Page 1

Mobilehome and Trailer Parks

relatively affordable housing in Encinitas California

Prepared for the

City of Encinitas By

Thomas P. Kerr, Inc. 2007-2008 Consulting Assignment


THOMAS P. KERR, Inc. Monagement and Consulting Seruices

3807 PasadenaAve., Suite 100 Sacramento,California95821 Telephone: (976) 97 l-0489

September 17,2008

PatrickMurphy Planning andBuilding Director Cityof Encinitas 505S. VulcanAvenue Encinitas CA 92024-3633 DearMr.Murphy: We arepleased to submitour FinalReportof thestudyof the 11 mobilehome parksin Encinitas, andtheirresidents. Thiswrittenreportis basedon andexpandsuponthe two presentations thatwe madeto the CityCouncil on June25,2007andFebruary 20,2009. In thosepresentations and in thisreport,we haveprovided the Citywitha perspective on the mobilehome/manufactured homeindustry, an extensive evaluation of the mobilehome and trailerparksin Encinitas, an assessment of thetrendsoccurring in thoseparks,an understanding of the concernsexpressed by parkresidents in theirresponses to the survey, andan analysisof regulatory andnon-regulatory alternatives. Themostimportant consideration is thateachof the 11 mobilehome parksin Encinitas is different.Policyandplanningdecisions needto considerthe uniqueroleeachfulfillsin the Encinitas housing market. We acknowledge the assistance, support,andinvolvement of Citystaff,particularly current HousingCoordinator RonBarefield, AssistantPlannerMichaelStiong, andformerSenior PlannerDavidde Cordova. Aboveal!,we appreciate the understanding andobjectivity of City CouncilmembersJerome -tt/aggie Stocks(Mayor2007),JamesBond(Mayor2007), TeresaBarth, Houlihan, and Dan Dalager.Theirconcernfor a balanceof stakeholders' interests canachievethe longtermgoal of preserving parksas relatively mobilehome affordable housingin Encinitas. we appreciate the opportunity to servethe city of Encinitas.Thankyou.

rug,fu

Mobilehome ParksConsultant


Contents

Part I

Explanation of Industry Terms and Trends

Page 1

Part II

Survey of Encinitas Mobilehome and Trailer Parks

Page 11

Part III

Trends in Encinitas Mobilehome and Trailer Parks

Page 56

Part IV Encinitas Residents’ Concerns and Regulatory and Non-Regulatory Alternatives

Page 66

Attachments A Questionnaire mailed for Survey of Park Residents B Summary of Responses to Resident Survey C California Jurisdictions with Mobilehome Rent Stabilization Ordinances D Comparison of State law and local ordinances relating to Mobilehome Park Closures E Qualifications of Consultant: Thomas P. Kerr, Inc.


Part I: Explanation of Industry Terms and Trends Mobilehomes “Mobilehomes� are generally considered to be units manufactured from the mid-1960s to June 14, 1976. Mobilehomes manufactured during this time period were built to construction standards set by the State of California. Financing can be difficult to obtain for mobilehomes. Examples of mobilehomes are:

Illustration 1: Doublewide Mobilehome

Illustration 2: Singlewide Mobilehome

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Manufactured Homes Manufactured Homes are built to the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act – referred to as the “HUD Code” – which went into effect on June 15, 1976. The federal act requires approvals of the design and specifications for homes and for factory inspections of homes. Financing is readily available for homes built to the HUD Code.

Illustration 3: Manufactured Home: HUD Code

Illustration 4: Manufactured Home: HUD Code

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Mobilehome and Manufactured Homes in California

California: Mobile/Manufactured Home Shipments 1970-2006 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 70

85

00

The peak production years of the 1970s were when the greatest growth in the number of mobilehome parks and the number of spaces occurred in California. Most of the mobilehome parks built then were for an “adults only” market, and nearly 99% of the mobilehomes were installed on spaces in mobilehome parks on rented spaces. Mobilehomes were still taxed on a depreciating schedule like vehicles and taxes went down each year. Mobilehome park living attracted “empty nesters” that had seen property taxes on their conventional single-family homes keep going up because of rising real estate prices and reassessment of their property to market value. They were also attracted by the range of amenities provided in the newer, larger mobilehome parks: well-designed clubhouses with card rooms, billiard tables, an assembly area for potlucks and entertainment; swimming pools and whirlpool spas. As most of the new residents were of the same about-to-retire or early retirement age, had common backgrounds and similar economic positions in life, they found a sense of community in mobilehome park living. The decline in sales of new manufactured homes in California began in 1978. A significant factor was the passage of Proposition in June 1978, which rolled back assessed values, lowered property taxes, and limited future increases in property taxes. Homeowners were less motivated to move into mobilehome parks. An issue that frequently came up whenever a developer proposed building a new mobilehome park was the contention by local government officials that “mobilehomes don’t pay their fair share.” Believing that sales of new manufactured homes could be increased if that hurdle to develop of new communities was removed, the industry sponsored legislation to put manufactured homes on the property tax rolls. The proposal became law in 1981, and new manufactured homes sited in California since then are taxed the same way as a conventional single-family home. But sales continued to decline, in part attributable to the fact that property taxes on new homes would increase in the years ahead, rather than go down on a depreciating schedule. As retail sales declined and manufactured homes lost market share, development of new manufactured home communities virtually came to a stop. Very few new manufactured home

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


communities have been developed since the early 1980s, especially in the San Diego County market area. The focus of the industry shifted toward non-park placement of manufactured homes. The industry also sought to build better homes with more features to meet the desires of consumers. Dry wall construction replaced paneling in the interiors of homes. Prices of new homes rose. Sales continued to decline, especially during the 1990s. While there was some rebound in sales of new manufactured homes in the period 2001 to 2005, the trend has resumed its downward path. In 2006, only 8,281 new manufactured homes were sold. Less than half of those – about 4,000 homes – were sited in mobilehome parks and manufactured housing communities. And for the most part, the new homes that went into mobilehome parks replaced mobilehomes originally sold in the 1970s. Mobilehome Residency Law Over the past 35 years, the Legislature has enacted a comprehensive scheme of laws regulating the mobilehome park tenant-landlord relationship that is known as the “Mobilehome Residency Law (MRL). The MRL is found at Civil Code Section 798 et seq. Some of the major provisions of the MRL are: •

The tenancy of an owner of a mobilehome who rents a space in a mobilehome park can only be terminated “for cause.” The MRL limits the basis for termination of tenancy to only seven causes (see Civil Code Section 798.56).

Owners of mobilehomes must be given at least 90 days notice of an increase in rent.

Park residents have rights to assemble, to meet, to canvass, and to invite speakers.

Park management is required to meet and consult on park rules, maintenance, and rental agreements.

Mobilehome owners have the right to resell their mobilehomes to remain on the space.

Management is limited in its ability to deny tenancy to the buyer of a resale mobilehome. Tenancy cannot be denied if the buyer has the financial ability to pay the rent and charges of the mobilehome park, unless the applicant has had a negative record in prior tenancies.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Recreational Vehicles A Recreational Vehicle (RV) is a vehicle designed as temporary living quarters for recreational camping, travel or seasonal use. RVs may have their own motor power (as in the case of motor homes); may be mounted (as are truck campers); or towed by another vehicle (as are travel trailers and folding camping trailers). RVs are built to industry standards developed by the Recreational Vehicle Industry Association (RVIA) in conjunction with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and the National Electrical Code (NEC). Manufacturers that are members of the RVIA pledge to use equipment, materials and processes that meet these standards and their products are subject to inspection by RVIA. RVs are generally transportable on the highways by their owners without a special permit. No permit is required to install a RV; however it must meet State Codes for connection to electric, water, and wastewater utilities. RVs are financed on essentially the same term as automobiles and other vehicles.

I

Illustration 5: Motor home

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Illustration 6: Travel Trailer

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


“Park Model” RVs Recreational park trailers or “park models” are 400-square foot movable resort cottages that are designed exclusively for part-time recreational use. Typically upscale in appearance, they often include hardwood floors, bay windows and lofts as well as cherry, oak or maple cabinetry. They also are very affordable, with prices starting in the $30,000 range. Because park models are technically classified as recreational vehicles, they can be set up on leased or purchased sites in campgrounds and RV parks and used as weekend retreats or seasonal vacation dwellings.

Illustration 7: Park Model RV

Mobilehome Residency Law, RVs, and the Recreational Vehicle Occupancy Law The rights and protections afforded to mobilehome owners by the Mobilehome Residency Law apply to owners of trailers, travel trailers, and 5th wheel trailers that have been sited on a rented space in a mobilehome park for nine or more months. The MRL does not apply to motor homes, or truck-mounted campers. All of the rights of a mobilehome owner under the MRL are extended to a qualifying RV owner except the right to resell the RV to remain on the space. The Recreational Vehicle Occupancy Law applies to RVs that are sited in RV parks (as differentiated from mobilehome parks) or in a separately-designated RV section of a mobilehome park.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Trailers and Trailer Coaches The State of California did not have any standards for the manufacture of trailers and trailer coaches until 1958. Trailers that were built in the early to mid-1950’s were not wider than 8 feet nor longer than 40 feet and therefore did not require a permit to be moved on the highways. The trailers could be moved from one trailer park to another by their owners.

Illustration 8: 1950s-vintage 8’-wide trailer

Illustration 9: Another 1950s-vintage 8’-wide trailer

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


In response to consumer demand, manufacturers began to build wider and longer units. But they first had to persuade the Highway Patrol and the Legislature to allow 10’-wide trailer coaches to be moved on the highways. By the late 1950s, 10-wides had become the industry standard, soon to be challenged by the 12’-wide and multi-section homes.

Illustration 10: late 1950’s or early 1960’s 10’-wide trailer coach

Other than the rare times that a seller will carry a note, financing is largely unobtainable for these trailers and trailer coaches built in the 1950s and 1960s. Consequently, resale prices of older trailers are limited to the amount of cash that a prospective buyer has to purchase the trailer outright. Typically, when the old 8’-wide and 10’-wide trailers are pulled out today, they are replaced by Park Model RVs because new manufactured homes are not built to such narrow widths; unless, of course, the space is wide enough and long enough to site a new manufactured home.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Trailer Park or Mobilehome Park?

Trailer Park

Mobilehome Park

Built in the late 1940s (or earlier) and 1950s when owners towed trailers.

Built mid-1960s to 1976 with mostly pre-HUD Code homes

Small spaces for small trailers

Developed to accommodate units that require permits to be moved on the highway.

“Trailer parks” have since been renamed as “mobilehome parks”

Larger lots – lower density.

Mobilehome Parks Act In 1961, the State of California preempted local ordinances on the construction and operation of trailer parks (soon to be called mobilehome parks) with the enactment of what is now the Mobilehome Parks Act in the Health and Safety Code, Section 18200 et seq. The Mobilehome Parks Act is administered by the California Department of Housing and Community Development (HCD) which has adopted regulations – Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2 – to implement the Mobilehome Parks Act. HCD is the agency responsible for enforcement of the Mobilehome Parks Act (MPA) unless a city or county has opted to be the enforcement agency. Encinitas has no building permit or inspection authority inside mobilehome parks because it has not assumed enforcement responsibility. Today’s State regulations are not necessarily retroactive to older trailer parks and mobilehome parks. If a mobilehome park was constructed in accordance with the regulations in effect at the time, and has been properly maintained in a safe condition and has not been altered, then the park is a complying park. This is a significant consideration in relation to the older trailer parks in Encinitas.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Part II: Survey of Encinitas Mobilehome and Trailer Parks There are 11 mobilehome parks in Encinitas in four areas of the city: In New Encinitas: Park Encinitas Green Valley Mobile Estates On Vulcan Avenue between Encinitas Boulevard and La Costa Avenue: Sea Aire Mobilehome Park Riviera Mobilehome Park Trailer Rancho On the North Highway 101 Corridor: Shamrock Trailer Park The Sands In Leucadia: Valley of Dreams Beacon’s Beach Village Wee Mobile Home Court Hilltop Trailer Park

Illustration 11: Mobilehome Park & Trailer Park Locations in City of Encinitas

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


While each is “unique” in its own right, there are similarities among the eleven mobilehome parks that make possible some grouping by type based on the market they appeal to and location. Ten of the mobilehome and trailer parks fit into three categories or groups: • Mobilehome parks that are zoned MHP, • Leucadia parks that exemplify the “beach lifestyle”, and • Parks that are primarily RVs and park-owned rental units. The eleventh park does not clearly fit into any of the three categories.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Table 1 groups the eleven Encinitas mobilehome parks by their similarities, identifies the number of spaces in each that is permitted by the Operating Permit issued by the California Department of Housing and Community Development, and whether the park restricts tenancy based upon the age of the residents.

