DESIGN STUDIO: AIR SEMESTER ONE 2013
TOM CHIEW 542529
CONTENTS PART A: CASE for INNOVATION Introduction 4 Architecture as a Discourse 8 Computational Architecture 14 Parametric Modelling 18 Conclusion & Learning Outcomes 24 PART B: DESIGN APPROACH Design Focus Case Study 1.0 Case Study 2.0 Technique Development Technique Proposal Learning Outcomes
27 30 34 40 52 53
PART C: DESIGN PROPOSAL Inspiration and Influences Design Elements Tectonic Elements Simulations Leaning Objectives
56 58 66 74 76
TOM CHIEW Iâ€™m a third year architecture student. I have had barely any experience with digital design and as a result I am not skilled in any sort of digital workspace.
Through out that subject I struggled not knowing how to translate my drawn ideas to a digital medium. Eventually after many hours anguishing at the computer, my finished design was in a digital format ready for fabrication. I knew that the product of my digital design skills were definitely not what I had initially imagined.
I have lived in Melbourne for my entire life, although I have ancestry in Asia I often make extended trips back to Malaysia, HK and China. Most recently, I traveled to Japan for the first time. The culture was amazing and the architecture was exactly what I admire. The style was simple and traditional but mixed with the raw elements of materials.
From this experience, I felt that digital design was not a tool that could be freely used in architecture, rather it was a limiting factor that could not be used to fully explore my ideas and thoughts.
In first year , I undertook the percussor to this subject; Virtual Environments. My experiences in that subject were daunting and horrifying, as I found the learning curve to master any aspect of Rhino far too steep. I think that this is because I was overwhelmed by the vast amount of possibilities that the program allows.
Hopefully this semester with a bit of persistence and training, I can change my attitude towards digital design can change.
Shibuya, Tokyo (2013)1
CASE FOR I N N O VAT I O N This chapter will explore current discourse surrounding architecture and the digital age, and how it can benefit the Wyndham City Gateway project. Firstly looking at architectural discourse as a whole then refining scope to that of computational architecture and parametric design.
ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE
Architecture is an ever changing art form that compliments and reflects societies needs of architecture. In other terms, innovation in the field of architecture, is driven by the necessities of our culture and society at large.1 “Architecture should speak of its time and place.” 2
Architecture is an art form that influences its users perception, interaction and emotion. It is also a critical component of human nature and our cultures. In today’s modern society the majority of the worlds population are congregating in urban cities and the influence that architecture has to those living in urban society is becoming greater. The cities that we inhabit, create and redefine our social and political identity and architecture has a key role in the production of ‘culture’. If architecture is to positively influence its users, architecture should be approached in two key ways: architecture as a form of art and architecture as a spacial experience.
In order for architecture to evolve, there will always be a need for discourse surrounding its goals and methodologies. Innovation is driven by necessity and necessity changes through time as both cultures and technologies develop. The shift to digital design tools is a current innovation and discourse that the industry faces. Digital design may be the next innovation that answers the cultural needs of our society.
It is important to take these two methodologies together as a single goal: architecture as an art form should provoke emotion and thought all via interaction in a spacial environment. I see this as the key to defining how architecture should function in today’s society.
The Gateway Project asks for a design that should be function to its social needs. If the design were to incorporate digital design tools it may be able to respond and reciprocate that essence in a new form that would add to the current discourse that we face.
(above) Foundation Louis Vuitton Musem2
RMIT DESIGN HUB that is becoming a symbiotic relationship as without advances in construction, the complexities that we are now able to realize through digital design are not able to become reality.
PROJECT DETAILS Architect: Sean Godsell Architects Location: Carlton, Melbourne, Australia Completion: 2012 The design goal set for the RMIT project was to create a building that drew together diverse range of design research in hope of cross disciplinary collaboration. The building features large open plan creative spaces that aim to allow seamless collaboration both conscious and subconscious.
A design goal for the Design Hub was for it to become an example of environmental Excellence, and this was partially achieved through the use of the faรงade that works to optimize the environmental systems in the building. The circular panels which can be retrofitted with solar absorbing elements are motorized to follow the sun throughout the day, maximizing the cooling effect to the building and capturing the maximum amount of solar energy.
Its long hallways encourage accidental encounters with peers and also encourage exploration thought the many sections of the building. This is a prime example of how architecture aims to influence interaction within our society, education being a key element to the future development of culture. The building also demonstrates new innovations in digital design but also in construction. This is something that I think
The goal for environmental efficiency is one that is becoming much more common in modern architecture and digitally assisted design is a tool that can help to accomplish this. 10
(all) The exterior skin of Design hub 3
PRADA FLAGSHIP STORE, TOKYO producing a new way of constructing a retail space exploring and implementing interaction between users.
PROJECT DETAILS Architect: Herzog & de Meuron Location: Aoyama, Tokyo, Japan Completion: 2003
The design demonstrates the current trend in how the industry is currently using digital design to create geometrical skins for buildings.
Built early nearly ten years ago, the building shows an initial use and development of digital design tools. Designed by Swiss architects Herzog & de Meuron who have now developed a key standing in the push for integration of digital design techniques into the industry.
