June 10 l issue 17
Boogie Pete interview REPs career progression Speed training Expert financial advice plus all the latest news
Produced in association with
Exercise and children, rising levels of obesity, fat and fit versus thin and inactive, potential health implications of obesity – all headlines that seem to appear on a daily basis. But regardless of the headline one message comes through loud and clear – whatever someone’s shape, weight, age, gender or physical capabilities exercise is one of the keys to health and longevity. It’s never been more important that we, as professional fitness instructors, are ready to meet this challenge, both in terms of qualifications, attitude, and social skills, as well as maintaining our own exercise regimes.
The Register of Exercise Professionals Third floor, 8-10 Crown Hill, Croydon, Surrey CR0 1RZ Telephone 020 8686 6464 www.exerciseregister.org Registrar Jean-Ann Marnoch Registration Manager Alison Frater email@example.com Systems manager Rob McGregor firstname.lastname@example.org CPD Compliance Manager Dottie Calderwood email@example.com
Qualifications & Training Standards
SkillsActive Castlewood House, New Oxford St London WC1A 1PX Telephone 020 7632 2000 Technical Unit firstname.lastname@example.org
Since giving up teaching a few years ago I’ve had to work harder than ever in the gym to maintain my fitness levels and stay healthy – you can’t have a Registrar going off sick or huffing and puffing up a flight of stairs can you? But in April I had the chance to teach again – at the Royal College of Nurses Congress in Bournemouth where we not only had a stand but also offered daily exercise sessions for the 4,000 delegates. Dottie Calderwood, our CPD Compliance Manager (and REPs level 3 Personal Trainer) led morning fitness walks, I took an abs session, and Rebecca Weissbort, REPs External Liaison Manager, taught a legs, bums and tums class. All-in-all a great way to raise the profile of REPs with those directly involved in exercise referrals. Jean-Ann Marnoch, Registrar
Publisher: Tor Davies, sportEX Editor: Sarah Owen, REPs email@example.com
Advertising enquiries Telephone: 0845 652 1908 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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sportEX (Centor Publishing Ltd) Contact: Tor Davies firstname.lastname@example.org Telephone: 0845 652 1906 Website: www.sportex.net
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uest interview with Pete G Hilliar of Boogie Beebies fame Latest news from REPs The pick of the news from your industry Keeping a check of your clients’ progress Members question time – online training
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areer progression C pathways with the new flexible REPs structure elping your clients H achieve faster times – a look at speed training Advice from our financial expert A look at the new REPs insurance scheme Client leaflet – exercise for wellbeing
DISCLAIMER While every effort has been made to ensure that all information and data in this magazine is correct and compatible with national standards generally accepted at the time of publication, this magazine and any articles published in it are intended as general guidance and information for use by healthcare professionals only, and should not be relied upon as a basis for planning individual medical care or as a substitute for specialist medical advice in each individual case. To the extent permissible by law, the publisher, editors and contributors to this magazine accept no liability to any person for any loss, injury or damage howsoever incurred (including by negligence) as a consequence, whether directly or indirectly, of the use by any person of any of the contents of the magazine. Copyright subsists in all material in the publication. Centor Publishing Limited consents to certain features contained in this magazine marked (*) being copied for personal use or information only (including distribution to appropriate members of the public) provided a full reference to the source is shown. No other unauthorised reproduction, transmission or storage in any electronic retrieval system is permitted of any material contained in this publication in any form. The publishers give no endorsement for and accept no liability (howsoever arising) in connection with the supply or use of any goods or services purchased as a result of any advertisement appearing in this magazine.
Blame it on the boogie! Known to parents and children alike as Boogie Pete from the award-winning BBC show Boogie Beebies, Pete Hillier is an experienced West End performer and dancer as well as a REPs member and personal trainer. Journal: What made you decide to become a PT? Pete: As a dancer I’ve always enjoyed being active and going to the gym, and while recording Boogie Beebies I began to really understand the importance of fitness during all stages of life. That led to me deciding to study as a PT, which I do between filming Boogie Beebies and touring the UK with my own children’s theatre show - Boogie Pete Live.
making it fun and easy for the children to learn. Journal: In your experience what do you think could be done to encourage more activity among children? Pete: I think more classes for children would be a great step, and would love to see family fitness sessions too. I get enough adults showing me dance moves from Boogie Beebies, and repeating my on-screen catchphrases to know that they’re joining in with dancing with their children at home!
Journal: Do you find there’s much crossover between your two careers? Pete: While most of the time I’m using the knowledge learnt on my personal training course, my background in dance and children’s television means I can often put a slightly different slant on some exercises. I’m really interested in putting the fun back into exercise and getting people who really don’t enjoy the gym to enjoy being active again. Journal: Boogie Beebies is obviously aimed at children – how important do you think it is to encourage youngsters to be active? Pete: It’s really important for children to make activity a part of everyday life. It’s too easy for them to just sit and watch a 04
Education plays a big part too, if we can show children the benefits of exercise in a fun way coupled with the benefits of good nutrition we’re halfway there. Pete works at the Nuffield Health and Wellbeing Centre, Letchworth as well as touring with “Boogie Pete Live”. For more details visit www.boogiepete.com tv show or play a computer game. Add this to a poor diet and it’s no wonder there’s an obesity problem in this country. The great thing about a show like Boogie Beebies is that it encourages viewers (parents and children alike) to get up and join in. Moves are set to songs and are repeated
Editors note: REPs has recently introduced a new children’s category (see www. exerciseregister.org for more details) and hopes many more REPs members will undertake this module to give them the skills to help encourage more children to exercise. The reps Journal 2010;17(June):4
REPS gets physical Fresh from the success of visiting the NHS Employees’ Convention at the end of last year the REPs team took over the health and fitness part of the Royal College of Nursing Congress in Bournemouth in April. As well as delivering workshops and seminars on the benefits of regular exercise, and explaining the work the Register does, the REPs team helped motivate the 4,000 nurses attending to take their own physical health in hand by running
fitness classes for them! REPs registrar Jean-Ann Marnoch explains: “The NHS is encouraging its staff to be as physically healthy as possible, a move the Royal College of Nurses whole-heartedly supports. “When we spoke to them about attending the congress they were very keen for us to be involved in a practical sense and we were delighted to help them out. Both Dottie and I don’t get to teach as much as we’d like these days so it was a real treat for us and I hope the nurses taking part enjoyed it as much as we did. “One of the main reasons for attending the conference was
to raise awareness of the Register and its members amongst healthcare professionals. I believe it is crucial for this sector to use REPs members when recommending patients to exercise.” Jean-Ann held a lunchtime abs class during the three-day convention, CPD Compliance Manager Dottie Calderwood lead daily, morning fitness walks and External Liaison Manager Rebecca Weissbort taught a legs, bums and tums class. The REPs team is now looking to offer a similar service at other conventions for healthcare professionals.
