the targeted audience?

315


8

Ways to Determine Website Reliability

Beware of Bias, Look for Expertise

IN

By Tony Rogers | Updated on December 04, 2019

For every credible website, there are dozens chock full of information that’s inaccurate, unreliable or just plain nutty. For the unwary, inexperienced journalist or researcher, such sites can present a minefield of possible problems. With that in mind, here are eight ways to tell if a website is reliable. 1.

VA N

The internet is full of websites that were started five minutes ago. What you want are sites associated with trusted institutions that have been around for a while and have a proven track record of reliability and integrity. Such sites may include those run by government agencies, nonprofit organizations, foundations, or colleges and universities. 2.

You wouldn’t go to an auto mechanic if you broke your leg, and you wouldn’t go to the hospital to have your car repaired. This is an obvious point: look for websites that specialize in the kind of information you’re seeking. So if you’re writing a story on a flu outbreak, check out medical websites, such as ‘The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’, and so on. 3.

Sites run by companies and business—their websites usually end in .com—are more often than not trying to sell you something. And if they’re trying to sell you something, chances are whatever information they’re presenting will be tilted in favor of their product. That’s not to say corporate sites should be excluded entirely. But be wary. 4.

©

Reporters write a lot about politics, and there are plenty of political websites out there. But many of them are run by groups that have a bias in favor of one political party or philosophy. A conservative website isn’t likely to report objectively on a liberal politician, and vice versa. Steer clear of sites with a political ax to grind and instead look for ones that are non-partisan. 5.

As a reporter, you need the most up-to-date information available, so if a website seems old, it’s probably best to steer clear. One way to check: Look for a ‘last updated’ date on the page or site.

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316

6. If a site looks poorly designed and amateurish, chances are it was created by amateurs. Sloppy writing is another bad sign. Steer clear. But be careful: just because a website is professionally designed doesn’t mean it’s reliable.

Unit 5: R U OK?


7. Articles or studies whose authors are named are often—though not always—more reliable than works produced anonymously. It makes sense: if someone is willing to put their name on something they’ve written, chances are they stand by the information it contains. And if you have the name of the author, you can always Google them to check their credentials. 8.

link: http://www.[WEBSITE].com

IN

Reputable websites often link to each other. You can find out which other websites link to the site you’re researching by conducting a link-specific Google search. Enter the following text into the Google search field, replacing ‘[WEBSITE]’ with the domain of the site you’re researching:

The search results will show you which websites link to the one you’re researching. If lots of sites are linking to your site, and those sites seem reputable, that’s a good sign. Source: www.thoughtco.com

f

Read the text again. Are the following statements true or false? Correct if false.

VA N

Statement

If you are researching something about education, ‘The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’ would be a great source.

2

A university website is usually quite reliable.

3

Usually, an anonymous author is more reliable, as they can write more freely.

4

Websites that end in .com are always trying to sell you something.

False

©

1

True

A website that’s been updated recently is usually more reliable than one that hasn’t been updated in a few years.

Score Next exercise

Unit 5: R U OK?

< 12

≥ 12 ex. 3

three hundred and seventeen

5

317


3 Look at the screenshots from different sources and decide whether they are good sources for a psychology student at university writing a thesis titled The history of mental health services in the US. Use the CRAAP method.

reading

VA N

IN

1

Source: Burns, B. J. (1991). Mental health service use by adolescents in the 1970s and 1980s. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(1), p. 144-150

Source analysis C

R

©

A

A

P

three hundred and eighteen

318

Conclusion

Unit 5: R U OK?


2 chapter

TWO The historical development of mental health services in Europe Edward Shorter*

IN

This chapter traces the evolution of mental health care from the early nineteenth century to the present in the countries that came to form the European Union (EU) - and in the candidates for membership in 2004. What are the overall themes of change? What patterns emerge among the various states? Given that in Europe and America neuropsychiatric illness represents 43 per cent of the total burden of disability (Thornicroft and Maingay 2002), these are important questions.

VA N

This huge undertaking reminds us that there are two ways of looking at systems of mental health care: the vertical and the horizontal. The vertical dimension refers to how well the system is integrated, in the sense of providing continuous care from the community to mental hospital and back to the community; or from the community to the psychiatry department of a general hospital and back. The horizontal dimension refers to how comprehensive the system is: whether, in addition to family doctors and psychiatrists, a health care team based in community centres includes psychologists, psychiatric nurses and social workers, and even nutritionists and occupational therapists. (One can conceive this horizontal dimension as a functional model of disability rather than an illness model. As Bob Grove (1994: 431) puts it, ‘The doctor or psychiatrist becomes only one expert among many others in the management of a disability.’) Both dimensions, vertical and horizontal, have their own patterns of change. Why begin in the early nineteenth century? One could, in fact, begin much earlier (Porter 1987). It goes without saying that patients with psychiatric illnesses have always existed, and that society has always devised some means of coping with them. Yet in Europe prior to the early nineteenth century, these

Source: Shorter, E. (2006). The historical development of mental health services in Europe. Mental health policy and practice across Europe, p. 15

Source analysis C

R

©

A

A

Conclusion

Unit 5: R U OK?

three hundred and nineteen

P

319


VA N

IN

3

Source: What It Was Like to Be a Mental Patient In the 1900s. (2021) [Video]

Source analysis C

R

A

A

©

P

Conclusion

three hundred and twenty

320

Score

< 14

≥ 14

Next exercise

ex. 4

Check 3, p. 322

Unit 5: R U OK?


4 You are giving a presentation at school about the influence of social media on the mental health of teenagers. Find 2 appropriate sources and use the CRAAP method to explain your choices. a Source 1 (title, author, website):

Search string used: Source analysis

R

A

IN

C

VA N

A

P

Conclusion

b Source 2 (title, author, website):

three hundred and twenty-one

©

Search string used:

Unit 5: R U OK?

321


Source analysis C

R

IN

A

A

P

VA N

Conclusion

Score

< 12

≥ 12

Check 3, p. 322

Next exercise

CHECK 3 ⁄ Giving advice

written INTERACTION

1 Read the messages below and respond to your friend.

a Write 2 sentences per message as a reply to show your friend you are there for them. b Use modal auxiliary verbs in your sentences.

1

©

Hey. Terrible day @school 1

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322

3

2

Huge fights with Ged. Feel awful now

Maths results :-/ Mum’s going to be MAAAAD!!!

Unit 5: R U OK?


4

5

6 James not invited to Kate’s party & doesn’t want me to go cos Tim is. What do I do?

Can I come over to yours? Parents fighting again …

She just broke up with me!!!

IN

Score

<8

8 − 10

> 10

Next exercise

ex. 2

ex. 3

ex. 5

2 Read the sentences and fill in the appropriate modal auxiliary verb. do it if you really want to. (ability)

2 You

call a therapist. (advice)

3 You

experience headaches when you

VA N

1 You

first start your medication. (possibility)

4 You

stay out after midnight any longer.

(prohibition)

5 That

have been the reason why Casper

was acting so strangely. (possibility)

6 Jessie

take her prescribed medication. (obligation)

7 You

want to talk to someone about that problem. (possibility)

8 You

worry about other people’s opinions. (advice)

©

9 I believe that if you want to really help someone, you

ignore their feelings.

(prohibition)

10 If you are worried about someone’s safety, you

tell someone who can help.

Score

Next exercise

Unit 5: R U OK?

<7

≥7 ex. 3

three hundred and twenty-three

(obligation)

323


3 Read the sentences and fill in the appropriate modal auxiliary verb. 1 If you don’t feel well, you

probably call a doctor.

2 You can talk to your therapist all you want, but you 3 I’m very sorry, but because of the new rules, you

tell her my secrets. have any visitors during

your hospital stay. 4 You really

take advice from Heidi; she only looks out for herself.

5 You

be contacted by contact tracing. They will tell you if you

IN

quarantine and take a PCR-test. 6 Look, you are a good friend, but if you think you be infected with COVID, you

get tested before coming to my

party.

7 If you are worried about someone’s mental health, you

VA N

always call the crisis hotline. 8 You

Score

Next exercise

be honest with your parents if you want them to trust you.

<7

≥7

ex. 4

4 Rewrite information using modal auxiliary verbs.

reading

b Action: write a short text (about 50 words) that summarizes the most important information in the tip sheet. Make sure your text is organized. Use at least 5 different modal auxiliary verbs.

writing

©

a Preparation: read the tip sheet on the next page. What are the different parts of the tip sheet? Which information are you going to rewrite? Which modal auxiliary verbs can you use for this?

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Unit 5: R U OK?


