SUMMER 2019 â&#x20AC;¢ VOL 47 PROGRAM GUIDE INSIDE
DARLING DAHLIAS | BE WATER WISE | MIXOLOGY 101
A thoughtfully curated selection of plants available for sale in a friendly, relaxed atmosphere. Toronto Master Gardeners will be available to provide gardening advice.
Plant Sale MAY 10-12 2019 MEMBERS ONLY DAY MAY 9
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Annuals Container Plants Edibles & Herbs Houseplants Native Plants
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Perennials Pollinator-friendly Plants Shrubs & Small Trees Succulents Vines
Native plant selection from St. Williams Nursery and Ecology Centre. TBG MEMBERS PREVIEW & SALE Thursday, May 9, noon to 8 p.m. Memberships start at $45 per year OPEN TO THE PUBLIC Friday, May 10, 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. Saturday & Sunday, May 11 & 12, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.
Photos: Paul Zammit
ALL PROCEEDS SUPPORT THE TORONTO BOTANICAL GARDEN
2019-03-11 11:24 AM
inside SUMMER 2019
SUMMER AT THE TBG Enjoy the moment
THE EXPANSION Fulfilling our dreams
GET IT! DO IT! Picnic ideas from the Garden Shop
THE EVENT Through the Garden Gate goes to The Beach
Plant Sale treats
Art in our gardens
Why we like dahlias
Dallying with dahlias
Make a splash
How to shrink a garden
Shake it up - cocktail bitters
People, places & plants
 PHOTO: KEN RETFORD
Parking lot paradise
2019 is the Year of the Dahlia
SUMMER at t h e TB G
There’s a point when the picture sets, picture perfect, before the photo is taken. Then click. THE TBG HITS picture-perfect right now. Plans for the year are in motion and our teams of staff and volunteers are buzzing with activity. We enter this season with an incredible start to 2019. We reached record attendance at Get the Jump on Spring and Seedy Saturday; Canada Blooms successfully featured the TBG and showcased our education and membership programming as well as retail offerings; our development team of staff and volunteers made significant strides in preparing for the TBG’s signature annual fundraiser, the Blossom Party and Canada’s largest garden tour, Mark’s Choice Through the Garden Gate; our volunteer program is ready for the peak season of group guided tours as well as concierge support at the library/ reception and sales in the Garden Shop; our team looking after our beautiful gardens has been hard at work; our marketing partnerships and media relations continue to be stellar; and our rentals/group sales reached last year’s annual sales in the first quarter. Plus, our very own Broti Kar is expanding our reach into the Toronto Public Library as the TPL’s Environmentalist in Residence for Spring 2019. All that was accomplished in just the first quarter of the year! As we continue our plans to strengthen our business foundation and to grow as an organization, our earned revenues are
increasing. We also continue to grow our membership base, our community of donors and volunteers and to expand our multigenerational educational reach. For example, this year the TBG joins the Social Prescription Project launched by the Rexdale Community Health Centre. This is the season to pause and enjoy a picture-perfect moment for the TBG. Our programming is in full swing as we connect multiple generations of members, visitors, volunteers, staff and donors, from education, horticulture and conservation, to culture and arts with the return of ZimSculpt. Plus, through Harry Jongerden’s leadership, Phase 1 of the TBG’s expansion is paving the way for the TBG to become a world-class botanic garden. My goal for all of us, myself included, is that we each find time during this season to pause and catch this special moment. We are proudly Toronto’s Gem in the City and we thank you for your support. We are powered by our supporters, including you, our members.
Hélène Asselbergs, Chief Administraive Officer
PHOTO: ARTHUR MOLA PHOTOGRAPHY. HAIR AND MAKEUP BY ROZ MOGANI, MAKEUP GURU
PAUSE AND ENJOY THE MOMENT
THE EXPANSION FULFILLING OUR DREAMS We can’t turn Edwards Gardens into a botanical garden without addressing the barn and the tremendous opportunities it gives us, says Garden Director Harry Jongerden.
PHOTO: ARTHUR MOLA PHOTOGRAPHY
irst things first. We’ve always known that Phase I of expansion begins with the barn. Historically the barn was more of a horsey-set facility than a functional structure on a working farm. (There’s a reason the surrounding area is known as the Bridle Path.) Aside from the small café and the washrooms that bookend the east and west sides of the ground floor, few people have seen inside the 80’ x 50’ building. 8,000 square feet is a lot of space! The dimensions of the barn and its cavernous second floor haymow make it the garden’s future prime real estate. The Master Plan calls this space a “Nature Education Centre”. Working with TBG staff and our detailed design consultants, we get to figure out what that means over the next year. We know that educational exhibit space and classroom space will occupy much of the building. Can we squeeze in a café and much needed storage space as well? A performance stage that folds out from the building? Fortunately, we will also have the present utility building across the courtyard to the south of the barn for these and other purposes. Remember that the service or maintenance yard function of the present barn area will be served by a new maintenance yard being constructed in the southwest corner of the garden. The barn area will no longer be needed for machinery and supplies. We have issued a Request for Qualifications to landscape architects to select
a lead consultant and multi-disciplinary team for the detailed design work ahead. An open bidding process will result in choosing a talented leader to work with us in achieving our goals. The barn area buildings will need an architect as part of the team, but the surrounding area needs its landscape architect and garden designer. One of the biggest landscape design challenges will be to finesse the transition from the present TBG area to the barn courtyard area. And anyone familiar with the ravine edge to the south of the barn courtyard area will know that a tremendous view into the
Anyone familiar with the ravine edge to the south of the barn courtyard area will know that a tremendous view into the Wilket Creek ravine goes undeveloped. When we’re done with it, Edwards Gardens/TBG will have a dramatic ooh-and-aah! lookout.
Wilket Creek ravine goes undeveloped. When we’re done with it, Edwards Gardens/TBG will have a dramatic oohand-aah! lookout. I have good news to report from City capital projects staff. They are going to install a new bridge by the old dam. Visitors to Edwards Gardens will know that this most important bridge has been in a state of disrepair that required its closure for two years. This will be undertaken at the same time the new service yard is being constructed in the far corner of the property. Improvements are coming. And soon, dreams will be fulfilled.
PICNIC-PERFECT SUN HATS
Fashionable and foldable, women’s sun hats from Parkhurst are rated at SPF 50. From $36.99 Children’s Flapjacks reversible cotton sun hat is fun and functional. UPF50+ $24.99.
get it! do it! Nature-friendly picnic ideas from the Garden Shop HERE COMES THE SUN!
