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volume 8

2014–2015

T H I S J O U R N A L I S P U B L I S H E D B Y T R A C E F O U N DAT I O N'S L AT S E L I B R A R Y, 132 P E R R Y S T., S U I T E 2B, N E W YO R K , N Y 10014 U S A T E L.: +12123678490 FA X +12123677383 E MA I L: I N F O  L AT S E. ORG T H E V I E W S A N D O P I N I O N S E X P R E S S E D I N L AT S E J O U R N A L A R E S O L E LY T H O S E O F T H E O R I G I N A L AU T H O R S A N D OT H E R CO N T R I B U TO R S. T H E S E V I E W S A N D O P I N I O N S D O N OT N E C E S S A R I LY R E  F L E C T T H O S E O F T R A C E F O U N DAT I O N. CO N T E N T S CO P Y R I G H T © U N L E S S OT H E R W I S E N OT E D. P H OTO S CO P Y R I G H T © T R A C E F O U N DAT I O N, U N L E S S OT H E R W I S E N OT E D, A N D MAY N OT B E R E P R O D U C E D I N A N Y WAY W I T H O U T P E R M I S S I O N F R O M T R A C E F O U N DAT I O N. E L E C T R O N I C V E R S I O N O F T H I S J O U R N A L C A N B E F O U N D AT W W W. T R AC E.O R G.


L A T S E

J O U R N A L

ལ་ᫀྩེ་᩹ས་དྩེབ།

བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

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Message from the Editor As we try to have a theme for every issue of Latse Journal, in this issue we feature the development of Tibetan-language periodicals both inside and outside of Tibet. Readers will see a focus on newspapers, journals, and magazines in Tibet and in the exile community, as well as coverage of other periodicals from the Indian side of the Himalayan Range. Although it is difficult to present the complete history and development of Tibetan-language periodicals due to issues of distribution and access, we believe readers will be able to see the overall picture of the situation as well as the main developments.

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Contributors

རོམ་པ་པོ།

བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

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F E AT U R E S

ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

Tibetan-language Journals and Magazines in Three Periods by Pema Bhum

1. The history of the term for magazine/journal in Tibetan

I

n Tibet, the concept of the periodical does not go back more than eighty

years. The first person to notice the genre of the periodical as it existed in foreign countries, and who felt that Tibet needed something similar was Gendun Chopel (1903–1952). During his stay in India in 1934–1946, he wrote a letter to Tharchin, the publisher and editor of the Tibet Mirror, the Tibetan newspaper published in Kalimpong, in which he discusses periodicals: To the wise Mr. Tharchin, In brief, recently I was happy to receive your letter and newspaper, and [to know] that you are in good health. It is really good news that Panchen Rinpoche liked your newspaper. In the near future, I wish that in our Tibet also, we could have a daily news and monthly magazine (mégazin (me gha zin)) that we can read in our own language. For although we cannot see the happenings in the seven gold mountains and seven oceans, I wish to know the current news of this world. Chopel This letter appears undated. Gendun Chopel mentions that “Panchen Rinpoche” was happy to see the newspaper; given the date, this would be the Ninth Panchen. He was in China from 1923 to 1937, and passed away in Jyekundo as he was travelling back to Tibet.

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ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

Gendun Chopel’s letter was sent while Panchen Rinpoche was still alive, and while Gendun Chopel was in India, thus the date of the correspondence would either be 1937 or one or two years earlier. If this letter dates to 1937, the first instance of refererence to a magazine or journal in Tibetan (with the term mégazin) is only eighty-seven years old. We see in this letter that Gendun Chopel transliterated the term “magazine,” and did not translate it. In 1957, some twenty years after Gendun Chopel suggested that it was necessary for there to be a periodical, the Nationalities Publishing House in Beijing published the third volume of [The Dictionary of New Terms]. On page 112 of that book, we find the Tibetan equivalent of the term for periodical in Chinese, zazhi, is né dzom tsakpar, literally “newspaper of miscellany.” [The Dictionary of New Terms] has four volumes: the first volume was published in 1954, the second in 1955, and the third and fourth volumes published in 1957. These four volumes contain Communist and Chinese administrative terminology and other common terminology translated for the first time from Chinese into Tibetan. In Chinese language, there are two terms for periodical: qikan, meaning “periodically published,” and zazhi, or “record of miscellany.” Today these two terms are used interchangeably. In the 1950s, however, usage of these two terms most likely differed, or else the compilers of [The Dictionary of New Terms] were not aware they could be used interchangeably. Whatever the reason, in the fourth volume of the dictionary, qikan is translated into Tibetan in two

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བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

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ways: düdep, or “periodical book,” and dütsün pédep, or “books following time.” This is the first instance the Tibetan term düdep enters the Tibetan language, albeit with some uncertainty and with an alternate term. In 1964, the Nationalities Publishing House edited the four volumes of [Dictionary of New Terms] and combined them in one new publication entitled [Chinese-Tibetan Dictionary]. This dictionary successfully promoted widespread use of revolutionary terminology in spoken and written Tibetan. In that dictionary, the compilers confirm that the equivalent of qikan is düdep. It is also recognized that although zazhi has a similar meaning to qikan, there is still a slight difference and thus zazhi is translated as nadzom düdep, “periodical book of miscellany.” Twelve years later, as the Cultural Revolution was ending, the [Chinese-Tibetan Dictionary] grew three times its size, and in the new version, qikan and zazhi are both translated with the term düdep. The magazine Red Flag, or Darmar, a periodical published by the Chinese Communist Party, played a big role in promoting the term düdep in spoken and written Tibetan. During the Cultural Revolution, for any employee of the Chinese government, it was impossible not to hear the phrase “Two newspapers, one magazine,” referring to the People’s Daily, the People’s Liberation Army Daily, and the journal Red Flag. These three publications served as major communication channels for the Chinese Communist government. During that period, whenever a political event occurred, the three publications jointly published editorials that all Chinese government staff were required to study and discuss. It did not matter whether in meetings or general conversation, “two newspapers, one periodical” was a constant refrain. It has been over eighty years since Gendun Chopel first used the English term “magazine,” sixty years since the actual appearance of a Tibetan magazine, and thirty years since the term for magazine in Tibetan was finalized in the dictionary. These days, although the term düdep is widely used in both written and spoken Tibetan, the term appears only in Chinese-Tibetan dictionaries, not in any Tibetan-Tibetan dictionaries. We do not see this term in the 1949 publication of Geshe Chhodrak’s dictionary in woodblock print, but this is understandable as that dictionary was printed rather early. But in the case of the two VOLUME 8, 2014–2015


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Tibetan dictionaries [New Dictionary] and [The Great Tibetan-Chinese Dictionary], though the term düdep already existed when these works were first published, it is not found in either dictionary. The [New Dictionary] most likely has its own reasons for this omission, as it is comprised of only Tibetan terminology and very few translated or borrowed terms. But [The Great Tibetan-Chinese Dictionary] published in 1985 cannot have the same excuse, as it contains Communist terms translated from the Chinese.

2. Tibetan Magazines and Journals in the 1950s In 1951, some fifteen years after Gendun Chopel expressed a wish for a Tibetan magazine, the Tibetan-language edition of China Pictorial (known in Chinese as Renmin Huabao, literally “People’s Pictorial,” and thus in Tibetan Mimang nyenpar) was first published, a magazine with mainly photographic content with some text. It was the first Tibetan-language magazine. During the Cultural Revolution, publication of China Pictorial was suspended, but was later resumed. The magazine came out monthly, but from 2000, the Tibetan-language edition was no longer published. In 1955, another monthly Tibetan-language edition of a magazine similar in format to China Pictorial with heavy photo content was established, the Nationalities Pictorial (Mirik nyenpar). The magazine was stopped for a few years during the Cultural Revolution, but afterwards was resumed. All the content for these two periodicals was translated from Chinese; there is no single article originally written in Tibetan. The content is mainly focused on portraying felicitous aspects of people’s lives in China, the country’s development, and the harmonious relationship among different ethnicities under Chinese communist leadership. Every issue of these two periodicals—especially Nationalities Pictorial— features content on Tibetans. In the 1950s, for example, coverage of the construction of major roads to Lhasa, the visit of H.H. the Dalai Lama to Beijing, and other such news, first appeared in these magazines. In 1957, a magazine called Qinghai Education (Tsongön lopso) came out. It was also suspended during the Cultural Revolution but resumed in 1979. The magazine is now called Tibetan Education (Bö kyi lopso), and is published bimonthly. Before the Cultural Revolution, all 10

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ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

content was translated from original Chinese content. It is difficult to get a clear sense of how many issues were published before the Cultural Revolution. When I inquired at the magazine’s editorial office in 2007, they could not even recall seeing an issue dating from before the Cultural Revolution. In 1958, another new Tibetan magazine, the aforementioned Red Flag (Darcha marpo; later shortened to Darmar.) was inaugurated. This journal, published twice a month, served as a mouthpiece for Marxist views and Communist policy. All content was translated from Chinese, and included secondary research articles and even literary works related to the primary content of the issue. For example, during the Cultural Revolution, the scripts of the eight revolutionary operas were translated into Tibetan and published in this journal. In the 1950s there also appeared a magazine called Nomadic Life (Drokpé tsowa). According to personal communication from one former staff of that journal, its main focus was the life and culture of nomads. The content of the magazine consisted of translations of Chinese articles, with no original Tibetan articles. Of the five Tibetan periodicals in the 1950s we have named so far, three were published at the national level, namely China Pictorial, Nationalities Pictorial, and Red Flag. Nomadic Life and Qinghai Education were provincial level periodicals. It is difficult to find information on the distribution of Qinghai Education and Nomadic Life, but of the other three, the national-level publications, we know that the main subscribers were local government offices. I can recall that in most areas in Amdo, the communes purchased journals and distributed copies among the production teams for free. I never knew of any individual who actually purchased them. Copies of these magazines were also available for sale at Xinhua Bookstores. In the twenty years that elapsed between 1958 when Red Flag was established, and 1979, with the reappearance of Qinghai Education, there were no new Tibetan-language journals or magazines established. During the Cultural Revolution, with the exception of Red Flag, publication of Tibetan language journals and magazines ceased.

3. Tibetan Periodicals in the 1980s In 1979, three years after the end of the 12

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བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

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Cultural Revolution, Qinghai Education resumed publication. The following year, in Lhasa, a new publication called Tibetan Art and Literature (Bö kyi tsomrik gyutsel) was founded. This was the first Tibetan literary periodical in history. The establishment of this journal is now generally recognized as marking the birth of modern Tibetan literature or new literature. That same year saw the emergence of the magazines Gangkar riwo in Kartsé, Kham, and Drangchar in Xining. Just a few years later in 1982, in Hezuo, Ganlho Prefecture, Dazer was founded. In the span of four years, four literary magazines were established, periodicals that created space for Tibetan literature to grow. Along with these publications that featured author-based literature, three folk literature journals also appeared: Tsongön mangtsok gyutsel (later shortened to Mangtsok gyutsel with the English title of Folk Art and Literature) in 1981 in Xining, and in 1983 in Lhasa, the two journals Panggyen métok and Gangjong rikné. These three journals mainly published literary forms that had survived orally, by memory, and by tradition, and were now written down for the first time. These journals were catching up with an important generation in history, the generation of Tibetans from before the arrival of Chinese Communists to Tibet, and who had not grown up under Chinese cultural influence. This generation kept Tibetan oral traditions and literature from another era alive, and these were now being recorded. In 1982, in contrast to the literary and folk literature magazines that were emerging at that time, there was one research journal established, Tibetan Studies, or Böjong zhipjuk by the Tibet Academy of Social Sciences. With the exception of Tibetan Studies, the periodicals of the 1980s featured varied content in addition to their main focus. For example in the case of Drangchar and Tibetan Art and Literature, each issue focused on literature, but at the same time included folk literature and research articles. In Mangtsok gyutsel, though the main focus is folk literature, they also feature the occasional research article. Most of the journals mentioned above are still in print. Some are published bimonthly or quarterly. There are already close to 200 issues of Tibetan Art and Literature. Although the readers of Drangchar have long wished to see an increase in the number of issues per year, their editorial board has only increased the number VOLUME 8, 2014–2015


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of pages per issue. F E AT U R E S

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4. A Comparison of the Two Periods of the Tibetan Magazine As mentioned above, the 1950s and the 1980s were the two major periods for the establishment of Tibetan-language magazines and journals. However, there are some differences between these two periods. The first difference is that in the 1950s, Tibetan-language magazines, except for Nomadic Life and Qinghai Education, were firmly based on government-generated content, and were published in Beijing at the national level. For example, in the case of China Pictorial, Prime Minister Zhou Enlai asked Gongtang Rinpoché to find staff to work on the Tibetanlanguage edition of this periodical. Gongtang Rinpoché sent Tibetan scholar Mugé Samten to Beijing for this task. In the 1980s, most of the periodicals were conceived by Tibetan intellectuals in Chinese government offices. Most were published at the provincial level, and some were even published at the prefecture level, such as Gangkar riwo and Dazer. Also, the periodicals were published under the direction of intellectuals. A second difference is that although in the 1950s journals were published in Tibetan, language was not the main point. The main purpose was to showcase the Chinese central government’s self-praise and to promote its policies to Tibetans. In the 1980s, magazines and journals were published with the primary aim of maintaining Tibetan language. There are some works that praise the Chinese government and its policies, but those were used mainly as a way for the magazines to exist and thrive, but not the main aim of the periodical. After some months and years, those magazines eventually saw a reduction in political influence. The third difference is that the content of Tibetan magazines in the 1950s consisted of translations from the original Chinese. Nationalities Pictorial, which is still in print, to this day only has translated content. For the Tibetan magazines established in the 1980s, most of the content was originally written in Tibetan. In the beginning, a few magazines featured some translated works from Chinese in order to bulk up the content, as original Tibetan literature was still in small supply. Eventually, the availability of Tibetan fiction increased and we see a decrease in works translated from VOLUME 8, 2014–2015


Chinese in these magazines. The fourth difference is that Tibetan magazines in the 1950s mainly gave an advantage to the promotion of Chinese policy. The subscribers were local governments. Tibetan magazines in the 1980s benefitted the revival of the Tibetan language. Subscribers were mostly private individuals.

5. The Non-governmental Tibetanlanguage Journal Emerges There are differences between the two periods we mentioned above, but there are also commonalities, mainly that all the magazines were owned and operated by the Chinese government. The editorial boards were comprised of staff of Chinese government offices. Financial support, content, and so on, were under the control of the government. But not long after the government magazines were being established in the 1980s, some privately-published magazines started appearing, "private" meaning the opposite of governmentowned: the publication is not that of the Chinese government, the editors do not receive a salary from the government, and the Chinese government does not have control over content or finances. It is difficult to tell which was the very first of this kind of publication, and where and when the phenomenon first began. So far evidence suggests that Rikyé metok from 1983 was one of the first privately-published journals. It is hard to say if this is the first instance but it is undoubtedly one of the earliest. The founder of this magazine was Dorje Tsering, also known as Jangbu. I learned the following about this magazine from him. In 1983, Dorje Tsering was a chemistry teacher at the Nationalities Middle School in Henan Mongolian Autonomous County. A year earlier he had written a short story called “The Accident” (Cha go), which he submitted to the editorial board of Drangchar magazine. It was published one year later, and Dorje Tsering felt that that was too long a wait for the publication of a short story. Together with a friend, he decided to start a magazine that could publish works in a more timely way. The result was a bilingual—Tibetan and Chinese—magazine with the Tibetan title Rikyé metok (meaning “mountain flower”) and a Chinese title of Yehua (“wildflower”). Both titles refer to flowers that grow naturally and bloom without human

བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

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intervention. But in the Chinese title, ye, means “wild,” or something difficult to discipline, and local officials raised an objection. The title in Chinese was changed to Shanhua, or “mountain flower.” Although this magazine was not under Chinese governmental control, it was still susceptible to being blocked or hampered by the government. As a measure to help circumvent such events, some Chinese officials were included on the magazine’s editorial board. Dorje Tsering remembers that when they published this magazine, the Qinghai Broadcasting Office and the Qinghai Nationalities Institute also published private magazines, Chutik (“water drop”) and Gangkyé phukrön, respectively. I have also heard that in 1986 or 1987 in order to memorialize the poet Döndrup Gyel and his famous poem “[The Waterfall of Youth]” (Langtsö bapchu) students from the Tibetan Department of the Qinghai Nationalities Institute came out with a magazine called [Youth] (Langtso). Meanwhile, another group of students from the Qinghai Minorities Teacher Training School in Chapcha published [Waterfall] (Bapchu). Among the holdings of such private magazines at Latse Library, the earliest one dates from 1987, published by the Sangchu Middle School and entitled Nyiksar. Beneath the publication year of 1987 is printed the number “19”. What this number means is hard to know for certain. If it shows the general or overall number of issues, and if the journal came out, for example, four times a year, then this would date this title back to 1982. If the frequency was less than four issues per year, the journal would date back to the 1970s. However, among those magazines accessible to us in Latse’s holdings, it is difficult to find any title with four issues per year, and it would have been almost impossible to publish in that early time. Latse has over one hundred titles of private journals in its collection. The highest frequency of issues is twice per year; there are six titles for which we have two issues per year. Most are published only once a year. There are also many that appear to have only come out once, and thus it would be difficult to call them a magazine. The earliest private magazine held by Latse dates from 1987. We began searching for and acquiring these periodicals in 2000 and were not able to find any from before 1987. There are some reasons for this, which help to explain the situation of publication and VOLUME 8, 2014–2015


