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VOLUME 45 • WINTER SPRING 2018

THE MAGAZINE OF THE TORONTO BOTANICAL GARDEN

WINTER/SPRING PROGRAM GUIDE INSIDE!

SEED SAVING

ADVICE FROM URBAN HARVEST Page 8

THE KNOW MAINTENANCE GARDEN

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2017-02-03 8:06 AM

Two FREE garden events you won’t want to miss Saturday, February 17, 2018 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.

Those who donate will be entered in free prize draws, 1 every hour!

This one-day garden extravaganza includes:

Get the jump on spring TBG’s annual Horticultural Open House with 30+ exhibitors including horticultural societies, garden clubs and environmental organizations, in addition to a floral design competition and show.

FREE ADMISSION & FREE PARKING $2 donation appreciated

Presented in partnership with

• • • • •

Free talks and demonstrations Gently-used gardening book sale Winter garden tours Gardening advice from Toronto Master Gardeners Café and Coffee Bar

Bring your open-pollinated and heirloom seeds to swap with other gardeners. Leftover seeds will be added to the TBG Seed Library. Seeds will also be available for purchase from local seed vendors.

Toronto Botanical Garden 777 Lawrence Avenue East Toronto, ON M3C 1P2

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416-397-1341 info@torontobotanicalgarden.ca www.torontobotanicalgarden.ca

@TBG_Canada TorontoBotanicalGarden

2017-10-19 4:31 PM


contents

VOLUME 45 • WINTER SPRING 2018

NEWS 4

Hort Happenings Orchid Show, Technical Update and Invasive Plants Green Community Greening the TBG Volunteers Daimian Boyne 5 From the TBG Gateway to the ravine system TBGKids What does an owl eat? Get Social 3 GTA #instaplant lovers 6 Expansion Maintaining excellence 7 Membership Matters Horticultural Societies, Canada Blooms, Member Profile

FEATURES

8 Saving Seeds. Saving Ourselves 11 Get Cooking with Tea 12 Perennial Know-How

IN SEASON

16 In Our Gardens Canadian-grown tulips

Good Bugs, Bad Bugs Mealybugs

17 Good Reads Cutting Back; Mycorrhizal Planet Garden Gear Best kitchen gadget Anna’s Plant Pick Hardy African violets 18 Container Crazy Cheerful planter 19 Paul’s Plant Picks Earth stars Do it! Caring for moth orchids

HAPPENINGS

PHOTOS (FROM TOP): TBG, URBAN HARVEST, PAUL ZAMMIT

20 TBG Lectures 21 Mark Your Calendar 22 The Event Hot Doc: The Messenger Cover Image: Dyan Marie, detail from the Eden Archive Gardens, garden-making and walking projects are central to the work of Dyan Marie, who brings a 30-year history as an artist to the creation of the Eden Archive, a project of images, poetry and gardenmaking. The cover image presents a close-up look at the diverse, complicated and dynamic shapes of seeds collected on walks along railway lines, city laneways, industrial greylands, front yards and parks and community spaces. Visit dyanmarie.com and civicstudies.ca. EDITOR

LORRAINE FLANIGAN

DESIGN

JUNE ANDERSON

TRELLIS COMMITTEE

LORRAINE HUNTER (CHAIR) LORRAINE FLANIGAN (EDITOR) COLLEEN CIRILLO CAROL GARDNER SUE HILLS MAGGIE JANIK HARRY JONGERDEN CHRISTINE LAWRANCE MARION MAGEE JENNY RHODENIZER MARK STEWART PAUL ZAMMIT CLAUDIA ZUCCATO RIA

VOLUNTEER EDITORIAL ASSISTANT M. MAGEE

HORTICULTURAL FACTCHECKERS CATHERINE PEER

VOLUNTEER PROOFREADERS

M. BRUCE, JACKIE CAMPBELL, L. HICKEY, J. MCCLUSKEY, M. A. MORRISON AND CATHERINE PEER

ADVERTISING SUE HILLS 416-397-4145

Trellis is published as a members’ newsletter by the Toronto Botanical Garden at Edwards Gardens 777 Lawrence Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario, M3C 1P2, 416-397-1341 Trellis welcomes queries for story ideas, which should be submitted to the editor for consideration by the Trellis Committee at least four months in advance of publication dates. Opinions expressed in Trellis do not necessarily reflect those of the TBG. Submissions may be edited for style and clarity.

All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited without written permission. Charitable registration number 119227486RR0001 Canada Publications Mail Product Sales Agreement #40013928 ISSN 0380-1470

Printed by Mi5 Print + Digital

Cert no. SW-COC-002063

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news TBGNEWS DEVELOPMENTS

HORT HAPPENINGS

SPECIAL EVENTS

—Compiled by Mark Stewart, Weston Family Library

GREENING THE TBG

SOUTHERN ONTARIO ORCHID SOCIETY ANNUAL SHOW Treat your senses to over 30,000 orchid blooms, artistic displays, guided tours and more at the annual SOOS show, which takes place on Saturday and Sunday, February 10 and 11, from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. There will also be hard-tofind orchid plants for sale. The show will take place in TBG’s Floral Hall. Tickets at the door, $12.

TORONTO MASTER GARDENERS TECHNICAL UPDATE Growing Food from Around the World is the topic of this year’s Toronto Master Gardeners Technical Update. Come and hear the latest on diverse food plants. Speakers include Conrad Richter, president of Richters Herbs, Viliam Zvalo of Vineland Research and Innovation Station and many others. This event takes place at the TBG on Saturday, January 13 from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. The public is welcome. Tickets ($50) are available online at torontomastergardeners.ca.

INVASIVE PLANTS SHOWN TO ALTER SOIL ECOSYSTEMS Researchers have been studying differences between invasive and native lineages of Phragmites australis (common reed). They found that the microbial communities around the roots of the invasive plants differ dramatically from those of the natives, even when the plants are growing side by side in the same soil. The invasive plants appear to be “farming” soil microbes, altering soil ecology to their benefit. It’s a new insight into how invasive plants take over so successfully.

goTo

GREEN COMMUNITY

nature.com/articles/s41467-017-00626-0 for more information.

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In June 2016, staff and volunteers initiated the TBG Green Team whose purpose is to reduce the organization’s ecological footprint. This team is tackling many issues and has made great strides in its short lifespan. In May of 2017, team members facilitated the arrival of the city’s organics collection. Staff, volunteers and visitors alike were thrilled to finally have a convenient means of responsibly disposing of food scraps, used tissues and napkins. On your next visit to the TBG, look for City of Toronto green bins and refer to nearby signs for proper use.

