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1600m lifestyle 2

MIXED USE TRANSPORT TOWNS

urban neighbourhoods A GROWTH STRATEGY FOR waiheke’s southern coast AWAAWAROA BAY - ‘LONG VALLEY’


CONTENTS 5 Introduction 6 Auckland’s Ecological Footprint 7 Rationale 8 Context 9 Area Of Study 10 Analysis: Hydrology 11 Land Use Capability 12 Analysis: Aspect 13 Analysis: Character 14 Analysis: Slopes 16 Infrastructure 17 GIS Analysis 18 Zoning Criteria 19 Available Land 20 The 1600m2 Lifestyle 22 Lifestyle Case Study 24 Mixed Use Transport Town 26 Biodiversity Programme 27 Structure Plan 28 Conclusion 29 References


Introduction In project one, the group explored Auckland’s potential to accommodate the projected one million new inhabitants by 2050 based on a 60:40 growth development strategy within and outside the current metropolitan urban limit [MUL]. Auckland Council’s objective is to be “the world’s most liveable city”, improving overall quality of life for its inhabitants, and creating a major attractant for immigrants to the “water city”.

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60:40 | mul

+1M | 2050

The Mercer Quality of Living survey ranks the world’s most liveable cities based on the following criterion: safety|crime, international connectivity, tolerance, climate|sunshine, quality of architecture, urban design, public transportation, environmental issues and access to nature, business conditions, policy developments and medical care.

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auckland’s ecological footprint A city’s growth is limited to the extent of resources available for that organism’s growth and survival. The ecological footprint measures a city’s energy balance - the hidden cost of a population’s activity (Rees, 2000) providing an indicator of sustainability. Auckland is the largest city in New Zealand and like most cities in the developed world, Auckland’s ecological footprint exceeds the area of useful land available in the region. It is therefore considered to have overshot its carrying capacity or biocapacity or simply, there is not enough land [under current practices] to sustain that region’s population given the region’s current level of material consumption, resource use and technological development.

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sustainable developments may ne defined as those that

“meet present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs” (WECD, 1987).


rationale Lessening our dependency on imports and increasing the production of locally grown - locally sourced food, goods and services is one step towards achieving more sustainable growth - that is, achieving a balance between consumption and replenishing the land. Decreasing food miles, energy use and transport costs by supporting local business and ‘neighbourhood’ networks, builds local economy, fosters ecological and social ‘resilience’, and enhancing quality of life through the socio-cultural networks ‘community’ affords the individual. The development of the 1600m2 lifestyle is a means of encouraging self-sufficiency in an urban context, and thereby promoting sustainable living.

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CONTEXT The initial study undertook a broadscale landscape analysis of Auckland’s south-east urban edge, framed by the current MUL to the west, the coastline to the north and east, Waiheke, and the Bombay hills to the south. Crossing the MUL we identified landscapes of essentially rural character Whitford and Clevedon being areas of undulating pastoral lowlands strongly influenced by the coast and “incorporating many views out to sea” (Boffa Miskell Ltd., 2005).

Project II comprised a landscape analysis of Awaawaroa Bay, on Waiheke’s southern coast,

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identifying areas suitable for development of 1600m2 lifestyle lots, and areas to be retained in native bush or undergo revegetation to enhance ecological connectivity and promote biodiversity in the region. Image below: Deadmans Point, Awaawaroa Bay (Tasker).


Area of study Awaawaroa Bay has some outstanding natural landscape features identified by Auckland Council as not identified on ARC’s plan and requiring protection from ‘inappropriate subdivision’. However, it also recognised that careful with management and control, subdivision can have a positive impact on the landscape in time (access to walkways, planting (eco-sourcing) and weed control. (Auckland Council, 2012).

Awaawaroa Bay, Waiheke Island. 9


analysis: HYDROLOGY Waiheke has no reticulated (centralised) water supply and most inhabitants rely on rainwater collection to supply their needs, with increased demand on the islandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s aquifer, accentuated over summer (November-March) when the islandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population swells from 7,500-30,000 on average. With the projected 2050 increase in population growth this will heighten demands on water supply, treatment and removal, prompting innovative design technologies. Urban design principles that focus on water conservation and catchment form an important strategy for the islandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current and future growth requirements.

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analysis: VEGETATION Integration of all existing native vegetation and significant exotic plantings were considered of significant value and retained for ecological and landscape amenity value. Of particular significance to the region, and located adjacent to the site is Whakanewa Regional Park occupying 250 hectares of land, featuring native bush, a large wetland, and wildlife sanctuary. Waiheke Island is also a significant wine producing region, with a trail of vineyards situated along Gordons Road, situated above the MUTT and leading into Awaawaroa Valley. vineyards. Olives are also grown|harvested in the region.

