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GCE Examinations from 2009 First AS Award: Summer 2009 First A Level Award: Summer 2010

History


GCE AS and A HISTORY 1

Contents WJEC AS GCE in History WJEC A Level GCE in History First AS Award - Summer 2009 First A level Award - Summer 2010

Page

Entry Codes and Availability of Units

2

Summary of Assessment

4

Introduction

5

Aims

9

Assessment Objectives

10

Specification Content

11

Scheme of Assessment

66

Key Skills

70

Performance Descriptions

71

Internal Assessment Guidelines

74


GCE AS and A HISTORY 2

GCE HISTORY Subject/Option Entry Codes Advanced Subsidiary (AS) "Cash in" entry A Level "Cash in" entry HY1 : Wales & England, c.1483 - 1603 HY1 : Wales & England, c.1603 - 1715 HY1 : Wales & England, c.1780-1886 HY1 : Wales & England, c.1880 - 1980 HY1: Europe, c.1515 - 1621 HY1: Europe, c.1696-1815 HY1: Europe, c.1815 - 1917 HY1: Europe, c.1878 - 1989 HY2 : Wales & the Tudor State, c.1529-1588 HY2: Rebellion and Republic, c.1629-1660 HY2: Reform & Protest in Wales & England, c.1830-1848 HY2: Change and Conflict in Wales, c.1900-1918 HY2: Britain, c.1929-1939 HY2: The German Reformation, c.1500-1555 HY2: The French Revolution, c.1774-1795 HY2: The Crisis of the American Republic, c.1848-1877 HY2: Nazi Germany, c.1933-1945 HY3 : Wales & Tudor State, c.1529-1588 HY3: Rebellion and Republic, c.1629-1660 HY3: Reform and Protest in Wales & England, c.1830-1848 HY3: Change & Conflict in Wales, c.1900-1918 HY3: Britain, c.1929-39 HY3: The German Reformation, c.1500-1555 HY3: The French Revolution, c.1774-1795 HY3: The Crisis of the American Republic, c.1848-1877 HY3: Nazi Germany, c.1933-1945 HY4 : Wales/Eng, c.1483-1603/German Reformation HY4: Wales/Eng, c.1483-1603/French Revolution HY4: Wales/Eng, c.1483-1603/The Crisis of the American Republic HY4: Wales/Eng, c.1483-1603/Nazi Germany HY4: Wales/Eng, c.1603-1715/German Reformation HY4: Wales/Eng, c.1603-1715/French Revolution HY4: Wales/Eng, c.1603-1715/The Crisis of the American Republic HY4: Wales/Eng, c.1603-1715/Nazi Germany HY4: Wales/Eng, c.1780-1886/German Reformation HY4: Wales/Eng, c.1780-1886/French Revolution HY4: Wales/Eng, c.1780-1886/The Crisis of the American Republic HY4: Wales/Eng, c.1780-1886/Nazi Germany HY4: Wales/Eng, c. 1880-1980/German Reformation HY4: Wales/Eng, c.1880-1980/French Revolution HY4: Wales/Eng, c.1880-1980/The Crisis of the American Republic HY4: Wales/Eng, c.1880-1980/Nazi Germany HY4: Europe, c.1515-1621/Wales & the Tudor State HY4: Europe, c.1515-1621/Rebellion and Republic HY4: Europe, c.1515-1621/Reform and Protest HY4: Europe, c.1515-1621/Change & Conflict HY4: Europe, c.1515-1621/Britain, c.1929-39 HY4: Europe, c.1696-1815/Wales & the Tudor State HY4: Europe, c.1696-1815/Rebellion and Republic HY4: Europe, c.1696-1815/Reform & Protest HY4: Europe, c.1696-1815/Change & Conflict

2231 3231 1231 1231 1231 1231 1231 1231 1231 1231 1232 1232 1232 1232 1232 1232 1232 1232 1232 1233 1233 1233 1233 1233 1233 1233 1233 1233 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234

English medium

Welsh medium

01 01 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

W1 W1 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75


GCE AS and A HISTORY 3

HY4 : Europe, c.1696-1815/Britain, c.1929-39 HY4 : Europe, c.1815-1917/Wales & the Tudor State HY4 : Europe, c.1815-1917/Rebellion and Republic HY4 : Europe, c.1815-1917/Reform & Protest HY4 : Europe, c.1815-1917/Change & Conflict HY4 : Europe, c.1815-1917/Britain, c.1929-39 HY4 : Europe, c.1878-1989/Wales & the Tudor State HY4 : Europe, c.1878-1989/Rebellion and Republic HY4 : Europe, c.1878-1989/Reform & Protest HY4 : Europe, c.1878-1989/Change & Conflict HY4 : Europe, c.1878-1989/ Britain 1929-39

1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Availability of Assessment Units Unit

January 2009

June 2009

January 2010 & each subsequent year

HY1 HY2 HY3 HY4 Qualification Accreditation Numbers Advanced Subsidiary: 500/2757/8 Advanced: 500/2487/5

June 2010 & each subsequent year

76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86


GCE AS and A HISTORY 4

SUMMARY OF ASSESSMENT This specification is divided into a total of 4 units, 2 AS units and 2 A level units. Weightings noted below are expressed in terms of the full A level qualification. Marks are given as raw and uniform marks (UMS). AS (2 units) HY1 30 % 1 hour 30 min Written Paper 120 marks (120UMS) Nominated topics relating to the history of the chosen Period Study Outline of paper structure: Two structured questions, from a choice of three HY2 20 % 1 hour 30 min Written Paper 80 marks (80UMS) A study of issues relating to the chosen In-depth Study Outline of paper structure: One set of questions, based on the evaluation of historical sources and interpretations, from a choice of two

A Level (the above plus a further 2 units) HY3 20 % Internal Assessment 80 marks (80UMS) An Historical Investigation arising from the In-Depth Study Submission of an internally-set assignment, of between 3000 – 4000 words, focussing on a specific historical problem or issue arising from the depth study HY4 30 % 2 hours 30 min Written Paper 120 marks (120UMS) Topics and themes relating to the history of both the chosen Period Study AND the chosen In-Depth Study Outline of paper structure: One open-ended essay question from a choice of two, arising from the Period Study One synoptic open-ended essay question, from a choice of two, arising from the Period Study One open-ended essay question from a choice of two, arising from the In-depth Study


GCE AS and A HISTORY 5

HISTORY

1

INTRODUCTION 1. 1

Criteria for AS and A Level GCE

This specification has been designed to meet the general criteria for GCE Advanced Subsidiary (AS) and Advanced (A) and the subject criteria for AS/A History as issued by the regulators in July 2006. The qualifications will comply with the grading, awarding and certification requirements of the Code of Practice for 'general' qualifications (including GCE). The AS qualification will be reported on a five-grade scale of A, B, C, D, E. The A level qualification will be reported on a six-grade scale of A*, A, B, C, D, E. The award of A* at A level will provide recognition of the additional demands presented by the A2 units in term of 'stretch and challenge' and 'synoptic' requirements. Candidates who fail to reach the minimum standard for grade E are recorded as U (unclassified), and do not receive a certificate. The level of demand of the AS examination is that expected of candidates half way through a full A level course. The AS assessment units will have equal weighting with the second half of the qualification (A2) when these are aggregated to produce the A level award. AS consists of two assessment units, referred to in this specification as HY1 and HY2. A2 also consists of two units and these are referred to as HY3 and HY4. Assessment units may be retaken prior to certification for the AS or A level qualifications, in which case the better result will be used for the qualification award. Individual assessment unit results, prior to certification for a qualification, have a shelf-life limited only by the shelf-life of the specification. The specification and assessment materials are available in English and Welsh.

1.2

Prior learning

There is no specific requirement for prior learning, although many candidates will have already gained a knowledge and understanding, and have developed a range of historical skills of selected periods of history, through their study of History at GCSE. Where a candidate has not previously taken a GCSE History qualification, it is anticipated potential candidates would have achieved a qualification such as a GCSE Grade C in English or Welsh or other appropriate qualification. This specification may be followed by any candidate, irrespective of their gender, ethnic, religious or cultural background. This specification is not age specific and, as such, provides opportunities for candidates to extend their life-long learning.


GCE AS and A HISTORY 6

1.3

Progression

The four part structure of this specification (2 units for AS, and an additional 2 for the full A level) allows for both staged and end-of-course assessment and thus allows candidates to defer decisions about progression from AS to the full A level qualification. This specification provides a suitable foundation for the study of History or a related area through a range of higher education courses e.g. progression to the next level of vocational qualifications or direct entry into employment. In addition, the specification provides a coherent, satisfying and worthwhile course of study for candidates who do not progress to further study in this subject.

1.4 Rationale History is a subject that by its nature requires candidates to consider individual, moral, ethical, social, cultural and contemporary issues. The specification provides a framework for exploration of such issues and includes specific content through which individual courses may address these issues. For example, the specification: •

offers candidates the opportunity to answer questions through the medium of either the Welsh or English languages;

provides opportunities for candidates in Wales to strengthen and broaden their awareness of the cultures and traditions of Wales, thereby enriching their experience of the Curriculum Cymreig;

provides opportunities for candidates, where appropriate, to set their knowledge and understanding of the history of Wales in a wider British, European and World context;

builds upon the National Curriculum and GCSE, whilst, at the same time, accommodating the needs of candidates who may not have studied history at these levels;

promotes progression and provides a suitable foundation for the study of history or a related area of study at further or higher education and/or a preparation for future employment and the world of work;

provides a coherent, satisfying and worthwhile course of study of selected periods, themes or topics in history, for all candidates regardless of whether they wish to progress to study further in the subject or not;

provides opportunities for candidates to develop their understanding of the nature of historical study, for example, that history is concerned with judgements based on available evidence and that historical judgements may be provisional;

encourages candidates to develop their capacity for critical thinking, to see the relationships between different aspects of the subject, and perceive their field of study in a broader perspective;

provides opportunities for candidates to develop their Key Skills and more especially their skills in Communication;

provides, where appropriate, opportunities for candidates to improve their own learning and performance, and their ability to work with others and solve problems in the context of their course of study;

provides opportunities for candidates to develop an awareness and understanding of spiritual, moral and cultural issues.


GCE AS and A HISTORY 7

1.5

The Wider Curriculum

The spiritual, moral, ethical, social and cultural dimensions History is a subject that requires candidates to examine the actions of people in past societies, and thereby poses issues about the perspectives, motivation and reactions of people. Through the study of such past societies, both over a relatively long period of a hundred years or more in the period study, and in the in-depth study, candidates will have opportunities to reflect on a range of spiritual, moral, ethical, social and cultural issues. There are numerous instances throughout the specification that could be cited to show where candidates are required to study topics and historical issues from a range of perspectives. For example in Period Study 4, Aspects of the History of Wales and England c.1880-1980, there is a requirement for candidates to consider the changing attitudes to the Welsh language and culture since 1945. The European dimension This AS/A level GCE specification requires candidates to study either a period study on aspects of European history or an in-depth study on European history. Through their study, candidates will strengthen and broaden their awareness of the factors that have sometimes divided and at other times drawn together the states and nationalities of Europe. For example, in Period Study 8: Aspects of the History of Europe, c.1878-1980, candidates should study the nature of the conflicts that divided Europe during the First and the Second World Wars. In contrast in Period Study 7: Aspects of the History of Europe, c.1815-1917, candidates should, through the study of the workings of the Congress System, 1815-1848, consider the ways in which European states attempted to work together.

