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International Journal of Business Management & Research (IJBMR) ISSN(P): 2249-6920; ISSN(E): 2249-8036 Vol. 3, Issue 5, Dec 2013, 1-10 Š TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.


Research Associate, Research Scholar, JNTUH, National Academy of Agricultural Research Management Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India 2

Associate Professor, Department of LPM, College of Veterinary Science, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT Veterinary and animal husbandry sector plays an important role in socio-economic development of India. It’s not only provides affordable nutritional food to the millions of people but also generates considerable employment in rural as well as urban sector. The sector also has potential for generating self employment. Apart from generating employment and income, it also provides products like egg, milk, meat, wool, bone, skin, hide, offal, manure/dung, and draught power. The development in this sector contributed to women empowerment in a big way. The demand for agricultural commodities is increasing significantly with rising population and increasing food intake of the population. There are many cooperative players who have entered into contract farming to either support in-house demand for raw material or selling to large corporate customers. The contract farming has a win-win situation for farmers as it has changed the value chain of agriculture by decreasing the dominance of intermediaries. The contract farming has paved beneficial for corporate as it has drastically decreased there procurement cost and increased the profit of the farmers in turn helping rural economy. This paper describes the economic analysis of livestock supply and demand, existing and future potential for growth, meat processing, food security aspects and different extension services. The study also researches on the sustainability of the livestock production and simultaneous livestock development through extension services.

KEYWORDS: Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Extension, Food Security, Livestock, Sustainability and Veterinary INTRODUCTION Livestock sector is an important sub-sector of Indian agriculture and plays significant role in the food security and also to the development. Changing food consumption patterns among the population, particularly among the urban middle classes, in favor of quality dairy, poultry and other meat products coupled with growing exports of such products on the one hand, and the uncertain potential of traditional agriculture by itself to ensure food security to the masses have made the livestock sector an increasingly important factor on the agricultural scene. Research in the context of livestock development suits a particular demand or the generation of new technology to solve a particular constraint. Research in the context of livestock extension can be defined as the furthering and popularization of knowledge. It signifies the stimulation of desirable agricultural illumination. It can also mean information flow into farming communities and flow of information from farmers to researchers, input and services suppliers and policy makers. Extension plays an important role in the formulation of policy for agricultural development and suits at the centre of the agricultural information network. It is not a passive conduit but an active system that can be directed, it seeks out and organizes information and then channels it to and, equally important, from farmers (Roling, 1990).


M R K Murthy & S. Bindu Madhuri

The share of agricultural sector in GDP declined from 34 per cent in 1981-82 to 15 per cent in 2010-11. The share of livestock sector in GDP has also declined but not as steep as the share of agricultural sector. It remained between 5-6 per cent until 2000-01 and then gradually declined to 3.9 per cent in 2010-11. Nonetheless, the share of livestock in the agricultural GDP improved consistently from 15 per cent in 1981-82 to 26 percent in 2010-11. Livestock sector grew at an annual rate of 5.3 per cent during 1980s, and decelerated to 3.6 per cent during 2000s. Despite this deceleration, growth in livestock sector remained about 1.5 times higher than the growth in crop sector, and this provided a cushion to overall agricultural growth. India has huge population of different species of livestock. In 2007 there were 199 million cattle, 105 million buffaloes, 72 million sheep, 141 million goats, 11 million pigs and 649 million poultry birds. Except in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, cattle outnumber buffaloes. Within the cattle population there was marked shift in favour of crossbreds, whose share in the total cattle population increased from 4.6 percent in 1982 to 16.6 percent in 2007. Table 1: Percentage Contribution of Livestock Sector to Agriculture and National GDP (at 1993‐94 Prices) Percent Contribution of Livestock Sector to Year Agriculture National GDP GDP 24.39 5.59 1990‐00 25.92 5.67 2000‐01 25.91 5.70 2001‐02 29.27 5.70 2002‐03 27.26 5.40 2003‐04 2004-05 24.90 4.70 31.70 5.26 2006‐07 26.90 5.21 2007‐08 Source: Planning Commission, 2010. India has one of the largest concentrations of poor livestock keepers anywhere in the world. Of the poor livestock keepers 67 % are found in mixed farming systems of arid/ semi-arid areas, and of these two thirds are found in rain fed areas. Livestock represent an important option for landless and marginal households where the size of land holding is too small to provide an adequate livelihood and where operational costs of livestock maintenance are low. A number of studies report feed and fodder scarcity to be a major constraint to the growth of the livestock sector, although actual deficit estimations vary among different sources. The country wide report of National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology pertaining to 2001 reveals a deficiency of 64% in crop residues, green fodder and concentrates, respectively with deficiency in Andhra Pradesh. During 2011-12, production of milk in India stood at 127 Million Tons. But India at present is esteemed to have only 70000-80000 Tons of milk storage capacity. Globally India ranks 3 rd in fish production. In 2010-11, India had produced about 8.2 Million Metric Tons of fish. Globally India ranks at 2 nd position for total cattle population. In India there are about 5,500 registered and 25,770 unregistered slaughter houses. Agricultural Production and Consumption Pattern – Andhra Pradesh Table 2: Estimates of Production of Major Food Groups for 2010 and 2025 in Andhra Pradesh Year/Category Food Grains 000 tons Cereal production Oilseeds 000 tons

