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total wellness

a ucla student welfare commission publication

marathon training

fall into marathon season with the ultimate runner's guide


bottled vs. tap

where you should get your water


what it is and if you should do it

toothpaste ingredients

& what they do to your teeth

alternative milks going beyond dairy

breaking into the new year: healthy holiday foods & health breakthroughs of 2011

fall 11 | vol 12 | issue 1

director’s letter It gives me great pleasure to welcome you to the first issue of Total Wellness Magazine's new volume and introduce you to the publication's new staff. Although

our writers and designers have differing backgrounds, majors, and ultimate career goals, we are united by our common interest in health. Certainly, who wants to be unhealthy? However, with exams, papers, lab reports, and social events, who has the time to make a conscious effort to be healthy? Because making healthy choices can seem too time consuming and often too confusing, many put health in the backseat of their busy schedule. Clearly, a typical college student's workload can be taxing on the body. Indeed, the direct and immediate result of neglecting the body can become evident after all-nighters during midterms and finals. We hope this magazine can serve as an accessible resource to help you achieve or maintain total wellness. This organization is fueled by the staff's desire to uncover new ways to incorporate balance and healthy living into a hectic schedule. Together with our review board of health care professionals and leading experts of the field, our dedicated staff strives to provide readers with the latest, accurate information about various topics that all tie back to wellness. We are always looking for ways to better serve our readers so we encourage you to submit any questions or feedback you may have. We hope you, as the reader, will be our partner in spreading health awareness. So, please share the knowledge from these articles with your friends and loved ones and take time to make wellness a priority. As always, thank you for picking up this magazine and enjoy your read. Cheers to your health,

total wellness ▪ fall 2011

Shannon Wongvibulsin Director

editor’s note People ask me all the time about what types of articles I write for Total Wellness. To give them an

example, for some reason the same article always pops into my head: a feature I wrote about reviewing different granola bars. It was something I was curious about after I stared blankly at dozens of shelves filled with different flavors and brands at the grocery store. This state of confusion led to research and, ultimately, an article. Although this was by no means a piece of hard-hitting journalism, I think in a lot of ways it exemplifies what Total Wellness is all about. Consumers are bombarded with options every day, whether it’s where to buy coffee in the morning or what type of bagel to go with it. In the end, we all want to make healthy choices, but the amount of time and energy we’re willing to put into those decisions varies greatly. It’s not that the “health freaks” out there have an entirely different goal than the couch potatoes – most people want health and happiness – it’s just that they’re willing to dedicate more time and energy to accomplish that. The mission of Total Wellness in my mind is to make it easier for people to make the choices that can improve their health and wellness. So, a reader may not have the time or motivation to look up the nutrition facts and ingredients of 20 different granola bar brands, but they are willing to spend a few minutes to read an article about it. By informing our readers about a wide range of topics, we can help give them the tools to make those little decisions a little less confusing. This issue of the magazine is a great example of this idea. In our spread about milks (page 10) we highlight the various pros and cons of alternative milk options. Other spreads give nutrition-focused makeovers to classic treats (holiday recipes on page 30 and comfort foods on page 28). And on page 12 we give a guide to toothpastes so consumers can decode the labels on products in the dental aisle. Which toothpaste or type of milk is healthiest may not be obvious, especially in the midst of hundreds of options, so here we give you the tools to make informed decisions. We’re not out to make drastic changes in your day-to-day life, but we do think that the little choices you face can make a difference. So read on – you might be surprised by what catches your attention. It could be something as simple as choosing a granola bar.

Leigh Goodrich Editor-in-Chief


art directors Amorette Jeng is a senior Physiological Science major. She has been involved with Total Wellness since her junior year as a staff designer and is currently serving as the Co-Art Director. Having always had a passion for art and health advocacy, Amorette has found the perfect balance of both by contributing to the artistic direction of Total Wellness. She hopes to inspire readers to develop a healthconscious attitude and actively engage in establishing healthy lifestyles. Due to such interests, Amorette also currently serves as an undergraduate research assistant for a UCLA clinical oncology study. In the future, she plans on pursuing a career in oncology pharmacy along with obtaining a Masters of Public Health to continue supporting improvements in the well-being of individuals and communities.

Karin Yuen is a junior Fine Arts and Art History double major and has been involved with Total Wellness since her first year in 2010. Beginning with writing and designing for school newsletters and newspapers to photojournalism and film documentaries, Karin has been able to cultivate her interest in journalism and design for many years. She became the Art Director for Total Wellness in her second year and has since been able to combine multiple interests by publishing articles that raise awareness about health and guiding the aesthetic direction of the magazine. With Total Wellness, Karin aims to continuously learn and apply her knowledge to produce a quality publication with our highly talented staff.

editors Nicole Lew is a senior Psychobiology major and serves as the Copy Editor for Total Wellness. She began writing for the magazine during her sophomore year and has found Total Wellness to be the perfect opportunity to combine her devotion to health education and passion for writing. Dedicated to promoting and supporting student wellness, Nicole is also involved with the Student Welfare Commission as a member of the executive board and a previous director of the Health, Nutrition, and Fitness committee. Enjoying all aspects of nutrition and fitness, she spends her free time partaking in healthful cooking, running, and Pilates. As a writer and copy editor, Nicole appreciates that Total Wellness has given her the opportunity to research health topics in which she is interested, and she hopes to use the publication as a platform to spread knowledge about such topics to the UCLA community.

Julia Bree Horie is a senior Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics major and serves as the Managing Editor for Total Wellness. Her favorite part of writing for Total Wellness is working with expert health professionals and empowering other students to make informed choices about their well being. Aside from working with Total Wellness, Julia is involved with Mobile Clinic at UCLA, giving her insight into the health conditions among the Los Angeles homeless population. Julia loves to learn about nutrition as a mechanism to prevent disease, and she hopes to one day apply her knowledge to a career in international public health.

outreach director Total Wellness is a division of the Student Welfare Commission that is dedicated to spreading awareness of and sharing knowledge on issues of student health and health care. By providing an understanding of health and lifestyle issues, elucidating health concepts, providing recommendations for physical, mental, and social well-being, and making visible and accessible various health resources, programs, and events occurring at UCLA, Total Wellness seeks to empower students with up-to-date and accurate knowledge on the appropriate management of their health.


total wellness â–Ş fall 2011

Cindy La is a junior Human Biology and Society major and Global Studies Minor. She has been involved with Total Wellness since her second year and now serves as the Outreach Director. Cindy is also the director of EARTH, an environmental health division also under SWC (Student Welfare Commission) that promotes healthy lifestyle habits that contribute to student well-being and a cleaner environment. Additionally, because of Cindy's passion for fostering a good learning environment, she has been active in Project Literacy and Citylab at UCLA. In the future, Cindy hopes to be a rheumatologist and research ways to help those who suffer with chronic pain and arthritis.

total wellness Director Editor-in-Chief Co-Art Director Co-Art Director Outreach Director Managing Editor Copy Editor

Shannon Wongvibulsin Leigh Goodrich Amorette Jeng Karin Yuen Cindy La Julia Bree Horie Nicole Lew

Staff Writers Cristina Chang, Julia Duong, Teni Karimian, Shamim S. Nafea, Brian Khoa Nguyen, Nabeel Qureshi, Kevin Sung, Leanna Tu, Jennifer J. Wilson Design Chloe Booher, Amorette Jeng, Madeline Kleinman, Coco Liu, Jennifer Shieh, Rebecca Wang, Elizabeth Wang, Shannon Wongvibulsin, Karin Yuen Advisory & Review William Aronson, MD

Professor, UCLA School of Medicine

Susan Bowerman, MS, RD, CSSD

Assistant Director, UCLA Center for Human Nutrition

Leah FitzGerald, RN, FNP, PhD

Assistant Professor, UCLA School of Nursing

Dena Herman, PhD, MPH, RD

Adjunct Assistant Professor, UCLA School of Public Health

Eve Lahijani, MS, RD

Nutrition Health Educator, UCLA Bruin Resource Center

Melissa Magaro, PhD

Clinical Psychologist, UCLA Counseling and Psychological Services

Lilia Meltzer, RN, NP, MSN

Lecturer, California State University, Long Beach

William McCarthy, PhD

Adjunct Professor, UCLA School of Public Health

Rena Orenstein, MPH

Assistant Director, Student Health Education

Allan Pantuck, MD, MS, FACS

Associate Professor, UCLA School of Medicine

Raffi Tachdjian, MD, MPH

Assistant Clinical Professor, UCLA School of Medicine

Elisa Terry, NSCA-CSCS

FITWELL Services Program Director, UCLA Recreation

Alona Zerlin, MS, RD

Research Dietitian, UCLA Center for Human Nutrition

Total Wellness is a free, student-run, biquarterly publication published 7 times a year and is supported by advertisers, the Arthur Ashe Student Health and Wellness Center, the On Campus Housing Council (OCHC), the Student Welfare Commission (SWC), UCLA Recreation, and the Undergraduate Students Association (USAC).

total wellness â–Ş fall 2011

Contact 308 Westwood Blvd., Kerckhoff Hall 308 Los Angeles, CA 90024 Phone 310.825.7586, Fax 310.267.4732 Subscription, back issues, and advertising rates available on request Volume 12, Issue 1 Š 2011 by Total Wellness Magazine. All rights reserved. Parts of this magazine may be reproduced only with written permission from the editor. Although every precaution has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the published material, Total Wellness cannot be held responsible for the opinions expressed or facts supplied by authors. We do not necessarily endorse products and services advertised. The information in Total Wellness is not intended as medical advice and should not replace the advice of your physician. Always consult a health care provider for clarification.


contents IN EVERY ISSUE 2 6 7 38 39

Director's Letter & Editor’s Note In the News Q&A Food Pick Credits


Get Active 8 Group Exercise Classes at the Wooden

Eat Right 10 Milk Alternatives: Beyond Dairy Body in Focus 12 Brushing Underneath Toothpaste 14

Labels: A Consumer's Guide to Toothpaste Detox and Diets

Mind Matters 16 Importance of Friends for Overall

total wellness


a ucla student welfare commission publication


20 Chasing your Goal: 26.2 Miles at a Time 24 Co-operativity for Savings and Better Health: A Look at Food Co-ops 26 To Bottle or Not to Bottle... The Debate Between Bottled or Tap Water 28 Meal Makeover: Comfort Foods 30 Delicious and Healthy? Enhancing the Health Benefits of Traditional Festive Foods 33 Vaccinations: Boosting Your Health with a Shot 36 A Year of Health Breakthroughs

marathon training

fall into marathon season with the ultimate runner's guide


bottled vs. tap

where you should get your water


what it is and if you should do it

toothpaste ingredients

just what's in there?

alternative milks going beyond dairy

breaking into the new year: healthy holiday foods & health breakthroughs of 2011

fall 11 | vol 12 | issue 1

ON THE COVER 26 14 12 10 30 36

Bottle vs. Tap Detox? Toothpaste Ingredients Alternative Milks Healthy Holiday Foods Health Breakthroughs


total wellness â–Ş fall 2011

cover: joshua hodge photography/istockphoto; left: mediaphotos/istockphoto; right: joshua hodge photography/istockphoto

fall 2011

in the news

what’s happening in health? by shannon wongvibulsin | design by amorette jeng

RESEARCH & NEW FINDINGS From brain signals recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), researchers at the University of California, Berkeley were able to determine what their subjects were watching. In the study soon to be published in Current Biology, the participants’ brain activity as they viewed movie trailers was first recorded to determine the pattern of each individual’s brain activity in response to movie scenes. Once these signals were fed into a computer program, the researchers were able to work backwards and reproduce the visual scene the participant was viewing.