1.6

Prohibited combinations and overlap

Every specification is assigned a national classification code indicating the subject area to which it belongs. Centres should be aware that candidates who enter for more than one GCE qualification with the same classification code will only have one grade (the highest) counted for the purpose of the School and College Performance Tables. The classification code for this specification is 4010. This specification does not overlap significantly with any other. There are no prohibited combinations. However, candidates will not be permitted to answer questions, across their chosen period and depth studies, exclusively on the history of Wales/Britain, or alternatively, exclusively on non Welsh/British history.

1.7

Equality and Fair Assessment

AS/A levels often require assessment of a broad range of competences. This is because they are general qualifications and, as such, prepare candidates for a wide range of occupations and higher level courses. The revised AS/A level qualification and subject criteria were reviewed to identify whether any of the competences required by the subject presented a potential barrier to any disabled candidates. If this was the case, the situation was reviewed again to ensure that such competences were included only where essential to the subject. The findings of this process were discussed with disability groups and with disabled people.


GCE AS and A HISTORY 8

Reasonable adjustments are made for disabled candidates in order to enable them to access the assessments. For this reason, very few candidates will have a complete barrier to any part of the assessment. Information on reasonable adjustments is found in the Joint Council for Qualifications document Regulations and Guidance Relating to Candidates who are eligible for Adjustments in Examinations. This document is available on the JCQ website (www.jcq.org.uk). Candidates who are still unable to access a significant part of the assessment, even after exploring all possibilities through reasonable adjustments, may still be able to receive an award. They would be given a grade on the parts of the assessment they have taken and there would be an indication on their certificate that not all of the competences have been addressed. This will be kept under review and may be amended in future.


GCE AS and A HISTORY 9

2

AIMS This AS/A level GCE specification encourages candidates to: •

develop their interest in and enthusiasm for history and an understanding of its intrinsic value and significance;

acquire an understanding of different identities within society and an appreciation of social, cultural, religious and ethnic diversity through the study of aspects of British and non British history;

build on their understanding of the past through experiencing a broad and balanced course of study;

improve as effective and independent learners and as critical and reflective thinkers with curious and enquiring minds;

develop the ability to ask relevant and significant questions about the past and to research them;

acquire an understanding of the nature of historical study, for example, that history is concerned with judgements based on available evidence and that historical judgements may be provisional;

develop their use and understanding of historical terms, concepts and skills;

make links and draw comparisons within and/or across different periods and aspects of the past;

organise and communicate their historical knowledge and understanding in different ways, arguing a case and reaching substantiated judgements.


GCE AS and A HISTORY 10

3

ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES Candidates must meet the following assessment objectives in the context of the content detailed in Section 4 of the specification: AO1a

recall, select and deploy historical knowledge appropriately, and communicate knowledge and understanding of history in a clear and effective manner.

AO1b

demonstrate their understanding of the past through explanation, analysis and arriving at substantiated judgements of: -

key concepts such as causation, consequence, continuity, change and significance within an historical context;

-

the relationships between key features and characteristics of the periods studied.

AO2a

as part of an historical enquiry, analyse and evaluate a range of appropriate source material with discrimination.

AO2b

analyse and evaluate, in relation to the historical context, how aspects of the past have been interpreted and represented in different ways.

Weightings Assessment objective weightings are shown below as % of the full A level, with AS weightings in brackets. Unit

%

AO1a

AO1b

HY1

30 (60)

10 (20)

20 (40)

HY2

20 (40)

2.5 (5)

2.5 (5)

HY3

20

2.5

2.5

HY4 Total

30 100

12 27%

18 43%

AO2a

AO2b

10 (20)

5 (10)

7 17%

8 13%


GCE AS and A HISTORY 11

4

SPECIFICATION CONTENT 4.1

Content Requirements For AS candidates are required to choose one period study and one in-depth study. For A level candidates re-visit the same period study and in-depth study. In both the AS and A level, candidates who choose to base their period study on aspects of the history of Wales and England/Britain must choose a European history in-depth study. Conversely, candidates who choose to base their period study on aspects of European history must base their in-depth study on the history of Wales or the history of Wales and England/Britain.

4.2

Content Approach Period Study •

The period study requires candidates to study an extended chronological period of a hundred years or more. This places great emphasis on the need to understand the process of historical change and its causes and consequences, both long term and short term.

The nominated topic areas should not be seen as self-contained, but rather should be treated in a thematic way. This approach emphasises the importance of understanding the process of historical change over time and an appreciation of a range of historical perspectives, including political, social, cultural and ethnic. The significance and consequences of each topic should also be considered. In addition, in HY4, candidates are required, through an open-ended synoptic essay, to demonstrate their understanding of a historical change through the study of themes that run across the period as a whole.

In-depth Study •

The in-depth study requires candidates to study a relatively short historical period in much greater depth. In all aspects of their study, candidates should use a wide range of different types of historical sources. These should include both contemporary and later sources and historical interpretations.

In HY3, candidates are required to investigate a particular historical issue arising from within the in-depth study. In this case, candidates will be required to use a range of sources, both contemporary and later and historical interpretations when answering a question set on the historical issue. In addition, in HY4, candidates are required to study a separate issue or theme arising from the in-depth study.


GCE AS and A HISTORY 12

4.3

Content Structure PERIOD STUDIES (applicable to HY1 and HY4)

Candidates will be required to study one of the following period studies: 1.

ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF WALES AND ENGLAND c. 1483 - 1603

2.

ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF WALES AND ENGLAND c. 1603 - 1715

3.

ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF WALES AND ENGLAND c. 1780 - 1886

4. ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF WALES AND ENGLAND c. 1880 - 1980 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5.

ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF EUROPE, c. 1515 - 1621

6.

ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF EUROPE c. 1696 - 1815

7.

ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF EUROPE, c. 1815 - 1917

8.

ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF EUROPE, c. 1878 - 1989

IN-DEPTH STUDIES (applicable to HY2, HY3 and HY4) Candidates will be required to study one of the following in-depth studies. 1.

WALES AND THE TUDOR STATE, c. 1529 - 1588

2.

REBELLION AND REPUBLIC, c. 1629 - 1660

3.

REFORM AND PROTEST IN WALES AND ENGLAND, c. 1830-1848

4.

CHANGE AND CONFLICT IN WALES, c. 1900 - 1918

5. BRITAIN, c. 1929 - 1939 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6.

THE GERMAN REFORMATION, c. 1500 -1555

7.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, c. 1774 - 1795

8.

THE CRISIS OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLIC, c.1848 - 1877

9.

NAZI GERMANY, c. 1933 - 1945

Candidates choosing their Period Study from options 1-4 (Welsh/English History) must choose their In-depth study from options 6-9 (European History); conversely, candidates choosing their Period Study from options 5-8 (European history) must choose their In-depth study from options 1-5 (Welsh/English History).


GCE AS and A HISTORY 13

4.4

Rationale for selected content

WJEC History course meets all the subject criteria as laid down by the regulatory authorities. It is broad, balanced and coherent. The whole course is structured to provide an opportunity to consider history through a study of both a period of around 100 years and a much shorter in-depth topic. Different aspects of each of these two areas are studied at both AS and A level. This choice of two courses enables students at both AS and A2 to study a substantial element of the history of more than one country, including that of Wales and England. This also ensures coverage of aspects of the past in breadth and in depth. In all options, candidates are able to study the roles of significant individuals, societies, events and issues within a broad chronological framework and through a range of appropriate historical perspectives. This approach is also offered to provide a clear and logical link between study at AS and A level, with the A level course developing out of and building clearly on the history studied at AS level. This ensures study of changes and developments over both the long term and the short term. The coherence of the course is also enhanced by a number of central themes and issues which run through each option. These include issues such as change in political control, the influence of economic factors and the impact of social and cultural change. Coverage and discussion of these factors will inform the approach to all options in this specification. In addition, the structure of the specification encourages and enables centres to develop an individualised course which fits their needs and has an obvious degree of coherence without being too prescriptive. Centres are strongly advised to consider this issue of coherence when planning their choice of courses. Some examples are provided below: •

Through a similar chronological framework, eg: Centres can follow the Period Study on Aspects of the History of Wales and England, 1483-1603 alongside the In-depth Study on the German Reformation, 1517-1555 Centres can follow the Period Study on Aspects of the History of Europe, 1815-1917 alongside the In-depth Study on Reform and Protest in Wales and England, 18151830 Centres can follow the Period Study on Aspects of the History of Wales and England, 1880-1980 alongside the In-depth Study on Nazi Germany, 1933-1945


GCE AS and A HISTORY 14

•

Through broadly similar themes and issues. Centres here can find pathways which link both Period and In-depth Studies eg: Government and protest movements

Unit 1 topics Unit 2 Unit 3 essay Unit 4 topics

In-depth study: Period Study: Wales and England, 1485- Nazi Germany, 1933-1945 1603 Politics and government; protest and rebellion Developments in the German state 1933-1939 An interpretive study of Hitler’s leadership style Mary Stuart and the Catholic powers; poverty and vagrancy

Resistance and opposition to the Nazis

War, its causes and impact

Unit 1 topics Unit 2 Unit 3 essay Unit 4 topics

In-depth study: Period Study: Wales and England, 1603- The American Civil War, 18481878 1714 Causes and events and impact of the English Civil War Causes and events of the American Civil War An interpretive study of why the North won the Civil War The causes and impact of The impact of Civil War and the the Glorious Revolution reconstruction of the USA

Society, religion and culture Period Study: 1492-1621 Unit 1 topics Unit 2 Unit 3 essay Unit 4 topics

Europe In-depth study: Change and Conflict in Wales, 1900-1918 Luther and the spread and impact of the Reformation in Europe General influences and changes in Wales, 1900-1914 An interpretive study of Evan Roberts and the religious revival The role of religion in the The impact of World War I on French Wars Welsh society, culture and religion


GCE AS and A HISTORY 15

BLANK PAGE


GCE AS and A HISTORY 16

PERIOD STUDY 1 ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF WALES AND ENGLAND, c.1483-1603

Candidates will be required to study a range of nominated topics relating to aspects of the history of Wales and England c.1483-1603. In their study, candidates will be required to consider the process of historical change and its causes, consequences and significance, both in the long term and the short term. Candidates will also be required to consider the diverse nature of society and the origins, nature and impact of political, social, economic, cultural and religious change, where appropriate. In addition, candidates will be required to demonstrate a synoptic overview of the period as a whole through the study of nominated outline themes.