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distribution during that time. For one thing, distribution was quite small. The aim of the magazines did not involve wide distribution. For example, in the case of Rikyé metok, although some issues made their way outside the county, the target readership was in their own county, a small group of individuals who wrote in Tibetan. Later, at the Northwest Nationalities Institute, there was an increase in private magazines, and with more variety of content, but distribution of a particular title was intended to remain within a group of students who came from the same hometown or from the same class. Sometimes one group would exchange issues with another, and thus a few copies would leave that particular circle. But generally the number of copies produced per issue was very limited. For example, only fifty-five copies were printed of one issue of Tso ngönpö luyang in 1993. Another reason that early journals became scarce over time was that the printing quality of the publications was so poor that they did not last for long. During that time there were three ways to print magazines: one way was mimeograph, another typewriter, and the third was photocopying. In the early 1980s, however, only mimeograph was available and/or affordable. At the end of the 1980s and in the 1990s, typewriter and photocopy as a means to publish began to emerge, though the mimeograph remained the most used. It was the cheapest method but was of the lowest quality. In the Latse collection, there are examples of all three of these types of printing, and it is obvious that the quality of the mimeographed magazines are the most poor and of the cheapest paper, with ink spreading and wearing away, and uneven printing, making them very difficult to read. The binding is also usually very poor, often handsewn or stapled. These characteristics are indicative of the financial situation of that time. Private journals were not officially permitted, and therefore one could not obtain official means of financial support. Tibetan society also lacked precedent to support this kind of endeavor. There was a tradition of supporting religious activity, but not private publications. At that time especially, a heavy burden was placed on most people for the rebuilding of monasteries that had been destroyed during the Cultural Revolution. Tibetans were approached again and again by fundraisers for this purpose. Thus, students involved in private magazine production would VOLUME 8, 2014–2015


not even dream of approaching the Tibetan community for funding. As there was no way to get financial support from the Tibetan community, the only resources the students had was their own pocket money. And given what little pocket money students would have, we can understand how the quality and quantity of the publications would be limited. When these private magazines first started, there was no support, financial or otherwise, from the community. Gradually, as these kinds of publications developed, they began to receive support from society in the interest of knowledge. After a few years, the situation of depending only on pocket money changed. If a magazine was run by a group of students from the same hometown, they would approach other students at the school who were from the same hometown for some money. If a magazine was run by a group from a certain class of students, they would seek money from others in that class. Gradually they looked to other classes, teachers in the school, and even offices in the college. They also went beyond the school to their community, especially lamas, monasteries, and businessmen and women who were from their hometown. This formation of groups became popular at the Northwest Nationalities Institue in Lanzhou. Students hailing from the same hometown or village would produce a journal. For example, in 1987, a group of students from Chapdrak in Henan Mongolian

བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

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Autonomous County formed a group called the Chapdrak Salon, and produced a magazine called Tingda ([Blue Moon]). Similarly, a group of students from Rebkong ran a journal called Guchü zekma ([Water Drops from the Guchu River]). Another group of students from Chapdrak had a magazine called Tso ngönpö luyang ([Song of Kokonor]). There is a private magazine called Shardungri after a scenic spot in Ngaba, most likely started by students from Ngaba, but by 2008 it eventually came to include students from beyond Ngaba. From the 1990s, private magazines, published up till then in big cities, now began appearing in Tibetan prefecture- and countylevel middle schools. At some point, the phenomenon even reached the village level. For example, in 1998, a village called Wanshul in the Tsolho area, published a magazine called Amnyé langchen. Of the more than one hundred of these journals at Latse, the majority were published after 2000. With the rise of computer use, private magazines became easier to produce. We see that the movement that began in schools in Amdo and then spread to the community, with the advent of the computer, spread further not only to monasteries, which also began to publish their own journals, but also grew geographically to include Kham and Central Tibet. Although there are many titles of privatelypublished magazines, overall there are not many issues. The aforementioned Shardungri has the most issues, with a general volume number at twenty-one. There are only six titles that reached six issues, while many magazines only have one issue. The main reason for so few issues of a particular magazine is mainly due to the fact that those who produced it tended to be students of the same class or year. Once these students graduate, the editorial board is scattered. Some publications, although called a magazine, do not exactly fit the genre. One class published, for example, a volume of collected writings of students from their class, but there does not appear to be a subsequent issue. In contrast, the phenomenon of the private magazine lasted longer in monasteries than in the schools, as the individuals behind the publication stayed in one place for longer periods. In the 1980–90s, the method of distribution of privately-published magazines was for

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one person to pass it along to another. Later, however, before 2008, in certain parts of Rebkong, Xining, and other places, these publications could be found for sale in privately-owned bookstores. After 2008, they became more difficult to find, as printing and selling these kinds of magazines were prohibited. Some stores continued to carry titles, but would not put them on display; one needed to ask. Otherwise, there was no way to distribute these kinds of journals through formal bookstores or through the mail. Although there was no official path of distribution for these journals, the actual printing could be done with permission. In the 1990s, as more and more private journals appeared, the government naturally took notice. At the same time, as use of computers and private printing houses increased, it became more difficult for the government to block such publications. In response, the government opened a door, requesting that each journal be registered. Magazines were marked to indicate that the government was aware of the journal and permitted its publication. The phenomenon of the privately-published journal is nearly forty years old. However, we are nearing the end of this kind of publication, as indicated by a decrease in those available in the marketplace. Government prohibition of such journals after 2008 is one reason for the decrease, but not the main reason. Some journals have continued to come out even with government hindrances. The main reason for this decrease is the rise of the internet, especially with the popularity of social media such as WeChat and Weibo.

Conclusion The concept of magazines in Tibetan has a history of more than eighty years. The history of an actual Tibetan-language magazine is over sixty years. During this time, there have been three major developments: in the 1950s, the Chinese government produced Tibetan-language journals such as Nationalities Pictorial and Red Flag for the promotion of political propaganda. In the 1980s, we see the appearance of journals that focused on Tibetan literature, culture, and social studies, such as Tibetan Art and Literature and Drangchar. Finally, the rise of private magazines like Tingda and Shardungri marks the third phase of the development of the Tibetan-language journal. Author’s Note: My thanks to Tashi Tsering for permission to reproduce Gendun Chopel’s letter.

བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

23


F E AT U R E S

ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

The Development of Tibetan Journals in Exile by Gendun Rabsal

1. Introduction

T

here is a term used in the Tibetan exile community—Gya Pel Druk

Sum—that generally refers to India, Nepal, Bhutan. However, its actual reference is much narrower than that: it refers only to Tibetans living in these three countries. According to population statistics of the Central Tibetan Administration Planning Council from 2010, the Tibetan population in India numbered 94,203, with 13,514 in Nepal, and 1,294 in Bhutan. In other countries in the world, the total number of Tibetans was 18,999. In total, in 2010, Tibetans in exile numbered 128,014.1 These numbers represent Tibetans scattered all over the world. The development of journals in exile is linked to the overall development of the exile community. Tibetans, following H.H. the Dalai Lama, began arriving in exile in India on April 18, 1959. By April 30, 1960, the exile government was moved to Dharamsala. In the 1960s and 70s, the exile community undertook the setting up of administration offices, schools, libraries, and other such projects. During this period, Tibetans were busy adjusting to a new life in exile and in a new environment, so for about ten years there was no time to publish 1

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http://tibet.net/about-cta/tibet-in-exile/

VOLUME 8, 2014–2015

ད ་པོ། ོ ་ ྩེ ་།

“རྒྱ་བལ་འབྲུག་གསུམ་”ཞེས་པ་ནི་སྤིར་བཏང་རྒྱ་གར་ དང་བལ་ཡུལ། འབྲུག་བཅས་ལ་འཇུག་མོད། སྐབས་

འདིར་ཚིག་དེའི་གོ་དོན་དེ་ལས་ཆུང་སེ། རྒྱལ་ཁབ་དེ་

གསུམ་དུ་སོད་པའི་བོད་མི་རྣམས་དང་། ལྷག་པར་དུ་བོད་ ཀི་སྐྱབས་བཅོལ་སྤི་ཚོགས་ལ་སྤོད་པའི་ཚིག་བསྡུ་ཞིག་ ཡིན། ༢༠༡༠ ལོར་བཙན་བོལ་བོད་མིའི་སྒིག་འཛུགས་ འཆར་འགོད་ལྷན་ཁང་གིས་བཙན་བོལ་བོད་མིའི་མི་

འབོར་ཞིབ་བཤེར་བས་པ་ལྟར་ན། “རྒྱ་གར་དུ་བོད་མི་

༩༤,༢༠༣ ཡོད་པ་དང། བལ་ཡུལ་དུ་བོད་མི་ ༡༣,༥༡༤ ཡོད། འབྲུག་ཡུལ་དུ་བོད་མི་ ༡,༢༩༨ ཡོད། རྒྱལ་ཁབ་

གཞན་ཁག་ཏུ་གནས་སོད་བེད་པའི་བོད་མི་ ༡༨,༩༩༩

ཡོད་པ་བཅས། ཁོན་བསོམས་བཙན་བོལ་ནང་བོད་མི་

གྲངས་ ༡༢༨,༠༡༤ ཡོད་” 1ཅེས་བཤད། དེ་ལྟར་ན་བཙན་

བོལ་བོད་མི་ནི་མི་འབོར་འབུམ་ཅིག་དང་ཁི་གསུམ་ལ་ཉེ་ ཞིང་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་གསུམ་གིས་གཙོས་བའི་འཛམ་གིང་ཁོན་ ལ་ཁ་འཐོར་དུ་གནས་པའི་སྤི་ཚོགས་ཤིག་ཡིན།

བཙན་བོལ་བོད་ཡིག་དུས་དེབ་ཀི་བྱུང་རིམ་དང་

བཙན་བོལ་བོད་ཀི་སྤི་ཚོགས་ཀི་གནས་བབ་གཉིས་ལ་

འབེལ་བ་དམ་པོ་ཡོད། ༧གོང་ས་མཆོག་དང་བཅས་པའི་ བཙན་བོལ་བ་རྣམས་ ༡༩༥༩ ལོའི་ཟླ་ ༤ ཚེས་ ༡༨ ཉིན་

རྒྱ་གར་ལ་བཙན་བོལ་དུ་འབོར་བ་དང་། ༡༩༦༠ ལོའི་ཟླ་ བ་ ༤ ཚེས་ ༣༠ ལ་སྐྱབས་བཅོལ་བོད་གཞུང་བཞུགས་

སྒར་རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ་ལ་གཞི་སོར་བས། ལོ་རབས་དྲུག་ཅུ་བ་

1

http://tibet.net/about-cta/tibet-in-exile/


ད་

ན་

ཉེ་

ན་

འི་

ན་

ཟླ་

བ་

journals or magazines. Starting in 1979, journals gradually emerged and began to grow in number. These were published mainly by individual intellectuals, institutes, political groups, schools, and monasteries. Some journals were published prolifically, while others had a small print run and unsteady frequency. In 2013, based on research performed on-site, I compiled a list of journals held by the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives (LTWA) in Dharamsala. I found forty-four journals and magazines. Kyong Mönlam, in his article on Tibetan periodicals “Fifty Years of Tibetan Newspapers and Magazines,” lists sixty-six titles.2 Another list, compiled by Shawo Tamdin of the Central Institute for Higher Tibetan Studies in Varanasi, names sixty titles. Each survey has different totals, the likely reason being that there is no library that carries all the journals. There are many different publishers—a class in a school, for example will publish an issue of a magazine. Some of these titles might consist of a few issues, but due to poor distribution, we cannot obtain exact numbers. This is not the first time Tibetan journals in exile has been discussed. For example, in Hortsang Jigme’s book published in 2000, [A Bud Growing from a Drop of Blood: Contemporary Tibetan Literature and Its Background], in Chapter 14 entitled “Contemporary Literature in Exile,” the author mentions Jangzhon and other Tibetan journals. At the same time, in his book [Overview of Tibetan Literature], Béri Jikmé Wanggyel also discusses journals of the exile community in the chapter “The Development of Tibetan Literature in Exile.” In examining the magazines of the Tibetan exile community, I looked at Tibetan magazines and journals from areas across the Himalayan range, including Ladakh and Sikkim. For many centuries these two places were centers of Tibetan culture, and in both Ladakh and Sikkim there were early attempts in the use of modern media for the dissemination of knowledge. Although not considered part of the exile community, as we share the same language and the same readers, I include these two areas in this discussion. 2 To view the list, please visit: http://toyikadom.blogspot.com/2011/12/ blog-post_25.html

བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

25


2. Journals and Magazines in the 1960s–70s F E AT U R E S

ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

Title

Year Place of EstabPublication lished

Publisher

Content

Yargyé gongpel

1960

Nepal

Indian Government News Agency

News, news analysis, literature

Sheja

1968

Dharamsala

Dept. of Information & International Relations

Politics and news

Ladakhi Folk Songs

1970

Ladakh

Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages Buddhism, history, Ladakhi tradition and culture; literature

Lo khor gyi dep

1976

Ladakh

Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages

Lhaksam tsekpa

1979

Dharamsala

Institute of Buddhist Dialectics

Religion and political knowledge

Shérap zom

1979

Ladakh

Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages

Buddhism, history, Ladakhi tradition and culture

Ma khyok drang tik

1979

Delhi

Tibetan Communist Party

News from exile, politics

According to the journals accessible to us, the first Tibetan magazine outside of Tibet was not produced by the Tibetan exile community. Yargyé gongpel, published by the Indian Government News Agency, appears to be one of the earliest Tibetan-language magazines outside Tibet. The magazine features many photos with accompanying text, and the publisher refers to it as a nyendep or pictorial. It was published monthly, and the content consists mainly news from India with analysis, along with some literature. As only a few issues are held by Latse, it is difficult to determine how long it was printed. Sheja was first published in 1968 and is the first magazine of Tibetan exile community. It is still in print, with twelve issues per year, and covers news of the world, the exile community, and the government. Magazines that focused on cultural content appeared earlier in Ladakh than in the Tibetan exile community. In 1976, the Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, a department of the Education Office of the Indian government in Ladakh (established in 1969) began publishing Lo khor gyi dep. Before then, in 1970, Shri Trashi Rapgyé started the journal Folk Songs of Ladakh. In the introduction to the inaugural issue, editors Sönam Yakop and Ngakwang Tséring state: “Here now, the first issue of this cultural mirror is published. Here, we hope to illuminate the different facets of Ladakhi culture. In Ladakhi history, this is the first instance of publishing through this medium. Previously in our writing tradition, we had nothing like an 'article' (ar Ti kal).” The fact that they transliterated the word “article” and did not translate it only emphasizes the newness of the genre. Furthermore, in 1979, Ngakwang Tséring and then advisor advisor Sönam Yakop started the magazine Sheeraza which later became Shérap zom. In 1979, ten years after the appearance of Sheja, Lhaksam tsekpa was established. The journal’s subtitle, [Newspaper of the Dharamsala Institute of Buddhist Dialectics], suggests that it is a newsletter of the school, but its content focuses on religion and political knowledge. In the Introduction of the first issue, the editors state, “The main aim of this magazine is not for the distribution of general news, but to introduce issues of religion and politics our society needs to know.” The editorial board at that time was comprised of six people, led by chief editor Yutok Karma Gelek. In the December 20, 1979 issue, the school’s principal Lozang Gyatso remarked in an article that he hoped the magazine could introduce some political systems from other places to Tibetans. In the first issue, there were eight articles on religion and politics, including one entitled “The Founding of the Democratic Government.”

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དང་བདུན་ཅུ་བའི་ནང་རིམ་གིས་གཞུང་དང་སོབ་གྲྭ་ཁག དཔེ་མཛོད་ཁང་སོགས་གསར་ འཛུགས་ཀིས་ཤེས་ཡོན་ལས་རིམ་སེལ་འདུག སྐབས་འདི་ལ་བོད་མི་རྣམས་བཙན་བོལ་ དུ་འབོར་མ་ཐག་པ་ཡིན་པས། གསར་དུ་འབོར་སའི་འཇིག་རེན་གསར་པ་དེ་ལ་གོམས་

འདིས་མེད་པའི་སེང་གཞིས་ཆགས་ཀི་ལས་བེལ་ཆེ་བ་བཅས་ཀིས་ལོ་བཅུ་ཙམ་གི་རིང་ ལ་བོད་ཡིག་གི་དུས་དེབ་འདོན་ཐུབ་མེད། ༡༩༧༩ ལོ་ཙམ་ནས་བཟུང་དུས་དེབ་རིམ་

གིས་ཇེ་མང་ལ་སོང་ཞིང་། དེ་དག་ནི་ཤེས་ཡོན་ཅན་སྒེར་པ་རྣམས་དང་རིག་གཞུང་གི་ ཚོགས་སེ་ཁག ཆབ་སིད་ཚོགས་པ། སོབ་གྲྭ་དང་དགོན་སེ་སོགས་ཀིས་སེལ་ཡོད། དེ་ དག་ལས་ཁག་གཅིག་འདོན་ཐེངས་མང་ཙམ་སེལ་བ་དང་། གཞན་རྣམས་ནི་དུས་ངེས་ མེད་དང་འདོན་ཐེངས་ཀང་ངེས་མེད་དུ་སེལ་ཡོད།

༢༠༡༣ ལོར་ཕྲན་རྡ་རམ་ས་ལའི་བོད་ཀི་དཔེ་མཛོད་ཁང་དུ་སོང་ནས་དེར་བཞུགས་

པའི་དུས་དེབ་ཅི་ཡོད་ཀི་ཐོ་ཞིག་བཀོད། དེའི་ནང་དུ་དུས་དེབ་ ༤༤ བྱུང་ཞིང་། ཡང་

ཁྱུང་སོན་ལམ་ལགས་ཀིས་བིས་པའི་ “མི་ལོ་ལྔ་བཅུའི་རིང་གི་ཚགས་ཤོག་དང་དུས་དེབ་

ཀི་སྐོར་”ཞེས་པའི་རོམ་ཡིག་ཏུ་དུས་དེབ་ ༦༦ གི་ཐོ་བཀོད་འདུག1 ཝར་ན་གཙུག་ལག་ མཐོ་སོབ་ཀི་ཞིབ་འཇུག་སོབ་མ་ཤ་བོ་ར་མགྲིན་ལགས་ཀིས་ཐོ་ཞིག་བཀོད་པ་ལྟར་ན།