It’s now possible to get as much caffeine as a large cup of coffee in three puffs with AeroShot, a recently developed zero-calorie, ‘inhalable’ caffeine product. Plans are under way to market this recent development as an energy supplement. In addition to providing 100 mg of caffeine, each inhaler also contains 100% of the recommended daily allowance of vitamins B3, B6, and B12.


A review of three studies of children in Finland published in Cochrane Library suggests that children who chew gum with the natural sweetener xylitol or consume xylitol in lozenges or syrup medication have about a 25 percent reduction in the risk for middle ear infection. Although the mechanism explaining how xylitol may protect against ear infections is not yet understood, many researchers support the hypothesis that xylitol, which is known to prevent the growth of certain bacteria, may hinder bacterial growth in the eustachian tube that typically results in middle ear infection. Although xylitol gum may be effective in preventing ear infection in Finland and other Scandinavian countries, there is some concern that the results will not be reproducible in the U.S. due to the use of antibiotics to treat ear infections in the U.S., which is not a common practice in Scandinavian countries.

total wellness ▪ fall 2011



percent of waking hours typical adults are sedentary


percent of deaths each year resulting from heart disease, cancer, or stroke


In 2008, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Avastin as a biological therapy drug for inhibiting the growth of blood vessels that feed tumors. However, recent studies show that while Avastin may prevent tumor growth, the drug results in significant side effects, such as increased risk of strokes and heart attacks, without extending the overall life of the patient. In fact, about one percent of breast cancer patients who have used the drug lost their lives due to its side effects. Although some researchers suggest that women with certain types of breast cancer may still benefit from the drug, the results are inconclusive. Consequently, the FDA has revoked its approval of Avastin for breast cancer treatment.



Microbiologists at the UCLA School of Dentistry have recently published findings in the journal Caries Research from a small-scale study that demonstrated the ability of their experimental mouthwash to nearly entirely eliminate Streptococcus mutans (the key bacteria responsible for tooth decay and cavities) for the four-day testing period after only one rinse. While traditional mouthwashes kill benign, beneficial, and harmful bacteria without discrimination, this experimental mouthwash is unique in that it specifically targets hazardous bacteria and its effects can last for an extended period. Efforts are currently under way for U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of more extensive clinical trials with this revolutionary mouthwash. t w


rank of Los Angeles on Forbes list of America’s Dirtiest Cities

baker idi heart and diabetes institute in australia; centers for disease control and prevention (cdc); forbes

left:vial: micah young/istockphoto; gum: jesus jauregui/istockphoto; right: design56/istockphoto



Q: A:

What’s all the hype about coconut water? Loved by athletes, celebrities, and health nuts alike, coconut water has become a highly coveted healthy elixir. But with a pricetag of two to three dollars for 10 ounces of this high-quality water, is this craze really all it’s cracked up to be?

To answer this question, the distinction must first be made between coconut water and coconut milk. While coconut water is the clear juice from the insides of a young coconut, coconut milk (the stuff that makes Thai curries so rich and delicious) is the thick fluid that comes from the meat of mature coconuts. If this difference does not adequately set them apart, their nutrition contents will make them seem like night and day – a cup of coconut water has 46 calories and almost no saturated fat, but a cup of coconut milk has a whopping 552 calories and 50 grams of saturated fat. Dubbed “nature’s sports drink,” coconut water has been marketed as an all-natural source of the electrolytes (like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium) that artificial sports drinks provide. But can coconut water really hold its own as a sport beverage? When exercising, the body needs to be refueled with:

by julia bree horie | design by karin yuen

daily recommended value of potassium, more than twice the amount in a banana. While it lacks the fiber that whole foods like tomatoes, watermelons, beans, and bananas offer, coconut water serves as a suitable potassium source. As a whole, the choice between coconut water and Gatorade as a sports drink comes down to a matter of preference. Keep in mind, though, that coconut water does not have the artificial colors and flavorings that make Gatorade so appealing to the eye. As for the mineral content, electrolytes are electrolytes – the body does not distinguish between the electrolytes synthesized in a factory and those made by mother nature. While Gatorade is a well-designed product for optimizing post-workout rehydration, coconut water qualifies as a nice alternative, as it successfully satisfies the sports drink checklist of fluid, carbohydrates electrolytes, and taste. t w

got a question? We love curious readers. Send

your question over to and the answer may appear in a future issue.

1. Carbohydrates: During an intense workout, the body needs approximately one gram of carbohydrate per minute of exercise. 2. Water: Sweat is obviously composed primarily of water, so it is important to stay hydrated when exercising. 3. Electrolytes: For a typical workout at the gym, a wellbalanced diet should be sufficient to restore the electrolytes lost in sweat. However, for those who exercise longer and more intensely, sports drinks or coconut water can help to restore these electrolytes. With that said, here are the facts: An 8.5 ounce serving of coconut water contains 45 calories, 15 grams of carbohydrates, 11 grams of sugar, 30 mg of sodium, and 515 mg of potassium. Compare this to 8 fluid ounces of Gatorade, which offers 50 calories, 14 grams of carbohydrates, 14 grams of sugar, 110 mg of sodium, and 30 mg of potassium.


total wellness ▪ fall 2011

The advantage of both coconut water and Gatorade is that they are lightly sweet, so they encourage the athlete to drink up. Still, they do not contain too much sugar that would hinder the hydration process. The main difference between the two is the electrolyte content – coconut water offers more potassium while Gatorade focuses more on replenishing sodium. Since more sodium than potassium is lost in sweat, Gatorade may have an upper hand in refueling the body with electrolytes during an intense workout – it was, after all, carefully formulated for this reason. However, many people are also deficient in potassium since it is most widespread in plant foods. A serving of coconut water provides 15 percent of the

get active

Group Exercise Classes

at the Wooden by julia bree horie | design by karin yuen


Try this sensual, fun, Middle Eastern dance workout that strengthens and tones the entire body while developing balance, coordination, and grace. Make your hips drop, roll, and pivot in a low-impact workout that works your abdomen, pelvis, trunk, spine, and neck, without placing stress on your joints. Break a mild sweat and dance your way towards a great midline and flexible hips.


Bring the energetic and athletic dance moves from movies like Slumdog Millionaire back to your own home. With the upbeat music of Bollywood, this class is sure to add a flirty flare to a stressful day.


Get a full body cardio workout and let loose to your favorite tunes. With easy-to-follow directions, there is no dance experience necessary – within minutes, you can be poppin' it and droppin' it like a pro.


total wellness ▪ fall 2011

Use the ballet barre and your own body weight to elongate muscles and improve posture. Based on the principles of dance conditioning, this class will give you the intense workout and coordination you've been waiting for.


Dive into this fitness inspired dance class based on salsa and other Latin dance moves. A typical Zumba class can burn up to 400 to 600 calories an hour, but this class is just as much a party as it is a workout.



Packed with cardio intervals, sports conditioning, core strengthening, kickboxing, and muscle building, Bootcamp Fun has it all. From push-ups, squat thrusts, punches, and kicks, the body will feel militaryready by the end of this workout. So without further ado, drop and give me twenty!


Get ready to sweat because this workout will push you to your fighting limits. Leave your worries at the door and punch and kick your way through amazing upbeat musical playlists.


Tae Bo is a form of high impact aerobics that blends the moves of Tae Kwon Do, karate, boxing, ballet, and hip-hop dance. Train with Tae Bo certified instructors straight from Billy Banks' studio to punch, kick, and sweat yourself into shape.


It can't get any clearer than this. This workout will firm up – you guessed it – your torso and your tush. Targeting these areas will improve posture and decrease back pain.


This is a lower body strength and anaerobic class that uses weights, tubes, bands, balls, and your own body weight for resistance. The bottom line? Build muscles and increase lean body mass to stride more confidently through life.


Using a variety of equipment, this class targets the midline and the legs for an intense, muscle-building workout.


Utilizing body weight, balls, and tubing for various exercises, this class strives to give you what you've always wished for – a hard core. From abdominal conditioning to spinal extensions, your core will thank you after taking this class.


Going to the gym can quickly become boring and robotic — there is, after all, only so much one can take of a treadmill or elliptical. Take the 'routine' out of your exercise schedule and engage yourself in these GroupX classes to bring back excitement and fun into your workout.


Get cut, increase your confidence, and strengthen your upper body with this fun, intensive anaerobic class using weights, tubes, bands, balls, and your own body weight for resistance. To kick up the intensity a level, try the Total Body Challenge!


Use weights, tubes, bands, balls, and your own body for resistance to strengthen your upper body in this challenging anaerobic class.


Bring back the childhood memories and experience the hula hoop again – in a way you've never experienced it before. Challenge yourself to keep your hoop up the longest and get an amazing core workout while you're at it.


For those who just want to work hard, this is the class for you. Challenge every muscle in your body with multi-joint compound movements, and keep on doing them until you've reached your limit. IFT Barbell classes use barbells to perform advanced exercises to increase strength, power, and flexibility.


This group cycling workout is an awesome way to start your morning or end your day. The cardio workout will undoubtedly leave you dripping with sweat and benefit your heart, lungs, butt, quadriceps, and hamstrings. Don't let the stationary bike fool you – spin never gets boring. The simulated terrain, motivational songs, amazing choreography, and encouragement from instructors keep your mind off the burn in your legs.

STEP 30/20/10, 35/30/10, 45/35/10:

A combination of cardio on the step (first number), strength training (second number), and stretching (third number), this class provides a balanced total body workout. The different numbers in the class titles refer to the minutes spent on each section (cardio, strength and stretching).


Stairs no longer have to be a drag with this low impact, muscle toning fitness class. While it often uses less complex choreography than aerobic dance classes, Step still manages to enhance coordination and rhythm. Combine cardio on the step with stretching or abdominal exercises, or challenge yourself with more intricate choreography with Step Challenge!


Nothing says 'grace' like yoga combined with a splash of ballet at the barre. This class is sure to build the strength and flexibility of your entire body.



Self Myofascial Release on the foam roller is a recovery method and self-massage technique that uses sustained pressure to release tension of abnormal fascia. Fascia is a connective tissue throughout the entire body; damage to this area can contribute to chronic pain, stiffness, headaches, and poor body performance.