PHOTOS (CLOCKWISE FROM TOP): PAUL ZAMMIT, ABEEGO, TBG
For super-hydration, carry a refillable TBG water bottle. $9.99. Unscented, vegan, 30 SPF sunscreen from BooBamboo is enriched with bamboo extract (made in Canada $14.99). Protective Sun Dots UVA/UVB indicator dots which change colour to indicate when to reapply sunscreen. $9.99.
PHOTOS: KEN RETFORD
MAKE YOUR PICNIC LITTER-FREE, SUN-SAFE AND YUMMY.
Pack up a collapsible picnic basket ($39.99) with tablecloth and cutlery from home, along with vintage cloth napkins in floral patterns (set of 4/$22.99) that mix and match with sturdy and beautiful metal camp mugs in William Morris motifs ($19.99). Sip cool summer drinks from recyclable paper straws embellished with green paper leaf ($4.99). Place picnic fare on coordinated plates, cups and Bento box made of sustainable, reusable and compostable bamboo (from $5.99). Locally handcrafted wood cheeseboard (from $44.99) is a natural match for local cheeses. To keep food fresh, wrap up leftovers in Abeego, a reusable food wrap made from beeswax ($18.99).
SUMMER at t h e TB G
Mark’s Choice Through the Garden Gate goes to
Fun and whimsy are hallmarks of many of the gardens.
PHOTO: SVP MEDIA
This year’s garden tour, says Carol Gardner, features the gardens of a unique neighbourhood of Toronto.
Verandahs are a feature of the beach lifestyle.
Borders burst with colourful plants.
(PHOTOS CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT): BARBARA PHILLIPS–CONROY, SVP MEDIA, PAUL ZAMMIT, P.Z.
T You will see bountiful borders and Japanese maples.
he area of Toronto known as “The Beach” or “The Beaches” is the location of this year’s Mark’s Choice Through the Garden Gate tour. The name of the area has been a matter of contention. Those who prefer “The Beaches” say it makes sense because there are four beaches in the area, but those who prefer the singular version say it’s the correct historical name because that was the name when it was all considered to be one beach. In a recent survey, 58 per cent of residents favoured “The Beach”. Whatever you call it, it’s a lovely and interesting part of town. This year, we’re making some big changes by partnering with a number of local businesses as well as with the Signature Arts & Crafts Show, which takes place in Kew Gardens at the same time. And, discounts will be available at many local businesses, including restaurants.
There will be 21 amazing gardens to tour. Buses will travel along the tour route, and there will be two concierges at our headquarters at Neil McNeil Secondary School—one to answer questions about the gardens and one to answer questions about the community. Residents of the area are known for their artistic gardens, and we’re encouraging them to be in their gardens for the tour. As always, we’ll also have Master Gardeners on hand to answer your plant questions. The plant selection is awesome, from hard-to-find perennials to potted banana trees. There are shade gardens, terraced gardens, pollinator gardens, woodland retreats, secret gardens, tiered gardens, a bistro garden, dog-friendly gardens and a garden with 250 Japanese maples! Be inspired by fountains, ponds and waterfalls, garden art and statuary, whimsical bird baths, birdhouses and re-imagined tree stumps! You’ll go home with tons of ideas.
Through the Garden Gate is generously sponsored by Mark’s Choice.
Pollinators flock to many of the gardens.
Saturday, June 8, & Sunday, June 9, 2019 • 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. One-Day Pass: Public $45 / TBG members $40 Two-Day Pass: Public $65 / TBG members $60 Students $25 (With ID, One-Day Pass Only) Tax included. Tickets are limited, advance purchase recommended. Available in the TBG Garden Shop or at torontobotanicalgarden.ca/MCTTGG
PLANT SALE TREATS The Edible
Dill (Anethum graveolens). Great for pickling or adding fresh flavour to dishes. When you brush against the fragrant foliage, it releases a yummy aroma. It also adds a fine textural contrast to plantings, which is why I like to interplant it between perennials, shrubs and other annuals. Plant extra as the foliage provides food for caterpillars, in particular the larvae of black swallowtail butterflies. The flowers provide both pollen and nectar for a variety of insects, including predatory beneficial insects such a wasps and hoverflies.
SINCE LAST AUTUMN, I have been on the road visiting wholesale growers, carefully selecting and lining up plant material for our annual fundraising Plant Sale. It’s one of my favourite events of the year—it’s Christmastime for Gardeners. But unlike Christmas, we get to treat ourselves to the gift of plants. This year, when making your choices, please consider plants that invite birds and insects into your garden, patio or balcony, too.
TOP ROAD TRIP PICKS The Tropical
Canna ‘Cleopatra’. This is a “Wow, what is that?” kind of plant! A fast-growing, heatloving tropical, ‘Cleopatra’ is an eye-catching addition for the border or in large containers. Plants can reach an impressive 1.5 metres tall. Each plant, each leaf and each bloom is unique. Excellent for floral design. The vivid and multi-coloured flowers are a draw for hummingbirds.
Bowman’s root (Gillenia trifoliata syn. Porteranthus trifoliata). While visiting a plant supplier, I noticed a small block of this top-performing native plant in the TBG gardens—I immediately reserved 100 plants for the sale. Each spring the colourful stems reliably burst through the ground and are soon followed by lacy foliage which adds a wonderful textural contrast to a planting. The simple, star-shaped flowers are spectacular and irresistible to bees. The seed heads often persist after the blooms have faded and the foliage puts on a fiery orange to red show in the fall. This northeastern native is best grown in full sun to part shade in soil rich in organic matter and that remains evenly moist. Grows 60 cm to 1.2 metres tall. Please shop early as supplies are limited!
PHOTOS: PAUL ZAMMIT. (OPPOSITE PAGE: CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT); ARTHUR MOLA PHOTOGRAPHY, CLAUDIA PETER, A.M.P.
The TBG Plant Sale is like having Christmas for Gardeners, says Paul Zammit. Pick up some plant treats for yourself and for your garden’s wildlife visitors.
IN OUR GARDENS Zimbabwe art exhibition, ZimSculpt, returns to the TBG this summer from June 29 to September 8.