UNIT HY1 (AS) General topic 1:

Politics, Government and the Crown, c.1483-1543

Focus:

The main changes and developments in politics and government in Wales and England

Origins:

The state of politics and government in Wales and England, c.1483

Key issues:

The reign of Richard III and end of the Yorkist dynasty, 1483-1485 The reasons for the establishment of the Tudor dynasty under Henry VII The Crown and its relationship with its ministers Thomas Cromwell and the revolution in government under Henry VIII Developing relations between Wales and England to 1543

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments affecting politics, government and the Crown to 1543


GCE AS and A HISTORY 17

General topic 2:

Religious Reformation and Change, c. 1529-1570

Focus:

The main changes and developments in religion in Wales and England

Origins:

The nature and importance of religion in Wales and England, c.1529

Key issues:

The Henrician Reformation and its effects The impact of the European Reformation on religion in Wales and England Religious changes during reigns of Edward VI and Mary The Elizabethan Church Settlement and religious change in Elizabeth's reign to 1570 Reactions to religious change by government and society

Significance/ consequences:

The significance and consequences of religious change to 1570

General topic 3:

Protest, Disorder and Rebellion, c.1529-1569

Focus:

A study of the threat posed by protest, disorder and opposition to the Tudor monarchy

Origins:

The reasons for political protest, social disorder and religious rebellion

Key issues:

The rebellion of Rhys ap Gruffudd and the end of marcher lordship in Wales Rebellions and protests in England, 1529-1569 including Aske, Ket, Wyatt and the Northern Earls Reactions of the Crown and government to rebellion and disorder

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the various protests and rebellions in Wales and England


GCE AS and A HISTORY 18

UNIT HY4 (A Level) General topic 1:

Crown, Council and Parliament in the reign of Elizabeth, 15581603

Focus:

A study of the evolving relationship between the monarch, privy council and Parliament

Origins:

The relationship between Crown and Parliament at the start of Elizabeth’s reign

Key issues:

Changes in the economic and financial power of the crown The role of Parliament in national affairs Parliamentary elections and the status, rights and privileges of MPs Elizabeth's relationship with her privy council and Parliament The role of the royal court and the Queen's ministers

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in the relationship between Crown, council and Parliament to 1603

General topic 2:

Mary Stuart and England's relations with the Catholic powers, c.1568-1588

Focus:

A study of Mary Stuart, recusancy and the impact on foreign relations

Origins:

The reasons for Mary Stuart's detention in 1568 The relationship between England and the Catholic powers, c.1568

Key issues:

The political and religious significance of the imprisonment of Mary Stuart Dangers posed by recusancy and Papal reaction to Elizabeth's religious policies The causes and effects of the various plots and conspiracies The execution of Mary Stuart and reaction to it The threat of the Spanish Armada

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of Mary Stuart’s treatment on England’s relations with the Catholic powers to 1588


GCE AS and A HISTORY 19

Outline theme 1:

Poverty, vagrancy and the poor in Wales and England, c.14831603

Focus:

Treatment and attitudes to poverty and vagrancy

Origins:

The social and economic condition of Wales and England, c.1483 The general reasons for the growth of poverty and vagrancy

Key issues:

Economic problems and social distress The impact of government legislation Municipal, charitable provision and local initiatives for relief of the poor The role of the Church and the merchant classes in providing relief Crime and its punishment Changing attitudes to poverty and vagrancy

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the growth in poverty and vagrancy The significance and consequences of the changing attitudes to the treatment of poverty and vagrancy to 1603

Outline theme 2:

Tudor foreign policy, c.1483-1603

Focus:

The nature of England's changing relations with foreign powers

Origins:

Traditional relations with the continental powers, c.1483 General reasons for maritime enterprise and colonisation

Key issues:

Diplomatic relations with Spain, France and the Papacy Foreign alliances, trade and commercial treaties Religious tension and fear of foreign invasion Relations with Scotland and rule in Ireland English intervention in the Netherlands Rivalry with Spain in the New World and at sea The role of privateers and the Spanish main

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in Tudor foreign policy


GCE AS and A HISTORY 20

PERIOD STUDY 2 ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF WALES AND ENGLAND, c.1603-1715

Candidates will be required to study a range of nominated topics relating to aspects of the history of Wales and England c.1603-1715. In their study, candidates will be required to consider the process of historical change and its causes, consequences and significance, both in the long term and the short term. Candidates will also be required to consider the diverse nature of society and the origins, nature and impact of political, social, economic, cultural and religious change, where appropriate. In addition, candidates will be required to demonstrate a synoptic overview of the period as a whole through the study of nominated outline themes.

UNIT HY1 (AS) General topic 1:

Politics, Government and the Crown, c.1603-1642

Focus:

The main changes and developments in politics, government and the crown in Wales and England

Origins:

The state of politics and government in 1603 Reasons for the establishment of the Stuart dynasty

Key issues:

The accession of James I The foreign and domestic policies of James I and Charles I Crown and Parliament and the growth of opposition to the monarchy The causes of the Civil War The outbreak of the Civil War

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the changing relations between Crown and Parliament, 1603-1642


GCE AS and A HISTORY 21

General topic 2:

Regicide, Republic and the Restoration of the Monarchy, c. 16481685

Focus:

The main changes and developments in politics and government in Wales and England

Origins:

The political situation in 1648

Key issues:

Reasons for the trial and execution of the King The importance of the Rump and Barebones parliaments Changes under Cromwell and the protectorate The reasons for the restoration of the monarchy Domestic affairs under Charles II

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of republicanism The significance and consequences of the restoration

General topic 3:

Religion, Radicalism and Dissent, c.1645-1681

Focus:

The main changes and developments in religion, radicalism and dissent The position of religion, c.1645 The causes of religious radicalism and dissent

Origins:

Key issues:

Anglicanism and the downfall of Laud and Laudianism Puritanism and radicalism during the Civil War The religious policy of the Commonwealth and Protectorate The Restoration and the restored church The growth of dissenting sects and their importance Radicalism and religious reform in Wales

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of radicalism The significance and consequences of religious change and dissent


GCE AS and A HISTORY 22

UNIT HY4 (A Level) General topic 1:

England's relations with Ireland, Scotland and Wales, c.16031649

Focus:

The main changes and developments in the relationship between England and her Celtic neighbours

Origins:

The relationship between England and her Celtic neighbours in 1603

Key issues:

The Council of Wales, local government and Welsh representation in Parliament The crown's relationship with the ruling elites in Ireland, Scotland and Wales The crown and the English, Irish and Scottish parliaments Religious change and tension in Ireland, Scotland and Wales to 1649 Unrest, rebellion and the Civil Wars in Ireland, Scotland and Wales

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of developments in England’s relations with her Celtic neighbours by 1649

General topic 2:

James II, the Glorious Revolution and party politics, 1685-1715

Focus:

The reign of James II, the causes of the Glorious Revolution and the development of party politics

Origins:

The reasons for James II's accession in 1685

Key issues:

The reign and deposition of James II The mounting conflict between James II and Parliament The accession of William and Mary and the Glorious Revolution The Bill of Rights and the Revolutionary Settlement The search for religious toleration The development of party politics after 1689 Issues during the reign of Anne

Significance / consequences:

The consequences of James II's reign and deposition The significance and consequences of the Glorious Revolution and Revolutionary Settlement


GCE AS and A HISTORY 23

Outline theme 1:

Crime, Disorder and Protest, c.1603-1715

Focus:

A study of the causes and impact of disorder and protest

Origins:

Social and economic conditions in Wales and England The general reasons for political protest, social disorder and crime

Key issues:

Economic problems and threats to economic stability Social problems involved with crime, poverty and the effects of plague The extent of witchcraft and witch-finding Protests over Ship Money and the royal prerogative Parliament and protest Breakdown of law and order during the Civil War Restoration of law and order during and after the Republic Opposition to the monarchy under Charles II and James II

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the growth in disorder and protest to 1715

Outline theme 2:

England's changing relations with foreign powers, c.1603-1715

Focus:

A study of the main issues and developments affecting England’s relations with foreign powers

Origins:

England’s relations with foreign powers in 1603

Key issues:

The foreign policy of James I The foreign policy of Charles I Continental influence in the English Civil wars Cromwellian foreign and commercial policies Foreign affairs under the restored monarchy William of Orange and English foreign policy after 1688

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of developments in England’s relations with foreign powers to 1715


GCE AS and A HISTORY 24

PERIOD STUDY 3 ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF WALES AND ENGLAND, c.1780-1886

Candidates will be required to study a range of nominated topics relating to aspects of the history of Wales and England c.1780-1886. In their study, candidates will be required to consider the process of historical change and its causes, consequences and significance, both in the long term and the short term. Candidates will also be required to consider the diverse nature of society and the origins, nature and impact of political, social, economic, cultural and religious change, where appropriate. In addition, candidates will be required to demonstrate a synoptic overview of the period as a whole through the study of nominated outline themes.

UNIT HY1 (AS) General topic 1:

Politics and government in Wales and England, c.1780-1832

Focus:

A study of the main changes and developments in politics and government.

Origins:

The political and electoral system in Wales and England in the late eighteenth century

Key Issues:

The reasons for the growth of the Parliamentary reform movement The Younger Pitt and the impact of the French revolution, 17901801. Lord Liverpool's government and the radical challenge, 1812-1822. The liberal Tory reforms, 1822-1830. The Reform Bill Crisis and the reasons for the passing of the Reform Act of 1832

Significance / Consequences:

The significance and consequences of the changes in politics and government in England and Wales to 1832


GCE AS and A HISTORY 25

General topic 2:

Economic and social change and popular protest, c.1815-1848

Focus:

A study of the main economic and social changes and how they impacted on the growth of popular protest in Wales and England

Origins:

The economic and social condition of Wales and England in 1815 General reasons for unrest in the rural and urban areas

Key Issues:

The causes of, and events connected with, popular protest in the rural areas of Wales and England (including Scotch Cattle, Swing, Poor Law and Rebecca) The causes of, and events connected with, popular protest in the urban areas of Wales and England (including the Merthyr Rising, Factory movement, Poor Law, Chartism, Trade Unions and AntiCorn Law League)

Significance / Consequences:

The significance and consequences of economic and social change The significance and consequences of popular protest in the rural and urban areas

General topic 3:

Foreign policy, c. 1793-1841

Focus:

How British foreign policy evolved in this period.

Origins:

The main interests influencing British foreign policy in the late eighteenth century

Key Issues:

Britain and success in the war with France, 1793-1815. Castlereagh's foreign policy, 1812-1822. Canning’s foreign policy, 1822-1827 Palmerston's foreign policy, 1830-1841. Britain's relations with the Great Powers.

Significance / Consequences:

The significance and consequences of developments in British foreign policy to 1841


GCE AS and A HISTORY 26

UNIT HY4 (A Level) General topic 1:

The Conservatives in the age of Peel and Disraeli, 1834-1880

Focus:

The main developments in the Conservative party in this period.

Origins:

The nature and ideas of the Conservative Party in 1841

Key issues:

Peel’s effectiveness as a party leader, 1834-1846 The reforms of the Great Ministry, 1841-1846. Causes and effects of the repeal of the Corn Laws. The 1867 Reform Act and Tory Democracy. Disraelian conservatism in action, 1874-1880.

Significance / Consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in the Conservative Party to 1880

General topic 2:

The development of Liberalism, 1846-1886

Focus:

The main developments in the Liberal party in this period.

Origins:

The main ideas of Gladstonian Liberalism.

Key issues:

Gladstone's role as Chancellor of the Exchequer and his attitude to Parliamentary reform. The expanding appeal of Liberalism in Wales and the election of 1868 Gladstone's first ministry, 1868-1874 Gladstone's attitude to foreign and imperial affairs. Gladstone's second ministry, 1880-1885. The decision for Home Rule for Ireland, 1885-1886.

Significance / Consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in the Liberal Party to 1886


GCE AS and A HISTORY 27

Outline theme 1:

Social Reform, c.1780-1886

Focus:

A study of the attitudes to and developments in social reform

Origins:

The condition of England and Wales in the late eighteenth century.