Table 1: Grouping Parks by Similarities Zoning Mobilehome Parks – Zoned MHP Park Encinitas 155 spaces 444 N. El Camino Real Green Valley Mobile Estates 350 N. El Camino Real Riviera Mobile Home Park 699 N. Vulcan Ave. Leucadia Beach Lifestyle Valley of Dreams 123 Jasper St.

81 spaces

Age Restricted?

MHP

Age 55

MHP

Age 55

147 spaces + 20 RV N-MHP

No

45 spaces

R11

No

Beacon’s Beach Village 170 Diana St.

28 spaces

R11

No

Wee Mobile Home Court 159 Diana St.

8 spaces

R11

No

Hilltop Trailer Park 155 W. Jason St.

22 spaces

R11

No

The Sands 1624 N. Hwy 101

56 spaces

N-CRM-1

No

82 spaces

N-R25

No

61 spaces

N-CRM-2

No

49 spaces

N-R25

No

RVs and Park-owned units Trailer Rancho 1549 N. Vulcan Ave. Shamrock Trailer Park 152 N. Hwy. 101 Other Sea Aire Mobile Home Park 523 N. Vulcan Ave.

Total Number of Spaces per Operating Permits:

13

754

Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


One mobilehome park – Green Valley Mobile Estates – has three fewer spaces than allowed by the Operating Permit; spaces were combined to create some extra-large spaces. There are additional dwelling units – conventionally-built residences – in four other mobilehome parks. Table 2 identifies the total current mobilehome and RV spaces, and additional dwelling units, within each of the eleven mobilehome parks. Table 2: Mobilehome Spaces, RV Spaces, additional dwellings Mobilehome spaces Mobilehome Parks – Zoned MHP Park Encinitas Green Valley Mobile Estates Riviera Mobile Home Park

155 78 147

Leucadia Beach Lifestyle Valley of Dreams Beacon’s Beach Village Wee Mobile Home Court Hilltop Trailer Park The Sands

45 28 8 22 56

RVs and Park-owned units Trailer Rancho Shamrock Trailer Park

82 61

Other Sea Aire Mobile Home Park

49

Totals

14

731 Mobilehome

RV Spaces

Additional Dwellings

20

3 2 1

2

20 RV

Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas

8


Table 3 compares the eleven mobilehome and trailer parks on the basis of the total number of dwelling units in each property, the size of the parcel that is used for spaces and dwelling units, and the current zoning. The higher density – typically 25 units to the acre – of the older trailer parks is readily apparent as compared to the two relatively newer mobilehome parks – Park Encinitas and Green Valley – developed in 1968 and 1972 and designed to accommodate larger, more modern mobilehomes. Encinitas Planning Ordinances presently allow the following densities in these zones: MHP 11 dwelling units to the acre R11 11 dwelling units to the acre R25 25 dwelling units to the acre N-CRM 1 25 dwelling units to the acre N-CRM 2 15 dwelling units to the acre The “N” designation preceding the current zoning on five mobilehome parks designate that the properties are located within the North 101 Corridor Specific Plan and may be subject to additional development restrictions beyond the normal city zoning requirements. Table 3: Dwellings, Parcel Size, Density Dwelling units Permitted

Parcel Size (Acres)

Density Per Acre

Zoning

155 spaces 81 spaces 147 sps + 20 RV sps

25.23 14.45 11.50

6.14 5.62 14.52

MHP MHP N-MHP

Leucadia Beach Lifestyle Valley of Dreams Beacon’s Beach Village Wee Mobile Home Court Hilltop Trailer Park The Sands

45 sps + 3 apts 28 sps + 2 apts 8 sps + 1 apt 22 spaces 56 spaces

2.00 1.14 0.35 1.15 1.75

24.00 26.32 25.71 19.13 32.00

R11 R11 R11 R11 N-CRM-1

RVs and Park-owned units Trailer Rancho Shamrock Trailer Park

82 spaces 61 spaces+ 2 apts.

2.70 2.52

30.37* 25.00

N-R25 N-CRM-2

49 spaces

1.63

30.06

N-R25

Mobilehome Parks – Zoned MHP Park Encinitas Green Valley Mobile Estates Riviera Mobile Home Park

Other Sea Aire Mobile Home Park

*An additional .91 acre is undeveloped and used for parking and RV storage at Trailer Rancho

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Table 4 provides the Assessor's Parcel Number (APN), the parcel size, the current assessed valuation, and zoning for each of the mobilehome parks. One mobilehome park – Park Encinitas – was subdivided into individual lots in 1984 and sold to the residents. Table 4: APN, Parcel Size, Current Assessed Valuation, Zoning Assessor’s Parcel Number Mobilehome Parks – Zoned MHP Park Encinitas Green Valley Mobile Estates Riviera Mobile Home Park Leucadia Beach Lifestyle Valley of Dreams Beacon’s Beach Village Wee Mobile Home Court Hilltop Trailer Park The Sands RVs and Park-owned units Trailer Rancho Shamrock Trailer Park Other Sea Aire Mobile Home Park

16

Individually-owned lots 2570306600 2561004400

2543121100 2542900800 2543020800 2542303300 2540222700

2540520900 & 2540522200 2563920700

2560900800

Parcel Size (Acres)

2006-2007 Assessed Valuation

Zoning

14.45 11.50

varies $1,455,242 $1,014,382

MHP MHP N-MHP

2.00 1.14 0.35 1.15 1.75

$1,962,979 $1,308,652 $322,117 $241,228 $1,533,528

R11 R11 R11 R11 N-CRM-1

0.91+2.70

$608,667

N-R25

2.52

$1,337,850

N-CRM-2

1.63

$1,225,029

N-R25

Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Spaces in the older trailer parks are typically too small to accommodate the new larger manufactured homes that require at least 100 amp electric service.

Table 5 – Approximate Age of Mobilehome/Trailer Parks, Electric Service Year Built Mobilehome Parks – Zoned MHP Park Encinitas Green Valley Mobile Estates Riviera Mobile Home Park

Leucadia Beach Lifestyle Valley of Dreams

(stated or estimated by park owner)

Space Size

Electric Service

1969

Large: able to accommodate newer manufactured homes Large: able to accommodate newer manufactured homes Varies: Many can accommodate shorter new singlewide homes; some larger new homes

50 Amp/100 Amp

Small: some can accommodate shorter new manufactured homes Small: difficult to accommodate new manufactured homes Small: can accommodate some newer manufactured homes Small: difficult to accommodate new manufactured homes Small: restricts to new Park Model RVs

30 Amp

1974

1950s, early 1970s, 1974

1950s?

Beacon’s Beach Village

1950s?

Wee Mobile Home Court

1950s?

Hilltop Trailer Park

1959

The Sands

1948

RVs and Park-owned units Trailer Rancho Shamrock Trailer Park

Other Sea Aire Mobile Home Park

17

1953 1952, may date from 1930s as campground Est. 1960 (probably earlier)

Small: new occupancies restricted to RVs less than 40’ Small: cannot take any unit longer than 30’

Varies: some very small lots, a few smaller mobilehomes

100 Amp

50Amp/100Amp

30 Amp 100 Amp

30 Amp 30 Amp

30 Amp 30 Amp/50 Amp

30 Amp

Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Most of the mobilehome parks in Encinitas are characterized by individual and family ownerships that have owned the parks for many years. There is considerable local ownership and direct involvement of the owners in the management of the mobilehome parks. Seven of the mobilehome parks – Trailer Rancho, Shamrock, Green Valley, Riviera, Hilltop, and Sea Aire are owned by San Diego residents. Park Encinitas is resident-owned and managed by an elected Board of Directors. Two parks – Valley of Dreams and Beacon’s Beach -- are managed by a property management firm in Encinitas (in Cardiff-by-the-Sea) for owners who live in Central Coast California. The owner of the smallest park – Wee Mobile Home Court -- lives in nearby Orange County and maintains a second home in the park. The owner of The Sands lives in Phoenix, Arizona but is actively involved in operations. Table 6 identifies the park owner; the year the park owner purchased the property, and whether the park owner is a San Diego resident. Table 6: Park Owner, Year Purchased, San Diego County Residents Mobilehome Park Trailer Rancho Shamrock Trailer Park Green Valley Mobile Estates Riviera Mobile Home Park Wee Mobile Home Court Hilltop Trailer Park Park Encinitas Valley of Dreams Beacon’s Beach Village Sea Aire Mobilehome Park The Sands 1 2

Owner

Year Purchased

Vallone Family Wood Family Johnston Family Anderson Family Greg Johnson Oxley/Gabrych Families Individual lot ownership Campbell Family Campbell Family Bruce Kleege Sands Encinitas LLC

1964 1972 1974 1974 1978 1979 1984 1999 1999 2000 2005

San Diego County Residents? Yes Yes Yes Yes No1 Yes Yes No2 No2 Yes No

Owner maintains a second residence in the park for frequent use. Campbells use Hunter Properties of Cardiff-by-the-Sea as their property manager. Six of the mobilehome parks are owned and managed by the families' second generation: Trailer Rancho, Shamrock, Green Valley, Riviera, and Hilltop.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


The owners of the leased-land mobilehome parks typically give rent concessions to long-term residents. Generally, a resident moves into the mobilehome park at the then-prevailing market rent. The increases given to continuing residents typically result in rents that remain well below the market rent charged to new residents. The increases given to long-term residents have been modest. In some instances, because the park owners are local and directly involved in ownership and management, park owners have provided substantial rent reductions to longterm residents whose incomes have fallen well below inflation. The exception to this approach is The Sands, where rents for all spaces have been brought up close to market. The owner of The Sands has also proposed to subdivide the mobilehome park and sell the lots to residents. As the rents of long-term residents vary considerably due to the different rent levels at which they began their tenancies, park owners were asked to provide rents for “a representative longterm resident” from 2001 to 2004 and to 2007 for comparison. The rents presented in Table 7 are not those of all residents, but are representative of the increases that one or more long-term residents experienced over the time periods. Excluding The Sands, the highest percentage increases occurred among the parks with the lowest rents in 2001, and rents for long-term tenants at those parks remain below those of other comparable properties. Table 7: Space rents charged to representative long-term residents from 2001 to 2007

Mobilehome Parks – Zoned MHP Park Encinitas* Green Valley ME Riviera Singlewide Riviera Doublewide Leucadia Beach Lifestyle Valley of Dreams Beacon’s Beach Village Wee MH Court Hilltop Trailer Park The Sands

RVs and Parkowned units Trailer Rancho Shamrock Trailer Park Other Sea Aire MHP

2001

2002

2003

2004

$110 $383

$110 $

$110 $

$120 $421

%age change 2001 2005 to 2004

2006

2007

%age change 2001 to 2007

$135 $

$138 $497

25% 30%

9% 10%

$135 $

$391.50 $405.25 $421.25 $435.35

10%

$451.35 $469.45 $485.95

24%

$497.25 $514.75 $535.10 $553.00

11%

$573.35 $596.35 $617.30

24%

$460 $450

$470 $465

$485 $480

$510 $505

11% 12%

$520 $515

$545 $540

$624 $619

36% 38%

$475 $380

$535 $390

$535 $400

$565 $410

19% 8%

$565 $460

$600 $520

$600 $520

26% 37%

$440

$600

$675

53% (’02-‘04)

$786

$875

$908

106% (’02-‘04)

$435 $500

$475 $525

$510 $550

$567 $600

30% 20%

$607 $635

$615 $675

$645.75 $720

48% 44%

$240

$265

$290

$315

31%

$340

$365

$393.50

64%

*Monthly homeowner association fees are shown for Park Encinitas.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