Production 2010 2025 14962.35 16032.45 10042 11654 1645.88 1513.56


Enhancing Agriculture & Livestock Production Development in Andhra Pradesh, India

Table 2: Contd., Pulses 000 tons 1180 Vegetables + roots + 259417 tubers 000 tons Fruits + nuts 000 tons 263633 Eggs million no 24660 Milk 000 MT 8830 Meat 000 MT 572 GSDP Crores 141253

1370 349945 354813 40457 11641 928 188364.9

The requirement (demand) at two points of time for 2010 and 2025 is depicted by using recommended dietary requirements and extrapolated population growth rate. The gap in production and demand for cereals is 2628 MT and 3766 MT respectively during 2010 and 2025 without including the demand for animal feed. Table 3: Estimated Food Requirement in India and Andhra Pradesh (Million Tons) Year Population(Million) Cereal @ 400g.d Pulses @45 g/d Oil 25g/d Milk @ 200g/d Fruits @ 200g/d Vegetables @ 300g/d Sugar @40 g/d

India Demand Estimates 2000 2010 2025 1000 1200 1450 146 175 212 16 20 24 11 13 16 73 88 106 73 88 106

Andhra Pradesh Demand Estimates 2000 2010 2025 76.21 86.77 105.63 11.1 12.66 15.42 1.25 1.42 1.73 0.69 0.79 0.96 5.56 6.33 7.71 5.56 6.3 7.71













Effective animal health management contributes to reduction in loss of output due to morbidity and mortality of animals thereby raising the output from livestock sector. Improved breeding techniques using exotic and cross-bred animals raise the quality and yield of animals. The ambitious goals of dairy development over the next ten years and more can be achieved only through improved quality and health of the animals. Further, improved animal breeding, nutrition and health are crucial for the growth of high quality meat processing industries, an important component of food processing industries on the rapid growth of which India’s development plans have set a high premium. Animal Feed Industry Animal feed is an important input to enhancing animal quality. According to some estimates 1 there is a supply demand gap in fodder production – to the extent of over 60% in the case of green fodder and about 25% in the case of dry fodder. In 2010, the supply of fodder (green and dry together) is estimated at only 846 million MT against a demand of over 1650 million MT. The fodder demand is projected to grow to 1764 million MT in 2020. A doubling of supply is required to meet the demand-supply gap by 2020. Only 50% of the marketed feed is produced in the organized sector. Dual Purpose Crops and Use of Hybrids There are clearly a number of issues to take into account when considering the potential for improved, dual purpose varieties of food crops such as sorghum, millet, maize and groundnut for small and marginal farmers growing subsistence crops in rain fed areas. It is likely that success will only occur where there is introduction of improved 1

Estimates made by State Planning Board, Government of Kerala, cited in IASRI’s Agricultural Research Data Book, 2007


M R K Murthy & S. Bindu Madhuri

varieties, with high grain and fodder yields, that perform well under existing farmer management regimes and that ‘breed true’ so that they consistently perform well as they are recycled. Animal Breeding Till recently, organized cattle breeding has been within the realm of government. There are 7 Central Cattle Breeding Farms, one Frozen Sperm Production Institute, 4 Herd Registration Units, 5 Poultry Development organizations and one Central Sheep Breeding Farm. Similar organizations exist under the State governments. Semen Banks are more or less the exclusive preserve of the government. 37 of these are in the government sector, while 12 are with National Dairy Development Board, dairy cooperatives and NGOs. NGOs like BAIF have full-fledged research centres and livestock farms for breeding. Poultry breeding is exclusively in the private sector. A phenomenon emerging in recent years is the establishment of large cattle farms in States like Punjab. This trend is likely to get strengthened in future. Animal Resources in Farming Systems Livestock are an important component of the integrated rain fed farming systems of the poor and small marginal farmers as shown below.