Listen to your favorite R&B and hip-hop tracks to recenter, refresh, and increase flexibility and fluidity. Intended to complement Cardio Hip Hop, this short 20 minute class is the optimal way to cool down after extreme cardio fun. Long relaxing stretches, core strengthening, with a bit of dance? There's no better way to finish off a workout. t w


total wellness ▪ fall 2011

Pilates is a fitness system of strengthening and stretching exercises to develop the core, mobilize the spine, and increase flexibility. Try these classes to gain awareness and control of your body and tone those hard-to-reach muscles. Note that Pilates Reformer uses the Reformer Bed and requires an introductory workshop.


eat right

milk alternatives: beyond dairy

by leanna tu | design by rebecca wang & amorette jeng

Who says milk has to come from cows, or even mammals for that matter? Whether it is due to lactose intolerance, allergies, personal beliefs in veganism, or a desire to reduce their carbon footprint, consumers have increasingly sought out milk alternatives from plant fibers. Many of these milks are enriched with supplemental vitamins and minerals (especially calcium and vitamins B12, D, and A), but their core ingredients also offer various nutrition benefits. Here are the most popular substitutes currently available on the market. Keep in mind that the descriptions below apply for non-fortified, unsweetened options. Rice

total wellness ▪ fall 2011


Made from ground almonds and water, this milk has a nutty flavor with a thinner consistency than cow’s milk. Almonds are a common allergen, but many of those able to drink it find it palatable and a suitable milk alternative. Although much of the fiber present in whole almonds is lost during production, almond milk still retains trace amounts of vitamin E that protects cell membranes. Remember, though, that while almond milk is the lowest in calories among these milk alternatives, it also is low in protein at only one to two grams per cup and consists mainly of water rather than the nutritious nut. In order to reap the full benefits of almonds, it is more efficient to eat the solid nut rather than drink the milk.


left: cgissemann/istockphoto; bottom left (right page): alexandr tovstenko; top right: danager/istockphoto; bottom right: diane labombarbe/istockphoto

Rice is generally hypoallergenic, making this substitute a safe option for many. The milk is usually made with brown rice, which is high in B vitamins that can help prevent heart disease and maintain healthy blood cells. Rice is also a source of magnesium, manganese, iron, and selenium. Although the majority of these minerals are lost during the manufacturing process, most brands are fortified to compensate for some of this loss. Rice milk is the least fattening of the milk alternatives listed, with only 1-2.5 grams of fat per cup. In terms of consistency, rice is quite starchy and rice milk is unsurprisingly similar. One cup of rice milk can have up to 33 grams of carbohydrates, which is two to three times more than some other alternatives. Although rice milk has a sweet, mild flavor, its high sugar content and lack of protein – only 1-2 grams per cup – make it better suited for cooking rather than a frequent milk replacement.


Coconut “milk” substitute, made from thinner coconut cream rather than the fruit’s flesh, is not to be confused with canned coconut milk used for cooking. It is very thick and creamy and contains minimal starch and carbohydrates. With five grams of saturated fat, coconut milk is the highest in fat content out of all these milk alternatives. However, not all fat is the same – the fat in coconut milk consists of MCFAs, or medium-chain fatty acids. MCFAs are more quickly metabolized than the longer fatty acid chains found in meat and dairy products, less likely to raise blood cholesterol, and separate studies done in Switzerland and Italy show that MCFAs can actually increase metabolic rates. Coconut milk also contains lauric acid, which may have antiviral and antibacterial properties. Despite these promising benefits, at around 25 percent of your daily recommended value of saturated fat, coconut milk should be consumed in moderation. It has around 50-80 calories per cup and is often, like many of these other milks, fortified with calcium.


Hemp milk is a newer milk alternative that gained popularity around 2006. A widespread product in the European Union and Canada, it is made from the seeds of a different strain of the Cannabis plant than what is used to make the drug. Hemp milk has very negligible amounts, or none at all, of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive compound in associated with marijuana. In fact, a 2001 study published in the Journal of Analytical Toxicology confirmed that individuals who consumed extensive amounts of hemp foods were well below a level of THC needed to test positive in a drug test, and that it is safe for human consumption. Hemp milk contains all the essential amino acids but is not a significant source of protein, with only three grams per cup. It has a significant amount of calories and fat, but is low in saturated fat and boasts the ideal 3:1 ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. While these plant-based fats are not as beneficial as the DHA and EPA fats found in fish oil, they still aid in brain development and are linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.

With so many different options for milk, feel free to try something new in your cereal this week. By exploring various plant-based milk options you might find an alternative that fits your dietary needs. Regular cow’s milk is highest in calcium, protein, and vitamin D, but if you like to mix things up or try something different, see which one of these you like best! tw


total wellness ▪ fall 2011

Probably the most widespread milk substitute, soy milk has gained a foothold and can be found not only in health food stores but also conventional supermarkets. Soy milk is an attractive replacement for cow’s milk because of its high protein content: with an average of eight grams of protein per cup – equivalent to 14 percent of your daily value – it boasts by far the largest amount of protein among these alternatives. Additionally, soy protein is “complete,” meaning that it contains all the essential amino acids necessary for human nutrition. Soy may also reduce your LDL, or “bad” cholesterol levels, which can help lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. A cup of soy milk provides about eight percent of your daily recommended value of iron, and 20 percent of manganese.


body in focus

brushing underneath toothpaste labels:

a consumer’s guide to toothpaste by julia duong | design by karin yuen

Walk down the oral health aisle at any drugstore

left: joão lourenço/istockphoto; right: bubaone/istockphoto

total wellness ▪ fall 2011

and it is easy to notice the shelves lined with various kinds of toothpastes, all claiming to whiten teeth, control tartar, and more. With so many brands, flavors, and types to choose from, how is a consumer to pick? Here are some common ingredients and terms used on many toothpaste labels and what they really mean:


Sodium Fluoride (Fluoride): Toothpastes accepted by the American Dental Association (ADA) contain fluoride in the forms of sodium monofluorophosphate, stannous fluoride, and sodium fluoride, all of which prevent tooth decay. Fluoride increases the growth rate of enamel, thus depositing minerals in previously damaged areas of the teeth and making teeth more resistant to acids from plaque bacteria or foods. However, fluoride can be hazardous to health if ingested in large amounts, especially at a developing age. In 2003, The International Journal of Dental Hygiene warned that ingesting high doses at a young age puts a child at risk for fluorosis, a disease marked by teeth spots and stains. For children ages six or younger, the concentration of fluoride should be <600 ppm; for children older than six years, 1100-1450 ppm; for adults, 1450 ppm. The standard toothpaste has 1000 ppm of fluoride, although there are toothpastes for children with a <600 ppm and some toothpastes with a ppm of 1500. As a result, the Food and Drug Administration in 1997 issued a legal requirement to have all fluoride toothpastes contain safety warnings regarding toothpaste ingestion.

Silica (Abrasive): Abrasives give toothpaste their slightly gritty texture and cleaning power, removing stains, food remnants, and plaques, as well as polishing teeth. Some forms of abrasives include calcium carbonate (the compound with which chalk is made), silica (the prominent compound in sand), and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). However, these abrasives are usually harmless because they have been chemically modified to mitigate the stronger effects of their pure forms. Toothpastes designed to remove coffee and tobacco stains or tartar may have harsher abrasives such as crystalline silica and pumis. If the toothpastes are too abrasive, they may wear away tooth enamel, exposing dentin, the next layer below the enamel that is more yellow in color. Moreover, highly abrasive toothpastes can make teeth overly sensitive to temperature. Toothpastes are usually measured by their relative dentin abrasivity (RDA), with a low RDA rating indicating less abrasiveness. The scale starts from 0 - 250, with 250 being the ADArecommended limit and 200 as the FDA-recommended limit .

Calcium Phosphate (Remineralization Agents):

Detergents also aid in removing food and plaque by containing molecules called surfactants that attach to a stain on one end and to water at the other end. The water pulls the surfactant (and thus the stain) away from the surface. The most common toothpaste detergent is sodium lauryl suflate (SLS), which is commonly used in soaps, shampoos, and other foam-creating products. When SLS is manufactured, one by-product created is 1, 4-dioxane, a toxic compound that has been linked to cancer, reproductivity toxicity, and organ system toxicity, according to the Environmental Working Group. SLS works by removing oils from the skin. These areas become susceptible to irritiation; as a result, SLS has been linked to apthous ulcers (canker sores/mouth ulcers) in sensitive people. A 1997 study published in the Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry demonstrated that, after switching from SLS-containing toothpastes to SLS-free toothpastes, the number of recurring canker sores in patients significantly decreased.

Calcium Peroxide (Whitening Agent): Whitening toothpastes usually do not contain enough bleaching agents to actually change tooth color. “I have not seen valid studies showing beneficial effects of whitening toothpastes,” stated Dr. Ben Wu, D.D.S, PhD at UCLA’s Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials, and Hospital Dentistry. Calcium peroxide, when in contact with water and acid, breaks down into hydrogen peroxide and acts as bleach. While home bleaching kits, which have a higher peroxide content, claim to be stronger, the ADA warns that the “regular use of home bleaching kits, which contain high amounts of peroxide, may temporarily damage the soft tissues of the mouth, delay healing of already damaged tissue, or damage tooth pulp by traveling down tubules in the enamel to the pulp.”

Triclosan (Anti-Bacterial Agent): Triclosan is often used to kill bacteria, as seen in preventing tartar and bad breath. According to the American Medical Association, triclosan should not be used because it will encourage bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Triclosan has been linked to liver and inhalation toxicity, and can disrupt thyroid function. Moreover, when the toothpaste has washed down the sink drain, waste water treatment does not remove all of the triclosan, leading to polluted lakes and rivers. t w


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Minerals from the teeth can be eroded and dissolved over time due to bacteria, acidic foods and drinks. Calcium phosphate is an ingredient that can restore minerals back into the teeth. Upon contact with moisture, calcium phosphate will repair, protect, and strengthen enamel. A 1999 study published in The Journal of Clinical Dentistry showed that after patients were exposed to an acidic soft drink, using a remineralizing toothpaste was “more effective in hardening intact and decalcified enamel than [using] the conventional toothpaste”.

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (Detergent):

body in focus


detox and diets by teni kariman | design by coco liu & karin yuen

regimens as a reset button after a weekend of over indulgence. But before you run to the nearest grocery store to pick up a laundry list of concoctions and supplements, letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s consider what effect this could really have on the body. With studies indicating detoxification should only be used to cleanse the body of chronic illness, there is much more to consider than whether to choose the cabbage soup or grapefruit diets.


left: susandaniels/istockphoto; right: yinyang/istockphoto

total wellness â&#x2013;Ş fall 2011

With their recent media attention, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s easy to think of detox

Ancient Medicine

The Shift…

Dating back to 1500 B.C., with roots in ancient Indian alternative medicine, or Ayurveda, a detoxification was used only as a vital healing technique for chronic illnesses such as edema, abscesses, seizures, tumors and skin disease. The treatments stressed the importance of hygiene and the use of plant-based medicine including herbs and minerals accompanied by steam-based treatments and massages in order to ensure proper functioning of the body’s channels. Over time, detox regimens have maintained their original purpose and have also been applied in new ways. Detoxes have been used to treat people with addictions, and in chelation therapy after major exposure to ionic substances and metals using the synthetic amino acid EDTA (ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid) to remove metallic cations from the body. Weight loss accompanying the treatment, however, has more recently been targeted as a goal in itself, essentially turning cleanses into extreme diets. Informing yourself about the reality of cleanses and health effects of such regimens is crucial before ever considering one.

Because of their seeming ability to bring about instant weight loss, there has been a lot of attention given to detoxification with the Master Cleanse, colonics and use of laxatives becoming the new fad diets. Of course, despite complicated regimens and different names, it is no surprise that extreme calorie restriction leads to weight loss. However, these “diets” can be very unsafe because they strip away essential nutrients and place an excessive amount of stress on the body. Dieters on detox regimes are urged to limit their intake to liquids only and to use laxatives, enemas and colonic irrigation (which are often indications of eating disorders). Doing so, the dieter becomes vulnerable to intestinal and cardiac problems due to malnutrition and dehydration. And with these “quick fix” versions of traditional cleanses, the support/rebuilding phase is often overlooked and normal eating habits are re-adopted, as opposed to building up and sustaining a healthy lifestyle. Because starvation lowers the metabolism, once prior eating habits are re-adopted, this often results in immediate weight gain.