The “market rents” at which new residents move into the mobilehome parks when they enter into a rental agreement or lease for a space are typically higher than the rents long-term residents pay. Table 8 lists the market rents that new applicants were being quoted when park owners or management were interviewed in Spring 2007. Table 8: Current Space rents and other charges to incoming new renters Rent

Water

Sewer

Refuse

Mobilehome Parks – Zoned MHP Park Encinitas* Green Valley Mobile Estates Riviera Mobile Home Park - Singlewide Riviera Mobile Home Park - Doublewide

$138* $690-$785 $795 $1,045

Included Included Included Included

Included Included Included Included

Included Included Included Included

Leucadia Beach Lifestyle Valley of Dreams Beacon’s Beach Village Wee Mobile Home Court Hilltop Trailer Park The Sands

$750 $750 $700 $550 $920

Submetered Submetered Submetered Included Included

Included Included Included Included Included

Included Included Included Included Included

RVs and Park-owned units Trailer Rancho Shamrock Trailer Park

$685 $800

Submetered Submetered

$16.36 $14.42

$6.12 $8.85

Other Sea Aire Mobile Home Park

$475

Submetered

$16.17

$6.67

*Monthly HOA fees. Note: Residents are also billed for submetered gas and electric service on SDG&E rates.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


In addition to having spaces available for rent – or in the case of Park Encinitas, for purchase – five of the eleven mobilehome parks have park-owned mobilehomes or RVs, or other dwelling units, for rent. Table 9 identifies the total number of units available for dwellings, the number of park-owned mobilehomes or RVs that are offered for rent, and any other conventionally constructed dwellings that are available for rent. Table 9: Park-owned mobilehomes/RVs and other rental dwellings Total Park-owned Dwelling Units Mobiles/RVs * offered for rent

Other Dwellings * for rent

Mobilehome Parks – Zoned MHP Park Encinitas Green Valley Mobile Estates Riviera Mobile Home Park

155 78 167

0 3 0

0 0 0

Leucadia Beach Lifestyle Valley of Dreams Beacon’s Beach Village Wee Mobile Home Court Hilltop Trailer Park The Sands

45 28 9 22 56

2 2 0 0 0

3 2 0 0 0

RVs and Park-owned units Trailer Rancho Shamrock Trailer Park

82 61

20 34

0 2

Not otherwise classified Sea Aire Mobile Home Park

49

0

0

*

Does not include any park-owned units used as dwellings for resident on-site managers or park owner use.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Mobilehome Parks Zoned MHP Three mobilehome parks are zoned MHP: Park Encinitas Green Valley Mobile Estates Riviera Mobile Home Park

155 subdivided lots 81 spaces 147 spaces

These three mobilehome parks comprise 51% of all the lots/spaces in Encinitas. At two of the mobilehome parks – Park Encinitas and Green Valley – at least one person in the household must be age 55 or older. Thirty-one percent (31%) of all lots/spaces in Encinitas are age-restricted. Park Encinitas 444 N. El Camino Real

Illustration 12: Park Encinitas: Aerial photograph Spaces: 155

Acres: 25.23 Density: 6.14 units per acre.

Zoning: MHP

Originally built in 1969 as a mobilehome park where the spaces were rented, the park was subdivided into individual lots in 1984 that were sold to the then-park residents. A homeowners' association manages and maintains the mobilehome park.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Illustration 13: Park Encinitas: Interior View

Illustration 14: Park Encinitas View Lots

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Purchase and subdivision of the mobilehome park in 1984 was initiated by a group of Park Encinitas residents. Most of the lots originally sold for $20,000 and $22,000 depending upon location and view, based upon the then-existing rent schedule; a few premium lots with exceptional views and locations sold for $25,000. Today, early 1970s-vintage mobilehomes like the one pictured below and the lots on which they are located are selling for $225,000 to $250,000.

Illustration 15: Park Encinitas: early 1970s-vintage mobilehome

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


The older homes, however, are being removed and replaced with new manufactured homes. The new homes and lots are selling for $350,000 to $390,000.

Illustration 16: Park Encinitas: New manufactured home For the most part, buyers are paying all cash for the homes and lots. As buyers are age 55 or older, retired or “empty nesters,” they have typically sold a conventional single-family home and have a large equity to invest in a new home in Park Encinitas. With a monthly homeowners association fee of $138.00 that includes water, sewer, refuse, and cable television, the monthly cost at Park Encinitas can be exceptionally low for a couple without a mortgage payment. About 10% of the homes are owned as vacation homes. Park Encinitas has a large, attractive clubhouse with an assembly room, kitchen with restaurantsize stove for group meal functions, a TV/library room, and an office. Additional amenities include an exercise room and a laundry; a swimming pool and hydro pool; and a shuffleboard court. There is individual mail service to each space. RV storage area is available The park is well-located to shopping, medical offices, and other services, although it is on busy El Camino Real. There is a security gate at the rear exit of the park.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Park Encinitas is very well-maintained. The main entrance street was resurfaced with Petromat and is in excellent condition. Other interior streets will need resurfacing in the near future. Although Park Encinitas is nearly 40 years old, the utility systems are reported to be in good condition. Some residents of Park Encinitas believe their mobilehome park should not be included in this study because (a) it is resident-owned and (b) they do not consider themselves to be “low income.” There are four good reasons why Park Encinitas is included in this study and report: 1. Park Encinitas is a mobilehome park. It was built as a mobilehome park and will remain as a mobilehome park. It has an Operating Permit from the State of California as a mobilehome park. The only change in the status of Park Encinitas has been the form of ownership. 2. The City of Encinitas considers all mobilehome park lots – including those at Park Encinitas – to be an important part of its existing housing. 3. Subdivision of mobilehome parks is an increasing – and sometimes controversial – trend. Park Encinitas provides an example of successful conversion of a mobilehome park to resident ownership for the City. Other cities will look at this study and report; it would not be complete without including Park Encinitas. 4. The consultant and city staff were told that there are at least 25 low-income households in Park Encinitas. These homeowners are likely to be original residents of Park Encinitas living in 1970s-vintage mobilehomes. A major thrust of this study is to learn about and provide information about the availability of funds to help residents maintain their homes. These residents may need new roofs, new entry steps or ramps, or safety and other improvements so they can continue to live in their homes. The low-income households at Park Encinitas should not be excluded from these programs. By consensus, the City Council concurred that Park Encinitas should remain in the study and report.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Green Valley Mobile Estates 350 N. El Camino Real

Illustration 17: Green Valley Mobile Estates: Aerial photograph Spaces: 78

Acres: 14.45 Density: 5.62 units per acre.

Zoning: MHP

Green Valley Mobile Estates is the newest mobilehome park in Encinitas -- it was built in 1974 – and has the lowest density. Like Park Encinitas, Green Valley is terraced. But unlike Park Encinitas, every space is a view lot. Existing homes in Green Valley are selling for $80,000 to $150,000. New buyers are paying space rents of $690 to $785; water, sewer, and refuse are included. Unlike Park Encinitas, existing homes are not being removed to be replaced with new manufactured homes. There are perhaps several explanations for this difference. The homes are “pit set” (see photograph following) which makes installation and removal of homes more expensive. Many of the homes were manufactured after July 15, 1976 and financing is more readily available and affordable for existing homes in Green Valley than in Park Encinitas. Ownership of the land makes removal and replacement with a more expensive home more attractive at Park Encinitas than at Green Valley where spaces are rented and multi-year longterm leases have not been offered to new purchasers.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Purchasers of existing homes have frequently done extensive remodeling of the homes, however.

Illustration 18: Green Valley Mobile Estates - Terraced spaces with views

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


The homes at Green Valley are “pit set:� the spaces are excavated so the homes can be set lower on the space giving the homeowner a level entry into the home. While it is more expensive to install a home to give it a level entry, there is a distinct advantage to not having to climb entry stairs and decks as homeowners age.

Illustration 19: Green Valley Mobile Estates - Level Entry to "pit set" homes

Green Valley has an attractive clubhouse at the top of the mobilehome park, with an assembly room, kitchen, billiards room, a small exercise room, and a laundry. Amenities include a swimming pool and hydro pool. Mail service is not provided to individual spaces; mail is delivered to boxes that are set four to a post along the internal streets. The real estate brokerage and property management office of the park owners is on the property, and one of the family members and his office staff manage Green Valley. Green Valley is also off of El Camino Real. Green Valley is adjacent to portions of Park Encinitas. Green Valley is equally well-located to shopping, medical offices, transportation, and other services.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Riviera Mobile Home Park 699 Vulcan Avenue

Illustration 20: Riviera Mobile Home Park: Aerial photograph

Spaces: 167

Acres: 11.50 Density: 14.52 units per acre.

Zoning: N- MHP

Riviera Mobile Home Park was built in phases: 100 spaces date from the 1950s; 36 spaces were added in the early 1970s; and a final addition of 20 RV spaces and 11 mobilehome spaces was added in 1974. Unlike Park Encinitas and Green Valley which are “age 55 parks,” Riviera does not have any age restrictions and it is open to families with children.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Because Riviera was built in phases, there is considerable variance in the size of the spaces and the age, size, and type of homes in it, with everything ranging from old 8'-wide trailers to new two-section manufactured homes to motor homes in the RV section. The mix of units results in a less uniform, more diverse appearance than in Park Encinitas and Green Valley as illustrated in this photograph.

Illustration 21: Riviera Mobile Estates - Interior Street View

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


New homes are also replacing older existing homes in Riviera. For example, the new 2007 manufactured home shown below has one bedroom and one bath; it is approximately 504 square feet in size (14 feet by 36 feet). The selling price is $63,500. Initial space rent to a new purchaser is $795 per month.

Illustration 22: Riviera Mobile Home Park - New 504sf manufactured home for $63,500 Riviera has a recreation building that is used primarily for residents' family functions: birthdays, wedding receptions, holiday parties. It has a large assembly area, and a kitchen that is exceptionally well-designed for group meal preparing and serving. The building also contains a game room. Additional amenities include a swimming pool and laundry. The park office is in a separate small building. The existing shuffleboard is anticipated to be renovated as a play area. Mail service is to the individual space. A member of the family that owns Riviera resides on the property and is the park manager. Riviera's park-owned electrical distribution system was replaced and/or upgraded in 1997, reflecting a commitment to long-term continued operation of the property as a mobilehome park. The sewer is cast iron pipe and management reports it to be in excellent condition. The gas system has cathodic protection. The water system was replaced with PVC in 1971. Riviera is located on Vulcan Ave., in good proximity to shopping, schools, and other services. Public transit bus service is available at the park entrance.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Riviera has a separately-designated RV section consisting of 20 spaces. While other parks in Encinitas have Recreation Vehicles on spaces, Riviera is the only park with spaces specifically developed and designated as RV spaces. Tenancies in this section of Riviera are governed by the Recreational Vehicle Occupancy Law rather than the Mobilehome Residency Law. Spaces in this section are rented on a short-term basis – nightly and weekly – as well as monthly.

Illustration 23: Riviera Mobile Home Park: RV section consists of 20 spaces

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Leucadia Beach-Lifestyle Trailer Parks Five mobilehome parks are oriented toward “life at the beach:” Valley of Dreams 45 spaces Beacon’s Beach Village 28 spaces Wee Mobilehome Court 8 spaces Hilltop Trailer Park 22 spaces The Sands 56 spaces There are a total of 159 spaces in these five parks which is 21% of the total spaces in Encinitas mobilehome parks. These parks are all older parks built in the 1950s or earlier as “trailer parks” with small spaces for small trailers. All are zoned R11 except The Sands which is zoned N-CRM-1. Valley of Dreams 123 Jasper Street

Illustration 24: Valley of Dreams: Aerial photograph Spaces: 45+3 apts.

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Acres: 2.00

Density: 24.00 units per acre.

Zoning: R11

Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


There is a mix of older trailers and singlewide mobilehomes, some newer short manufactured homes, and a Park Model RV in Valley of Dreams.

