Abstracts the allocation of delegates in each state play significant roles in the primary process as a whole. As there are myriad primary rules that alter delegate allocation methods, this research argues that different rules favor different candidates, depending on a candidate’s positioning in the primary race. This paper finds that candidates leading in the primary race (i.e. frontrunners) receive more delegates in winner-take-all primaries than in any other delegate allocation method, including proportional representation, winnertake-most, or any hybrid delegate allocation method. The success of front-runners in winnertake-all primary states yields a shorter primary season for both the Republican and Democratic parties. Variables such as momentum, frontloading, primary contest type, and electorate preferences are controlled for in a regression analysis examining the effect of delegate allocation methods on presidential primary length. The study uses delegate count data from Republican and Democratic primaries in the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections and analyzes which delegate allocation methods produce a quicker primary victor. By examining delegate counts in these two elections, this study uncovers which delegate allocation methods both offer the front-runner the greatest delegate payoff and lead to a quicker primary season for both Republican and Democratic parties.
centered perspective. This study employed two open-ended surveys to explore students’ perceptions and uses of learning objectives. Participants were undergraduate students taking Introductory Biochemistry at one institution (n=185). The surveys were completed after the students’ first and second exams. We used content analysis to identify key ideas within students’ answers. Most participants used learning objectives by answering them as if they were questions. Students perceived the purposes of learning objectives to be showing them what is important to learn, providing organization, and helping them meet their instructors’ expectations. Students also reported that the learning objectives helped focus their study for exams and for learning purposes. Ongoing research is centered on how students’ use of learning objectives affects their exam and course grades. Investigating a Potentially Novel Cache Valley Virus Variant in a Clinical Case in Missouri Isabel Ott, CURO Honors Scholar, CURO Research Assistant Dr. Daniel Mead, Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine The Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCWDS) investigates wildlife mortality events in the southeastern United States. In July of 2015, the Missouri Department of Conservation submitted samples from a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) euthanized after showing signs of hemorrhagic disease. Submitted samples tested negative for hemorrhagic disease viruses and other major viruses of white-tailed deer using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Further tests detected an Orthobunyavirus, a genus of arthropod-borne RNA viruses distributed worldwide, showing highest similarity to Cache Valley virus (CVV). CVV, better known as a cause of severe neurological birth defects in sheep, has previously been isolated from asymptomatic deer. The deer’s unusual clinical profile suggested the potential presence of a genetically variant strain. Variant or novel orthobunyaviruses emerge relatively frequently, as they lack replication proofreading mechanisms and frequently exchange genetic material between species. To explore this possibility, partial segments of the isolate’s genome were amplified
Introductory Biochemistry Students’ Use of Learning Objectives Bethany Osueke, CURO Research Assistant Dr. Julie Dangremond Stanton, Cellular Biology, Franklin College of Arts and Sciences Learning objectives are tools used to articulate the knowledge and skills instructors intend their students to acquire by the end of a particular section of material or an entire course. Learning objectives make goals and expectations clear while providing organization for teaching and learning. By aligning course instruction and assessment, learning objectives have been shown to enhance student performance. There have been many studies on how faculty should write and use learning objectives in the classroom. Yet little attention has been given to understanding how students use learning objectives in order to study effectively. Academic faculty should be invested in engaging with learning objectives from a student179