The skin also takes a leap forward in the ability to structurally engineer such geometrical shapes. Rather than acting like a curtain wall of glass, the tubular frame adds to the structural stability of the building.
The main feature of the building is of course the grid glass façade. The differing glass panels are intended to frame the actions happening within the building to give viewers an “almost cinematographic perspectives of Prada products, the city and themselves.”4 This motive adheres to creating innovation to respond to new necessities developed by social retail. Thus 12
(left/above) view of the store at night 4
COMPU TATIONAL ARCHITECTURE
Computation is an innovation that broadens and strengthens the possibilities of architecture. The shift to the digital is making the industry reconsider traditional design techniques and process.
use of computers to the conception and production of ideas. This level of integration was previously hampered by both lack of freedom in software available but also by the lack of ability to construct and manufacture complex geometrical shapes.7
Computers have been in the architectural industry for a substantial amount of time, although their uses have been limited to aiding current techniques of architecture. These would be tasks such as documentation and visualization. This mode of working is known as Computerisation and while it does increase productivity and work flow it is limited by the design intentions of typical pen and paper.5
Developing at a similar pace as design computerisation are construction and manufacturing techniques which also derive from a similar digital age. This has given the architectural world a green light to using digitally conceived design in real life manifestations. The advantages to using computers in the design phase are due to computers having the ability to record and recall almost unlimited amounts of data that humans simply cannot compute on their own.8 This opens up the possibility of conceiving designs previously too complex to draw or designs that are calculated and based on evidence and performance information. The use of computers can push architecture into the a much more relatable and logical field of design.
For large scale projects, computation in the design process has become a necessity. The amount of work that can become automated and simplified by computers allow projects to become realised in shorter more achievable time frames.6 The next stage in integrating digital aids into the design process is the use of computation, bringing the 14
(left) acoustic performance can be analysed in a visual matter providing the designer a constant cycle of feedback information in order to optimize the design 5
(above) the viability of components can all be tested if designed in a digital form 5
BEIJING AIRPORT This is where computation architecture has the ability to revolutionise architecture. This project was realised and constructed in only four years, an amazingly short period for a building of this size. 9 The sheer scale of buildings such as the Beijing Airport require countless documentation for its thousands of components. Digital conception of the initial ideas allowed for replication and multiplication of components to be created therefore allowing such tasks to be completed in shorter amounts of time.
PROJECT DETAILS Architect: Foster + Partners Location: Beijing, China Completion: 2008 Over the past decade, China has developed at an amazing pace. Its infrastructure needed to evolve in order to accommodate its growing connection to the rest of the world. Although this was no easy feat as the construction of new infrastructure needed to be rapid enough to deliver the solution to its needs in reasonable time.
â€œComputation is a necessary component to design and deliver the biggest building projects in the worldâ€?10
(all) Interior structural elements of the airport 6
PA R A M E T R I C MODELLING
utilise others work at all. I believe that such contradictive advantages and disadvantages are due to parametricismâ€™s lack of integration to the architectural practice as well as its lack of emphasis in architectural education. When parametric modelling establishes itself as a resolute solution and method, I believe that many of its current downfalls will become less credible.
Parametric modelling seems to face clashing ideas of what it is defined as. There seem to be two key ideas on the matter. Many group parametricism as a style that is being introduced into the world, where as another group of minds class parametric modelling only as a method or tool.11 I am lead to believe that parametric modelling is a tool that is being introduced under the wave of new computational techniques. Although I can understand why others see parametricism as a style, as the use the method does manifest in a recognisable characteristics. As this tool is currently still in its early years of integration into the architectural world, many are quick to point out its short comings.
Even as such, parametricism does currently allow for innovative new solutions to todayâ€™s architecutural intentions. Parametric modelling creates rules that can be controlled by user inputted information. This information can relate directly to the use of the building and therefore allows for dynamic systematic solutions that can optimise many aspects of architectural space. Possibilities such as this drive the excitement of using tools such as parametric modelling, but it is still important to note the current downfalls of the method.
I find that both the advantages and short comings of parametric design often contradict each other. For instance, the shareability of parametric definitions are often praised since they promote collaboration and group thinking. On the other hand, this ability to share is also credited to limit originality and also limited by the users ability to even
The first hurdle any designer must face
with parametric modelling are their limitations due to ones ability. Skills to utilise the potential of parametric design are difficult to master.12 Not only does it require proficiency in design aesthetic, but it also requires a keen mathematical mind, which is something that not all architects have trained at during their education. Although even when experienced at parametric design, the process is still extremely time consuming. The biggest fear that many have regarding parametric design is that it will spawn a style that lacks originality and creativity. While there is a possibility that parametricismâ€™s shared vocabulary may lead to a signature style and dilution of ideas, I believe that the dynamic nature of parametric modelling can lead the movement to avoid similarities and actually drive innovation and creativity.
When architects have a sufficient understanding of algorithmic concepts, when we no longer need to discuss the digital as something different, then computation can become a true method of design for architecture.