LAST YEAR’S SUMMER blockbuster exhibition, ZimSculpt, is coming back for a second year to the gardens of the TBG. Shipping containers from Zimbabwe will be arriving in early June, packed with new stone sculptures created by contemporary artists to be displayed throughout the gardens. “These are powerful works of art that depict the stories of the natural world and the culture and traditions of the artists’ homeland,” says ZimSculpt curator Vivienne Croisette. ZimSculpt is a celebration of Zimbabwe’s artists who work in stone, transforming raw materials into beautiful sculptures depicting human life and the natural world including plants, animals and organic shapes. Set amidst the gardens of the Toronto Botanical Garden, the outdoor exhibition highlights the beauty of both the art and our gardens. Visitors may purchase any of the sculptures on display, as well as pieces in The Marketplace created by the two on-site artists-in-residence. Come and watch them work! The Marketplace also offers sculptures of all sizes and will be open to guests seven days a week from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., and on Thursday evenings. Go to torontobotanicalgarden.ca/ZimSculpt for a complete list of ZimSculpt events
Last August Lorraine Hunter spent an afternoon in a field of dazzling dahlias and had a delicious dinner at Petals and Plates, a celebration of local food and floriculture. TORONTOBOTANICALGARDEN.CA
PHOTO: LORRAINE HUNTER
DALLYING WITH DAHLIAS
PHOTOS: LORRAINE FLANIGAN
“We started with 700 plants and through various trials and errors now grow 300,000 in-ground, introducing five or six new ones every year,” says Nick.
he event took place at Creekside Growers peony and dahlia farm in Delhi, Ontario. Our hosts, Nick and Hilary VanderHeide, can tell you just about anything you might want to know about growing dahlias. This family business started out as a two-person operation and over the past eight years has grown to become one of the major dahlia producers in Ontario. “I never imagined I would end up doing this,” says Nick. “It’s terrific to be able to work from home and see my kids all the time.” He grew up in a subdivision and had his own construction company before the family moved to a sixand-a-half-acre property. Hilary had some knowledge of what was involved because her parents had run a small market farm growing peonies and raspberries for 30 years near Niagara-on-the-Lake. The couple started out growing peonies and decided they could grow another crop once the peonies had finished blooming in early summer. They began experimenting with different flowers including lilies, ornamental kale, zinnias and dahlias to
see which one would best complement the peonies’ schedule. Dahlias were the best fit. “We started with 700 plants and through various trials and errors now grow 300,000 in-ground, introducing five or six new ones every year,” says Nick. Their primary business is selling cut flowers to the wholesale market. Two years ago they also began selling dahlia tubers directly to consumers. “Almost 90 per cent of the tubers are sold on-line. People shop on-line from all over Canada and that includes home growers and professional growers, including
also Nick’s least favourite because of the challenge of growing perfect specimens. “Dahlias are easy to grow in a garden because home growers don’t insist on perfect flowers. But if you are creating a bride’s bouquet or a funeral arrangement the flowers have to be perfect,” he explains. Today’s dahlias are hybrids originating in Mexico where the Aztecs ate their tubers as a staple food. There are now more than 60,000 varieties and 18 flower families including anemone, cactus, collarette, peony and water lily groups. The American Dahlia Society recognizes 15 different colours and colour combinations.
Tips for Growing Divine Dahlias DAHLIAS ARE WONDERFUL for adding colour to the August garden in our climate when so many other flower blooms have faded away, but they must be planted in late spring when all fear of frost has passed. Here are some general tips for growing your own delectable dahlias.
• Grow from tubers or seed. Seeds are cheaper but don’t always grow true to type. With tubers you know exactly what you are getting. • Select firm plump tubers. Start indoors in containers in April or plant outside after the last frost date. Plant in a 10- to 15-centimetre deep hole and cover thinly with soil so that the tip of the tuber’s crown or “eyes” barely shows. • Seeds planted directly outside in May will bloom later than those started indoors under lights. Sow six to eight weeks before the last frost— the earlier, the better will be the quality of the tubers. • Plant dahlias in full, preferably morning, sun 23 to 30 centimetres apart. Space those less than one metre tall about 30 centimetres apart and
taller ones one metre apart. This gives good ventilation that discourages powdery mildew. • Dahlias are adaptable to different kinds of soil as long as it is welldrained. Amend the soil with compost or well-rotted manure. • Before planting, to avoid spearing tubers, insert 1.5 to two metre-tall stakes or poles, and as the plants grow, tie stems to the poles. Or, support them with tomato cages or against a fence. Dahlias have brittle stems that can be knocked over by heavy rain, wind or the weight of the flowers, so label each stake rather than the stalk. • Water once the plants begin to grow, especially during dry periods. Do not overwater, especially when plants are small, or tubers may rot. Once blooms are set, water plants deeply in weeks with no rain. Plants grown in containers may need watering twice a week. • Dahlias are heavy feeders so fertilize weekly with a weak solution of a water-soluble, organic fertilizer
formulated for flowers. Slow-release fertilizers also work well. • Apply a leaf, straw or shredded bark mulch to keep tubers cool, to control weeds and to conserve soil moisture. • Once three or four pairs of leaves appear, pinch back the central stalk to encourage bushier growth, especially with larger varieties. • Use insecticidal soap to control aphids and mites. Pick off any slugs or Japanese beetles. • Cut flowers often to encourage more flowering and be sure to deadhead spent blossoms. • To store tubers over the winter, cut off all but 5 to 10 centimetres of top growth after the first fall frost has blackened the foliage. Carefully dig out tubers, allow them to dry upside down for a few days in a frost-free location. Remove excess soil, leaving a few inches of stem. • Store each clump in a ventilated box filled with slightly moistened sand, vermiculite or peat moss. Keep in a cool, dry location. Label and tie tubers with a name tag on a string. • Check tubers every so often for signs of rot. Remove infected areas and discard. • Mist tubers every few weeks to keep them from getting too dry. • If clumps are large enough that you want to divide them the following spring, be sure to keep one or more eyes per clump. Lorraine Hunter is Chair of the Trellis Committee and blogs at the TBG’s Botanical Buzz.