བཙན་བོལ་ནང་དུས་དེབ་ ༦༠ སྐོར་རེ་ཐོན་ཡོད་པ་ལྟར། ཐོ་དེ་དག་ཏུ་གྲངས་ཀ་གཅིག་

མཚུངས་ཤིག་བྱུང་མེད། དེ་ལྟར་གཅིག་མཚུངས་མི་ཡོང་བའི་གནད་དོན་ནི། དུས་དེབ་ ཡོངས་སུ་རོགས་པ་ཞིག་འཛོམས་སའི་དཔེ་མཛོད་ཁང་ཞིག་མེད་པ་དང་། དུས་དེབ་

འདོན་མཁན་མང་སེ་ཐ་ན་སོབ་གྲྭའམ་འཛིན་གྲྭ་རེས་ཀང་དུས་དེབ་བཏོན་ཡོད་ཀང་། དུས་དེབ་འགའ་རེ་ནི་ལན་རེ་ཙམ་ལས་མ་ཐོན་ཞིང་དེ་ཡང་ཁབ་སེལ་བེད་མ་ཐུབ་པ་

སོགས་ཀི་རྒྱུ་རྐེན་ལ་ཐུག་ཡོད། དེ་བས་བཙན་བོལ་སྤི་ཚོགས་ཀི་དུས་དེབ་ཆ་ཚང་བའི་ དཀར་ཆག་ཅིག་འགོད་རྒྱུ་ནི་ཡོང་ཐབས་མེད་པ་ཞིག་ཏུ་སྣང་།

བཙན་བོལ་ནང་གི་དུས་དེབ་ཀི་འཕེལ་རིམ་གེང་བ་ནི་ད་རེས་ཐེངས་དང་པོ་མ་ཡིན་

པར་སོན་མ་ཡང་གེང་སོང་བས་འདུག དཔེར་ན་ཧོར་གཙང་འཇིགས་མེད་ལགས་ཀིས་

བརམས་ཤིང་ ༢༠༠༠ ལོར་པར་བཏབ་པའི་ “ཁག་ཐིགས་ལས་སྐྱེས་པའི་ལྗང་མྱུག དེང་ རབས་བོད་ཀི་རོམ་རིག་དང་དེའི་རྒྱབ་ལྗོངས།” ཞེས་པའི་ལེའུ་བཅུ་བཞི་པའི་ནང་།

“བཙན་བོལ་ཁོད་ཀི་དེང་རབས་རོམ་རིག་”སྐོར་བཤད་སྐབས་ལྗང་གཞོན་གིས་གཙོས་

པའི་དུས་དེབ་ཀི་ལོ་རྒྱུས་ཀང་གསལ་འདུག དེ་བཞིན་བེ་རི་འཇིགས་མེད་དབང་རྒྱལ་ གིས་བརམས་པའི་ “བོད་ཀི་རོམ་རིག་སྤི་བཤད་”ཅེས་པའི་ལེ་ཚན་ “བེས་འབོར་བོད་

ཀི་རོམ་རིག་གི་འཕེལ་རིམ།”ཞེས་པའི་ནང་དུ་ཡང་སྐྱབས་བཅོལ་བོད་མིའི་སྤི་ཚོགས་ཀི་ བོད་ཡིག་གི་དུས་དེབ་གེང་མོལ་བས་ཡོད། 2

བཙན་བོལ་བོད་མིའི་སྤི་ཚོགས་ཀི་བོད་ཡིག་གི་དུས་དེབ་གེང་བའི་གོ་སྐབས་འདི་

http://toyikadom.blogspot.com/2011/12/blog-post_25.html

བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

27


F E AT U R E S

ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

Ma khyok drang tik is a special magazine started in 1979 in New Delhi but which only lasted until 1982. Generally speaking, the Communist Party is, politically, the enemy of the Tibetan government and people. But the publisher of this magazine, the Tibetan Communist Party, was actually based within the Tibetan exile community. The Introduction to the first issue states: “Ma khyok drang tik is a monthly magazine about Tibetans, outside or inside Tibet.” The content includes news from both inside and outside Tibet as well as some in-depth features. This is the first magazine to criticize the Tibetan government publicly, thus it left behind a deep impression. During this period, there was still no magazine that contained content purely on Tibetan culture or research. In English, however, a research publication, The Tibet Journal, had already been established in 1979 by the LTWA. Also, even earlier, in 1964 the Namgyal Institute of Tibetology started another research journal in English, Bulletin of Tibetology. Bulletin of Tibetology is apparently also published in a bilngual English and Tibetan edition with the title Bö kyi shé rik / Tibetology, the first issue of which was published in 1959, but I have never seen an actual copy.

3. Magazines and Journals in the 1980s Title

Year Est'd

Place of Publication

Publisher

Tamshok .

1981

Dharamsala

Library of Tibetan Works and Archives

Rangtsen .

1986 (?)

Dharamsala

Tibetan Youth Congress

Böngo .

1987

Simla

Böngo Editorial Board

Samatok

1989

Delhi

Tibet House Delhi

In Tibet in the 1980s, the Cultural Revolution had just ended and there was some opening up, including in regards to religion, and this generated a flurry of activity. Traditional culture was also recovering. Tibetans from Tibet were coming into exile by the thousands every year. At that time, we see an increase in publishing activity as more research journals and magazines begin to appear. In 1981, the LTWA in Dharamsala established Tamshok. The editor’s introduction states, “We have established this magazine so that Tibetans can know more about Tibetan religion and culture, history, and construction of Tibetan society and traditions.” We thus clearly see this magazine’s main focus to be Tibetan culture. The first editor of this magazine was Amnye Machen’s Institute’s Director Tashi Tsering. In 1989, Tibet House Delhi started another cultural magazine Samatok. The chief editor was Dobum Trülku, and in the first issue, it is stated that the magazine is dedicated to Buddhism and Tibetan studies. Both of these journals feature articles by some of the earliest scholars living in exile. As you see from the chart above, four magazines appeared in the 1980s. With the exception of Rangtsen, they are purely cultural in content. All four are still published today.

4. Magazines and Journals in the 1990s The 1990s saw big changes in magazines in exile. Tibetans who possessed a solid foundation in Tibetan language began arriving in exile from Tibet, and this had a direct role in increasing the number of periodicals in exile, starting with Jangzhon ([Young Shoots]). The first issue was published in December 1990, and its introduction states: “This magazine, published two times a year, covers Tibetan culture, art, and compositions, and is intended for all ages of Tibetans to increase their knowledge.” In his essay “Words from Jangzhon” editor Pema Bhum remarks that Tibetan literature in exile is still a “fragile sprout.” Hortsang Jigme, in his aforementioned book [A Bud Growing from a Drop of Blood] also writes that the starting point for contemporary literature in exile is Jangzhon. In [Overview of Tibetan Literature], Béri Jikmé Wanggyel also asserts, “In Tibetan exile, the sprouts of literature first come from Jangzhon, and so from Jangzhon the sprouts of composition emerge as true young buds of a young plant, embodying “jangzhon” (young shoots) in name and in meaning.” The first issue included two articles, ten poems, 28

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བཟུང་ནས་རོམ་ཡིག་འདིར་ཧི་མ་ལ་ཡ་རི་རྒྱུད་ཀི་ལ་དྭགས་ཁུལ་དང་འབས་ལྗོངས། བལ་ཡུལ། འབྲུག་ཡུལ་བཅས་ལས། ལ་དྭགས་དང་འབས་ ལྗོངས་གཉིས་ཀི་དུས་དེབ་སྐོར་རོབ་ཙམ་བཤད་ཡོད། ས་ཁུལ་འདི་གཉིས་ནི་དུས་རབས་མང་པོའི་རིང་བོད་ཀི་རིག་གནས་ཀི་ལྟེ་གནས་གལ་

ཆེན་གཉིས་ཡིན་པ་མ་ཟད། བོད་ཡིག་གི་དུས་དེབ་སོགས་དེང་དུས་ཀི་ཤེས་རིག་ལ་ཚོད་ལྟ་བེད་མཁན་ཐོག་མའི་གྲས་ཀང་ཡིན། དེས་ན་ས་ཁུལ་ འདི་གཉིས་ནས་སེལ་བའི་དུས་དེབ་རྣམས་ནི་བཙན་བོལ་བོད་མིའི་དུས་དེབ་ཀི་གྲས་སུ་བགྲངས་འོས་མིན་ཇི་ལྟར་ཡང་། སྐད་ཡིག་གཅིག་དང་ ཀོག་མཁན་གཅིག ད་ལྟའི་རྒྱ་གར་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་ཏུ་གནས་བཅས་པའང་གཅིག་ཡིན་པའི་རྒྱུ་མཚན་ལ་བརེན་ནས་འདིར་བཙན་བོལ་དུས་དེབ་ཀི་ དཀྱུས་སུ་བགྲངས་ཏེ་བསྡུས་ཡོད།

ྱིས་པ། ལོ་ བས་

དུས་དེབ་ཀྱི་མྱིང་།

དང་པོ་ བཏོན་ ལོ. །

་ ་ ས་བདུ ་བ འདོན་ས།

ྱི་བ ་ ྱི་དུས་དྩེབ། འདོན་མཁན།

ཡར་རྒྱས་གོ ང་འཕེལ། .

༡༩༦༠

བལ་ཡུལ།

རྒྱ་གར་གཞུང་གྱི་གསར་སེལ་ལས་ཁུངས།

ལ་དྭགས་ཀྱི་ཡུལ་གླུ

༡༩༧༠

ལ་དྭགས།

.ཇམ་མུ་ཀཤ་མྱིར་གྱི་བཟོ། ཤེས་རྱིག་དང་སྐད་ཀྱི་སོབ་སེ་ཨ་ཀ་ཌ་མྱི།

ཤེ . ས་བྱ།

ལོ་འཁོར་གྱི་དེབ།

ལྷག་བསམ་བརེ གས་པ། . ཤེས་རབ་ཟོམ།

མ་འཁོག་དང་ཐྱིག

༡༩༦༨

༡༩༧༦

༡༩༧༩ ༡༩༧༩ ༡༩༧༩

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ་ ལ་དྭགས།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ། ལ་དྭགས། ལྱི་ལྱི།

བོད་གཞུང་ཕྱི་དྱིལ་ལས་ཁུངས།

ཇམ་མུ་ཀཤ་མྱིར་གྱི་བཟོ། ཤེས་རྱིག་དང་སྐད་ཀྱི་སོབ་སེ་ཨ་ཀ་ཌ་མྱི།

རྱིགས་ལམ་སོབ་གཉེར་ཁང་།

ཇམ་མུ་ཀཤ་མྱིར་གྱི་བཟོ། ཤེས་རྱིག་དང་སྐད་ཀྱི་སོབ་སེ་ཨ་ཀ་ཌ་མྱི། བོ . ད་དམར་ཤོག་ཚོགས་པ།

ནང་དོན།

གསར་འགྱུར། སྐབས་དོན་དཔྱད་བརོད། རོམ་རྱིག ཆབ་སྱིད་དང་གསར་འགྱུར།

ནང་ཆོས། ལོ་རྒྱུས། ལ་དྭགས་ཀྱི་སོལ་རྒྱུན་སྣ་ཚོགས། རྱིག་

གནས། .

ཆོས་སྱིད་ཀྱི་ཤེས་བྱ།

ནང་ཆོས། ལོ་རྒྱུས། ལ་དྭགས་ཀྱི་སོལ་རྒྱུན་སྣ་ཚོགས། རྱིག་

གནས། .

ད་ཕན་ལག་སོན་གི་དུས་དེབ་ལྟར་ན། བོད་ཡིག་གི་དུས་དེབ་ཐོག་མ་ནི་སྐྱབས་བཅོལ་བོད་མིའི་སྤི་ཚོགས་ཀིས་བཏོན་པ་མིན་པར། རྒྱ་གར་

བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

29


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ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

30

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three short stories, one essay, and one song. Most of the contributors were from Tibet. According to my research, in the 1990s, twenty-six titles of magazines were established, an increase of five-fold or six-fold when compared to the 1980s. Not only do we see an increase in number of titles, but the variety of topics covered also expanded. For example, the Tibetan Women’s Association started a magazine called Drolma, which in its introduction states, “From around 1989, [this magazine] has been published two times every three years, about one issue every month, to promote to an international audience the activities undertaken by the central and local branches of the Tibetan Women’s Association for Tibetan issues, education, environment, and social services.” Also, “Drolma magazine serves as a stage for women intellectuals’ articles, poems, and research.” As stated, the magazine’s coverage even includes social services. Another magazine on Tibetan women published by AMI called Yumtso: Tibetan Women’s Studies Journal came out in 1993. At that time, AMI was made up of four distinguished Tibetan intellectuals from exile, and their magazines and publications were taking standards to the next level. The Norling Tibetan Cultural Preservation Institute was another important cultural source for Tibetan-language publications. In 1997 they published a research journal called Nordzeu, and thereafter two additional magazines Norgyun and Noröd, both of which were started by Hortsang Jigme and a few other individuals who had recently come from Tibet. In the introduction to Nordzeu, chief editor Hortsang Jigme discusses why the journal was established: “China generally distorts Tibetan religion, culture, and especially Tibetan history to a great extent. Scholars in exile can make use of an environment of freedom, and answer to this distortion, which is one of the aims [of this journal].” Tsampa magazine, published by Tsampa Editorial Board, came out in 1995. Tsampa’s goal is to promote Tibetan culture, and especially education and literature. The editor is a teacher named Lhamo Kyap, and the editorial board is comprised of ten people. In its foreword to welcome readers, Tsampa describes the responsibility of the magazine in this way: “Among a troop of varying types of knowledge, we teachers are knowledge’s great commanders, and the students are the new military recruits receiving their military training. The staff is the VOLUME 8, 2014–2015


brave army in the battle. Through the writings, having the power of propaganda, the powerful troop strengthens the peaceful troop.” Tsampa also states, “In recent years, several magazines have come out such as Jangzhon, Ganggyün, and Dumra, but all of these put together feature not even ten percent of the contemporary literature in Tibet.”

Title

Year Est'd

Place of Publication

Publisher

Jangzhon

1990

Dharamsala

Jangzhon Editorial Board and Amnye Machen Institute

Dasar

1990

Dharamsala

Ganggyün

1990

Varanasi

Payül: Nazhön nyendep

1990

Dharamsala

Yargyé ngotrö

1991

Nepal

Gangchen röltek

1992

Nepal

Drolma

1992/7?

Dharamsala

Tibetan Women’s Association

Külwé tam

1992?

Kangra

Bö kyi sarpel lékang

Laptreng

1992/6?

Dharamsala

Kirti Jepa Dratsang (Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies)

Yumtso

1993

Dharamsala

Amnye Machen Institute

Tisé özer

1993

Dharamsala

Ngari Cultural Preservation Office

Dumra

1993

Mundgod

Drepung Gomang Cultural Association

Bö kyi phonya

1993

Dharamsala

Gu-Chu-Sum Movement of Tibet

Gangri langtso

1994

Dharamsala

Men-tsee-khang School

Tsampa

1995

Dharamsala

Sara College

Himalayé ngadra

1995

Nepal

Shyam Sundar Saiju

Mentsi düdep

1996

Dharamsala

Men-tsee-khang

Losel tsomrik gatsel

1996

Mundgod

Drepung Education Committee

Nordzeu

1997

Dharamsala

Norling Tibetan Cultural Preservation Institute

Nyuksar

1997

Dharamsala

Dept. of Education, CTA

Tsomrik gi drukha

1997

Dharamsala

Sara High School

Noröd

1997

Dharamsala

Norling Tibetan Cultural Preservation Institute

Norgyün

1998

Dharamsala

Norling Tibetan Cultural Preservation Institute

Zhidé chötrin

1998

Dharamsala

White Dove Peace Protection Committee

Shakyé önang

1998

Mundgod

Drepung Gomang

Changshé mikdra

1999

Bylekuppe

Changshé Mikdra Literary Association

Dept. of Education, Central Tibetan Administration

5. Magazines & Journals in the 2000s From 2000 to 2015, new magazines and journals continue to come out. According to my research there are twenty-eight new titles published by both offices and private organizations that have come out since 2000. Just as the Tibetan Men-tsee-khang published Mentsi on a specific topic in 1996, at the beginning of 2000, the LTWA published a magazine called [Tibetan Science Magazine] (Bö kyi tsen rik düdep). In the inaugural issue, they emphasize the need for such a publication: “This magazine’s necessity is based on advice from H.H. the Dalai Lama. Among monks there has been an increase in scientific knowledge, as well as a movement for exchange of ideas between science and Buddhist thought. This magazine is intended to facilitate this exchange.” Just as some monastic magazines serve to improve writing skills of trülkus, magazines published by the Department of Education naturally would seek to improve the levels of knowledge among teachers in different schools. In 2002, the department published a magazine called Shérik, and stated, “This magazine’s aim is to improve the level of knowledge of general Tibetan society and especially teachers in different schools. This magazine will be published at least once a year.”

བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

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F E AT U R E S

ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

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L AT S E J O U R N A L

Narrowing the coverage of a journal to a single topic is a trend among magazines in exile. For example, in 2001, Chétsom rikpé tseltreng was established, a journal solely for research, including interviews with old scholars, and articles compiled by teachers from Kirti Jepa Dratsang. According to their website, seven issues have been published to date. Another example is in 2013, a magazine came out called Changsa, meaning “marriage,” which focuses on couples relationship issues. In the same year, Bö rik pé zhipjuk [Tibetan Studies], came out, with the following introduction: “In exile society, different magazines are being published, but it is difficult to find one devoted to standard research articles. It is necessary to provide a place where scholars and experts can publish their work. This magazine is published by the [Tibetan Studies] Editorial Board.” From these examples we can see how increasingly magazines are focusing more on quality rather than quantity, and moving from covering various topics to specific topics. In 2003, in New York, Latse Library published Latse Library Newsletter (later Latse Journal), a bilingual publication in English and Tibetan. Some issues feature various topics, while other issues have a theme. This is the first Tibetan-language magazine in the West.