(below) view from above the pavilion 7
SHELLSTAR PAVILION PROJECT DETAILS Architect: MATSYS Design Location: Wan Chai District, Hong Kong Completion: 2012 The form was generated from parametric form finding based on processes similar to those developed by Antonio Guadi. Grasshopper and combination with a physics simulation engine created the form and allowed for perfect alignment and minimal error. The surface was then optimised to make the design into a
manufacturable object that could be assembled with ease. The engine to test for foreseen manufacturing errors were visualised with colour to feedback to the designer. The final form was then â€˜unfoldedâ€™ into each component for manufacturing. This a key advantage to using such design methods as its digital relationship with manufacturing techniques allows for such ease of translation to reality. Since the form is modular, the method to assemble the pavilion was also optimised in development. 13
(above)The interior of the final constructed pavilion (left) Structural analysis of how the surface performs 8
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PROJECT DETAILS Architect: Foster + Partners Location: Washington DC Completion: 2007 The Smithsonian Institution is based in beautiful and classic historical greek revival buildings. The institution wanted to create a large event space in the central urban space of Washington. As part of ongoing renovations, Foster part transformed its central courtyard in to a open performance/gallery space by unifying the open courtyard with a single parametrically conceived canopy. To create the enclosing roof, a single computer program, written by Foster + Partnersâ€™ Specialist Modeling Group, generated the geometry of the roof. The computer code was used to explore design options and was constantly modified throughout the design process. It was also used to generate the final geometry and additional information needed to analyze structural and acoustic performance, to visualise the space, and to create fabrication data for physical models. 9 Just one of the possibilities opened up due to the use of Parametric design and computation.
(all) The parametrically defined roof structure 9
CONCLUSION & LEARNING OUTCOMES
of being an exciting and eye-catching design.
Digital Design is a logical and exciting new innovation in architecture. It is the next step in the evolution of architecture that is a necessity to create buildings that reflect modern society. Although currently, the integration of such techniques are causing discourse in the proper uses and as to how architecture can change to incorporate these new factors.
Another significant benefit of using computation with the gateway project is the ability to directly relate driving parameters with the goals of the project resulting in functional relatable design. Although parametric modelling is currently facing discourse surrounding its validity to be accessibly and competently used in the field of architecture, the gateway project can be an example of how this new technology can benefit architecture as a whole rather than hinder it.
Architecture relies on reacting to the necessities of its users to evolve. Naturally, as society pushes new boundaries of interaction and culture, architecture must follow by developing the use of innovative new methods such as computational design. Tools such as parametric design allow architecture to precisely react to the needs of a design as it is a method that can create both dynamic and information driven designs.
Through out my experience learning about the theory of architectural computing, I now have a sound understanding of what is defined at computation and what benefits it can bring. I am still weary of the limitation of computation but I believe that it is a hurdle that the industry and myself must overcome in order to push this innovation forth.
The gateway project can greatly benefit the use of computational design. If computational design is used, the design would be adding to the current discourse of architecture and therefore become an object of discussion and identification. This would cohere with the projects aim 24
D E S I G N APPROACH TEAM MEMBERS: Lola Digby-Diercks, Ailie Miller and Tom Chiew This chapter will dissect and document the progress made in exploring the design approach for the Wyndham Gateway project. Sectioning; which is the area of interest, will be studied in how it can potentially benefit the aims of the project. Following on from Case for Innovation, the reason and driving force of using a parametric design approach was to contribute to the current discourse surrounding the use of digital tools in architecture and design, thus creating a exciting, eye-catching design. Furthering this, the design approach will pioneer in creating an identifying piece of design for the community of Wyndham.
DESIGN FOCUS: SECTIONING
The design focus chosen for this project was sectioning. An initial interest was taken in this design approach due to the methodâ€™s inherent appearance of intelligible complexity. We experienced the outward appearance of sectioning to be extremely intriguing without apparent reason and we hoped that this could be provoked to the users of the gateway project.
geometry. This gives the possibility to reference any real surface data based on topography, site restrictions, computer generated geometry and countless other possibilities. In essence, the form of sectioning can be generated off relatable data in the context of the project. 3. The number of sections in a design can alter the relative resolution of a sectioned form, therefore granting the possibility of controlling perspective.
In exploring the possibilities that sectioning allows for, many initial ideas were generated. These following concepts and techniques are the ideas that show the most potential to fulfil the desired design outcome.
4. In the context of the gateway project, where the design will be positioned along the freeway for its drivers to view, sectioning has the possibility to be experienced as an animated structure rather than static. If utilized correctly, this effect can be achieved by having each individual section of the design being seen as a frame in a flip book as the viewer drives by.
1. Sectioning allows for a greater form to be represented without the need to have a solid appearance or structure. In this way, the negative space creates a abstract form that requires the viewer to generate thought.
5. The natural effect that drivers could experience when driving past multiple sections at high speed. The sense of speed and the general interface between diver and the design could provide a unique experience.
2. The technique is flexible as the final form is adaptable to any original base surface. The base surface that is referenced into the parameters of this technique can constitute of any surface 27
BAKER D. CHIRICO a technique naturally creates individual modules, the construction and assembly of such a design is relatively simple and can be varied by use of different material properties.
PROJECT DETAILS Architect: March Studio Location: Carlton, Melbourne
What March Studio have done with this little bakery, has created an one of a kind bakery that is remembered by all of its patrons.