Key Issues:

Attitudes towards social reform in the early nineteenth century Reasons for the pressure for reform Poverty and public health reforms The factory and mine reforms Reforms in elementary education Social reform under Gladstone and Disraeli

Significance / Consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in social reform to 1886

Outline theme 2:

Parliamentary Reform, c.1780-1886

Focus:

A study of the main developments in Parliamentary reform

Origins:

The Parliamentary and electoral systems in the late eighteenth century

Key Issues:

Reasons for the growth of the Parliamentary reform movement. Political protest and the radical challenge after 1815 The causes and impact of Chartism The extent and importance of legislation on Parliamentary reform

Significance / Consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in Parliamentary reform to 1886


GCE AS and A HISTORY 28

PERIOD STUDY 4 ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF WALES AND ENGLAND, c.1880-1980

Candidates will be required to study a range of nominated topics relating to aspects of the history of Wales and England c.1880-1980. In their study, candidates will be required to consider the process of historical change and its causes, consequences and significance, both in the long term and the short term. Candidates will also be required to consider the diverse nature of society and the origins, nature and impact of political, social, economic, cultural and religious change, where appropriate. In addition, candidates will be required to demonstrate a synoptic overview of the period as a whole through the study of nominated outline themes.

UNIT HY1 (AS) General topic 1:

Wales and England in transition, c.1880-1929

Focus:

A study of the main social and economic changes in Wales and England

Origins:

The social – economic condition of Wales and England in the late nineteenth century

Key issues:

Living and working conditions, c.1880 The Liberal reforms, 1906-1914 The impact of World War I on the Home Front The decline of staple industries after 1919 and the General Strike of 1926 The changing role of women

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main social and economic developments in Wales and England to 1929


GCE AS and A HISTORY 29

General topic 2:

British foreign policy, c.1902-1939

Focus:

A study of how Britain's foreign policy developed in this period

Origins:

The underlying principles of British foreign policy by the turn of the century

Key issues:

British foreign policy, 1902-1914 Britain's role in the build up to the Great War Britain's role in the Great War and the Peace Conferences British foreign policy in the inter-war period Britain and the outbreak of World War II

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in British foreign policy to 1939

General topic 3:

Party politics, c.1900-1940

Focus:

A study of the main developments in the political parties in Wales and England

Origins:

The political system in Wales and England in the late nineteenth century

Key issues:

The Conservative and Liberal Parties, pre-1914 The rise of the Labour Party Political change between 1919-1940 The rise of minority parties between the wars The importance of the National Government in the 1930s

Significance / consequences:

The importance and consequences of the main political developments in Wales and England to 1940


GCE AS and A HISTORY 30

UNIT HY4 (A Level) General topic 1:

Depression and austerity, 1929-1951

Focus:

A study of the impact of the Depression and World War II on Wales and England

Origins:

The social, economic and cultural position of Wales and England in 1929

Key issues:

The economic impact of the 1930s The impact of the Depression years on life in Wales and England How World War II affected life on the Home Front The reforms of the Labour governments, 1945-1951

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main changes on life in Wales and England 1929-1951

General topic 2:

Changes in Wales, c.1945-1980

Focus:

A study of the main social, economic, political and cultural changes in Wales after 1945

Origins:

The political, social, economic and cultural condition of Wales in 1945

Key issues

The changing nature of work and employment in Wales Changing attitudes to the Welsh language and culture Demands for political change in Wales Social changes in Wales

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in Wales to 1980


GCE AS and A HISTORY 31

Outline theme 1:

Social reform, c.1880-1980

Focus:

A study of the attitudes to and developments in social reform

Origins:

Attitudes to social reform in the late nineteenth century

Key issues:

Social reforms, pre-1914 The impact of World War I on social reform The impact of the Depression on attitudes to social reform The social impact of World War II The reforms of the Labour government, 1945-1951 Challenges to the Welfare State post-1945

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in social reform to 1980

Outline theme 2:

Britain and Europe, c.1880-1980

Focus:

A study of the changing relationship between Britain and Europe

Origins:

The underlying principles of British foreign policy in 1880

Key events / issues:

Changing British attitudes to Europe up to 1914 Developments in British foreign policy in the inter-war period Changing relations with Europe post-1945

Importance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in Britain’s relationship with Europe to 1980


GCE AS and A HISTORY 32

PERIOD STUDY 5 ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF EUROPE, c.1515-1621

Candidates will be required to study a range of nominated topics relating to aspects of the history of Europe, c.1515-1621. In their study, candidates will be required to consider the process of historical change and its causes, consequences and significance, both in the long term and the short term. Candidates will also be required to consider the diverse nature of society and the origins, nature and impact of political, social, economic, cultural and religious change, where appropriate. In addition, candidates will be required to demonstrate a synoptic overview of the period as a whole through the study of nominated outline themes.

UNIT HY1 (AS) General topic 1:

The threat to Europe from the Ottoman Empire, c.1520-1571

Focus:

The main changes and developments in the relationship between Europe and the Ottoman Empire

Origins:

The threat posed by the Ottoman empire to Europe, c.1520

Key issues:

The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent and Ottoman expansion into eastern Europe Hapsburg reaction to the Ottoman threat French reaction to the Ottoman threat The importance of the battle of Lepanto

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in the relations between Europe and the Ottoman Empire to 1571


GCE AS and A HISTORY 33

General topic 2:

Martin Luther and the German Reformation, c.1517-1555

Focus:

The role of Martin Luther and the main developments in the German Reformation

Origins:

The condition of the Catholic Church in 1517

Key issues:

The role of Martin Luther Social, economic and political developments in Germany and their relationship to religious change Papal and Imperial reaction to Luther The dissemination of Lutheranism

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in the German Reformation to 1555

General topic 3:

France, 1515-1547

Focus:

A study of the main developments in the reign of Francis I

Origins:

Francis I's inheritance and the nature of Renaissance monarchy

Key issues:

The nature of government under Francis I Social, economic and religious change Renaissance culture Hapsburg / Valois rivalry Financial issues

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments during the reign of Francis I


GCE AS and A HISTORY 34

UNIT HY4 (A Level) General topic 1:

The reign of Philip II, 1556-1598

Focus:

A study of the domestic and foreign policies of Philip II and their impact on the pre-eminence of Spain

Origins:

Philip II's inheritance in domestic and foreign matters

Key issues:

Economic and financial policies Centralisation of government Philip’s foreign policy Revolt in Spain Philip’s support for the Catholic Reformation

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in the reign of Philip II

General topic 2:

France, c.1562 – 1610

Focus:

A study of the period of wars in France from 1562-1593, and of recovery in the reign of Henry IV

Origins:

The reasons for the outbreak of the French Wars of religion

Key issues:

Noble faction and religious affiliation The weakness of the monarchy during the Wars of Religion The religious nature of the conflict The reasons for recovery under Henry IV and Sully The importance of the Edict of Nantes, 1598

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the French Wars of religion The significance and consequences of the recovery of France in the reign of Henry IV


GCE AS and A HISTORY 35

Outline theme 1:

Political and religious change in Europe, c.1515-1621

Focus:

A study of the main political and religious challenges in Europe

Origins:

Attitudes to religion, the nature of monarchy and the Ottoman challenge at the beginning of the sixteenth century

Key issues:

The impact of the Protestant Reformation Religious conflict and reconciliation in France The impact of the Catholic Reformation The concept of Renaissance monarchy The Ottoman challenge The importance of Imperial power

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main political and religious challenges in Europe to 1621

Outline theme 2:

Spain and Europe, c.1516-1621

Focus:

A study of the impact and importance of Spain on Europe

Origins:

Charles V's inheritance in 1516 and his election as Holy Roman Emperor

Key issues:

Charles V's reign in Spain and its impact on Europe The challenges of the Holy Roman Empire The reign of Philip II in Spain and its impact on Europe Spain’s foreign and colonial policies and their impact Spain and the Catholic reformation

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in Spain’s relations with Europe to 1621


GCE AS and A HISTORY 36

PERIOD STUDY 6 ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF EUROPE, c.1696-1815

Candidates will be required to study a range of nominated topics relating to aspects of the history of Europe, c.1696-1815. In their study, candidates will be required to consider the process of historical change and its causes, consequences and significance, both in the long term and the short term. Candidates will also be required to consider the diverse nature of society and the origins, nature and impact of political, social, economic, cultural and religious change, where appropriate. In addition, candidates will be required to demonstrate a synoptic overview of the period as a whole through the study of nominated outline themes.

UNIT HY1 (AS) General topic 1:

Russia during the reign of Peter the Great, 1696-1725

Focus:

A study of the reign of Peter the Great and the westernisation of Russia

Origins:

Russia at the start of Peter the Great's reign

Key issues:

Social, legal and economic change Reform and expansion of the armed forces Religious change Foreign policy – war and expansion

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main changes made by Peter the Great to 1725


GCE AS and A HISTORY 37

General topic 2:

Prussia during the reign of Frederick the Great, 1740-1788

Focus:

A study of the main developments in Prussia during the reign of Frederick the Great

Origins:

The condition of Prussia in 1740

Key issues:

The upbringing, influences and character of Frederick the Great Rivalry with Hapsburg Empire Domestic and military policies The emergence of Prussia as a European great power

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in Prussia under Frederick the Great

General topic 3:

The Hapsburg Empire during the reigns of Charles VI and Maria Theresa, 1711-1780

Focus:

A study of the succession and the recovery of the Hapsburg Empire under Charles VI and Maria Theresa

Origins:

The Hapsburg Empire in 1711

Key issues:

The Empire following the Treaty of Utrecht The Pragmatic Sanction The domestic and social policies of Charles VI The Diplomatic Revolution The domestic and foreign policies of Maria Theresa

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in the Hapsburg Empire to 1780


GCE AS and A HISTORY 38

UNIT HY4 (A Level) General topic 1:

Catherine the Great, 1762-1796

Focus:

A study of the reign of Catherine the Great

Origins:

The nature of Russian state and society in 1762

Key issues:

Domestic problems and Catherine's accession Key features of Catherine's domestic policy Catherine and the expansion of Russia The key reforms associated with Enlightened Despotism

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments during the reign of Catherine the Great

General topic 2:

Commercial and colonial rivalry, c.1750-1815

Focus:

The importance of commercial and colonial rivalry on relations between European powers

Origins:

The main factors underlying commercial and colonial rivalry in 1750

Key issues:

The nature of commercial rivalry and mercantilism The influence of the Dutch and English East India Companies Rivalry in India between Holland, France and Britain Competition and conflict in North America The Baltic rivalry of Prussia and Russia

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments affecting commercial and colonial rivalry in 1815


GCE AS and A HISTORY 39

Outline theme 1:

France, c.1715-1815

Focus:

A study of government and control in France from the ancien regime to the defeat of Napoleon

Origins:

The nature and structure of the ancien regime, c.1715

Key issues:

The ancien regime during the reign of Louis XV, 1715-1774 The causes of the French Revolution, 1774-1789 From constitutional monarchy to Jacobin Republic, 1789-1794 The Directory, 1795-1799 France under Napoleon

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in the government and control of France to 1815

Outline theme 2:

Great Power rivalry, c.1696-1815

Focus:

A study of the changes in relations between the European powers

Origins:

The main reasons for Great Power rivalry in Europe, c.1696

Key issues:

The Great Northern War and the decline of Sweden The War of Austrian Succession and the rise of Prussia, 1740-1748 The Seven Years War, 1756-1763 The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1792-1815 The changing balance of power in Europe

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main issues affecting relations between the Great Powers in Europe to 1815


GCE AS and A HISTORY 40

PERIOD STUDY 7 ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF EUROPE, c.1815-1917

Candidates will be required to study a range of nominated topics relating to aspects of the history of Europe, c.1815-1917. In their study, candidates will be required to consider the process of historical change and its causes, consequences and significance, both in the long term and the short term. Candidates will also be required to consider the diverse nature of society and the origins, nature and impact of political, social, economic, cultural and religious change, where appropriate. In addition, candidates will be required to demonstrate a synoptic overview of the period as a whole through the study of nominated outline themes.