Illustration25: Valley of Dreams: Interior Street View 1 Valley of Dreams is well-maintained; the streets were resurfaced in Spring 2007. The property manager reports that the owners have an ongoing program of replacing electrical pedestals at the spaces, doing maintenance and repairs as needed. The park's 30 amp electrical system, however, limits the size and electrical capacity of new homes. In many instances, structures have been added to the trailers and mobilehomes to maximize living area. In some – or many – cases, these additions may have been constructed years ago without permits or inspection. In some cases, there may not be compliance with the setback, lot coverage limitations, and safety requirements of the Mobilehome Parks Act. Sales of existing mobilehomes have been as high as $130,000 to $150,000. Space rent for a new incoming renter is $750 per month, including sewer and refuse; water is submetered. The property manager reports that 10 spaces are rented to persons whose mailing address is other than the park address. It is not certain whether the units on those spaces are used as vacation homes, rented to subtenants, or occupied by persons who choose not to use the park address as their mailing address.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Illustration 26: Valley of Dreams: Interior Street View 2 In addition to the 45 mobilehome spaces, there are three apartment units in Valley of Dreams. One bedroom, one bath units rent for $1,000 to $1,200 per month. There is no on-site manager at Valley of the Dreams. The property is managed locally by a property management company in Cardiff-by-the-Sea. It is a short walk up the hill from Valley of Dreams to the popular and well-known surfing spot of Beacon's Beach. Single-family homes and condominiums in the area sell for $1 million and more.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Beacon’s Beach Village 170 Diana Street

Illustration 27: Beacon’s Beach Village: Aerial photograph Spaces: 28+2 apts.

Acres: 1.14

Density: 26.32 units per acre.

Zoning: R11

Beacon’s Beach Village is owned by the same family that owns Valley of Dreams, and is managed by Hunter Properties, the property management company in Cardiff-by-the-Sea. There is no on-site park manager. The park has a neat and well-maintained appearance for an older trailer park. There has not been any major replacement or upgrading of utility systems in Beacon’s Beach. There are a number of well-kept older trailers in Beacon’s Beach as can be seen in the photograph that follows. Space rents for incoming new renters are $750 per month, including sewer and refuse; water is submetered. There are two apartment units in Beacon’s Beach; a large studio rents for $870 per month, and a one bedroom for $925 per month. The park owns two one bedroom mobilehomes that rent for $875 and $1,000 per month.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Illustration 28: Beacon’s Beach Village: Interior Street View

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Wee Mobile Home Court 159 Diana St.

Illustration 29: Wee Mobile Home Court: Aerial photograph Spaces: 8+1 apt.

Acres: 0.35

Density: 25.71 units per acre.

Zoning: R11

At only eight spaces, Wee Mobile Home Court is the smallest of the 11 mobilehome parks in Encinitas. A new laundry building was under construction in Spring 2007 that also added an apartment intended for use by park management. At the present time, there is no on-site resident manager. The owner, who lives in nearby Orange County, maintains a second home in Wee Mobile Home Court (a Park Model RV) and visits frequently. He is active in the management of the Park and the construction projects undertaken there recently. Wee Mobile Home Court probably dates from the early 1950s. New underground 100 amp electric service has been installed. New gas lines have been installed. New electric, gas, and water submitters have also been installed. The park owner reports the main sewer line is in good condition, and new sewer laterals were installed. The next phase of work includes interior street and driveway resurfacing.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Space rents for incoming residents are $700 per month including sewer (water is submetered). The park owner is offering a 5-year lease with annual increases capped at the increase in the Consumer Price Index. The spaces in Wee Mobile Home Court are small; too short for most new manufactured homes. Two new households relocated from El Morro Mobilehome Park in Laguna Beach when it closed. They found Wee Mobile Home Court and decided to put new homes there. They wanted two-story manufactured homes, but the spaces would not accommodate homes 38 feet in length which is the minimum length manufacturers build two-story homes. Instead, the homeowners bought manufactured homes that are 36 feet in length, installed those and constructed second floors which were approved by the State of California as “cabanas.” The second story cabanas were constructed on site following engineered plans approved by the California Department of Housing and Community Development that include steel perimeter supports for the second stories. Construction was inspected and approved by HCD. The homes are about 25 feet in height.

Illustration30: Wee MHC: Manufactured homes with second story cabanas One other one-story conventional new manufactured home has been installed at Wee. The park owner indicates that four of the eight spaces in Wee Mobile Home Court are utilized as second homes.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Homeowners have asked the park owner to consider subdividing Wee Mobile Home Court into individual lots. He has indicated a willingness to consider subdivision.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Hilltop Trailer Park 155 W. Jason St.

Illustration 31: Hilltop Trailer Park: Aerial photograph Spaces: 22

Acres: 1.15

Density: 19.13 units per acre.

Zoning: R11

Hilltop Trailer Park was built in 1959. The park owner expresses a desire to maintain the “'50s ambience” of the park. Her family has owned the park since 1979 and she is the second generation owner. There are 21 singlewide mobilehomes and one new doublewide mobilehome in the park. One mobilehome is park-owned. Presently there is no on-site manager. In Spring 2007, Hilltop had the lowest rent for new incoming residents of any of the mobilehome parks in Encinitas: $555 per month including water, sewer, and refuse. The park's ability to take in new units is restricted by both the small size of the spaces and the 30 amp electrical system. Although two or three spaces have been upgraded to 50 amps, the electrical distribution system needs to be upgraded for the long term. The other utility systems – water, gas, and possibly sewer – would also warrant upgrading but doing so is constrained by engineering and costs. The park owner does not report any significant problems with any of the utilities.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


The laundry building was refurbished and painted in 2007. The streets are in good condition, but are about due for resealing.

Illustration 32: Hilltop Trailer Park: Interior View

A new manufactured home was installed in Hilltop in 2006. The home was being offered for sale in Spring 2007 for $290,000 to $300,000.

Illustration 33: Hilltop: Doublewide Manufactured Home

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


By comparison, a 1960 trailer coach in Hilltop that has been extensively remodeled (according to the listing) was for sale for “under $235,000” in Spring 2007. The remodeling has been such that the trailer coach is no longer visible. The listing reads: “Surfers Paradise. Room addition in 2000, full remodel in 2004. New Bathroom with beautiful tile, Brand new kitchen with center island, copper plumbing, new windows, new cabinets, Maple cabinets, High Speed Wiring throughout, Pre-wired for surround sound. Pergo floors. You cannot get this close to the beach for the price!!!”

Illustration 34: Hilltop: 1960 Trailer Coach for "under $235,000"

The owner of Hilltop Trailer Park indicates that the family intends continued long-term ownership of the mobilehome park.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


The Sands 1624 N. Highway 101

Illustration 35: The Sands: Aerial photograph

Spaces: 56

Acres: 1.75

Density: 32.00 units per acre.

Zoning: N-CRM-1

The Sands has undergone the most dramatic transformation of the Leucadia mobilehome parks. Reputed to have been a very rundown and disreputable trailer park, most of the old trailers have been removed from The Sands and replaced by new Park Model RVs. The Sands has also been the most controversial. A few longtime residents with old trailers remain. Space rents have been increased significantly and, unlike most of the other Encinitas park owners, the owner of The Sands has not given concessions to long-term residents. The park owner has proposed to the City of Encinitas that the park be subdivided into individual lots. That application is pending. A number of residents have spoken strongly in opposition to subdivision; the main issue seems to be a difference of opinion as to the value of the lots. Space rent for incoming residents is $920 per month and includes water, sewer, and refuse. The Sands offers a 12-month rental agreement at the inception of new tenancies; those roll over into standard month-to-month tenancies. According to park management, 25 of the units in The Sands are owned as vacation homes.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Illustration 36: The Sands: Interior View

The electric and gas utility systems were replaced in 2002, although the electric system remains at only 30 amp capacity. The on-site park manager reports that the water and sewer system are in good condition. The Sands dates from about 1948. The spaces at The Sands are among the smallest in all of the Leucadia parks – 25'x30’ and 25'x40’ – and the park has the highest density at 32 units to the acre. The current park owner and his predecessors turned to Park Model RVs as the way to upgrade the units in the park. The dimensions of Park Model RVs are consistent with the small size of the old trailer park spaces. Park Model RVs cannot exceed 400 square feet in size. At The Sands, however, a loft is raised to create a second story that adds about 195 square feet of additional living area. The modification is technically not a “second story.” The units are referred to as “modified RVs.” The finished Park Model RVs with engineered and inspected two-level free-standing decks sell for $175,000 to $190,000.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Illustration 37: The Sands: Modified Park Model RV with raised loft and decks The owners of Park Model RVs, like the owners of travel trailers, who have occupied a space within a mobilehome park for nine months or more, receive the benefits of the provisions of the Mobilehome Residency Law except the right to resell the Park Model RV on the rented space. Some owners of Park Model RVs in The Sands have been told that they must remove their units at the time of any sale unless they bring the units up to the standard of the newer ones being sold. They can typically do so by adding a room and/or deck. The Sands has a well-qualified on-site management team.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Primarily RVs and Park-owned Units Two mobilehome parks rent spaces primarily to Recreation Vehicles and rent park-owned mobilehomes or travel trailers as apartment-style rentals. These two mobilehome parks are: Trailer Rancho Shamrock Trailer Park

82 spaces 61 spaces

There are a total of 143 spaces in this category, accounting for 18.9% of all spaces in Encinitas. Both parks are older parks with small spaces. Trailer Rancho 1549 N. Vulcan St.

Illustration 38: Trailer Rancho: Aerial photograph Spaces: 82 Acres: 2.70* Density: 30.37 units per acre. Zoning: N-R25 * An additional .91 acre is undeveloped and used for parking and RV storage

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


The owner of Trailer Rancho is quick to point out that his park ranks third in number of spaces among the mobilehome parks in Encinitas; it has 4 more spaces than Green Valley. Green Valley has more acreage, but Trailer Rancho has more spaces. Trailer Rancho was built in 1953. The current owners have owned it since 1964. The park is presently operated with 62 spaces for rent and 20 park-owned mobilehomes. One of the park-owned mobilehomes is for the on-site manager. There is only one mobilehome in the park that is not owned by the park owner. Spaces are rented to recreational vehicles for $685 per month plus submetered water and charges for sewer and refuse. Ten-year leases have been offered to some tenants; those who have been long-term residents. About 15 to 20 people have entered into the long-term leases. Spaces at Trailer Rancho are too small to accommodate 40-foot long travel trailers and motor homes, somewhat restricting the park's ability to reach its target market of affluent RV owners. Consequently, the park had a half dozen or more vacant spaces in Spring 2007. These were expected to be filled during the summer.

Illustration 39: Trailer Rancho: Interior view

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


The park is well-maintained. The internal streets are in very good condition. The electric, gas, and water systems were replaced in 1982. Electrical capacity remains at 30 amp though. The park owner reports that the original cast iron sewer system is in good condition. Trailer Rancho has a small recreation room -- with a fairly new billiards table – in the same building as the park office. There are two laundry buildings. A building with men's and women's restrooms and showers has been upgraded to ADA standards. Park management recently spent about $11,000 installing new USPS-approved central mailboxes. All of the common facilities are well-maintained, especially considering the age of the property. A few of the RVs are used as vacation units, but most of the RVs and the park-owned mobilehomes are occupied by persons employed in the general North County area, according to park management.

I

Illustration 40: Trailer Rancho Interior View

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Rents for park-owned mobilehomes in Trailer Rancho are $775 per month for one bedroom/1bath units (typically 475 square feet) and $950 per month for 2 bedroom/1 bath units.

Illustration 41: Trailer Rancho: Park-owned 1 bedroom/1 bath mobilehome $775/mo.

The owner of Trailer Rancho retains an outside property management firm to oversee day-today operations and to supervise the on-site management team, but the owner also remains active in the ownership and supervision of the property as a second generation owner-operator. The owner anticipates continued operation of Trailer Rancho with possible new emphasis on renting to Park Model RVs.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Shamrock Trailer Park 152 N. Coast Highway 101

Illustration 42: Shamrock Trailer Park: Aerial photograph Spaces: 62+2 apts

Acres: 2.52

Density: 25.00 units per acre.