Council of Members The Register is looking for five members to join its Council of Members. The Council of Members is a voluntary forum of up to 15 REPs members who offer their collective experience, expertise and opinion on matters affecting the Register. The group meets up to three times a year and agrees to represent the general membership of the Register in discussions about policy. Council Members also agree to act as ambassadors for REPs and are offered the chance to sit on other boards and forums related to REPs business. Full details about the Council of Members including its ethical code
are available from the REPs website. REPs is particularly keen to hear from interested members who live, or work, in Scotland, Northern Ireland and the North of England. CVs and supporting statements can be sent to email@example.com
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Occupational descriptors In the world of work employers often define the roles they need through a written ‘Job Description’. The fitness industry is no exception, with well-defined common roles across different types of employers. One of the major projects REPs has been involved in is the development and recognition of these roles by the industry, along with a framework that categorises members by job title and the level at which they operate (e.g. Level 2 Exercise to Music Instructor, Level 3 Personal Trainer). Membership of REPs is
contingent on attaining a nationally accredited qualification relating to the job role(s) recognised within this framework. The process of accrediting these qualifications involves the development of National Occupational Standards that describe the skills, knowledge and competencies to be safe and effective in the roles they support. These standards are derived partly through the identification of ‘Occupational Descriptors’ that employers agree describe the core purpose, roles and competencies of the jobs in question. These industry-agreed
documents are now available on our website to download, and are a useful resource for employers, individuals and training partners in a number of ways. They can be used as a basis for employer-specific job descriptions, as a reference tool for training providers wanting to develop training that supports the development of REPs members, and by members as a means of better understanding the service they are expected to deliver and the competencies required to do so. www.exerciseregister.org/ REPsRoles.html
Working in conjunction with SkillsActive, REPs has devised a form for graduates to complete in order to assess their eligibility to join the Register. Registrar Jean-Ann Marnoch explains: “We have a lot of graduates wanting to be part of the Register, which is a great thing, but as degree courses vary so much from university to university we needed a system which would allow us to cross-reference their knowledge against the National Occupational Standards and REPs membership requirements. “These forms allow graduates to demonstrate which areas they have studied and detail any practical experience they have. If they meet the requirements set by SkillsActive and REPs they are then offered a year’s provisional membership, which allows them to start their careers’ within the industry.”
Guidelines for on-line personal training REPs has published guidelines for those personal trainers who want to offer their clients on-line service.
Registrar Jean-Ann Marnoch said: “In today’s digital age clients are used to being able to set their own timetables and agendas. .
The guidelines, which are available in the members area of the REPs website (www.exerciseregister.org), are based on the principles behind the REPs Code of Ethical Practise. Personal trainers who want to offer an on-line service to clients are reminded they should only do so for those who they know to be asymptomatic, or free from any of the specified key symptoms of disease that are considered to put an individual at risk as a result of exercise.
“It’s safe to assume that with instant messaging, webcams and super-quick internet connections the issue of on-line personal training is one that is going to become ever more topical.
“While we would always advocate face-to-face training, we wanted to support those members who want to explore the possibility of offering on-line services by producing guidelines dealing with this.”
The reps Journal 2010;17(June):5-7
Meet the member Name: Becky White Age: 20 Location: Loughborough University Membership number: R0063100 Job description: Second year Sports Management student Qualifications: ‘Urban Rebounder’ Fitness Instructor (March 2010); Level 2 Gym Instructor, Level 2 UKA Endurance Coach; Level 3 Nutrition for Weight Management; Level 3 Advanced Fitness Instructor (May 2010) Best thing about your job: I’m a student ambassador for the charity Right To Play, a charity dedicated to improving the lives of children in disadvantaged areas of the world by using the power of sport and play. I’m involved with fundraising events for it as well as helping promote its work. I’m also project leader for ‘Running Action’ – the university’s community running project. Every Wednesday evening we run around campus – a great way for students and local residents to get fit and healthy. Lightbulb moment: I realised things were going to take off when I got my place at the best sports university in the country! The next step…: I’m currently setting up my own fitness and training business called onesixeight:fitness. I’m also looking to secure an industry placement as part of my course. It’s a very exciting time! Name: Brent Elder Age: 37 Location: Trinidad and Tobago Membership number: R0038451 Job description: I’m a soldier and PT instructor in the Trinidad and Tobago Defence Force, personal trainer, aerobics instructor and massage therapist. Qualifications: ETM, Gym Instructor; Personal Trainer; Sports Massage Therapy. Best thing about your job: The fact that I actually get to utilise my every skill and qualification(s) in so many different ways – for both military and civilian clients alike. It keeps me highly motivated and inspired to continue pursuing standards par excellence. I can find no greater profession or pleasure! Lightbulb moment: Upon enlisting in the military and becoming a fitness livewire I was advised by Cpl Barry Pierre “Let your fitness work for you!” I literally ran with those words which still excite me to excel! The next step…: l Acquire my Premier Training International Master Trainer award 2010 (I love this institution with a passion)… l To be counted as a world respected fitness professional l The title of exercise scientist fascinates me. l To acquire MY own UK-styled chain of fitness facilities in Trinidad and Tobago and the Caribbean region. Want to introduce yourself to the Journal’s 29,000 plus readers? Email a high-resolution picture and your answers to the points above to firstname.lastname@example.org
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dy, over 9 admit to k 6% of us nowing th at we shou five portio ld be eatin ns of fruit g and veg e So why are very day. only 11% o f Brits achie their daily ving 5-a-day ta rget? Inno has comm cent issioned a new report called “Are you gettin g enough? to find out ” why there is such a dif ference between w hat people know and what they d o . Accordin to the rese g arch, the m a in barriers to achievin g 5-a-day are a lack of conven ience, con fu sion around th e target, c o s t and psycholog ical barrie rs . T o make achieving 5-a-day ea sier for everyone, the report also gives lots of help ful advice on easy ways to in clude more fruit and veg in the diet – find out more and down load the s tudy at www.inno centdrink sforhcps.c om.