Yours, Mine & Ours VOLUNTEERS In February 2017 we welcomed Daimian Boyne to the TBG volunteer family and what an impact he has had already! Drawing on the experience and skills gained from a 26-year career in the military, Daimian brought his logistics, woodworking and mechanical design skill sets to the planning and building of our booth for Canada Blooms. He has reprised this role helping at subsequent events, including Through the Garden Gate. A multi-talented individual, Daimian has also added horticultural design qualifications to his skills and created the Park of Reflection in Whitby, an award-winning park honouring wounded warriors which he designed and project-managed.

PHOTOS (FROM TOP LEFT): LORRAINE HUNTER, HARRY ROSE/FLICKR

ANNOUNCEMENTS


FROM THE TBG HARRY JONGERDEN Executive Director

The TBG: Gateway to the ravine system

C

ity Council has passed unanimously a policy jointly prepared by four city departments called the Ravine Strategy. If you’ll forgive the pun, we’re going to look back on this someday as a watershed moment for our city. The 18,000 hectares of ravine lands, 60 per cent of it publicly owned, are our city’s most important natural resource, and yet the ravines have often been ignored while undergoing serious degradation by the ravages of flooding and the encroachment of invasive species. The Ravine Strategy declares the importance of the ravines and commits the city to follow five guiding principles: protect, invest, connect, partner and celebrate. The TBG would add the word “restore”. Such degraded ecosystems can’t be protected without restoration. We see from our own little slice of the vast ravine system, here along Wilket Creek in Edwards Gardens, that there is a challenging amount of work to do to remove invasive species from the slopes and to plant resilient native species in the floodplain. It’s an exciting time for us. We have a Master Plan that commits us to becoming more of a conservationfocused botanical garden just as the city is looking for partners to help it take on this giant conservation project. At the recent Executive Committee meeting of City Council, two councillors and city staff referred to two organizations ready to partner with the city on Ravine Strategy implementation—the Toronto Botanical Garden and our friends at Evergreen. What a tremendous opportunity for us! I made a presentation at this meeting, pledging the TBG’s support for the strategy. It was a chance to declare publicly that the Ravine Strategy aligns with our mission to connect people to plants and with our vision to become a botanical garden that is renowned not only for its display of nature’s beauty, but also as a dynamic hub for plant-centred learning, conservation and research. The only critics of the strategy are asking where the money is. At this time, the city is offering policy without public funds to back it up. This is where we come in again. The TBG believes that we can raise the funds to create a great botanical garden that provides a key access point to the ravine system, while teaching people to respect it. Our expansion plans have arrived with perfect timing.

WHAT DOES AN OWL EAT? At TBG March Break Camp, children love learning about wildlife, including owls. One way in which they do so is by dissecting owl pellets. What’s a pellet? Owls hunt and consume rodents, small birds, amphibians and reptiles. They swallow their prey whole and then cough up a mass of indigestible body parts that have accumulated in their gizzards. These masses, referred to as pellets, contain teeth, skulls, claws, feathers and any other indigestible parts of their prey. During camp, the TBG provides sterilized pellets for kids to dissect. With tweezers and magnifying glasses in hand, campers spend hours taking a pellet apart and piecing together skeletons of these animals.

goTo

torontobotanicalgarden.ca/learn/kids/ march-break-nature-camps to register.

GET SOCIAL

3 GTA #INSTAPLANT LOVERS YOU’LL WANT TO FOLLOW

@houseplantjournal Learn the ways of plant parenthood with Darryl Cheng.

#LovetheRavines Discover photos that feature the beauty of our ravines.

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@mydailyflower Features the best flower photo of the day, by @trishaloohoo


news:expansion TBGNEWS MAINTAINING EXCELLENCE HARRY JONGERDEN • Executive Director

O

ne of the peculiarities of the current layout of Edwards Gardens is that its maintenance or service yard is located by the barn in the entrance area to the park. Maintenance activities that should ideally be carried out behind the scenes are performed in front of the garden visitors walking by. Visitors also encounter moving vehicles in the barn area and this, despite the great care taken by parks staff, is becoming a safety issue that we are addressing in the Master Plan for an expanded botanical garden: the maintenance yard will be moving. Some of you will remember the old Metro Parks days when Edwards Gardens had two maintenance yards—one by the barn and the Civic Garden Centre building; the other, on the opposite side of the ravine close to the Teaching Garden. There were two foremen then—Joe Hirschberg, working out of the barn area, with Niles Balin running the nursery on the other side. Over time, the

nursery operation faded away, with consolidation of operations in the barn area. I remember the rivalry between these two foremen— both of them old school, of a type seldom encountered these days. Rivalry often produces excellence, and I give them great credit for maintaining the high standards originally established by Rupert Edwards’s gardener, Carl Zarins. I like to think that we have an unbroken line of excellence, from the days when the park was still in Mr. Edwards’s hands and known as Springbrook, to today. You will see from the Final Concept Diagram of the Master Plan that the new maintenance yard is moving back to the nursery area where it once resided. Nursery functions, including a production greenhouse, will take place there again. Maintenance vehicles will enter the botanical garden from the Bridle Path gate, thereby greatly reducing the chances of visitor and vehicle interaction. Meanwhile, the garden entrance will be allowed to flourish. I don’t doubt that all of them—Mr. Edwards, Carl, Joe and Niles—would approve. Excellence then, now and in the future.

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ILLUSTRATION: MASTER PLAN DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT

Final Concept Diagram


membership matters GOOD NEWS CLAUDIA ZUCCATO RIA Director of Development

Horticultural societies—Our special members The name of our home building—The George and Kathy Dembroski Centre for Horticulture—not only refers to the TBG’s “godparents” but also frames our focus: the TBG as a hub of horticultural information. Horticultural societies contribute much of this information and share our

goTo

mandate “to connect people with nature”, most often through their interest in a certain plant genus. Therefore, it should be no surprise that the TBG offers special membership categories for horticultural societies. The Horticultural Membership Program accommodates the needs of these groups by

promoting their events and making rooms available for meetings, for example. And the societies help to shape the TBG’s direction by casting their membership vote. And then there is Get the Jump on Spring, which takes place at the TBG on February 17, 2018. This annual event brings together member and non-member societies who put together plant displays, special talks, shopping opportunities and much more that a plant lover can wish for. So, save the date, and I’ll see you there!

torontobotanicalgarden.ca/feature/become-a-member for details about the Horticultural Society Membership Program.