Zoning: N-CRM-2

Shamrock Trailer Park may well be the oldest mobilehome/trailer park in Encinitas. The current owner relates that it may have begun in the 1930s as a campground. It is known to have existed before World War II. Although the park has a Highway 101 address, there is little frontage on the highway; only a driveway access from Highway 101 to the mobilehome park. The mobilehome park lies behind commercial uses: a restaurant and car sales and repair lots. The property is zoned N-CRM-2 which, if the current use is ever changed, would allow for a mix of commercial and residential uses consistent with the North Highway 101 Specific Plan. There are 62 spaces at Shamrock Trailer Park. One space is occupied by a mobilehome that is used as the park office and property management office for the owner. Of the remaining 61 spaces, 30 spaces are occupied by 5th wheel trailers and travel trailers that are owned by the park owner. These units rent for $835 to $895 per month. The park also has two small rental apartments.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


In Spring 2007, 13 of the 31 spaces available for resident-owned units were vacant. Higher occupancy was anticipated during the summer months. Space rents to new tenants are $800 per month. Because the spaces are small, new rentals are restricted to shorter recreational vehicles. Shamrock is unique in that space rents include maintenance of all spaces: mowing grass, watering the lawn areas three times per week, and keeping everything well-trimmed and orderly. The park presents a very uniform and crisp appearance in contrast to many older trailer parks.

Illustration 43: Shamrock Trailer Park: Interior view The park owner reports that the park utility systems are in good condition. The water system was redone in the 1980s. Electrical service is 30 amps and 50 amps at some spaces. The internal streets are in good condition and sealed on a regular basis. The only common facility is a laundry. The current owner purchased Shamrock Trailer Park in 1972. Her son is actively involved in second generation management. They intend continued ownership of Shamrock Trailer Park, with no changes anticipated, and continuing to invest in maintenance of the property and its systems.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Other While ten of the mobilehome and trailer parks in Encinitas fit well into one of three categories, the eleventh park does not. It is not zoned MHP, nor is it located amongst the Leucadia beachlifestyle oriented parks, nor is it a mix of RVs and park-owned mobilehomes or trailers. The eleventh trailer park is: Sea Aire Mobile Home Park 49 spaces This park accounts for 6.5% of the spaces in Encinitas. Sea Aire Mobile Home Park 523 N. Vulcan

Illustration 44: Sea Aire Mobile Home Park: Aerial photograph Spaces: 49

Acres: 1.63

Density: 30.06 units per acre.

Zoning: N-R25

The current park owner estimates that Sea Aire Mobile Home Park originated about 1960. But judging from the size of the spaces and the density, it is more likely to date from at least the 1950s.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


The park is a mix of very old trailers, trailer coaches, travel trailers and motor homes, a few mobilehomes, and one Park Model RV. Maintenance of the individual units ranges from very poor to fairly good.

Illustration 45: Sea Aire Mobile Home Park: Interior View Sea Aire is the only one of the trailer parks to have a swimming pool. The park owner says the pool is “in great shape” and that appears to be true. The park also has a laundry room. The park owner says the utility systems are in “pretty good shape,” acknowledging that there have been some water and electrical problems but describing those as relatively minor. Sea Aire has many trees for a small property; however, tree roots can be a big problem for old sewer systems such as the one at Sea Aire. The park’s 30 amps electrical system limits the size and type of units that can be sited. The park owner says the internal streets were overlaid in 2002 and are scheduled for sealing every three years. Space rents at Sea Aire are the lowest of all the mobilehome and trailer parks in Encinitas. New tenants pay $475 per month space rent plus submetered water and charges for sewer and refuse. There were no vacancies in Spring 2007. The current owner purchased Sea Aire in 2000. He says he purchased the property as a longterm investment and intends continued ownership with no changes anticipated.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Part III: Trends in Encinitas Mobilehome and Trailer Parks Removal of old units and replacement with Park Model RVs Several examples illustrate the removal of old units and replacement with new Park Model RVs. This trend is primarily occurring in the beach lifestyle parks in Leucadia. The most striking example of removal of old units and replacement with new Park Model RVs has been in The Sands, discussed in the preceding Parks Survey section of this report. In Hilltop Trailer Park, an old 1950’s vintage trailer was found by the state Department of Housing and Community Development to no longer be habitable. It was purchased by a couple from Orange County in order to obtain the leasehold interest in the space. The consultant was told that they had paid $80,000 for the 8’-wide trailer.

Illustration 46: Spring 2007 - $80,000 1950s-vintage 8’-wide trailer pullout

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


The old trailer was replaced by a newer, used Park Model RV that the purchasers anticipated would cost about $35,000, plus transportation and setup. Assuming a cost of about $60,000 to $70,000 to haul off and dispose of the old trailer, acquire the Park Model, set it up, and add new steps – added to the $80,000 they paid for the old trailer and leasehold interest in the space – the Orange County couple has a “place at the beach” for less than $150,000 plus space rent of about $700 per month.

Illustration 47: February 2008 - Newer Park Model RV replaces old 1950s trailer

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


The communities within the City of Encinitas strive to maintain their individual identities, and some residents are strong advocates to “Keep Leucadia Funky.” Perhaps a classic example of “Funky Leucadia” was this older singlewide trailer coach in Evergreen Trailer Park (before the name was upgraded to Beacon’s Beach Village).

Illustration 48: Spring 2007 -“Funky Leucadia” – singlewide trailer

But the trailer coach was found to be termite-infested and had to be removed.

Illustration 49: November 2007 - “Funky” trailer removed

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


But by the early part of 2008, the one-time “funky” trailer had been replaced with a new Park Model RV.

Illustration 50: New Park Model RV replaces “funky”old trailer While there is surely disappointment that some of the “funkiness” of Leucadia has been lost, the new Park Model RV provides a better, safer, larger dwelling unit. The replacement of “funky” with new and up-to-date in the trailer park is a reflection of what is happening throughout the Leucadia where multi-million dollar homes are rising where beach cottages once stood.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


“Upgrading” and remodeling of trailer coaches Spaces in the Leucadia beach lifestyle parks are small and so are the trailers. Over the years, residents have expanded the living areas of the trailers by constructing additions. There is concern whether these site-built add-ons have been done with inspections and permits, and comply with State regulations.

Illustration 51: “Upgrading” Leucadia style

Illustration 52: Well-maintained trailer coach with screen room

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Updating and remodeling of mobilehomes and manufactured homes Updating of mobilehomes and manufactured homes has occurred in both Park Encinitas and Green Valley. The resident survey provided additional information about this trend.

Illustration 53: Early 1970s mobilehome in Park Encinitas has been updated with new windows and new siding.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Replacement of mobilehomes with new manufactured homes Replacement of early 1970s mobilehomes in Park Encinitas with new manufactured homes -where subdivided lots and new homes sell for upwards of $350,000 -- was discussed in the preceding Parks Survey section of this report.

Illustration 9: New manufactured home in Park Encinitas

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Demand for beach lifestyle Just as the price of conventional single-family homes and condominiums west of Highway 101 in Leucadia has skyrocketed, so too have the resale prices of older trailers in the beach lifestyle trailer parks.

Illustration 10: A new name for Evergreen Trailer Park to better reflect its prime location and better market the “beach lifestyle� the park offers.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Other Trends Prospect of future development of manufactured housing communities is unlikely With land values approaching $1 million or more per acre in the North San Diego County Coastal Area, development of new manufactured home communities is unlikely. No new manufactured home communities have been built in San Diego County since the 1980s. Coastal communities like Encinitas are less likely to see new manufactured home communities built because of high land costs. Living in Encinitas mobilehome parks is “Relatively” Affordable These were comparative housing costs in Encinitas during the time of the study: Median Prices of Homes 20061 • Single-family resale: • Condominium resale: • New (all)

$ 802,500 $ 467,000 $ 1,392,500

Median Prices of Homes 20072 • Single-family resale: • Condominium resale: • New (all)

$ $ $

Apartment Rents Spring 20073 • Studio: • 1 Bedroom • 2 Bedroom • 3 Bedroom

$ 777 per month $ 1,066 $ 1,548 $ 1,782

835,000 465,000 664,250

A prospective purchaser would compare the costs, for example, of a single-family home or condominium to Park Encinitas where one would pay $225,000 for a 1970s mobilehome and lot, or $350,000 for a new manufactured home and lot. These prices have been particularly attractive to persons age 55 and older who sold homes that had appreciated in the strong real estate market and who could move to Encinitas, pay cash for a new residence, and have money left in the bank. The consultant was asked by City staff: “What would be the monthly cost to a buyer of a home at Riviera, for example?” The consultant’s response was: “That depends on what you are planning to buy at Riviera, where there is a considerable mix of housing units and costs.” In Spring 2007 a prospective purchaser could choose from these active listings: • A travel trailer with an add-on room for $29,000 plus space rent of $795 per month.

1

& 2 Source: SignOnSanDiego: sdhomes – San Diego County Home Sales, 2007 year-end report.

3

San Diego County Apartment Association: Spring 2007 Vacancy & Rental Rate Survey

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• A new 1 bedroom/1 bath manufactured home for $63,000 plus space rent of $795 per month. The monthly cost of payment on the home and space rent would be greater than the cost to rent a 1 bedroom apartment, but the resident would own the home. • A 2002 1 bedroom/1 bath manufactured home for $89,900 plus space rent of $795 per month. • A 2003 3 bedroom/2 bath manufactured home for $195-215,000 plus space rent of $1,095 per month. A buyer would find four wide price ranges within a single mobilehome park. The “old rule of thumb” is that the monthly cost to purchase a mobilehome is 1% of its cost. Using that assumption, the monthly payment for $80,000 manufactured home in Riviera or Valley of the Dreams would be $800 per month. Add to it, $750 to $800 per month for space rent, and the monthly cost would be $1550 to $1600. While that is higher than the cost to rent a 1 bedroom apartment in Encinitas in Spring 2007, the purchaser of a manufactured home on a rented space would have the prospect of building equity. The purchaser of a mobilehome or manufactured home in Valley of the Dreams or one of the other Leucadia coastal parks would be able to “live the beach lifestyle” at a fraction of what it would cost his or her neighbors living in conventional single-family homes.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Part IV: Encinitas Park Residents’ Concerns and Regulatory and Non-Regulatory Alternatives Resident Survey Staff of the City of Encinitas and the consultant worked on a three-page questionnaire over Summer 2007. The final version was developed by Assistant Planner Michael Strong. The design and layout of the questionnaire by Planner Strong, in the consultant’s opinion, was a significant factor in the high response rate from park residents. A cover letter and the questionnaire (as two sides of an 11”x17” folded sheet) were mailed to the residents of all 11 mobilehome parks by the City in mid-October 2007 (see Attachment A). A follow up effort was made in mid-November 2007. The City received 303 responses from park residents, resulting in a response rate of 39 percent. However, because of some duplication and incomplete responses, the effective sample sizes for most questions ranged from 275 to 298 respondents. Sixty responses were received from people owning travel trailers, 5th wheel trailers, and motor homes; more than half – 60% of RV owners – own travel trailers. Twenty-six responses were from people owning Park Model RVs. Data was input by City staff into an Excel spreadsheet and converted into a database by the consultant. The consultant prepared a series of database reports and tables for analysis with City staff. City staff prepared a detailed summary of the data and reports (see Attachment B.) An overview of the survey and explanation of the meaning of the more significant matters of importance to park residents and to the City was presented by the consultant at a City Council meeting on February 20, 2007. The discussion that follows is an expanded version of that presentation.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


What residents Like Best about mobilehome living Among those residents for whom an Encinitas mobilehome park is their primary residence, nearly everyone felt the ability to “Own my own unit” was one of the factors they liked best. “I like my neighbors” was a factor less important in the larger mobilehome parks, especially among those residents who moved into the parks from 1990 to the present time. Being “Close to important things” was an especially significant factor among those living in the parks where residency is restricted to persons age 55 and older (Park Encinitas and Green Valley). “I feel safe” was a more important consideration to longer-term residents. The feeling that “I can afford it” – living in a mobilehome park – was important to 84% of residents at Green Valley but a consideration for only 50% of the residents at Riviera. The sense that their mobilehome provides “Comfortable living space” was cited as a benefit by many residents. Residents’ Greatest Concerns Residents’ greatest concerns can be summed up in three main categories: 

Increasing Rents and Not Owning my Space.