PHOTO: LORRAINE FLANIGAN
some large ones,” says Nick. Their combined cutting season runs for about 20 weeks from May to November with the dahlias following the peonies in late summer. The dahlia, a member of the daisy family (Asteraceae) comes in a wide range of sizes, colours and shapes. Blooms can range from five-centimetre lollipop-style pompoms to giant 25-centimetre dinner plates. They can grow from 30 centimetres to 1.5 metres tall and come in all colours except blue. For cut flowers, colour follows fashion and for the past three or four years burgundy has been a big favourite according to the VanderHeides. Their most popular variety is ‘Cafe au Lait’, a dinner plate in cream and mocha with pink tones, and it’s
Toronto Botanical Garden’s 32nd annual tour of private gardens
The Beach Saturday and Sunday June 8 and 9, 2019, 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. Toronto’s largest tour of private gardens. Discover the gardens at your own pace by following the garden guide that contains a map and descriptions of each featured garden. Not only will you enjoy strolling through this unique neighbourhood, while popping in and out of the gardens you’ll have a chance to ask questions and learn something, too! TICKETS
One-day Pass: $40-45 Two-day Pass: $60-65 Students: $25 (with ID) Door Sales: $50-55
www.torontobotanicalgarden.ca/mcttgg 416-397-1341 TBG_TTGG2019_halfpage_Trellis_ad_AW.indd 1
2019-03-11 12:23 PM
Mother’s Day Plant Café
ELEGANCE AND WHIMSY IN THE GARDEN AT DUSK TUESDAY, MAY 28, 2019, 7 TO 10 P.M. VIP RECEPTION: 6 TO 7 P.M. Join us for Toronto Botanical Garden’s most floriferous annual party. Enjoy the spring blooms at dusk, delicious fare, live entertainment and interactive experiences in a garden oasis. Tickets $175 each (2 for $300) * Ticket + VIP Reception $300 each * For more information or ticket purchase: www.torontobotanicalgarden.ca/blossom or call 416-397-1483
SUNDAY, MAY 12, 2019 11:30 a.m. to 2 p.m. $35 per person Celebrate Mother’s Day at Toronto Botanical Garden’s Plant Sale. Treat your mom to lunch prepared by The Food Dudes at TBG’s pop up indoor/outdoor Plant Café. BOOK YOUR LUNCH TODAY online at
IN SUPPORT OF
ADVANCE ORDERS ONLY
charitable tax receipt will be issued for the maximum allowable amount.
Questions? Email firstname.lastname@example.org
TORONTO BOTANICAL GARDEN IS A REGISTERED CHARITY BN1192 27486 RR0001
2019-03-13 9:44 AM
Lots of blooms without a lot of work and no staking make these slightly frilly flowers picture perfect.
The deep burgundy flowers suggest the rich colours and intrigue of the East. Japanese beetles avoid these and other dark colours. 7.5 cm flowers bloom atop 1.3-metre tall stems.
Why we like...
From dazzling to demur, dahlias make a big impression in the late summer garden. TEXT BY MURRAY THOMPSON PHOTOGRAPHY BY KEN RETFORD
‘BISHOP OF AUCKLAND’ ‘BISHOP OF YORK’ Open, yellowy-orange blooms catch the attention of butterflies and hummingbirds in late September and early October. Dark foliaged and low-growing.
Attractive open-centred red flowers bloom atop bronze foliage and stems. Space these 1-metre high plants 60 cm apart.
COLLECTIONS ‘ROBANN ROYAL’
Much sought after for shows and arrangements, this popular 1990s introduction has 6-cm blooms on 1.5-metre tall plants that need support.
An exhibition dahlia with pretty, deep, pink-edged petals that form 10-cm blooms that last well in arrangements. 1 metre tall, support optional.
This outstanding exhibition-worthy ball type cultivar grows on strong 1.5-metre high stems that need some support. A superlative cut flower.
A dinnerplate type dahlia with 20-cm blooms on 1.2-metre staked stems. Float cut flowers in a shallow dish surrounded by cedar sprigs.
This decorative type dahlia grows on very short stems, making it easy to mix with other garden flowers. Good cut flower.
Make a Splash Sean James shares his love of water—from puddles to ponds— dispelling our qualms about algae, mosquitos and more!
PICTURE YOURSELF SITTING listening to the soft flow of a creek. Imagine, you can barely hear the traffic noise over the sound of the waterfall. Let’s assume I’ve sold you on the benefits of having a pond, so what’s to learn? Build it right Protect the liner from punctures with landscape fabric. Leave extra, folded under, to allow for shifting over time. Keep pipes inside the liner, so if they leak, they leak inside the pond. Use a skimmer box to protect the pump from debris. Plant for beauty There’s an incredible variety of water plants available. Marginals are plants that go around the edge of the pond and submergents are those that live below the water. There are even edibles such as watercress (Nasturtium officinale). As with any garden, though, focus on texture first, and then flowers. Add a waterfall Make a solid base for the waterfall. If the ground is soft or there’s a slope nearby, build a block foundation to help prevent shifting and uneven settling over time. Make it bigger We tend to be too conservative when determining the size of a pond. When it’s half-finished, it’s too late for embiggening. Aim big from the start. You’ll love it. Play it safe Make the pond no deeper than 60 centimetres, and the sides shouldn’t be too steep either. If you’re still nervous about having a water feature, consider a pond-less waterfall where the water is under a grate hidden by ornamental stones. Basically, there’s a reservoir underground to hold the water. That’s where the pump sits and sends water up to the waterfall, and it just cascades back into the reservoir. After dark water features are magical when used in conjunction with low-voltage lighting. It’s worth it to add lights which extends the hours of potential enjoyment.
PHOTOS: SEAN JAMES
hen I was in school, I frequently got into trouble for playing in the puddles: now I get paid for it. I have water features on all four sides of my home, and I help create them for other people—I just love water! Water features, from ponds and fountains to pond-less waterfalls, add value to a home—some sources estimate up to three per cent of a home’s value—and water features mask street noise, which is a bonus in our traffic-bound towns and cities. I’m not sure why, but there’s a fear of water features. It seems to be partly about the perceived
amount of work required to maintain them. But, unlike conventional gardens, you don’t have to weed or water them, and if you mow them, you’ve got bigger problems! We don’t need to fear ponds—not even pesky algae. Having some algae is normal. The big challenge is oxygen. Ensuring there’s adequate flow, by placing a pump opposite a waterfall for example, helps oxygenate the water. Technically, it’s about removing carbon dioxide from the water, leaving little for the algae to breathe. Planting oxygenating plants, such as coon’s tail (Ceratophyllum demersum) and mare’s tail (Hippuris vulgaris) in the bottom of the pond helps as well. These plants take carbon dioxide out of the environment and release oxygen.