How to ask: Tip sheet Ask U R OK? or something like this: ‘How are you doing?’ Yes, I’m fine. But your gut says they’re not:

‘What’s been happening?’

‘It’s just that you don’t seem like your usual self lately.’

IN

No, I’m not OK. Dig a bit deeper:

‘How long has that been the case?’

‘I’m always here if you want to chat.’

‘I’m ready to listen if you want to talk.’

‘Is there someone else you’d rather talk to?’

Listen; don’t judge

VA N

Encourage action and offer support: ‘How can I help?’ ‘What would help take the pressure off?’ ‘What do you enjoy doing? Making time for that can really help.’ ‘Have you thought about seeing a professional?’ Make time to check in: ‘Let’s chat again next week.’

Source: www.ruok.org.au

c Reflection: check your text by filling in the checklist. Checklist: rewriting a text

Yes

I think so

No

©

1 Content • My text summarizes the information in the tip sheet. • My text is logically structured. • I wrote about 50 words.

2 Language • I used at least 5 different modal auxiliary verbs correctly. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

Score Next exercise

Unit 5: R U OK?

<7

≥7 All done!

three hundred and twenty-five

Feedback

325


5 Make a flyer giving advice on how to talk to a teen with mental health issues.

writing

IN

a Preparation: write down 5 tips on how to talk to/deal with a teen with mental health issues. You can find inspiration in this unit or on the internet. Use modal auxiliary verbs.

b Action: make a flyer using a digital tool like Canva in which you promote your tips. Choose a target audience: teachers parents friends

VA N

Tip: download the app and use a template to start from. c Reflection: check your flyer by filling in the checklist. Checklist: making a flyer

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • I gave 5 good tips on how to talk to teens with mental health issues. • I chose a target audience for my flyer and designed my flyer accordingly. • The layout of my flyer is appealing. 2 Language • I used at least 3 different modals correctly. • I used the correct words to talk about mental health. • I used correct spelling and punctuation.

©

Feedback

Score

< 11

≥ 11

Next exercise

ex. 4

All done!

three hundred and twenty-six

326

Unit 5: R U OK?


CHECK OUT RESEARCHING AND PRESENTING A MENTAL HEALTH DISORDER ORIENTATION You are going to do research about and present a particular mental health issue to help raise awareness.

1 Form groups.

IN

PREPARATION

2 Fill in the information table your teacher gives you for the mental health disorder you are researching. 3 Where did you find your information?

reading

writing

a Note your sources on the page your teacher gives you. Make sure you have at least 3 good sources.

VA N

b Why are these good sources for your task? Analyse them using CRAAP. 4 Prepare your presentation.

– The informative part of your presentation should be between 5 and 10 minutes long. – Make sure you include all the information from the table in exercise 2. – Choose a presentation method that helps you visualise your information. – Make sure that everyone has an equal share in the presentation.

5 Prepare an activity or exercise for the class to make your presentation more interactive. This activity should last between 5 and 10 minutes. Think about:

– a (multiple choice) quiz about what you have said;

– a short class discussion about the disorder and raising awareness;

Unit 5: R U OK?

three hundred and twenty-seven

©

– an exercise such as a wordsearch or a crossword puzzle to help the rest of the class understand the mental disorder better.

327


ACTION 6 Present your findings.

speaking

REFLECTION 7 Reflect on your task by filling in the checklist. Checklist: researching and presenting a mental health disorder

Yes

I think so

No

IN

1 Preparation • We filled in the information tables with relevant information. • We cited our sources correctly. • We analysed the sources using CRAAP.

2 Content and structure • We demonstrated a good understanding of the mental disorder we researched. • The presentation was structured logically. • The presentation was between 5 and 10 minutes long. • The exercise/activity we did was relevant. • This activity lasted between 5 and 10 minutes.

VA N

3 Group work • I did my fair share of the group work.

4 Language • I used appropriate stress and emphasis to hold the listener’s attention. • I paid attention to my pronunciation. • I used correct grammar. • I used correct vocabulary. • I used the modal auxiliary verbs correctly. • I spoke fluently.

Feedback

©

Trace your steps on diddit.

three hundred and twenty-eight

328

Unit 5: R U OK?


UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET! CHECK IN STEP 1:

VA N

IN

MAIN TRACK

learning the language of upcycling

STEP 2:

giving clear instructions

SUMMARY

©

TRACE YOUR STEPS

ON DIFFERENT TRACKS

CHECK OUT: MAKING A TUTORIAL VIDEO


CHECK IN MAKING A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE 1 Watch the video about our carbon footprint. Afterwards, answer the questions.

WATCHING

IN

a What is our carbon footprint?

b What does the video expose about our footprint?

VA N

c What does the video suggest you can do to reduce your carbon footprint?

d What other ways can you think of?

e How big might your carbon footprint be?

2 Fill in the footprint questionnaire and discuss your results.

©

3 What does the following cartoon show?

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UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

SPOKEN INTERACTION

reading


MAIN TRACK STEP 1 ⁄ Trash to treasure

Learning the language of upcycling

1 ⁄ If it’s yellow, let it mellow

17–22 Total Tree Hugger

reading

IN

1 How eco-friendly are you? Take the quiz and calculate your score. Read your result below.

You go above and beyond when it comes to being eco-friendly. You reduce, reuse, buy organic, buy green and recycle every chance you get and respect the earth and environment. You are willing to change your daily, personal life to make a difference in the world. You are doing your part to protect and preserve the environment for future generations. You set a great example for how all people should treat the earth and we thank you for being so eco-conscious and earth-sensitive.

VA N

10–16 Wannabe Green Machine You are semi-earth-conscious and do an alright job when it comes to reducing, re-using and recycling. Although you take some steps toward a greener tomorrow, you are still stuck in the past when it comes to making a large-scale change. Maybe it is your gas-guzzling vehicle or your bad habit of leaving the lights on while you are out, you still do things that negatively impact the natural world. Don’t worry though, there is still time to do the right thing.

0–9 Notorious Earth Hater

You have the eco-habits of someone who hates mother earth and will do everything they possibly can to destroy the beautiful world we live in. You should be ashamed of yourself and even more than that: you should really consider changing your habits or prepare yourself and your future offspring for total chaos and destruction. Your misanthropic behaviour is what makes this world ugly, together with the exhaust gases of all the cars in the world and the methane farts of 20 million cows combined. Farts are sometimes funny, but global warming is not.

Adapted from: www.proprofs.com

©

2 Do you and your classmates agree with your results? Why (not)? Discuss.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

3 Are there things that you already do to help the environment? List your top 5 of small changes that have a big impact. 1

3 4 5

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

three hundred and thirty-one

2

331


4 Some people really like to get creative when they think about possible solutions for climate change.

SPOKEN INTERACTION

a Individually, guess which of the following ideas you think are made up and which really exist. b Compare your guesses with a classmate. Why do you think something is fact or fiction? c Try to find the answer to your guesses online.

In the summer of 2015, ice blocks were placed all over Paris in order to make the temperature drop by a few degrees.

2

IN

1

If a million people peed in the shower once a day, that would annually save up to 2 billion litres of water. FACT FICTION

VA N

FACT FICTION

3

Scientists have been able to create a hybrid species of rabbits and birds. This new species will be able to overcome more climate change threats. FACT FICTION

5

4

Swiss residents wrap a glacier in blankets each summer to keep it from melting.

Cows are fed garlic to lower methane production. FACT FICTION

FACT FICTION

5 Now make up your own creative solution for climate change.

©

a Preparation: your teacher will give you a short list of topics. Choose 1 and brainstorm possible solutions. b Action: write a short paragraph (about 50 words) in which you explain what your solution is. Elaborate on why you believe this is a good idea and why this would solve climate change.

three hundred and thirty-two

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UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

writing


c Reflection: use the checklist below to check your writing. Then compare yours with a partner’s. Checklist: creative solution for climate change

Yes

I think so

No

2 Language • I used correct vocabulary. • I used correct grammar. • I used correct spelling and punctuation. Feedback

IN

1 Content and structure • My text offers a creative solution to fight climate change. • I gave reasons to explain why my solution is good. • My text is about 50 words long.

VA N

Did you know? The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by the United Nations in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that by 2030 all people enjoy peace and prosperity. The 17 SDGs are integrated — they recognize that action in one area will affect outcomes in others, and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability.

Source: www.unpd.org

2 ⁄ Always better together

1 Watch the video We the people and answer the questions.

WATCHING

b What is the hope expressed at the beginning of the video?

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

three hundred and thirty-three

©

a Do you recognize any of the famous people in this video? Write down as many names as you can.

333


c Complete the list of the 17 global goals for sustainable development using the following words.