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analysis: aspect Aspect was assessed to identify opportunites & constraints to development. Given the siteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s southern locale, all south, south-east and southwest facing slopes were deemed acceptable for development, due to the additional constraints imposed by the number of slopes greater than 20o thereby limiting development. These areas were reserved for their ecological and landscape amenity value, and enhancing ecological connectivity with the neighbouring regional park, wetlands and wildlife sanctuary. concentrated on Deadmanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Point,

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Views The 1600m2 lifestyle plots enjoy panoramic views of the surrounding valleys and vineyards, and across the harbour to Auckland city, so lifestylers enjoy the benefits of a semi-rural | urban lifestyle, with the benefit of a M.U.T.T. development to promote diversity of living in this small coastal town.


analysis: character Awaawaroa - meaning ‘long valley’ is located in the shadow of Waiheke’s largest mountain, Mt Maunganui. The landscape is characterised by five major vegetation types, most prevalent in the adjacent Whakanewa Regional Park. Coastal forest dominates the valleys and hill slopes,comprising mature native species (kauri, totara, taraire, puriri, karaka etc), pasture, manuka-kanuka scrubland, wetlands (raupo, harakeke), and coastal dune vegetation (pingaospinifex). The area has abundant cascading streams, a large wetland and wildlife sanctuary and currently prides itself in being rodent free.

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Awaawaroa bay Lifestyle plots 1600m2

Deadman’s Point


analysis: steep Slopes ... 20

0+

Slope is an important indicator of potential for building development. Erosion prone areas with a 20o+ gradient were immediately eliminated from development.

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analysis: slopes ... 0-20

0

Slopes under 200 were deemed suitable for development given other constraints. Highlighted in green, two specific sites were selected for development: a clustered, ecohousing village (20 ha) and 17ha development for 1600m2 lots for artisan production. Each site is easily accessible via road networks to the proposed new mixed use transport town [M.U.T.T] development to provide diversity of lifestyle in an urban context.

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analysis: Infrastructure Historically, Auckland has developed along infrastructural lines with new townships planned around motorway off-ramps. This map indicates the correlation of existing settlement along existing infrastructural lines in this region. New roading networks in Awaawaroa Valley contribute to greater connectivity in the area, and with the adjacent MUTT, community facilities and Whakanewa Regional park.

roading ferry routes rail

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gis analysis slopes 20o+ aspect

vegetation

waterways

slope 0-200 17


zoning criteria AVAILABLE LAND EXISTING SETTLEMENT PROXIMITY TO TRANSPORT HUB MIXED USE OPPORTUNITY 18

REMAINING AVAILABLE LAND allocated to 1600m2 lifestyle


AVAILABLE LAND 1600m lifestyle 2

200 hectares land + 150 ha retained for ecological, amenity and cultural value. 2 parcels of land development 17 hectare ecovillage - clustered housing, not subdivided into lots. density:6.25 dwellings/ha 106.25 dwellings | 372 people 20 hectare - Artisan lots 1600m2 lots | density: 6.25 dwellings/hectare 125 dwellings | 438 people development: 34 ha | 231 dwellings | 810 people

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1600m lifestyle - artisan plots 2

building resilient communities

1600m2 sections | 6.25 dwellings/ha |

local water + waste management walk + cycle infrastructure

zero waste

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living roofs & living walls keep water on site. local energy production

water-sensitive design - L.I.U.D.D

passive design principles

self-sufficiency encouraged

artisan producers

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LIFESTYLE CASE STUDY â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Earthsongâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Ecovillage, Ranui, Auckland. Designed to encourage a sense of community, provide an educational model for community living, sustainability, an educational resource, and showcase passive building technologies, and water sensitive urban design. 1.29 hectares | 32 home co-housing unit Small-scale neighbourhood to promote meaningful social interactions. Car parking bays provided for in designated area reaffirming primary aim of connectivity, â&#x20AC;&#x2122;people firstâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, over cars. Clustered two & three storey dwellings arranged along common pathways & shared courtyards to facilitate a sense of belonging and identity. Features common productive areas (garden, workshed, art/craft workshops), common house, (communal dining as desired, social activities, and community groups/interaction).