Shade is the next tool in the toolbox. Plants need light, and algae need lots of it to get out of control. To reduce the amount of sunlight, aim to cover about one-third of the surface of the water with lilies and other floating plants. Installing a bog, slightly elevated above the pond itself, will also keep algae down. A little water from the pond is continuously pumped out and up into the bog where it is cleaned by plants and flows back into the pond. Bogs open up a nifty palette of waterfiltering plants. Some examples of good bog plants include blue flag (Iris versicolor), morning star sedge (Carex grayi) and great blue lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica). Line the bog with pond liner and fill with a fifty-fifty mix of compost and 3/8" chip gravel. Together, the growing medium and the plants act as physical and chemical filters. Not even mosquitoes are cause for fear. The type of mosquito that spread West Nile prefer tiny bits of water, such as in discarded coffee cups. Because mosquito larvae take in air through tiny straws (siphons) at their tail ends, they find it very difficult to breathe when the water is kept moving with waterfalls and fountains, and so they cannot survive in an ornamental pond. Waves that are
little ripples to us are huge waves to the larvae. And any that do survive? Goldfish love to eat them. Incidentally, don’t overclean a pond. Having a bit of sludge, or organic matter, in the bottom of the pond creates a home for bacteria. These microorganisms help recycle organic matter into nutrients, surprisingly keeping the pond clean. Ponds can be good for the environment, too. They’re a great water source for birds and pollinators: they can drink easily from a waterfall and at the pond’s edge, provided it’s shallow-sloping. Plants that grow in ponds or bogs can support pollinators as well. Cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis), marsh cinquefoil (Comarum palustre) and even water lilies are beloved by insects. But try to avoid invasive species such as yellow flag iris (Iris pseudacorus) which can be harmful to the surrounding environment if it escapes from the pond—and it doesn’t take much. Planting just one native, or one pollinator-friendly plant makes a positive difference to biodiversity. Sean James is an eco-landscaper, consultant, designer, Master Gardener and public speaker who believes there’s no need to sacrifice beauty to do the right thing for the environment. He is the owner of Sean James Consulting & Design.
THERE ARE MANY ways to “do good” when creating a water garden. One way is to use rain by rerouting downspouts into the pond. This system is called an evaporation pond. It can evaporate 2.5 centimetres of water a day and reduce the urban heat island effect as the evaporating water lowers the air temperature. This makes it an element of rainscaping—one of the fastest-growing trends in gardening. Rainscaping is all about keeping the water that falls on your property on your property, encouraging it to soak into the ground or evaporate away. It helps clean the water before it reaches our creeks and rivers, cooling it on the way and slowing its flow, thereby reducing erosion. It even reduces downstream flooding, holding and slowly releasing the stormwater. Up to 60 per cent of municipal water flows onto the landscape. Watering efficiently is one of the big ways to save cash and the planet at the same time. There are at least three great ways to save water. 1. Drip irrigation conserves up to 30 per cent of water compared to spray irrigation, and even more if the watering is done early in the morning. Drip irrigation also helps control fungal diseases on plants. 2. Mulching doesn’t just keep weeds down, it also keeps moisture in the soil. Composted pine mulch is my favourite because its easily available organic matter kickstarts the whole soil microbiome. 3. Designing with xeriphytes—plants that are less thirsty—means almost never having to water. Believe it or not, we have native cacti (Opuntia spp.)—their huge yellow flowers are real attention-grabbers. Some of the more common drought-tolerant plants include catmint (Nepeta mussinii), the ornamental goldenrod varieties (Solidago spp.), and the poorly named but lovely sneezeweed (Helenium cvs.). So, there are lots of ways to enjoy, save and use water to do good. But have fun, too!
PHOTOS: (FROM LEFT); MIKE PRONG, SEAN JAMES
WATER WO RKS
HORTICULTURAL STAFF WORKING in the gardens of the TBG follow these water-wise tips that home gardeners can easily adopt.
1 To deliver water thoroughly and deeply to the soil, we set irrigation system timers at the TBG to run for long periods, but less frequently, when they are used at all.
PHOTO: PAUL ZAMMIT
2 During periods of heavy or prolonged rain, the irrigation system is turned off. 3 Sensors positioned at ground level help detect soil moisture levels to help determine when an irrigation cycle can be skipped.
4 Drip irrigation installed in the kitchen garden and the parking lot beds efficiently delivers water at soil level. During extreme heat or prolonged drought, we supplement this by hand watering in the Kitchen Garden. 5 To reduce overall water use and to protect small critters that visit the Westview Terrace, we have lowered the water depth in the water channel from 35 to 20 centimetres.Â We have also added two large stones as safe havens from the water. Now, we rarely find little creatures floating in the channel.
6 To reduce water evaporation and energy consumption, we do not run the waterfall in the Westview Terrace water channel or through the water curtain in the Entry Courtyard during periods of extreme heat, overnight or when no events are taking place. 7 We build up the water-holding capacity of the soil by continually adding organic matter, such as compost, as well as by composting in situ by leaving plant debris such as cut stems in the beds.
PHOTO: XXXXX XXXXXXX
How to shrink a garden— and make it fit a new lifestyle
PHOTOS: (OPPOSITE): DEB NYSTROM/FLICKR. THIS PAGE (FROM LEFT):CAROL GARDENER, WALTERS GARDENS
Four years ago, Carol Gardner downsized. Here’s how she learned to live with a smaller garden.
t was hard to let go of a house we’d lived in for 35 years, but the garden – oh, my! We went from having a large garden with many beds, both front and back, to what was too small to call a garden at all—just a curved spot sidling up to the front windows. Because our land is condo-owned, we weren’t allowed to expand that front space (don’t get me started). However, I must admit that I’ve learned a lot about the difference between large and small gardens in the past four years.
1. Size matters If you design a very small garden with rows of sizes—taller ones in the back, medium in the middle, small in front— it tends to look like an erupting volcano. But it’s easy to add height with tall, dramatic plants such as tall alliums or Crocosmia interspersed among shorter ones.
2. Get the basics right The existing garden was pretty pitiful, with a few messy shrubs but a lovely magnolia. We pruned the magnolia, but removed everything else, including the soil, replacing it with a mulch/soil/fertilizer combination called Gro-Max. Every year the garden gets a heaping addition of compost. It’s the healthiest garden we’ve ever had.