VA N

IN

below – climate – communities – consumption – economic growth – education – energy – gender – health – hunger – inequalities – infrastructure – innovation – justice – on – partnerships – poverty – sanitation – sustainable – well-being

1 No

10 Reduced

2 Zero

11

3 Good

cities and

and

12 Responsible

4 Quality

production

equality

13

action

6 Clean water and

14 Life

water

7 Affordable and clean

15 Life

©

5

16 Peace,

8 Decent work and 9 Industry,

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334

and

and strong institutions and

17 for the goals

d Check your answers on the website of the Global Goals for Sustainable Development.

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!


2 On the same website, find out more about SDG 12 and answer the following questions.

reading

a What synonym for ‘a lot of something’ is used?

IN

b Explain in your own words what is being said about natural resources.

c Read through the different targets. Which target talks about … the reduction of food losses

2

reusing and recycling waste

3

informing people worldwide

4

the importance of local culture

VA N

1

d What things can you do to work on these sustainable development goals? Write down 3 things from the list that you believe could be implemented in your life.

3 Which sustainable development goals can you link to the following actions? sharing the workload at home

2

consuming less meat and becoming vegetarian for 1 day a week

3

reducing waste – this is a major cause of marine pollution

4

voting and taking advantage of your right to elect the leaders in your country and local community

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

three hundred and thirty-five

©

1

reading

335


4 Watch the video and answer the questions.

WATCHING

a What is the purpose of the video?

b Link the people in the video to the correct statements. c Add the correct countries or places to the box below. Melati and Isabel

A

People must grasp the urgency of this crisis so that they can find ways to counter it.

2

Nkosi

B

Every single one of us is affected by climate change, even if it is not apparent.

3

Adenike

C

Teaching people about animals gives us the knowledge to protect them.

4

Dante

D

I give a voice to the people that live in the forest.

5

Jack

E

All the plastic that was ever created still exists.

6

Helena

F

Even if it is difficult to understand, we still need to try and understand what is going on to be able to help.

7

Krrish

G

People need to know about the science of climate change.

VA N

IN

1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

d What expressions are used in the video for the following phrases and sentences? It’s difficult to understand something.

2

Our beautiful world is in danger.

3

Getting a large group of people ready to help

4

To say in public what you think about something.

5

If you want to do something, you have to learn about it first.

©

1

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UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!


e Use the expressions from exercise d to complete these sentences. 1 George stopped his protests the police.

of being arrested by

2 Sophia

against the school’s climate policy. the choice to keep on using plastic straws for

3 I just the party.

achieving anything,

4 You must understand that Matteo. Take your time to study for this test.

to slow down climate change once and

IN

5 It’s time to for all!

WATCHING

three hundred and thirty-seven

©

VA N

5 Watch the video. What do you really want? Complete the blank post-its below with your answers and those of 3 of your classmates.

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

337


6 Let’s practise vocabulary to talk about climate change. a Combine the words to create compound words or collocations. Multiple combinations are possible. carbon

A

caps

2

fossil

B

emissions

3

ice

C

dioxide

4

heat

D

waves

5

sustainable

E

gases

6

greenhouse

7

renewable

8

rising

2

3

F

sea levels

G

fuels

H

energy

I

floes

J

effect

K

footprint

4

5

6

VA N

1

IN

1

7

8

b Use the newly formed compounds and collocations in the sentences below. 1 The energy prices are so high that it is becoming very worthwhile to invest in

.

2 The only way to stop global warming is to stop emitting .

3 We have had too many

this summer.

I just can’t bear the hot weather anymore.

©

4 The documentary showed a polar bear stuck on an in the ocean.

5 Scientists claim that these natural disasters are the result of the

6

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338

7 Petroleum and coal are 2 well-known

. pose a major threat to coastal cities. .

8 Buying locally will tremendously reduce the of a product.

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!


7 Find some nouns related to climate change in the word search. a Write the nouns you find in the table. b Complete the table with the corresponding verbs. N

N

T

P

V

P

E

R

E

R

E

H

Y

S

O

K

R

A

S

O

I

E

O

T

M

M

I

T

I

G

A

T

I

O

N

D

S

O

I

D

H

L

E

N

I

T

O

S

I

E

N

V

O

I

V

P

N

T

O

A

L

W

H

S

L

E

R

H

T

R

I

A

W

S

F

U

C

C

D

U

O

F

S

N

I

E

V

A

T

T

E

O

Y

S

L

N

O

I

T

A

S

I

N

A

B

R

U

I

D

L

I

R

A

E

I

D

O

A

N

S

O

I

C

Y

L

O

D

E

H

Y

D

R

A

T

I

O

N

H

H

N

A

E

L

N

H

N

T

A

U

C

N

H

X

E

A

T

T

M

D

L

O

R

N

O

I

T

S

U

A

H

X

E

E

C

F

S

I

F

P

VA N

IN

R

E

I

D

E

F

O

R

E

S

T

A

T

I

O

N

T

T

T

D

O

A

A

E

N

O

I

T

A

T

S

E

R

O

F

E

R

Verb

three hundred and thirty-nine

©

Noun

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

339


c Use the words from the table in b in the sentences below. 1 Since there are fewer than 25,000 blue whales left, these animals are threatened with . 2 The whales suffer from ocean , but commercial hunting is what really caused the number of remaining whales to decrease. Also, the whales often

3 Little is known about

IN

get stuck in fishing nets, or they collide with ships.

exposure of these animals, but they are

likely exposed to a wide variety of chemicals during their cycles of movement across oceans.

4 When whales wash ashore, they quickly overheat and

. After

only a few minutes on land, the beached whale’s own body weight would crush its organs

VA N

without the ocean’s buoyancy and weightlessness to hold it up. 5 A blue whale can even get sunburnt from prolonged sun exposure. This means that ultraviolet

6 A blue whale

can be detrimental to their health. intense sounds that are inaudible to the human

ear. When in danger, a pod of blue whales will communicate through clicking sounds to warn each other a predator is nearby.

©

8 Play the recycling race.

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UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!


3 ⁄ Reuse, reduce, recycle 1 Read the infographic and answer the questions.

reading

a Add the correct label to each circle. Choose from: recycle (2x) – reduce (2x) – refuse – reuse (2x) b Which word is used for the following definitions? a place where rubbish is buried

2

material made by weaving cotton, wool or other fibres

3

using the energy from the sun to produce electric power

4

an amount of substance that is produced and sent out into the air that is harmful to the environment

5

small pieces of food that have not been eaten and are usually thrown away

6

relating to beliefs about what is morally right or wrong

three hundred and forty-one

©

VA N

IN

1

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

341


2 Complete the table: describe what you see in the pictures below and put the words in the corresponding columns.

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

IN

1

12

VA N

11

13

14

Reduce

Reuse

Repair

16

Recycle

©

Refuse

15

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UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!


3 Look up the following terminology and explain the terms in your own words.

B

C

VA N

IN

a

4 Watch the video about Ocean Sole Africa and answer the questions.

WATCHING

a Ocean Sole uses the slogan ‘Flip the flop’. Explain the slogan in your own words.

b Put the different steps in the process of making artwork out of flip-flops in the correct order. They carve the blocks of flip-flops with knives.

2

The flip-flops are soaked in the washing station to remove the dirt.

3

They add the smallest details, like horns and tails, to complete the sculptures.

4

Ocean Sole gets the flip-flops from people cleaning the beaches.

5

The flip-flops wash up on beaches.

6

In the blocking area they join different pieces of flip-flops together.

7

They smoothen the sculptures by sanding them.

c What are 2 things you like about the Ocean Sole company?

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

three hundred and forty-three

©

1

343


d This video is an example of:

5 Watch the video about designer Matthew Needham and answer the questions.

IN

a How does Matthew describe his designing process in 1 word?

WATCHING

b Why doesn’t he mind using second-hand clothing and found materials?

VA N

c Why does he use the lighter fabrics in this design?

d Would you want to wear new clothes that have been made from second-hand clothing? Why (not)?

e This video is an example of:

©

6 Which process do these examples follow: recycling, upcycling or downcycling? Tick off the correct answer.

three hundred and forty-four

344

1

You shred old denim jeans and you use the scraps for insulation.

2

A company turns white writing paper into cardboard boxes.

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!


4

All glass bottles are collected and then melted. They are later on turned into new glass bottles.

IN

3

You make a handbag out of some leftover pieces of cloth.