The qualities of this design demonstrate why we initially found the design area of sectioning so exciting. We hope to take from these elements of intrigue and functionality to the gateway project
The design is a smooth blend of both form and function that has been constructed out of plywood. It is extremely apparent that the natural inherent intriguing complexity has created a unique identifiable design. The construction of this design is also quite straight forward. Since section as 28
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ONE MAIN S T R E E T PROJECT DETAILS Architect: dECOi Architects Location: One Main Street, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
One Main street is an office renovation that utilizes sectioning in order to promote its sustainable building material choice. This project helped solidify our understanding of how sectioning can be constructed and assembled. It also demonstrated how sectioning can be both aesthetic and structural, as seen in its use as a column.
29 dECOi ARCHITECTS2QH0DLQ%RVWRQ
CASE STUDY 1.0 BANQ RESTAURANT PROJECT DETAILS Architect: Office dA Location: Boston, Massachusetts, United States The BanQ restaurant is a beautifully renovated space by Office dA, who have taken to sectioning to create a functional dining space that is truly unique. The ceiling of the restaurant is made from CNC cut plywood which as a whole is based of a wave like form. What this ceiling decoration also does is to diffuse attention made to the service space above. This use of sectioning to conceal or create only selected views is one that could be applied to the gateway project.
The provided definition to create a sectioned form such as the BanQ restaurant was quite simple. The form of the sections are derived from any surface that can be referenced into the grasshopper definition. The referenced surface is then intersected with a set of perpendicular frames and the intersections are solved. At the intersecting points, sections are created along the referenced surface at the same angle as the frameâ€™s plane. To add the final depth to the sections, these sections are then extruded in a defined vector direction. There are three main controlling parameters to this definition: 1) The base surface geometry; 2) The number and orientation of the intersecting frames; 3) The vector that the sections are extruded in. 30
The original BanQ definition design. A main interest in this design was how the technique combines with the base geometry.
BASE GEOMETRY INTERSECTING FRAMES
FINAL SECTIONS EXTRUDED
EXTRUSION VECTOR 31
EXPLORATIVE OUTCOMES ROW A
ROW A: The the direction of the sections have been altered by determining the vector that the line for the intersecting frames are created from. Also changes in number of sections by changing the number of frames created.
ROW B: Increasing sections by increasing the number of frames generated. Gradually building to a very dense amount of sections. This creates a form that is almost solid in appearance.
ROW C: Altering of the base surface of the sections. Interesting to see how sections interact with convex and concave surfaces.
Based on a grasshopper definition for BanQ restaurant, these outcomes are the result of manipulating various nodes and parameters. This exploration is used to create a basis of knowledge to how sectioning as a technique functions.
In exploring this definition, we aimed to create outcomes that presented a possible design concept option. In combination with our precedent research, we have derived these possible outcomes: Interaction with light Animation through movement (of vehicle) Experimenting with perspective. Using sectioningâ€™s ability to provide multiple views. Directly transpose a surface into sections
ROW D: Explore how the density of sections applied to a surface alter its perceptive resolution to the viewer. The original form becomes more recognizable as more information is available to reconstruct the original image.
ROW E: Altering the position of the intersecting frames can also alter how many sections are extruded. The frames were also based of a curved line, which therefore caused some frames to intersect. This then causes some sections to intersect.
ROW F: Changing the height of the sections. Therefore changing the degree of protrusion.
CASE STUDY 2.0 METRO STATION 20 PROPOSAL PROJECT DETAILS Architect: Peter Ruge Architekten Location: Sofia, Bulgaria Peter Ruge Architekten of Berlin, designed a proposal for a new Metro Station 20 in Sofia Bulgaria. The station which is central to Sofia’s city centre is a vital pathway from the airport. The station was also designed to be a centre of a commercial area development that surrounded the site. Therefore the direction of the project was to “establish clear pathways, form active connections”.
These aspects of this project appeal to us as we think they are very relatable to the gateway project which also serves to act as a pathway between two municipalities. The use of materials to harness sectioning’s natural tendency to create interesting light patterns is also an interesting line of design.
The design also aimed to capture natural light through the canopy which was constructed out of a canvas lining over a steel structure. Although never built, the project was highly regarded by critics.
REVERSE ENGINEERING: METRO STATION 20 PROPOSAL Using the Metro 20 Proposal as a focus, the project was reverse engineered utilizing Grasshopper and Rhino 3D in a further effort to decompose sectioning techniques.
details that make the station proposal a finer piece of architecture were lost. The identified problems with attempt one were: 1. The line that the sections are arranged on is straight rather than curved. 2. The form of the canopy was completely different from the original project 3. The sections lacked being angled forward but rather were perpendicular to the ground 4. When extruded in the Z axis, the base of the sections would move along with the top of the sections.
Initially, the grasshopper definition from Case Study 1.0; BanQ restaurant, was copied exactly with the only change being in the parameters of the surface and intersecting frames. The vector of the extrusion was also changed to move in the x directing in order for the sections to begin to overlap. The result of this first attempt, while slightly successful was not perfect and we had to improve on this. In this first attempt, some of the finer
Starting with an arch like surface which was lofted using two curves, this surface was referenced into the grasshopper definition as a Brep component.