Park Closure.



Resident-Management Relations.

In addition, residents and city officials were concerned about the age and condition of the trailers, trailer coaches, mobilehomes, and manufactured homes in the parks.

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Why mobilehome park rents increase The factors park owners consider when increasing rents Park owners and property managers who between them own or operate several hundred mobilehome parks – with probably 3,000 or more spaces – explained to the consultant their views on why rents in mobilehome parks increase. They attribute rent increases primarily to two considerations: •

Increases in Operating Costs.

Increases in the Value of the mobilehome park space relative to other Housing.

Operating cost increases: streets and utility systems Park owners say the costs to replace park systems are very expensive and not part of the Consumer Price Index. Streets are the most visible part of a mobilehome park’s infrastructure. Asphalt repairs are about 70 percent higher than 3 years ago. The cost of asphalt increased about 24 percent in 2007. (A city public works department will likely attest to the increased costs of street maintenance.) Park utility systems – electric, gas, water, and sewer -- are also expensive to maintain or replace, as are swimming pools, spas, recreation and laundry buildings, and other amenities. The newest mobilehome parks in Encinitas – Park Encinitas and Green Valley – are “only” 30 to 35 years. But most of the parks are 50 to 60 years old. They were originally built as interim uses of the land, and the utility systems – especially the electric distribution systems – do not meet the demands of new manufactured homes. Operating cost increases: other factors Park owners and property managers report that Insurance costs – for liability insurance, employee health insurance, and for worker’s compensation insurance -- have risen dramatically. As one property manager explains, “Residents have more and bigger vehicles, and more appliances in their homes; these impose greater demands on common facilities and park utility systems.” To remain competitive in the overall Housing market, park owners need to upgrade and modernize their facilities. “We are required to do more for our residents than in the past.” Park owners find government regulations and insurance companies require that they use outside contractors for jobs that were formerly done by on-site staff. Park operations need to be more sophisticated. Paperwork is more abundant, more complicated, and more expensive. There is greater need for legal advice and assistance. One park owner/property manager said: “The cost to make parks better and to maintain parks to current standards is more expensive than when they were built.”

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Increases in the relative value of mobilehome park land and spaces There was a tremendous run-up in the values of conventional homes and developable land in California in the 2002 to 2007 time period. Condominium prices increased. Apartment rents increased as the housing market turned in 2007 from easy purchase to rental housing. The real estate Principle of Substitution applies: Typically, the monthly cost of payments to purchase a mobilehome and to rent a space is about equal to the rent for a comparable apartment. Park owners say that while increases in operating costs and financing costs are important considerations, the increased cost and value of comparable housing is more and more the determining factor in setting rents.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


The impact of Inflation on park residents Consumer Price Index increases in 2007 From 2006 to 2007 consumer prices in the San Diego metropolitan area rose 2.3 percent according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor. Prices associated with housing rose 2.6 percent in 2007. Housing consists of three components: shelter, fuels and utilities, and household furnishings and operations. The shelter component – most relevant to increases in rent – rose 3.1 percent. Gasoline prices rose 7.4 percent in 2007, compared to 13.9 percent in 2006. Prices for food and beverage rose 4.1 percent in 2007. Grocery prices, represented by the food at home index, rose 2.3 percent from 2006 to 2007. While the overall San Diego metro area CPI rose only 2.3 percent in 2007, it is the costs of shelter (up 3.1 percent), gasoline (7.4 percent), and groceries (2.3 percent), that mobilehome park residents feel most. And while the overall annual rate of increase was relatively low, consumers know that prices rose sharply in the second half of 2007. Inflation: Impact on Senior Citizens Social Security adjustments are based on the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers, the CPI-W. The CPI-W reflects how younger urban workers spend their money and substitute products when prices fluctuate. Social Security adjustments are based on CPI-W increases in the July through September quarter from one year to the next. Older Americans spend a disproportionate share of their household budgets on health care. Since health care costs are rising fast – and cannot be substituted for something cheaper – seniors would be better served if their cost of living increase (COLA) is based on a different consumer price index. The 1987 Amendments to the Older Americans Act directed the Bureau of Labor Statistics to develop an experimental index – CPI-E – for Americans who are age 62 and older. The CPI-E’s annual growth has been mostly greater than the CPI-W. The difference between the CPI-E and the CPI-W was highest – 0.93 – almost a percentage point, in 1986. The difference declined to zero in 1995 and 2000, and then increased again – 0.20 to 0.45 – less than half a point. Congress has not acted to require the CPI-E to determine seniors’ Social Security cost of living adjustments.

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Inflation’s squeeze on park residents But because the CPI and Social Security adjustments look backward – to the changes in prior time periods – and not to what is happening now or in the months ahead – seniors and other park residents will feel sharply the current increased costs for goods and services, especially increases in the prices for groceries and gasoline. Lower interest rates have also reduced the yield on safe investments such as money market funds and certificates of deposit, providing a double whammy for seniors whose Social Security increase for 2008 will not be enough to keep up with the inflation they will experience. Mobilehome space rent increases in Encinitas parks Owners and property managers told the consultant that mobilehome park rent increases in Southern California were mostly in the 3 percent to 5 percent range. Those are “pure” rent increases. The mobilehome parks these owners and property managers are referring to have submetered water and are billing separately for water, sewer, and refuse. The 3 percent to 5 percent rent increases are exclusive of increases in water, sewer, and refuse costs that park owners have passed on to residents as separate utility charges. Water, sewer, and refuse increases are typically greater than increases in the Consumer Price Index. Utility districts and refuse companies say environmental regulation and operating cost increases exceed the CPI. Water, sewer, and refuse costs are included in the monthly space rents or homeowners’ fee at Park Encinitas, Green Valley, Riviera, Hilltop, and The Sands. Valley of the Dreams, Beacon’s Beach, and Wee Mobile Home Court submeter water, but sewer and refuse is included in the monthly rent. Only Trailer Rancho, Shamrock, and Sea Aire submeter water and also charge the per space cost for sewer and refuse. Accordingly, when increases in rents at the mobilehome parks are evaluated, there must be analysis of which utilities are included and the impact of utility rate increases on park operating costs.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Regulatory and Non-Regulatory Alternatives Having identified the problems and issues, the next step in the consulting assignment is to provide the City with an overview of alternatives that might be available to the City of Encinitas. We look at alternatives ranging from those that require direct city involvement as a regulatory agency to those that are non-regulatory and based on voluntary participation of park owners or are existing programs that are available to park residents relating first to Rents and later to Park Closures.

Rents: Regulatory Alternatives State law regulating increase of mobilehome park rents California’s Mobilehome Residency Law requires 90 days notice of rent increase to owners of mobilehomes and manufactured homes, and to owners of recreational vehicles that have occupied the space for more than 9 months. State law does not limit the amount of rent increase (except when a mobilehome park is subdivided), nor the frequency. Local rent control ordinances A local rent control ordinance provides benefits to residents living in the mobilehome park at the time the ordinance is enacted. Limits on the amount and frequency of increases can provide some insulation from the effects of inflation on park operating costs and, more likely, from increases in the value of the land which they rent from the park owner. But to be effective and fair, governing bodies enacting rent controls have to wrestle with difficult questions: • How will rents be adjusted? Will an annual automatic rent adjustment be permitted? Will increases be limited to a percentage range? Or to the change in the CPI? Or limited to a percentage of the CPI increase? Will there be a mechanism for discretionary rent increases? Will capital improvements or other pass-throughs be allowed? •

Who will hear appeals? The city council sitting as the rent control board? An appointed, separate rent control board? Or a hearing officer? Who will bear the costs of appeals? What will be the documentation and legal costs to the applicant, residents, and city?

Can “affordability” be maintained? While controls on space rents in mobilehome parks in other coastal California cities and counties have kept rents low, the resale prices of mobilehomes have risen substantially. In Capitola, for example, space rents have been held to in the $250 to $300 range, but the resale prices for 1960s and early 1970s mobilehomes have risen to $250,000 to $500,000. Nonetheless, some 100 cities and several counties control mobilehome park rents, and provide a broad range of experiences. (See Attachment C.)

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Rents: Non-Regulatory Alternatives Park owners’ rent subsidies The survey of mobilehome parks and residents identified that several park owners are providing rent subsidies to some residents. Currently these are informal programs that arise largely because the parks are family-owned and have been in the same ownership for many years. As a result, park owners are more aware of which of their residents are having difficulty keeping up with inflation. The park owners have often not increased the rents of long-term, elderly residents. The City could assist these park owners in creating more structured, independentlyadministered rent subsidy programs funded by the park owners. City rent subsidy programs Other cities – among them Escondido and Vista – use Redevelopment Agency funds to provide rent subsidy programs. Encinitas does not have a Redevelopment Agency; therefore, this source of funds is not available to the city. A mobilehome park rent subsidy program was recently established in the City of Modesto that is a joint park owners-city effort. Assistance will be targeted to seniors at or below 50 percent of the area median income. Park owners will contribute $20.00 per space annually, generating $28,000 annually. The City would match the park owners’ contributions with either general funds or Redevelopment Agency set-aside funds. Administrative costs are not expected to exceed 30 percent of the $56,000 from the park owners and the city. Section 8 Housing Choice Vouchers Mobilehome park residents can qualify for Section 8 rental assistance programs of the U.S. Department of Housing & Urban Development. Under Section 8, a qualified resident pays 30 percent to 40 percent of their income toward rent, and receives a voucher for the remainder up to the Section 8 limit. The survey identified that a few residents in one Encinitas mobilehome park receive rent assistance under Section 8. Representative Bob Filner of San Diego has introduced legislation to make Section 8 more available to applicants who rent space in a mobilehome park. The Section 8 program, however, has long waiting lists. Priority on Section 8 waiting lists is given to: Families with two or more persons living together in a family-type relationship; Persons age 62 years and older; or Disabled or handicapped persons who are at least 18 years old. Long-Term Leases Over the years, the mobilehome park relationship has evolved from month-to-month rental agreements to multi-year leases. Long-term leases are, in effect, “private rent control.” Leases typically provide for annual increases based on the Consumer Price Index with a floor and a cap, for pass-through of increases in insurance, property taxes, and capital improvements. Leases can be as long as 30 years, but are more typically 5 or 10 years with renewal provisions. The Mobilehome Residency Law specifies how mobilehome owners must be given options to sign month-to-month or one-year rental agreements.

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State law exempts long-term leases from rent controls if the leases conform to the requirements of the Mobilehome Residency Law. State Programs to assist homeowners and renters Mobilehome owners can benefit from a number of programs that the State of California provides to assist homeowners and renters. These include: • Homeowner Assistance Program allows a once-a-year payment to qualified individuals based on part of the property taxes assessed and paid on their homes. For 2007, the maximum amount of assistance an eligible homeowner may receive is $472.60. Those eligible are: persons age 62 or older, blind or disabled; who lived in their own home; and had a total household income of $42,770 or less. • Renter Assistance Program allows a once-a-year payment to renters based on part of the property taxes they indirectly paid. The maximum amount of assistance in 2007 is $347.50. Those eligible are: persons age 62 or older, blind, or disabled; lived in a qualified rented residence in California; paid $500 or more in monthly rent; and had a total household income of $42,770 or less. • Non-refundable Renter’s Tax Credit Program is a personal income tax credit that can be used to offset a tax liability. • Property Tax Postponement Program allows eligible homeowners to postpone payment of part or all of the property taxes on their residence. The homeowner must complete and submit a claim form each year to the State Controller’s Office. Upon approval of the claim, the homeowner receives a Certificate of Eligibility to submit to the county tax collector to postpone the property taxes due. To secure the postponed amount, the State records a lien against the property. Interest is charged on postponed taxes on a simple interest basis. The postponed amount and interest are not due until either the homeowner moves from the qualified property, or sells or conveys title to the home, or dies and does not have a spouse, registered domestic partner, or other qualified individual who continues to reside in the home, or future property taxes or other senior liens are allowed to become delinquent. The homeowner can pay all or part of the obligation before it becomes due. SDG&E Utility Discount and Rebate Programs Programs are available through San Diego Gas & Electric Company to assist mobilehome park residents with the rising cost of gas and electric services. Park residents can qualify for these programs even though gas and electric services are not provided directly to them, but are provided on a submetered basis through the park distribution systems. The California Alternative Rates for Energy (CARE) program provides a 20% discount off the gas and electricity bill for income-qualified households. For households with three or more persons, the Family Electric Rate Assistance (FERA) program provides a discount on electricity costs once the household’s energy usage reaches certain levels. Eligible households will be enrolled in either CARE or FERA, but not both programs.