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90A/zC!z/C,{Bz/A,!,C$X{zCCz/ %ARTHSONG %CO .EIGHBOURHOOD IS A COHOUSING NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNED AND DEVELOPED BY ITS MEMBERS THE COOPERATIVE GROUP OF PROSPECTIVE RESIDENTS 4HIS GROUP WAS FORMED IN  AND GRADUALLY GREW IN NUMBERS AS PEOPLE WERE DRAWN TO THE VISION AND WANTED TO BE PART OF PLANNING

AND ULTIMATELY LIVING IN THIS INTENTIONAL NEIGHBOURHOOD 3EVERAL YEARS OF RESEARCH PLANNING

GROUP BUILDING AND INCREASING MEMBERSHIP LED TO THE PURCHASE OF THE SITE IN  4HE GROUP THEN ENTERED AN INTENSIVE PERIOD OF PARTICIPATORY DESIGN AND SETTING UP OF THE lNANCIAL AND LEGAL STRUCTURES TO ENABLE COMMENCEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION IN LATE  #ONSTRUCTION WAS COMPLETED IN STAGES OVER EIGHT YEARS WITH lNAL COMPLETION IN *ULY  .OW THAT CONSTRUCTION IS COMPLETED AND ALL HOMES ARE OCCUPIED THE MEMBERS AND RESIDENTS OF %ARTHSONG CONTINUE TO WORK TOGETHER TO MANAGE THE ONGOING RUNNING AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD )N ORDER TO ADVANCE THE EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF THE %ARTHSONG VISION A CHARITABLE TRUST CALLED THE %ARTHSONG #ENTRE 4RUST WAS ESTABLISHED IN  WITH TRUSTEES DRAWN FROM BOTH UNIT OWNERS OF %ARTHSONG %CO .EIGHBOURHOOD AND THE OUTSIDE COMMUNITY 4HE %ARTHSONG #ENTRE 4RUST NOW JOINTLY OWNS WITH %ARTHSONG UNIT OWNERS THE LARGE COMMUNITY BUILDING AT THE HEART OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD KNOWN AS BOTH THE %ARTHSONG COMMON HOUSE FOR RESIDENTS AND THE %ARTHSONG #ENTRE FOR THE 4RUST  4HE %ARTHSONG #ENTRE 4RUST MANAGES THE OUTREACH ACTIVITIES OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD THAT CONTRIBUTE TO EDUCATION OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC IN ISSUES OF SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY SUCH AS SITE TOURS WORKSHOPS PUBLIC TALKS AND OTHER EVENTS AND THE %ARTHSONG WEBSITE

6a+'$M J6agShpJ$l+$" 6hÂ&#x20AC;6k  ", A,æ


awaawaroa eco-village

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MIXED USE TRANSPORT TOWN LOCAL POWER GENERATION

CYCLE + WALK + WATER INFRASTRUCTURE

ECOLOGICALLY SENSITIVE DESIGN FOR BIODIVERSITY

LOCAL PRODUCTION FOR LOCAL CONSUMPTION

MUTT

LOCAL WASTE MANAGEMENT BUSINESS WASTE EXCHANGE

LOCAL FOOD NETWORKS

LOCAL TRADE + CURRENCY

MIXED USE TRANSPORT TOWNCENTRES

EDIBLE PARKS

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MIXED USE Case study Zurich - Seewurfel - Lake Cubes Mixed Use Regeneration Development “New centre for working and living ...integrates … harmoniously into the existing historic fabric of the area.” Low density| 666m2 sections 15 dwellings per hectare 64 people/ha Offices|Retail on lower three floors Upper two floors apartments Shared recreational spaces Alternative geothermal energy use (Arpa, Mozas, & Per, 2007).

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biodiversity programme Ecological connectivity and biodiversity are enhanced by a revegetation programme of riparian corridors and flood plains. Biodiverstiy is promoted through conservation management programs that keep Waiheke rodent free, funding of wildlife breeding programs to sustain and protect threatened species, and community involvement and volunteering programs.

riparian corridors EXISTING native forest revegetation programme EXISTING exotic forest

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Structure plan

WAIHEKE

NEW FERRY LINKS

1600m2 lifestyle living is dispersed through large patches of vegetation and productive land encouraging sustainable settlements. New ferry links enable coastal intensification via mixed use transport towns and connection to the Hauraki Gulf islands and central Auckland.

NATIVE FOREST EXOTIC FOREST REVEGETATION FOOD PRODUCTION 1600M2 LIFESTYLE MIXED USE TOWNS

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BEACHLANDS

MARAETAI

KAWAKAWA BAY


Conclusion ‘Greenfields resilience’ represents a growth strategy for mainland Auckland and Waiheke Island in the Hauraki Gulf, creating highly liveable spaces through the implementation of low density development - , mixed use transport towns [MUTT] and 1600m2 artisan lots, which promote self-sufficiency and reduce the reliance on commuting, with the aim of reducing Auckland’s ecological footprint, while providing sustainable growth options for the region expecting a population increase of $1M by 2050. 45,000 people will be accommodated within the 860 hectares of appropriate land with low density outcomes.