Figure 1: Integrated Rain Fed Farming Role of Livestock When compared to the availability of the livestock in India, Andhra Pradesh possess 9.4 million cattle holding 8 th position, 10.7 million buffaloes holding 2 nd position, 21 million sheep holding 1st position, 6.5 million goats occupying 7 th position, 102 million poultry holding 1 st position and half a million pigs holding 8th position in the country. In Andhra Pradesh livestock is contributing annually 7.23% to GSDP, 3.6% through milk with annual production of 7.624 million tonnes, 2 percent through meat with annual production of 0.46 million tonnes, 1.13 percent through eggs with annual production of 16.45 billion eggs and 0.5% through other sources. Meat Processing The Eleventh Plan targeted a GDP growth of 10% per annum for the meat and meat products sector. There are, about 60 meat processing units registered under the Factories Act (CSO, 2010). The revenue generated by the processed meat and poultry meat is expected to grow at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of around 16.3% during the

Enhancing Agriculture & Livestock Production Development in Andhra Pradesh, India


period 2008-2022, which will make the market value to take a leap from INR 369 Billion in 2008 to reach at INR 3,065 Billion by 2022. Meat and poultry market is the fastest growing market among all segments of processed food market in India. The share of the processed meat and poultry products in the processed food market of India is expected to almost double from 11% in 2011 to around 20% by 2022. The improvement in the income levels of the individual will spur the domestic demand for meat and poultry products. Even the high demand for frozen products will help this market to witness the impressive growth in day to day come.

Source: National Skill Development Corporation Figure 2 Dairy Dairying is providing livelihood to millions of the poorest and for many it is the sole source of livelihood bringing cash to their hands twice daily in some places and weekly once in other places. Smallholder dairying is major source of household income, especially among the landless farmers. The impact study on Operational Flood in India showed small holder dairying accounting for more that 50% of the household income of landless farmer and that the importance of dairying as a source of household income decreased as the size of farm increased. As land is not equitably distributed, this indicates that development of small holder dairying would be a path out of poverty for the resource-poor in the society. In the recent past the Govt. of Andhra Pradesh came out with a proposal to encourage mini-dairies by making available five high yielding cross bred cows / buffaloes for the uplifting of downtrodden and to improve the socialeconomic status of small holder farmers in the rural areas. Watershed programme is a good example where such mini dairies can be established with a greatest advantage not only to increase per capita consumption of milk and milk production but also for increased income generation. In fulfilling the desired objectives cattle and buffalos play a significant role in achieving the objectives. Milking Dairy Market India is the largest producer of milk in the world and accounts for nearly 16% of the global milk production. Milk production in India has been growing at around 4% annually. In 2010, India had produced around 121 Million Tonnes of milk. The level of milk processing is around 35% in India in which unorganized sector is the largest contributor as its share is around 60% - 70% in the total processed milk. The major milk products which are being produced are malted food, infant milk food, cheese and condensed milk.


M R K Murthy & S. Bindu Madhuri

Source: National Skill Development Corporation Figure 3 The market value of dairy products is anticipated to grow at the compounded annual growth rate of around 11.4% during the period 2008-2022. This will push the market value of dairy products processing market to reach at around INR 2,597 Billion by the end of 2022. Increasing demand for probiotic and branded milk has led to the growth in investment in dairy processing. The growth in the dairy processing is likely to increase the demand for value added products such as cheese, butter, yoghurt, ice-cream, etc. in days to come.

Source: Ministry of Food Processing Industry Figure 4 Fish Processing Market The fish processing industry in India has recorded sales of around INR 168 Billion in 2011 due to increasing demand from every corner of the country. The major products under fish processing includes fresh fish, frozen fins, dried items, etc. The export demand of processed fish items is quite high from nations such as USA, Spain, UK and Japan, which has been helping the fish processing industry to prosper in India. The fish processing market in India is expected to reach at around INR 343 Billion by 2022 growing at the CAGR of around 6.7%.