Professional Fitness & Education – new name, same high standards of quality training provision Northern Fitness & Education has been credited with an unrivalled reputation within the fitness and health industry for over 20 years. Over time the company’s course portfolio has expanded to include Yoga, Pilates, BoxRight and Aqua for Midwives, and now Later Life Training. Courses will be delivered in the South of England and Scotland, outside NFE’s traditional northern base. The trading name has changed to Professional Fitness and Education (PFE), with the word ‘Northern’ exchanged for ‘Professional’, which it is strongly believed is a true reflection of the esteem in which the company is held in the industry, and which underpins the training philosophy. The long established and well recognised ‘blue logo’ which trademarks the company is retained. Under the Professional Fitness & Education umbrella brand are a family of products, - Modern Pilates, Physical Yoga, Aquafusion and the new ‘Fitness & Health’ product range, including partnerships with Later Life Training and BoxRight. A brand new interactive website contains regular news items, Tip of the Week, all up and coming courses/workshops and a dedicated student area. Visit www.pfetraining.co.uk or call 01943 879816.
SkillsActive News Endorsement for higher education Tom Bell, Endorsement Manager, SkillsActive For a number of years, SkillsActive has had a higher education institution (HEI) endorsement scheme in place designed to enhance the employability skills of students studying towards a career in the fitness sector. SkillsActive HEI endorsement is a skills solution which allows HEIs to demonstrate that their foundation/degree courses meet employer needs and industry standards. Endorsement ascertains that HEIs have followed the criteria to ensure that programmes leading to qualifications are fit for practice. It brings clarity for parents and students when choosing HE programmes, as well as to employers when recruiting graduates. The scheme is based around embedding employability and vocational skills into a programme. Many universities from across the UK have engaged with the scheme and, given the current economic climate, many more are recognising the need to demonstrate that their courses produce graduates
with the skills employers want. Endorsement also includes REPs recognition, meaning students undertaking a SkillsActive approved course can gain acceptance onto the Register upon completing certain modules. Students therefore gain a fit-for-purpose qualification, as well as one that meets the requirements of the fitness industry’s regulatory body. This is all part of ensuring that members of the public who use the services of registered exercise professionals are guaranteed a high quality service. Many universities’ foundation/degree courses tend to cover several categories of registration on REPs, for example, level 2 Gym, level 3 Personal Trainer and one or more of the new level 4 standards in a specific medical condition. SkillsActive encourages all existing REPs members, and those not on the Register, planning to go to university to look for courses that are SkillsActive-approved and therefore REPs recognised. This will ensure that you are an attractive candidate in a competitive market.
EREPS news l With national registers now launched in Hungary and the Netherlands, a Swiss register due to go-live in the next few months and development work underway in Ireland, the number of EREPs members is continuing to grow. EREPs covers 28 different European countries and each of their national registers – including REPs – all work to the same agreed European standards that define the qualifications for exercise professionals as well as being part of EREPs.
New standards (at the equivalency of UK levels 2 and 3) were agreed recently and work is now underway on new areas of competencies. These will define the qualifications for exercise professionals all across Europe in the future and will help build towards a better career framework for the European industry. These standards will not affect the recent review of standards and qualifications in the UK.
the right programmes to support exercise professionals in developing their technical skills.
The work is being driven by technical experts from a great number of different countries to develop agreed standards that will help training companies to deliver
EREPS and these technical groups are all part of the European Health and Fitness Association which is the representative body of the European health and fitness
The first 20 members of the Hungrarian national register receive their certificates of registration at a special ceremony in Budapest attended by Director of EREPS Cliff Collins and IWI Director László Zopcsák.
industry. It has expanded its membership and now represents over 9,000 fitness centers, and covers 23 different countries.
European Register of Exercise Professionals
The reps Journal 2010;17(June):8-10
The FIA teams up with ISRM & ABC to produce Eating Disorder Guidance The Fitness Industry Association and the Institute of Sport and Recreation Management, in association with Anorexia & Bulimia Care, have developed a new set of guidelines designed to help club and centre managers deal with vulnerable exercisers who are at risk of, or suffer from eating disorders. Supported by REPs the guide is available free of charge to all FIA, REPs and ISRM members from www.fia.org.uk, www.exerciseregister.org and www.isrm.co.uk. It is hoped it will help fitness professionals understand eating disorders and offers expert advice on how to recognise the psychological and behavioural early symptoms of the condition. It also details recommendations on how club managers should then deal with vulnerable members who might be at risk or suffering from eating disorders. Anorexia & Bulimia Care has also launched a helpline (T: 01934 710645) and features helpful information on its website www.anorexiabulimiacare.co.uk. “The benefits of getting active are for everyone and as such we have to be able to cater for a wider range of people than ever before. Despite this for too long we have not known how to deal with anyone suffering from or recovering from an eating disorder... but this is precisely what the guidance solves” David Stalker, Executive Director. “Hopefully it will be the first step in a wider strategy to boost the skills set of our industry and open up even more doors and opportunities”.
Working in Fitness Survey 2010
– get involved!
The sixth Working in Fitness Survey, which monitors salary trends, training and job satisfaction in the health and fitness sector, has been launched by SkillsActive and REPs’. Last year, the survey revealed some interesting facts and to ensure we get an accurate picture of how the fitness industry rewards its workforce we need to once again hear from as many fitness professionals as possible. Anyone completing this year’s survey has the opportunity to win £250 worth of training to aid continual professional development. The results of the survey will be published in September. To download a copy of the survey, please go to www.skillsactive.com/wif10
Here to help The second Annual Members Survey has just finished, and the results are being collated and assessed. More than 1,150 members took part, sharing their thoughts on the service the Register offers and what can be done to improve it. Registrar Jean-Ann Marnoch said: “We take the comments of our members very seriously and have implemented a lot of changes based directly on responses from last year’s Member Survey. We feel our annual survey offers our members a chance to give us much needed feedback which will help us move the Register forward.” Keep an eye out on the REPs website (www.exerciseregister. org) for the results, plus responses from the REPs team, along with comparisons to last year’s findings.