7 When you want to talk about recycling, upcycling and downcycling, it is useful to know some related vocabulary. Put the words from the word cloud together to find 3 synonyms for each word.

sustainable

rubbish bargain changes

markdown cheap refurbish

VA N

cost-effective

reduce

cut down

revamp

good deal

vintage

fix thrift

tweaks

improve

handmade

waste handcrafted adjustments

minimize

second-hand

earth-friendly

DIY

restore

trash

upcycle

purse-friendly

ecological

©

1 2 3 4

6 7 8 9 10

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5

345


4 ⁄ Tools of the trade 1 Name these tools that can come in handy when you want to start upcycling.

WATCHING

a Which of these tools do you see in the following 2 videos? Highlight and name them. b Look up the names of the tools that are not in the videos and write them down.

2

5

6

VA N

4

3

IN

1

7

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8

9

10

11

12

©

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2 Which tools would you use to upcycle the following objects?

2

BEFORE

AFTER

IN

1

© Anne Gibson, The Micro Gardener. https://TheMicroGardener.com

3 What are these upcycled items made of?

VA N

reading

a Write down the names of the objects that have been upcycled.

b Read the instructions on the next page. Write the number of each instruction in the box next to the corresponding picture.

2

© Erika LaPresto

1

4

© Kara Whitten

3

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©

347


3

Glue a few rolls together to create a quirky wall organizer that can store all sorts of knick-knacks, from keys to air plants.

2

Before you send these off to the recycling bin, see if you can upcycle them first. Rinse clean, file sharp edges, then measure the can height, cutting wrapping paper or wallpaper to fit before securing with double-stick tape.

Transform this dumpster-bound find into an entryway organizer that will add a pop of colour and pizazz to an otherwise empty wall. Use painter’s tape to give it a fresh new colour. Paint one pane with chalkboard paint and customize the others to your liking. Add a shelf and some hooks and you’re done.

4

Your next round of yard work might leave you with a few of these leftover — and if it does, don’t worry about how you’re going to schlep them to the dump. Instead, paint a pretty design onto a few of them and use the blocks as indoor or outdoor planters. Your flowers will never know the difference.

IN

1

knick-knacks: small worthless objects, especially household ornaments pizazz (pizzazz in Br. E.): the quality of being exciting or attractive to schlep (informal): to haul or carry (something heavy or awkward)

VA N

Source: www.goodhousekeeping.com

4 Read the text on the following pages. The subtitles have been taken out and are mixed-up. Add the number of each paragraph to the correct subtitle. When and why did you start making your custom designs?

B

Which is your favourite piece so far and why?

C

You also created a non-profit organization to connect young creatives and larger companies that can supply their deadstock materials – can you tell us a little bit about it?

D

Is designing your full-time job? If not, how do you manage to combine both?

E

Where do your ideas come from? Do you have a certain method of researching and getting inspired?

F

Where do you draw the line between fashion and art? Do you consider yourself a fashion designer or artist?

G

Since you often use unconventional materials for your designs, do you use conventional sewing / tailoring techniques, or do you freestyle?

©

A

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H

What does your design process look like? Where do you source your materials? What is the first step – the idea, the material, a brand collaboration? How do you decide for a backpack to become a bralette?

I

What changes are you hoping for within the fashion industry in the next 10 years?

J

If not wearability, what is the purpose behind your designs?

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

reading


IN AN INTERVIEW WITH VIRAL UPCYCLING ARTIST NICOLE MCLAUGHLIN

1

5

10

©

15

You have probably come across Nicole’s designs on Instagram or Twitter before. Her upcycling designs are unmistakably unique, and quite impressive. You might have even seen one of her deconstructing designs, like her fries slider, her sandwich shorts, cereal vest, or the Jansport bra that went viral on Twitter recently. Nicole McLaughlin is a designer based in New York, who focuses on upcycling and sustainability. Her work includes everything from concept creations for social, charitable projects, and she just announced a new partnership with Arc’teryx, furniture, and her personal design explorations. In today’s interview we got to know Nicole, the person behind these incredibly fun designs, and their purpose.

20

1 There’s never a moment when I’m not thinking about designing something, so it’s more than a job. It’s my life.

25

2 Although my background is in graphic design, I’m obsessed with the tangible nature of things. So during my free time at my old job, I started experimenting with

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

30

making, mainly using scrap materials that were readily available around me. Since I don’t have a traditional design background, I was free to approach design from a different angle, and that’s how I started.

35

3 My ideas come from all over, but especially the materials themselves.

40

45

50

55

4 My process is pretty simple. I usually let the materials and my mood dictate which way a project is going. Things change, so even if I think I’m going to make one thing, it always has the possibility of transforming into something else. When I’m making, my focus is the material. A brand collaboration would be the last thing on my mind. If it happens, great, but that’s not why I do what I do. Highlighting sustainability through upcycling is vital. Pre-pandemic, I got a lot of my materials from second-hand/thrift stores and vintage shops. Also, a lot of street/ stoop picking in New York. eBay is one of my primary resources. Honestly, I’m always online looking for stuff, especially because of the pandemic. I’m also very fortunate to get scrap materials from a lot of different brands.

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VA N

DECONSTRUCTING PURPOSES

349


65

70

6 I’m not a trained designer, so I didn’t know how to sew when I started. It was just me and my glue gun. So what I do is a mix of different methods. I think every project requires an element of adaptability, so you need to rely on whatever techniques work best for you. 7 Lines suggest limits, and I don’t want to restrict myself in what I can make or do. However, I consider an element of what I do as sculpting. I’m deconstructing and forming something new out of the materials I have.

85

90

change people’s perception about waste and what we can do with it. Wearability is one thing, but what we’re trying to do is start conversations around a very crucial topic. 9 I’m working to create a program that provides tangible and intangible resources to help those interested in learning about sustainability. I want to highlight the hands-on aspect of making, while also bringing in the right people to provide their expertise around everything that sustainability encompasses. We want to give people the tools they need to move forward with knowledge, skill, and hope.

95

100

10 I want all the positive changes to happen! I’m looking for actionable items. No more greenwashing and marketing nonsense, show me what you’re doing, don’t be scared if it’s not perfect, but be brave to take that first step in the right direction.

VA N

75

5 I love the volleyball shoe. It changed my perception of what a single-purpose item could be. It didn’t have to be a sphere only utilized for sport. It could exist as something completely different.

IN

60

80

8 The purpose of my work is to highlight sustainability through upcycling. To

105

5 Read the text again and answer the questions.

a What is Nicole’s main purpose when she ‘makes’ or designs something?

b Explain the following items in your own words. Use an online dictionary if necessary.

©

single-purpose item (line 61)

deconstructing (line 5, 77)

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reading


tangible (line 26, 90)

greenwashing (line 102)

SPOKEN INTERACTION

IN

6 Go to Nicole McLaughlin’s Instagram page and look for a post or reel that inspires you. Discuss the following questions. a What items has she deconstructed and what has she turned the old items into? b Why do you like or dislike the post?

written INTERACTION

7 Some of the comments on Nicole’s posts are as original as the items themselves. Write original or funny comments on the next 2 posts, following the examples below.

VA N

nicolemclaughlin  . Following

nicolemclaughlin   127w

said.hassani What if someone steps on your foot 44w Reply

tonimarks @woodyharmon do u want french toast for breakfast? 34w Reply

Krystal.280 @NeilDonalds you may find this account inspiring 20w 1 like

Reply

Hide replies

NeilDonalds @Krystal.280 eggzactly what I was looking for 1 like

Reply

clairwestwood Love your page. Eggcelent

🙌

11w Reply

41,442 likes JULY 26, 2019

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©

20w

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351


1

IN

53,096 likes

NOVEMBER 15, 2019

2

VA N

13.244 likes

NOVEMBER 29, 2018

8 How would you upcycle one of these items in Nicole’s style?

©

a Preparation: choose one of the following pictures. How would you upcycle this item in Nicole McLaughlin’s style? What tools would you need to do this?

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speaking


The item Necessary tools

The method / procedure

IN

b Action: explain the upcycling process to your partner. Talk about tools, process and end product. c Reflection: fill in the checklist for your partner. Checklist: upcycling instruction

Yes

I think so

No

VA N

1 Content and structure • My classmate mentioned the item that needs upcycling. • The tools, the process and the end product were mentioned. • The explanation was clear and thorough. • The ideas were creative. 2 Language • My classmate used correct vocabulary. • My classmate has good pronunciation.

Feedback

CHECK 1, see p. 375

STEP 2 ⁄ How to upcycle

©

Giving clear instructions

1 ⁄ Upcycling the planet, one EcoTok at a time! 1 Watch the following TikTok. Answer the questions and give your opinion.

WATCHING

b Do you think that this is possible? c Would you consider doing this? d Do you have any other recycling tips or tricks that you do at home?

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a What is the TikTok about?