MEMBER PROFILE

Myint and Jay Gillespie

IF THERE was ever any doubt that Myint and Jay Gillespie share a special bond with the TBG, just ask them about their garden. If you haven’t seen it in person, their photo album (or is it a TBG Plant Sale catalogue?) is a meticulous visual record of every specimen. TBG members since 2004, Myint and Jay are active participants in many of the TBG’s programs and events and two of the most enthusiastic garden lovers I have ever met. They never miss the TBG Lectures, which “are always great”. What do they value most about TBG membership? “We support TBG because it is a wonderful asset for the city. From the gardens and garden tours we draw both physical and mental wellness benefits. This is the place where the (horticultural) knowledge exchange takes place between the professionals and the public. We are always happy with the Plant Sale, the Music Series, the library and the garden clubs’ activities. We benefit way beyond our membership fees!” These are enthusiastic garden lovers—thank you Myint and Jay! What does your TBG membership give you? Send us an email at annualgiving@ torontobotanicalgarden.ca with the subject line, “TBG Membership Gives” and tell us what membership means to you.

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DID YOU KNOW

Canada Blooms (March 9-18, 2018) is just around the corner. This year, consider purchasing your tickets at the TBG Garden Shop. For every Canada Blooms ticket purchased there, $2 is donated to the TBG. It’s the perfect way to give a little and get a lot— of spring fever at Canada Blooms!

TORONTO BOTANICAL GARDEN MEMBERSHIP PROGRAM The Toronto Botanical Garden is deeply grateful to its loyal donors who provide continued and generous support through the membership program at all contribution levels. Their gifts enable the TBG to educate and inform the community on horticulture, gardening and environmental issues through lectures, courses and events. We thank the following individuals who contributed to the TBG through the membership program between July 5 and September 25, 2017. SUSTAINING MEMBERS Gwendolyn Rattle

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CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS Susan Kretschmar June Murdoch


SAVING SEEDS.

Dyer’s Coreopsis

Urban Harvest’s Colette Murphy Wild arugula going to seed

Garden sorrel seeds

GROWING SEED using organic practices can transform our food and counteract climate change, too. Plants bred under organic conditions can better adapt to a changing climate. By saving some of your own seed and purchasing seed from small-scale seed farmers you can participate in this adaptation to changing conditions. One of the questions we are often asked at Urban Harvest Organic Seeds is, “If I am growing organically in my garden, why should I consider buying organic seeds?” Our answer is always the same. It is about stewarding the

Peppers

land, the soil and the creatures that inhabit it. Growing organically with organic seed is better for the environment. If you pay a little more for a package of organic seeds you are helping others to continue to provide good quality seed. Food grown organically in mineral-rich soil also provides vitamins and minerals that may be sorely lacking in food grown by agribusinesses. Healthy soils maintained and nurtured organically act as natural storage sinks for atmospheric carbon, thereby helping to combat climate change.

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PHOTOS: COURTESY URBAN HARVEST ORGANIC SEEDS

The life of a seed farmer involves a dance with an uncertain peril, says Colette Murphy. The effects of climate change seem to have accelerated. All the more reason to take care of our own gardens.


SAVING OURSELVES. Q&A

Zinnia

Your Guide to Seedy Saturdays

Seedy Saturdays, sponsored by Seeds of Diversity, are wonderful places to meet seed farmers and pick up new plant varieties. There are several of these events across the country and a list with dates and locations can be found at www.seeds.ca. If you go, here’s what you should know. Q Are the seeds certified organic? Third-party certification organizations inspect the farm, records and facilities each year so that you can be assured that the seed you are purchasing is organic. Look for the certified organic logo on seed packages. Q Are the seeds open pollinated or hybrid? Most seeds for sale at Seedy Saturday will be open pollinated, which means the seeds have been pollinated by insect, bird, wind or human. You can save the seeds and be reasonably confident that they will come true— that is, reproduce the same plant. Hybrid seeds are created through a controlled method of pollination in which the pollen of two different species or varieties is crossed manually. Purchase new hybrid seed each year to ensure you’ll get the same fruit.

Mexican torch sunflower

Beebalm

Seeds of Diversity is Canada’s largest seed library and it advises and helps efforts to create local seed libraries. Seed libraries give out seeds at no charge and ask that you donate some seeds in return. It is important that you learn some good seed growing and saving techniques. Seeds of Diversity has a useful manual. The Toronto Seed Library also has a free online handbook. We also recommend Seed to Seed by Suzanne Ashworth. There are few publicly funded plant breeding initiatives in Canadian universities, but thankfully this tradition TORONTOBOTANICALGARDEN.CA

Q Are Urban Harvest seeds genetically modified (GM)? GM seeds cannot be used in organic systems. Up until the last 50 years, farmers have always been able to save their own seeds and save seeds from the plants they believe have performed the best, thereby continuously improving the quality of the seed. Adaptation has always been crucial to survival. GM seed takes away the ownership of seeds and the process of continuous improvement from organic growers, posing a threat to our food security. Q Are the seeds heirloom? Heirloom seeds are generally ones that have been grown for more than 50 years. These seeds are often handed down within a family or community and have interesting stories of their past or provenance. To read about Canada’s seed heritage, Seeds of Diversity publishes a book called Every Seed Tells a Tale. When we started Urban Harvest, we were adamant about offering only heirloom seed varieties. In the last 50 years the planet has lost 94 per cent of our seed varieties, so we were on a mission to make many old varieties available. However, over the years, we have been convinced of the importance of using these old varieties to breed new ones by open pollinated methods to create the heirlooms of the future as well as to ensure there are varieties available which have been bred to adapt to a changing climate.

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still exists in the United States. Some plant breeders have formed the Open Source Seed Initiative (OSSI) which is “dedicated to maintaining fair and open access to plant genetic resources worldwide in order to ensure the availability of germplasm to farmers, gardeners, breeders, and communities of this and future generations. OSSI believes in the following seed freedoms. The freedom to save or grow seed for replanting or for any other purpose. The freedom to share, trade or sell seed to others. The freedom to trial and study seed and to share or publish information about it. The freedom to select or adapt the seed, make crosses with it, or use it to breed new lines and varieties.� Seed freedom is essential to our survival as a species. Seeds are the true currency of life. By growing organically, we can see in a very powerful and wonderful way the interconnectedness of humans and the natural world. Our organic farm is abuzz with bees, butterGET THE JUMP ON SEEDY SATURDAY flies, praying mantises, frogs, toads On Saturday, February 17 from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., Seedy Saturday and garter snakes. It truly feels and Get the Jump on Spring combine forces for a super special like a Garden of Eden. start to the growing season. Bring your heirloom seeds along to Colette Murphy is owner and founder of Urban Harvest Organic Seeds (www.uharvest.ca).

Seedy Saturday and go home with a terrific new collection. Seeds will be available for purchase from many local seed vendors, so you can stock up for your 2018 garden. Throughout the day, there will be many garden vendors, horticultural groups, talks and workshops.


Tea Concentrate

GET COOKING—

WITH TEA!

