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Constructing Environments Log Book --Tiancheng Zhu 692083

Week 1 log book Knowledge map Material Sustainability


behaviors Construction Material




BASIC STRUCTURAL FORCES Force -any influence that produces a change in the shape or movement of a body.

Compression Tension Forces


Load paths

Dead load & Live loads

Reaction loads

Diagram on next page

Group activities For the first week's group activities, we plan to use the




establish a tower which provides with a entrance for the toy dog and a roof that can cover the tower.

After our group discussion, we consider that the most simple way for arranging the bricks is probably the most stable way.

While we are building, we think about two related things which is necessary: A entrance that allow the toy dog to move in and out loosely. A small Arc that higher the height of the toy dog

Two bricks' distance

As we are making it higher, we find some trouble at the corner that we can only leave the problem at there.

We still use rubber band to make the roof which can cover the top of the tower.

Our tutor put some heavy things on the top of our tower in order to test the stability and we achieve a pretty good result!

The reason why we can succeed is that there is no space between each two bricks and the compression and tension on the brick act equally which is also an important factor.

Comparison with other class

These two towers show me some new ideas of making towers, they make the roof without the rubber band instead of angle tricks for building them. They may not as stable as we are, but in aesthetic view, they have a amazing structural and out looking. This is the information I should acquire from them.

Week 2 Log Book Knowledge map for elearning:

studio session activities reports Preparation for 'balsa tower'

sharp knife tape & glue pieces of basla First step: make a draft

With the reference with Performance & Requirements, we plan to make it high and stable. Consider about Aesthetic Qualities, our group plan to make multiple-triangles to make it simple and nice.

This impression drawing I find on the Internet which is close to our plan and draft.

For pratical making part: When we are making the foundation for the tower, we use kind of cross bracing to keep the frame more stable.

More importantly, we add a knee brace frame in the foundation to keep it like a simple K-brace form so that can bear the force act itself more safely.

As we are finish the tower, we find that some of our connection elements are not that stable as we expected. So we add some fixed joints to make the connectors and members more stable and of course more aesthetic.

Comparison with others' group

Our classmates use the simplest triangle way to establish their tower for their group. From my view, indeed it is stable but it must have all the members. If only one of them is cut, the load path will be also block and the force cannot exert on the object itself, therefore it falls down.

In order to test the stability of the tower, we cut some members of the system.

It fells down until we cut some balsa in the bottom, which shows the safety of the tower we made.

The reason of why our tower is more stable than 'the triangles one' is that the load paths are still the same act on the object and the dead load maintain the same as well.

Week 3 Log Book

--Tiancheng Zhu(692083)

Knowledge map for e-learning Structural System

v Material consideration: Mass

Foundation Foundation System elements



Constructing Environments Log Book --Tiancheng Zhu 692083

Lot 6 cafe –

Underground car park & South lawn •

This beam does not contribute to support the columns and the structural of café. The red arrows show how loads move

Transform the load into arc

Frame system – With obvious beams and columns

Use the basement as a basement foundation – –

Concrete construction With Trees on its top

Shell system

Stairs on west end of union house

Arts west student center

Steel Structure –

Frame system –

With trusses and joints

With cable joists

Live loads will firstly transform on strain then transform on beams which tied by cables (as graphs show)

Loads transform by tension from the cable (cables pull the beams then the beams can support the stairs so that stairs can transform the load back to the building)

North court Union House

Beaurepaire Center Pool •

Membrane system –

With cables and joints

Surface system • Windows are used as enclosure system


Oval Pavilion (north side of wall)

New Melbourne School of Design under construction •

Concrete frame system –

l •

Hybrid system(Rigid joint frame & Enclosure frame) – –

Concrete solid base timber roof Column in the middle of the beam all the loads go back to there

With concrete blocks

Old Geology South Lecture Theatre Entry Structure

Frank Tate Pavilion

• Steel frame system bricks outside


• •

Frame system mainly Concrete and timber roofs as enclosure system

Week 4 Log Book

--Tiancheng Zhu(692083)

Knowledge map for e-learning

(some of the details are in the glossary)

Group Activity: Scale, Annotation and Working Drawing Conventions

Extra Questions • Q:How does the scale of the building compare to the scale of the drawings? How do the architectural and structural drawing differ? •A: Different part of building may use different scale for drawing. We always use a bigger scale for more detailed drawings and a small scale for a plan or elevation(like 1:100@A1). •Architectural drawing is used for design and it is used to understand the concept of design and space. However, structural drawing is more useful for the people who builds the architecture.