353


2 Watch another TikTok. Compare it to the previous one.

WATCHING

a Does it share a theme with the previous TikTok?

b How is it different?

c Which one do you prefer? Why?

a Are both good TikToks? Why (not)? b Would you watch more of these TikToks?

VA N

c Do they have a place on the platform?

SPOKEN INTERACTION

IN

3 Discuss the following questions.

4 You will read some testimonies by EcoTok creators. Before you start reading, think about the following questions. a Think about the name. What could EcoTok be about?

©

b How does the lead activate its readers to continue reading?

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SPOKEN INTERACTION


5 Now read the text on the next page and complete the table with the following information:

reading

1 Who are they? 2 Why did they become EcoTokers? 3 What are their goals? Louis Levanti

Carissa Cabrera

Philip Aiken

VA N

2

IN

1

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3

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355


Meet the Climate Change Activists of TikTok A crop of eco-creators is bent on educating their followers about the looming global disaster. Can their message translate into action?

5

The Climate Clock, in Union Square in New York City, counts down how much time we have left to act before climate change is irreversible. Levanti, who normally posts videos with topics like “weird food that celebrities like to eat” or “annoying things people do at the gym”, was distressed, and he immediately decided to make a TikTok video about it. “It’s a problem that can’t be ignored,” he said. “Why not responsibly use my big platform to educate people and wake some people up the way I was?”

In the TikTok video, Levanti, superimposed over an image of Earth on fire, says, “Hey, stop scrolling. Our planet is fucking dying.” It’s gotten over 314,000 views and been shared nearly 14,000 times. There are over 5,000 comments, some of which are heartbreaking: “I am 13, does that mean my future children will suffer.” “It’s sad that younger people have to suffer because of this.”

VA N

10

When LOUIS LEVANTI woke up one morning last September, climate change wasn’t on his mind. “I was never huge into researching climate change, but I was aware that it is real.” So, when the 24-year-old TikTok creator, who lives with his parents on Long Island, opened his phone and saw something about a clock being unveiled, he wasn’t initially interested. “I rolled my eyes thinking it had something to do with the stock market.”

15

Levanti says that it distressed him to read the comments, especially the ones from younger users. “There are young kids on this app that won’t be able to experience this planet in the way I have, and I am only 24, so I’ve barely experienced it.”

2

1

5

In March, CARISSA CABRERA posted a video of severe flooding near her home in Hawaii to TikTok in response to a comment on her profile reading “climate change is not real.” Over footage of a swollen river and cars navigating badly flooded roads, a voiceover says: “This isn’t global warming. This isn’t climate change. Let’s call it exactly what it is: climate crisis.” The 10-second video has been viewed over 300,000 times.

©

Cabrera is a marine biologist and member of EcoTok, a collective of young influencers posting to video-sharing platform TikTok about environment and climate topics like carbon capture, food waste, biodiversity and recycling.

10

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Cabrera was used to teaching marine conservation in classrooms of around 30 people. TikTok’s appeal is in the numbers she can reach on the wildly popular app, which has now been downloaded more than 2 billion times, largely by Generation Z — those in their teens and early twenties. Her videos, posted under the username “carissaandclimate”, have been liked over a million times.

15

“TikTok is not really a social media app; it can be a learning resource. Gen Z wants the tools and resources, and they want it in a fun way,” said Cabrera, who works with The Conservationist Collective, a small company using media and educational campaigns to promote ocean protection.

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

Adapted from: www.wired.com

1

IN

1


“Take this super-dense topic and make it viral material,” she said. “A lot of the viral material that I see on TikTok are dances or comedy. Make science fun for everyone!”

3

1

5

She wants to make something memorable, re-watchable, and shareable — with the goal of mobilizing people.

IN

25

Adapted from: https://yourstory.com

In her videos, the biologist usually sticks to her area of expertise: the oceans. To bump the chances of going viral, she keeps her content under 30 seconds and tells viewers what it’s about in the first three.

PHILIP AIKEN has received more than 1.4m likes on the video-sharing app TikTok. But his videos don’t feature cute animals and there are no celebrities to be seen. Aiken’s posts are about soil restoration: let it grow! Aiken downloaded the app in October 2019 after interviewing a group of youth climate activists – who were all talking about TikTok – for his podcast ‘Just to save the world’.

15

During lockdown, Aiken also co-founded EcoTok, a collective of young creators aiming to become the environmental “Hype House” (a group of the biggest stars on the app who live and film in a mansion in Los Angeles), as well as the Intersectional Environmentalist Instagram account. “We set that up after a post by fellow environmental activist Leah Thomas, in response to the killing of George Floyd, went viral.”

VA N 10

“I regularly receive messages asking about gardening, sustainability and university degree choices. Others exchange resource recommendations in the comments section.” Aiken, who is based in the US but studied for a master’s in renewable energy in New Zealand, hopes to become a teacher. “It’s been cool being able to influence the younger generation in that way,” he says.

The Intersectional Environmentalist, which campaigns for an inclusive version of environmentalism, highlighting injustices experienced by marginalised communities, has now gained 121,000 followers, with an audience mainly made up of millennials.

6 Read the texts again if necessary to answer these questions.

Adapted from: www.theguardian.com

20

reading

1

to superimpose

2

a collective

3

to go viral

4

sustainability

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©

a Explain the following words from the texts using the context.

357


c What do the 3 EcoTokers have in common?

IN

b Which word from exercise a matches the picture? Explain why.

VA N

d How do the 3 EcoTokers use the platform’s constraints?

e How does Aiken show that EcoTok is more than just for climate? How is it said in the text?

7 Take a look at these sentences, taken from the texts.

©

1 Hey, stop scrolling. 2 Take this super-dense topic and make it viral material. 3 Make science fun for everyone! 4 Let it grow!

a Which form of the verb do you recognise?

b Why is this form used?

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8 Watch the following EcoToks. For each, say what the topic is and write down at least 2 instructions you hear.

1

WATCHING

Topic:

2

Topic:

VA N

Instructions:

IN

Instructions:

3

Topic:

Instructions:

Topic: Instructions:

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©

4

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359


9 Listen and write down the correct word for these definitions. Here you can buy second-hand clothing items.

2

A state of net zero carbon emissions; there is no impact on the climate.

3

To cover something.

4

A place where we store trash, usually in a hole under the ground.

5

To reduce the amount of something.

6

A substance secreted by bees, usually used to make candles.

7

Buying a lot of cheap clothing and dumping it quite quickly, usually after wearing an item once or twice.

IN

1

listening

10 Analyse the instructions in the TikToks.

VA N

a Are the instructions in the TikToks clear? Why (not)?

b How could we improve the instructions?

c Use this information to complete the grammar box on how to give instructions.

HOW TO give instructions

GRAMMAR

To give instructions or to say that someone has to do something, we use

©

. The imperative is the of the verb. e.g. Place the paper on a flat surface in front of you.

To say that someone is not allowed to do something, we add e.g. Don’t aim at people with your paper plane!

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We also use e.g.

.

to give the order in which we have to do something: See p. 367

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!


11 Make your own EcoTok.

speaking

a Preparation: think about a tip on reducing waste. Turn that tip into clear instructions. b Action: record your 10-15-second video. Share your video with the class. Did they learn anything new? c Reflection: reflect on your EcoTok using the table below. Checklist: my EcoTok

Yes

I think so

No

2 Language • I used the imperative correctly. • I used correct and relevant vocabulary. • I paid attention to my pronunciation.

VA N

Feedback

IN

1 Content and structure • My EcoTok gave a tip on how to reduce waste. • I presented the tip in the form of an instruction. • My EcoTok is 10-15 seconds long.

2 ⁄ How to make a tutorial

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©

1 Look at the following picture. Do you know what this object was used for?

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361


2 Watch a video to figure out how the object works.

WATCHING

a What instructions did you hear or see? Write at least 3.

IN

b Do you still have videotapes like this at home?

c Do you still have a recorder at home that can play these videotapes? d What could you do with these old tapes?

3 Compare what people do with old tapes. Watch the videos and complete the table with the following information: 1 What are they doing with the tapes?

VA N

2 Would you be able to reproduce the result? Why (not)? Video 1

Video 2

Video 3

Yes / No

Yes / No

Yes / No

1

©

2

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WATCHING


4 Compare those videos with a video on upcycling a couch.

WATCHING

a What is different?

VA N

IN

b What do you think of this tutorial? Be precise.

5 What is important when making an instructional video? Make a list of dos and don’ts. Don’ts

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©

Dos

WATCHING

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363


6 Read the infographic and link the following words with the different parts of a good tutorial script.

reading

action – activity – agitation – attention

ANATOMY OF A SUCCESSFUL VIDEO SCRIPT

IN

In this video, I’m going to show you how to [INSERT VIDEO TOPIC] step-by-step. Hi, I’m [NAME] from [COMPANY] .