To Detox, or Not to Detox?

According to Eve Lahijani, RD, MS, the Nutrition Health Educator at the Bruin Resource Center, the restricted intake increases the likelihood of food obsession and promotes unhealthy eating habits once the cleanse is over. And for those at risk of an eating disorder, a detox seems to be a gateway to disordered eating and may even result in more serious conditions like full blown eating disorders.

The overall goal of a cleanse is to rid the body of toxins, which include anything that could potentially harm body tissue (specifically resulting from food, water, and exposure to the environment). A traditional detoxification regimen consists of three phases: the clearing phase, the specific detox, and the support/ re-building phase. The overall treatment should be accompanied by changes in lifestyle including dietary changes, increases in physical activity and stress reduction.

With detox systems already built into the body, it is more important to ensure the overall health of that system instead of implementing an inferior one that can do more harm than good. As an alternative dieters should implement a healthy diet, stay hydrated, increase physical activity and find ways to reduce stress. If it isn’t broken, there really is no need to fix it. t w

Master Cleanse

The master cleanse consists of drinking a lemonade mixture with lemon juice, maple syrup and cayenne pepper for 10-15 days. Not only is intake severely restricted during the diet, but this cleanse also inhibits the immune system as well as the body’s ability to process food. This kind of excessive flushing of the body removes the healthy bacteria in the colon, essentially ridding the body of its first line of defense against infection and sickness.

Cabbage Soup Diet

This diet consists of a seven day regimen where the main meal is cabbage soup. Along with the soup, dieters are also allowed to consume fruits and vegetables on certain days. Overemphasizing one specific food directly contradicts the health benefits of a balanced diet. No single food has all the nutrients needed for good health, so this diet leads to nutritional deficiencies detrimental to health.

Grapefruit Diet

This cleanse is a 12-day plan that requires dieters to lower their daily intake to 800 calories while eating half a grapefruit before each meal. This diet is especially dangerous for women because grapefruit is known to block enzymes that break down estrogen. As a result, the risk of blood clots is elevated.

Raw Foods Diet

This diet calls for consumption of only raw fruits and vegetables for as long as two weeks. Although this may seem to be a healthier cleanse, a 2005 study published in The Journal of Nutrtition suggests that participants of a raw food diet can have vitamin B-12 deficiencies, lowering serum HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels.


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With a healthy diet, regular exercise and reduced stress, the human body has mechanisms in place to cleanse itself. The liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, lungs, skin, blood and lymphatic systems all work together to ensure ingested toxins are transformed to less harmful compounds and excreted from the body. In fact, the human body is so efficient that in ideal conditions it will eliminate all toxins within hours of consumption. So unless there is a problem with the internal mechanics of the body, the recently popularized detox regimens may do more harm than good.

A Healthier Alternative

Popular Detox Diets

importance of friends

for overall wellness

total wellness ▪ fall 2011

In a society that grows increasingly dependent on the digital world, social networking sites such as Facebook have placed friends just a few clicks away. Although face-to-face interactions are seeming to lose their importance, their displacement from the convenience of online social networking can be detrimental. Melissa Margaro, PhD, the Affective Disorders Program Coordinator of UCLA Counseling and Psychological Services, agrees that online networking can definitely have its benefits, but one cannot neglect interacting with others in person. “There are certainly ways that


social networking helps [us] be more connected, for instance, with those who already have an established relationship with but perhaps are far away from due to distance,” said Margaro. She also added, “online social networking often robs us of being able to pick up on non-verbal communication, which is an important part of how we get to know others, sense how they are feeling, and respond.” In fact, studies have shown that connecting with people in person is actually quite beneficial to our health. Read on to learn more about how social circles can play an important role in overall wellness.

original illustrations by rebecca wang

by kevin sung | illustrations by rebecca wang| design by karin yuen

how does my social circle affect my wellness? boosting immune function Socializing can potentially help boost the immune system. Regulation of gene expression of white blood cells called leukocytes has been linked to social isolation by a 2007 study in Genome Biology. Out of 209 identified leukocyte genes, 78 genes were up-regulated, while 113 genes were down-regulated. Those individuals who reported higher levels of social isolation showed greater regulation of genes promoting inflammatory responses associated with stress and disease. This in turn places a lonely person at higher risk of inflammatory disease as well. In another study published in 2008 in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, cancer patients who had stronger social support showed a higher natural killer (NK) cell activity. These NK cells play an important role in combating tumors and viral-infected cells in the body.

enhancing happiness The fact that friends and meaningful relationships affect a person’s mood is an idea that intuitively makes sense. The extent to which the size of a social circle can quantifiably predict happiness, however, is a bit more surprising. A research article published in the British Medical Journal in 2008 used statistical analysis in following a group of individuals and tracking their happiness levels across a span of 20 years. The group of individuals were asked to report for examination at regular time intervals. Researchers asked the participants how many times they had felt the following four emotions in the past week: “I felt hopeful about the future,” “I was happy,” “I enjoyed life,” “I felt that I was just as good as other people.”

staying fit

A method was determined to accurately convert the frequencies into a happiness scale of zero to12. The results showed that happiness within a social network spreads up to three degrees of separation. This means that the relative happiness of the friends of friends of friends of any person affects that individual as well. In fact, simply having friends who report high levels of happiness has a high probability of raising one’s happiness levels. And, it is not only friends who make a difference; neighbors, spouses, and siblings also affect an individual’s happiness levels. Non-resident spouses, siblings who live outside a one-mile radius, and co-workers, however, did not have a significant effect on the happiness levels, according to the study. Another interesting finding is that individuals were more likely to be affected by connections of the same gender, suggesting that people tend to take social cues more readily from individuals of the same gender. Although the exact mechanism for this phenomenon has not been determined, the influence one’s social network has on his perception of well-being is of great significance.


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A 2007 study in The New England Journal of Medicine demonstrated that the spread of obesity across social networks behaves in a way similar to the spread of happiness. The statistical analysis of the data compiled in the study suggests that the spread of obesity also is influenced by three degrees of separation. In fact, a friend’s friend’s friend becoming obese can increase one’s chances of becoming obese by as much as 10 percent. Physical separation between two friends does little to reduce the ability of obesity to spread. A purely “social” distance determines the strength of influence the obesity of one’s friends has on the individual. For example, an individual whose friend also acknowledges the other as a friend has a significant level of influence. An individual whose friend does not acknowledge him as a friend has a lower degree of influence. Finally, an individual who does not acknowledge another individual as a friend suffers no such influence, regardless of whether the other person acknowledges a friendship between the two. Gender plays a role as well, as the connection to the spread of obesity is stronger between people of the same gender. The same study has shown that a sibling of the same gender becoming obese increases one’s chances of becoming obese by up to 40 percent. In short, it could be in your best interest to keep a friend in shape.

“...the influence one’s social network has on his perception of well-being is of great significance.”

improving heart health Socializing can pay dividends in taking care of the heart. One way is through a chemical called oxytocin, a hormone best known for its effects in female reproduction. However, oxytocin release is also triggered in response to the stimulation of the body’s sensory systems. It is important to point out that oxytocin is only released in direct contact, or face-to-face contact with other people. During human interactions, the sense of touch and the recognition of warm temperature, such as during hugging, cause the release of oxytocin. As shown in a 2007 study presented to the American Physiological Society, the “love hormone” has been shown to mitigate elevated resting heart rate and heart rate variability in adult female mice exposed to social isolation. In a 2004 study published in Psychosomatic Medicine, women suspected of having coronary artery disease (CAD) were studied. Researchers showed that the size of an individual’s social circle actually correlated to that person’s artery diameter. In addition, the women with a large social circle consistently showed a lowered risk of CAD, as well as reduced hypertension risk. This research gives scientists a clue into the mechanisms of human response to social situations, as well as suggesting a connection between the social environment of a person and his cardiovascular health.

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Our friends and families hold a high priority in our lives, and rightly so. An individual’s social life and relationships have been shown to be correlated with cardiovascular health, diminished risk of obesity, immune system strength, and overall happiness. Keeping this in mind, meet up with a friend in person and enjoy socializing the old-fashioned way! tw

You can also check out the UCLA Marina Aquatic Center on the web at MAC for more water sports such as rowing, surfing, windsurfing, and sailing. They can also be contacted at (310) 823-0048 or

tw total wellness

healthy living

made simple Pick up a copy! Ashe Center Blood & Platelet John Wooden On the Hill Bruin Resource Center ASUCLA stands Kerckhoff Hall SWC Office

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"The will to win means nothing if you haven't the will to prepare." – Juma Ikangaa, 1989 NYC Marathon winner


total wellness ▪ fall 2011

left: original illustrations by rebecca wang

; right: joshua hodge photography/istockphoto

total wellness ❯❯ on the cover


chasing your goal: 26.2 miles at a time Marathon season is upon us. The routes are bursting with scenery, tree-lined roads, and the changing color of leaves. Even if you don't feel ready for a marathon, it’s still possible to dive into the excitement by participating in easy training runs with other runners, volunteering, or just cheering from the sidelines. The spirit of the marathon journey is contagious — so get a dose of the marathon fever and be inspired. For most, running a marathon is no easy task. Yet, every year this endurance race draws thousands of participants who are willing to train for it, usually for months on end. Before embarking on this grueling adventure, there are a few simple things to keep in mind. Namely, marathon training can be


a very challenging and time-consuming ordeal. It takes dedication and rigorous physical conditioning. A marathon is a long and arduous 26.2 miles or 26 miles and 385 yards. For those who aren’t seasoned runners, it is better to incorporate training elements for 5k and 10k races before trying to tackle a marathon. By committing yourself to this goal, you are actively making a statement to promote physical fitness and improve your health and wellbeing. Whether or not you want the satisfaction of completing this feat, you wish to run to raise money for a cause, or you want a motivating reason to get off the couch, deciding to run a marathon is already a bold step towards meeting this challenge. Here are a few things to keep in mind as you begin your first steps…

main image: joshua hodge photography/istockphoto; right: technotr/istockphoto

total wellness ▪ fall 2011

by cindy la | design by amorette jeng

injury prevention consistency The most common cause of injuries when training for a marathon is overstressing the body by doing too much too soon. Another training error is having an inconsistent routine and then trying to compensate for missed workouts by overtraining. Not only does this overly tax the body but it also increases the chances of injury. If you think you are beginning to feel any sort of pain, use the RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation) method. A good rule of thumb to keep in mind is the 10-Percent Rule. The 10-Percent Rule states that you should never increase your weekly mileage by more than 10 percent from the previous week. For example, going from seven miles to 12 miles is not a good idea. Another way to judge if you are overexerting yourself is to measure your resting heart rate every morning. If you see a big jump, like from 60 one day to 72 the next, it might indicate that you are overtraining.

warm-up Although stretching has been ritualized as the go-to warm-up before intense workouts, a 2010 review article in The Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports claims there isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t any evidence to prove that a pre-workout stretch will prevent injuries. Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be so quick to dismiss stretching, however. While it might not do much to prevent injuries, stretching after exercise can alleviate some of the stiffness and soreness that follow a workout. The best way to prevent injuries, of course, is to develop a good warm-up routine. Unlike stationary stretching, warm-ups that increase blood flow through a muscle will help reduce the risk of injury by preparing muscles for the workout.