UNIT HY1 (AS) General topic 1:

Europe, c.1815-1856

Focus:

A study of the main changes and developments in post-Napoleonic Europe to 1856.

Origins:

The condition of Europe in 1815

Key issues:

The Vienna Settlement and the concept of the Concert of Europe. The characteristics of autocratic rule in Europe. The Congress system. The causes and importance of the revolutions in this period The Eastern Question to 1856.

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in Europe to 1856


GCE AS and A HISTORY 41

General topic 2:

Italy, c.1830 -1871

Focus:

A study of the main changes and developments in Italy in this period.

Origins:

The factors promoting and inhibiting Italian unification, c.1830.

Key issues:

The growth of the Italian nationalist movement. The impact of the 1848 revolutions on Italian nationalism The contribution of key personalities to Italian unification. The attitude of the other powers to unification. Diplomacy and war after 1852. The new Italy, post-1861.

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in Italy to 1871

General topic 3:

Germany, c.1830 -1871

Focus:

A study of the main changes and developments in Germany in this period.

Origins:

The factors promoting and inhibiting German unification.

Key issues:

The growth of the German nationalist movement. Economic expansion and integration. The impact of the 1848 revolutions on German nationalism Austro-Prussian rivalry. The role of Bismarck. Diplomacy and war after 1860. The establishment of the German Empire

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in Germany to 1871


GCE AS and A HISTORY 42

UNIT HY4 (A Level) General topic 1:

France, 1848-1870

Focus:

A study of France under the Second Republic and Second Empire

Origins:

Events in France in 1848

Key issues:

France under the Second Republic The coup d'etat and the establishment of the Second Empire. The character, personality and aims of Napoleon III. Domestic, economic and foreign policy. Support and opposition in France to Napoleon. Reasons for the collapse of the Second Empire.

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in France under the Second Republic and Second Empire

General topic 2:

Russia, c.1881 -1917

Focus:

A study of the end of Tsardom and the beginning of the revolution

Origins:

The condition of Russia in 1881

Key issues:

The nature of Tsarist rule. The effects of reform and modernization. Economic and industrial development. The influence of revolutionary groups. The roles of Lenin and other key figures. The causes of revolution in 1917

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in Russia to 1917


GCE AS and A HISTORY 43

Outline theme 1:

International Relations, c.1815-1914

Focus:

A study of international rivalry and co-operation in Europe

Origins:

International relations and national self-interest in 1815

Key issues:

The Vienna Settlement and the idea of the Concert of Europe Emerging differences amongst the powers and the breakdown of the Congress System The Eastern question and the Crimean War Imperial and colonial issues The setting up of alliances and ententes The importance of the Balkan question The causes of World War I

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in international relations to 1914

Outline theme 2:

Germany, c.1815-1914

Focus:

A study of the main changes in the development of Germany

Origins:

The Germanic states in 1815

Key issues:

The setting up of the German Confederation The growth of nationalism in Germany Economic developments in Germany The impact of the 1848 revolutions on Germany The unification of Germany Germany under Bismarck after 1871 Kaiser Wilhelm and Weltpolitik

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in Germany to 1914


GCE AS and A HISTORY 44

PERIOD STUDY 8 ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF EUROPE, c.1878-1989

Candidates will be required to study a range of nominated topics relating to aspects of the history of Europe, c.1878-1989. In their study, candidates will be required to consider the process of historical change and its causes, consequences and significance, both in the long term and the short term. Candidates will also be required to consider the diverse nature of society and the origins, nature and impact of political, social, economic, cultural and religious change, where appropriate. In addition, candidates will be required to demonstrate a synoptic overview of the period as a whole through the study of nominated outline themes.

UNIT HY1 (AS) General topic 1:

International relations, c.1878-1920

Focus:

A study of the main issues that affected international relations

Origins:

The relationship between the European powers in 1878

Key issues:

The existence of Great Power rivalries. The establishment of alliances and ententes. The causes of World War I Developments in international relations during the war The Peace Treaties.

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main issues in international relations to 1920


GCE AS and A HISTORY 45

General topic 2:

Italy, c.1918-1944

Focus:

A study of the main changes and developments in Italy in this period

Origins:

The condition of the Italian state in 1918

Key issues:

The appeal and popularity of Italian Fascism. The character and personality of Mussolini. Fascist ideology and use of propaganda Domestic and foreign policies Opposition to Italian Fascism. Reasons for the collapse of Italian Fascism.

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in Italy to 1944

General topic 3:

The Communist Revolution in Russia, c.1917-1941

Focus:

A study of the main changes and developments in Russia in this period The condition of Russia in 1917

Origins: Key issues:

The Bolshevik seizure of power. Lenin and the development of his ideas. The civil war, war communism and the New Economic Policy. Stalin and the purges. Stalin's industrial and agricultural policies. Russia’s foreign relations to 1941

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in Russia to 1941


GCE AS and A HISTORY 46

UNIT HY4 (A Level) General topic 1:

International Relations, c.1918-1945

Focus:

The relations between European powers in the inter-war period and the period of World War II

Origins:

The relationship between the European powers in 1918

Key issues:

Reconciliation and rivalry post-1918. The establishment of international agreements. The background and causes of World War II Developments in international relations during the war Yalta and Potsdam.

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main issues affecting international relations to 1945

General topic 2:

International Relations, c.1945-1989

Focus:

A study of the relations between the European powers after 1945

Origins:

The condition of Europe in 1945

Key issues:

The reasons for the post-war division of Europe Soviet expansion in eastern Europe The origins of the Cold War in Europe, 1945-1949 European economic co-operation and moves towards integration. Co-existence and dĂŠtente.

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main issues affecting international relations to 1989


GCE AS and A HISTORY 47

Outline theme 1:

Germany, c.1878-1989

Focus:

A study of the main changes and developments in the political, social and economic life of Germany

Origins:

The condition of the German state in 1878

Key issues:

The political system in Imperial Germany. The impact of The First World War on Germany The establishment of the Weimar Republic. The challenges to democracy in the 1920s and early 1930s The establishment of the Nazi State. Developments in Germany post-1945. The collapse of the Berlin Wall and re-unification

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in the political and social life of Germany to 1989

Outline theme 2:

Russia, c.1881-1989

Focus:

A study of the main changes and developments in the political, social and economic life of Russia

Origins:

The condition of Russia in 1881

Key issues:

Tsarist rule in Russia Social and economic changes in Russia to 1914 The impact of World War I on Russia The Revolutions of 1917 The setting up of the Bolshevik state Communist rule under Stalin Changing control in the Soviet Union from Khrushchev to Andropov The implications of glasnost and perestroika

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in the political and social life of Russia to 1989


GCE AS and A HISTORY 48

IN-DEPTH STUDY 1 WALES AND THE TUDOR STATE, c.1529-1588

Candidates will be required to study in depth a range of historical topics relating to Wales and the Tudor State c.1529-1588. Candidates will be required to consider a range of perspectives including political, social, economic, religious and cultural issues. This will be primarily through a range of different types of historical sources, including contemporary and later sources and historical interpretations. In addition, candidates will be required to investigate in greater detail an historical issue arising from within the in-depth study itself. Candidates will also have to study further topics or themes arising out of the in-depth study.

UNIT HY2 (AS) Origins:

The relationship between Wales and the Tudor state in 1529

Key issues:

The Council of Wales and the system of local government Lawlessness and disorder in Wales Englefield, Lee and Cromwell's roles Pre-Union legislation and the Acts of Union The changing role of the Welsh gentry and Welsh representation in Parliament Sir Henry Sidney and government in Wales

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in the relationship between Wales and England to 1588


GCE AS and A HISTORY 49

UNIT HY3 (A Level) This unit is assessed internally. It is centre-set, teacher marked and externally moderated. The assignment produced must be of between three and four thousand words, focussing on a specific historical problem or issue arising from the in-depth study. Further guidance is given in Section 8 of the specification.

UNIT HY4 (A Level) General topic 1:

Economic activity and social change in Wales, c. 1534-1588

Focus:

A study of the main changes in Welsh society and economy

Origins:

The political, social and economic state of Wales in 1534

Key issues:

New concepts of gentility and opportunities for social advancement The changing role of the Welsh gentry The impact on the lower orders of society Internal and external trade The growth of towns and industry Developments in land holding and the creation of landed estates Changes in Welsh cultural life

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main changes in the economy and society of Wales to 1588

General topic 2:

The Elizabethan Church Settlement and religious change, c. 1559-1588

Focus:

A study of the Church Settlement and religious change in Wales

Origins:

The state of religion and the condition of the church in Wales, c.1559

Key issues:

The Elizabethan Church Settlement and initial reaction in Wales Anglicanism, Puritanism and recusancy in Wales The translations of the Scriptures into Welsh The work of Salisbury, Davies and Morgan Protestant faction and Catholic resistance

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the Church Settlement on religion in Wales to 1588


GCE AS and A HISTORY 50

IN-DEPTH STUDY 2 REBELLION AND REPUBLIC, c.1629-1660

Candidates will be required to study in depth a range of historical topics relating to the period of Rebellion and Republic, c.1629-1660. Candidates will be required to consider a range of perspectives including political, social, economic, religious and cultural issues. This will be primarily through a range of different types of historical sources, including contemporary and later sources and historical interpretations. In addition, candidates will be required to study in greater detail an historical issue arising from within the in-depth study itself. Candidates will also have to investigate further topics or themes arising out of the in-depth study.

UNIT HY2 (AS) Origins:

The relationship between Crown and Parliament, c.1629

Key issues:

The Personal Rule and challenges to royal authority The causes of the Civil Wars The roles of Ireland, Scotland and Wales in the Civil Wars The reasons for the Parliamentary victory The economic and social impact of the Civil Wars The search for a settlement up to the Regicide of 1649

Significance / consequences

The significance and consequences of the main issues in the background to Civil War and the course of the wars to 1649


GCE AS and A HISTORY 51

UNIT HY3 (A Level) This unit is assessed internally. It is centre-set, teacher marked and externally moderated. The assignment produced must be of between three and four thousand words, focussing on a specific historical problem or issue arising from the in-depth study. Further guidance is given in Section 8 of the specification.