3. Cultivate your inner Jack the Ripper When you have plenty of garden space, you tend to be tolerant of plants that don’t really earn their space. But when you just have a small space, you become a bit of a maniac. Since moving, I would be ashamed to tell you how many plants I’ve sent to that big garden in the sky. Next year, at least two lovely plants are going: Japanese anemone ‘Honorine Jobert’ is a delight in the fall, but all summer it’s just large leaves, and those leaves are like an invading army, taking over everything in their path. Last year, I added Anemone Wild Swan, a glorious plant that blooms all summer and looks like butterflies hovering over the garden. It’s staying, but its sister is leaving. The other plant that I’m reluctantly taking out is Baptisia. It’s great when it blooms, but its bloom is very short-lived and, afterwards, it droops severely, covering the plants in front of it. It’s being replaced by a climbing rose that had better behave itself.
5. Colour and contrast are important I love plants with interesting coloured leaves, like Heuchera (coral bells), Brunnera macrophylla (Siberian bugloss) and Mukdenia, so I planted plenty of them, especially because some of the garden is in shade. But every time I looked at the garden, I knew something was missing. Because I had no immediate plans for a space beside the driveway, I temporarily put in plants from my first garden or those that took my eye when browsing the nurseries—even a $1.99 rose bought at the grocery store. It was a very higgledy-piggledy assortment, but wouldn’t you know that that garden was so much more attractive than the garden I’d planned meticulously. The rose became the star of the garden, spreading and blooming vibrantly until the snow fell. The difference between the two gardens was colour and contrast—and lots of it. It was a good lesson in humility. The best part of downsizing has been that I look forward to garden work because it’s manageable. A half-hour here and there takes care of all the garden needs and gives me time to actually enjoy it! Carol Gardner is an awardwinning garden writer and co-chair of the Through the Garden Gate Committee.
TIPS FROM THE PROS Kim Price, Kim Price Landscape Design • • •
In a more intimate garden, your eye notices the details a lot more then in a larger one. Because of this, quality in everything is a must. Don’t be afraid to use an oversized element in a small garden. Positioned correctly it sets up expectations, adding drama and boldness. Choose one theme and express it with confidence, whether it is contemporary, Japanese, classic or other. It’s important that your garden feels cohesive and well thought out. An intimate space feels like another room, more than a larger garden, so try to connect its theme with the inside of your home in some way.
James Dale and colleagues at Earth Inc. • Use light, airy garden furniture. • Utilize vertical square footage (e.g. arbours, wall trellises, vines.). • Consider the need for sunlight: in small spaces one tree can block all your sunshine. • Use mirrors or reflective surfaces such as polished chrome to increase the sense of space. • Small wall or floor water features can be tastefully executed to create a white noise effect. • Select plants you truly love. Make a list of plants that go well together. Make sure they are manageable and smaller species. The type of the planting you choose should show well in all seasons instead of focusing on colour for a short duration. • A trip to the Royal Horticultural Society’s Chelsea Garden Show or the Hampton Court Palace Show can offer real inspiration for downsized spaces. Their examples are perfectly executed and show beautiful detail, some contained within tiny little spaces that would be easy to care for. • Set up a themed vignette. We love the feel of the kitchen garden at Kew Gardens in London. The little details show the heritage and quality of the space.
PHOTOS(FROM LEFT): LORRAINE FLANIGAN, CAROL GARDENER
4. Investigate dwarf plants Because I’m plant-obsessed, I wanted to be able to put in as many plants as possible. Happily, I quickly discovered that almost every type of shrub now comes in a dwarf variety. A couple of years later, I also discovered that nobody has told these plants that they’re small; the “dwarf” forsythia goes crazy every spring, trying to take over as much of the garden as possible. Now, the forsythia gets pruned dramatically every year, and the following year it blooms like a crazy thing—we seem to have reached an understanding. My newest passion is dwarf conifers. They add texture, colour and amazing shapes without taking up too much space. If you want to see a vast collection, check out Whistling Gardens in Wilsonville. It has 2,000 conifer species, hybrids and cultivars—I guarantee you’ll be awestruck!
SHAKE IT UP
PHOTOS: TRISTAN PEIRCE
Modern-day cocktail bitters are not new but definitely provide new tools to the cocktail world, says Kinsip’s Jeremiah Soucie.
HISTORICALLY, BITTERS were medicinal and drunk in small amounts to cure just about anything under the sun. Today, when people ask how to use them, I say think of them like seasoning for drinks. Herbs, bark, wood, flowers and a range of botanicals are combined with an alcohol base and other more dominant flavours to create aromatic, fruity, floral, citrus or nutty tastes. When using bitters, there are no rules, but certainly guidelines. Bitters help provide balance in drinks and add a subtle element of flavour. Some, such as black walnut, coffee pecan or Kinsip’s House blends are suited for darker spirited drinks, whereas others like lavender lemon, hibiscus rosehip and cherry are more suited to summery, light and refreshing gin and vodka cocktails. We even use bitters to add a bit of spice to fizzy water: although alcohol-based, you are only using drops of the concentrated bitters for flavouring. Bitters also have culinary uses and any of them could be used in a wide range of cooking and baking applications. Add orange bitters to French toast or whip maple walnut into cream but, remember, a little goes a long way.
T H E B EE’ S K NEES 1 egg white 3/4 ounce lemon juice 3/4 ounce “runny honey” (diluted in a 1:1 ratio with water) 2 ounces Kinsip Junipers Wit Gin 4 dashes Kinsip Lavender Lemon bitters In a small bowl, whisk egg white with bitters until it’s frothy and forms soft peaks. Combine lemon juice, runny honey, gin and whisked egg white in a cocktail shaker with ice. Shake with gusto for 20 to 30 seconds. Strain into a chilled coupe glass. Jeremiah Soucie co-operates Kinsip House of Fine Spirits, a grain-to-glass farm distillery in Prince Edward County.
MIXOLOGY & BITTERS 101: Learn when to shake and when to stir! Join Phil D’Mello and Maria Hristova from Kinsip House of Fine Spirits as they walk you through the basics of mixology and bitters. They’ll have you mixing up cocktails in no time to impress your guests. Wednesday, May 22, 7 to 9 p.m. Public $40; Members $32.
SUMMER 2019 • VOL 2
people, places & plants Goings On at the TBG PHOTOS: 1. LANA HOVINGA, 2. RICHARD STEPHENSON/FLICKR 3. COURTESY PATRICIA MARTIN, 4.TORONTO BOTANICAL GARDEN, 5. PAUL ZAMMIT, 6. PAUL ZAMMIT
1. Lana Hovinga Large-scale acrylic and ink paintings inspired by the natural world. July 3 to September 27, Weston Family Library.