where to run

The most common cause of injuries when training for a marathon is overstressing the body by doing too much too soon.


total wellness â&#x2013;Ş fall 2011

Running on a slanted or arched road may cause injury by making one foot pronate (roll inward) and the other supinate (roll outward). The more severe the angle of the road, the easier it is to suffer from a rolled ankle or develop a muscle imbalance. Additionally, the leg closer to the center of the road may feel longer than the other leg because it contacts the ground first. This imbalance could lead to the feeling of an unnatural gait. It is best to look for running routes over the flattest roads available, and if possible try running on softer surfaces such as packed dirt or grass. The concrete from sidewalks may lead to running injuries such as shin splints or cause wear and tear on the knee joints.

useful equipment running shoes About halfway through the life of your running shoes, you might want to buy another pair that you can rotate into your runs. Your shoes will last longer when you allow them to decompress and dry out between workouts. Extra moisture and sweat are known to damage the cushioning of shoes, making them less comfortable for your feet and offering less support. Also, running in different shoes on alternating days helps to evenly distribute the stress on certain areas of your foot. Elite runners generally advise tossing shoes after every 300-400 miles of running. Improper or inadequate shoe cushioning will lead to running injuries, so be on the lookout for wear and tear. If the shoe breaks down, it could throw off your running stride and comfort.

watches and gadgets

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clothes and other accessories Make sure that you test out the outfit you plan on wearing the day of the race. Common problems such as chafing may be prevented by wearing the proper equipment and using analgesic creams such as Vaseline. Also consider other types of accessory clothing that will keep you comfortable, such as hats and gloves. Not only can hats protect you from the sunâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rays, but they can also keep your head about 10 degrees cooler. Hats are versatile; they are also useful on colder days because they trap some of the heat that will escape through your head. It helps to bring warm clothes or a throw-away blanket if the weather is chillier. It is important to not be stiff or cold before running the race because muscles tend to tense up. Beyond apparel, consider those items you might need to put on your body to reduce pain and inflammation during the marathon such as analgesic creams.


right foods to eat: before and after the race water The most important thing to do is regulate fluid intake, keeping in mind that hydration needs may also shift due to weather patterns. A good way to stay hydrated come marathon day is to speed walk through the water stops. Dehydration is a major problem for many marathon runners so rather than running through the stations, which often leads to more water on your shirt than in your mouth, it is better to slow down a little to consume at least two full cups of water. Susan Bowerman, Assistant Director for the UCLA Center for Human Nutrition, suggests determining how much water you lose during a typical workout, so you can gauge how much you need to drink during your next bout of exercise. You can do this by weighing yourself before and after a workout to determine how much water you lose through sweating. For every pound you lose, she says, make up for that by drinking two to three cups of water. This is a good system to keep tabs on staying hydrated. When you are marathon training, one of the most crucial things to assess is how your body responds to environmental conditions. It is only by a process of experimentation that you will find out what works best for you. While dehydration is the common condition among runners, in the past few years, several marathoners have died as a result of drinking too much water. Hyponatemia, or water toxication, occurs when too much water is taken in, which dilutes the level of sodium in the bloodstream to a dangerously low level. By the process of osmosis, water enters cells, causing them to swell. Cellular bloating in the brain often leads to fatal results. To avoid this, it is generally advised not to exceed more than eight ounces of water every 20 minutes.

top left: carlos alvarez/istockphoto; right: igor dutina/istockphoto

Investing in a watch is not a bad idea if you want a portable and user-friendly device to track your progress. While performance watches tend to be on the pricier end, watches are available in a wide price range to match your needs. Some watches keep track of laps, calories, and mileage. Try looking for a watch with a breathable strap that is sweat and moisture resistant. Other gadgets such as speed and distance monitors can also be used as training tools. Some of these devices are equipped with a GPS system to allow you to determine how far you have run.

food and energy for training There is a greater need for higher carbohydrate diets during endurance exercises. Your body stores carbohydrate in the form of glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles, so it serves as a ready reserve for energy. You want your muscles packed full of this high quality energy, and to do so, you need to consume plenty of carbohydrates. Preparing for an endurance sport requires a keen attention to diet. Many runners rely on the practice of carbo-loading – eating large amounts of food with carbohydrates a few days before their run – to ensure that they will have the necessary stockpiles of carbohydrates. Carbohydrate loading generally takes place several days before a high-intensity endurance athletic event. However, carbohydrate loading isn't effective for everyone and there are other ways to provide your muscles with enough energy to give you the stamina to make it through. Consuming snacks such as energy bars during runs can help replenish what you burn. Energy bars are light, easy-to-carry, and loaded with complex carbohydrates. Sports drinks are another reliable source of carbohydrates that will help restore the electrolytes you lose and also keep you hydrated. Eating foods high in fiber, especially fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are a must during training, but make sure not to load up on these before the race. Items high in fiber take a long time to digest and can possibly lead to an upset stomach. Your pre-marathon breakfast should consist of foods that your body can digest easily and also give you the necessary carbohydrates to help you power through your run. Never begin experimenting with various food items the weekend of the marathon. Find a good nutritional balancing regime that works for you and continue to utilize it to ensure that there are no unwelcome surprises come race day. After crossing the finish line, remember to replenish your body with nutrients to rebuild depleted muscles. Refuel your muscles, preferably within the first 30-60 minutes after a race, with a meal containing carbohydrates, protein, and sodium. Foods with protein are helpful in transporting carbohydrates to the rest of your body. Meals and snacks with sodium will allow your body to retain a greater amount of fluid. A peanut butter and jelly sandwich along with a banana is just one example of a well-balanced post-marathon snack. t w

tips for training ❯ It is important to stay healthy and avoid injuries when training for a marathon. You should maintain your normal training intensity throughout the final weeks, but you should gradually decrease or taper your workout time. Always listen to your body, and do not be afraid to take rest days. Also do not expect immediate results; successful running takes time, but increased pace and endurance will come with patience and practice. Like with all things, practice gives rise to improvement. ❯ Have a time goal in mind for each of the first few miles and stick to it. It also helps to mentally break down the marathon into segments. Dividing it up this way might make the entire length seem less daunting and more manageable. Having the right positive attitude also goes a long way. If you need an extra boost of support, write your name on your shirt on the day of the marathon so that others will be able to cheer you on during the race. ❯ Try to vary your course runs to avoid making running a boring routine. Cross-training can be very effective by allowing you to develop other parts of the body. Try incorporating aerobic exercises like biking or swimming into your workout or perhaps go on a scenic hike to rejuvenate your mind and your body. ❯ Create incentives for yourself. After all, training for a marathon is hard work. Set reasonable goals and reward yourself when you reach them. Not only will this encourage you to continue forward with enthusiasm, but it will also reinforce your drive and allow you to evaluate your progress.


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❯ Set up a training schedule that fits with school and work, and make adequate adjustments when necessary. Since most marathons are held on a Sunday try planning the longest training run on a Sunday. It takes a good amount of preparation to train for a marathon so begin early. The American Council on Exercise recommends training five months in advance before a full marathon. Of course, the schedule is best determined by your habits – each individual is different and there is no single way to approach preparing for a marathon.


co-operativity for savings and better health: a look at food co-ops

by nabeel qureshi | design by karin yuen

According to a 2011 study published in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, college students are not eating the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables a day necessary for healthy growth and function. In fact, it is rare that college students get more than one serving a day. According to the same study, students regularly skip meals and generally do not understand the importance of fruits and vegetables in their diets.

So what can be done? How can a community fight the high prices, the lack of appreciation, and the inconvenience of proper nutrition?

A sustainable and convenient alternative to chain grocery stores is a food cooperative. 24

olga axyutina/

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To understand the causes of these less-than-ideal dietary habits, it’s important to examine a number of factors. Looking at financial costs alone, it’s clear that high price tags for fresh fruits and vegetables can be a huge deterrent for students on a budget. It’s much easier to get more bang for your buck buying packaged goods than fresh produce. For some students, healthier options seem less convenient, with more preparation time and planning required for veggies than an instant meal. And other students are simply uninformed or don’t appreciate the importance of a balanced diet.

what is a food cooperative?

UCLA’s Student Food Collective

In essence, a food cooperative is a group-owned food organization. Each person purchases a membership and becomes a partial owner of the cooperative. At that point, it is up to the members to volunteer their time, visit regularly, and keep the food cooperative running. Instead of going to Ralph’s and buying fruits imported from all around the world, cooperative members can go into their own store that they help manage and get fresh fruits and vegetables from local vendors. Co-op members run and manage every aspect of the organization.

Recently, a group of students on campus has come up with a potential solution to promote a healthier diet and provide affordable, quality fruits and vegetables. Their goal is to establish UCLA’s own food cooperative to provide students with a viable option to get the nutrition they need and build a new community on campus.

so why does any of this matter? According to the National Cooperative Grocers Association, “Rather than rewarding outside investors with its profits, a co-op returns surplus revenue to its members in proportion to how much they use the co-op.” Not only do you own part of the co-op, but you also share in its savings and get a healthy return for your involvement. This system ideally leads to decreases in the costs of fruits and vegetables since there is no need to pay for labor and other typical grocery store expenses.

Not only do you own part of the co-op, but you also share in its savings and get a healthy return for your involvement. With this shared ownership comes a sense of community. As members of the cooperative, the individuals become part of a community that values affordable, healthy food choices and works together towards the same goals. The more people who are involved, the stronger the community, the better the food, and the more affordable it is. Food cooperatives get their produce from local farms, supporting local business and extending their community to include the producers of the foods they sell.

Founding members of the Student Food Collective want community to be at the cornerstone of their cooperative. Along with providing a warm and welcoming community of students working together, the cooperative plans to teach students how food is processed, distributed, and sold in stores to find ways to cut costs for its members and educate students on how to buy and choose the best fruits and vegetables. Those who are business-minded could get invaluable experience by helping run and manage UCLA’s own food company, and every student would have the opportunity to take part in the community. UCLA is not the first school interested in founding its very own food cooperative, but the challenge of this goal is the sheer size of the endeavor and the fact that it requires the involvement and commitment of students to keep it going. With over 200 students expressing interest on Facebook and many others signing up to be involved at the Enormous Activities Fair, there is some promising interest in the food cooperative movement. To get involved yourself, you can find the group on Facebook as the UCLA Student Food Co-op or sign up for their newsletter to get more information and learn how you can be a part of this exciting, new, and affordable healthy choice opportunity. t w

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to bottle or not to bottle...

the debate between bottled or tap water

by cristina chang | illustration and design by chloe booher

images of pristine mountain springs and exotic islands halfway across the globe often come to mind.

total wellness ▪ fall 2011

It’s a marketing strategy that has Americans purchasing about 50 billion bottles of water a year, or about 167 per person in the last year. That equates to a lot of fossil fuels to package and transport the bottles, as well as a lot of landfill space to store them after use.


environmental impact According to the Pacific Institute, manufacturing water bottles in 2006 alone required 17 million barrels of oil. The bottling process also released over 2.5 million tons of carbon dioxide, which contributes to climate change. And for every liter of water that is bottled, the manufacturing process uses three liters of water. The transportation process also requires fuel and energy. Some companies have turned bottled water into more of a luxury item, with Fiji Water drawing on sources from “a cluster of green jewels set in the endless blue of the Pacific” and Evian relying on “the heart of the Alps.” But bottling water from one part of the world, shipping it across the world, and transporting it to market releases more greenhouse gases and pollution than if consumers drink tap water. The energy it takes to move a bottle by truck, train, ship, or air freight can be as high as filling that

bottle up to a quarter with oil, according to the Pacific Institute. Furthermore, there is nothing special about water that comes from foreign sources, nor does it contain extra health benefits, according to Nurit Katz, UCLA’s Sustainability Coordinator. “It’s just water.” Lastly, resources are also diverted for recovering, recycling, or throwing away the empty bottles. According to the Container Recycling Institute, 86 percent of plastic water bottles end up in landfills. "Once there, it can take thousands of years for them to decompose," said Katz. Their presence also contaminates the Earth and the ocean. Millions of dollars a year also end up being spent cleaning up plastic bottles from highways, parks, and open spaces, according to the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

top left: original illustration by chloe booher; bottom: cardoni gianluca/ istockphoto

When envisioning bottled water, evocative

what are you really paying for? Along with the environmental impacts, there is also a matter of health and cost. “One of the big [misconceptions] is that [bottled water is] cleaner and safer than tap water, when in fact it’s not as wellregulated,” says Katz. “So people buy it thinking they are avoiding contaminants but in fact it doesn’t have to meet the same standards.” For instance, Katz points out that tap water in the United States is regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, which regulates contaminants like E. coli and fecal matter. But, bottled water is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration only when it travels between state borders, leaving 60-70 percent of it unregulated.





committee is recruiting! “...there is nothing special about water that comes from foreign sources, nor does it contain magical properties, it’s just water.”