The reps Journal 2010;17(June):8-10
The measure of success FIA Chief Medical Officer John Searle looks at the checks and balances that can mark your clients’ progress ‘If you do not measure it you do not know’ I was told when I was a medical student. I had been asked by the consultant who was teaching me if a patient’s blood pressure had improved. I had not measured it and could only say, ‘I thought it had!’ I was being rather stupid but do we measure and assess the progress of our clients and gym members? The reality is that unless we do, we do not know whether or not their exercise programmes are doing any good. But what is practical in a busy gym or personal training practice? The first thing we need to know is how much exercise our clients/ members are actually doing. How active are they in their daily living? How many gym sessions do they do regularly? How long
are they spending over them? Somebody who comes to a circuit class or a personal training session once a week and does nothing the rest of the time will make only very limited progress in their fitness. Secondly we need to do a few specific measurements. Weight, BMI and waist circumference are key indicators of health and progress in weight loss programmes. The value of BMI has been questioned because some people have a BMI above 25. This, of course, is fine if the increase in weight is muscle and not fat and it is accompanied by aerobic fitness. But BMI and waist circumference remain the best predictors of the risk of developing such conditions as strokes, heart attack and diabetes. Thirdly, measuring aerobic fitness is more difficult. A guide to maximum oxygen consumption can be obtained from many CV machines. But there are other more reliable, and more simple, ways of doing it. Charting the fall in resting pulse is easy to do. Measuring heart rate for a given aerobic challenge is another simple way of assessing aerobic fitness. As fitness improves, the heart rate will fall when, for example, a client rows a given distance in a given time. Classically muscle strength is measured by the 1 rep max test. But another way is to chart progress – how many reps can a person do for a given resistance? Making these assessments every six to ten weeks for personal training clients and two or three times a year for gym members not only enables progress to be seen but it also provides excellent motivation to keep training. This assumes, of course, that the measurements are done accurately! Finally, there are qualitative ways of assessing progress. Quality of life questionnaires can be helpful. A simple scoring system for energy levels is a quick and easy way where 1 is ‘I feel tired most of the time’ to 10 which is ‘I feel full of energy most of the time.’ Photographs are powerful tools also especially for those losing weight or wanting to change their body shape and muscle definition. If we measure and assess the effects of exercise we know whether or not progress is being made towards health and fitness. Then we can adjust programmes in an informed way. If we don’t measure and assess we are just guessing!
Member’s Question time Liz Fowler writes: “I think that few would argue that effective communication, in its many forms, is one of the major determinants to achieving success in personal training. From that first impression, through to establishing longer term client relationships and then increasing the client base and related services, successful communication is paramount. Using the internet, therefore, with the opportunity for 24/7 communication, should, in theory, be the ideal media for personal training, but is that true?
Topical debate about on-line training
“All clients are different in terms of their expectations and requirements from a personal trainer, but lack of motivation and support to achieve a health and fitness goal are frequently cited as reasons for seeking out the services of a personal trainer. For many clients, regular pre-booked training sessions, where they know they will be using the most beneficial exercises for them, whilst working at the correct intensity with good technique throughout, is a great motivator to continue and serves to constantly reassure them that they are another step closer to achieving their personal goal and let’s not overlook the face to face support and interaction from the trainer-client relationship that is difficult to replicate online.
initial client assessments, contraindications to exercise as well as regular reviews and monitoring and always working within professional boundaries. A first class client service, as always, should also be provided for effectively dealing with enquiries or complaints, whether services are internet based or not, as well as acting within the Data Protection Act, 1998, as regards the storage and recording of personal information.
In the first of a new series we ask the REPs Members Council to pose questions to the membership at large about issues facing the industry. To take part in the quarterly debates send your point of view to email@example.com
“However, the attractions of on-line personal training are significant – cost, time availability of the trainer and access to a database of various training techniques and exercises, all personalised to your own requirements, make for a persuasive argument for using this service and for many clients, they will have a successful outcome.
standards are always adhered to and best working practice maintained. See page 6 for news about the new REPs guidelines for on-line personal training.
“On-line personal training services provide more client choice, which, I believe, is a positive benefit. As personal trainers, we work in a client driven, service industry and therefore, I believe that, as ever, it will be the client that ultimately decides which type of personal training will most meet their needs and work best for them; our responsibility is to ensure that professional
“Whichever method PTs choose to practice and market their services, as a REPS Council member, my primary concern is that it is done so in conjunction and with adherence to the REPS Code of Ethical Practice. This is especially important in relation to client suitability (clients must be asymptomatic, as defined by ACSM/AHA),
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The reps Journal 2009;00(Month):00-00 The reps Journal 2009;17(June):15-19
e n w e f h l ex T i e l b REPs structure
The new REPs structure, which was outlined in the December issue, has now been launched, bringing with it new progression pathways and up-skilling opportunities from the old categories of registration to the new. Registrar Jean-Ann Marnoch explains more. The main principles underpinning the new structure are simplicity and flexibility. Apart from the benefits this will bring to members, we want those outside the industry e.g. medical professions, public and media, to understand, trust and respect this sector and a simple structure is needed to achieve this. The new structure also enables REPs members the flexibility to access more disciplines, more easily, so that a wider range of skills can be gained to increase employability and client base. To aid flexibility and ensure that learning is not repeated, training providers are being encouraged to offer courses that cover the mandatory units (common to all qualifications that give entry at a particular level) as stand-alone pieces of learning as well as the discipline-specific units. For example, where a member already holds a level 3 qualification affording entry to REPs they are not required to repeat the mandatory common units in order to achieve further level 3 REPs entry categories, i.e. if you have already completed the level 3 personal training qualification and wish to take the level 3 exercise referral qualification, you need only undertake the exercise referral discipline-specific units. We hope this will encourage instructors to broaden their skills by easily transferring from one discipline to another (i.e. you need only achieve the discipline-specific units). This will also be beneficial for those wishing to up-skill from old to new qualifications/REPs categories of registration.