2. Vegetables for all Vegetables available at the TBG Plant Sale can feed people and wildlife!
3. Patricia Martin’s passion began with the green spaces of the Don Valley and continues through her generous support of the TBG.
4. Blossom Party It’s an evening affair! Tuesday, May 28, 7 p.m. to 10 p.m. Tickets at toronto botanicalgarden.ca/ garden-party.
5. Gardens of Ireland Join Marjorie Mason and Paul Zammit in Ireland, September 2020. Watch for details.
6. At the market Two a.m. at the Ontario Food Terminal wholesale market offers the best TBG Plant Sale plants.
Plants of Patagonia Marcela Ferreyra has spent her professional life studying and documenting the flora of Patagonia, much of which has been recorded in books and articles. Through photography and stories, she will take us on a tour of Patagoniaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most remote and strikingly beautiful places and introduce us to the incredibly diverse plants that exist there. Thursday, June 6, 7:30 p.m. Public $15; Members FREE; Students (with ID) $12.
PHOTOS: (FROM TOP): COURTESY MARCELA FERREYRA, BESTPICKO.COM
Seasonal Wellness Workshop Take a break from your busy life and join Jane New for an earth-based day of learning, exploring and connecting. Enjoy both indoor and outdoor activities that will enhance your connection to nature and elevate your mind, body and spirit. Sunday, June 2, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. OR Sunday, July 21, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Public $60; Members $48
NATIVE PLANT SALES wildflowers, shrubs, trees, ferns, vines, grasses, sedges
Toronto Botanical Garden Sat May 4, 9:30am - 2:30pm Riverwood Sun May 19, 12pm - 4pm Christie Pits Park Sun May 26, 12pm - 4pm
Derek W Welsh
- TREE & SHRUB PRUNING -INSECT & DISEASE CONTROL - PLANTING & TRANSPLANTING - TREE & STUMP REMOVAL - DEEP ROOT FERTILIZING
I.S.A. Certified Arborist #ON-0129A
TREE CARE INC.
GARDEN TOURS with Margaret Dailey-Plouffe. Tours that exceed your expectations. For 2019 –Garden tours: JUNE: Newport, Rhode Island Flower Show & Garden tour; JULY: Quebec Garden tour; Buffalo Garden Festival/Walk Tour; PLUS Newfoundland; Agawa Canyon; Cape Cod/New England PLUS International Tours to: Ireland; Croatia; the Imperial Cities of Europe. In 2020: THE GARDENS OF POLAND! Contact Margaret at 416-746-7199 email@example.com OR www.hnatravels.com. Make use of vertical space in your garden with a 6-foot obelisk. Made in Toronto exclusively for the Toronto Botanical Garden, these obelisks are superb structures for showcasing and supporting vines and vegetables. Black, powder-coated steel ensures that these towers remain rust-resistant and durable for many years to come. Available throughout the year at the Garden Shop, $89
Sales Representative, ABR, SRES HALL OF FAME AWARD LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENT AWARD TORONTO MASTER GARDENER RE/MAX HALLMARK REALTY LTD., BROKERAGE
Contact 416.564.9450 /JoseeCoutureTorontoRealEstate
I LOVE GARDENS & TREES Since 1973
Certified Arborist, Horticulturist & Designer Arborist Reports. Landscape Assessments
Call or text Wesley:
www.ilovegardens.ca Email: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Consulting, Design, Restoration, Planting Landscape Creations, Pruning Specialist
TORONTO ISLAND GARDEN TOUR 2019 Saturday June 1st and Sunday June 2nd - 12 to 5 p.m. Please join us. Enjoy touring artists’ and plant lovers’ private gardens. An amazing ferry ride from the ‘big smoke’. Ward’s Island ferry departs Jack Layton Ferry Terminal at Bay Street at Queen’s Quay. Ferry times and ticket prices: www.toronto.ca/parks/island/ferry-schedule. htm. Tour tickets and maps available at white gazebo on arrival at Ward’s Island. Adults $10 cash only. Funds used for community landscaping projects. A volunteer event. For more information please contact: www.torontoisland.org or firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com. Remember, it’s cooler by the Lake! GARDENING HELP NEEDED Mainly weeding in flower beds and trimming of iris leaves and small shrubs. Location: Lawrence and Pharmacy. Tel 416-757-8214. For salary and details, please call Ms. L. Liivamagi from 3 to 10 p.m.
PARKING LOT PARADISE
PHOTO: PAUL ZAMMIT
Paul Zammit explains how the TBG’s horticulture team plans to rejuvenate the plantings in the parking lot to create a functional, beautiful and wildlife-friendly space.
ack in 2012, the west side of the parking lot underwent a significant renovation. This City of Toronto initiative was designed to create a sustainable parking lot, limiting potential water runoff by using permeable pavers and large island beds planted with a single row of trees and a selection of perennials that act as biofilters to help capture and utilize rainfall, thereby protecting the Wilket Creek Ravine from water erosion. Fast forward to 2019. Most of the trees have become established, but some of the perennial plantings have not fared so well. The parking lot is now being cared for by the TBG horticulture staff and our dedicated group of garden volunteers. This team started the maintenance work last fall by taking an inventory of existing plant material and editing some self-sown invaders. Research continued through the winter to prepare a wish list of suitable native and non-native plants that are drought- and heat-tolerant and that can withstand compacted soil conditions, salt spray as well as vehicle exhaust and foot traffic. A strong factor in selection was also the plant’s ability to support wildlife, such as pollinators and birds. Last fall, we sent random soil samples from each of the beds to the University of Guelph for analysis. Measurables,
such as organic matter, phosphorus, magnesium and potassium, were all within an acceptable level, but we were a little surprised by the relatively higher pH (alkaline) finding of 7.8. (In general, a slightly acidic pH of 6.8 is considered optimal.) These findings may help explain the poor performance of some of the past plantings. Questionable soil or fill used at planting time and the minimal organic inputs over the past seven years may also have contributed to the alkaline pH levels. Moving forward, our goal is to return as much organic matter to the soil as possible. This means allowing leaves and pieces of stems and blooms to drop to the ground and break down in situ, which in turn will feed the millions of soil microorganisms. A few perennials being considered for the new plantings include anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum), butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa) and pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida). Perennial asters such as Symphyotrichum novaeangliae and Eurybia divaricata are also being considered. Asters in the main part of the garden have been a challenge as our resident populations of groundhogs and rabbits regularly mow (eat) them to the ground. As we choose to garden with these furry residents rather than against
them, we have far fewer asters in the garden than originally planned, so we hope the island beds in the parking lot might offer some protection for these choice plants. This past spring, we assessed the existing irrigation system. Early on, drip irrigation was installed to limit the waste of water resources by delivering water more efficiently at soil level. Even though we’ve selected plants that are droughttolerant, we still need an irrigation system. The reality is, there’s nothing natural about growing plants in a bed surrounded by asphalt. The watering system will be used to get the plants established, and/or, in extreme weather conditions. The beds in the parking lot will be like others of our gardens. They will develop over time and provide a great opportunity to experiment, to educate and therefore to learn. While we look forward to doing our best to enhance the beauty of the existing plantings in this urban environment, I will find greater excitement in creating a haven for a variety of insects and birds, a beauty often only seen and appreciated up close. Paul Zammit is the Nancy Eaton Director of Horticulture at the Toronto Botanical Garden.