PHOTOS: RAELENE GANNON

For Raelene Gannon, using tea as a key ingredient has revolutionized her cooking. IN A CULINARY world where everyone is competing for the best butter tart recipe, cooking with tea adds a special touch to any dish, from soup to nuts. And although tea pairs so well with sweets, tea is also a great ingredient in savoury dishes such as shortbread, soups, roasted vegetables, and even nut mixes. Celebrating tea, not only in your cup but on your plate, is a fantastic way to take things to the next level. Your guests will be asking, “Oh, this is so good, what’s in it?” You’ll know that your secret ingredient is tea. It adds that nuance of just a little something different to the average cookie, soup or square. And, with healthier lifestyles, plant-based tea is a natural addition to your diet. I use tea for stocks, for example. If your diet is trending towards vegan or plant-based, you can use a tea stock instead of your usual stock—it is so economical, so fresh and so flavourful, and there’s so much variety. A Lapsang Souchong tea makes an amazing smoky stock for stews, chilis or soups, whether vegetarian, vegan or not. You can use chai stock for making an Indian rice

pilaf or green tea in rice for a Japaneseinspired meal. And matcha, well, that is the ultimate tea to cook with. I think the best cookies I ever made were ones with almond meal, matcha, mint and chocolate chips—and they were gluten-free and vegan. Of course, we usually steep tea in hot water to make a great beverage, but you can also infuse tea in butter, oils, vinegars and milk (dairy or non-dairy). I even use it dried as a rub for ribs and meats and as a marinade for tofu. Using tea in cooking through methods such as infusion, concentrates and even dried leaves means there is a variety of ways to complement other ingredients (and of course, to delight your guests). The scarcity of vanilla due to droughts in Madagascar—and the subsequent astronomical price—is a great reason to add or substitute tea concentrates to your recipes. Teas, with their various flavours, can be used to replace vanilla and other spices and flavourings—add cinnamon black tea to a recipe that calls for cinnamon, for example.

COOKING WITH TEA WORKSHOP Let Raelene Gannon inspire you to cook with tea. Learn more about how you can use tea in some of your favourite recipes and celebrate tea not only in your cup but on your plate. February 22, 2018, 6:30 to 9:30 p.m. Public $36; Members $28.

goTo

torontobotanicalgarden.ca\Adult to register.

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THE BEAUTY of making concentrates is that there are so many options. For an orange-based dish, use Earl Grey, for example. Here’s how to make a tea concentrate. Try it—it will save you money and start you off cooking with tea in new ways. • 2 Tbsps loose leaf tea or herbs. Get the best you can, don’t skimp by using a teabag. • 1 cup of water (boil black or herbal teas to 100°C, and green teas to 80°C). Let steep 5 minutes for black or herbal and 2 minutes for green. Over-steeping will release undesirable tannins and astringency. Strain, and cool if necessary. (For scones that require cold butter, for example, cool hot tea concentrate in the fridge or freezer. It may get cloudy, but that’s ok.)

RAELENE GANNON is a certified Tea Sommelier and author of Tea From Cup to Plate who has combined her background in the chocolate, gift, confection and food service industries with her expertise and passion for tea.


ESTABLISH NEW TRADITIONS We must abandon the tradition that one method of gardening fits all plantings. We must be more creative with our thinking, our approach, and our participation. And we need to establish new gardening traditions, modeled after the knowledge, awareness, spirit, and joy we bring to each day. So, what should we do in the garden?

PERENNIAL

• Stay involved! Be attentive! • Look to nature, both without and within. • Keep things simple. • Dream ahead, and yet recognize the beauty of the present. • Redefine the rules. • Look for relationships—that’s what holds things together. • Share and participate.

In The Know Maintenance Perennial Garden Roy Diblik writes about gardening in a new way—one that is in harmony with how plants grow and interact with each other in nature.

KNOW-HOW

Three growth habits blend into one, inspiring a style and crowding out weeds. This planting is in its fourth season.

The various stem arrangements, coupled with the equally various shapes and colors of flowers, strengthen the Impressionistic style of this resort garden.

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PHOTOS: ROY DIBLIK

All it requires [to garden in this new way] is that you come to know your plants. Once you acquire that knowledge, you will discover that you actually need to spend far less time maintaining them, because they exist in largely self-sustaining communities. I call this new way of gardening the “Know Maintenance” approach—and it can be applied to everything, not just the garden. Simply consider whether you can care for something before you add it to your daily activities. If you can’t, you wait until you’re able to. All the plants featured in the book are perennials; all have a very generous, forgiving nature and can have a good life in many parts of the country. I have used only perennials for two reasons. The first is simple: these are the plants I know and grow well. Secondly, I believe perennials provide a solid beginning, middle, and end for durable, diverse, beautiful gardens. As you become familiar with the approach, you will start to recognize how and when you can add annuals, vegetables, herbs, shrubs, trees, and containers to these perennial plant communities. But before I turn to the various aspects of my perennial garden system, we need to look at traditional gardening practices, the source of so much frustration and so many false starts and unfulfilled promises. They have given gardening an undeserved reputation for being difficult and time-consuming. Think about how these practices have evolved over the years. They were designed for specific kinds of plants and site conditions, everything from agricultural crops to bedding annuals, perennials, groundcovers, shrubs, and trees. The problem is, over the last fifty years these well-defined cultural practices have been homogenized into common tasks that are now applied indiscriminately to all types of plants and landscapes. As a result, what is routinely done in most gardens has become less life-enhancing and more overwhelming to both the plants and the gardener. Doesn’t look very good, either. Here are a few common actions or

stances that are detrimental to healthy perennial plantings or that inhibit the plant’s full potential: • Rototilling every new planting space, regardless of site conditions. • Incorporating large amounts of manure and compost into every new planting space, without regard to plant selections (and preferences) and existing soil conditions. • Placing plants so far apart, they barely touch each other as they mature. • Applying 2 to 4 inches of wood-chip mulch annually, without considering the product’s source and its effect on perennials. • Deadheading immediately after bloom simply because that’s what’s “done”. • Staking, caging, or tying up any perennial that begins to lean. • Cutting back everything and removing all plant debris at the end of the growing season. • Watering too often and too much, or too little. • Using too much fertilizer and pre- emergent herbicides. • Planting only the newest selections, believing they must be superior. • Trusting that the newest market products will save time and effort. • Fearing all insects. • Following tradition blindly. As you walk down your block, drive through your neighborhood, travel from city to city, you will notice most perennials are living in a sea of wood-chip mulch, irrigated at least three times a week for twenty minutes—or not at all. Most of these plantings will have large empty areas. The uninhabited areas were planted originally, but the plants eventually died. What caused so much decline? No one took the time to get to know the plants. The owners may have read about the plants’ flower type, color, bloom time, and height but neglected to fully take in how and where the plants lived their lives and their intimate association with other plants. They assumed that every planting can be maintained in the

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KNOW MAINTENANCE IS A PHILOSOPHY The Know Maintenance approach isn’t just a set of rules; it’s also a philosophy, a way of looking at the world and at ourselves. The following beliefs are at its core; they reflect the wholeness of your garden and your continuous relationship with it:

• Beauty is in everything, everywhere, and always re-created. Sunrises, rainy evenings, grandchildren, dogs, a nice dinner, a walk, family, friends. That’s how we live.