 Educate students about healthy living and positive well-being  Host events about nutritious diets, positive body image, and stress management  Past events: Yoga under the Stars, I <3 My Body workshop, Bruin Health Symposium, and much more!

-Nurit Katz, UCLA’s Sustainability Coordinator.

Apply now at! Contact us at Bottled water is also one of the most overpriced goods on the market. For instance, Katz notes that in San Francisco, tap water costs the consumer a third of a penny per gallon, whereas a gallon of bottled water can cost one dollar to four dollars. That’s a 3001200 percent markup for a commodity that is virtually free. “It’s a very profitable industry, but not very good for your pocketbook,” she said. Furthermore, according to the Natural Resources Defense Council, about 40 percent of bottled water starts out as tap water, including popular brands like Aquafina and Dasani. This suggests little difference between the tap and bottled water besides the packaging and price.

bottom line As an alternative, Katz points out that tap water is safe to drink, and if people don’t like the taste they can use filters or filtered reusable water bottles to rid the water of chemicals and bacteria. Chlorine also evaporates within 24 hours if the water is left uncovered in the fridge or on the counter. While the manufacturing of a reusable water bottle may have a larger environmental impact than that of a disposable one, the environmental benefits do add up over time. “If you reuse a bottle over two years, you’re looking at over 600 bottles [that could have been disposed],” said Katz. “It’s not zero impact but it’s less.”


total wellness ▪ fall 2011

Keeping this in mind, students seeking to reduce their ecological footprint can carry a water bottle around campus and fill it up at drinking fountains. Avoiding the cost of bottled water can not only be practical for your wallet but lighten the load on the environment as well. t w


meal makeover: comfort foods by nicole lew| design by jennifer shieh

There are some foods that in addition to tasting great also elicit a warm, nostalgic

feeling or fond memories from the past: also known as comfort foods. Though comfort foods vary for each person, most would agree that they have certain foods that they remember from childhood or crave when they are away from home. For this reason, some of the common comfort foods deserve a bit of a makeover to ensure our confidence in their nutritious value. Here are three recipes that have been made healthier, adding even more comfort to comfort foods.


3 tablespoons plain dry whole- wheat breadcrumbs 1 teaspoon extra-virgin olive oil 1/4 teaspoon paprika 1 16-ounce or 10-ounce package frozen spinach, thawed 1 3/4 cups non-fat milk, divided 3 tablespoons whole-wheat flour 2 cups shredded extra-sharp Cheddar cheese (skim) 1 cup low-fat cottage cheese 1/8 teaspoon ground nutmeg 1/4 teaspoon salt Freshly ground pepper, to taste 8 ounces (2 cups) whole-wheat elbow macaroni, or penne

Total Cook Time: 55 minutes Yield: 4 servings

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Preparation: 1. Bring a large pot of water to boil.

Preheat oven to 450°F. Coat an 8-inchsquare (2-quart) baking dish with cooking spray. 2. Mix breadcrumbs, oil and paprika in a small bowl. Place spinach in a fine-mesh strainer and press out excess moisture. 3. Heat 1 1/2 cups milk in a large heavy saucepan over medium-high heat until steaming. Whisk remaining 1/4 cup milk and flour in a small bowl until smooth;


add to the hot milk and cook, whisking constantly, until the sauce simmers and thickens, 2 to 3 minutes. Remove from heat and stir in cheddar until melted. Stir in cottage cheese, nutmeg, salt and pepper. 4. Cook pasta for 4 minutes, or until not quite tender. (It will continue to cook during baking.) Drain and add to the cheese sauce; mix well. Spread half the pasta mixture in the prepared baking dish. Spoon the spinach on top. Top with the remaining pasta; sprinkle with the breadcrumb mixture. 5. Bake the casserole until bubbly and golden, approximately 25 to 30 minutes.

Why It’s Healthier: ❯ Non-fat or low-fat milk: Using skim or low-fat milk instead of whole milk or cream when making Mac n’ Cheese decreases

the amount of saturated fat in the meal, benefiting heart health. Additionally, milk is an excellent source of calcium and protein. ❯ Added spinach: Sneaking a layer of spinach in the middle of this dish significantly increases its health value. The health benefits of spinach (and other leafy greens) are plentiful: high calcium and iron content for strengthening bones, lutein which prevent cataracts, flavanoids to protect against memory loss, and many others. ❯ Cottage cheese: Instead of using butter, this recipe utilizes cottage cheese. Not only does low-fat cottage cheese add to the Mac n’ Cheese’s signature texture, but it is also another great source of both calcium and protein.

left: dlerick/istockphoto; right: yinyang/istockphoto; dny59/istockphoto

Mac N’ Cheese

Chocolate-Chip Cookies Ingredients:

3/4 cup rolled oats 1 cup whole-wheat flour 1/2 teaspoon baking soda 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/4 cup butter, softened 1/4 cup canola oil 1/3 cup granulated sugar 1/3 cup brown sugar 1 large egg 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 1 cup dark chocolate chips

Total Cook Time: 35 minutes Yield: 2 ½ dozen cookies Preparation: 1. Preheat oven to 350°F. Coat 2 baking

sheets with cooking spray. 2. Grind oats in a blender or food processor. Transfer to a medium bowl and stir in flour, baking soda and salt. Beat butter in a large bowl with an electric mixer until fluffy. Add oil, granulated sugar, brown sugar, egg and vanilla; beat until smooth and creamy. With the mixer running, add the dry ingredients, beating on low speed until just combined. Stir in chocolate chips. 3. Drop the dough by heaping teaspoonfuls, at least one inch apart, onto the prepared baking sheets. Bake cookies, one sheet at a time, until firm around the edges and golden on top, about 15 minutes. Cool the cookies for two minutes on the baking sheets, then transfer to wire racks to cool completely.

Why It’s Healthier: ❯ Whole-wheat flour: Most baked goods are made with all-purpose, enriched

white flour. However, these cookies are made with whole-wheat flour, a member of the whole grain family. Whole grains have been shown to be associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain cancers. ❯ Added oats: Oats are an excellent source of dietary fiber. Additionally, according to a 2009 study published in Nutrition Review, oats are heart-healthy, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory. ❯ Less butter: Typical chocolate chip cookie recipes call for around 2 sticks (1 cup) of butter, an ingredient high in saturated fat which raises cholesterol levels. This recipe uses significantly less butter, substituting oil for some of the butter content. ❯ Dark chocolate: While most chocolate chip cookies contain semi-sweet chocolate chips, these cookies contain dark chocolate. Though there is some uncertainty concerning the health benefits of dark chocolate (other than the positive effect on mood), a 2010 study published in BMC Medicine suggests that dark chocolate may in fact reduce blood pressure.

Chicken Noodle Soup Ingredients:

10 cups reduced-sodium chicken broth 3 medium carrots, diced 1 large stalk celery, diced 3 tablespoons minced fresh ginger 6 cloves garlic, minced 4 ounces whole-wheat egg noodles, (3 cups) 4 cups shredded cooked skinless chicken breast 3 tablespoons chopped fresh dill 1 tablespoon lemon juice, or to taste

Preparation: 1. Bring broth to a boil. Add carrots, celery,

ginger and garlic; cook, uncovered, over medium heat until vegetables are just tender, about 20 minutes.

Why It’s Healthier: ❯ Reduced-sodium chicken broth: This chicken noodle soup has only 329 mg of sodium per serving, compared to the 870 mg of sodium per serving in typical Campbell’s Chicken Noodle Soup. A diet high in sodium is associated with hypertension, or high blood pressure, which increases the risk of heart disease.

partially-skinless chicken breast a healthy meal additive. ❯ Dill: Dill is the secret ingredient of this healthy recipe. Not only does it add flavor but it also adds nutrition. Dill protects against carcinogens and prevents bacteria overgrowth and bone loss. It is a great way to season a dish without adding calories or fat. t w

❯ Skinless chicken breast: Since chicken skin also provides flavor, removing part of the chicken skin is also a healthy option. Chicken itself is a great source of protein, making skinless or


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Total Cook Time: 50 minutes Yield: 6 servings (1 ½ cup per serving)

2. Add noodles and chicken; simmer until the noodles are just tender, approxamately 8 to 10 minutes. Stir in dill and lemon juice.


delicious and healthy? enhancing the health benefits of traditional festive foods by shannon wongvibulsin | design by amorette jeng

Centered around savory meals, family and friends, and relaxation,

left: vitalina rybakova/istockphoto; right(in order): :stocksnapper/istockphoto; palle christensen/istockphoto; tjasam/istockphoto

total wellness ▪ fall 2011

the holiday season can’t seem to get any better. But, if you’re looking for ways to enhance the taste and health benefits of your holiday cooking, consider trying some of the following options to help you make a healthy and delicious festive feast.


tips for boosting the health benefits of.... creamy mashed potatoes

Incorporate olive oil-based spreads, which do not contain trans fats and can actually lower the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (“bad” cholesterol) and raise the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (“good” cholesterol).

Add fresh vegetables, such as spinach, carrots, or kale for a boost in antioxidants and additional color and flavor.

traditional holiday cookies

Want to try something new? The Mayo Clinic proposes using cauliflower instead of potatoes in the recipe. A clove of garlic, the white part of a leek, and pepper can be added for extra taste.

Use whole wheat flour to increase the amount of whole grains in your diet.

Use dark chocolate, which contains antioxidants.

Add rolled oats for additional fiber and nutritional value.

Add fruits and nuts for additional taste, fiber, vitamins, and minerals.

pumpkin pie

Use a package of silken or soft tofu for additional protein.

Use maple syrup, honey, or agave for flavoring.