UNIT HY4 (A Level) General topic 1:

Personal Rule and conflict with Parliament, c.1629-1642

Focus:

A study of the Personal Rule and the growing conflict with Parliament

Origins:

The relationship between Crown and Parliament in 1629

Key issues:

Charles's distrust and closure of Parliament The period of the Personal Rule Wentworth and the policy of Laud and Laudianism The growth of opposition and the collapse of Personal Rule The Scottish crisis and the recall of Parliament The financial power of Parliament The issue of MP's rights and privileges

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main issues that affected relations between Crown and Parliament to 1642

General topic 2:

Cromwell and the Interregnum, 1649-1660

Focus:

A study of the main issues connected with Republicanism and the Interregnum

Origins:

The state of the country in 1649

Key issues:

The Rump and demands for reform The Barebones Parliament and the Instrument of Government Cromwell's rule and his policies as Lord Protector Radicalism during the Protectorate The reasons for the collapse of the Protectorate and the restoration of the Monarchy

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main issues connected with the period of the Interregnum


GCE AS and A HISTORY 52

IN-DEPTH STUDY 3 REFORM AND PROTEST IN WALES AND ENGLAND, c.1830-1848

Candidates will be required to study in depth a range of historical topics and problems relating to the period of Reform and Protest c.1830-1848. Candidates will be required to consider a range of perspectives including political, social, economic, religious and cultural issues. This will be primarily through a range of different types of historical sources, including contemporary and later sources and historical interpretations. In addition, candidates will be required to investigate in greater detail an historical issue arising from within the in-depth study itself. Candidates will also have to study further topics or themes arising out of the in-depth study.

UNIT HY2 (AS) Origins:

The political, social and economic condition of the country, c.1830

Key issues:

The reasons for the demand for Parliamentary reform leading to the Reform Bill Crisis of 1830-1832. The passing of the Great Reform Act The causes and importance of the Merthyr rising. The reasons for the emergence of Chartism and its challenge to authority The passing of the new Poor Law of 1834 and opposition to it. Reasons for change in conditions in the factories and mines. Social reform 1830-1848: public health, mines and factories, and education for children.

Significance / Consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments connected with reform and protest to 1848


GCE AS and A HISTORY 53

UNIT HY3 (A Level) This unit is assessed internally. It is centre-set, teacher marked and externally moderated. The assignment produced must be of between three and four thousand words, focussing on a specific historical problem or issue arising from the in-depth study. Further guidance is given in Section 8 of the specification.

UNIT HY4 (A Level) General Topic 1:

Peel and Reform, c.1834-1846

Focus:

Sir Robert Peel and the issue of reform, 1834-1846.

Origins:

The nature of Peel's conservatism and the Tamworth Manifesto.

Key issues:

Peel as a party leader, 1834-1846. The reforms of the 1841-1846 ministry. Peel and the debate over the Corn Laws. Reasons for repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846.

Significance / Consequences:

The significance and consequences of the reforms of Robert Peel

General Topic 2:

The period of Rebecca, c.1839-1843

Focus:

The causes, events and results of the Rebecca Riots

Origins:

The condition of the rural population in Wales in the midnineteenth century

Key issues:

The outbreak and spread of the riots. The activities of the rioters. Government and local reaction to the riots. The ending of the riots.

Significance / Consequences:

The significance and consequences of the Rebecca riots


GCE AS and A HISTORY 54

IN-DEPTH STUDY 4 CHANGE AND CONFLICT IN WALES c.1900-1918

Candidates will be required to study in depth a range of historical topics and problems relating to Change and Conflict in Wales c.1900-1918. Candidates will be required to consider a range of perspectives including political, social, economic, religious and cultural issues. This will be primarily through a range of different types of historical sources, including contemporary and later sources and historical interpretations. In addition, candidates will be required to investigate in greater detail an historical issue arising from within the in-depth study itself. Candidates will also have to study further topics or themes arising out of the in-depth study.

UNIT HY2 (AS) Origins:

The political situation in Wales at the turn of the century Wales's economic and social position in 1900

Key issues:

Demographic change and its effect on urban and rural Wales Social and economic changes in Wales Living conditions and lifestyles in urban and rural Wales The Liberal ascendancy and the growing influence of the Labour Party The causes of industrial unrest and conflict The outbreak of industrial unrest in Wales

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main political, economic and social issues in Wales to 1914


GCE AS and A HISTORY 55

UNIT HY3 (A Level) This unit is assessed internally. It is centre-set, teacher marked and externally moderated. The assignment produced must be of between three and four thousand words, focussing on a specific historical problem or issue arising from the in-depth study. Further guidance is given in Section 8 of the specification.

UNIT HY4 (A Level) General topic 1:

Education, religion and culture in Wales, c.1900-1914

Focus:

The main educational, religious and cultural issues and conflicts in Wales, 1900-1914

Origins:

The educational provision in Wales in 1900 The position of religion and Welsh culture in 1900

Key issues:

The nature and support for non conformists and Anglicans The Education dispute The Religious Revival The growth of popular culture and leisure and sporting activities The demand for disestablishment The position of the Welsh language

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main changes in education, religion and culture in Wales to 1914

General topic 2:

Wales and the War, 1914-1918

Focus:

A study of the contribution of Wales to the war effort, 1914-1918

Origins:

The initial reaction to the outbreak of war in Wales

Key issues:

The reaction of Wales to recruitment and conscription Opposition to the war within Wales Cultural and religious reaction to war The effects of the organisation and direction of labour on Wales The effects of war on Welsh society, religion and culture The experiences of Welsh soldiers The reaction in Wales to the ending of hostilities

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main issues that affected Wales during World War I


GCE AS and A HISTORY 56

IN-DEPTH STUDY 5 BRITAIN c.1929-1939

Candidates will be required to study in depth a range of historical topics and problems relating to the history of Britain c.1929-1939. Candidates will be required to consider a range of perspectives including political, social, economic, religious and cultural issues. This will be primarily through a range of different types of historical sources, including contemporary and later sources and historical interpretations. In addition, candidates will be required to investigate in greater detail an historical issue arising from within the in-depth study itself. Candidates will also have to study further topics or themes arising out of the indepth study.

UNIT HY2 (AS) Origins:

The political situation in Wales and England in 1929 Britain's economic and social situation in 1929 The extent of cultural and technological growth by 1929

Key issues:

The formation of the National government Financial crisis and onset of depression Popular and official reactions to social hardship and unemployment The rise of minority parties Developments in popular culture, religion, sport and the media The changing lives of women

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in the political, economic and cultural life of Britain to 1939


GCE AS and A HISTORY 57

UNIT HY3 (A Level) This unit is assessed internally. It is centre-set, teacher marked and externally moderated. The assignment produced must be of between three and four thousand words, focussing on a specific historical problem or issue arising from the in-depth study. Further guidance is given in Section 8 of the specification.

UNIT HY4 (A Level) General topic 1:

British foreign policy, c.1929-1939

Focus:

A study of the background and events connected with British foreign policy, 1929-1939

Origins:

Britain’s foreign policy position in 1929

Key issues:

Baldwin and foreign policy Britain and the League of Nations Chamberlain and foreign policy Appeasement The Munich agreement British reaction to the German invasion of Czechoslovakia The outbreak of war

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of British foreign policy, 1929-1939

General topic 2:

Depression and Recovery, c.1933-1939

Focus:

A study of the social and economic impact of the depression on the people of Britain

Origins:

Britain's social and economic position in 1929

Key issues:

The location and extent of social hardship and unemployment Popular reaction to social hardship and unemployment Government responses to the depression The signs of recovery in the late 1930s The impact of the Depression on the people of Britain

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the period of depression on people in Britain


GCE AS and A HISTORY 58

IN-DEPTH STUDY 6 THE GERMAN REFORMATION c.1500-1555

Candidates will be required to study in depth a range of historical topics and problems relating to the German Reformation c.1500-1555. Candidates will be required to consider a range of perspectives including political, social, economic, religious and cultural issues. This will be primarily through a range of different types of historical sources, including contemporary and later sources and historical interpretations. In addition, candidates will be required to investigate in greater detail an historical issue arising from within the in-depth study itself. Candidates will also have to study further topics or themes arising out of the indepth study.

UNIT HY2 (AS) Origins:

The power and importance of the Catholic Church in the early sixteenth century General factors promoting criticism of the Catholic Church

Key issues:

The role and importance of the Humanists The sale of indulgences and the Tetzel Mission Martin Luther's 95 theses and initial reaction to them in Rome and Germany The significance of Luther's critical tracts The Diet of Worms and Luther's excommunication Luther's relations with the German princes The dissemination of Lutheranism The reforming religious orders

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in the German Reformation


GCE AS and A HISTORY 59

UNIT HY3 (A Level) This unit is assessed internally. It is centre-set, teacher marked and externally moderated. The assignment produced must be of between three and four thousand words, focussing on a specific historical problem or issue arising from the in-depth study. Further guidance is given in Section 8 of the specification.

UNIT HY4 (A Level) General topic 1:

Charles V and the German Reformation, c.1515-1555

Focus:

A study of the role played by Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, in the Reformation

Origins:

The position of Charles V in 1519

Key issues:

The calling of the Diet of Worms, 1521 The impact of Peasants' War and the setting up of the Schmalkaldic League Charles and the Council of Trent, 1546 The Peace of Augsburg, 1555

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in Charles V’s fight against Lutheranism

General topic 2:

The Peasants’ War, c.1521-1525

Focus:

A study of the causes, events and implications of the Peasants' War

Origins:

The social, economic and political causes of the Peasant's War

Key issues:

The impact of Luther's message The Twelve Articles of 1525 The role of Thomas Munster Luther's involvement in and reaction to the Peasants’ revolt The reaction of theologians and secular authorities

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the Peasants’ War for the spread of Protestantism in Germany


GCE AS and A HISTORY 60

IN-DEPTH STUDY 7 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION c.1774-1795

Candidates will be required to study in depth a range of historical topics and problems relating to the French Revolution, c.1774-1795. Candidates will be required to consider a range of perspectives including political, social, economic, religious and cultural issues. This will be primarily through a range of different types of historical sources, including contemporary and later sources and historical interpretations. In addition, candidates will be required to investigate in greater detail an historical issue arising from within the in-depth study itself. Candidates will also have to study further topics or themes arising out of the indepth study.

UNIT HY2 (AS) Origins:

The political and economic problems of the ancién regime The causes of the French Revolution of 1789

Key issues:

The summoning of the Estates General Political events of 1789 The work of the National Assembly 1789-1791 The reaction of the Crown and the growth of Republicanism The emergence of the émigrés Political divisions and the outbreak of war in 1792 Factors leading to the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the First Republic Reaction to the revolution in Europe

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in the French Revolution to 1792


GCE AS and A HISTORY 61

UNIT HY3 (A Level) This unit is assessed internally. It is centre-set, teacher marked and externally moderated. The assignment produced must be of between three and four thousand words, focussing on a specific historical problem or issue arising from the in-depth study. Further guidance is given in Section 8 of the specification.

UNIT HY4 (A Level) General topic 1:

The Terror, c.1792-1795

Focus:

A study of the Terror and its aftermath on France

Origins:

The condition of France in 1792

Key issues:

The growth of counter-revolution The impact of war on the revolution The key features of the Terror The role of Robespierre The coup of Thermidor Reaction to the Terror, the Thermidorians and the Constitution of 1795

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the period of Terror on France

General topic 2:

The Church and the Revolution, c.1789-1795

Focus:

A study of the impact the Revolution had on the Catholic Church

Origins:

The position of the Catholic Church at the outbreak of revolution in 1789

Key issues:

The role of the clergy in 1789 The Church and economic change The Civil Constitution of the Clergy Reaction to religious change and the growth of religious cults The Refractory Church, the counter-revolution and the Terror

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of revolution on the Church in France


GCE AS and A HISTORY 62

IN-DEPTH STUDY 8 THE CRISIS OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLIC c.1848-1877

Candidates will be required to study in depth a range of historical topics and problems relating to the Crisis of the American Republic, c.1848—1877. Candidates will be required to consider a range of perspectives including political, social, economic, religious and cultural issues. This will be primarily through a range of different types of historical sources, including contemporary and later sources and historical interpretations. In addition, candidates will be required to investigate in greater detail an historical topic arising from within the in-depth study itself. Candidates will also have to study further topics or themes arising out of the in-depth study.