VOLUME 8, 2014–2015


དེའི་སོབ་གྲྭའི་དབུ་འཛིན་རྒན་བོ་བཟང་རྒྱ་མཚོ་མཆོག་གིས་༡༩༧༩ ལོའི་ཟླ་ ༡༢ ཚེས་ ༢༠

འཁོད་པའི་གེང་བརོད་ཅིག་ཀང་སེལ་ནས་དེབ་འདིས་བོད་སྤི་ཚོགས་ཕི་རོལ་གི་སིད་ལུགས་ སོགས་ནང་འདེན་ཐུབ་པར་རེ་འདུག འདོན་ཐེངས་དང་པོ་དེར་ཆོས་དང་སིད་ཀི་སེ་ཚན་

གཉིས་ཁོངས་སུ་རོམ་ཡིག་ ༨ འཁོད་པའི་ཁོངས་སུ་ “དམངས་གཙོའི་གཞུང་བྱུང་ཚུལ་དང་ངོ་ བོ་ངོ་སྤོད་” ཅེས་པ་ཞིག་ཀང་འཁོད་འདུག

༡༩༧༩ ལོར་རྒྱ་གར་གི་རྒྱལ་ས་ལི་ལིར་མགོ་བཙུགས་ཤིང་ ༡༩༨༢ ལོར་མཇུག་བསྒིལ་

བའི་“མ་འཁོག་དང་ཐིག”ཅེས་པའི་དུས་དེབ་དམིགས་བསལ་ཅན་ཞིག་ཡོད། སྤིར་བཏང་ དམར་ཤོག་ཚོགས་པ་ནི་བོད་གཞུང་དམངས་གཉིས་ཀའི་ལྟ་བ་དང་སིད་དོན་གཉིས་ཀའི་

ཕོགས་ནས་དགྲ་ཕོགས་ཡིན་ན་ཡང་། དུས་དེབ་འདི་འདོན་མཁན་ནི་སྐྱབས་བཅོལ་བོད་མིའི་ སྤི་ཚོགས་ཀི་ནང་དུ་ཡོད་པའི་བོད་དམར་ཤོག་ཚོགས་པ་ཞེས་པ་ཞིག་ཡིན། འདོན་ཐེངས་དང་

པོའི་གེང་བརོད་དུ། “མ་འཁོག་དང་ཐིག་ནི་བོད་དང་ཕི་ནང་གཉིས་སུ་ཡོད་པའི་བོད་མིའི་སྐོར་ གི་ཟླ་རེའི་དུས་དེབ་ཞིག་ཡིན།” ཞེས་བཤད་པ་དང་། ནང་དོན་དུའང་བོད་ཕི་ནང་གི་གསར་

འགྱུར་རེ་ཟུང་དང་ཆེད་བརོད་བཅས་སེལ་འདུག་ནའང་། བོད་ཀི་ལོ་རྒྱུས་ཐོག་ལ་ཐེངས་དང་

པོར་མངོན་གསལ་གིས་རང་གཞུང་ལ་སྐྱོན་བརོད་བས་པའི་དུས་དེབ་ས་གྲས་ཤིག་ཡིན་སབས། དུས་དེབ་འདིས་བཙན་བོལ་སྤི་ཚོགས་ལ་བག་ཆགས་གཏིང་ཟབ་པོ་ཞིག་བཞག་ཡོད་འདུག སྐབས་འདི་དག་ལ་བོད་ཡིག་ཏུ་བོད་ཀི་རིག་གཞུང་དང་དེ་ལ་ཞིབ་འཇུག་གི་ནང་དོན་

གཙང་མ་ཡིན་པའི་དུས་དེབ་ད་དུང་ཐོན་མེད་ན་ཡང་། དབིན་ཡིག་གི་སེང་ནས་བོད་རིག་

པའི་ཞིབ་འཇུག་གི་དུས་དེབ་གྲགས་ཅན་ The Tibet Journal ཞེས་པ་དེ་བོད་ཀི་དཔེ་མཛོད་ ཁང་གིས་ ༡༩༧༥ ལོ་ནས་སེལ་མགོ་བཙུགས་འདུག་པ་དང་། འབས་ལྗོངས་རྣམ་རྒྱལ་བོད་

ཀི་ཤེས་རིག་ཉམས་ཞིབ་ཁང་ (Namgyal Institute of Tibetology) གིས་ ༡༩༦༤ ལོ་ནས་

འདོན་མགོ་བཙུགས་པའི་ Bulletin of Tibetology ཞེས་པ་ལྟ་བུ་ཡང་ཐོན་ཡོད། ཕི་མ་འདིས་

སེལ་བའི་ “བོད་ཀི་ཤེས་རིག་ Tibetology (དབིན་བོད་)” ཅེས་པ་ཞིག་གི་འདོན་ཐེངས་དང་

པོ་ ༡༩༥༩ ལོར་སེལ་བར་བཤད་འདུག་མོད། དུས་དེབ་དངོས་སུ་མ་མཇལ།3

མ་པ། ལོ་ བས་བ ད་ ་བ ྱི་དུས་དྩེབ།

གཏམ་ཚོ གས། .

༡༩༨༡

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ། བོད་ཀྱི་དཔེ་མཛོད་ཁང་།

བོན་སོ

༡༩༨༧

སྱིམ་ལ།

རང་བཙན། ཟ་མ་ཏོག

༡༩༨༦? ༡༩༨༩

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ། བོ . ད་ཀྱི་གཞོན་ནུ་ལྷན་ཚོགས། ལྱི་ལྱི།

.བོན་སོ་རོམ་སྒྱིག་ཚོགས་ཆུང་།

ལྱི . ་ལྱི་བོད་ཀྱི་ཁང་པ།

ལོ་རབས་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་པ་ལ་མཚོན་ན། བོད་ནང་དུ་རིག་གནས་གསར་བརེ་མཇུག་སྒིལ་རེས་

སིད་བྱུས་གུ་ཡངས་ཀིས་ཆོས་སྒོ་གསར་དུ་འབེད་པའི་བེལ་ཟིང་ངང་ཡོད་ཅིང་། སོལ་རྒྱུན་ 3

http://www.tibetology.net/publications/publications-in-tibetan.html

བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

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ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

རིག་གནས་སར་གསོ་གནང་བཞིན་པའི་སྒང་ཡིན། བོད་ནས་རྒྱ་གར་དུ་བོད་མི་གསར་འབོར་བ་འགའ་རེ་སེབས་ མགོ་བརམས་ནས་རིམ་གིས་ལོ་རེ་རེ་ལ་སོང་ཕྲག་འགའ་རེ་འབོར་བཞིན་ཡོད། སྐབས་དེར་བོད་ཀི་རིག་གཞུང་ དང་དེ་ལ་ཞིབ་འཇུག་གཙོ་བོར་གྱུར་བའི་བོད་ཡིག་གི་དུས་དེབ་ཐོན་འགོ་བརམས། རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ་བོད་ཀི་དཔེ་

མཛོད་ཁང་གིས་ ༡༩༨༡ ལོར་སེལ་བའི་ “གཏམ་ཚོགས།” དུས་དེབ་ཀི་གེང་བརོད་དུ་ “བོད་ཀི་ཆོས་རིག་དང་། ལོ་ རྒྱུས། སྤི་ཚོགས་ཀི་འཛུགས་སྐྲུན། གོམས་གཤིས་སོགས་བོད་དང་བོད་རིགས་སུ་གཏོགས་པའི་མང་ཚོགས་ནང་གོ་

རོགས་ཁབ་སེལ་ཡོང་ཆེད་འདི་ནས་དུས་དེབ་ “གཏམ་ཚོགས་”ཞེས་པ་དཔར་སྐྲུན་ཞུས་ཡོད།”ཅེས་འཁོད་དེ། དུས་ དེབ་འདིའི་དམིགས་ཡུལ་ནི་བོད་ཀི་རིག་གཞུང་ཡིན་པ་གསལ་པོར་མངོན་ཡོད། དུས་དེབ་འདིའི་རོམ་སྒིག་པ་

ཐོག་མ་ནི་ད་ལྟའི་ཨ་མེས་རྨ་ཆེན་བོད་ཀི་རིག་གཞུང་ཞིབ་འཇུག་ཁང་གི་འགན་འཛིན་བཀྲ་ཤིས་ཚེ་རིང་ལགས་ རེད། དེ་བཞིན་ལི་ལི་བོད་ཀི་ཁང་པ་ནས་ ༡༩༨༩ ལོར་བཏོན་པའི་ “ཟ་མ་ཏོག”ཅེས་པ་འདི་ཡིན་ལ། འདིའི་སྤི་ ཁབ་རོམ་སྒིག་པ་ནི་རྡོ་བུམ་སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་ཡིན་པ་དང་། འདོན་ཐེངས་དང་པོའི་གེང་བརོད་དུའང་དུས་དེབ་འདི་ནི་

ནང་བསན་རིག་པ་དང་བོད་རིག་པའི་བརོད་གཞི་ལ་དམིགས་པའི་དུས་དེབ་ཅིག་ཡིན་པར་འགྲེལ་བརོད་བས་

འདུག ལོ་རབས་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་པའི་ནང་གི་“གཏམ་ཚོགས།” དང་ “ཟ་མ་ཏོག”གཉིས་སུ་འཁོད་པའི་རོམ་ཡིག་རྣམས་ ནི་བཙན་བོལ་ནང་འཚར་ལོངས་བྱུང་བའམ་བོད་ཀི་ས་མོའི་མཁས་པ་བཙན་བོལ་དུ་བཞུགས་པ་རྣམས་ཀི་རོམ་ ཡིག་རེད།

གོང་བཀོད་རེའུ་མིག་ལས་མཐོང་བ་ལྟར། ལོ་རབས་དེའི་ནང་ལ་བོད་ཡིག་གི་དུས་དེབ་བཞི་ཐོན་ཡོད་པ་ལས།

རང་བཙན་ཞེས་པའི་དུས་དེབ་དེ་མ་གཏོགས་གཞན་པ་གསུམ་པོ་རིག་གཞུང་གཙང་མའི་དུས་དེབ་ཡིན་ཅིང་། དུས་དེབ་དེ་རྣམས་ད་ལྟ་ཡང་མུ་མཐུད་ནས་འདོན་བཞིན་ཡོད།

བ ྱི་བ། ལོ་ བས་ད ་བ ་བ ྱི་དུས་དྩེབ།

ལོ་རབས་དགུ་བཅུ་པའི་ནང་ལ། བཙན་བོལ་བོད་ཀི་བོད་ཡིག་གི་དུས་དེབ་འགྱུར་བ་ཆེན་པོ་ཞིག་བྱུང་བ་ནི་

བོད་ནས་བོད་ཡིག་གི་རྨང་གཞི་ཆགས་ཟིན་པའི་མི་སྣ་སྐོར་ཞིག་བཙན་བོལ་དུ་འབོར་ཏེ་དེ་དག་གིས་བཙན་བོལ་ བོད་ཡིག་དུས་དེབ་ཀི་ཁ་གྲངས་མང་འཕེལ་བྱུང་དུ་བཅུག་པ་དེ་རེད། དེའང་ “ལྗང་གཞོན་”དུས་དེབ་ནས་མགོ་ ཚུགས་ཡོད། ལྗང་གཞོན་དུས་དེབ་འདོན་ཐེངས་དང་པོ་དེ་ནི་ ༡༩༩༠ ལོའི་ ཟླ་ ༡༢ པར་ཐོན་ཞིང་། འདིའི་གེང་ བརོད་དུ། “ལྗང་གཞོན་དུས་དེབ་འདི་བཞིན་བོད་ཀི་རིག་གཞུང་དང་། རོམ་རིག་སྒྱུ་རལ་གསར་རོམ་འདོན་སེལ་

གིས་རང་རིགས་སྤི་ཚོགས་ནང་རྒན་གཞོན་བར་གསུམ་ལ་ཤེས་རིག་གོང་འཕེལ་གི་མཐུན་རྐེན་གི་སྐྱེས་སུ་ལོ་རེར་ ཐེངས་གཉིས་རེ་འདོན་རྒྱུ།” ཞེས་གསལ། ལྗང་གཞོན་དུས་དེབ་ཀི་རོམ་དབུར། རོམ་སྒིག་པ་པད་མ་འབུམ་ལགས་ ཀིས་ “ལྗང་གཞོན་གི་ཞུ་ཚིག་”ཅེས་པའི་ནང་། རོམ་རིག་ནི་བཙན་བོལ་སྤི་ཚོགས་སུ་གསར་དུ་འབུས་པའི་ལྗང་ སྨྱུག་ཉམ་ཆུང་ཞིག་ཡིན་ཚུལ་བིས་ཡོད། ཧོར་གཙང་འཇིགས་མེད་ལགས་ཀིས་“ཁག་ཐིག་ལས་སྐྱེས་པའི་ལྗང་ མྱུག་” ཏུའང་ལྗང་གཞོན་ནི་བཙན་བོལ་དུ་བྱུང་བའི་དེང་རབས་རོམ་རིག་གི་མགོ་འཛུགས་དེ་ཡིན་པར་ངོས་

འཛིན་བས་འདུག1 བེ་རི་འཇིགས་མེད་དབང་རྒྱལ་ལགས་ཀིས་ཀང་ “བཙན་བོལ་ཁོད་དུ་གསར་རོམ་གི་མྱུ་གུ་ དང་པོ་དེ་ནས་འབུས་པས། ལྗང་གཞོན་ནི་གསར་རོམ་གི་ལྗང་མྱུག་འབུས་སའི་སྐྱེས་ཕྲན་གཞོན་ནུ་ཞིག་ཏུ་ངེས་

4 ཧོར་གཙང་འཇིགས་མེད། ཁྲག་ཐིགས་ལས་སྐེས་པའི་ལྗང་སྨྱུག ༢༠༠༠ རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ། ཤོག་གྲངས་ ༡༦༧ 34

L AT S E J O U R N A L

VOLUME 8, 2014–2015


Magazines of the New Millennium Title

Year Est'd

Place of Publication

Publisher

Bö kyi tsen rik düdep .

2000

Dharamsala

Library of Tibetan Works and Archives

Ganggé zhédra .

2001

Dharamsala

Sara College

Nga gyur leng tek .

2001

Bylakuppe

Namdroling

2001

Nepal

Nepal Bon Monastery Driten Norbü Drépö Beltam Editorial Board

Shérik .

2001?

Dharamsala

Dept. of Education, CTA

Lho té khawa .

2001

Mundgod

Ganden Monastery

2001

Mundgod

Ganden Monastery

Dré pö bel tam

Chöré nang gi dah i ké . Gang lha métok .

2001/2? Dharamsala

Institute for Buddhist Dialectics

Kha wé métok .

2001

Dharamsala

Sherap Gatsel School

Chétsom rikpé tseltreng .

2001

Dharamsala

Kirti Jepa Dratsang

Dün kyö

2001

Varanasi

Central University for Tibetan Studies (formerly Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies)

Pémé rangdang

2002

Bylakuppe

Tektsok namdrol shédrup dargyéling Encyclopedia of Old Tantras Editorial Board

Ngé dön chö khor .

2003

Simla

Latse Library Newsletter / Latse Journal

2003

New York

Latse Library

Kawa .