Source: ASI, NSSO, MOPPI Vision 2015, IAMR Figure 5

Enhancing Agriculture & Livestock Production Development in Andhra Pradesh, India


Small Ruminants In Andhra Pradesh about 12% of the rural population subsists on small ruminants that are mostly illiterates and adopt age-old sheep and goat husbandry practices. The state has 21.78 million sheep and 6.28 million goat population which works out to be 34.5% of Indian sheep population and 5% of Indian goat population. Small ruminant farming is the livelihood option for about 0.53 million families contributing to Rs. 12000 millions to the state economy. Sheep Over half of the world’s sheep are in developing countries. They are involved in the simplest, as well as the more sophisticated crop-livestock agriculture system. Sheep are highly selective, with greater preference for grass than browse, and are amenable to herding. Small size allows easy handling and management by family labor, especially women and children. It involves low capital investment per animal; and hence very few facilities are required to rear them. They possess higher survival rates than cattle under drought conditions and because of their higher reproductive rates; numbers can be restored more rapidly after disasters such as drought. Their short reproductive cycle and high incidents of multiple births in many breeds give higher annual off-take rates those cattle. Sheep supply food and at the same time generate income for the direct benefit of resource-poor people. They are relatively cheap to buy. Due to their rapid reproductive turnover (early puberty, short gestation) and, high incidence of multiple births in some breeds, a farmer can quickly build up a sheep flock as a major asset. Goat Goats are important in small sectors farming system and are thought to sustain vulnerable and harsh climatic conditions. Goat’s efficient reproduction, foliage utilization and unique feeding habits have made it a species dared under droughts and other natural distresses. Extensive and semi-intensive kid rearing was reported to be profitable, on an average fetching Rs. 1200 per kid reared as per the prices prevailing in 2012. For formulating strategies for upliftment of goat farmers, in livestock development regarding family structure, education, family earnings, social patterns and other details are essentials. In goat farming maintenance cost was worked out to be Rs. 3,145 per goat. The feed and fodder cost was calculated to be 61%. The fixed and variable costs were found to be 23%. In goat broilers production family labor accounts for to 675 of the gross cost with the maintenance cost per kid worked out to be Rs. 65 per month. Cost of production of the kids under confined deep litter system was relatively lower at Rs. 47 per Kg compared to free-range rearing system with the Rs. 53 per Kg. A study on goat rearing awareness in Maharashtra revealed that unemployed people focusing on goat rearing need training and awareness. This could become a viable tool for self employment. Piggery Pigs are mono gastric omnivores and will eat a wide range of feed stuffs. Because of pigs are a litter-bearing species with a relatively short gestation period, their potential for meat production for exceeds that of the other main domestic species, and yield of pork per unit live weight can be up to six times that of cattle. For the resource-poor farmer in the rural households, the advantage of pig production outweighs the other forms of livestock species. They can be coffined and reared in relatively small areas. If pigs are kept in fence, they do not contribute to erosion and land degradation, a trend which continuous to expand in the developing countries. These animals convert a variety of crop waste, kitchen waste and livestock offal into high quality meat. They are also very efficient converters of concentrate feeds to meat when compared to ruminants. They give relatively rapid return on investment as, even on low planes of nutrition; a piglet is ready for slaughter at 12 months of age. Pigs are often considered in small-scale farming communities as ‘living banks’ which can be slaughtered at times of particular financial need. They have a higher dressing percentage than any other livestock species,