If you’re struggling with [INSERT PAIN OR PROBLEM], this video walks you through exactly what you need to do so you can [INSERT SUCCESS]. Let’s get started.

So, let’s get started with step number 1 [INSERT STEP 1]

VA N

[WALK THROUGH STEP1]. Now that you [SUMMARIZE STEP 1], it’s time for step 2: [INSERT STEP 2] [WALK THROUGH STEP 2].

And once you’ve [SUMMARIZE STEP 2], it’s time for step 3: [INSERT STEP 3] [WALK THROUGH STEP 3].

If you don’t already have [INSERT PRODUCT/SOLUTION], there’s a link in the decription to [INSERT CALL TO ACTION]. Thanks for watching!

7 Examine the parts of 2 scripts, scrambled below. Add the nummers to the correct part of the AAAA-structure.

Hey guys, today we are going to show you how to upcycle an old bike, from scratch!

2

If you want to find out more about the amazing upcycle projects we do, then be sure to click the link that is shown on the screen.

Do you have an old bike lying around, simply collecting dust and taking up space you might desperately need for an awesome couch?

4

So, the first step you want to cover is to make sure there is no old grease on the bike chain. It might get on your clothes and that is nasty!

©

1

3

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© TechSmith

There you have it. In just a few steps, you can [INSERT VIDEO TOPIC].

reading


Lastly, now that you have separated the handle bars from the rest of the bike, you can use that as a door handle. What a great industrial look that adds to your doors!

Yo yo yo, in this tutorial we are making a makeshift rain poncho, from only a shower curtain!

9

In any case, if you find yourself hoarding more plastic than you can upcycle check out the local recycling stores where you can deposit your old plastics. Find them in the description below!

We have all been there: caught in the rain and nothing to shelter you from it.

8

After having removed the curtain from its bar, cut a hole into the middle of the tarp. That’s where your head will go.

10

Lastly, turn the edges of the tarp inward. This makes the poncho look a lot better.

VA N

7

6

IN

5

Attention Agitation Activity

©

Action

8 Write the script for a video on upcycling a VHS-tape.

writing

b Action: match each part of the video with a part of the AAAA-structure. Structure the steps logically in the middle part. Use linking words and the imperative.

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a Preparation: select a video you would like to work on. What do you already know?

365


Attention

VA N

Activity

IN

Agitation

Action

c Reflection: have a classmate check your script, using the checklist below. Checklist: writing a tutorial script

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • My classmate used the AAAA-model correctly in their script. • The steps discussed in the middle are in a logical order. • The script has an attractive start. • The ending is clear: it summarizes and/or shows the result.

©

2 Language • My classmate used correct grammar. • My classmate used correct vocabulary. • My classmate used the correct register.

Feedback

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CHECK 2, see p. 381

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SUMMARY

IN Don’t throw the paper on the floor!

VA N

Throw the paper in the recycling bin!

(The imperative)

GRAMMAR

HOW TO give instructions

FORM

Positive imperative

Negative imperative

= base form of the verb

= don’t + base form of the verb

e.g. Throw the paper in the recycling bin!

e.g. Don’t throw the paper on the floor!

USE

– To order someone to do something – To give instructions Keep in mind:

If you want to structure your instructions, use linking words: – First(ly) …

– Second(ly) …

©

– Then …

– Next …

– After that …

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– Finally …

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367


Translation

an abundance

een overvloed

(atmospheric) pollution

vervuiling (van de atmosfeer)

to be the first step to ...

de eerste stap zijn naar ...

to be under threat

bedreigd worden

biodiversity

biodiversiteit

carbon dioxide

koolstofdioxide

(carbon) emission

uitstoot (van koolstof)

carbon footprint

ecologische voetafdruk

climate change

klimaatverandering

consumption

consumptie, verbruik

deforestation

ontbossing

dehydration

uitdroging

development

ontwikkeling

drought

droogte

eco-friendly

milieuvriendelijk

education

onderwijs, opleiding

equality

gelijkheid

exhaust

uitstoot

exhaustion

uitputting (van bronnen)

extinction

uitsterven

a flood

een overstroming

fossil fuels

fossiele brandstoffen

a glacier

een gletsjer

greenhouse effect

broeikaseffect

greenhouse gases

broeikasgassen

hard to get your head around

moeilijk te begrijpen

health

gezondheid

a heat wave

een hittegolf

My notes

IN

Word

©

VA N

VOCABULARY

1 CLIMATE CHANGE

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hunger

honger

an ice cap

een ijskap

an ice floe

een ijsschots

inequality

ongelijkheid

innovation

innovatie, vernieuwing

justice

gerechtigheid

a landslide

een aardverschuiving

to mobilise the masses

de massa mobiliseren

natural resources

natuurlijke bronnen/ grondstoffen

a partnership

een partnerschap, vennootschap

a pollutant

een verontreinigende stof

poverty

armoede

radiation

straling

to reduce

verminderen

reforestation

herbebossing

renewable energy

hernieuwbare energie

rising sea levels

stijgend zeeniveau

solar

van de zon

a solution

een oplossing

to speak out over/ against

zich uitspreken over/tegen

sustainable energy

duurzame energie

urbanisation

verstedelijking

well-being

welzijn

a wildfire

een bosbrand

My notes

IN

Translation

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©

VA N

Word

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2 RECYCLING AND REUSAGE

broken appliances

kapotte apparaten

cardboard

karton

cloth

stof

a dead battery

een lege batterij

to deconstruct

afbreken

to downcycle

van een afvalproduct een grondstof maken

ethical

ethisch, volgens een moraal

food waste

voedselverspilling

a glass bottle and a jar

een glazen fles en een pot

greenwashing

groenwassen, doen alsof iets ecologisch is

a landfill

een stortplaats

a linen shopping bag

een linnen boodschappentas

old furniture

oude meubels

a plastic cup

een plastieken beker

a plastic straw

een plastieken rietje

a plastic toothbrush

een plastieken tandenborstel

to recycle

recycleren, hergebruiken

to refuse

weigeren, afwijzen

My notes

IN

Translation

©

VA N

Word

three hundred and seventy

370

to repair

herstellen

a reusable cotton pad

een herbruikbaar wattenschijfje

a reusable lunchbox

een herbruikbare lunchbox

a reusable water bottle

een herbruikbare waterfles

to reuse

hergebruiken

scraps

restjes

second-hand

tweedehands

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!


Word

Translation

My notes

single-purpose item

een object dat maar één doel dient

tangible

tastbaar

a torn sweater

een gescheurde trui

IN

3 USING SYNONYMS Synonym

Synonym

a bargain

a good deal

a markdown

cheap

cost-effective

purse-friendly

handcrafted

DIY

handmade

to reduce

to cut down

to minimize

to restore

to fix

to refurbish

second-hand

vintage

thrift

sustainable

ecological

earth-friendly

tweaks

changes

adjustments

to upcycle

to improve

to revamp

waste

rubbish

trash

My notes

VA N

Word

4 TOOLS

glue gun

spirit level (Br. E.) / level (Am. E.)

©

needle and thread

nuts and bolts

paintbrushes

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

three hundred and seventy-one

boxcutter

371


pliers

(cordless) power drill

sandpaper

scissors

IN

screwdriver

VA N

screws

tape measure

twine

©

three hundred and seventy-two

372

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!


Before filming

STRATEGY

HOW TO make a tutorial video 1

Do your research

Know your audience. – Who are they? – What do they know? – What do they want to know? Gather all the materials you need. – Tools – Products

VA N

Choose a method. – Video and audio all at once or … – Video first and voice over later?

IN

Why are you making this video? – To inform? – To instruct?

Write a script

Hi, I’m from .

If you’re struggling with , this video walks you through exactly what you need to do so you can . Let’s get started.

So, let’s get started with step number 1 .

Now that you , it’s time for step 2: .

And once you’ve it’s time for step 3: .

There you have it. In just a few steps, you can .

©

If you don’t already have , there’s a link in the decription to . Thanks for watching!

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

Use the AAAA-model. Attention: Grab people’s attention or explain what you are going to do in the video. Agitation: Explain the problem you want to solve. Activity: –  Cover the process in a step by step-manner. –  The steps should be in a logical order. –  Use the imperative and linking words. Action: Repeat or emphasize what people should take away from your video. What do you want them to do?

three hundred and seventy-three

In this video, I’m going to show you how to step-by-step.