2004

Dharamsala

Shéja kündü Editorial Board

Wané rik lap

2004

Varanasi

Students from the Central University of Tibetan Studies

Songtsen tsangyang

2004

Dehra Dun

Songtsen Library

Da ö zhon nü

2004

Teu sar

2005

Dharamsala

Drolmaling Nunnery

Chö dung kar po

2005

Dehra Dun

Chö dung kar po Editorial Board

Ri kar pö ji dra

2006

Dehra Dun

Sakya College Education Committee

Ö

2006

Varanasi

Sampurnanand Sanskrit Vishwarvidyalaya (Sanskirt University)

Chi ka

2008

South India Buddhist Education Committee

Mün sel gyi nyi da

2009

Ra tö Mün sel gyi nyi da Editorial Board

Dü gyur

2008

To gang gi nyi zer

2008

Lé jang

2010

Dharamsala

Lé jang Editorial Board

Changsa

2013

Dharamsala

Changsa Editorial Board

Bö rik pa zhib juk

2013

Dharamsala

Bö rik pa zhib juk Editorial Board

Da ö Editorial Board

To gang gi nyi zer Editorial Board

བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

35


F E AT U R E S

ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

པས་མིང་དོན་མཚུངས་པའི་ལྗང་མྱུག་རང་དུ་གྱུར།”1 ཞེས་འགྲེལ་བརོད་བས་འདུག ལྗང་གཞོན་ཐོག་མའི་འདོན་

པ་པོ་མང་ཆེ་བ་ནི་བོད་ནས་གསར་དུ་སེབས་པའི་བོད་རིགས་ཡིན།

ཐེངས་སུ་དཔྱད་རོམ་ ༢ དང་། སྙན་རོམ་ ༡༠ སྒྲུང་རོམ་ ༣ ལྷུག་རོམ་ ༡ གཞས་ ༡ བཅས་བཀོད་ཅིང་། འདིའི་རོམ་ ཕྲན་གིས་འདིར་ཐོ་བཏབ་པ་ལྟར་ན། ལོ་རབས་དགུ་བཅུ་བའི་ནང་དུས་དེབ་ ༢༦ བྱུང་འདུག་ཅིང་། དེ་ནི་

ལོ་རབས་བརྒྱད་ཅུ་བ་དང་བསྡུར་ན་ལབ་ལྔ་དྲུག་གིས་མང་བར་གྱུར། དུས་དེབ་ཁ་གྲངས་ཇེ་མང་དུ་སོང་བ་དང་ མཚུངས་སུ། དུས་དེབ་ཀི་བརོད་གཞི་ཡང་ཇེ་མང་དུ་སོང་ཡོད། དཔེར་ན། བོད་ཀི་བུད་མེད་ལྷན་ཚོགས་ཀིས་ “སྒོལ་མ་”ཞེས་པའི་དུས་དེབ་ཅིག་བཏོན་པ་དང་། དུས་དེབ་དེའི་གེང་བརོད་དུ་ངོ་སྤོད་བས་པ་ལྟར་ན། “ཕི་ལོ་

༡༩༨༩ ཙམ་ནས་བུད་མེད་ལྷན་ཚོགས་ཀི་དབུས་ས་གཉིས་ཀི་རྒྱུན་ལས་ཀི་ལས་ཡུན་ལོ་གསུམ་རེའི་ནང་སྒོལ་མ་ དུས་དེབ་ཐེངས་གཉིས་རེ་འདོན་འགོ་འཚུགས་ཤིང་། དེ་ཡང་ཟླ་བ་བཅོ་བརྒྱད་མཚམས་ནས་དུས་དེབ་རེ་བཏོན་

པའི་ནང་དབུས་ས་གཉིས་ཀི་དུས་ཡུན་དེའི་རིང་བོད་ ཀི་ར་དོན་དང། གཞན་ཡང་ཤེས་ཡོན། ཁོར་ཡུག སྤི་ཚོགས་ ཞབས་ཞུ་སོགས་ལས་འགུལ་སེལ་བ་ཁག་རྒྱལ་སྤིའི་ཐོག་དིལ་བསྒགས་ཡོང་རྒྱུར་སིན་པ་ཞིག་རེད།” ཞེས་དང་།

“སྒོལ་དེབ་དེ་བཞིན་བུད་མེད་ཤེས་ལན་རྣམས་ཀི་རོམ་དང་སྙན་ངག་དཔྱད་རོམ་ལ་སོགས་རིག་རལ་གི་སེགས་བུ་ ཞིག་ཏུ་འགྱུར་ཡོད།”2 ཞེས་བཀོད་པ་ལྟར་སྤི་ཚོགས་ཞབས་ཞུ་ཚུན་ཆད་ནས་དུས་དེབ་ཀི་བརོད་གཞིར་གྱུར་ཡོད།

བུད་མེད་ཀི་སྐོར་ལ་བཏོན་པའི་དུས་དེབ་གཞན་ཞིག་ནི། ཨ་མེས་རྨ་ཆེན་བོད་ཀི་རིག་གཞུང་ཞིབ་འཇུག་ཁང་གིས་ ༡༩༩༣ ལོར་བཏོན་པའི་ “གཡུ་མཚོ། བོད་ཀི་བུད་མེད་རིག་པའི་དུས་དེབ་”ཅེས་པ་དེ་ཡིན། ཨ་མེས་རྨ་ཆེན་བོད་

ཀི་རིག་གཞུང་ཞིབ་འཇུག་ཁང་དེ་ནི་སྐབས་དེའི་བཙན་བོལ་ནང་གི་ཤེས་ཡོན་པ་གྲགས་ཅན་བཞི་ཡིས་སྒྲུབ་ཅིང་། རོམ་རིག་དང་དུས་དེབ་སོགས་འགྱུར་རིམ་གསར་པ་ཞིག་ཏུ་འདེན་མཁན་ཞིག་ཏུ་གྱུར།

ནོར་གིང་བོད་ཀི་རིག་གཞུང་གཅེས་སྐྱོང་ཁང་ནི་བོད་ཀི་རིག་གཞུང་ཞིབ་འཇུག་ལྟེ་གནས་གཞན་པ་ཞིག་

ཡིན། དེར་ ༡༩༩༧ ལོར་ “ནོར་མཛོད་” ཅེས་པའི་ཞིབ་འཇུག་གི་དུས་དེབ་དང་། དེ་བཞིན་ “ནོར་རྒྱུན།”

དང་། “ནོར་འོད།”སོགས་བསྟུད་མར་སེལ་ཡོད་ཅིང་། འདི་དག་ཀང་ཧོར་གཙང་འཇིགས་མེད་ལགས་ཀིས་གཙོ་

བས་པའི་བོད་ནས་གསར་དུ་སེབས་པའི་རོམ་པ་པོ་སྐོར་ལ་འབེལ་ནས་སེབས་ཡོད། “ནོར་མཛོད།”དུས་དེབ་ཀི་

སོན་གེང་དུ་འདིའི་སྤི་ཁབ་རོམ་སྒིག་པ་ཧོར་གཙང་འཇིགས་མེད་ལགས་ཀིས་ “མགོ་བརོད།”ཅེས་པའི་ནང་། དུས་ དེབ་འདོན་དགོས་པའི་རྒྱུ་མཚན་སྐོར་ཅིག་བཤད་རེས། “རྒྱ་ནག་གིས་བོད་ཀི་ཆོས་དང་རིག་གཞུང་སྤི་དང་ཁད་

པར་ལོ་རྒྱུས་ལ་འཁོག་བཤད་”གང་མང་བས་ཡོད་ལ་བཙན་བོལ་དུ་མཁས་པ་རྣམས་ཀིས་རང་དབང་ཁོར་ཡུག་བེད་ སྤོད་ཀིས་ལན་འདེབས་བེད་རྒྱུ་དེ་ཡང་དམིགས་ཡུལ་གཅིག་ཡིན་པ་བསན་ཡོད།

“རམ་པ་”ཞེས་པའི་དུས་དེབ་ནི། རམ་པ་རོམ་སྒིག་ཚོགས་ཆུང་གིས་ ༡༩༩༥ ལོར་འདོན་ཐེངས་དང་པོ་སེལ་

འདུག རམ་པ་དུས་དེབ་ཀི་དམིགས་ཡུལ་བཀོད་པའི་ནང་དུ་བོད་ཀི་རིག་གཞུང་སྤི་དང་དམིགས་བསལ་གིས་

སོབ་གསོ་དང་སྒྱུ་རལ་རོམ་རིག་འཕེལ་རྒྱས་གཏོང་རྒྱུ་ཞེས་བཀོད་འདུག རོམ་སྒིག་པ་ནི་སྐབས་དེའི་སོབ་དགེ་

ལྷ་མོ་སྐྱབས་ལགས་ཡིན་པ་དང་། རོམ་སྒིག་ཚོགས་ཆུང་དེ་མི་བཅུ་ཡིས་གྲུབ་འདུག རམ་པ་དུས་དེབ་ཀི་ “སོན་

བསུའི་ཞུ་ཚིག”ཅེས་པའི་ནང་། “རྣམ་གྲངས་མང་པོའི་ཤེས་ཡོན་གི་དཔུང་སེའི་ནང་ང་ཚོ་དགེ་རྒན་རྣམས་ནི་ཤེས་ ཡོན་གི་དམག་སྤི་ཆེན་མོ་དང་སོབ་ཕྲུག་རྣམས་ནི་དམག་རལ་སྦོང་བའི་དམག་མི་གསར་ཞུགས་པ་ཡིན་ལ། ལས་ 5 6

36

L AT S E J O U R N A L

བེ་རི་འཇིགས་མེད་དབང་རྒྱལ། “བོད་ཀི་རོམ་རིག་སྤི་བཤད།”

Excerpt From: iBooks. http://tibetanwomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Dolma_Tibetan.pdf

VOLUME 8, 2014–2015

ལྗ

ཟླ

སྒ

སྐུ

རླ .

ག .

ཏ.

ལྡུ .

ག .

ར .

ཧ .

སྨ .

བ .

ན.

སྨྱུ .

ར .

ན.

ན.

ཞ .

ཤཱ .

ཅ .


བེད་རྣམས་ནི་གཡུལ་སར་ཞུགས་པའི་དཔའ་དམག་ཡིན། དིལ་བསྒགས་ཀི་ནུས་པ་ལན་པའི་རོམ་ཡིག་ནི་ཞི་བའི་དམག་དཔུང་ཁོད་དུ་བསམ་

བོར་དག་ཆས་སྤས་པའི་རུ་ཁག་སོབས་ལན་དེ་ཡང་ཡིན།”སོགས་བིས་ཏེ་ “རམ་པ།”དུས་དེབ་ཀི་ལས་འགན་གེང་འདུག ད་དུང་ “ཉེ་བའི་ལོ་

འགའ་ནས་བཟུང་། “ལྗང་གཞོན།”དང་། “གངས་རྒྱུན།” “ལྡུམ་ར་”སོགས་སྒྱུ་རལ་རོམ་དེབ་ཁ་ཤས་ཡོད་པ་འདིས་བོད་ནང་གི་རོམ་དེབ་རིགས་ཀི་ བརྒྱ་ཆའི་བཅུ་ཙམ་ལས་མི་ཟིན།”ཞེས་བཀོད་དེ་བོད་ནང་གི་དུས་དེབ་དང་མཚུངས་བསྡུར་ཞིག་ཀང་བས་འདུག

ྱི་ལོ་ ༡ ༠ ས་ ༡

ལྗང་གཞོན།

ཟླ་གསར།

གངས་རྒྱུན།

ཕ་ཡུལ། ན་གཞོན་བརྙན་དེབ།

བ ་

༡༩༩༠

༡༩༩༠

༡༩༩༠

༡༩༩༠

་བ ྱི་དུས་དྩེབ་ ྱི། རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ་

ལྱི་ལྱི།

ཝཱ་ར་ཎ་སྱི།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

ལྗང་གཞོ ན་རོམ་སྒྱིག་ཚོགས་ཆུང་དང་ཨ་མེས་རྨ་ཆེན་བོད་ཀྱི་རྱིག་གཞུང་ཞྱིབ་འཇུག་ཁང་། .

ཟླ་གསར་རོ མ་སྒྱིག་ཚོགས་ཆུང་། .

གངས་རྒྱུན་རོ མ་སྒྱིག་ཚོགས་ཆུང་། .

བོ . ད་གཞུང་ཤེས་རྱིག་ལས་ཁུངས།

ཡར་རྒྱས་ངོ་སྤོད།

༡༩༩༡

བལ་ཡུལ། .

སྒོལ་མ།

༡༩༩༢/༧?

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

བོ . ད་ཀྱི་བུད་མེད་ལྷན་ཚོགས།

༡༩༩༢/༦?

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

ཀྱིརྱི་བྱེས་པ་གྲྭ་ཚང་ཆེས་མཐོའྱི་སོབ་གཉེར་ཁང་།

༡༩༩༣

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

མངའ་རྱིས་རྱིག་གཞུང་གཅེས་སྐོང་ཁང་།

གངས་ཅན་རོལ་སེགས།

༡༩༩༢

སྐུལ་བའྱི་གཏམ།

༡༩༩༢ ? .

གཡུ་མཚོ ། .

༡༩༩༣

རླབས་ཕེ ང་། .

ཏྱི . ་སེའྱི་འོད་ཟེར།

ལྡུམ་ར། .

བོད་ཀྱི་ཕོ་ཉ།

གངས་རྱི འྱི་ལང་ཚོ། .

རམ་པ། .

༡༩༩༣

༡༩༩༣

༡༩༩༤

༡༩༩༥

.བལ་ཡུལ།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

མོན་གོ།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

བོད་གཞུང་སྨན་རྱིས་ཁང་།

བོ . ་གསལ་རོམ་རྱིག་དགའ་ཚལ།

༡༩༩༦

མོན་གོ།

སྨྱུག་གསར། .

རོ . མ་རྱིག་གྱི་གྲུ་ཁ།

ནོ . ར་འོད།

ནོ . ར་རྒྱུན།

ཞྱི . ་བདེའྱི་མཆོད་སྤྱིན།

ཤཱཀའྱི ་འོད་སྣང་། .

ཅང་ཤེ ས་རྨྱིག་སྒ .

༡༩༩༧

༡༩༩༧

༡༩༩༧

༡༩༩༧

༡༩༩༨

༡༩༩༨

༡༩༩༨

༡༩༩༩

བོད་གཞུང་སྨན་རྱིས་མཐོ་སོབ་ཁང་།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

བལ་ཡུལ།

ནོ . ར་མཛོད།

བོད་ཀྱི་དགུ་བཅུ་གསུམ་ལས་འགུལ་ཚོགས་པ།

ས་རཱ་མཐོ་སོབ།

༡༩༩༥

༡༩༩༦

འབྲས་སོ་མང་རྱིག་གཞུང་ཚོགས་པ།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

ཧྱི . ་མ་ལ་ཡའྱི་རྔ་སྒ

སྨན་རྱི ས་དུས་དེབ། .

ཨ་མེས་རྨ་ཆེན་བོད་ཀྱི་རྱིག་གཞུང་ཞྱིབ་འཇུག་ཁང་།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

མོན་གོ།

སེལ་ཀོབ།

འབྲས་བོ་གྱིང་ཤེས་ཡོན་ལྷན་ཚོགས།

ནོར་གྱིང་བོད་ཀྱི་རྱིག་གཞུང་གཅེས་སྐོང་ཁང་།

བོད་གཞུང་ཤེས་རྱིག་ལས་ཁུངས།

ས་རཱ་བོད་ཀྱི་མཐོ་སོབ་ཀྱི་སོབ་ཟུར་ཁག་གཅྱིག

ནོར་གྱིང་བོད་ཀྱི་རྱིག་གཞུང་གཅེས་སྐོང་ཁང་།

ནོར་གྱིང་བོད་ཀྱི་རྱིག་གཞུང་གཅེས་སྐོང་ཁང་།

ཕུག་རོན་དཀར་པོ་ཞྱི་བདེ་སྲུང་སྐོབ་ཚོགས་པ།

འབྲས་སོ་མང་།

ཅང་ཤེས་རྨྱིག་སྒ་རོམ་རྱིག་ཚོགས་པ། སེར་བྱེས།?

བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

37


6. Conclusion F E AT U R E S

ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

In the thirty years from the time when the Tibetan community arrived in exile until 1990, about ten magazines were established. For the twenty years after Jangzhon appeared in 1990, more than fifty magazines have been established. Jangzhon influenced the increase in magazines in exile, and Tibetans from Tibet clearly took exile magazines to a new level. Many magazines had erratic runs, and when we reached the new millennium, magazines in exile underwent significant changes, with varied content changing to a more narrow focus, and an emphasis on quality rather than quantity. Author’s note: My thanks goes to the Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center, Latse Library, and LTWA for providing materials for this article, and also Tenzin Chozin from TBRC, Pema Bhum from Latse Library, and Shawo Tamdin from the Central Institute Higher Tibetan Studies.

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VOLUME 8, 2014–2015


བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

39


F E AT U R E S

ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

ོ ་ལོ་ ས ་པ ྱི་ ོད་ བོ . ད་ཀྱི་ཚན་རྱིག་དུས་དེབ།

༢༠༠༠

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

བོད་ཀྱི་དཔེ་མཛོད་ཁང་།

སྔ་འགྱུར་གེ ང་སེགས། .

༢༠༠༡

སེལ་ཀོབ།

རྣམ་གོལ་གྱིང་།

གངྒཱའྱི . ་བཞད་སྒ།

བགེས་པོའྱི་འབེལ་གཏམ།

༢༠༠༡

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

བལ་ཡུལ་བོ ན་དགོན་ཁྱི་བརན་ནོར་བུའྱི་རེའྱི་བགེས་པོའྱི་འབེལ་གཏམ་རོམ་སྒྱིག་ཁང་། .

མོན་གོ།

དགའ་ལན་ཤར་རེ།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

ཆོ . ས་རྭའྱི་ནང་གྱི་དྱི་སྐད།

༢༠༠༡

མོན་གོ།

ཁ་བའྱི ་མེ་ཏོག .

དཔྱད་རོམ་རྱིག་པའྱི་རལ་ ཕེ . ང་། མདུན་བསྐོ ད། .

པད་མའྱི་རང་མདངས།

༢༠༠༡

༢༠༠༡/༢? ༢༠༠༡ ༢༠༠༡ ༢༠༠༡

ཐེ . འུ་གསར།

ཆོ . ས་དུང་དཀར་པོ།

རྱི . ་དཀར་པོའྱི་བརྱིད་སྒ འོད།

ཝཱ་ཎ།

༢༠༠༤ ༢༠༠༤

བོ . ད་རྱིག་པ་ཞྱིབ་འཇུག

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ། རྡེ་ར་རྡུན།

༢༠༠༥

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

༢༠༠༦?

རྡེ་ར་རྡུན།

༢༠༠༥

༢༠༠༦

༢༠༠༨

ཆང་ས། .

ཝཱ་ཎ།

༢༠༠༤

དུས་འགྱུར། . ལས་བྱང་། .

ཀྱིརྱི་བྱེས་པ་གྲྭ་ཚང་།

ཤེས་རབ་དགའ་ཚལ་སོབ་གྱིང་།

ལ་རེ་དཔེ་མཛོད་ཁང་།

༢༠༠༨

མཐོ . ་སང་གྱི་ཉྱི་ཟེར།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

ནྱིའུ་ཡོག

དཔྱྱི . ད་ཀ

མུན་སེ ལ་གྱི་ཉྱི་ཟླ། .

རྱིགས་ལམ་སོབ་གཉེར་ཁང་།

༢༠༠༣

༢༠༠༤

ཟླ་འོ . ད་གཞོན་ནུ།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

ཐེ. ག་མཆོག་རྣམ་གོལ་བཤད་སྒྲུབ་དར་རྒྱས་གྱིང་སྔ་འགྱུར་རྱིག་མཛོད་རོམ་སྒྱིག་སེ་ཚན།

ཁ་བ། .

སོ . ང་བཙན་ཚངས་དབྱངས།

དགའ་ལན་ཤར་རེ་སོག་པ་ཁང་ཚན།

སེལ་ཀོབ།

༢༠༠༣

ཝཱཎའྱི . ་རྱིག་རླབས།

བོད་གཞུང་ཤེས་རྱིག་ལས་ཁུངས།

༢༠༠༢

ངེ . ས་དོན་ཆོས་འཁོར། ལ་རེ . ་གསར་འཕྱིན།

ས་རཱ་མཐོ་སོབ།

བལ་ཡུལ།

༢༠༠༡?