Use oat flour to make a whole grain crust. Multiple studies have suggested that a diet high in whole grains helps reduce the risk for stroke, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease.

turkey Add fruits and vegetables, such as cranberries, celery, and carrots, to your stuffing for additional fiber, vitamins, and minerals.

Make a stuffing using wild-rice, which is a complete protein and a rich source of vitamins, minerals, and fiber.

➺ ➺

Use skim or soy milk. Make hot chocolate from dark cocoa powder for an antioxidant boost.

Add pure whole vanilla bean to enhance the flavor of chocolate.

Add ground cinnamon for flavor and additional benefits, such as modulating blood sugar levels.

Add ground cayenne pepper for an anti-inflammatory promoting hotand-spicy hot chocolate drink. t w

Scientific evidence suggests that dark chocolate, in contrast to white and milk chocolate, confers potential health benefits. Research suggests that eating dark chocolate can help lower mild high blood pressure and provide antioxidants, which help protect the body against free radicals - destructive molecules that have been found to contribute to heart diseases and other health conditions. In fact, a 2003 study published in The Journal of the American Medical Association found that the participants with mild high blood pressure had an average drop of five points in their systolic blood pressure and a drop of two points in their diastolic blood pressure after they ate 100-grams of dark chocolate every day for two weeks. In a further study by the same researchers, they found that when blood samples were taken from participants one hour after consumption of different types of chocolate, participants who ate dark chocolate had the highest levels of antioxidants in their blood compared with those who consumed white or milk chocolate. Keep in mind despite its health benefits, dark chocolate should be consumed in moderation.


total wellness ▪ fall 2011

hot chocolate

dark chocolate... deliciousness and health benefits all packed together

CPR & First Aid Courses Interested in becoming CPR & First Aid Certified? Register for a class today! Price: $5 for UCLA Undergraduates, $10 for Community Members (everyone else) General Class Schedule: Friday Evenings (6-9PM) Saturday & Sunday Mornings (9AM-12PM) Course Types: Heartsaver CPR/AED: Adult & Child CPR/AED with Infant CPR & Choking Heartsaver First Aid: First Aid How to Register:


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total wellness â&#x2013;Ş fall 2011

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left: alasdair thomson/istockphoto; right: igor dutina/istockphoto

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vaccinations: boosting your health with a shot by shamim s. nafea | design by amorette jeng

Most people have been vaccinated multiple times

against a slew of pathogens that could have potentially caused major harm. Despite this routine procedure of getting a shot at the doctor’s office, you may not know exactly what went into that shot, or even why you had to get it in the first place. As flu season approaches and flu shot clinics pop up at every drugstore, it’s especially relevant to know a bit more about vaccinations. Below we examine the most common vaccines and why they may be important for your health.

Seasonal Flu The flu is thought to spread through aerosol means, transmitted during coughing, sneezing and talking. Symptoms generally include runny nose, fever, cough, headaches, fatigue, sore throat and muscle aches, to name a few. Influenza, the virus causing all flus, is notorious for the multiple numbers of strains that can infect humans. Season by season, different flus develop, each of which require a different vaccine each year.

right: idal/istockphoto

The 2010-2011 vaccine for example is latent with the H1N1 influenza, type A influenza H3N2, and a type B influenza as recommended by the World Health Organization. As many other strains of the flu may be circulating at the same time, protection from the flu is never 100 percent guaranteed. Dr. Detels, Professor and Chair of


total wellness ▪ fall 2011

The Vaccine:

the Epidemiology Department at the UCLA School of Public Health, explains that the immune response people have to the flu is specific to each strain. The H1N1 strain for example has occurred several times in the past. However, as the virus makes some alterations to its antigenic structure, people can still become sick if the current vaccine does not contain the circulating strain of flu. Anyone over the age of six months is eligible for the seasonal flu shot unless there is a shortage. In such cases, those between ages six months and five years, over 65, pregnant or with various medical conditions are given priority. Since the influenza virus in the vaccination has been killed, one cannot get the flu from the vaccination. However, mild side effects such as fever and aches are not uncommon as the body builds immunity to the specific strains. Needle injection is the most common form of vaccination, but a nasal-spray version of the vaccine is available as well for healthy individuals between ages two to 49.

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

Meningococcal: Bacterial Meningitis

Tetanus, diphtheria acelluar pertussis (Tdap)

Genital HPV is transmitted through direct sexual contact of the genital regions and most people will be in contact with the virus at one point in their lives, usually during their twenties. Though the virus does not cause infection in most cases, due to the possibility of cervical cancer, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) highly recommends all girls to receive the vaccination.

Though many types of meningitis exist in bacterial, viral, and fungal forms, meningococcal is a bacterial form of the disease spread through respiratory and throat excretion exchange, prevalent in kissing or coughing. Though the bacteria is not very contagious, symptoms include nausea, vomiting and photosensitivity, and, if not treated, deadlier symptoms including seizures and coma leading to death in some cases are possible.


total wellness ▪ fall 2011

The HPV vaccination is among the newest on this list. It protects those immunized from four different strains of the virus: two which cause genital warts and two which cause cancer, most commonly cervical. Since the vaccine is only effective if administered before exposure, most people, especially girls, are vaccinated during their teenage years before they become sexually active (the CDC recommends ages 11-12). As the vaccination is still relatively new, little data is available in terms of safety and longevity of the immunization. However, studies from the CDC indicate that if women receive all three doses (the second dose should be received two months after the first and the third dose four months after that), they should be protected for life. Side effects include dizziness and nausea. As of October of this year, the CDC actually suggests boys to also receive the vaccination before they become sexually active to protect against genital warts and passing on the virus to their sexual partners.


The Vaccine:

Since the bacteria affects mostly teens and those in their early twenties, it is recommended that all people in this age range be vaccinated. As the body loses immunity to the bacteria over time, booster doses, vaccinations which revitalize the body’s defenses, are available at any time and should be taken by those who may be in close contact with the bacteria, especially college students living in the dorm setting and military recruits. Few side effects exist for the vaccination, including the typical redness or swelling found at the site of injection, much like all other vaccinations. The vaccine is safe for pregnant women, however it is advisable to wait until after pregnancy to receive the vaccination.


Tetanus, on the other hand, causes muscle spasms throughout the body including “lock-jaw.” It also has high rates of mortality, but fortunately is not contagious and infects people through open wounds.


Pertussis, the bacteria causing Whooping Cough, has surged in a recent epidemic in the United States. Starting as a basic fever and runny nose, pertussis advances over a period of two weeks until severe coughing begins. The disease, like Diphtheria, is spread through aerosolized means.

The Vaccine:

Though four vaccinations are available at this time for these diseases, Tdap is perhaps the most strongly advertised and encouraged. It contains the tetanus booster which, according to Dr. Detels, is necessary as the body’s immunity against the bacteria diminishes over time. However, most importantly, the vaccine protects the body from pertussis which halts not only the infection of the person immunized but also the continual spread of the virus. Dr. Detels explains that many people who now are becoming infected with pertussis do not show signs of the classical symptoms. However, they are able to inadvertently infect children with the disease. The fear then lies in adults transmitting the disease to babies. Tdap should be administered once after age 19 and again after age 65. Receiving the vaccination out of sequence with the normal tetanus booster does not cause harm. Tdap’s side effects include pain, mild fever and fatigue.

left: alexander gatsenko/istockphoto; right: micah young/istockphoto

The Vaccine:

Diphtheria causes upper respiratory infections with high rates of mortality if no vaccination is administered. Since the infection spreads through aerosol means including coughing and sneezing, it can be highly contagious. Due to the many vaccination campaigns in the United States, only three reports of the disease were found in 20002007.

Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella (MMRV) Measles

Measles, declared eliminated in the United States in 2000, still infects people domestically through foreign visitors. It is still endemic worldwide. The virus causes many flu-like symptoms but most noticeably a rash which covers the body. Transmitted through aerosol means, it is so infective that any child without the vaccination will inevitably become ill if in contact with the virus. Measles can cause serious disease.


Mumps, which has almost reached elimination in the United States after the introduction of the vaccine program, causes many side effects including muscle aches and swollen salivary glands under the ears. It is also spread through aerosol means and a person may remain symptomatic for two to three weeks. In young adult males mumps infection can cause painful disease and sterility. UC Berkeley recently faced a mumps epidemic, highlighting the lack of universal vaccination.

What goes in your vaccine?


Rubella, which spreads through aerosol means, is another virus that causes fever and rash. Women infected with this virus have a risk of giving birth to a child with serious birth defects or miscarriage.


As long as children receive the vaccination for varicella - the virus that causes chicken pox - they can say good-bye to baking soda baths and calamine lotion. In the past, many parents attempted to infect their own children to make them immune in the future. As the disease is spread via aerosol means, including sneezing and coughing, infection was not difficult. The vaccination, like many others in this list, is intended to allow immunity to be built without an infection. In adults varicella can cause shingles, a very painful disease manifested by a painful skin eruption.

The vaccination itself takes up a tiny portion of the entire vaccine, so what else are the health care professionals putting into your body? ❯ Suspending Fluid: usually water or saline ❯ Preservatives: may include albumin, phenols, glycine, and MSG ❯ Enhancers: these vary from vaccine to vaccine but many include an aluminum gel or salt ❯ Anti-bacterial additives: antibiotics (never penicillin in the United States), formaldehyde and thimerosal ❯ Other additives: egg protein (found in Influenza and Yellow Fever vaccines). Persons who are allergic to eggs should inform the health professional administering any flu vaccine.

The Vaccine:

Available to the general American public, the vaccine is intended for anyone born after 1980 and with no proof of immunity or history of varicella. There are a few rare side effects, the most common being swelling at the location of the vaccination at a rate of one in three for adults and one in five for children. Fever and a mild rash are also possible, but uncommon. At the other end of the spectrum, seizure and pneumonia may also occur but these events are very rare (in the range of one in 10,000). According the CDC, around one in 10 children who receive the vaccination may get the virus causing chicken pox, but usually this will only result in a few lesions and a mild fever.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis B

Though not the most dangerous virus on the list, Hepatitis A can still cause various complications including nausea, yellowing of the skin and eyes (a classic sign of liver damage), stomach ache and loss of appetite with the likelihood of developing symptoms decreasing with age. Fortunately, most symptoms will subside naturally. Hepatitis A is among the causes of increasing hygiene requirements in restaurants as it is transmitted through the fecal oral-route. The best way to avoid spreading the virus is frequent hand washing, especially after using the restroom.

Another liver-harming virus like Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B is known to cause many symptoms including but not limited to fever, fatigue, nausea, jaundice, clay-colored stool and joint pain. It is also known to lead to liver failure and cancer. Symptoms may appear as soon as six weeks after infection and last up to six months or longer. The virus is transmitted through the sharing of bodily fluids including blood and semen and can be spread even if there are no visible symptoms. Hepatitis B is not very prevalent in the United States with an incidence of 43,000 cases annually – a statistic which is decreasing.

The Vaccine:

The Vaccine:

A vaccination does exist for infants with a series of extra dosages to be received until age 18, but others who may be in contact with the virus should be vaccinated. The vaccine causes only mild side effects which include a slight fever. t w


total wellness ▪ fall 2011

The vaccine is recommended for anyone under one year of age, traveling to an area with exceptional rates of the virus, and men having sexual intercourse with other men. It is highly effective, especially if the second booster is taken. No major side effects are known to be caused by the vaccination outside of soreness at the site of injection. Headache, loss of appetite and fatigue, while possible, are uncommon. There are rare cases where people are highly allergic to the vaccination with symptoms occurring rapidly after administration.


a year of

health breakthroughs by shamim s. nafea | design by karin yuen

total wellness ▪ fall 2011

❯ A surgical team at UC Davis performed the second ever larynx transplant on a woman who could not speak or breathe on her own. Due to many tiny blood vesicles and nerves, which can easily be damaged, physicians are normally hesitant to perform this surgery.