373


2 W HILE FILMING Stick to the script –  Use an autocue app or tape the script close to the camera.

Entertain your audience Be confident. Make eye contact with the camera. Try to sound natural. Be enthusiastic.

Mind your language

IN

– – – –

– Use good transitions and use linking words. – Be careful with your pronunciation.

3

VA N

AFTER FILMING Edit

–  If you decided to do a voice-over, record your voice and paste the audio over the clip. –  Use a photo/video editing app or site to edit the different parts of the video.

–  Review your clip and compare with your script: • Does the video show every step clearly? • Is my explanation clear? •  Does the tutorial cover the steps in a logical order? •  How is the flow of the video? Is it too fast or too slow? •  Does my explanation match what is shown?

Test and evaluate

©

–  Show your video to someone and let them test the tutorial. Do they have feedback for you? –  Make a note of their comments: • What went well? • What could you improve?

three hundred and seventy-four

374

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!


ON DIFFERENT TRACKS CHECK 1 ⁄ Learning the language of upcycling 1 Complete the gaps in the text with words from the box. Conjugate verbs and inflect nouns where necessary or change the part of speech entirely. You do not need to use every word from the box.

VA N

IN

abundance – to be the first step to – carbon footprint – consumption – to deforest – exhaust – extinction – hard to get your head around – to mobilise the masses – partnership – poverty – to recycle – to reduce – to reforest – renewable energy – sustainable – tangible – to upcycle – urbanisation – well-being – wildfire

Species like the mountain gorilla or the giant panda are on the list of critically endangered

animals that are thus threatened to ... (1), mainly because of environmental changes. An example of this is ... (2), which can be caused by natural disasters such as ... (3) but is mostly humaninduced. These ... (4) effects of climate change show that it isn’t enough to individually work on our ... (5) but painfully clarify that we must also invest in a universal call to action for a more ... (6) lifestyle.

9

2

10

3

11

4

12

5

13

6

14

7

15

8

16

©

1

Score

<9

9 - 13

> 13

Next exercise

ex. 2

ex. 4

ex. 7

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

three hundred and seventy-five

On an individual level we can do things such as limit our ... (7), take the bus instead of the car to ... (8) ... (9), or invest in ... (10) when we renovate our houses. There is an ... (11) of things we could do ourselves, but still a global ... (12) is needed to deal with the fast-paced changes in our climate. Did you know that education ... (13) a better world? It is ... (14) the threat that we’re under when we are being too ignorant to even try to comprehend it. Our ... (15) is at stake, as well as that of thousands of endangered animals. Let’s ... (16) the world together!

375


2 Unscramble the following consequences of climate change and write the correct words under the pictures. THGRUOD – WREFILID – GWRANIM OEASCN – MENTIGL ALEGRIC – ESIPOHCTARM OIPTUOLLN – AENILLDSD – ODOLF – DIEOYBRISITV SOLS

2

IN

1

4

VA N

3

5

6

8

©

7

three hundred and seventy-six

376

Score Next exercise

<6

≥6 ex. 3

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!


3 Fill in the crossword puzzle and find the secret message. Across

Down

2

1

1 j

2 e

The process by which more and more people leave the countryside to live in cities. A fire that is burning strongly and out of control on an area of grass or bushes in the countryside. The process in which someone or something grows or changes and becomes more advanced. This is what the letter D stands for in ‘SDGs’. The condition of being poor. A mass of rock and earth moving suddenly and quickly down a steep slope.

3

5

IN

Made in a way that causes little or no damage to the environment. 4 The number and types of plants and animals that exist in a particular area or in the world generally. 7 ... fuels. Fuels such as gas, coal or oil that have been produced in the earth from plants and animals. 8 The unfair situation in society when some people have more opportunities, money, etc. than other people. 10 A large mass of ice that moves slowly, especially down the side of a mountain.

6 9

VA N

a

3

5

4

6

k

i

b

7

l

o

9

8

g

c

f

10

c

Score

m

d

e

f

<7

Next exercise

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

g

h

≥7 ex. 6

i

j

k

l

m

n

o

three hundred and seventy-seven

b

d

n

© a

h

377


4 Watch the video about the world’s largest lesson. Are the following statements true or false? Correct if false. Statement

True

The speaker would rather live in space than on earth.

2

We all need fresh water, clean air and healthy food to survive.

3

The fuels we burn are bad for our clean drinking water.

4

Everyone could use a little more money.

False

IN

1

It is not possible for millions of people to get medication that prevents illness or cures it.

6

The 17 Sustainable Development Goals are meant to protect the world against climate change and make the world safer, fairer and more just.

7

We will have to reach the goals before 2030.

8

Being a boy or girl makes no difference to how safe you feel.

VA N 5

© three hundred and seventy-eight

378

WATCHING

9

The earth depends more on us than we depend on the earth.

10

The speaker believes that it is possible to live sustainably.

Score

<7

>7

Next exercise

ex. 5

ex. 7

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!


SPOKEN INTERACTION

5 Do you use eco-friendly materials? a Write down the sustainable items that you see in the drawing.

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

IN

1

1 2 3

VA N

4 5 6 7 8

b Discuss with a classmate whether you use the sustainable items, or the ones considered bad for the environment. Always name both items when you form your sentences. Vary the use of verbs and try to switch up sentence structures. Follow the example: e.g. I never drink from a plastic bottle, but I always bring my ... to school.

Score

D

C

Next exercise

ex. 6

Check 2, p. 381

©

6 Indicate the word that does not fit the context. a I believe that with a few tweaks – adjustments – revamps in our daily routine, we can all become a bit more eco-friendly. b What a bargain – thrift – good deal! The item was marked down from € 19.99 to € 5.99.

d She tried to fix – repair – restore her broken coffee maker. e Even though he keeps on wearing them, I think this torn pair of jeans is trash – landfill – waste. Score

<4

Next exercise

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

≥4 Check 2, p. 381

three hundred and seventy-nine

c She is such a creative person; she loves deconstruction – crafts – a DIY project.

379


7 Watch these short upcycling videos and complete the table. Before

After

Tools (minimum 3)

WATCHING Added / Removed

IN

1

VA N

2

3

©

4

three hundred and eighty

380

Score

< 12

12 - 16

> 16

Next exercise

ex. 5

ex. 6

Check 2, p. 381

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!


CHECK 2 ⁄ Giving clear instructions 1 How do you use Flipgrid? Examine the pictures. a Write correct instructions using the words provided. You can change the words, of course. account – to click – to edit – Flipgrid – link – to log in – to record – not to skip over – to start – to submit – to take a selfie – your video

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

three hundred and eighty-one

Image courtesy of WikiHow.com - from the article https://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Video-on-Flipgrid

©

VA N

IN

b Add linking words to each of your instructions, so that the order of the instruction is clear.

381


IN VA N <5

≥5

Next exercise

ex. 3

ex. 4

©

Score

2 Read the text about VHS tapes and then answer the questions. a The article refers to VHS tapes as ‘Techno trash’. Explain in your own words what is meant by this.

three hundred and eighty-two

382

b Add appropriate subtitles to the text. Use the imperative in the negative.

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

reading


Don’t Throw Away Your VHS Tapes By Aisha Jordan 1

Technology has taken us from tapes to DVDs to digital streaming in just a few decades. But while a teenager today may have no idea what a VHS tape is, many of us who were around between 1977 and the rise of DVDs in 1997 might still have old VHS tapes laying around and taking up space. Consider the following tips, before taking them to a landfill.

5

Because the magnetic strip can’t be refurbished, VHS tapes are recycled differently. The recycling company Green Disk will accept your VHS tapes and other techno trash to handle them as needed. As explained in their frequently-asked questions: “Material that has no further operating life is broken down to its smallest components (metals, plastics, etc.) and used in the manufacturing of new products.” They also offer a techno trash can of varying sizes and costs for individuals and businesses to dispose of their outdated technology safely. Green Disk vows that “almost 100 % of the material that GreenDisk collects is reused or recycled,” so you can feel better knowing your favorite movie isn’t becoming toxic fertilizer.

VA N

15

IN

10

First of all, the casing of a VHS tape is plastic, but the inside is actually a magnetic strip coated with a material called mylar, which is toxic when left to degrade in landfills. Since you can’t—or, at least, shouldn’t—mindlessly throw them away, VHS tapes are another form of techno trash that need special considerations. Don’t simply toss them with your bottles and cans.

25

Still, if you want to try, list your old tapes on eBay, Amazon, Facebook. If you’re lucky, collectors may take interest, but keep in mind that even rare items need to be in good condition: As Investopedia notes, “The price for a particular collectible usually depends on how many of the same item are available as well as its overall condition.” Finally, if your tapes are in good condition and still have the original box, you might earn a little money while sending them away to a good home.