གངས་ལྷ་མེ ་ཏོག .

L AT S E J O U R N A L

༢༠༠༡

ཤེ . ས་རྱིག

ལྷོ . ་མཐའྱི་ཁ་བ།

40

་བ ྱི་དུས་དྩེབ་ མས།

རྡེ་ར་རྡུན།

ཝཱ་ཎ།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

༢༠༡༣

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

VOLUME 8, 2014–2015

ཝཱཎ་དབུས་ཆེས་མཐོའྱི་གཙུག་ལག་སོབ་གཉེར་ཁང་གྱི་སོབ་མ། སོང་བཙན་དཔེ་མཛོད་ཁང་།

ཟླ་འོད་གཞོན་ནུ་རོམ་སྒྱིག་ཁང་།

བཙུན་དགོན་སྒོལ་མ་གྱིང་རྱིགས་ལམ་སོབ་གཉེར་ཁང་། ཆོས་དུང་དཀར་པོ་རོམ་སྒྱིག་ཁང་།

དཔལ་ས་སྐའྱི་མཐོ་རྱིམ་སོབ་གྲྭའྱི་ཤེས་རྱིག་ལྷན་ཚོགས།

ལེགས་སྦྱར་གཙུག་ལག་མཐོ་རྱིམ་སོབ་གཉེར་ཁང་གྱི་བོད་དང་ཧྱི་མ་ལ་ཡའྱི་སོབ་ ཕྲུག་ཁག་གཅྱི ག . རྭ་སོད་མུན་སེལ་ཉྱི་ཟླ་རོམ་སྒྱིག་ཚོགས་ཆུང་།

༢༠༡༠

༢༠༡༣

ཤེས་བྱ་ཀུན་འདུས་རོམ་སྒྱིག་སེ་ཚན།

རྒྱ་གར་ལྷོ་ཕོགས་ནང་བསན་ཤེས་ཡོན་ལྷན་ཚོགས།

༢༠༠༩ ༢༠༠༨

ཇོ་ནང་དགོན་རོམ་སྒྱིག་སེ་ཚན།

རྡ་རམ་ས་ལ།

མཐོ་སང་གྱི་ཉྱི་ཟེར་རོམ་སྒྱིག་ཁང་། ལས་བྱང་རོམ་སྒྱིག་ཁང་།

ཆང་ས་རོམ་སྒྱིག་ཚན་ཆུང་།

བོད་རྱིག་པ་ཞྱིབ་འཇུག་དུས་དེབ་རོམ་སྒྱིག་ཁང་།


བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

41


F E AT U R E S

ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

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བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

43


ཕར་ཕོགས་ཀི་ཁུ་ནུ་ཟེར་བ་ནས་ཡོང་བ་

ཁ་ཤས་ཤོག་གྲངས་ ༢༠ ལ་རྒྱ་སྐྱེད་བཏང་ཡོད། ཤོག་

ཆོས་ལུགས་གཅིག་པ་རེད། དེ་སེམས་ལ་

ནས་ལོ་ངོ་ ༢༥ འཁོར་བའི་དགའ་སོན་རེན་འབེལ་

རེད། ཡིན་ནའང་དབིན་ཇིའི་མི་དང་ཁོའི་

F E AT U R E S

ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

ཤར་མི་ཐུབ་པ་ཞིག་རེད། བོད་པ་ནང་

པ་མིན་པ་ཞིག ཡིན་ནའང་ཁོ་བསམ་བོ་ རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོ་རེད། ཡེ་ཤུ་ཆོས་ལུགས་སེལ་

མཁན་ཚོ་དང་འད་གི་མ་རེད། ཁོས་རག་

པར་གནས་སྐོར་པ་ཚོའི་ཆེད་དུ་ཁོ་རང་གི་ པར་ཁང་ནས་རྒྱ་གར་གནས་ཆེན་ཁག་གི་

ས་ཁ་དང་ལམ་ཡིག་པར་རྒྱག་གི་རེད། མི་ ཚང་མ་ཁོ་ལ་ཐུག་ཏུ་ཡོང་གི་རེད། མཁས་ པ་དང་བ་མ་ཁ་ཤས་ལོ་རག་པར་ཁོའི་ མཉམ་དུ་འདུག་གི་རེད་ ” ...1

ཟླ་ ༡ ཡི་འདོན་ཐེངས་ཡིན་པས་དེར་ཤོག་གྲངས་ ༣༠ ཡོད། ངའི་ཞིབ་འཇུག་ལས་ཤེས་རོགས་བྱུང་བ་ལྟར་ ན། མཐར་ཕིན་གིས་སྤི་ལོ་ ༡༩༤༨ ལོ་མཇུག་བར་ དུ་ཚགས་པར་ལ་དབིན་ཡིག་གི་མིང་དུ་བོད་ཡིག་ མེ་ལོང་ (The Tibet Mirror) ཞེས་པ་བཏགས་མི་

འདུག2 སྤི་ལོ་ ༡༩༥༤ ཟླ་ ༩ ནས་སྤི་ལོ ༡༩༥༥ ཟླ་ ༡ བར་ཏུ། མཐར་ཕིན་གིས་ད་དུང་བོད་མིང་དུ་གཟའ་ འཁོར་རེ་རེའི་ཡུལ་ཕོགས་སོ་སོའི་གསར་འགྱུར་མེ་

ལོང་ངམ་དབིན་མིང་དུ་བདུན་རེའི་བོད་ཡིག་མེ་ལོང་

ཞེས་གཟའ་འཁོར་རེའི་

(The Weekly Tibet Mirror)

པའི་ཟླ་རེའི་ཚགས་པར་ཀི་བཟོ་བཀོད་དེ་བདུན་རེའི་

ཁོས་བཤད་ན་མི་མང་པོ་ཞིག་གིས་ཁོ་ལ་གཟའ་འཁོར་

འདོན་ཐེངས་ཅན་གི་ཤོག་བུའི་ཚད་གཞི་ A3 ཅན་

ནས་ A5 ཅན་ལས་ཆུང་བ་ཡོད་པ་བཅས་འད་མིན་སྣ་ ཚོགས་ཐོན་ཡོད་པ་དང་། ཚགས་པར་དཔར་ཐེངས་

ཚང་མའི་ཤོག་གྲངས་ཀི་མང་ཉུང་ཡང་འདོན་ཐེངས་རེ་

རེའི་སྐབས་ཀི་དཔལ་འབོར་གི་འཁོས་ཀ་དང་དུས་ཚོད་ ཀི་ལོགས་མིན་ལ་བརེན་དགོས་པ་བྱུང་འདུག ཐོག་ མའི་ཚགས་པར་འགོ་འཛུགས་ངོ་སྤོད་ཀི་དུས་ཚོད་

ཡོལ་རེས། མཐར་ཕིན་གིས་སྤིར་ཤོག་གྲངས་བཞི་རེ་

དཔར་འདེབས་བེད་ཀི་ཡོད་མོད་རིམ་བཞིན་ཆ་སྙོམས་

འདོན་ཐེངས་ཤིག་འདོན་སེལ་བེད་རིས་བས་འདུག རེ་ལ་འདོན་སེལ་བེད་རོགས་ཞེས་བཤད་བྱུང་ཟེར།

ཡིན་ནའང་དེ་ལྟར་བ་རྒྱུ་འདོད་རྔམ་ཆེ་དགས་ཡོད་པ་

འད། གང་ཡིན་ཟེར་ན་འདོན་ཐེངས་རེས་མ་དེ་སྤི་ལོ་

༡༩༥༥ ཟླ་ ༡༠ བར་དུ་མ་གཏོགས་དཔར་འདེབས་བེད་ ཐུབ་མེད། སྙུང་གཞི་ཡང་ཡང་བཞེས་ནའང་མཐར་

ཕིན་གིས་མུ་མཐུད་སྤི་ལོ་ ༡༩༦༣ ཟླ་ ༡༡ བར་དུ་མེ་

ལོང་འདོན་སེལ་བས་ཡོད།3 སྤི་ལོ་ ༡༩༦༤ ལ་ཁོས་

སར་ཡང་དཔར་འདེབས་བེད་རིས་བས་མོད། འོན་ཀང་

ཀིས་ཤོག་གྲངས་བརྒྱད་དུ་སར་ཞིང་། དམག་འཁྲུག་

2 མེ་ལོང་། ལོ་ ༡༩ ། སྤི་ལོ་ ༡༩༥༠ ཟླ་ ༡༢ ནས་སྤི་ལོ་ ༡༩༥༡ ཟླ་ ༡ ཡི་

མི་འདང་བའི་དཀའ་ངལ་ཡོད་ནའང་འདོན་ཐེངས་

བཟུང་སེ་ The Tibetan Monthly Newspaper ཞེས་བརོད་འདུག དེ་སར་ཡང་

ལོ་བཅུ་དེ་བོད་དུ་ཡོད་པའྱི་འཇར་པན་གྱི་སོ་བ། (Japanese Agent in Tibet: My Ten

འདུག སྤི་ལོ་ ༡༩༤༨ ཟླ་ ༣ ཡི་ལོ་ ༡༦ ཨང་ ༥ ཡིནས་བཟུང་སེ་མཐར་ཕིན་

གི་དུས་དཀིལ་དང་དམག་ཐག་ཆོད་པ་དང་ཤོག་བུས་ 1

ཧྱི་སོ་ཀྱི་མུ་ར་ (Hisao Kimura) ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༡༩༩༠། རྫུན་ཆས་སྤས་པའྱི་ངའྱི་མྱི་

Years of Disguise) ལོན་ཌོན། སེ་རྱིན་སྒ་ (Serindia) དཔེ་སྐྲུན་ཁང་། ཤོག་ངོས་

༡༣༥ – ༣༦ །

L AT S E J O U R N A L

མཚོན་པའི་སྤི་ལོ་ ༡༩༥༠ ཟླ་ ༡༢ དང་སྤི་ལོ་ ༡༩༥༡

བ ོ་བ ོད་ད ་ མ་པ།

དེང་རབས་གསར་འགོད་རིག་པའི་ཉམས་དོད་ཡོད་

44

གྲངས་ཆེས་མང་ཤོས་ནི་ཕལ་ཆེར་ཚགས་པར་བཏོན་

VOLUME 8, 2014–2015

ཨང་ ༡ དང་ ༢ ། ཐོག་མའི་ཆར་སྣོན་མའི་ཚུལ་གི་དབིན་ཇིའི་མིང་དུ་ The

Tibetan Newspaper ཞེས་བཏགས་འདུག དེ་ནས་འདོན་ཐེངས་ ༡ ཨང་ ༣ ནས་

བརེ་བོ་བརྒྱབ་སེ་སྤི་ལོ་ ༡༩༢༨ ཡི་ལོ་ ༣ ཨང་ ༢ ནས་སྤི་ལོ་ ༡༩༤༨ ཟླ་ ༢ པའི་ བར་གི་ལོ་ངོ་ཉི་ཤུ་རིང་དབིན་ཇིའི་མིང་མེད་པའི་ཐོག་ནས་ཚགས་པར་བཏོན་

གིས་ལ་ཊིན་ཡི་གེ་ནང་དུ་ Yulchog Sosoi Sargyur Melong (The Tibetan

Newspaper) ཞེས་པ་སྣོན་འགོད་བས་འདུག

3 མེ་ལོང་འདོན་ཐེངས་མཐའ་མ་ནི་སྤི་ལོ་ ༡༩༦༣ ཟླ་ ༡༡ ། ལོ་ ༢༨ ཨང་ ༨ ཡིན།


བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

45


F E AT U R E S

ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

ཡུལ་དང་ལ་དྭགས་ལྟ་བུ་བོད་ཀི་ས་ཁུལ་

སྤི་ལོ་ ༡༩༢༧ ཟླ་ ༡༢ ཚེས་ ༥ ཉིན་བཅར་འདི་ཞུས་

སེལ་བེད་པ་མ་ཟད། ཁོ་ལ་བོད་ཤར་ཕོགས་

གནང་རྒྱུ་ཞལ་བཞེས་གནང་ཡོད།

མི་འད་བར་བྱུང་བའི་གསར་གནས་འགོད་ ས་ཁུལ་གི་ཚོང་པ་དང་གནས་སྐོར་པའི་ར་

སྐབས། ཏཱ་ལའི་བ་མས་མ་འོངས་པར་ཁོ་ལ་རོགས་རམ་ ཚགས་པར་ཐོག་མར་འགོ་འཛུགས་བེད་སྐབས་

ནས་འབོར་བའི་གསར་འགྱུར་ཡང་སྒོག་

རིན་འབབ་ཕུལ་ཟིན་པའི་མངག་ཉོ་བེད་མཁན་

པར་ནི་དེ་ས་ལྷ་སས་འཛིན་སྐྱོང་བས་པའི་

གྲངས་ ༥༠ ལ་འཕེལ་ཡོད་པ་དང་། ཁོས་ཚགས་ཤོག་

སེལ་བེད་ཀི་ཡོད། དེར་བརེན་ཁོའི་ཚགས་ ཐད་གཏོགས་སིད་འཛིན་ཁབ་ཁོངས་ལས་ བརྒལ་ཏེ་ས་ཁུལ་གང་སར་བཀྲམས་པའི་

བོད་སྐད་བཤད་མཁན་མི་ཚོགས་ཀི་བསམ་ བོའི་མཚོན་བེད་ཏུ་གྱུར་ཡོད།1

མྩེ་ལོ ་ ྱི་ལོ་ ས།

མཐར་ཕིན་གིས་སྤི་ལོ་ ༡༩༤༦ ཡས་མས་ཤིག་ལ་

ཚགས་པར་གི་ལོ་རྒྱུས་སྐོར་དན་གསོ་བེད་སྐབས། འདི་ ལྟར་བཤད་དགོས་བྱུང་ཡོད། [ཁོ་རང་ཉིད་མཚོན་ཆེད་ གང་ཟག་གསུམ་པ་ཁོ་ཞེས་བིས་ཡོད]

ལོ་གཅིག་ཙམ་འགོར་རེས། ཁོ་ལ་ཏཱ་ལའི་བ་ མའི་ཡི་གེ་ཞིག་འབོར་ཞིང་དེའི་ནང་དུ་ཏཱ་ ལའི་བ་མ་ཁོང་ལ་ཚགས་པར་འབོར་གིན་ ཡོད་ལ་དགའ་སྤོ་ཆེན་པོ་སྐྱེས་ཤིང་རྒྱུན་

འཁོངས་བེད་དགོས་པ་དང་གསར་འགྱུར་

མང་ཙམ་གཏོང་དགོས་ཞེས་བིས་འདུག དེ་ དག་ཏཱ་ལའི་བ་མ་ཁོང་ལ་ཕན་ཐོགས་ཆེན་ པོ་ཡོད་པ་འད། ཡི་གེའི་མཉམ་དུ་ལེགས་ སྐྱེས་ཀི་ཚུལ་དུ་ཧིན་སྒོར་ ༢༠ བསྐུར་

མི་བཅུ་བཞི་ལས་མེད་ནའང་ད་ལྟ་རིམ་པས་མི་

གྲངས་ ༡༠༠ ཙམ་བོད་གཞུང་ལས་བེད་ཚོར་རིན་མེད་ ཐོག་བསྐུར་གཏོང་བེད་ཀི་ཡོད།

ཡིན་ན་ཡང་། མངག་ཉོ་བེད་མཁན་ཚོས་ཚགས་རིན་ འོས་འཚམས་གིས་བསྐུར་གི་མེད་པར་བརེན། ཁོས་

ཚགས་པར་མང་ཆེ་བ་རིན་མེད་གིས་བསྐུར་དགོས་བྱུང་ ཡོད་པ་དང་མ་དངུལ་མེད་པའི་དབང་གིས་རང་ཉིད་

ཀི་བསམ་དོན་ལྟར་ཚགས་པར་རྒྱུན་དུ་དཔར་འགྲེམས་ བེད་ཐུབ་མེད།2

ཚགས་པར་གི་ཀོག་པ་པོའི་གྲངས་འབོར་དེ་

འགྲེམས་སེལ་འོས་འཚམས་བེད་བཞིན་པའི་གྲངས་

ཚད་ལས་ཆེ་བ་ཡོད་སིད། དེ་ཡང་ཚགས་པར་གཅིག་ མི་འགས་ཀོག་གི་ཡོད་པའི་རྐེན་གིས་ཡིན་པ་དང་།

ཚགས་པར་ཁ་ཤས་ཤིག་སོན་ནས་ནུབ་ཕོགས་ཡུལ་དུ་ འབོར་ཡོད་པ་འད།

ཏཱ་ལའི་བ་མ་སྐུ་ཕྲེང་བཅུ་བཞི་བ་མཆོག་གིས་ཀང་འདི་ ལྟར་བིས་ཡོད།

འཛམ་གིང་དམག་ཆེན་གཉིས་པ་ང་ལྷ་སར་ ཡོང་བའི་ལོ་དེར་བྱུང་བ་དེའི་གནས་ཚུལ་

འདུག་པས། བ་བ་འདི་མུ་མཐུད་བསྒྲུབ་རྒྱུར་

ཀ་སྦུག་བོད་ཡིག་གསར་ཤོག་ཏུ་བཀོད་པ་

ཁོ་ལ་སེམས་ཤུགས་སར་འདུག

ཁོས་ཏཱ་ལའི་བ་མ་སྐུ་ཕྲེང་བཅུ་གསུམ་པ་སྐུ་སྒེར་ལ་ 4 ཚེ་རིང་ཤཱཀ། སྤི་ལོ་ ༢༠༠༤ ། གསར་རོམ་ (The Emergence of Modern Tibetan Literature) ། འབུམ་རམས་པའི་དཔྱད་རོམ། ལོན་ཌོན་ན་ཡོད་པའི་

ཤར་ཕོགས་དང་ཨ་ཕེ་རི་ཀའི་ཞིབ་འཇུག་ཁང་ (School of Oriental and African Studies) ། ༡༧ ཡི་ཤོག་ངོས་ ༡༨ ནས་ ༢༣ །

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5

ཨེ་ཆི་ ལོ་ཨི་སི་ ཕེ་ཌེར་ (H. Louis Fader) སྤི་ལོ་ ༢༠༠༢ དང་ ༢༠༠༤ །

Called from Obscurity: The Life and Times of a True Son of Tibet,

God’s Humble Servant from Poo Gergan Dorje Tharchin. With Par-

ticular Attention Given to his Good Friend and Illustrious Co-laborer in the Gospel Sadhu Sundar Singh of India. བམ་པོ་ ༢ ། ཀ་ལི་སྦུག བོད་

ཡིག་གསར་འགྱུར་མེ་ལོང་པར་ཁང་།


བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

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F E AT U R E S

ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

ས ་ ་མྩེ་ལོ ་ལོ་བདུ ་པ་ ་ད ་པོ ་བ ོད་པ ྱི་ད ྱི་ ་ ྱི་ ས་ ། ༡ ༤ ལོ །

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༡ ༤༥ ལོ ྱི་ ས ་ ་མྩེ་ལོ ་ དོ ་ ྩེ ས་ ྱི ་ ་ བ ོད་པ ྱི་ ྩེ་ ་ལྱི ་ ྱི་ མས་ ད་ ོ ་པ ྱི་ བ་ ྱིད་ ྱི་ ་ ྱི་ ྱི་མོ།

7 མཐར་ཕིན་གིས་ཆར་སི་རེལ་བིས་པའི་ཡི་གེ་ (དབིན་ཇི་སྐད་དུ་བིས་པའི་ཡི་གེ)། ཀ་ལི་སྦུག སྤི་

ལོ་ ༡༩༣༧ ཟླ་ ༡༢ ཚེས་ ༢༥ ། ལོན་ཌོན་། དབིན་ཇིའི་དཔེ་མཛོད་ཁང་གི་ཤར་ཕོགས་དང་རྒྱ་གར་ཡིག་ ཚང་གི་ཡིག་ཚགས། [British Library, Oriental and India Office Collections (hence-

forth quoted as OIOC)], MSS. Eur F 80/130.

བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

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ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

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བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

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F E AT U R E S

ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

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བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

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F E AT U R E S

ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

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བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

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ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

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༡ ༤ ལོ ྱི་སྤྱི་ ་ པ ྱི་ ས་༡༤ ྱི ་ ྩེ། མ མ་ ྩེལ་ ྱི་ ལ་ ས་ ྱི་ ྱི ་ད ་ བས་བ ་ ྱིས་བ ོ ་པ ྱི་ས་ ་ ྩེབས་མ།

བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

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ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

A Brief History of the Sikkim Herald in Tibetan by Tshewang Tamding

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བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

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F E AT U R E S

ྩེད་བ ྱི ས།

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བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

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The Tibetan Collection in the Asian Division, Library of Congress By Susan Meinheit

T

he Library of Congress is one of the

cataloged volumes and another 3,600 volumes

world’s leading centers for Tibetan

in the Tibetan rare book cage, fifty-seven serial

books with holdings that are representative

titles, and over 15,000 pieces of microfilm/micro-

of the entire body of Tibetan literature from

fiche. In addition, the Library has extensive

the eighth century to the modern day. These

holdings related to Tibetan studies in English,

include religious texts, history, biography, tradi-

Chinese, and Western languages.

tional medicine, astrology, iconography, musical

The Buddhist Canon

notations, linguistics, social science, and secular literature, including the collected works of over two hundred major Tibetan authors. The Tibetan collection currently has about 17,000

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Religion plays a central role in Tibetan society, and the Library’s holdings of Tibetan Buddhist scriptures are especially strong. The Tibetan Buddhist canon is contained in the Kanjur, in over a hundred volumes of sutras, and the Tanjur, most editions totaling some 225 volumes of commentaries. Of special value to scholars, the


LIBRARY SPOTLIGHT

བོད་ ྱི ་དཔྩེ་མ ད་ ྱི་དོ་ །

Tibetan canonical texts are accurate translations of the original Buddhist texts, written in Sanskrit between 500 BCE and 900 CE. The Library has several rare woodblock printings of the Kanjur and Tanjur.

Early History of the Collection Three scholars in particular were responsible for the Library’s early development of its Tibetan collection. During his travels in Mongolia and Tibet between 1888 and 1892 and again in the early 1900s, the American diplomat and Tibetologist William Woodville Rockhill obtained a large number of Tibetan books. In 1901 he presented the Library with fifty-seven xylographs and eight manuscripts. Berthold Laufer, another leading Tibetologist of his time, collected books during visits to Tibet for two libraries in Chicago: the Newberry and the John Crerar. In 1928 the Crerar Library transferred an important group of Laufer’s Tibetan books to the Library of Congress. The third important collector was Joseph F. C. Rock, an Austrian-American, the colorful explorer, adventurer, and scientist who lived and traveled in China’s rugged west for twentyseven years and whose adventures are chronicled in ten articles he wrote for National Geographic magazine between 1922 and 1935. In 1926, Rock purchased a complete set of the Kanjur (108 volumes) and Tanjur (209 volumes) for the Library of Congress from the famous Tibetan monastery of Choni (Co ne) in China’s Gansu province.

Special Holdings Among the collection’s unique holdings are: 1. The Bon-po Kanjur — the scriptures of Tibet’s pre-Buddhist religious tradition, in the 1st and 3rd reprint editions, and Bon-po Katen in 380 volumes. 2. The Derge Kanjur — acquired by Rockhill at the Derge monastery in eastern Tibet in 1908. 3. The Narthang Tanjur — printed in the 18th century at the renowned Narthang monastery, taken to Beijing by the 13th Dalai Lama in 1908, and later acquired by Laufer. 4. The Choni Kanjur and Tanjur — Rock’s acquisition is especially rare since the printing blocks at Choni were later completely destroyed in 1929 during conflict between Buddhists and Muslims in Gansu province.

Modern Directions The Library’s New Delhi Field Office has been well-positioned to take advantage of the upsurge 64

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in Tibetan publishing in India, Nepal, and Bhutan following the flight of the Dalai Lama to India in 1959 and the subsequent Tibetan refugee influx. As a result, the majority of the Library’s books in the Tibetan language are reprint editions purchased since 1962 by the New Delhi Field Office. The Library currently acquires new publications from China, India, Nepal, and Bhutan through the New Delhi Office and also through commercial vendors. Acquisition of Tibetan-language publications from the People’s Republic of China has been growing in recent years. Exchange agreements with scholarly institutions in China and four procurement missions to Tibet by the Tibetan Specialist since 1990 have helped the Library obtain current publications. In 1990 the Library acquired 340 volumes of woodblock texts, recently printed in monasteries in Tibet. A special Madison Council-funded project enabled the purchase of some 300 volumes of newly-printed xylographs from the 18th century Derge printing house. As the Library’s Asian Division prepares for the future, planning is focusing attention on the integration of digital content and electronic services into the Division’s collections, services, and programs. A full text subscription to the Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center (TBRC) digital library is available in the Asian Reading Room, on-site access only. The Tibetan Oral History and Archive Project, gifted to the Library by Dr. Melvyn C. Goldstein, documents the social and political history of modern Tibet at www.loc.gov/ collections/tibetan-oral-history-project/about. This archive consists of original audio interviews in Tibetan, English transcripts, and a glossary, and will eventually include interviews with nearly 700 individuals.

Location The Tibetan collection is available to readers in the Asian Division Reading Room, located in room LJ-150 of the Thomas Jefferson Building. The Reading Room is open Monday through Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Cataloged volumes can be searched in the on-line catalog at www. catalog.loc.gov using the ALA/LC transliteration table for Tibetan or by browsing the 3,356 Library of Congress subject headings containing Tibet. For assistance please contact Susan Meinheit, Tibetan and Mongolian Specialist, Asian Division, smei@loc.gov; telephone (202) 707-3749. Website: www.loc.gov/rr/asian


བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དྩེབ།

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LIBRARY SPOTLIGHT

བོད་ཡིག་དཔེ་མཛོད་ ᨜ི་དོ་ར།

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བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

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My Two Fathers: A New Novel by Tsering Dondrup By Françoise Robin

Nga yi apa nyi [My Two Fathers] by Tsering Dondrup. Xining: Qinghai Nationalities Publishing House, 2015. ISBN: 9787542023599 267 pages. For his fourth novel, a record in the short history of the Tibetan language novel, Tsering Dondrup proves once again his mastery: his art of choosing a good topic and good characters, his keen sense of observation, his deep irony, as well as his talent for arranging scenes together. All these elements that were obvious in his previous novel The Red Howling Wind are here once again, beautifully displayed. My Two Fathers confirms his role as a major Tibetan language writer who plays a central part in today’s literary scene. My Two Fathers presents a human milieu that is very familiar to the novelist, but which Tsering Dondrup had never chosen as a backdrop for a full-length novel before, preferring usually nomadic backgrounds and settings more remote in time. His narration encompasses thirty years in Tibet, and more precisely Amdo, portraying a group of young educated Tibetans coming of age in the 1980s, having to adjust to an old world that has been irremediably shaken and to invent a new world where meaningful life as a Tibetan is problematic. No explicit time frame and little in terms of space are provided by the author, leaving the reader to guess when events take place: the two clearest references are Mao’s death (1976), which opens the second part, and the campaign against bourgeois liberalization (1983) in the middle of that same part. The novel thus spans three decades, between the early 1970s and mid- to late-1990s. The aptly chosen title maintains a suspense that is only solved late in the novel: the identity of the all-knowing, first-person narrator 68

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is revealed in the middle of the book and the mystery for the narrator’s having dual fathers (“My father Samphel” and “my father Tenzin”) is left unsolved until the very end of the 300-page novel. The story surveys the parallel destinies of these two fathers, two Tibetan men born some time in the early 1960s in Amdo, with a stronger focus on “Father Samphel”. It is divided in three chronologically arranged parts with occasional flashbacks. Part one covers part of the Cultural Revolution and ends with Mao’s death, and is always told from the point of view of the narrator, the two men’s son. Samphel’s family has been blacklisted for political reasons: his father has been condemned for “encouraging a superstitious movement” (rmongs dad bya ’gul spel ba) after he tried to cure little Samphel by fetching holy water from a river flowing down the holy


IN THE LIBRARY

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mountain Amnyé Lhari. Tsering Dondrup, with his customary sense of irony and in a laconic way, remarks through his narrator’s voice that the source is now extensively pumped for commercial purposes, leaving the reader to ponder over the volatility and inconsistency of the authorities. Tenzin, whose family credentials are much cleaner, and whose parents display “portraits of Stalin and Mao, et cetera,” at home, is allowed in school. He revels in telling his childhood friend Samphel about the wonders of this new world: there he can watch movies, he gets to meet teachers, he receives abundant food and drink on festival days, and he is allowed to wear the little red scarf of the pioneers. Samphel burns to share the same experience—the anguish felt by children who were prevented from sporting the glorious accessory in Soviet-era Russia due to faulty class backgrounds has been clearly shown in The Whisperers, Orlando Figes’ pioneering study on private life and feelings in Stalin’s Soviet Union. After a lot of arguing with his parents, and persuading of the authorities, Samphel is allowed to be enrolled in the local school, but is always discriminated against due to his “family problem”: not only a father who perpetrates superstitious views, but, as Samphel discovers later with dismay and anger at his doomed ancestry, a grandfather who was jailed after the 1958 revolt in Amdo. Still, in spite of these hindrances, Samphel carries on brilliantly with his studies, as does Tenzin, and both skip two years of school. They also help their schoolmate Gompo (Mgon po), nicknamed “Piss-bag” (gcin skyal), who fares desperately poorly at school but who manages to get through thanks to the narrator’s “two fathers’” help. Due to his dubious background, Samphel’s dreams to become a barefoot doctor or a teacher are shattered by most of his teachers, with the exception of the “pig-keeper” (phag gso), who always secretly supports Samphel and Tenzin by either providing common sense advice (at a time when common sense was not so prevalent) or even by lending them forbidden books such as Gesar tales and Gendun Chopel’s White Annals. Part two begins with Mao’s death, followed by the wise pig-keeper’s rehabilitation. Samphel, Tenzin, and Gompo enroll at the prefectural high school, far from home. A great number of these teenage boys’ conversations and social interactions revolve around girls and love relationships, a topic which is rather openly covered throughout the novel, another singular VOLUME 8, 2014–2015

feature of My Two Fathers, Tibetan novels being rather prudish.1 But Samphel’s wrong family labeling still bears on him as he is forbidden from endorsing any responsibilities, contrary to Tenzin. He spends most of his time discovering his own Tibetan literary and cultural heritage, from which he had been bereft during the Cultural Revolution, and he slowly starts turning his back to “the other’s” (gzhan gyi) culture. Not only does Samphel explore with delight and interest his Tibetan roots, but the two friends also revel in the foreign and the new: they wear bell-bottom trousers (for which they run into trouble for being bourgeois liberalists), grow their hair long and discover Western literature (Maupassant, Chekhov, Shakespeare, Kafka, South American authors, and Western arts). But he soon encounters the classical trouble with inbetweenness and hybridity, a favorite target of Tsering Dondrup throughout his literary works: Samphel’s inclination towards Western art antagonizes both the partisans of a stern political, Sino-centered world order, and also some conservative holders of Tibetan traditions. In a telling and comical scene, Samphel is expelled by the old master who instructs him in thankga painting, after he has dared to introduce the old man to the painting of Venus de Milo (not an icon of modernity, but of Western art) and advise him to get inspiration from it to draw a new kind of Yangchenma (Dbyangs can ma). Upon completing high school, both manage to enter university, and although they study in the same class, Samphel and Tenzin’s paths begin to diverge more seriously and irremediably: Samphel writes his first poem, which gets published, and Tenzin joins the Communist Party. The third and last part begins with Samphel and Tenzin entering their adult life, one year after graduation from university. Tenzin has become a local cadre, and tries to convince Samphel to join him, but Samphel persists in being a teacher in the district nationality high school. Leading a quiet life, he marries a nurse, they have a child, and he dedicates himself selflessly to teaching and literature, writing a book about Tibetan culture and education, in a minority school that loses students every year and which is located between the Chinese-medium school and the Muslim graveyard. Tenzin, on the other hand, climbs the social and political ladder: he becomes a successful cultural apparatchik. As 1 Contrary to new Tibetan poetry, as shown in Lama Jabb’s latest book, Oral and Literary Continuities in Modern Tibetan Literature: The Inescapable Nation, Lexington Books, 2015.


བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

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the first Tibetan master’s student in his generation, whose research focuses on Gesar, he gets invited to international conferences. His prestige and financial situation benefits from the help of his well-connected wife Amtsomo, an assimilated Tibetan woman who barely speaks Tibetan but whose excellent connections in the publishing world secure publication of her husband’s books. She also receives copious bribes from the patients in the hospital where she works. The book ends on a sweet and sour note: Tenzin finally reads Samphel’s book, which the latter had entrusted to him with the hope that Tenzin’s good connections might help him get it published. The book acts as an instant eyeopener for Tenzin. Not only does he realize that his research is empty, but he understands that Samphel’s book is “an unrivalled analysis and assessment of the creation and destruction of a nationality” (“…mi rigs kyi chags ’jig la gzhan dang mi mtshung pa’i dbye zhib dang spyi sdom byas pa zhig red,” p. 245), a short sentence that could also summarize the narrative project of the novel reviewed here. Tenzin decides to push for the publication of Samphel’s book, but after a last moral dilemma, he chooses to send it to the publisher under his own name, an action that he tries to self-justify by referring to the habit of publishers of agreeing to publish famous authors only. The publication, which coincides with Samphel’s death, is a total success among readers and Tenzin gets invited to many talks to expound “his” views. Samphel’s son, now a young student at university, threatens to sue Tenzin for having appropriated his late father’s work, but Tenzin’s wife counterattacks by threatening to attack Samphel’s son for libel, in the hope of securing even more money for them. As she claims: “To reach one’s ends today, one must secure connections, and not rely on justice” (“da lta don dag sgrub na ’brel ba la brten dgos pa las bdeng dpang la brten dgos pa ma red,” p. 249), another good summary of the cynical message that is conveyed by the novel’s environment. In the end, despite Samphel’s widow’s opposition in the name of Tenzin and Samphel’s childhood friendship, the trial takes place. As he is found guilty, Tenzin’s fate suddenly deteriorates: he loses his position, his wife files for divorce, and their opportunistic daughter sides with Amtsomo, as she is the richest of the two parents. In the last chapter, Tenzin is shown alone on Tibetan New Year in a gloomy hotel room, abandoned by all. The only person VOLUME 8, 2014–2015

who phones him to wish him a happy new year is the narrator’s son who has decided to reconcile with him. The novel begins with a succession of short scenes, which sometimes leaves the reader wondering what is being driven at. But it soon becomes obvious that the unfolding plot’s subtext and actual message is the storytelling of the destiny of the generation of Tibetans who grew up during the Cultural Revolution, were educated in the 1980s, and are now holding responsibilities. The two main characters, the narrator’s “two fathers,” Samphel and Tenzin, embody, respectively, the pure but failed culturalist and the mistaken but successful opportunist in a world where little is left for them to decide. The fact that Samphel is often plagued with disease and dies before reaching old age may be interpreted as a revealer of the fate that plagues the whole of Tibetan society, or of the doom that will fall upon those among Tibetans who try to live by standing up to their culture as sincerely and honestly as possible. Indeed, disease plays an interpretative part in the novel, since it appears again in the mind and words of the “Stockholm syndrome” that, according to Samphel, has infected Tenzin and others of his kind. The syndrome is never explained and the reader has to infer for his or herself its political implication. In another chapter that takes place when both boys are in high school, Samphel is summoned by the headmaster who scolds him for not attending the political and educational meetings, and who advises him to see a doctor because his behavior is abnormal. Also, Samphel’s family summons a “recalling of the soul” (bla ’gugs) ceremony for his benefit, because their only explanation for Samphel not trying to go up the social and political scale is that his soul must be wandering (’khyams). This novel is to my knowledge the first semi-autobiographical novel that surveys the crucial late 1970s and 1980s, contrasting from previously published novels by Tibetan authors, which mostly unfold in a rural, preferably pastoral, background. It has the benefits of hindsight and provides a good, embodied overview of what it was like to be a Tibetan student in the 1980s— at least when compared with oral testimonies of that period. It is obviously based on the personal memories of the author Tsering Dondrup, who was seventeen in 1978 when the Communist Party turned the page on the Cultural Revolution. Only a writer of his generation, very


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few of whom are still active, could have written with such insider’s insight about this crucial period for the revival of Tibetan culture.2 Not all elements of the novel are autobiographical, though: Tsering Dondrup was not castigated as a youth for his family’s social background (he is the son of a blacksmith, a favored social class by the ruling Chinese Communist Party), but he did go to school rather late in life, engaged in literature in the 1980s, and has been fascinated by Western culture ever since. Whatever the degree of personal inspiration of the novel may be, it offers an insider’s view on what it was to grow up as a youth in Tibetan areas in the culturebereft 1970s, kept in total darkness about one’s own cultural heritage. It also describes how the Tibetan-medium education system was resurrected after the Cultural Revolution, but left no venue and no future for a full-fledged Tibetan education, a situation that can be witnessed today with more and more clarity. Above all, it provides strong indictment of the cynicism of the social and political systems, the victory of money and corruption, force and power over human dignity, culture and truth, and the seemingly unavoidable acculturation of Tibetans in the wider, all-mighty Chinese system. One typical scene, among many others too numerous to be quoted, shows “Father Tenzin” wasting time away watching Sino-Japanese war films on television, vigorously taking the side of the Chinese soldiers, to “Father’s Samphel” dismay. Although the overall theme calls more for sorrow than celebration, humor prevails 2 Tsering Dondrup’s life is detailed in the first part of the first critical book dedicated to Tsering Dondrup’s life and works, published in 2014 by Tsünpo Dondrup (Btsun po Don grub), an associate professor at the Central Nationalities Institute in Beijing, and a specialist of contemporary Tibetan literature (Btsun po don grub, Tshe ring don grub kyi sgrung gtam la dpyad pa, Xining, Mtsho sngon mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 2014). Although Tsünpo Dondrup’s study ends in 2012, it contains biographical and analytical elements that are significant in fully appreciating Tsering Dondrup’s novel.