❯ A new genetic test was developed which informs future parents of potential genetic diseases they could spread to their kids. The test, one of the cheapest ever developed at estimated costs under $400, could help lead to the end of several diseases including Tay-Sachs and cystic fibrosis.

April ❯ Scientists discovered the placenta plays a larger part in brain development than previously acknowledged. Using mice, they found the placenta to be a source of various chemicals and hormones including serotonin.



❯ In a decision lauded by pediatricians, the Supreme Court upholds that vaccine companies cannot be sued in state courts for allegations of faulty vaccinations leading to injury or death. Instead lawsuits need to be taken to the federal vaccine court.

❯ Benlysta became the first lupus-treating drug to enter the U.S. market in over fifty years. Human Genome Sciences, the drug’s developer, specializes in genomic information to create new drugs and medicines. Benlysta is their first to be approved by the FDA.

❯ The FDA approved the first MRI friendly pacemaker. Developed by Medtronic, this opens up new medical possibilities for five million people globally who are otherwise unable to take advantage of MRI technology.

❯ Six years after five Mexican boys had urethras grown and engineered in place, physicians say the organs still function properly. Scientists removed a small patch of bladder tissue from the five and allowed the cells to multiply in a laboratory setting to develop new urethras. The long-term study could potentially help many with those afflicted with uretheral defects or damage.

left:; right (in order): spxchrome/istockphoto; antimartina/istockphoto




June ❯ FDA unveiled nine new images, which are required to be placed on the top half of all cigarette boxes by September 2012. The labels are graphic and are hoped to decrease smoking levels and lung cancer awareness.

❯ The LA county school district became the first to ban flavored milk from its lunch menu. As childhood obesity rates rise, schools are taking greater action to curb this epidemic.

July ❯ Following a March 2011 surgery, the recipient of the first hand transplant of the west performed at UCLA was noted to be in good health and adapting well to her hand. She will continue to be monitored and receive therapy as she continues to gain complex motor skills.

❯ The first artificial windpipe was implanted in a cancer patient allowing him to cough and breathe. Adding the patient’s bone marrow stem cells to a mold, a new trachea was developed which saved his life and is not rejected by his immune system.



❯ An experimental treatment incorporating physical therapy and electrical stimulation allowed a man paralyzed from the chest down to sit up and move his legs and toes. This achievement came two years after the therapies began.

❯ Large-scale organic poultry farms were found to have fewer drug resistant bacteria compared to nonorganic farms. As these farms do not use antibiotics to stop the spread of disease, it becomes much rarer for such strains to proliferate.

❯ In a preliminary report, researchers using gene therapy successfully treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Due to inconsistent results normally occurring with gene therapy and with only three patients tested so far, many other experiments need to be conducted before the treatment becomes mainstream.

❯ A federal appeals court threw out two lawsuits filed against the Obama administration’s healthcare plan. This is the third such appeal which has occurred and the second which favored the plan. The lawsuits claimed that forcing citizens into health insurance plans is unconstitutional and individuals should decide on their own to take insurance or not.

November ❯ Both the giver and recipient of support benefit according to a UCLA study. It was shown those who offered support in times of pain received more stimulation to the reward center of the brain than if offered during a neutral setting. t w


❯ Rather than just help strengthen bones, UCLA ❯ In one of the greatest researchers found that Vitamin advances for the fight against D can also curb tuberculosis Malaria, a three-part vaccination infection. The vitamin was developed which cuts the specifically plays a role in risk of infection in half. The immune cell communication study, funded by the Bill and while fighting the bacteria. Melinda Gates foundation, is the Previously, patients had been first vaccine against parasites sent to sunny areas which and still needs further testing helped curb the disease yet the before wide spread release. reason was unknown until now.


total wellness ▪ fall 2011

❯ A study started in 2005 was ended early because it found that early drug treatment for HIV was so dramatically effective in stopping transmission that the results were conclusive enough. Treatment with antiretroviral drugs lowered the risk of passing on the infection by 96 percent.

❯ A study completed at UCLA showed increasing muscle mass, along with decreasing body fat, is essential to curb the risk of type II diabetes. For every ten percent increase in muscle mass, researchers found a twelve percent decrease in prediabetes conditions.

❯ After three weeks of work, a group of gamers solved the protein structure of HIV viral protease. Their results, which scientists tried to deduce for over a decade, were confirmed by x-ray crystallography.

food pick by jennifer j. wilson | design by karin yuen

A classic Thanksgiving vegetable, the sweet potato is an ➺ excellent source of nutrients and fiber. Sweet potatoes are native to the Americas, and often confused with yams. In fact, yams are a variety of sweet potato that are a bit less sweet. Almost all of the sweet potatoes in the U.S. are grown in North Carolina and Louisiana, and the peak season is September through December, making it a seasonal Fall crop. These root vegetables are naturally sweet and versatile, so they can be used in a variety of cooking recipes. Read on to learn more about this vegetable and how to incorporate it in your diet.

❯ As with many complex carbohydrates, sweet potatoes can have a low glycemic index (GI), which is defined as a food’s ability to raise blood sugar levels within a certain amount of time. However, keep in mind that the way sweet potatoes are prepared affect the GI value. For example, a sweet potato that is boiled with skin for 30 minutes has a GI of 46, while one that is baked for 45 minutes has a GI of 94. The GI scale ranges from zero to 100, where a low GI is defined as 55 or less, medium GI is 56-69, and high GI is 70 and above. When the starch in sweet potatoes is boiled instead of baked, it gelatinizes and the jelly-like texture slows down the digestion process. This in turn leads to more gradual elevations in blood sugar levels and leaves you feeling full for a longer period of time. According to a 2002 study in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, consumption of low-glycemic index foods has been associated with higher HDL-cholesterol and decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

from the cookbook Oven Sweet Potato Fries

1 large sweet potato, peeled and cut into wedges 2 teaspoons canola oil 1/4 teaspoon salt Pinch of cayenne pepper

❯ Diets high in dietary fiber intake have been linked with preventing cardiovascular disease, obesity, cancers, diabetes and other chronic conditions. The recommended daily intake of fiber for adults is 20-35 grams per day and sweet potatoes can help people meet that daily guideline. Half of a baked sweet potato contains four grams of fiber per serving, both soluble and insoluble, which is about 12.5 percent of the recommended daily intake. Soluble fiber helps you feel full longer and prevents the reabsorption of cholesterol, while insoluble fiber helps normalize digestion.

Preheat the oven to 450 °F. Peel and cut the large sweet potato into wedges. Toss sweet potato wedges in canola oil, salt and cayenne pepper. Place and spread out wedges on baking sheet. Put in sheet and bake for 20 minutes, turning once, until browned and tender. Makes 2 servings.

Sweet Potatoes with Warm Bean Salad

Preheat oven to 425 °F. In the meantime, prick sweet potatoes with a fork and then place sweet potatoes on baking sheet, allowing potatoes to bake until center is tender, for about an hour. Meanwhile, in a medium bowl, combine beans, tomatoes, oil, cumin, coriander and salt. Then, heat mixture in a saucepan, until heated through for about 2 to 3 minutes. After potatoes cool down enough, cut lengthwise. Then, make a well in the center of the sweet potato and spoon in some of the bean salad and sour cream. Makes 4 servings.


❯ One single sweet potato can give you over the entire vitamin A daily recommended value. Vitamin A is essential in maintaining the immune system and strong tissues. Vitamin A in the form of beta-carotene is also known as a protector of the heart. According to the American Heart Association, sweet potatoes contain 475 percent of the daily value of vitamin A. Sweet potatoes are also known for containing other important vitamins such as vitamins B6 and C and minerals such as potassium, iron, calcium and manganese.


total wellness ▪ fall 2011

4 medium sweet potatoes 1 15-ounce can black beans, rinsed 2 medium tomatoes, diced 1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil 1 teaspoon ground cumin 1 teaspoon ground coriander 3/4 teaspoon salt 1/4 cup reduced-fat sour cream 1/4 cup chopped fresh cilantro

❯ Foods containing anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidative agents work to prevent cellular stressors, which may lead to the onset of diseases like cancer and cardiovascular disease. Sweet potatoes carry anti-inflammatory properties that help to reduce inflammation. These vegetables contain 262 percent DV of beta-carotene, 4.8 percent DV of magnesium, 28.4% DV of vitamin C and 12.5 percent DV of vitamin B6. Together, these compounds work to counter inflammation both inside and outside of the body. t w

left: dny59/istockphoto; right: jasmina/istockphoto

sweet potatoes

credits We would like to acknowledge the following people for their contributions to this edition. We would also like to make special mention of the following UCLA physicians, professors and faculty members who donated their time and expertise to ensuring the accuracy of content published in the following articles:


â?§ q&a

Susan Bowerman, MS, RD, CSSD, Assistant Director, UCLA Center for Human Nurition

group ex classes at the wooden Elisa Terry, NSCA-CSCS, FITWELL Services Program Director, UCLA Recreation

milk alternatives: beyond dairy

Susan Bowerman, MS, RD, CSSD, Assistant Director, UCLA Center for Human Nurition

brushing underneath toothpaste lables: a consumer's guide to toothpaste Benjamin Wu, DDS, PhD, Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials, and Hospital Dentistry

detox and diets

Eve Lahijani, MS, RD, Nutrition Health Educator, UCLA Bruin Resource Center

importance of friends for overall wellness

Melissa Margaro, PhD, Clinical Psychologist, UCLA Counseling and Psychological Services Alona Zerlin, MS, RD, Research Dietition, UCLA Center for Human Nutrition

Susan Bowerman, MS, RD, CSSD, Assistant Director, UCLA Center for Human Nurition

Eve Lahijani, MS,RD, Nutrition Health Educator, UCLA Bruin Resource Center

to bottle or not to bottle... the debate between bottled or tap water Nurit Katz, UCLA Sustainability Coordinator

meal makeover: comfort foods Eve Lahijani, MS, RD, Nutrition Health Educator, UCLA Bruin Resource Center

delicious and healthy? enhancing the health benefits to traditional festive foods

vaccinations: boosting your health with a shot

Roger Detels, MD, MS, Professor and Department Chair, Department of Epidemiology at the UCLA School of Public

food pick

Eve Lahijani, MS,RD, Nutrition Health Educator, UCLA Bruin Resource Center

copy-edits and review

Leigh Goodrich, Shannon Wongvibulsin, and Elizabeth Wang

layout revisions

Karin Yuen, Amorette Jeng, Shannon Wongvibulsin, and Elizabeth Wang

cover & table of contents Designed by Karin Yuen

Eve Lahijani, MS, RD, Nutrition Health Educator, UCLA Bruin Resource Center


total wellness â&#x2013;Ş fall 2011

chasing your goal: 26.2 miles at a time

co-operativity for savings and better health: a look at food coops

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Fall 2011. Issue 1, Volume 12. Produced by UCLA's Student Wellness Commission.