M R K Murthy & S. Bindu Madhuri

i.e. the carcass forms a higher proportion of the body at slaughter. Poultry At present, India stands at 3rd and 5th positions, respectively in the world in egg and chicken meat production respectively with annual contribution of about Rs. 352 billion to the GDP and providing direct employment to about 1.5 million people and indirect employment to about 2 million people in the country. The state of Andhra Pradesh leads the country in the poultry enterprise. Poultry meat is presently accounting for 27% of the total meat consumed and is the most popular meat from any single livestock species. Further the poultry industry is concentrated primarily around urban areas at majority of the locations. Due to lack of proper storage and transporting system, the availability is low and cost of poultry product is high in rural areas, where majority of Indian populations are living. Cost of production and price of eggs in the domestic market in India is the cheapest in the world although the feed price in relation to egg cost is highest. Further, the relative cost of a Kg broiler is equivalent to 7.2 Kg feed in USA where as it is just 4.9 Kg in India. Factors like low-cost man power, availability of the all the inputs and high production efficiency are instrumental in making India an efficient poultry producer in the world. However, for the rural areas backyard poultry farming is a successful tool to fight poverty and malnutrition in rural/ tribal population. This can be achieved by adopting poultry farming in small scale in the backyards of rural households or rearing them under intensive farm conditions in small numbers by utilizing locally available, less expensive feed and housing inputs. Further, rural backyards are rich source of natural food base like fallen grains, kitchen waste, green tender leaves, worms, insects and other material available for scavenging. It was estimated that about 20% of the grain produced in India is going waste after harvesting and before human consumption. Such fallen grains can never be brought back into human food chain except rearing chicken in the backyards. Rearing such chicken also increases economic status of the rural folk particularly the women, who are well-known their skills in rearing poultry in the house hold backyards. Hence it is necessary to promote free range and backyard poultry farming in rural, tribal and under developed areas with watersheds as the most congenial base to undertake such activities. The improved chicken varieties developed such as commercial broilers and layers struggle hard to survive under free range conditions due to harsh / adverse climatic conditions, high disease challenge and inadequate nutrient supply. Realizing the importance of backyard poultry farming and the need for high yielding varieties in the recent past efforts were made by several agencies in developing new strains suitable for rural farming such as Vanaraja, Giriraja, Gramapriya, Girirani, Krishna J , Gramalakshmi, CARI Gold and Rajasri strains. Duck Farming Ducks accounts as second important poultry bird in the rural sector. The coastal states are rich in water resources and swampy land which serve as a major source of feed for these ducks. Emu Farming Emu bird was introduced into India for commercial value of meat, oil and skin. Birds mature by 18 months and attain body weight of 35 Kg with feed efficiency of 5:1. Productive life of bird is 20 years, lays on an average 25 eggs per year with hatchability of about 70%. Meat is tender, delicious with low fat and low cholesterol and hence recommended by healthy hearts. Oil from body fat is highly useful for the medicinal, cosmetic and dietary value. Skin has high commercial value due to its softness and strength. Andhra Pradesh state is leading in Emu farming and represents more than 80% of Indian Emu population. Emu has long neck, relatively small naked head stands up to a height of 6 feet. Legs are long covered with scaly skin adoptable to hardy and dry soil. Natural food of Emu is insects, tender leaves are plan and forages


Enhancing Agriculture & Livestock Production Development in Andhra Pradesh, India

and eats different kinds of vegetables and fruits. These birds do not required elaborate housing. However up to 3-5 months of age birds required night shelter and open runs. These are slaughtered at the age of 12-18 months for delicious meat. Backyard Rabbitry Rabbit meat is a whole some, taste product. Compared to most other meats, it is high in protein and low in fat, cholesterol and sodium. Backyard rabbit rearing is a potential means of improving the nutritional status of low income people. A unit of one male and three female rabbits can provide one slaughter per week round the year. The edible meat per slaughter will be about one Kg which is 50% of live weight sufficient for small family for one time meal. The meat can be stored in the animal without slaughtering it and when it is needed the animal can be slaughter. Extension Linkages for Effective Implementation Lack of functional linkages with the farmers’ production systems is identified as one of the important reasons for low adoption of technologies. The linkage existing among research extension farmers and input suppliers is by design a bottom-up approach where research is expected to start and end with the farmers. To ensure strong linkages among different actors in the agricultural knowledge system farmers are to be involved not only when research is already concluded. It should be from the planning process, prioritization of farm problems, identification and selection of technologies to be tested, testing and experimentation and evaluation as well as training of other farmers in the application of the technology. To create an effective linkage between these systems and to secure the participation of farmers in technology development and refinement, the ICAR has adopted a novel programme ‘Technology Assessment and Refinement through Institution village Linking Programme� (IVLP) which is functioning very well in quick technology transfer in livestock related programmes. The programme envisaged, creating a resource group of trainers for organizing trainings of core team of scientists for different centers. They are used as resource persons in the subsequent training programmes organized in different zones. The basic idea is to train the scientists in the concept, approaches and methodologies to be adopted in planning and execution of participatory technology development approaches envisaged.

CONCLUSIONS Long term improvements in the animal husbandry will only come from tougher legislation and more importantly, rigorous enforcement, coupled with education and training at all levels of urban and rural society. Enhancing the production potentialities of livestock and providing necessary and timely modern veterinary assistance and health cover to the livestock and poultry to preventing major zoonotic diseases of animals. Providing information on available resources and training on basic and latest animal husbandry practices to the producers. Successful extension services for livestock development will become through mutual learning process and exchange of information between farmers, experts and scientists facilitates improved problem identification and technology development.


CSO, 2010, Annual Survey of Industries, Central Statistical Organization, Delhi.


Roling, N. (1990). The agricultural Technology Transfer Interface. A

Knowledge System Perspective. In

Kaimowitz, D. (ed) Making the Link. Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer in Developing Countries. Westview Press, Colorado, USA.

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Veterinary and animal husbandry sector plays an important role in socio-economic development of India. It’s not only provides affordable nut...

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