• Art is a habit we should never break. Painting the house, taking pictures on our travels, cooking meals, choosing a new sofa—all tap the creative part of us.

• Community awakens us to our place. It’s our culture, where and how we live and relate to all our neighbors and friends. It’s the wonderful diversity of our lives.

• Ecology is being aware that we coexist, living lovingly with others. It’s where we are—the sky, this moment, every leaf you’ll ever see— and it’s also places we cannot see: distant woods, snowy mountaintops, wide oceans, a village in Italy, a small park in Sweden.

• Health is what keeps each of us living in the present and looking forward to tomorrow. We all try to make intelligent choices that will keep us well, physically and mentally. That same impulse should bring us into the garden, where we can savor the joy of simply being outside.

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The white-flowered, mounding growth habit of Calamintha nepeta allows the Echinacea purpurea to mix in. You will begin to see and create rich combinations like these: just come to know the plants. The flowering stems of Echinacea purpurea and Sporobolus heterolepsis show a determined vertical appearance, yet the foliage of the sporobolus is soft and mounding. These characteristics can be mixed on plants or [remain] very distinct.

the rain, the sun, beauty, health, and art, and circles back to you. • When was the last time you walked through a remnant prairie? • What’s your monthly average rainfall from May through September? • Where does your water come from and where does it go? • What is organic matter? Where does it come from, and why is it impor- tant? Can you have too much of this good thing? (Does a tomato have the same needs as a prairie grass?) • How do the plants you have chosen move through the earth? At what rate do they travel, and what circumstances affect their rate of movement? Is the development of your plants’ root systems compatible with the soils and water available? • How long does it take any given plant to develop from youth to maturity, both in a single season and through the years? • When do foxtails germinate? When does chickweed germinate? • What does ecology mean to you? • How important is diversity in your life? • Have you allowed plants some freedom in your garden? • Do you see beyond the object? What are the morning, afternoon, and evening colors of the sky? • What’s your favorite insect or bird? • How do you define waste and debris?

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• How do you find beauty in the world? These questions don’t need quick answers. As you garden, the answers will develop and more questions will arise, and the answers to those will develop, followed by more questions. You will be asking and answering questions happily, feeling good, expanding your possibilities. You will become a thoughtful gardener, sharing a deeper language of beauty, health, and ecology.

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Excerpted from The Know Maintenance Perennial Garden by Roy Diblik (Timber Press 2014). Photographs by Roy Diblik. Used with permission of the publisher.

Roy Diblik speaks at the TBG on March 1. For details, see page 20.

PHOTOS: ROY DIBLIK

same way: weed, add wood chips, then replace dying plants—often. Imbalance in the garden develops when we don’t understand how individual plants live and flourish and how they relate to other plants. By coming to know our plants, we interact with natural elements. We become aware of our evolving relationships with other living things. We understand the custom nurturing necessary for the plant communities we have developed. In the end, the time we spend gardening becomes manageable, and both we and our gardens will develop, in the best sense, each time we enter them. Everything we have must be cared for: we brush our teeth, wash our clothes, store our food, vacuum our rugs, change the oil in our cars, reroof our homes. The garden is no different. The Know Maintenance approach is based on a single premise: we must have the capability to maintain what we plant. This requires that we know our plants intimately. But it also requires time, and we all lead busy lives. We need to figure out how much time we can give to the garden, and when during the day, week, or month we can give it. Here are some questions about gardening, to get you thinking. They may not seem directly related to how you garden, yet; but each one clearly connects you to your plants, the earth,


SOUTHERN ONTARIO ORCHID SOCIETY

ORCHID SHOW & SALE Toronto Botanical Garden

FEBRUARY 10 & 11, 2018

SAT & SUN 11- 5 General Admission: $12.00 cash only

Supervised children under 12 are free NO large backpacks or tripods permitted, hand-held cameras only

EVERYTHING YOU NEED FOR PERFECT PLANTERS, POTS AND GARDENS INDOORS OR OUT!

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in season Gardens

TIPTOE THROUGH (CANADIAN-GROWN!) TULIPS Have you ever dreamt of travelling to Holland and standing in a field of tulips? Now, with bulbs grown at Vanco Farms in Prince Edward Island, you don’t need to leave Canada to tiptoe through fields of tulips. Vanco Farms is a second-generation, familyowned and operated farm that specializes in growing organic potatoes, premium cut tulips and tulip bulbs for sale to home gardeners. This spring, you can see Vanco tulips blooming throughout the TBG gardens. Also, watch for a selection of these Canadian-grown tulips in the Garden Shop in the fall of 2018.

Mealybugs Some bugs are happy to infest indoor and outdoor plants, says Jean Godawa. Mealybugs are some of the worst.

YOU WON’T LIKELY find a cicada on the Ficus in your living room. And you can hardly expect ladybugs to take care of an aphid infestation on your holiday Poinsettia. But there are a few bugs that aren’t picky about location and will happily infest both your outdoor and indoor plants—mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) are one of the worst. A white cottony fuzz on the underside of leaves may not look like a pest insect but, with a closer look, these small creatures are easily identified. Mealybugs belong to the group of plant-sucking bugs known as Homoptera, which are particular pests of greenhouse and indoor plants. At about 5 mm long with an oval body, mealybugs look like small, lighter-coloured versions of sowbugs or pillbugs (often called roly-polys). Adults are generally slow-moving but immature nymphs are quite mobile, moving from one plant to another across the foliage. They feed

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by piercing leaves and stems with their tube-like mouths and sucking out the fluid, causing leaves to yellow and eventually drop off. Male mealybugs have wings and do not feed. They function solely to reproduce and die shortly after mating. Females lay hundreds of eggs in a mass of protective cottony wax. Mealybugs produce a white, waxy coating to protect both themselves and their eggs from too little or too much moisture. The coating also acts as a strong barrier to insecticidal treatments, making these pests difficult to control. In addition, they excrete a sugary honeydew that fosters mould growth on plants. These creatures usually enter your home on infected plants, so quarantine any new plants that you bring inside. To remove the pests, pick them off by hand or use a cotton swab dipped in rubbing alcohol or mild soap. Unfortunately, you may need to discard a heavily infested houseplant to protect your other plants.