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Households eligible for CARE or FERA are those currently receiving benefits from WIC, Healthy Families, Medi-Cal, LIHEAP, Food Stamps, or TANF programs; or those whose yearly household income before deductions is no more than the income level in the following guidelines: Number of persons in household

CARE

FERA

1 or 2

$29,300

Not eligible

3

$34,400

$34,401 – 43,000

4

$41,500

$41,501 – 51,800

5

$48,600

$48,601 – 60,600

6

$55,700

$55,701 – 69,400

Each additional person

$7,100

$7,100 – 8,800

SDG&E also has a program that provides rebates when consumers purchase new energyefficient furnaces, room air conditioners, whole house fans, water heaters, and refrigerators. Energy-efficient products save money by improving overall energy performance in homes.

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Why Mobilehome Parks Close The factors that lead to the closure of a mobilehome park – typically an older, small trailer park – are: • • • •

Functional and economic obsolescence. Planning and redevelopment considerations. Impact of rent controls. Land value exceeds the value of the current income-producing use.

A combination of two or more of these factors can lead to the decision by the owner to discontinue operation of the property as a trailer park or mobilehome park. Functional and economic obsolescence Most frequently in California, the mobilehome parks that close are old, small trailer parks that have outlived their physical lives and the economics of continued operation are unfavorable. Current and projected rental income is viewed as not sufficient to make replacement of aged and often failing utility systems financially feasible. Without major upgrades, the property will be unable to attract a clientele that will generate increased income. Planning and redevelopment considerations Trailer parks and mobilehome parks were developed as interim uses of the land in the 1950s and 1960s. Forty or fifty years later, the property has become desirable for redevelopment to a “higher and better” use that will improve the community appearance and generate increased property tax and/or sales tax revenue. A new development with a higher density will enable more people to live on the property in newer, better living conditions. Impact of rent controls Local rent controls may have severely restricted both current and potential future income, created antagonism and frustration between the property owner and local government officials as well as between the park owner and residents. The financial, political, legal, and emotional toll of rent control could lead the owner to decide to go out of the mobilehome park business. Land value exceeds the value of the current income-producing use The value of the property as vacant land might become greater than its current value based upon the income it can generate. Market conditions or rent controls could restrict potential future income, making it more desirable to close the park and to change the land use.

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Park Closures: Regulatory Alternatives MHP Zoning The Encinitas Zoning Ordinance provides for a zone that restricts use of the property exclusively to mobilehome park use: the MHP zone. Three mobilehome parks are already zoned MHP: Park Encinitas, Green Valley, and Riviera. There are 383 mobilehome spaces and 20 RV spaces in these three parks, representing 52% of all of the spaces in Encinitas. There was considerable discussion when the North 101 Specific Plan was developed, whether MHP zoning should be placed on all of the mobilehome parks in that area. The final decision was that MHP zoning would be placed only on Riviera. Four other parks in the North 101 Specific Plan were given different zoning. • Trailer Rancho and Sea Aire were zoned N-R25. There are 131 spaces in these two parks; about 17% of the total in Encinitas. • The Sands is zoned N-CRM-1. If it is subdivided and the lots are sold, then the effect would be to make it permanent mobilehome use. The underlying zoning of N-CRM-1 would not change even if the property is subdivided. There are 56 spaces in The Sands. • Shamrock is zoned N-CRM-2, which foresees multi-use retail with housing above (and probably behind) the retail. The resulting project would be similar to the purchase and closure by the City of Escondido of an old, rundown trailer park. The property was redeveloped into multi-use retail and residential. Shamrock consists of 61 spaces The four remaining Leucadia parks – Valley of Dreams, Beacon’s Beach, Wee, and Hilltop – total 103 spaces; 13.6 percent of all spaces in Encinitas. • Most of the spaces in these four parks are too small to accommodate new HUD Code manufactured homes, and old units are being replaced with new Park Model RVs. • The existing density in the parks is 19 to 26 units per acre, in contrast to the 11 units per acre that the zoning would permit if the use were changed. As long as these parks remain economically viable, it is likely that they would remain mobilehome parks into the foreseeable future. • The owner of Wee has been asked to consider subdividing the park, and another owner has speculated about selling the mobilehome park to the residents. Should these occur, continued long-term mobilehome park use of the properties would occur. Affordable Housing Overlay Zoning Ordinances that establish affordable housing overlay zoning list sites on which residential densities will be increased if a given level of affordability is achieved. A map showing these sites is “overlaid” on the existing zoning map. An overlay can apply to all sites within particular zones or only to selected sites. Within an overlay zone, affordable housing developments are usually eligible for (a) by-right residential development, (b) multifamily development on commercial sites, (c) waivers of local fees, and (d) subject to overall design review, relaxation of certain development standards (such as parking, setbacks, height). All of these benefits reduce uncertainty and costs faced by developers of affordable housing.

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Encinitas city staff suggested that the Council consider an affordable housing overlay zoning on some of the mobilehome and trailer parks. State law relating to closure or change of use of mobilehome parks Section 798.56(g) of the California Mobilehome Residency Law requires that the park owner give residents at least 12 months notice of closure; or at least 6 months notice from the time that any required permits are obtained. Government Code Section 65863.7 requires a report on the impact of closure on residents. The city council can be requested to hold a hearing on the sufficiency of the report, and the city council can require mitigation of the impacts of closure on the residents. But mitigation that may be required “cannot exceed the reasonable cost of relocation.” Existing Encinitas MHP zoning ordinance provisions The Encinitas MHP zoning ordinance requires specific information about residents and mobilehomes if a mobilehome park is to be subdivided. The ordinance, however, does not address closure or other change of use of a mobilehome park in Encinitas. Ordinances adopted in other cities relating to closure of mobilehome parks The consultant estimates that some 50 to 60 California cities and counties have adopted ordinances relating to the closure of mobilehome parks. A variety of approaches have been taken as illustrated in the Table in Attachment D. The issue of “in-place” value of the mobilehome The most difficult question that local governments have to wrestle with in writing an ordinance relating to mobilehome park closures is: Will the park owner be required to pay the resident the value of the mobilehome based on the assumption that it can remain in perpetuity if the mobilehome cannot be relocated to another mobilehome park? Some ordinances say “Yes.” Other ordinances have left the issue unresolved. The City of Huntington Beach has gone the furthest. The city’s ordinance on mobilehome park closures requires the park owner to pay the resident an amount equal to the cost to purchase a new manufactured home of equivalent size. The city was sued by park owners. The case was to have gone to trial, but the city council directed the city attorney to begin negotiations to settle. The lawsuit remains unresolved. The City of San Diego, after considerable study and negotiation, adopted an ordinance that takes an approach that is different from most cities. The San Diego Housing Commission had considered adopting an ordinance that would have required park owners to pay residents 75 percent of the appraised value of the mobilehome if the park closed. The city attorney warned, however, that “The provision requiring payment of 75 percent of a unit’s fair market value in place, however, could, if interpreted as being fair market value of the unit in place ‘in perpetuity,’ be determined to be economically infeasible and confiscatory.” After further review and discussion, in October 1995, the San Diego City Council adopted a policy that was recommended by the Housing Commission’s Mobile Home Community Issues Committee (comprised of mobilehome owners and park owners) that eliminated the requirement

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that mobilehome owners be paid relocation benefits based upon the “in place value” of the mobilehome. The San Diego Relocation Standards and Procedures require the park owner to reimburse the mobilehome owner the “actual cost” to relocate the mobilehome within dollar ranges based upon the width of the mobilehome. If it is not feasible to relocate the mobilehome, the park owner is required to provide “reasonable relocation expenses” as follows: 1) The difference between current space rent and rent for a comparable apartment unit of a size appropriate to accommodate the displaced household and that meets HUD Housing Quality Standards with this amount provided for 48 months. 2) Total actual cost of moving expenses for furniture and personal belongings not to exceed $1,000 (in 1995; adjusted annually by Consumer Price Index). 3) All proceeds from the sale of the mobile home. During relocation, the park owner is required to pay hotel or temporary lodging cost in the amount of $40 (set in 1995, and adjusted annually by CPI) for up to seven nights. City acquisition of mobilehome parks by Eminent Domain The consultant is not aware of any mobilehome parks that have been acquired by cities or counties in adverse condemnation or eminent domain proceedings for the purpose of continuing to operate the property as a mobilehome park. Local ordinance mandating a Right of First Refusal for residents upon sale of park Section 798.80 of the Mobilehome Residency Law requires that at least 30 days prior to entering into a listing agreement with a real estate broker for the sale of a mobilehome park, the park owner must notify the officers of a qualified resident organization formed for the purpose of purchasing of the mobilehome park. A park owner is not required to give notice to a resident purchase entity if an unsolicited offer is received. As a practical matter, sales of mobilehome parks typically occur without the property first being listed for sale. A few cities have adopted ordinances that go beyond State law to extend a Right of First Refusal to residents in the event a park owner receives an offer to sell the mobilehome park. An ordinance controlling the rents in mobilehome parks adopted by the City of San Juan Capistrano included a provision requiring an owner who desires to sell a mobilehome park to first offer it to the residents. If the residents decide to purchase it, the owner must sell it to them. In a lawsuit against the city, mobilehome park owners contended this provision abrogates a park owner’s right to control the disposition of his or her property, but also takes away the right to sell a preemptive right in the property. They alleged that this appropriation of a well-recognized property right without payment of compensation constitutes an unconstitutional taking. The Fourth District Court of Appeal agreed and invalidated that portion of the ordinance in 1983. (Gregory v. City of San Juan Capistrano, 142 Cal. App. 3d 72) The City of San Marcos has an ordinance that entitles residents to a right of first refusal if the park owner receives an unsolicited offer, “provided the mobilehome owners meet the price and terms and conditions of the park owner, buy executing a contract with the park owner within forty (45) days …” After numerous attempts were made by the owner of a mobilehome park in San Marcos to sell it to the residents, he entered into a contract to sell the property to a third

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


party. Residents were notified of the price, terms, and conditions of the offer. On the 45th day, residents made an offer subject to modifications that included a fully refundable deposit and an extension of the date for close of escrow. The park owner refused to accept the residents’ offer because the modifications were material changes. The resulting dispute and lawsuit went to trial, and the court ruled in favor of the park owner. The trial court’s decision was upheld in an unpublished decision in March 2008 by the Fourth District Court of Appeal which concluded that the residents’ offer “imposed a substantially increased financial burden” on the park owner and his refusal to accept the offer was “reasonable and justified.” (Villa Vista Mobile Estates Transitional Team v. Collins et al.) An ordinance in the County of San Diego requires a park owner to give 30-days Notice to park residents prior to accepting an unsolicited offer to purchase the property. The ordinance has been in effect since 1991. It does not require the park owner to consider any offer from the residents, nor does it give residents a right of first refusal to purchase the mobilehome park. It is unclear that the ordinance has resulted in any actual purchases of mobilehome parks by residents. Encinitas staff recommended that the Council consider such an ordinance.