UNIT HY2 (AS) Origins:

Sectionalism: the main differences between northern and southern states, c.1848. The institution of slavery and the anti-slavery movement.

Key issues:

Events since 1848 leading to sectional conflict between north and south. The causes of Secession and the start of the Civil war. War on the Home Fronts. Warfare: strategy, new methods and main campaigns.

Significance / Consequences:

The significance and consequences of the work of the anti-slavery movement The significance and consequences of the Civil War on the American people


GCE AS and A HISTORY 63

UNIT HY3 (A Level) This unit is assessed internally. It is centre-set, teacher marked and externally moderated. The assignment produced must be of between three and four thousand words, focussing on a specific historical problem or issue arising from the in-depth study. Further guidance is given in Section 8 of the specification.

UNIT HY4 (A Level) General topic 1

Abraham Lincoln and the Crisis of the Union, c.1848-1865

Focus:

The role and importance of Abraham Lincoln

Origins

Abraham Lincoln's political ideas and moral crisis in the 1850s.

Key issues:

Lincoln and the rise of the republican party, 1854-1860. Lincoln's election and the decision for war, 1860-1861. Lincoln's leadership of the union, 1861-1865. Lincoln and the presidential election of 1864. Lincoln, emancipation and reconstruction, 1862-1865. The assassination of Lincoln

Significance / Consequences:

The significance and consequences of the work of Abraham Lincoln

General topic 2

Reconstruction, c.1863-1877

Focus:

A study of the events and impact of reconstruction

Origins

The Emancipation Proclamation and wartime reconstruction.

Key issues:

The failure of Presidential reconstruction. Reasons for conflict between President and Congress, 1865-1867. Reconstruction legislation and constitutional amendments, 18661869. The transformation of the South, 1865-1872. The retreat from reconstruction, 1868-1877.

Significance / Consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in the period of reconstruction


GCE AS and A HISTORY 64

IN-DEPTH STUDY 9 NAZI GERMANY c.1933-1945

Candidates will be required to study in depth a range of historical topics and problems relating to Nazi Germany c.1933-1945. Candidates will be required to consider a range of perspectives including political, social, economic, religious and cultural issues. This will be primarily through a range of different types of historical sources, including contemporary and later sources and historical interpretations. In addition, candidates will be required to investigate in greater detail an historical issue arising from within the in-depth study itself. Candidates will also have to study further topics or themes arising out of the in-depth study.

UNIT HY2(AS) Origins:

Reasons for Nazi party growth and support by 1933 Hitler's appointment as Chancellor.

Key issues:

The establishment of the Nazi dictatorship The roles of propaganda, indoctrination and terror in the Third Reich. Nazi social, religious and racial ideology and policy. The nature and organisation of the Nazi political system. Nazi economic policy: recovery and rearmament Nazi foreign policy up to 1939

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in Nazi Germany to 1939


GCE AS and A HISTORY 65

UNIT HY3 (A Level) This unit is assessed internally. It is centre-set, teacher marked and externally moderated. The assignment produced must be of between three and four thousand words, focussing on a specific historical problem or issue arising from the in-depth study. Further guidance is given in Section 8 of the specification.

UNIT HY4 (A Level) General topic 1:

Support, opposition and resistance within the Third Reich, c.1933-1945

Focus:

The nature and extent of support, opposition and resistance at various times

Origins:

Support for the Nazis in the early 1930s Challenges to the Nazis in the early 1930s

Key issues:

Reasons for support of the Nazi regime The issues which affected public opinion The motivation and extent of opposition and resistance: individual and collective Conspiracies and plots The war and its effect on popular support The Nazi state and its reaction to opposition

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of support, opposition and resistance within the Third Reich

General topic 2:

Germany: war and defeat, c. 1939-1945

Origins:

Hitler's aims and objectives in foreign policy The Nazi foreign position in 1939

Key issues:

The impact of Blitzkrieg and Total War German successes in Western Europe and the collapse of France. The invasion of the Soviet Union. The impact of German occupation on the peoples, regions and countries of Europe The defeat of Germany and liberation of Europe The post-war settlement

Significance / consequences:

The significance and consequences of the main developments in the war years to 1945


GCE AS and A HISTORY 66

5

SCHEME OF ASSESSMENT AS and A level qualifications are available to candidates following this specification.

AS The AS is the first half of an A level course. It will contribute 50% of the total A level marks. Candidates must complete the following two units in order to gain an AS qualification. Weighting Within AS

Weighting Within A level

HY1

Chosen Period Study

60%

30%

HY2

Chosen In-depth Study

40%

20%

HY1:

Written Paper (1 hour 30 minutes)

Candidates are required to answer two two-part structured questions from a choice of three, from three nominated areas.

HY2:

Written Paper (1 hour 30 minutes)

Candidates are required to answer one set of questions, graded in difficulty, and focussed on historical sources, from a choice of two.

A Level The A level specification consists of two parts: Part 1 (AS) and Part 2 (A level). Part 1 (AS) may be taken separately and added to A2 at a further examination sitting to achieve an A level qualification, or alternatively, both the AS and A2 may be taken at the same sitting. Candidates must complete the AS units outlined above plus a further two units to complete A level History. The A2 units will contribute 50% of the total A level marks.

HY3* HY4*

Weighting within A2

Weighting within A level

Chosen In-depth Study

40%

20%

Chosen Period Study

40%

20%

Chosen In-depth Study

20%

10%

*Includes synoptic assessment


GCE AS and A HISTORY 67

HY3: Internal Assessment Candidates are required to complete one personal assignment, between three and four thousand words in length, focusing on a specific historical problem or issue arising from the in-depth study. The personal assignment will be internally set, centre marked and moderated by the awarding body.

HY4: Written Paper (2 hours 30 minutes) Candidates are required to answer one open-ended essay question from a choice of two, from two nominated areas, arising from the period study. They are also required to answer one synoptic open-ended essay from a choice of two, from two nominated areas, arising from the period study. Candidates are also required to answer one open-ended essay from a choice of two, from two nominated areas, arising from the in-depth study. Unit 4 assesses aspects of both the Period Study and the In-depth study. This structure has been developed for two distinct reasons: •

The examination will test, in particular, aspects of the history of the latter stages of both the Period Study and the In-depth study. This will ensure coverage of the entire course and thus provide a coherent and final assessment element. It will ensure connectivity between the AS and A level units, and will enable candidates to draw on material from earlier units to address issues in unit 4. Candidates will be given the opportunity to attempt overarching questions which assess their understanding of the whole Period or In-depth study.

Unit 4 is assessed by open-ended essay questions. This type of assessment will be used for both Period Study and In-depth study questions. This reflects the advice from the regulators to utilise more extended writing assessments to ensure that questions differentiate, stretch and challenge the more able candidates at this level.

Synoptic Assessment Synoptic assessment, testing candidates' understanding of the connections between the different elements of the subject and their holistic understanding of the subject, is a requirement of all A level specifications. In the context of History this means: • •

drawing together knowledge and skills to demonstrate overall historical understanding demonstrating an understanding of the connections between the essential characteristics of historical study, including an appropriate range of concepts and / or perspectives

The synoptic requirement is met in two ways: •

Within HY3, candidates complete an investigation into a specific historical issue arising from the in-depth study, synthesising knowledge and skills to address the set question. This type of assessment is considered to be inherently synoptic due to the bringing together of specific historical knowledge with the use of a variety of evidential and interpretive skills.


GCE AS and A HISTORY 68

Within HY4, candidates will answer an open-ended essay question which focusses on the process of historical change across the full breadth of the period studied and demonstrates links between a range of historical perspectives

Quality of Written Communication Candidates will be required to demonstrate their competence in written communication in all assessment units where they are required to produce extended written material. Mark schemes for these units include the following specific criteria for the assessment of written communication. • • •

legibility of text; accuracy of spelling, punctuation and grammar; clarity of meaning; selection of a form and style of writing appropriate to purpose and to complexity of subject matter; organisation of information clearly and coherently; use of specialist vocabulary where appropriate.

Availability of Units

Availability of Assessment Units Unit

HY1 HY2 HY3 HY4

January 2009

June 2009

January 2010 & each subsequent year

June 2010 & each subsequent year


GCE AS and A HISTORY 69

Awarding, Reporting and Re-sitting The overall grades for the GCE AS qualification will be recorded as a grade on a scale from A to E. The overall grades for the GCE A level qualification will be recorded on a grade scale from A* to E. Results not attaining the minimum standard for the award of a grade will be reported as U (Unclassified). Individual unit results and the overall subject award will be expressed as a uniform mark on a scale common to all GCE qualifications (see table below). The grade equivalence will be reported as a lower case letter ((a) to (e)) on results slips, but not on certificates: Max. UMS

A

B

C

D

E

Units 2 and 3 (weighting 20%)

80

64

56

48

40

32

Units 1 and 4 (weighting 30 %)

120

96

84

72

60

48

AS Qualification

200

160

140

120

100

80

A Qualification

400

320

280

240

200

160

At A level, Grade A* will be awarded to candidates who have achieved a Grade A in the overall A level qualification and 90% of the total uniform marks for the A2 units. Candidates may re-sit units prior to certification for the qualification, with the best of the results achieved contributing to the qualification. Individual unit results, prior to certification of the qualification have a shelf-life limited only by the shelf-life of the specification.


GCE AS and A HISTORY 70

6

KEY SKILLS Key Skills are integral to the study of AS/A level History and may be assessed through the course content and the related scheme of assessment as defined in the specification. The following key skills can be developed through this specification at level 3: • • • • • •

Communication Application of Number Problem Solving Information and Communication Technology Working with Others Improving Own Learning and Performance

Mapping of opportunities for the development of these skills against Key Skills evidence requirement is provided in 'Exemplification of Key Skills for History, available on WJEC website.


GCE AS and A HISTORY 71

7

PERFORMANCE DESCRIPTIONS Introduction Performance descriptions have been created for all GCE subjects. They describe the learning outcomes and levels of attainment likely to be demonstrated by a representative candidate performing at the A/B and E/U boundaries for AS and A2. In practice most candidates will show uneven profiles across the attainments listed, with strengths in some areas compensating in the award process for weaknesses or omissions elsewhere. Performance descriptions illustrate expectations at the A/B and E/U boundaries of the AS and A2 as a whole; they have not been written at unit level. Grade A/B and E/U boundaries should be set using professional judgement. The judgement should reflect the quality of candidates’ work, informed by the available technical and statistical evidence. Performance descriptions are designed to assist examiners in exercising their professional judgement. They should be interpreted and applied in the context of individual specifications and their associated units. However, performance descriptions are not designed to define the content of specifications and units. The requirement for all AS and A level specifications to assess candidates’ quality of written communication will be met through one or more of the assessment objectives. The performance descriptions have been produced by the regulatory authorities in collaboration with the awarding bodies.


GCE AS and A HISTORY 72

AS performance descriptions for history Assessment objectives

Assessment objective 1

Assessment objective 2

Recall, select and deploy historical knowledge appropriately, and communicate knowledge and understanding of history in a clear and effective manner. Demonstrate their understanding of the past through explanation, analysis and arriving at substantiated judgments of: o key concepts such as causation, consequence, continuity, change and significance within an historical context o the relationships between key features and characteristics of the periods studied.