REPs level 2 For new members wishing to join REPs at level 2 under the new structure: l Gym l Exercise to music (ETM) l Aqua l Exercise and physical activity for children Qualification pathway There are no pre-requisites for level 2 qualifications. To obtain a level 2 fitness instructing qualification, common for all disciplines at level 2, you will need to achieve 4 mandatory common (i.e. compulsory) units plus two optional paired units, which are required for specific pathways (gym, ETM, aqua or exercise and physical activity for children). These units make up nationally recognised qualifications in L2 gym, ETM, aqua and children that are listed on the Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF). All awarding organisations share these units to create qualifications. They are then delivered via the training providers in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Scotland and some
â€œTraining providers are being encouraged to offer stand-alone courses covering mandatory units.â€? 15
REPs progression routes from level 2 to level 3 Direct entry at level 2
Direct entry at level 2
Group exercise to music
Physical activity for children
Ante/ post- natal
Direct entry at level 3
Level 3 Fitness instructor/ personal trainer
Advanced exercise to music
higher education (HE) institutions will also deliver courses that match to these units. Mandatory common units requirements 1. Anatomy and physiology for exercise (level 2) 2. Health, safety and welfare in a fitness environment (level 2) 3. Principles of exercise, fitness and health (level 2) 4. Know how to support clients who take part in exercise and physical activity (level 2) N.B. All the above units are level 2 mandatory common units, units 2, 3 & 4 are also shared with level 3 qualifications. Level 2 Discipline-specific units - gym, ETM, aqua gym-based exercise (gym) 5. Planning gym-based exercise (level 2) 6. Instructing gym-based exercise (level 2) Exercise to music (ETM) 7. Planning group exercise to music (level 2) 8. Instructing group exercise to music (level 2) Water-based exercise (aqua) 9. Planning water-based exercise (level 2) 10. Instructing water-based exercise (level 2) Level 2 Discipline-specific units – children Non-members who only hold a children’s qualification and who now wish to register under the level 2 physical activity for children category of registration will have to undertake the new level 2 mandatory common units as previously described.
EMPD Yoga Pilates
Exercise and physical activity for children 11. Planning health-related exercise and physical activity for children (level 2) 12. Instructing health-related exercise and physical activity for children (level 2) Up-skilling requirements for existing REPs members holding gym, ETM and aqua categories There are no up-skilling requirements for existing level 2 members to remain at level 2 on the Register. Changes to these qualifications are viewed as an evolution of the qualification. However, one of the key differences between the old and new L2 qualifications is the inclusion of key safety knowledge regarding some special populations (older adults, ante and postnatal and disability). This will mean that L2 instructors will be able to adapt their mainstream class/session to be able to include the occasional person from this client group. It is important to note that this does not cover running dedicated specialist whole classes/sessions for older adults, ante and post-natal and disabled clients. You will need to undertake the specific qualifications in the relevant areas if this is what you wish to do. For those existing
“The level 2 occupational descriptors which define job roles are now available on the REPs website.” The reps Journal 2009;00(Month):00-00 The reps Journal 2010;17(June):15-19
REPs members wishing to gain the key safety knowledge for these added special populations contained in the new L2 qualifications, REPs will be providing an on-line resource that will also give REPs members CPD points. This change in the way level 2 instructors should be dealing with special populations is set out in the occupational descriptors, which define different job roles, now available on our website.
REPs level 3 Level 3 personal trainer qualifications Qualification pathway Pre-requisite requirement A level 2 qualification in g ym Mandatory common unit requirement 1. Anatomy and physiology for exercise and health (level 3) Discipline-specific units – personal training 2. Applying the principles of nutrition as part of a personal training programme (level 3) 3. Programming personal training with clients (level 3) 4. Delivering personal training sessions (level 3) Up-skilling requirements for existing REPs members holding the personal training category of registration There are no up-skilling requirements for existing level 3 personal trainers to remain as level 3 personal trainers on the Register. Changes to these qualifications are viewed as an evolution of the qualification. Those wishing to gain the added special populations knowledge contained in the new standards, will be able to undertake the REPs on-line resource that will also give REPs CPD points. Conversion of old level 3 advanced fitness instructor category of registration to level 3 personal trainer/fitness instructor category of registration While this is not a requirement (i.e. you will not lose your existing advanced fitness instructor status) those wishing to
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acquire the level 3 personal trainer/fitness instructor category of registration will need to obtain two additional disciplinespecific units: 1. Applying the principles of nutrition to a physical activity programme (from level 3 personal training) 2. Advanced fitness instructor up-skilling Together these two units form the qualification titled level 3 award in conversion of advanced fitness instructor to personal trainer status. Awarding organisations are being encouraged to offer this qualification to their approved training providers to facilitate the up-skilling of advanced fitness instructors. Level 3 Exercise referral qualifications Qualification pathway Prerequisite requirement A level 2 qualification in gym, exercise to music or aqua (not physical activity for children). N.B. if the physical activity for children qualification is held, members must complete one or more of the level 2 paired discipline-specific units in ETM, gym or aqua. Mandatory common unit requirement 1. Anatomy and physiology for exercise and health (level 3)
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Discipline-specific units that map to the following National Occupational Standards 2. Design, manage and adapt an exercise and physical activity programme with referred patients/clients 3. Plan and instruct exercise and physical activities with referred patients/clients Up-skilling requirements for existing REPs members holding a recognised exercise referral qualification Members holding a level 2 category of registration and an â€˜oldâ€™ exercise referral qualification (i.e. they do not have level 3 advanced Fitness Instructing or level 3 exercise and fitness knowledge) will be required to achieve the level 3 anatomy and physiology for exercise and health unit. Other level 3 categories of entry to the Register l Pilates l Exercise movement and dance partnership (EMDP) l Advanced exercise to music The changes to these qualifications are viewed as an evolution of the qualification and therefore present no need for existing level 3 members to have to up-skill in order to remain at level 3 with the above categories on the Register. It is hoped that training providers will offer courses that cover the disciplinespecific units only so that members holding existing level 3 qualifications will not have to repeat the mandatory common units at level 3. Under this new structure level 2 ETM is a prerequisite of level 3 advanced ETM and level 2 gym is a prerequisite of level 3 personal trainer. There is currently no change to yoga as the National Occupational Standards are under review. Disability, antenatal and post-natal and older adult additional categories
The reps Journal 2009;00(Month):00-00 The reps Journal 2010;17(June):15-19
Upskilling Prerequisite requirement A level 2 qualification in gym, exercise to music or aqua (not physical activity for children). This is a big change as these qualifications could previously be only accessed by level 3 advanced fitness instructors. Discipline-specific units that map to the following National Occupational Standards 1. Adapt an exercise and physical activity programme to the needs of older adults 2. Adapt an exercise and physical activity programme to the needs of disabled clients 3. Adapt an exercise and physical activity programme to the needs of ante/post-natal clients Up-skilling requirements for REPs members holding one or more of the special population categories/ qualifications There are no up-skilling requirements for existing members with special population recognised qualifications to remain within these categories on the Register. Changes to these qualifications are viewed as an evolution of the qualification. These are full qualifications and not the additional special population basic knowledge now included in the new level 2 qualifications. These qualifications will enable you to teach specialist classes for the relevant discipline. Summary key points – what it will mean to you l You will be able to up-skill from level 3 advanced fitness instructor to level 3 personal trainer via a new qualification (level 3 award in conversion of advanced fitness instructor to personal trainer status) l Level 2 members will be able to access level 3 exercise referral directly (previously only level 3 members could access this qualification) l Level 2 members will be able to access the older adult, disability and antenatal and post-natal directly (previously only level 3 members could access these qualifications) l Members should be able to undertake new disciplines without repeating the madatory common units, avoiding duplication of learning l Those level 2 instructors holding the old exercise referral qualification will be able to gain the exercise referral category of registration simply by completing the level 3 anatomy and physiology for exercise and health unit These courses may not yet be available as training providers are currently making the changes required under the new structure. This new structure will NOT affect existing members of the Register, no titles or categories will be taken away from current members.