END NOTES I S
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THE NATIONAL GARDEN BUREAU named the dahlia as this year’s bulb of the year. Dahlias have been the inspiration for art, such as this piece by Michael Spillane. Try your hand at botanical art at Michael’s Fundamentals of Botanical Drawing workshop on Saturday and Sunday, June 15 and 16, 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.
DA H L I A
Go to torontobotanicalgarden.ca/ learn/adult/art to register.
ILLUSTRATION: MICHAEL SPILLANE
2 01 9
Brian Bixley, Mark Cullen, Camilla Dalglish, Sondra Gotlieb, Marjorie Harris, Lorraine Johnson, Michele Landsberg, Susan Macaulay, Helen Skinner
GARDEN DIRECTOR Harry Jongerden 416-397-1346 firstname.lastname@example.org
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER Hélène Asselbergs 416-397-1484 CAO@torontobotanicalgarden.ca
President: Gino Scapillati. Sara D’Elia, Paula Dill, Elizabeth Esson, Denis Flanagan, Joy GrayDonald (Ex Officio), Cathy Kozma (Ex Officio), Catherine Meade, Penny Richards, Alexandra Risen, Irene Stokes (Ex Officio), Wendy Thompson, Cynthia Webb, Barbara Yager
ABOUT THE TORONTO BOTANICAL GARDEN The Toronto Botanical Garden (TBG) is a volunteer-based, charitable organization that raises more than 95 per cent of its operating funds through membership, facility rentals, retail operations, program fees and donations. The organization relies on its partnership with the City of Toronto and on the generosity and financial commitment of individuals, foundations and corporations to support the many beneficial services we provide to the community. OUR MISSION: Toronto Botanical Garden connects people to plants, inspiring us to live in harmony with nature. OUR VISION: Toronto Botanical Garden will be renowned for its display of nature’s beauty and as a dynamic hub for plant-centred learning, conservation and research.
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GENERAL HOURS AND ADMISSION
GARDENS: Free admission, dawn to dusk PARKING: $2/hr., $15 maximum, Members & TBG Volunteers, FREE ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES: Monday to Friday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. WESTON FAMILY LIBRARY: Monday to Friday, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., Saturday & Sunday, noon to 4 p.m. Open on TBG Lecture nights GARDEN SHOP: 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. daily MASTER GARDENERS: Visit torontomastergardeners.ca for information and to Ask A Master Gardener; Info Line 416-397-1357 MEMBERSHIP: $45 single, $65 family. Call 416-397-1483 or sign up online at torontobotanicalgarden.ca/join
ADULT EDUCATION 416-397-1362 email@example.com CHILDREN’S PROGRAMS & SUMMER CAMPS 416-397-5209 firstname.lastname@example.org DEVELOPMENT 416-397-1372 email@example.com FACILITY RENTALS 416-397-1349 firstname.lastname@example.org GARDEN SHOP 416-397-1357 email@example.com GARDENING HELP LINE Toronto Master Gardeners 416-397-1345 torontomastergardeners.ca GROUP TOURS 416-397-4145 firstname.lastname@example.org HORTICULTURE 416-397-1358 email@example.com MARKETING & COMMUNICATIONS 416-397-1351 firstname.lastname@example.org MEMBERSHIP 416-397-1483 email@example.com SCHOOL VISITS 416-397-1288 firstname.lastname@example.org SPECIAL EVENTS 416-397-1321 email@example.com TRELLIS MAGAZINE firstname.lastname@example.org VOLUNTEER SERVICES 416-397-4145 email@example.com WESTON FAMILY LIBRARY 416-397-1343 firstname.lastname@example.org
DESIGN JUNE ANDERSON
TRELLIS COMMITTEE LORRAINE HUNTER (CHAIR) LORRAINE FLANIGAN (EDITOR)
COLLEEN CIRILLO CAROL GARDNER SUE HILLS MAGGIE JANIK HARRY JONGERDEN CHRISTINE LAWRANCE MARION MAGEE JENNY RHODENIZER MARK STEWART PAUL ZAMMIT CLAUDIA ZUCCATO RIA
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VOLUNTEER PROOFREADERS J. CAMPBELL, L. HICKEY, M. MAGEE
ADVERTISING 416-397-4145 Trellis is published as a members’ newsletter by the Toronto Botanical Garden at Edwards Gardens 777 Lawrence Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario, M3C 1P2, 416-397-1341 Trellis welcomes queries for story ideas, which should be submitted to the editor for consideration by the Trellis Committee at least four months in advance of publication dates. Opinions expressed in Trellis do not necessarily reflect those of the TBG. Submissions may be edited for style and clarity. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited without written permission. Charitable registration number 119227486RR0001 Canada Publications Mail Product Sales Agreement #40013928 ISSN 0380-1470 COVER PHOTO: ‘CONTRASTE’ DAHLIA BY KEN RETFORD
777 Lawrence Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M3C 1P2, Canada 416-397-1341; fax: 416-397-1354 • email@example.com torontobotanicalgarden.ca • @TBG_Canada By TTC: From Eglinton subway station take the 51, 54 or 54A bus to Lawrence Avenue East and Leslie Street. The TBG is on the southwest corner.
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