Then, using a line that ran parallel to the base of the surface, it was populated with perpendicular frames.
The intersections for these frames and the surface were then solved. From here, the base surface was no longer needed, therefore was hidden from view.
The solved intersections were then sectioned along the surface and extruded in a vector direction. The station 20 proposalâ€™s sections are angled forward and each section slightly overlaps the next. 36
TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS The first problem that we realized with our initial re-engineered VECTOR structure was that it did not curve like the original design. Although DIRECTION when a curved surface was used as a base geometry, the problem arose that the extruded sections were only controlled by individual x,y and z values. Therefore the sections would extrude in a uniform manner in only these directions.
Extrusions could only be controlled by separate vector direction. Therefore the sections do not curve around the bend.
Extrusions now extrude at vectors defined along the curve.
The solution to this problem was to change the way that the vector direction for extrusion was defined.
Original method of vector parameter.
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TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS SURFACE FORM
The initial form that we created in the first iteration of this process did not reflect the properties of the Metro 20 station. Some notable features that were missing were: 1. Asymmetric non uniform shape 2. Tapered downwards towards the rear 3. The shape has a curved base Thus we created a form that reflected these properties.
The initial attempt at recreating the station resulted in the extrusion of the sections being defined as separate x,y and z components. When extruded in the z direction, the base of the sections also lifted up and therefore did not sit flat with the ground surface. In order to counter this, we rotated the planes on which the intersection were solved. Therefore angling the sections forward. This was an interesting technique that we thought could enhance the effect of animation through motion.
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The process of reverse engineering this project has been helpful in learning how to identify and solve problems with a parametric definition. After finding solutions to each problem that we encountered, the final outcome is quite similar to the original. Only some fine tuning of the definition parameters would result in an almost identical design. If unconstrained by the original form, we would like to explore how angled sections interfaced with larger interval between sections therefore creating negative voids on a varying degree of rotation. 39
Emotionally; leaving a lingering thought after a physical experience has taken place.
Through Case Study 1.0 and 2.0, we explored and learnt about sectioning as a technique. This exploration allowed us to see examples of what effects and concepts can be achieved through sectioning.
We aim to do this by altering the users perception of ‘time’ while still travelling at 100km/hour. This can be achieved through the use of sectioning and manipulating the spaces between them.
Thus our aim for the gateway project: The design won’t be driven by a defining experience within Wyndham rather an experience will be created to define Wyndham.
Physically; we aim to create a unique visually exciting design that can also be identified with the experience. We feel that physical form will naturally manifest through our aim and attempt to create this emotional effect of altering ones perception of time.
We feel that in order for the gateway project to contribute to architectural discourse, we must extend the experience, both physically and emotionally.
TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT MATRIX 
d up, then rsects. ed by n them and 
 Created different planes that were angled towards a set point. This could be used to control the views and perspective of users  These planes were rotated in 3D space towards a point. Therefore angling the planes in the x,y and z axis rather than just the x,y axis.  These sections were all angled at varying depths to create a wave like motif. The effect of this wave pattern could be animated when passed at speed to create a pulsing movement.  Experimented with different widths to sections and how this would animate.  Instead of sections being extruded into singular planes, these sections were extruded into a box function. This added a different sense of depth to the sections.
 This experimented with extremely dense amounts of sections.  Here, we looked into combining the use of sectioning and the use of pattern on a surface. These were produced using the definitions provided to us.  Experimenting with a closed surface to produce sections from in tandem with the use of cutting and trimming tools to create different arrangements.  Using a image, in this case of a triangle to reference onto a sectioned surface in order to create a recognizable image within the surface. Some shapes were more recognizable than others.  Intersecting two surfaces and solving the negative space created. These forms were then sectioned in varying ways.
RESEARCH: EXPERIMENTATION Through proven research, we have observed that the most successful way of altering the perception of time/speed is through the placement and arrangement of objects in the peripheral vision of the user. This effect has been put into use by some road authorities in order to slow drivers in dangerous area.
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ARRANGEMENT OF FORM
The way in which the form of the sections interface with the users perception can have an influence on the overall effect of perception of speed/time. These are a few of the forms we tested to see what arrangement was best suited to our goal. Form that fill only half of users vision.
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This form would provide the most effective way of influencing perception of time.
The changing of intervals in this manner would have a pulsing effect on the user.
GE IN ACHIEVE
EXPLORING SPACING OF INTERVALS TRAVELLING AT 100 KM/HOUR = 27.8 METERS PER SECOND. AT 100 KM/HOUR, YOU WOULD PASS 4 SECTIONS AT 7.3 METER INTERVALS PER SECOND AND 6 SECTIONS AT 4.5 METER INTERVALS PER SECOND.
RESEARCH: EXPERIMENTATION Source: http://www.aip.org/dbis/stories/2006/15233.html
SUMMARY OF TECHNIQUES
SECTION SPACING The spacing of the sections can play an important role in how the user interfaces with the design. The more objects that the mind has to reference, the greater the sense of speed that they feel. In the context of a design that is being experienced at high speed, the closer the sections are together, the more objects the user will pass . It is therefore important to be able to control the density of sections as it directly effects the users experience.