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PHOTOS ( FROM LEFT): VANCO FARMS, SCOT NELSON/FLICKR, OPPOSITE (TOP RIGHT): TOFINO1/FLICKR

IN OUR

GOOD BUGS, BAD BUGS


Ramonda

GOOD READS

—Reviewed by Mark Stewart, Weston Family Library CUTTING BACK: MY APPRENTICESHIP IN THE GARDENS OF KYOTO By Leslie Buck Timber Press 2017, $37.95 hardcover

If you want to learn how to prune trees, there’s no better place than Japan. This book follows the author as she journeys from California to Kyoto to hone her pruning skills with the best. Her memoir illuminates the stark cultural differences that surface through both countries’ gardening styles, building to a new appreciation for the dedication to the art of gardening on both sides.

Anna’s Plant Pick Hardy African violets? Yes! IMAGINE FOLLOWING a track up a Greek mountain. You step off onto an outcrop of grey limestone rocks. Suddenly your eyes focus at your feet and you see silvery rosettes pressed in cracks, their hairy leaves blending with the stones. Lavender petals are showing in the buds. It looks like an African violet. What you see is a relation—Jancaea heldreichii. Although this hardy violet is very difficult to grow, as it needs good air circulation, rocks and shade, there are several other hardy gesneriads that grow successfully with care in Zone 5 or lower. There are three species (and some subspecies) of Ramonda, which is native to northeastern Spain and southeastern Europe. They have thicker, more crinkled or creased green leaves than their African violet relations. Flower colour ranges from purple to pink and white. Haberlea rhodopensis is native to Bulgaria and northern Greece. The plants look similar to African violets, but the leaves are longer and more toothed. The violet flowers are somewhat tubed, similar to Streptocarpus. This gesneriad is easier to grow than Ramonda and increases in size more quickly. In the garden, grow these gesneriads in vertical cracks between limestone rocks, or even in a trough. They hate winter wet, so give them good drainage, but do not let them dry out. A north- or east-facing exposure is best. My Haberlea receives winter and spring light and perennials shade it in the summer and fall. These rock garden plants are often available from specialist order nurseries (e.g., Lost Horizons and Wrightman Alpines), and seeds or even plants are often sold at rock garden societies. Blow seeds into a crevice in your garden. The plants are easy to grow from seed but hate being transplanted when small. Make leaf cuttings just as you would for African violets. Any of these hardy violets make fantastic show-off plants for a corner of the garden. —Anna Leggatt is an award-winning garden writer and retired Master Gardener

MYCORRHIZAL PLANET: HOW SYMBIOTIC FUNGI WORK WITH ROOTS TO SUPPORT PLANT HEALTH AND BUILD SOIL FERTILITY By Michael Phillips Chelsea Green Publishing, 2017, $56.95 hardcover

When you’re ready to dig deep into the world of mycorrhizae, this is the book for you. It’s packed with practical know-how for organic growers. Mycorrhizal fungi are crucial for the health of almost all plants. This book unravels the complex roles of soil fungi while also being surprisingly entertaining.

Garden Gear

BEST KITCHEN GADGET

YOU’VE ASKED for it many times, and now it’s available in the Garden Shop—the TBG fridge magnet! Featuring an iconic photo of the Entry Walk, the magnet makes a perfect, easy to carry memento of our gardens—and it will make a wonderful addition to your kitchen. $4.99

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in season plant it! container

crazy

Natraj branches support bright yellow moth orchids in this cheerful planter MOTH ORCHIDS (Phalaenopsis spp.), golden variegated English ivy (Hedera spp.) and moss create this dramatic indoor mixed container planting. In addition to proper light and temperature, the key to keeping Phalaenopsis orchids from shedding their flowers prematurely is the watering. Don’t overwater but try to keep the growing medium (bark or moss) from drying out. Because the ivy and the orchids have different watering requirements, each has been planted separately using a pot-in-pot technique. This allows the orchids to be quickly and easily removed and watered without disturbing the ivy. To water, submerge the pot in roomtemperature water for about five minutes. This allows the bark or moss to soak up and retain enough moisture to maintain a high level of humidity around the root system. Allow the potted orchid to drain, then return to the planter and hide the plastic pot with some moist moss. ­

Plant orchids in a separate pot that can be easily removed for watering.

PHOTOS: PAUL ZAMMIT

The unique, twisted branches of natraj willow add exotic interest as well as support to the flower stems.

Moth orchids, variegated ivy and moss form a naturalistic container planting.

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Do It! HOW TO CARE FOR MOTH ORCHIDS—HOLD THE ICE CUBES!

Earth stars may be grown under a glass dome or cloche or in a terrarium.

E PAUL’S

PLANT PICKS

Earth stars (Cryptanthus spp.) Dramatic and downright beautiful members of the Bromeliaceae family, earth stars come in a range of eye-catching colour combinations.

TORONTOBOTANICALGARDEN.CA

ndemic to the rain forests of Brazil, earth stars belong to the same family as the ever popular air plants (Tillandsia spp.) and the pineapple (Ananas comosus). While many members of this diverse plant family are epiphytic—that is, they are able to grow on other plants, most commonly on trees— Cryptanthus are terrestrial and grow on land. The key to their success as a houseplant is bright, indirect light and high humidity. To maintain a high level of humidity, grow plants in plastic pots and keep the growing medium moist to the touch. Consider grouping potted plants together in a saucer filled with a layer of pebbles and water (kept below the surface of the stones). Relatively small and slow growing, earth stars can last for long periods without repotting. Fertilize regularly with a half-strength balanced fertilizer. As plants mature, white flowers will eventually form in the axil of the leaves. Like other bromeliads, the parent plant dies once flowering is over, but before that, vigorous plants often produce one or multiple pups (clones of the parent plant). When large enough, these can be separated and potted up. — Paul Zammit, Nancy Eaton Director of Horticulture

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THE GREAT, great grandparents of the moth orchid (Phalaenopsis) grew in a tropical forest, perhaps on a fig or mango tree. Unadapted to growing in soil or full sun, its roots clung to the bark for support, and under dappled sunlight it caught afternoon rain showers. In our homes, providing an environment that closely mimics its natural one should encourage long-lasting flowering. Place it in or near an east-facing or shaded south or west window. (To test the strength of the light, no shadow should be seen if you place your hand 30 cm between the leaves and the light source.) • Normal indoor temperatures are ideal; keep above 16°C at night. • Proper watering is the secret. No ice cubes, please. Water thoroughly at the sink with roomtemperature water and then not again until the roots and growing medium are nearly dry, roughly every week to ten days. Let the plant drain completely. • Fertilize with products formulated for orchids, following package directions. Plant spikes may be the simplest to use. • To try for a second round of blooms, repot into an orchid pot (its holes allow for airflow) in spring after blooms are spent or once the potting medium starts to decompose. Place roots in fresh, chunky bark or a similar porous orchid medium. Do not use potting soil—the roots will rot from too much moisture. Continue watering and fertilizing while waiting for the blooming cycle to begin again. With thanks to the American Orchid Society’s website (www.aos.org). —Georgie Kennedy, Toronto Master Gardeners


happenings TBG LECTURES BOTANICAL GARDENS AND CONSERVATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 7, 2018, 7:30 P.M. DR. DAVID GALBRAITH