High-quality soils are prioritised for food production. Ecological integrity is enhanced through revegetation of riparian margins to create 100m patch corridors and connectivity with existing native vegetation. Mixed use is prioritised around infrastructure proximity i.e. intensification around transport hubs and commercial centres. New 1600m2 lifestyle choices are provided for in the form of a clustered ecohousing development adjacent the MUTT, and individual 1600m2 artisan lots dispersed along Waiheke’s southern coastal Awaawaroa valley. Commercial activity occupies the lower

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levels of apartment buildings enlivening the MUTT while shared open space encourages community interaction. Recreational opportunities are provided alongside existing and restored vegetation which act as connective pathways. Live/work developments support localisation creating diverse and resilient communities. The Greenfields resilience strategy outlines a means to achieving a quality, sustainable lifestyle, providing for Aucklanders now and in the future. A positive move towards the goal of being the most liveable city in the world.


References 3 News. Retrieved from: http://www.3news.co.nz/Critics-call-Auckland-30-year-plan-unachievable/tabid/370/articleID/248584/Default.aspx Arpa, J., Mozas, J., & Per, A. F. (2007). Dbook. Density, data, diagrams, dwellings. Auckland Council. (2011). Auckland Draft Plan. Chapter 7. Retrieved from http://www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/en/aboutcouncil/planspoliciespublications/ theaucklandplan/draftaucklandplan/pages/home.aspx Auckland Council District Plan - Hauraki Gulf Islands section - Landscape Review. Retrieved from http://www.aucklandcity.govt.nz/council/documents/islands/reviewdirectlandscape.asp Auckland Regional Council. (2007). Auckland Sustainability Framework. Retrieved from http://www.aucklandoneplan.org.nz/auckland-sustainability-framework/. Auckland Regional Council. (2010). A brief history of Aucklandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban form. Auckland Regional Council. (2012). 7 Natural Character & Landscape Values of the Gulf. Retrieved from http://www.arc.govt.nz/albany/fms/main/Documents/Environment/Coastal%20and%20marine/ Hauraki%20Gulf%20State%20of%20the%20Environment%20Report%20-%20Natural%20Character%20and%20Landscape%20Values%20of%20the%20Gulf.pdf Auckland Regional Council (1996). Whakanewa Regional Park Management Plan, History of Human Occupation and Archaeology. Retrieved from http://www.arc.govt.nz/albany/fms/main/Documents/Parks/ Parks%20history/History%20of%20human%20occupation%20and%20archaeology%20of%20Whakenewha%20Regional%20Park.pdf Bernhardt, J (2008). A Deeper Shade of Green. Sustainable Urban Development, Building and Architecture in New Zealand. Balasoglou Books: Auckland, New Zealand Boffa Miskell Ltd. (2005). Beachlands Growth Management Strategy Draft 2 November. Prepared for Manukau City Council Boffa Miskell Ltd. (2006). Takanini plan change: vegetation, landscape and visual assessment. Boffa Miskell Ltd. (2006). Takanini plan change: vegetation, landscape and visual assessment. Bogunovich, D. & Bradbury, M. (2011). Auckland 2040: a resilient urban region on the water. Proceedings from the 11th Asian Urbanism Conference. Hyderabad, India. E-architect (n.d.) Seewurfel Zurich: Lake Cubesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; : Mixed-Use Regeneration Development. Retrieved from: http://www.e-architect.co.uk/switzerland/seewurfel.htm Earthsong Centre Trust (2008). Earthsong World Habitat Awards 2008. Final submission for Earthsong Neighbourhood 7e. Earthsong Centre Trust: Auckland, New Zealand. Grant, G. (2011). The importanceof biodiversity. Urban Design, Issue 117, p22. Hudson Associates Landscape Architects Hauraki Gulf Islands District Plan Review Landscape Report September 2006. Ignatieva, M., Meurk, C., Simcock, R., Stewart, G., van Roon, M. (2008). How to put nature into our neighbourhoods. Lincoln, New Zealand: Manaaki Whenua Press McDonald, R., & Marcotullio, P. (2011). Global effects of urbanisation on ecosystem services. In J. Neimela (Ed). Urban ecology: patterns, processes, and applications. New York, NY: Oxford University Press Scott, E (2003). Awaawaroa Ecovillage. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ecodesignadvisor.org.nz/assets/Awaawaroa-small-file.pdf Soul Environments Ltd. (2010). Clevedon village and surrounding area landscape assessment.

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urban neighbourhoods