Week 5 Log Book

--Tiancheng Zhu(692083)

Knowledge Map (The details will show in the following)

Structural Frames

Framing Elements Stud Walls Load Bearing Walls

Concrete Frames

Steel Frames


Timber Frames(Post and Beam) Masonry

Light Grauge Steel Framing

Timber Framing

TYPES Provenance

Wood to Timber Structural Nature of Wood

TIMBER SEASONED Engineered timber

Group Activity: Structural Concept • First, draw plan graph so that we can decide what materials should buy for the model

•Process of making model

•Structural Elements •Footing of Foundation which aiming to reinforce the building into soil

•Load bearing column (as we are not finishing the whole wood truss)

•Comparison between other group

Week 6 Log Book --Tiancheng Zhu(692083)

Knowledge map

Group Activity: Full Size knowledge map

Week 7 Log Book --Tiancheng Zhu(692083)

Week 8 Log Book

• --Tiancheng Zhu(692083)

Knowledge map

Group Activity: In detail •The detail is a horizontal plan which at the corner of a window

•The copy of the detail drawing

Week 9 Log Book • --Tiancheng Zhu(692083)

Knowledge Map

Group activity: Off campus •

This week we have a off campus site visit in order to develop an ability to understand an unfamiliar building site and the different system used in construction projects of various scales

Foundation system(basement): Ground Anchors •To use this way in order to reinforce the foundation which at the retaining wall which loads will distribute into mud. Ground Anchors is a time saving solution for sites nowadays.

Image retrieved from:

Steel Frame System: Bondek Formwork •temporary formwork that will support the floor construction above(concrete and steel slab

Steel Structural System(top floor) •Shear bracing that capable of resisting changes in shape and transferring lateral loads to the ground foundation

Shear bolts

Some strategies being use •Post tension Pre-tensioned concrete is cast around steel cables or bars, while they are under tension. The concrete bonds to the tendons as it cures, and when the tension is released it is transferred to the concrete as compression by friction. Image retrieved from:

•Pre-cast concrete panels connection A Wedge between two panels and then use concrete to connect them

Week 10 Log Book • --Tiancheng Zhu(692083)

Knowledge map

Group activity: Detailing Volume •Double grazing is used for thermal insulation and sound insulation •Thermal insulation(external walls) •The gap between two materials should be sill

• 3D graph

•The sill is not finished. The gap is risky because that it might not prevent corrosion and heat which may damage the material

•The caulk junction is used as waterproofing that prevent corrosion of moisture

Subject Glossary Load paths

Beam & Column Beams are rigid structural members designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across space to supporting elements. Column are rigid, relatively slender structural members designed primarily to support axial compressive loads applied to the ends of the members.

TENSION FORCES When an external load pulls on a structural member, the particles composing the material move apart and undergo tension. Tension forces stretch and elongate the material. The amount of elongation depends on the stiffness of the material, cross sectional area, and the magnitude of the load.

COMPRESSION FORCES A compression force produces the opposite effect of a tension force. When an external load pushes on a structural member, the particles of the material compact together. Compression forces result in the shortening of the material.

Subject Glossary Structural joints


Environmentally Sustainable Design(ESD)



For this week lecture learning • plastic bowl model • straw • construction system system • structural system details

• Performance&Requirements: object'sSafety&Stability

By using the Cross bracing in order to meet the requirements of Safety & Stability

Week 3 Subject glossary • Moment –

The moment of a force is the tendency to make an object or a point rotate. •

• Slab on the ground

  A force will only produce a moment about a point if it is applied at a distance from that point along a line of action that does not pass through the point. •   Moments are measured by the product of the force magnitude and the perpendicular distance between the line of the action of the force and the point (this distance is called the moment arm). • Moments also have magnitude and sense. Since moments are the product of force and distance, the units are expressed in Newton-meter (Nm) or Kilonewton-meter (kNm).    Mo = F x d (i.e. moment = force x distance)