Botanical gardens have a long and fascinating history and are constantly evolving to address contemporary needs. In the past 40 years, they have increasingly focused on both plant conservation and human well-being. Conservation work by botanical gardens is as diverse as the gardens themselves and includes, among other things, seed banks, plant collections, ecological restoration and education on the importance of plant diversity for economic, medicinal and cultural purposes. In this talk, David will present inspirational examples of botanical gardens that have embraced their new conservation role. David Galbraith is a wildlife biologist who completed his M.Sc. at Guelph University and his Ph.D. at Queen’s University, both on the ecology of turtles in Algonquin Park. In 1995 he joined Royal Botanical Gardens (RBG) to advance conservation projects and co-operation among botanical gardens nationwide. Since 2006 he has been RBG’s Head of Science, responsible for research projects, the library, archives and the herbarium. He is also an adjunct biology professor at McMaster University.

THE KNOW MAINTENANCE APPROACH TO PERENNIAL PLANT GARDENS THURSDAY, MARCH 1, 2018, 7:30 P.M. ROY DIBLIK

Roy Diblik’s thoughtful approach to design combines fresh contemporary styles and plant diversity integrated with responsible maintenance. During this lecture, Roy will explain how he combines regionally dependable perennials and native plants to create endless natural plant patterns. He will also explore the partnership between gardener, plants and nature. Roy Diblik is a co-owner of Northwind Perennial Farm located in Burlington, Wisconsin. He is a recognized perennial plant expert, grower, designer, speaker and author who believes that gardens should be thoughtful, ecological and personal. Drawing on 35 years of experience growing traditional and mid-west natives, Roy designs highly aesthetic and sustainable plant communities that look good all year round and require minimal maintenance. His projects include the Louis Sullivan Arch Garden at the Art Institute of Chicago and the lakeside plantings for Chicago’s Abbott Oceanarium at the Shedd Aquarium. His book, The Know Maintenance Perennial Garden, highlights his perennial gardening practice.

Pre-lecture light dinner available from 5:30 p.m. Floral Hall doors open at 6:30 p.m. TBG members FREE; members bring a friend $10; public $15; students (with ID) $12.

- TREE & SHRUB PRUNING -INSECT & DISEASE CONTROL - PLANTING & TRANSPLANTING - TREE & STUMP REMOVAL - DEEP ROOT FERTILIZING

AUTHENTIC

Derek W Welsh President

I.S.A. Certified Arborist #ON-0129A

TREE CARE INC.

EXCITING NEWS! Fergus Garrett of Great

Dixter in East Sussex, England, is coming to the TBG in April 2018. Fergus has worked at Great Dixter House & Gardens since 1992 when he joined as head gardener. He worked closely with Christopher Lloyd until Christopher’s death in 2006, at which point he become chief executive of the Great Dixter Charitable Trust. Fergus works full time in the garden but somehow finds the time to write and lecture extensively. Stay tuned for more details of Fergus’ visit to the TBG.

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MARK YOUR CALENDAR Celebrate Earth Day, April 21, 12 to 4 p.m.

Special Events

WINTER WANDER Sunday, December 10, 2017, 10 a.m. to 12 p.m. Enjoy a festive morning with the family. Look for signs of winter wildlife, build and hang bird feeders, make maple candy and play games to understand how animals survive the Canadian winter. Then, come inside to warm up with some hot cocoa and winter stories. Family (4 people with max 2 adults): TBG Members $25, Public $35; Individual: TBG Members $8, Public $12. GET THE JUMP ON SPRING & SEEDY SATURDAY Saturday, Feb 17, 2018, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Open house with lectures, demonstrations, 30+ exhibits by horticultural societies and clubs. Trade seeds with other gardeners in the seed exchange and stock up on seeds from local growers. FREE

EARTH DAY CELEBRATION Saturday, April 21, 2018, 12 to 4 p.m. Celebrate Earth Day at this familyfriendly event. Help plant the

Teaching Garden, create nature crafts, listen to nature-themed stories, ride the blender bike and more! Teaching Garden at Toronto Botanical Garden. FREE. No registration required. Stroller accessible. ORGANIC FARMERS’ MARKET Thursdays, 2 to 7 p.m. Fresh local veggies and greens all winter as well as meats, cheese, eggs, dried fruits and nuts, spices, syrups, jams and personal care products, snacks and more. THE MESSENGER Thursday, March 22, 2018 Co-hosted by Fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP). Floral Hall. Doors open at 6 p.m., show starts at 7 p.m. followed by a Q&A with the filmmakers. TBG Members: $10, Public: $12.

Weston Family Library Events

DOCUMENTARY SCREENINGS Saturday, April 21, 2018, 4 p.m. (Earth Day) Hometown Habitat: Stories of Bringing Nature Home. TBG Members: $10, Public: $12.

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ART EXHIBIT January 2 through March 30, 2018 Beach Guild of Fine Art Group Show LIBRARY STORY TIME Winter/Spring: January 22 through June 25, 2018 Drop in to the Weston Family Library on Monday mornings from 11:15 to 11:45 a.m. for nature stories and songs. Ages 1-3. No registration required. FREE POETRY GROUP Last Monday of each month 6:30 to 8 p.m. A friendly group to share your poetry, meet other writers and get inspired. For more information and to register for your first meeting, contact Kirk Davis at kirk.davis@ hotmail.com. FREE BOOK CLUB Last Wednesday of every month, 7 to 8:30 p.m. Open to TBG and Book-Lovers Members only. Discuss books with a gardening theme. To register, and for more info, contact Jan Neuman: janneuman@rogers.com or 416-6568246. FREE

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happenings The Event

HOT DOC: THE MESSENGER If you love songbirds— and care about our shared environment—you won’t want to miss this special screening of The Messenger, voted one of the Top Ten Audience Awards at the 2015 Hot Docs Film Festival. Part of the TBG’s Documentary Screenings Series, the film offers more than a birds-eye view of the life of songbirds and the perils they face, from hunting, light pollution and pesticides to loss of migration habitats. Beautifully photographed, The Messenger takes you on a worldwide journey, through the wonders of satellite technology and slow-motion photography, to chronicle the struggles of songbirds worldwide.

THE MESSENGER is a documentary that chronicles the struggle of songbirds worldwide. See it March 22 at 7 p.m. when filmmakers will be on hand to talk about the film.