ANIMATION AND MOVEMENT
Through research and experimentation with techniques. We have developed a set of tool and effects that we can utilise to achieve our desired effect of the manipulation of time and speed.
Another aspect that would add to the effect of movent and speed is a sense of animation in the design that would make the design feel more kinetic in nature. By utilizing techniques we discovered in previous case studies, we were able to trim a sectioned surface to create a wave like form. When driving by a structure like this at speed, the design would animate and look like it is undulating as you move by.
Through the process of implementing these effects, a interesting, eye-catching form will be naturally derived to create a holistic design.
RESEARCH: EXPERIMENTATION ANIMATED TECHNIQUES
In order to test with some of the techniques that we developed, we had to use more realistic simulations to confirm our theoretic ideas. Below was an animation that tested the arrangement of objects in peripheral vision and to the right is an animation that explores the effect of shadowing in a tunnel like structure.
TECHNIQUES: PROTOTYPES CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLY
MATERIALS AND FABRICATION
Through prototyping our techniques that we developed, we were able to learn more about how section as a technique can be assembled and constructed.
The material choice of our design will most likely be base on compounding our desired effect. Any material that heavily alters the light properties of the design will need to be tested as this could potentially lessen the effect of moving past defined objects as they might become to shiny to define.
As we initially learnt from dECOi architectâ€™s One Main Street, construction of sectioning can be quite simple. The nature of sectioning allows for simple manufacturing of parts and a fairly logical method of assembly. Since sectioning creates multiple individual elements, they can be manufactured separately and can be installed separately with no reliance on other components. This is a huge advantage when constructing large scale installations as the construction process can be streamlined.
When thinking about fabrication and the longevity of the design a material with a high tensile strength should be considered: STEEL, TIMBER, METAL FRAME
MATERIAL EXPLORATION 
When exploring materiality, we heavily investigated different levels of transparency and light properties of materials. We chose this line of investigation because we felt that such materials would add another interesting element to the design. Although we had to keep in mind that we did not want this material to take away from the desired effect that we were trying to achieve. Four materials that we tested were:  Perspex Sheeting,  Resin,  Copper Sheeting and  Mesh/ Perforated Aluminium
Out of these tested materials we found that the perspex and the resin to be too distracting from our original intended effect. Rather than conveying the effect, we felt that the effect may be diminished. Copper was an interesting material that was solid and reflective. We felt that reflective transmission of light also interfered with our desired effect. The mesh that we tested created an extremely interesting visual effect when viewed in motion. It also had quite neutral light properties that would not take away from our desired experience.
TECHNIQUES: PROPOSAL They key elements of our proposal focus on speed, time and movement. These fundamental elements of nature are inherent in all experiences in life. The tools that we have developed all are aimed at creating a unique experience that the user can reflect on over time. The form of this design will be derived from optimizing our desired effect while using these tools. The final stage of this design process will take all that we have learnt from this exploration and combine them in a cohesive design that aims to achieve the project goals, and while the effect that we aim to achieve is somewhat complex, the method of sectioning allows for a simple method of construction and assembly.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES Critique we face about the proposal of the design was that it appeared too static. Suggestions were made to add a kinetic element into the design. We found this idea interesting and thought it could add another aspect to our proposal. A way in which we thought we could add this extra sense of movement by focusing on how animation could integrate with our more final techniques. (see page 46) The learning that I have undertaken up until this point have greatly added to my technical skill and knowledge of computation in architecture. The negative notion that I initially felt towards computers in architecture has definitely somewhat disappeared as I can now better understand its merits in architecture. I hope to further my technical learning this semester in order to fully utilize the potential of parametric design in the final proposal for the gateway project.
P R O J E C T PROPOSAL This chapter will showcase Haze; the proposed design for the Wyndham City Gateway project.
INSPIRATION & INFLUENCE and how the apparent density and tone of sections can be manipulated. Another factor that we considers after looking at the mesh portraits were how different light settings could dramatically alter the way that the user can experience a design. Therefore this would create a design that could be experienced multiple times each with a different effect to the user and therefore creating a more dynamic, changing design for the municipalâ€™s daily commuters.
Two key precedent has significant influences to our final proposal. The main elements of these projects have fed into our design methodology. Blaze by Ian McChesney, is a installation very similar to the proposed gateway project. Blaze had to deal with creating a design that could only be viewed from the movement of a car. Although it differs slightly as the site for the project was located in the centre of a large roundabout. The most important factor that we learnt from Blaze was approaching the design with the way in which the users will experience it constantly in mind.
There were many other significant influences to our design process and these include: Project One, Blaze Sculpture, Wire Mesh Portaits, Paper Sculptures, 2.30AT3.05 and optical illusions.