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The reps Journal 2009;00(Month):00-00
Whatever happened to By Margot Wells To run faster you have to understand the technique of running faster and the physical training that aids the technique. It is no more difficult to make someone faster than it is to make someone stronger, the only difference is that there are lots of courses on strength and conditioning and hardly any on speed coaching. The speed components are as follows: l Strength endurance l Speed endurance l Power l Sprint endurance and they follow logically from one to the other.
Strength endurance Strength endurance is the ability to perform strength tasks for longer. This is achieved by using weights or body strength circuits. The problem with weight training is that there are weights programmes that make the client slower and there are weight programmes that make the client faster. It is crucial that the trainer knows the difference! Unlike weights, where by doing the wrong weights
speed? speed? speed? speed? speed? speed? speed? speed? speed? Speed is the most talked about fitness component and yet the most feared. Clients crave speed and constantly ask trainers if they can be made faster, only to be told that sprinters are born not made. True to a certain extent, but not all sportsmen and women want to be sprinters, they just want to be faster than they are and that is definitely possible. you can make someone slower, you cannot make someone slower using only body weight circuits. However if you do the wrong body circuits, you wonâ€™t make them faster either! Allan Wells M.B.E became Olympic 100m gold medallist without
lifting any weights.
Speed endurance Speed endurance will call upon the strength endurance to help the body to maintain the bodyâ€™s structure whether
on a track or a pitch. If the strength collapses then there is no platform for speed to be created. Therefore this is a key element in improving a client’s speed and one that has to be understood. When the client runs, they run with the whole body so consequently when they train, they have to train the whole body. Alignment is not only the key to making the body more efficient but it also reduces the risk of injury. A finely balanced body is no different to a finely tuned car. The faster the car, the more important it is that the key parts are working properly and in the right place. Speed will again put more emphasis on the body’s alignment and it is essential that the strength endurance does not cause the body to become misaligned. In other words the trainer has to prepare the body to run faster. At the same time as the strength endurance block of training is taking place then the speed endurance block should be trained. So at the end of the six week block, the client is not only stronger for longer but faster for longer. This is a commonly misunderstood element as speed does not require an aerobic base and training aerobically only serves to make the client slower. Aerobic training requires the muscle fibres to carry oxygen and trains the opposite system from speed endurance which works with the creatine and ATP system. The key to this component is to train the body’s ability to dissipate lactic acid. In order to do this, you have to get the body to produce lactic acid! This can only be done by running fast! Most clients cannot run far at top speed and therefore the distances have to be built up gradually over time. There is no point asking a client to run 12 x 200m when they cannot sprint 1 x 200m and therefore they run slowly which turns into aerobic training. An example of a beginners speed endurance programme would be: 50m – 40m – 30m – 20m with a walk back recovery. This does not sound like a speed endurance session but the client will not be able to sprint anymore and therefore the session has to be stopped. It is possible with a 10 – 15 minute recovery they may be able to repeat the same session but at the time of stopping the 22
“Alignment is not only the key to making the body more efficient but it also reduces the risk of injury” session, they will not be able to sprint any further. Try it yourself and you will understand what I mean. Nothing takes more out of the body than running at top speed.
Power The next training block will consist of turning strength into power and speed endurance into sprint endurance. Power is strength x speed and therefore has to have a speed element. Any form of explosive movement will create power. Jumping up stairs, jumping into sand, jumping over hurdles, depth-jumping or bounding are all forms of power training for speed but again the blocks need to be short and explosive. There is never a need to resist power unless the client is an international athlete. In other words do not ask the client to carry things while jumping up stairs as not only will this slow down the production of power but also will stop the client using their arms to propel and control the power. In all forms of power training the body has to be used like a spring, closing and expanding, in this way power can be improved. If the body remains shut then power is killed and no improvement will be gained.
Sprint endurance Sprint endurance is similar to speed endurance except the runs are shorter and the recovery is less. This would be true of a trained and fit client but what if, as we said earlier, the client cannot sprint very far? This element would just become an
extension of speed endurance and the time used to try to build up the distance that they can sprint. The rule is that if you can’t sprint it don’t run it, so the session is different things to different people.
Warm up During every training session and every warm up the key factor to running faster is technique. This has to be practised during the warm up strides as the client is not running at maximum speed and therefore can concentrate on trying to run technically correct. Collectively none of my clients take part in any form of jogging during a warm up. This is key to preparing the body for the activity that is about to come. Whether it be a training session or a game. Jogging does not switch on the brain, require concentration nor is it the correct technique used to run fast. The warm up should be all of the above and increase in intensity as the session/game comes nearer. The warm up should not tire the client but prepare them mentally and physically for the task ahead. Do not be afraid of speed and avoid it. Embrace it in all its glory and your clients will love you. If you can still put one foot in front of the other, test your training programme on yourself before you try things out on your clients. If it doesn’t make you faster then it won’t make them faster either!
THE AUTHOR Margot Wells is the Director of WELLFAST Performance Ltd. www.wellfast.co.uk Coach to Allan Wells Olympic 100m Gold medallist. Coach to International and national sportsmen and women from a variety of sports The reps Journal 20109;17(June):21-22
Taking account If you are a self-employed fitness professional and are finding things a little slow at the moment, you may want to consider claiming benefits from your local council. It is a commonly held misconception that you can only claim benefits if you are an employee, or if you are unemployed. But you can also claim various benefits as a self-employed person including housing and council tax benefit, and self-employed women can also apply for maternity benefits.