As part of an historical enquiry, analyse and evaluate a range of appropriate source material with discrimination. Analyse and evaluate, in relation to the historical context, how aspects of the past have been interpreted and represented in different ways.

A/B boundary performance descriptions

Candidates characteristically: a) recall, select and deploy accurate, relevant and detailed historical knowledge appropriately b) show evidence of understanding through analysis and explanation reach appropriate judgements about key concepts c) show evidence of understanding through analysis and explanation and reach appropriate judgements about the relationships between key features / characteristics of the historical period d) communicate clearly and fluently, using appropriate language and structure, using standard conventions of spelling, punctuation and grammar.

Candidates characteristically: a) analyse and evaluate source material in its historical context with a degree of discrimination b) use the sources appropriately to support arguments c) show an understanding of, and comment on, how in relation to the historical context, aspects of the past have been interpreted and represented in different ways.

E/U boundary performance descriptions

Candidates characteristically: a) recall and select some relevant historical knowledge appropriately b) show some evidence of understanding through analysis and/or explanation and attempt some judgements about key concepts c) show evidence of some understanding through analysis and/or explanation and attempt limited judgements about the relationships between key features / characteristics of the historical period d) convey meaning clearly, although powers of expression may be limited and there will be errors in spelling, punctuation and grammar.

Candidates characteristically: a) comprehend, identify and extract some information from a range of sources. Offer limited analysis and evaluation of source material b) use some sources as evidence to support limited arguments c) show some awareness of different interpretations and representations of historical issues, events and/or individuals.


GCE AS and A HISTORY 73

A2 performance descriptions for history

Assessment objectives

Assessment objective 1

Assessment objective 2

Recall, select and deploy historical knowledge appropriately, and communicate knowledge and understanding of history in a clear and effective manner. Demonstrate their understanding of the past through explanation, analysis and arriving at substantiated judgments of: o key concepts such as causation, consequence, continuity, change and significance within an historical context o the relationships between key features and characteristics of the periods studied.

As part of an historical enquiry, analyse and evaluate a range of appropriate source material with discrimination. Analyse and evaluate, in relation to the historical context, how aspects of the past have been interpreted and represented in different ways.

A/B boundary performance descriptions

Candidates characteristically: a) recall, select and deploy accurate, relevant and precise historical knowledge appropriately b) show understanding through analysis and explanation and reach substantiated and mostly sustained judgements about key concepts c) show understanding through analysis and explanation and reach substantiated and mostly sustained judgements about the relationships between key features / characteristics of the historical period d) communicate accurately, clearly and fluently, using appropriate language and structure, using spelling, punctuation and grammar generally with a high degree of accuracy.

Candidates characteristically: a) analyse and evaluate source material in its historical context with insight and discrimination b) use the sources appropriately to substantiate arguments c) analyse and evaluate how, in relation to the historical context, aspects of the past have been interpreted and represented in different ways.

E/U boundary performance descriptions

Candidates characteristically: a) recall, select and deploy some relevant historical knowledge appropriately b) show evidence of understanding through limited analysis and explanation and reach some judgements about key concepts c) show evidence of understanding through explanation and analysis and offer some judgements about the relationships between key features / characteristics of the historical period d) convey meaning clearly and with appropriate vocabulary, although there may be errors in spelling, punctuation and grammar.

Candidates characteristically: a) comprehend, identify and select information from a range of sources. Offer limited analysis and evaluation of the source material making tentative links to the historical context b) use a range of sources as evidence to support arguments, although these may be limited in places c) show awareness that aspects of the past have been interpreted and represented in different ways and offer limited analyses and evaluation of these.


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8

INTERNAL ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES GUIDELINES FOR THE CONDUCT AND ASSESSMENT OF HY3 All A level specifications in History must have internal assessment as a separate unit at either AS or A2, comprising 20% of the total A level marks and assessing the skills associated with historical enquiry. In WJEC specification the internal assessment will be carried out in HY3 at A level. In HY3, candidates are required to complete an assignment based on an historical issue or problem arising from their chosen in-depth study. The guidelines below define the criteria that should be understood by candidates when preparing for and undertaking their assignments and the rules and procedures which centres must follow.

8.1

Defining the assignment

The assignment must be set by the centre and approved by WJEC Chief Moderator. It must be undertaken by the candidate under agreed coursework conditions over an extended period of time. It is marked by the centre and moderated by an Awarding Body external moderator. The assignment should take the form of an extended piece of writing which addresses the historical issue or problem set.

8.2

The length of the assignment

The Assignment should be between three and four thousand words in length, excluding extracts from historical sources and references. Candidates who exceed this word limit will be penalised, by the centre initially, or later by the Awarding Body moderator, if deemed necessary. Candidates should not use any more than 15 sources in the writing of their assignment.

8.3

Specific skills to be assessed and their weighting

All the assessment objectives will be examined in Assessment HY3. Assessment Objective 2(b) has a higher weighting in this Unit as expected by the subject criteria. Assessment objectives AO1a:

Recall, select, deploy historical knowledge & communicate knowledge and understanding of history in a clear and effective manner.

Weighting % 2½%

2½%

AO1b: Demonstrate their understanding of the past through explanation, analysis and making substantiated judgements AO2:

In relation to the historical enquiry: (a) analyse and evaluate a range of appropriate source material;

7%

(b) analyse and evaluate how aspects of the past have been interpreted and represented in different ways

8%


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8.4

The setting of tasks

Centres must choose their own assignment titles. The assignment must be based on the in-depth study chosen. •

The titles(s) chosen by a centre, which may be taken from any part of the indepth content studied, should focus on a substantial or significant issue.

The title(s) should also allow candidates to discuss and explain the development of at least two differing or contrasting historical interpretations.

The titles(s) should include a contentious statement which is capable of being evaluated through an historigraphical debate. Example: Britain, c. 1929-39 "The Great Depression of the early 1930s devastated rural Wales even more than it devastated industrial Wales." How valid is this assessment of the effects of the Great Depression on Wales in the 1930s?

Centres may select up to a maximum of two different assignment titles for each in-depth study chosen by the centre.

The assignment title(s) selected by a centre may be used up to a maximum of four years.

The Awarding Body will provide a range of approved questions suitable for use in this unit.

8.5

The creation of Document Packs

Each assignment must be based on a starter pack of documents, produced by the centre and including a range of between 8-10 sources.

The sources in the initial pack should include:

-

a range of different types of sources, e.g. written, statistical, graphical or pictorial; both contemporary and later sources; sources which present more than one historical interpretation; reference to video and film evidence, if appropriate. written sources chosen should be of an appropriate length, but not exceed one side of A4 paper

The Awarding Body will publish a number of exemplar document packs in its teachers’ guide. Centres should follow the styles of these document packs when constructing one for their own titles(s). Careful attention must be given to the number of sources, the length of sources and the quality of the attributions to aid evaluation.

The purpose of this document pack is to give candidates a level playing field to begin with. Candidates are expected to add to and enhance the starter pack through their additional research.


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8.6

Approving the internal assessment questions

•

Centres must submit a valid proposal form including their titles, associated marking schemes and the initial pack of documents to be used by candidates, to the Awarding Body for approval, at least six weeks before candidates commence their assignments. A proposal form is available from the Awarding Body to standardise submissions.

•

Centres must not set an assignment to candidates until formal written approval has been given by the Awarding Body Chief Moderator. Once approval has been given, approval will continue for the remaining years of the four year cycle.

8.7

Preparing for the assignment In preparing candidates, the procedures detailed below should be followed:

8.7.1 Introducing the historical issue or problem The assignment should focus on an historical issue or problem. This should be presented to candidates by teachers through a formal teaching programme. In some instances, this will involve revisiting or expanding upon a topic or issue considered elsewhere in the course. On other occasions, where appropriate within the context of the in-depth study chosen, it could take the form of an enquiry into a local history issue to establish to what extent the local experience modifies or confirms what has been learnt about the national situation. It is suggested that this formal teaching programme should occupy around 6-10 hours contact time. The teaching programme should be designed to introduce the topic and set the assignment in its historical context within the in-depth study. This should involve a discussion of a range of background historical sources. It should also cover the relevant historiographical issues connected with the topic chosen.


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8.7.2 The historical enquiry Candidates should be given the initial pack of sources approved by the Awarding Body Chief Moderator. Between 8 - 10 sources is the recommended number of sources for this pack. The range of sources should be seen as a starting point for further investigation and research by the candidate.

8.7.3 Researching the assignment Candidates must progress to investigate the historical issue through analysis and evaluation of a range of additional sources. These must be identified independently by the candidates. This further research of materials relating to the issue or problem might include: - historical descriptions and analyses of the issue; - contemporary first-hand descriptions or accounts; - contemporary analysis or opinion; - other accounts, including more than one view or interpretation of the historical issue; - the use of video, film or museum representations It is essential that candidates consider the historiographical context of at least two differing or contrasting historical interpretations in their response. This element will need to be researched and set within the context of appropriately selected sources. It is also important that candidates select no more than 12-15 sources to analyse and evaluate in their assignment. The greater number of these should be from those identified by the candidate through additional research. Candidates should be encouraged to use ICT in their research and in the presentation of their assignment.

8.8

Writing the assignment

8.8.1The conditions under which the assignment is written The assignment must be written by the candidate under approved coursework conditions over a period of time specified by the centre. The emphasis that candidates undertake independent research and utilise ICT means that some work will have to be done away from the classroom. However, it is essential that the bulk of the work for HY3 is tackled under the supervision of the class teacher in class-based sessions. It is not acceptable for candidates to be given all or large parts of the assignment to be done outside class with minimal supervision. Teachers should encourage candidates to retain any rough notes and materials as evidence of work done independently. Teachers and candidates will be expected to sign a declaration stating that the work produced is entirely the work of the candidate.


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8.8.2 Structuring the assignment There is no set or suggested structure to this assignment. However, centres are encouraged to advise candidates to consider certain aspects: -

assignments must address the question set background detail must be limited analysis and evaluation of source material should be integrated into any narrative and / or discussion of historical interpretations explanation of relevant historiographical issues assignments must build to a substantiated judgement on the question set assignments should be coherent, lucid and integrated.

Centres should also ensure that: -

a range of different types of source is used in the assignment every page of the assignment is numbered the additional sources provided by the candidates are clearly labelled in the body of the essay there is clear reference to the origin and provenance of each of the sources provided there is a bibliography at the end of the essay a word count should be provided no more than 15 sources in total are used in the completion of the assignment

8.9

Marking the assignment

The assignment will be marked within the centre. The teacher marking the work will apply the criteria and level descriptors as laid down in the mark scheme, as developed by the centre and approved by the Chief Moderator. If there is more than one teaching group within a centre, internal standardisation must be carried out in line with the Awarding Body’s guidelines. A sample of the completed assignments, from a specified range of candidates, should be sent to a nominated Awarding Body moderator. WJEC will issue instructions to centres on the criteria that should be used in selecting candidates' work.

8.10

The moderation process

All work submitted for HY3 must be appropriately assessed and moderated. The moderation will take the form of sampling of a range of candidate's work by an Awarding Body moderator. The moderator will determine whether the approved mark scheme has been applied accurately and consistently and make appropriate recommendations to the Chief Moderator and Awarding Body subject officer. GCE History Specification (2009-10)/JD 19 September 2008


Specification