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as is usual in Tsering Dondrup’s works. It was already present in The Red Howling Wind, his previous long novel, a gripping and tragic story of the serious Sino-Tibetan war in late 1950s Amdo, followed by the equally traumatizing Cultural Revolution. In that perspective, Tsering Dondrup is reminiscent of the novels Night or The Nazi and the Barber by Edgar Hilsenrath (b. 1926), who tells of the horror of the fate of the Jews in the Second World War and their plight in post-WWII America, with a dark and devastating humor. My Two Fathers is part of a five-novel collection published in late 2014 by the Qinghai Nationalities Publishing House. At the time of writing, the initial print run of 2,000 was soon sold out and another 2,000 had been printed (it is the only title among the five-title collection to have this distinction). Elder readers must have been delighted by this “remembrance of things past” of which they have been part, and the younger generation must have enjoyed this gripping and consistent fictional rendering of a familiar environment. And all readers must have been struck by the realistic and alas true-to-life depiction of what it means to be an educated Tibetan in today’s Tibet, trapped in a “China Dream” that leaves little space hope and future for cultural and ethnic otherness and singularity, other than the sanitized version sanctioned by the Chinese state.


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Poems of General Interest Spiritual Poems Patriotic Poems A Collection of Alphabetical Poems Nostalgic Poems of My Birth Place By Tshewang Tamding. Dharamsala: Amnye Machen Institute, 2014. ISBN: 9788186227671; 9788186227664; 9788186227688; 9788186227657; 9788186227695

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here is a wealth of books of poetry written in Tibetan. We have probably

never seen as active a period in history as our own. But this activity has occurred mainly in Tibet. Also, in India and other countries, most of the poetry books that have been published feature the work of authors from Tibet. Thus, if you wanted to introduce a poetry book by a poet from Tibet, there are so many, one would not know where to begin. We would like to introduce a collection of poetry here that is not from Tibet, nor is the author from Tibet. Though born there, he grew up in India. It is the collection of works of the poet Tshewang Tamding.

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Among the Tibetans who arrived in India before the 1980s, there are not many who have produced literary works, including poetry. Tshewang Tamding, who began writing poetry in 1976, has published five books of his compositions, making him one of the most prolific poets who writes in Tibetan outside Tibet. The five volumes have been published in 2014 by Amnye Machen Institute in Dharamsala, and include the titles Poems of General Interest, Spiritual Poems, Patriotic Poems, A Collection of Alphabetical Poems, and Nostalgic Poems of My Birth Place. Tshewang Tamding states why he wrote the first three of these titles: Without the need to follow Dharma’s vows or government laws, my mind, free as a wild donkey, runs around


Tshewang Tamding and His Five Books of Poetry

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unhindered on the vast expanse of beautiful composition. I can write whatever comes to mind and this opportunity makes me happy. This is the reason I call my first book [The Sound of the Happiness of Poetry] (Note: the publisher-supplied title is Poems of General Interest). Human life is fully of uncertainty. The wealth that one has saved is meaningless, and there is no appreciation for the help one gives to others. People’s minds are not reliable, and the samsara of suffering is endless. [Poetry of the Master of Impermanence](Spiritual Poems) expresses these ideas. In order to show my patriotism for our own nationality, our own culture, our own language, our own home, our own country, I wrote the third volume. Each volume has its own introduction and in one of these Tshewang Tamding discusses the nature and features of his poetry in detail. This is rare coming from someone his age in exile society. In the Introduction to A Collection of Alphabetical Poems, he analyzes the genre of abecedarian poetry. He makes the claim and argument that this genre is not one that was influenced by The Mirror of Poetry, but is a valuable, special treasure that was created by Tibetans themselves. The life story of the poet Tshewang Tamding is provided by the Director of Amnye Machen Institute, Tashi Tsering, at the end of the fifth book Nostalgic Poems of My Birth Place. Tshewang Tamding was orphaned at a young age. He attended different schools, including Saint Joseph College, and began working in the early 1970s. Around this time he also started to write poetry. From 1976–2001, he served as Editor of the Tibetan language edition of the Sikkim Herald. After that, he worked in different departments in Sikkim before retiring in 2010. Currently, Tshewang Tamding is suffering from poor health, and rarely leaves his home. But his connection to the Tibetan language remains strong and he continues to write and translate. He writes poems in both Tibetan and English, and has published about one hundred English poems in the book Wit and Wisdom, some of which have won poetry awards.

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In addition to five books of poetry, Tshewang Tamding has also translated Seven Years in Tibet, as well as Tibetan Women, among others. The following is a selection from Tshewang Tamding’s book of poetry in English, Wit and Wisdom: A Collection of Poems (Tasmania, Australia: Trillo Publications, 2002.)


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On Tibetan Ancient Books [On Tibetan Ancient Books] (Bod yig gna’ dpe’i rnam bshad) by Pema Trashi. Lhasa: Tibet Peoples Publishing House, 2013. 364 pages. ISBN: 9787223039864. This is the first volume in the series [An Overview of Tibetan Ancient Books] (Bod yig gna’ dpe yongs bsher srung skyob dpe tshogs). On Tibetan Ancient Books presents research on different materials used for Tibetan book production and a chronology of their appearance and use. This work considers books as objects, looking beyond content to discuss the material culture of printed matter: how a book was produced, the materials used, and the physicality of book as medium. On Tibetan Ancient Books has eighteen chapters including “Writing Tools for Ancient Books, “Wrapping Cloths of Ancient Books”—referring to the cloth covers used to wrap Tibetan texts— and “Bibliographic Characteristics of Ancient Books.” The author also includes 150 images of old texts he uncovered during extensive research trips to monasteries and other centers, many of which have never been published before. The book has a bibliography that includes ninety-six resources in Tibetan, thirty-four in Chinese, and references to works in other languages. In his Introduction, the author discusses how in 2006, a movement began in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) for the “Inventorying and Protection of Tibetan Ancient Books in the TAR.” Training sessions were held for activites related to this effort, but there was no textbook or resource that could be used. With that aim in mind, Pema Trashi began working on this book. As his graduate student thesis was on this very topic, with the additional information and experience he gained through his involvement in the movement, he was able to produce this detailed and informative book.

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Two New Books on Contemporary Tibetan Art Transcending Tibet. New York: Trace Foundation, 2015. 258 pages. In English, Tibetan, and Chinese. Tibet: Made by Tibetans: Contemporary Artists from Tibet. Treviso, Italy: Fabrica, 2015. 337 pages. ISBN: 9788898764648 In English, Italian, and Tibetan.

Two new publications on Tibetan contemporary art have come out in 2015, each a catalog for landmark exhibits that took place in the same year. Transcending Tibet, held in New York City in the spring of 2015, was conceived to mark Trace Foundation’s 20th anniversary, while Tibet: Made By Tibetans, commissioned by Luciano Benetton for his Imago Mundi collection, was exhibited as part of the Map of the New Art exhibit in fall of 2015 at the Fondazione Giorgio Cini in Venice, Italy. Both shows were curated by Trace Foundation’s Managing Director Paola Vanzo, who has had a pioneering role in making contemporary Tibetan art more visible in the West. In Transcending Tibet, thirty artists from around the world created new works exploring the proposed theme “What it means to be Tibetan today.” The resulting collection is a variety of paintings, mixed media pieces, and installations representing widely differing styles and techniques, and presenting the public with a comprehensive view of the current state of the contemporary Tibetan art scene. The artists involved included not only emerging artists, but also earlier pioneers from both Lhasa and India. A few western artists whose work is heavily invested in Tibetan and/or Tibetan Buddhist influence were also a part of this unique exhibition, which was held at Rogue Space Gallery 86

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in Chelsea, the heart of the New York City art scene, in March–April 2015. The accompanying catalog features color reproductions of all the exhibited works, as well as a well-rounded, illustrated set of essays by Leigh Miller, Davide Quadrio, Martin Brauen, and Lhasa artists Benchung and Gade. The catalog is trilingual— English, Tibetan, and Chinese—making the western narrative and scholarship about contemporary Tibetan artists more accessible to many of the artists themselves. The catalog for Tibet: Made by Tibetans is a handsome and compact book that features the works of a staggering quantity—143—of contemporary Tibetan artists from around the world. The project of Luciano Benetton called Imago Mundi provides artists with a small tenby-twelve centimeter canvas upon which the artist is free to do whatever she or he likes. The Made by Tibetans project involved Tibetan artists from around the world, some well-established, others young and aspiring. The result is a stunning array of styles, themes, topics, and messages, and represents the energy and creativity that pulses through the Tibetan artist community from whatever part of the world. Each artwork is presented in full color, with smaller images of the front and back of the canvas—many of the artists made use of the canvas verso sides as well—along with some biographical information a statement by the artist. Tibet: Made by Tibetans, also trilingual in Italian, English, and Tibetan, includes short essays by Luciano Benetton, Leigh Miller, and Paola Vanzo.


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Dorjiev’s Autobiography in Verse Who was Dorjiev? Agvan Dorjiev (1854–1938) was born in Harishiber, Buryatia. At the age of nineteen, he left for Lhasa and became a monk in Drepung Monastery. He served as the debating teacher, or tsenshap, for the Thirteenth Dalai Lama, and thus became known as Sokpo Tsenshap Ngakwang Lozang, literally the Mongolian Debating Teacher Ngakwang Lozang. During his residence in Lhasa, he was able to make several return trips to Buryatia and established small temples in his homeland, as well as a medical and astrological institute. He also introduced the gyumé, or lower tantric college and oversaw the initiation and full ordination of many monks. In 1909, Dorjiev established a Buddhist temple in Saint Petersburg, the capital of the Russian Empire. Dorjiev was not only a religious figure; he was also an important figure in Tibetan history. As envoy of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama he worked diligently to develop a relationship between the Thirteenth Dalai Lama and the Russian Czar. When the self-proclaimed Chinese emperor Yuan Shikai revoked the Thirteenth Dalai Lama’s title in 1911–12, Dorjiev appealed to the Russian Czar that one could not simply remove the title “Dalai Lama” as if it were a political title. His endeavors in this regard led to the formation of the opinion not only of Russia but also other Western nations of the fixed nature of the Dalai Lama’s title. He was also one of the key persons involved in the “Treaty of Friendship for the Future of Mongolia and Tibet.” He traveled between Tibet, Mongolia, and Russia so frequently that the British considered him to be a spy, and put a bounty—wanted dead or alive— on his head. When the Russian Communists took control of Russia in 1917, Dorjiev’s birthplace was also taken over, and the tumultuous changes that ensued were unacceptable to both Dorjiev and those in his homeland. Dorjiev was arrested, 90

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given a deferred death sentence, and put in prison. However, through his friends in Saint Petersburg, he was able to overturn the sentence. The temple he built in Saint Petersburg fell victim to extensive damage. Later, when Stalin rose to power, Dorjiev was arrested again, and faced many charges leveled against him. He died of a heart attack while in custody. In 1990, the Russian government deemed him rehabilitated.

The Manuscript of Dorjiev’s Autobiography The manuscript of Dorjiev’s autobiography was written in 1934. The title is comprised of one stanza of verse: Caught by the demon of the eight worldly concerns Wandering aimlessly around outer lands A beggar who is poor in dharma riches What he did was as a monk in appearance only. The entire autobiography is in 143 stanzas of verse. The book itself has twenty-four pages, and measures seven by eight inches. This manuscript is copied very cleanly from a draft, and includes additional edits indicated with an orange-colored pencil. In some places, extra pages are inserted. These clues indicate that this is most likely written and edited by Dorjiev himself. This manuscript was found in the collection of Taktser Rinpoche Thubten Jigme Norbu, the older brother of H.H. the Fourteenth Dalai Lama. When Taktser Rinpoche passed away in 2008, his widow Kunchok Yangki donated his collections to Latse Library. In 1991, Taktser Rinpoche and Dan Martin published a translation of the autobiography with the title: Dorjiev: Memoirs of a Tibetan Diplomat (Tokyo Rissho University). In the Introduction, Taktser Rinpoche writes about how he acquired the


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manuscript. He had had a great interest in learning more about the controversial Dorjiev, and searched for any texts by him during trips to Mongolia, Ulan Ude, and Leningrad. He eventually learned that an autobiography existed, and in 1984, Taktser Rinpoche’s search finally came to fruition when he visited a monastery in Buryatia: “…Upon asking about Dorjiev’s autobiography, [I] was told that a copy could

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be procured. Two days later, I was presented with two copies, one a Tibetan manuscript and the other an old Mongolian script lithograph.” Taktser Rinpoche also was later presented with three additional versions, in Cyrillic script Mongolian, a translation into Russian, and a manuscript in Mongolian. We present the Tibetan manuscript here in its entirety.


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བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

ལ་རྩེ་དུས་དེབ།

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IN THE LIBRARY

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བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

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IN THE LIBRARY

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བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

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བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

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IN THE LIBRARY

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བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

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བམ་པོ་༨ པ། སྤྱི་ལོ་ ༢༠༡༤-༢༠༡༥

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Improving Educational Opportunities On The Tibetan Plateau One Student At A Time. Education is the bedrock of social and economic development. A strong education system, relevant to the needs and culture of its students, not only prepares individuals for future employment, it empowers them to participate in the conversation about their future and guides development across the region. Trace Foundation is pleased to continue our scholarship program. Our support focuses on the fields of study deemed in high demand but are underrepresented within the context of the Tibetan higher education system. Our scholarships currently support doctoral and master’s degree studies, as well as nondegree trainings, in China and overseas. Besides our conventional scholarship offerings, we are also introducing new types of scholarships in partnership with selected institutions, with different focus of subject of studies at each partnered institution. For more information, deadlines and to apply, please visit our website at www.trace.org or contact us: Email: ifcmp@trace.org (International Scholarship) Email: dsp@trace.org (Domestic Scholarship) Tel: +86 028-85182531 (China) WeChat: TFIS2015 (International Scholarship) WeChat: TFDS-2015 (Domestic Scholarship)


volume 8

2014–2015

T H I S J O U R N A L I S P U B L I S H E D B Y T R A C E F O U N DAT I O N'S L AT S E L I B R A R Y, 132 P E R R Y S T., S U I T E 2B, N E W YO R K , N Y 10014 U S A T E L.: +12123678490 FA X +12123677383 E MA I L: I N F O  L AT S E. ORG T H E V I E W S A N D O P I N I O N S E X P R E S S E D I N L AT S E J O U R N A L A R E S O L E LY T H O S E O F T H E O R I G I N A L AU T H O R S A N D OT H E R CO N T R I B U TO R S. T H E S E V I E W S A N D O P I N I O N S D O N OT N E C E S S A R I LY R E  F L E C T T H O S E O F T R A C E F O U N DAT I O N. CO N T E N T S CO P Y R I G H T © U N L E S S OT H E R W I S E N OT E D. P H OTO S CO P Y R I G H T © T R A C E F O U N DAT I O N, U N L E S S OT H E R W I S E N OT E D, A N D MAY N OT B E R E P R O D U C E D I N A N Y WAY W I T H O U T P E R M I S S I O N F R O M T R A C E F O U N DAT I O N. E L E C T R O N I C V E R S I O N O F T H I S J O U R N A L C A N B E F O U N D AT W W W. T R AC E.O R G.


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Latse Journal Volume 8  

Latse Journal Volume 8 (2014–2015) has a special focus on the history and development of Tibetan-language periodicals with contributions by...

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