Housing/council tax benefit For this you will need to contact your local council and request a housing benefit claim form. You will also need proof of the net profit that your business has made upon which your benefit claim will be based. For this you will need:l Your most current set of accounts and l Associated receipts, bank statements etc that go with them. In general if your accounts have been prepared by a qualified accountant then it is not usually necessary to produce supporting documentation. There are a variety of other factors that are used in calculating housing benefits and at first glance these can seem very time-consuming and daunting, however the usual adage applies - if you don’t ask, you won’t get. The claim form can be downloaded from http://www.dwp.gov.uk/advisers/claimforms/hctb1_print.pdf
Maternity pay There are certain rules and regulations but in general: l You can claim from week 26 of your pregnancy for a maximum of 39 weeks l You must be registered with HM Revenue & Customs and paying Class 2 National Insurance contributions or hold a Small Earnings Exception certificate l You must have been self-employed for at least 26 weeks out of the 66 week period running up to and including the week before the week your baby is due (the Employment Test) l You must be earning on average £30 a week or more (the Earnings Test).
How much will I get? The weekly rate is based on your average weekly earnings. maternity allowance is paid at standard rate or at a rate equal to 90% of your average gross weekly earnings. You will get whichever is the lower rate. The standard rate is £124.88 from 6th April 2010.
Your questions If you have any questions relating to accountancy or finance matters then please send them to me via email@example.com and I will answer them as best as I can from the information
If number crunching’s not your style don’t worry, financial expert Jamie Crampton’s here to help provided. Some common topics include: l Business planning and start-up l Should I be a Limited company or sole trader? l What if I employ someone to work for me? l When do I have to pay tax? l What kind of records do I need to keep? l Can I claim for my car/van? l What other expenditure can I claim for? There are of course many other areas that you may have a question about and I will be happy to try and help, or at least point you in the right direction. Please note that I am unable to advise on pensions and investments as these are very specialist subjects, however I can refer you to contacts in these areas.
THE AUTHOR Jamie Crampton has worked in accounting since 1979, in both general practice and business and commerce for a variety of firms of all sizes, including Mitsubishi, GWR Radio (now Heart), the British Racing Drivers Club, Parcelforce, Fossil and many others. In 1995 he qualified as chartered management accountant and in 2008 set up his own business – Accounting 4 Fitness.
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The reps Journal 2010;17(June):24-25
Your new REPs insurance scheme In response to member requests the new scheme, administered by REPs and arranged through activity insurance specialists Jardine Lloyd Thompson Leisure, includes Personal Accident cover as standard - previously an additional cost option. It also changes the basis of cover from “claims made” to “claims occurring” thereby ensuring the highest protection for members in the rare event of things going wrong. The Personal Accident benefit, now included as standard, provides cash benefits in the event of you sustaining an injury during the course of your activities as an exercise professional which results in a temporary or permanent disability that prevents you from working. It is important to stress, however, that the cover only applies during the course of your activity as an exercise professional - cover does not apply to any injuries you may sustain away from work. The switch to liability cover on a “claims occurring” basis provides improved protection for members and its significance should not be overlooked. Previously cover was only offered for claims if they were reported during the period of insurance. This meant if a client sustained an injury which seemed minor at first, and which therefore went unreported to the insurers, there was no liability protection if the client later took action against the member after the policy had expired. Jardine Lloyd Thompson Leisure were able to negotiate improved cover on behalf of REPs so that the new Insurance Scheme is issued on a “claims occurring” basis - ensuring no member insured under the new Insurance Scheme is left exposed to claims made after the policy expires or after the point when they have ceased working as an exercise professional. We understand only too well the importance of having
Since its re-launch last October the REPs Insurance Scheme has received tremendous support from our members.. comprehensive and competitive cover, and with the support of our specialist insurance providers, are committed to continuing to improve this valuable benefit to our members. We’ll be running regular features on insurance in future issues of the Journal and would welcome any feedback you have on our existing policy, additional cover options you would like to see added, or general insurance questions, so get in touch via firstname.lastname@example.org to let us know what you think.
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Exercise is good for you Exercise can play a very important role in helping you stay healthy and avoid illness which can lead to poor health, sometimes for the rest of your life. Research has shown it can reduce your risk of suffering from osteoporosis (fragile bones), heart disease, high blood pressure and strokes. It has also been shown to improve cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of developing diabetes as well as some cancers.
Not doing exercise is bad for your health Not doing physical activity can lead to higher risks of suffering from the conditions mentioned above.
It’s better than any pill If you could capture all the benefits of physical activity in one pill, somebody would be onto a very valuable recipe! Not only can it help prevent a whole range of diseases but it can also help in various chronic pain conditions like back pain and arthritis. There are also many social and psychological benefits including promoting a feeling of wellbeing, improving mood, helping you sleep better, and reducing stress.
It’s fun and good for everyone
The great thing is that exercise is good for everyone so wherever you live, it would be good for you to get those around you to go out for a walk together. That way you can all help motivate each other and as you get fitter you will find you can do more for less effort.
wellbeing How can physical activity help YOU?
l It can help you lose weight particularly if you combine this with cutting calories and eating healthily. l It helps build muscle which means you burn more calories even when you’re not exercising. l It helps protect you against other conditions which cause ill health like diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease and some cancers. l In the long run, physical activity is as effective as drugs in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. lD id you know that several short bouts of activity (eg. 3 x 10 minutes) is as useful as 30 continuous minutes? lP hysical activity helps reduce stress and improves your overall feeling of wellbeing and quality of life, as well as helping you to sleep well.
Staying safe If you get any of the following problems stop and ask for medical advice from your GP or contact NHS Direct on 0845 4647: l Discomfort in your chest or upper body l Uncomfortable or severe breathlessness brought on by physical activity l Dizziness or nausea on exertion l Fainting during or just after exercise l Palpitations (a very fast or irregular heart beat) during activity.
l If you haven’t exercised before or for a long time, it would be best to visit your GP to make sure you start in the right way. Your GP may also be able to advise you on local schemes organised by your Primary Care Trust. l If you have a medical condition like arthritis, high blood pressure or diabetes, then a good source of information is the appropriate medical charity for your condition. Most of these charities offer specific exercise and lifestyle advice. Examples include the British Heart Foundation, Diabetes UK, Arthritis Research Campaign or Cancer Research UK. lL ocal YMCA clubs or public gyms will offer a range of exercise opportunities, some of which may focus on specific age groups or medical conditions.