Concrete slabs-on-grade supported directly by the earth and thickened to carry wall and column loads form an economical foundation and floor system for one- and two-story structures in climates where little or no ground frost occurs

• Pad Footings: Also called isolated footings, these type of footing help to spread a point over a wider area of ground

• Retaining walls:

are used when sites are excavated to create basement or where changes in site levels need to be stabilized. The pressure load of the earth behind the wall need to be considered to prevent the wall from over turning

• Strip Footings: used when loads from a wall or a series of columns is spread in a linear manner

Week4 Subject Glossary Span • •

is the distance measured • between two structural supports. can be measured between vertical supports (for a horizontal member) or between horizontal supports (for a vertical member). is not necessarily the same as the length of a member.

Spacing • •

Span & Spacing

is the repeating distance between a series of like or similar elements. is often associated with supporting elements (such as beams, columns etc.) and can be measured horizontally or vertically. is generally measured centre-line to centre-line.

SPACING of the supporting elements depends on the SPANNING capabilities of the supported elements

Girders • Structural girders are used to construct a part of skeleton frame for structures ranging in size from one-story buildings to skyscrapers. Joists • There are many different kinds of joist: Steel joists, wood joists, etc. (This is a example of wood joists framing

Steel decking

Concrete Planks • Precast concrete planks are part of floor deck

Week 5 Subject Glossary •STUDS & NOGGINGS



Week 6 Subject Glossary •

Alloy -- Non-Ferrous metals

Image retrieved from

• Cantilever

• Rafter & Purling

• Eave & Soffit

Week 7 Subject Glossary •Insulation

•Vapor retarder

•Down pipe

Image retrieved from:



•Insulation •Sealants



Week 8 Subject Glossary •Deflection

•Moment of inertia

•Stress & Shearing force

•Window Sash

•Door furniture Door hard ware Door hinges Door Locksets

Image retrieved from:

Week 9 Subject Glossary •

Sandwich panels – generally consist of two outer metal sheets (steel, aluminum, other) with a stabilizing core of insulation sandwiched between them.

Image and information retrieved from: +definition

• Skirting

Image retrieved from:

• Shadow line joint –

This type of joint is recommended for engineered stone/manufactured stone.

• Bending

• Cornice Image and information retrieved from:

Week 10 Subject Glossary •Shear Wall •For equilibrium, the overturning moment must be counterbalanced by an external restoring moment and an internal resisting moment provided by forces developed in column members and shear walls.

•Soft storey It is relatively flexible in the ground storey, i.e., the relative horizontal displacement it undergoes in the ground storey is much larger than what each of the storey above it does. This flexible ground storey is also called soft storey.

Image and information retrieved from: ies/2005121000870300.htm

• Life cycle

• Defect

• Fascias

• Braced Frame Image retrieved from: http://www.mci sica-soffitguttering

Activity: Workshop Materials & Tools •

Plywood – –

Pine – –

1200mm span Weak in tension

Nail –

1200mm span Strong in compression when placed vertically

Reinforcement for connection

Screws –

May make a weakness point

Destructive Test Our designing structure collapses at the point when the load applied on it, it just reach about 430KG. It should be wider so that can reduce the bending stress

The crack is at where we use the drill to screw the plywood and pine, it makes a weakness point.

Comparison with other group

•This group uses the triangle to reinforce its structure which is a good way but the triangle itself is more stable than the structural itself which will reduce the stiffness

Reference list Ching, F. D. K. (2008). Building construction illusrated (4th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure of ESD, Retrieved from docid=s-Rf9Qv140UFoM&tbnid=7XPj2B2F-sro5M:&ved=0CAYQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbunnco 2922401,d.dGI&psig=AFQjCNEQtQgYByvowcWWoZHnlD9wiqDxEg&ust=1395422171285334

All the pictures are took individually.

•  Ching, F. D. K. (2008). Building construction illustrated (4th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (reedited by Tiancheng Zhu 692083) •    Images  and  information  are  retrieved  below   the pictures. • Other pictures are took personally.

tianchengz logbook final submission