Along the way, you’ll meet some of the passionate people striving to protect these birds, including Michael Mesure, founder of Toronto-based Fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP), an organization which has reduced the number of birds colliding with buildings (including the TBG facility) by encouraging the use of

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GARDEN TOURS with Margaret Dailey-Plouffe. 2018 Tour Highlights: March: Philadelphia Flower Show; June: New York City and Hudson Valley tour; July: Quebec garden tour featuring Reford Gardens and Quatre Vents. For more information, contact Margaret at 416-746-7199, hnatravels@gmail.com or visit hnatravels.com.

I LOVE GARDENS & TREES Since 1973

Certified Arborist, Horticulturist & Designer Arborist Reports. Landscape Assessments

special markers. In the film, director Su Rynard seeks to explore the deep bond humans have with birds. “The result,” she says, “is a deeply nuanced film. A film that will make you laugh and cry. A film that may change you.” Thursday, March 22, Floral Hall. Co-hosted by Fatal Light Awareness Program

(FLAP). Doors open at 6 p.m. Enjoy pre-show nibbles from the TBG’s Farmers Market vendors as well as Smithsoniancertified bird-friendly coffee from Birds and Beans. Show starts at 7 p.m. followed by a Q&A with the filmmakers and FLAP representatives Michael Mesure and Paloma Plant. TBG Members: $10, Public: $12.

Make use of vertical space in your garden with a 6-foot obelisk. Made in Toronto exclusively for the Toronto Botanical Garden, these obelisks are superb structures for showcasing and supporting vines and vegetables. Black, powder-coated steel ensures that these towers remain rust-resistant and durable for many years to come. Available throughout the year at the Garden Shop, $89

Sales Representative, ABR, SRES HALL OF FAME AWARD LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENT AWARD TORONTO MASTER GARDENER RE/MAX HALLMARK REALTY LTD., BROKERAGE

Call or text Wesley:

(416)287-TREE(8733)

www.ilovegardens.ca Email: wesley@ilovegardens.ca ilovetrees@live.ca Consulting, Design, Restoration, Planting Landscape Creations, Pruning Specialist

Contact 416.564.9450 /JoseeCoutureTorontoRealEstate


PATRONS

DIRECTORY

HONORARY PATRON: ADRIENNE CLARKSON

Brian Bixley, Mark Cullen, Camilla Dalglish, Sondra Gotlieb, Marjorie Harris, Lorraine Johnson, Michele Landsberg, Susan Macaulay, Helen Skinner

BOARD OF DIRECTORS President: Vaughn Miller. Tim Bermingham, Margaret Betts, Mark Bonham, Sara D’Elia, Paula Dill, Denis Flanagan, Kaitlyn Furse, Ryan Glenn, Cathy Kozma, Penny Richards, Alexandra Risen, Gino Scapillati, Irene Stokes, Cynthia Webb, Barbara Yager

ABOUT THE TORONTO BOTANICAL GARDEN The Toronto Botanical Garden (TBG) is a volunteer-based, charitable organization that raises more than 95 per cent of its operating funds through membership, facility rentals, retail operations, program fees and donations. The organization relies on its partnership with the City of Toronto and on the generosity and financial commitment of individuals, foundations and corporations to support the many beneficial services we provide to the community. OUR MISSION: The Toronto Botanical Garden connects people to plants, inspiring us to live in harmony with nature. OUR VISION: The Toronto Botanical Garden will be renowned for its display of nature’s beauty and as a dynamic hub for plant-centred learning, conservation and research. Charitable registration number 119227486RR001.

SIGN UP FOR GARDEN ENEWS! Receive the latest horticultural news and information on events, workshops, lectures and other horticultural happenings. Free registration at torontobotanicalgarden.ca

GENERAL HOURS AND ADMISSION

GARDENS: Free admission, dawn to dusk ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES: Monday to Friday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. WESTON FAMILY LIBRARY: Monday to Friday, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., Saturday & Sunday, noon to 4 p.m. Open on TBG Lecture nights GARDEN SHOP: 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. daily MASTER GARDENERS: Visit torontomastergardeners.ca for information and to Ask A Master Gardener; Advice Clinics at the TBG Farmers’ Market, Thursdays 2 to 4:30 p.m. (Winter) and 2 to 7 p.m. (Spring through Fall) Info Line 416-397-1357 MEMBERSHIP: $45 single, $65 family. Call 416-397-1483 or sign up online at torontobotanicalgarden.ca/join

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Harry Jongerden 416-397-1346 director@torontobotanicalgarden.ca CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER Hélène Asselbergs 416-397-1484 CAO@torontobotanicalgarden.ca ADULT EDUCATION 416-397-1362 adulted@torontobotanicalgarden.ca CHILDREN’S PROGRAMS & SUMMER CAMPS 416-397-5209 tbgkids@torontobotanicalgarden.ca DONATIONS, SPONSORSHIP & FUNDRAISING 416-397-1372 development@torontobotanicalgarden.ca FACILITY RENTALS, CORPORATE 416-397-1349 rentalsales@torontobotanicalgarden.ca FACILITY RENTALS, WEDDINGS/SOCIAL/HORTICULTURAL GROUPS 416-397-1324; rentals@torontobotanicalgarden.ca GARDEN SHOP 416-397-1357 shop@torontobotanicalgarden.ca GARDENING HELP LINE Toronto Master Gardeners 416-397-1345 torontomastergardeners.ca GROUP TOURS 416-397-4145 tourguides@torontobotanicalgarden.ca HORTICULTURE 416-397-1358 horticulture@torontobotanicalgarden.ca MARKETING & COMMUNICATIONS 416-397-1351 communication@torontobotanicalgarden.ca MEMBERSHIP 416-397-1483 annualgiving@torontobotanicalgarden.ca SCHOOL VISITS 416-397-1288 childrensed@torontobotanicalgarden.ca SPECIAL EVENTS 416-397-1321 spevents@torontobotanicalgarden.ca TRELLIS MAGAZINE editor@torontobotanicalgarden.ca WESTON FAMILY LIBRARY 416-397-1343 librarydesk@torontobotanicalgarden.ca VOLUNTEER SERVICES 416-397-4145 tourguides@torontobotanicalgarden.ca

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torontobotanical garden.ca/about/contact for a complete staff directory.

Shop in comfort indoors during the winter.

777 Lawrence Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M3C 1P2, Canada 416-397-1341; fax: 416-397-1354 • info@torontobotanicalgarden.ca torontobotanicalgarden.ca • @TBG_Canada By TTC: From Eglinton subway station take the 51, 54 or 54A bus to Lawrence Avenue East and Leslie Street. The TBG is on the southwest corner.

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