Want more leaflets for your clients? See next page 26
The reps Journal 2010;17(June):26
SPORTEX CLIENT HANDOUTS NOW AVAILABLE ONLINE ■ 48 printable A4 client leaflets to start you off ■ 2-4 new leaflets added every month ■ Recommended in several NHS resources ■ Endorsed by medical charities ■ Topics include sports injuries, exercise first aid, exercise for health, sports science ■ Subscription costs less than £1 per week* ■ Print as many as you like, whenever you like * License is £50 per year Discounts available for multiple licenses - please r ises fo call for Exerc details
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Physical activity and EXERCISE IS GOOD FOR YOU
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You should Dancing, yoga, ow no yo r an wi tte ed m bu fo ring ur reco d poss REPS OK r, prop ssion is not ap e when yo n that m d board ercise ntrol. ibly very intensit to do mild this time ore time be able to talk and be active at the same time and still feel SETS oderat boar /wobble your eyes ll If you Progre do the ex opriate co to poor time. the du pear to aff u have a y exer nce to mod it shou e ce ba g on increasing ar ds pr co ec your activity level comfortable. ld ng a bala on a balan to closinTipsrowi cise. cause e still un erate able to ly, with ap actice lea in on which ration of th t the seve ld does th ss su pr ct trea eaischan ideal activity as it’s free and easy to do e cold. Stand g. Progre d then try■ Walking rit ial stra l pain and yo of your illn re whethe corre ber poor sufferin it is likely doing cin Adde y or fee es potent r u are Colds tinG co th Advice balan lancing an k towards anywhere. Perhaps take a dog for a walk, or go with a Remem ance and y time you es and not su s is a cold the lds bette g from a at if you ar d to and flu ba or W ile rm cis re an inf or r co a ll. PS er if be performed friend, and to make it more interesting you could use a Whatever your chosen activity,suit should wh ectio nd are whethe ld yoatu a e RE flu perfo ury. If at te. the ex st a wa ch as youfortathe ke so r you inj figures ns of the both caus flu SETSsteps. again for a minu pedometer to count your gentle intensity which gradually first 10 will fe symPt rt stop ist. your can ed by respira yoincreases 30 ing u t going for a me mild ac el comfo ap oms suffers suggest vir to d raise wer for activity to 3be active during your whole minutes until you have reached thesalevel can maintain in ayou or dis your ther fever ll anopportunities d lo■ Look 2-3 of that the ry tract an al of stuffy short wa tivity n a wa lk, than aver d stday. For example for your chosen period of activity. room these 3 sets park at the far end of the car park, or ing an consult aTio Howe This gets the blood flu head wa rais lean again y. Repeat infectio age adult veryour biliT ache walk one stop further to catch the bus, and take 10 flowing to your muscles andcirallows rate to tching TV if Toe therheart ns ea reha e ercises e are wn or toe slowl cu Lik . ex Ge r m do ch ely u t st nera ific minutes out of your lunch break to go for a walk. Si increase gradually. When you nearing diffeofreyour ance the end m (high the Yo shouare nt 102-10 0 ram e has specound the d lower whlevel and pa l aches ldn’t ta sthe Yes g d d en co o an pe ■ Try using the stairs instead of the escalator. If you do use activity you should also slowly decrease of activity m 4 you sh lds Pr ogram feeling ke ex F) ins wrap cles ar lance an andway and ould ercis fatig unwe rate Likely 30. aband part the escalator, start by walking ofab the over 5-10 minutes to allow your heart to slow down er Ra e an er This pr ngthen mus prove ba tion) of th by ue re ll. th if e d and of the ‘ne Th yo th as way. ep im weak and/or with a to walking ten se ainst up the ge graduallyfoprogress whole gradually. ck ch ese are su u are to stre well as e (proprioc proper Rare ness vere ur ot twards ag awn as lar eck’ ru as mmar PS th yo activities dr enjoy doing.REInvolve extre your Yes ankle sition sens r to achieve le. ise beeTT bet■wiChoose the ‘n beyou ab lling ou outhat ha Somet me ex is up to ha alPh SETS ecgoals and don’t worry if d e sh ld be puand to make your activities fun, sociable Remember Set yourself imes haus joint po kle. In orde ur injury it rsfamily If yorealistic 2-3 we stuffy the alp es ar ouldfriends u don’t k chec tion an e lette number of eks Draw it. You sh and nose of yo the exercis . Poor you miss one day. Just sure that thek’next day you your symmake ts Likely ible. Thenjoyable. a snee ptom have a fev rule re itation ue Mild around h as poss ercise at til three se zing s pick up where you left off. er rehabil nt to ensu od techniq rain on oc by ex un cur ab an uc ed Somet st sore Produc as m e. Do the petitions ove th d your im importa ed with go potential t includes throat re e neck ce rm Somet es The info possibl and add ches Neve ,Produced perfo e may pla wing leafle ur suchby rmation imes The. information contained in this article is intended as general guidance and information only and should not be relied upon as a basis for planningasindividual care or t disc r ds a sub medical llo ee sy contain yo fo tic stitu sp ea om co as a substitute for specialist medical advice in each individual case. To the extent permissible by law, the publisher, editors and contributors accept no liability for any loss, injury or Somet ed te for ugh Comm lp in prac ury. The fort/ or this speciali in this artic damarticle. ical care(including negligence) as a consequence, whether directly or indirectly, of the use by any person of the contents of Z are injury or damage howsoever incurred im age how to he st inj on le is al med any loss, of Ainte soever medical individu for your exercises Mild to es Usua incurred advice in nded as gen planning no liability article. l (includi each indi eral guid is for ept moder this a bas tors acc tents of ng neg some tion. vidu ance n as ate and info ligence al case. Comm ita contribu the con d upo To ) as a rma be relie ors and person of rehabil on conseqthe extent tion only uld not lisher, edit any per and uence, Comm and sho, the pub the use by whethermissible by should not tion only by law tly, of be directly law, the on an informa missible or indirec publisherelied upo or be and indi d ca per n as ctly come rectly, r, ent ance of the editors and a basis ther dire l guid the ext severe n for plan use by genera case. To uence, whe con d as ning al any per tributors seq individu intende individu acc a con le is ) as each this artic advice in negligence ed in ng ical (includi contain st med rmation for speciali incurred The info stitute howsoever sub as a or damage injury
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