The second project that heavily influenced our choice of material were Wire Mesh Portraits by Seung Mo Park. These artworks demonstrated the potential of using a perforated material
We have created a short video montage of these precedent. https://vimeo.com/67286719
DESIGN ELEMENTS SITE ATTRIBUTES
TIME MOTIVATOR + MANIPULATOR
These five elements were the driving force behind the rational for our design. They acted together as a cohesive end point for Haze.
the positioning of our design was a very important decision that heavily impacts our desired effect. We decided to used Site A, based on the criteria of longest experience for the user and exposure to both inbound and outbound traffic.
called for a new defining piece, to be designed for the city of Wyndham. We thought that creating an emotional and physical experience would be the most effective way to create a defining design for the city of Wyndham.
its relevance, its motivation, its ability to be manipulated. Time has the ability to dictate how a design is understood and absorbed. Time is relatable to the site; how long is one subjected to its viewing Perception of time can be manipulated to create a new experience Repeating an experience over time can alter comprehension We looked to evidential backing and developed a group of techniques that we could utilise:
PLACEMENT AND ARRANGEMENT OF OBJECTS IN THE PERIPHERAL VISION INTERVAL SPACING KAPPA EFFECT SPEED LINE STUDY (USA)
as it was:
was deemed most viable solution to achieve our concept
Flexible in form Employs intervals Allows for manipulation between voids Able to reveal and conceal views Portrays a degree of lightness Responds to the transmission of light.
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DESIGN DEFINITION Such a simple technique as sectioning can be achieved in many different ways. Through our technique development, we developed multiple ways of sectioning a surface, and each method had different levels of controllability and possibilities. When we had our final concept and design focus in mind, we decided to use a sectioning definition that uses an offset component to define each section. We found that creating this type of sections allowed for a simple uniform method of distribution and manipulation.
Offset component, replicated the referenced curve according to the parameters set by the series component.
Series Component, gave control to the number of sections and the intervals between them. The intervals were at 9.3 meteres and there was a total of 67 sections in our final design once additional sections had been removed.
The Bre that use the curv
e referenced ep surface t was ed to trim extruded ves.
Separated the new surface to solid intersections and the extruded curves, enabling them to be baked and further manipulated with in rhino
Brep/Brep Intersection, solved the intersections between the extruded curves surfaces and the brep.
SEQUENCE OF EXPERIENCE The desired effect of Haze is to create an emotion response to the physical stimulus of the design. Haze makes use of sectioning to change the users perception of time, speed and movement. There are four distinct characteristics of the sequence of experience: 1 .Sections emerge out of the landscape, gradually building up. 2 Sections build to maximum height of 14 meters 3 The density of intervals change and contrast to alter speed perception 4 Middle section drops to a comparatively minute scale to diminish any point of reference for the user. The transitions and the contrasts between dense and sparse areas are designed to provoke a skewed perception of time. The changes of density of intervals also are synchronised with the rise and falls of the height of the Haze. Haze grows from the ground from entry of the site and undulates up and down and reaches its lowest point in the centre. The lowest point is meant to evoke a lost sense of context and therefore provide a senselessness to the user. Therefore creating an unusual disconnected experience.
THREE SECTIONS PER SECOND ONE SECTION PER SECOND
T s m s c f a i
TOTAL OF THREE SECONDS
28 SECONDS 62
The peaks of the structure are 14 meters high. This is so that the design can be seen from a far and can become an identifying feature in the landscape.
The shape of Haze has been derived by achieving a sequence of effects. Below are diagrams breaking down the intended effect of Haze.
Certain parts of the design regress away from the road and from the driver. Sections like this animate in motion to create a feeling of movement in Haze.
The intervals spacing of the sections start to increase at this point in order change the users perception of speed.
Mirroring their growth from the ground, Haze also begins from a tapered arrangement. Therefore grows wider as the driver moves past.
CONSTRUCTION FABRICATION PROCESS Perforated aluminium will be used for the construction of HAZE. The perforations allow for light and a sense of ventilation and illusion. Custom sheets will be used and cut into the designated individual sections.
SITE WORKS The design, as intended, uses the entire space of site A. Landscape will play a crucial part in execution of the design. It [the design] relies using not only the land that each section will be situated in but also the spaces in between to convey and accomplish our concept of time manipulation. This is effectively placing a new â€˜sectionedâ€™ topography over the existing site. For the purpose of HAZE, the mound situated within site A will be cleared in order to have a level ground to place each section within and also so that the drivers experience is not disrupted.
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Each section will need to be broken down into smaller pieces in order for them to be trans- ported to site. They are then able to be reassembled on site before the assembly process. This can be achieved using a flush bolting system or something similar.
Due to the nature of HAZE, each individual section can be treated as a separate element. This means that the assembly process is significantly simplified, as each section can be erected one by one in a process that is deemed the most appropriate.
MATERIAL CHOICE Haze will be made of a steel frame and perforated aluminium. The aluminum sheets can be custom ordered to match the specifications of any project. Haze will use: - Locker Group -Mild Steel, Galanized Aluminum - 49-51% open area - Perforations at diameters of 9.5 @ 12.7 centres
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TECTONIC ELEMENTS The simplistic nature of Haze allows for it to be realistic and achieveable in terms of tectonics and constructablility. Each element is a individual and allows for flexible construction without relying on other parts of the design. Each element will vary with each section as no two sections are exactly the same. The basic elements of the structural system remain consistent throught Haze. A steel frame is used as structural support for the perforated aluminium sheets. The frame is supported by pile like footings that extend from the frame into the earth. The frame is placed into a trench filled with a stable concrete mass.