©

30

There’s contention over whether VHS tapes are worth big money. Unfortunately, there is not much evidence or expertise in the value of outdated tapes. As with anything, there might be someone who will pay for it, but your closet of Disney films are unlikely to be worth a fortune. A single tape can be found on eBay being offered at $1,200, while a collection of similar titles are listed for $29.99.

Adapted from: https://lifehacker.com

to coat: to provide with a layer or covering of something mylar: a form of polyester used to make heat resistant sheets to vow: to promise a fertilizer: a chemical or natural substance added to soil or land to increase its fertility a collectible: an item worth collecting

c Summarize the article by: – writing positive instructions in the left column; – explaining whether that possible solution is a good idea or not.

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

three hundred and eighty-four

20

383


Good idea?

VA N

IN

Possible solution

Score

<5

≥5

ex. 4

Next exercise

©

3 Examine the infographic. Complete the green bubbles by writing instructions that match the objects.

three hundred and eighty-three #

384

Score Next exercise

<7

≥7 All done!

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!


4 Rewrite the script for a tutorial.

WATCHING

a Preparation: watch the tutorial and evaluate it. I think this tutorial is very good good OK bad awful

I would suggest the following changes: 1 2 3

IN

because:

VA N

b A ction: write a script for the video, using the AAAA-model. Add 3 linking words in the activity part.

writing

Attention

Agitation

Action

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

three hundred and eighty-five

©

Activity

385


c Reflection: evaluate your task by filling in the checklist. Checklist: writing a tutorial script

Yes

I think so

No

1 Preparation • I watched and evaluated the tutorial. • I suggested 3 changes.

3 Language • I used the imperative correctly. • I added at least 3 linking words. • I used correct spelling and punctuation. Feedback

D

C

ex. 2

All done!

VA N

Score

IN

2 Content and structure • I wrote a script based on the AAAA-model.

©

Next exercise

three hundred and eighty-six

386

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!


CHECK OUT CREATING A TUTORIAL ORIENTATION You are going to make a tutorial video to upcycle an item of your choice.

PREPARATION 1 Choose something you want to upcycle. b What fun ideas can you find online?

IN

a Do you have an old object you no longer use?

2 Brainstorm your object and the upcycle project in the structure below. What is the plan?

What is the process (=steps)?

VA N

What is the object now?

What tools and materials will you need?

3 Turn your brainstorm into a script. Use the AAAA-model and make some notes in the table below.

writing

Attention How will you draw the attention of your viewers?

Activity How should the object be upcycled?

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!

three hundred and eighty-seven

©

Agitation What makes your project important? Why are you showing your viewer this? How does your project promote sustainability?

387


Action What result can your viewers expect? 4 Write your full script on a separate piece of paper. Show your script to a classmate. Have them share some tips with you!

6 Practise before recording your video.

ACTION

IN

5 Review the tips and adapt your script if necessary.

7 Record your tutorial. Aim for a tutorial of 2 to 4 minutes in which you demonstrate how to upcycle your item.

REFLECTION

speaking

VA N

8 Check your video by filling in the checklist. Checklist: my tutorial

Yes

I think so

No

1 Content and structure • I talked for 2-4 minutes. • My tutorial was clearly structured according to the AAAA-model. • In the middle I logically covered the steps on how to upcycle my item. • At the end, I showed the result of the process. 2 Language • I used correct vocabulary to talk about upcycling. • I used correct vocabulary to describe my item. • I used the imperative correctly. • I used linking words appropriately. • I paid attention to my pronunciation. • I spoke fluently and at the right volume and pace.

©

Feedback

9 Share your tutorial with your classmates. Choose 1 tutorial and try to upcycle along with the video. a Can you follow the instructions of your peer?

three hundred and eighty-eight

388

b Did you get the same result? c Give your classmate some feedback. 10 Send your tutorial to your teacher who will give you additional feedback. Trace your steps on diddit.

UNIT 6: UPCYCLE THE PLANET!


Fotocredits

three hundred ninety eight

©

VA N

IN

p. 11 ostrich racing ©Peter Titmuss/Shutterstock.com, p. 11 chess boxing ©paul prescott/ Shutterstock.com, p. 11 underwater hockey ©Belga/AFP, p. 11 shovel racing ©Lynn Eubank/Flickr: Angel Fire Shovel Races 2011, CC BY-SA 2.0, p. 11 wife carrying ©Maria Janicki/Alamy, p. 11 cheese rolling ©ComposedPix/Shutterstock.com, p. 11 Quidditch ©Federico Magonio/ Shutterstock.com, p. 11 buzkashi ©RelisaGranovskaya/Shutterstock.com, p. 13 buzkashi ©MehmetO/Shutterstock.com, p. 14 buzkashi ©GTW/Shutterstock.com, p. 15 - 41 buzkashi ©MehmetO/Shutterstock.com, p. 21 cover The Crossover (Kwame Alexander) ©Jonny White/Alamy, p. 34 icons Facebook, Twitter and Instagram ©solomon7/Shutterstock.com, p. 38 rowing ©Corepics VOF/Shutterstock.com, p. 38 handball ©Michele Morrone/Shutterstock.com p. 39 water polo ©muzsy/Shutterstock.com, p. 39 Quidditch ©Sergei Bachlakov/Shutterstock.com, p. 39 ice hockey ©Natali55522/Shutterstock.com, p. 39 roller derby ©Susan Montgomery/ Shutterstock.com, p. 40 wrestling ©Everyonephoto Studio/Shutterstock.com, p. 40 Highland Games ©BluIz60/Shutterstock.com, p. 42 Wimbledon tennis court ©Meaning March/Shutterstock.com, p. 54 Highland Games ©JASPERIMAGE/Shutterstock.com, p. 55 Highland Games ©JASPERIMAGE/ Shutterstock.com, p. 57 Tom Daley © Featureflash Photo Agency/Shutterstock.com, p. 59 weightlifting ©A.RICARDO/Shutterstock.com, p. 59 diving ©A.RICARDO/Shutterstock.com, p. 65 P!nk ©A.PAES/Shutterstock.com, p. 73 covers Becoming (Michelle Obama) ©Faizal Ramli/ Shutterstock.com, p. 96 Leonardo DiCaprio ©taniavolobueva/Shutterstock.com, p. 126 Harry Potter books ©Wachiwit/Shutterstock.com, p. 129 cast Dumplin’ ©Kathy Hutchins/Shutterstock.com, p. 137 James Charles ©Kathy Hutchins/Shutterstock.com, p. 137 Alex Caruso ©CC BY 2.0, p. 137 Debby Ryan ©Featureflash Photo Agency/Shutterstock.com, p. 138 Jen Shah ©Chad Kirkland/Bravo, p. 138 Cole Sprouse ©SD Mack/Shutterstock.com, p. 138 Rihanna ©DFree/ Shutterstock.com, p. 159 cover The Da Vinci Code (Dan Brown) ©Claudia Longo/Shutterstock.com, p. 159 covers It (Stephen King) ©rblfmr/Shutterstock.com, p. 235 Ben Nemtin ©CC BY-SA 4.0, p. 257 Mardi Gras parades New Orleans ©GTS Productions/Shutterstock.com, p. 262 Billie Eilish ©Christian Bertrand/Shutterstock.com, p. 264 - 265 Burj Khalifa tower ©Ilona Ignatova/ Shutterstock.com, p. 299 Demi Lovato ©Kathy Hutchins/Shutterstock.com, p. 310 Ariana Grande ©lev radin/Shutterstock.com, p. 310 Ed Sheeran ©yakub88/Shutterstock.com, p. 310 Zayn Malik ©PHOTOSHOT/BI, p. 310 Halsey ©DFree/Shutterstock.com, p. 311 Ariana Grande ©lev radin/Shutterstock.com, p. 311 Ed Sheeran ©yakub88/Shutterstock.com, p. 311 Zayn Malik ©PHOTOSHOT/BI, p. 312 Halsey ©DFree/Shutterstock.com, p. 312 Jenette McCurdy ©Charles Edwards/Shutterstock.com, p. 313 Kristen Bell ©Kathy Hutchins/Shutterstock.com, p. 313 Lady Gaga ©Joe Seer/Shutterstock.com, p. 313 Taylor Swift ©Brian Friedman/ Shutterstock.com, p. 332 Ice Watch ©Daniel Leal-Olivas/AFP/Getty Images, p. 353 - 354 icons TikTok and Instagram ©rvlsoft/Shutterstock.com, p. 356 Gran Canaria rock fall ©Thomas Dekiere/ Shutterstock.com

389


© VA N IN


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