These diagrams demonstrate the process of construction. Beginning with a trench filled with concrete footing and the steel structure being submerged.
MODEL FABRICATION Our team fabricated two separate models in order to demonstrate our proposal. As Haze utilises the entire Site A which is approx 750 metres long, we created a model of the form at 1:500. In order to demonstrate our desired effect with Hazeâ€™s materiality, we used fine wire mesh sheets to create a smaller section of Haze. This was at a 1:200 scale. For the larger 1:500 model, we used a laser cutter to precisely cut our sections with tabs attached underneath. We also had a base cut that had the positioning of the sections cut out. Essentially, the tabs of the sections were bonded to the underside of the base and then this was covered with another base piece. This was done for both models. Below are the sheets that were sent off to be laser cut. The size of each board is 900x600mm.
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SIMULATION As Haze is heavily focused on the experience of the driver, it was essential to test our theories. Therefore we have stimulated our final design.
Our simulations can be viewed here: DRIVER SIMULATION: https://vimeo.com/67286720 AERIAL 360 PERSPECTIVE: https://vimeo.com/67286718 LIGHT PERFORMANCE: https://vimeo.com/67286721 These simulations really helped us to prove our theoretical ideas and show how Haze can effect its users.
CONCLUSION & LEARNING OUTCOMES
Case for Innovation has made me explore architecture and design in a much more controlled and refined manner. By looking into a precise field and becoming familiar first with the discourse surrounding it, designing with computation became a very subjective process.
would rationalise complex and alien designs techniques.
This subject has been quite a different experience to other design studios. Although the key elements of responding to a brief are there, the language that we needed to use to respond was very foreign. Although I can say that this subject has improved my technical skills and knowledge.
Overall, I think that our proposal Haze has become the best proposal that we could have put forth. We realized our weaknesses and have really pushed hard in other aspects of the project.
I do feel that our team has been quite limited by our skill level, but I do think that we have still benefitted from this different style of studio.
I think that this was apparent in the final critique as we felt we showed how developed and considered our design has become.
I feel that since there are endless possibilities with computation and parametric design, teams were really pushed to find a driving concept that
CFI: REFERENCES TEXT 1 Pia Ednie-Brown, Mark Burry, Andrew Burrow (2013). The Innovation Imperative: Architectures of Vitality 2 Frank Gehry. BrainyQuote.com, Xplore Inc, 2013. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/f/ frankgehry173206.html, accessed April 5, 2013 3 http://www.seangodsell.com/rmit-design-hub, accessed March, 2013 4 http://www.herzogdemeuron.com/index/projects/complete-works/176-200/178-prada-aoyama, accessed March, 2013 5 Brady, Peters (2013). Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought 6 Brady, Peters (2013). Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought 7 Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming 8 Yehuda E. Kalay, Architectureâ€™s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer- Aided Design 9 http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/beijing-airport, accessed March, 2013 10 Brady, Peters (2013). Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought 11 Daniel Davis (2013). Introduction to Parametric Modelling, University of Melbourne, 21 March 2013 12 Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming 13 http://matsysdesign.com/2012/04/13/catalyst-hexshell/, accessed March, 2013 14 http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/smithsonian-institution/, accessed March, 2013 IMAGES 1 Tom Chiew, January 2013 2 Gehry Technologies http://www.gehrytechnologies.com/services/projects/fondation-louis-vuitton 3 Sean Godsell Architects http://www.seangodsell.com/rmit-design-hub 4 Herzog & de Meuron http://www.herzogdemeuron.com/index/projects/complete-works/176- 200/178-prada-aoyama 5 Kirkegaard Associates, (2013). Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought 6 Foster + Partners http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/beijing-airport 7/8 MATSYS Design http://matsysdesign.com/2012/04/13/catalyst-hexshell/ 9 Foster + Partners http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/smithsonian-institution/
EOI: REFERENCES RESOURCES (IMAGE + TEXT) http://www.peter-ruge.de/en/ http://www.peter-ruge.de/en/bilder/projekte/ST20/PDFs/Peter%20Ruge%20Architekten_%20Station%20 20%20eng.pdf http://www.designboom.com/architecture/march-studio-baker-d-chirico/ http://www.dezeen.com/2012/02/23/baker-d-chirico-by-march-studio/ http://www.peterbennetts.com/project/view/project/baker-d.-chirico http://www.decoi-architects.org/2011/10/onemain/ http://www.archdaily.com/42581/banq-office-da/ http://www.designrulz.com/outdoor-design/2013/02/the-best-new-restaurant-banq-by-office-da/ http://plusmood.com/2012/01/station-20-in-sofia-peter-ruge-architekten/
PROPOSAL: REFERENCES RESOURCES (IMAGE + TEXT + VIDEO) http://gizmodo.com/5981603/20-optical-illusions-that-might-break-your-mind http://vimeo.com/5112227 http://vimeo.com/54967505 http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=x7m19g5s4B8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p9RetutNlcA http://www.liftarchitects.com/journal/2011/6/14/projection-one.html All other images and resources have been produced by team members.