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Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Park Closures: Non-regulatory Alternatives City purchase of mobilehome parks Some cities have purchased mobilehome parks, either to operate them as city-owned affordable housing (as in the Cities of San Dimas and Santa Monica), or to transition ownership to a nonprofit entity or to some form of resident ownership (as has occurred in the Cities of Escondido and San Marcos). Frequently these purchases are undertaken as “friendly condemnations” that give the selling park owner the benefits of IRS Section 1036, allowing for a longer tax-free exchange period than under a Section 1031 exchange. The primary disadvantage of city ownership of a mobilehome park is that city officials step into the shoes of the park owner and find themselves drawn deeper into landlord-tenant issues and even into litigation (as has happened in the City of Poway). The economics of operating older trailer parks can often be burdensome and expensive (as the City of Santa Monica encountered in its ownership and rehabilitation of an old trailer park). Purchase of mobilehome parks by Non-Profit Corporations Non-profit entities – typically IRS Section 501c3 non-profit corporations – have acquired mobilehome parks, notably in San Diego County, in the Cities of Escondido, San Marcos, Vista, and Poway. Acquisitions by non-profits are typically financed by tax-exempt bonds issued by cities and based on the anticipated income from the property and can finance as much as 100% of the purchase price. The California Mobilehome Park Financing Authority was formed to provide a vehicle for smaller cities to issue bonds for this purpose. Typically there is a recorded Regulatory Agreement that outlines how the project will be operated and covers rent increases, community rules, family or senior status, what happens to surplus cash flow, and related matters. For residents, rent increases are limited by some objective standard, either as a percentage of the increase in the Consumer Price Index, or based on actual operating cost increases, or a city rent control ordinance. After an asset management fee to the non-profit, surplus cash flow goes back into the project. Homeowners are protected against large increases, and are informed where the money is spent. The project can be designed to allow as much resident input as desired, without homeowners having ownership or management responsibilities. For cities, purchase by a non-profit preserves a mobilehome park as relatively affordable housing, provides funds to upgrade maintenance, can eliminate future rent disputes, and can be an effective political solution. Mobilehome park owners are often motivated to sell to non-profits and other resident entities because they can pay more. The non-profit is largely exempt from property taxes, so its net income can be higher than most investors would obtain. The interest rate the non-profit pays on bonds is usually lower than conventional financing, which also increases the net income.

81

Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Because the net income is higher, the non-profit can pay a higher mortgage (or bond principal) than an investor can, which translates into a higher selling price. There can also be tax advantages to the park owner who sells to a non-profit corporation. If the seller elects to carry back the financing, the interest portion of the note payment is exempt from both State and Federal taxes, including the alternative minimum tax. A park owner can effectively convert taxable rental income into tax-exempt interest. The Regulatory Agreement often requires that at least 20% of the residents meet requirements as low-income households. This can pose a problem when a homeowner wishes to sell and the income of the prospective purchaser is greater than the maximum allowed. There are typically no restrictions on the resale prices of mobilehomes. Homeowners may see the resale value of their mobilehomes rise which may affect the relative affordability for new purchasers over time. Purchases of mobilehome parks by Housing Cooperatives Purchases of mobilehome parks by housing cooperatives, by which residents acquire a share in the ownership of the mobilehome park, are less common than purchases by non-profit corporations. Co-ops operate as non-profits and require a greater degree of member involvement in goal-setting and management of the property than does ownership and operation by a third party entity like a non-profit corporation. A Limited Equity Housing Cooperative offers ownership opportunities for lower-income households while limiting the amount of the return from resale that they can receive from sale of their shares when they resell their mobilehomes. That contrasts with other forms of ownership including market rate cooperatives, nonprofit corporations, and subdivisions that usually do not place restrictions on the resale price of homes, lots, shares, or other interests. Resident ownership by subdivision A very good example of conversion of a rental mobilehome park to resident ownership by subdivision of the lots is Park Encinitas. Subdivision of the park and sale of the lots was initiated by the residents in 1984. The mobilehome park remains affordable relative to ownership of conventional homes in Encinitas, and has had a successful track record of selfmanagement. By contrast, subdivision of The Sands has been developer-initiated and controversial. Beginning in early 2007, there has been a significant increase in the number of mobilehome parks proposed to be subdivided. In nearly all cases – The Sands being about the only exception – subdivision has been proposed by the park owner in cities with rent controls that have severely restricted increases in rents. Subdivision of the mobilehome park is seen as an exit strategy that gives the park owner the opportunity to realize the market value of the land. State law provides protections for lower-income households whose space rents can only be increased by the percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index so long as they remain homeowners in a subdivided mobilehome park. Space rents of existing homeowners who have moderate incomes or greater can be adjusted to market levels over a four-year period. Subsidized financing is also more readily available for lower income households who choose to purchase their lots.

82

Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


State funded financial assistance for resident purchases The Mobilehome Park Resident Ownership Program (MPROP) provides financing to mobilehome park resident organizations, qualified nonprofit housing sponsors, and local public entities to purchase mobilehome parks and to convert them either to resident ownership or ownership by a nonprofit corporation. MPROP is administered by the state Department of Housing and Community Development. Approximately $8 million is available in 2008 for new loans, of which 20 percent is reserved for rural projects. However, the funds designated for rural projects may be allocated to non-rural projects if there is insufficient need for the rural funds. The maximum amount available to each eligible project is $2 million. However, if the funding round is undersubscribed or if funds are available, applicants can request an increase in the requested loan amount, as determined by HCD in its sole discretion, to ensure financial feasibility of a project. Applications must be made by a mobilehome park resident organization, a qualified nonprofit housing sponsor, or a local public entity. The project must ultimately result in ownership by either a resident organization or nonprofit housing sponsor. Interim ownership by a public entity is limited to three years and up to six years with special circumstances. The program provides assistance in the form of loans: Short-term conversion loans at 3 percent simple annual interest for up to 3 years to enable a resident organization, nonprofit sponsor or local public agency to purchase a mobilehome park. Long-term blanket loans at 3 percent simple annual interest for up to 30 years for longterm financing of a park purchase, or for a resident organization, nonprofit or public agency that has purchased a park to help low-income residents finance the purchase of shares or lots in the park. Payments of conversion and blanket loans can be deferred or adjusted if necessary to make the purchase feasible. Long-term individual loans at 3 percent simple annual interest to low-income residents of a mobilehome park when the resident buys a cooperative interest, a share, a planned unit development lot, or a condominium lot in the park. Low-income residents of converted parks apply for individual loans to the entity that has purchased the park. Recipients of individual loans or rental assistance funds must meet certain criteria including residing in the mobilehome park as the households principal residence, have a gross income equal to or less than the low-income limits for the county in which the park is located, and demonstrate that the household’s monthly housing costs at post-conversion would exceed 30 percent of the household’s gross monthly income without program assistance. The application must demonstrate a financially feasible plan for the park conversion. MPROP has “observed that residents in parks with high share values (generally above the range of

83

Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


$5,000 to $10,000) have experienced difficulty in selling their shares. If share values or membership interests are proposed to sell for $15,000 or more, generally the project will not be deemed financially feasible.� Right of First Refusal Residents are often offered a right of first refusal for purchase of the mobilehome park by the park owner as an incentive to sign a long-term lease. Long-term leases are exempt from rent control.

84

Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Resident-Management Relations Residents’ Opinions of Park Maintenance One area of interest to the City is how well residents believe their mobilehome and trailer parks are maintained. Question 24 of the Resident Survey asked whether residents had had any problems with the utility systems in the park during the past year. Among those residents whose primary residence is in one of the MHP Zoned mobilehome parks, newer residents of Park Encinitas identified problems with cable TV and phone systems which likely reflects the greater importance that newer (and presumably younger) residents place on communication systems including Internet service. At Green Valley, residents identified problems with the electric, water, cable TV, and phone systems. Among those who make their primary residence in one of the Beach Lifestyle parks, residents of Valley of Dreams indicated they had had problems with the sewer system, and residents at Hilltop reported problems with electric and water systems. Newer residents of The Sands reported electric, water, and sewer system problems; these problems were also raised in hearings on the proposed subdivision of the park. (As noted in the staff report on the Resident Survey, these reports of problems with utility systems are not necessarily reflective of a problem, but a reflection of the responses received.) Residents’ opinions of the overall condition of the facilities in the mobilehome parks where they reside is high, with 60% to 72% rating facilities as “very good” or “good.” The highest level of satisfaction is at Park Encinitas, where residents own both their homes and the lots and selfmanage the mobilehome park. The greatest amount of dissatisfaction, expressed in fair and poor ratings, was with The Sands, reflecting the controversy surrounding the proposed subdivision and rent increases. Regulatory Alternatives: Park Maintenance The City of Encinitas could assume responsibility for enforcement of the Health & Safety Code provisions comprising the Mobilehome Parks Act. Enforcement of the Mobilehome Parks Act (MPA) in Encinitas parks presently lies with the State of California, Department of Housing & Community Development (HCD). The State currently is the enforcement agency for 36 mobilehome parks and 3,998 lots in San Diego County, including the mobilehome and trailer parks in the City of Encinitas. There is one inspector assigned by HCD for the San Diego County parks. There are 105 cities and counties that enforce the MPA instead of HCD. Local enforcement agencies in San Diego County are: San Diego County for the unincorporated area, and the cities of Carlsbad, Chula Vista, Escondido, Oceanside, San Diego, San Marcos, and Vista. Current state law establishes a Mobilehome Park Maintenance (MPM) program that requires HCD or a local enforcement agency to inspect mobilehome parks that have a history of health and safety code violations. The law sets a goal that five percent of parks be inspected each year. The MPM inspection program is funded through an annual fee of $4 per space; $2 of which can passed on by the park owner as a charge to individual homeowners.

85

Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


State law also requires mobilehome parks to have an Annual Permit to Operate and pay a fee of $25 plus $2 per lot. The Permit to Operate and MPM inspection program fees are set by Statute and a local enforcement agency cannot charge any additional fees. If the City of Encinitas were to become the enforcement agency, the City would derive revenue from the Annual Operating Permits paid by the mobilehome parks based upon (and limited by) the State schedule. In 2008, that income would be: Projected Annual Revenue from Mobilehome Park Operating Permits If Responsibility Is Assumed by the City of Encinitas Activity Annual Fee $25 per park x 11 mobilehome parks $ 275 $ 2 per space x 754 spaces $ 1,508 $ 4 per space x 754 spaces $ 3,016 (Park inspections only) Total Annual Revenue $ 4,799 The City would receive additional revenue from Permits To Construct for installation of new manufactured homes, for additions to existing homes, or construction on park common area facilities and utility systems by the park owner. Permits to install a new manufactured home, awnings, and deck and entry/exit stairs are typically about $800. The City also has the option of assuming responsibility for enforcement of local fire regulations in the mobilehome parks. It can assume responsibility for enforcement of fire regulations without having to assume responsibility for enforcement of the Mobilehome Park Act. Aside from the relatively limited amount of revenue from enforcement of the Mobilehome Parks Act, stiffer enforcement of code and fire regulations can have the unintended consequence of requiring discontinuance of use of some existing units. Residents have not asked the City to assume enforcement of either the Mobilehome Parks Act or fire regulations.

86

Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Resident-Management Relations: Riviera as a micro case study The most negative comments about park management came from residents at Riviera Mobilehome Park. Residents there wrote of conflicts with their neighbors, and conflicts with park management, primarily asking for greater rules enforcement against their neighbors and expressing an inability to resell their homes at values they sought. There were positive comments about Riviera as well. Those residents wrote favorably about their neighbors and expressed satisfaction with park management. The demographics at Riviera are perhaps a key to better understanding the state of residentmanagement relations there when the responses received in the Resident Survey are viewed in comparison with other mobilehome parks. Riviera (147 mobilehome spaces) • 43 households with 85 people • 11 households with 19 children under age 18 • 37 households with adults employed out of home All 5 Beach Lifestyle park (159 mobilehome spaces) • 31 households with 42 people • 5 households with 6 children under age 18 • 29 households with adults employed out of home Riviera has the most diverse resident profile of the 11 parks with more people, more children, more working parent households, more vehicles, more potential conflict, more rules enforcement, and more headaches. The lesson is that an understanding of resident-management relations at any mobilehome park requires an analysis of the demographics and likely dynamics within the community. Resident-Management Relations: Non-Regulatory Alternatives The City can consider sponsoring Mediation Programs to help residents and park management to assist in resolution of individual and community-specific disputes and conflicts. There are several organizations in San Diego that already provide these services and can be utilized at relatively little cost to the City. Instead of assuming the responsibility of enforcing the Mobilehome Parks Act, the City of West Sacramento proposes to work with mobilehome park owners to develop voluntary “Operating Standard Guidelines” and that will offer incentives to park owners to better maintain and operate their parks. The proposal is only in its preliminary stage, but it is something the City of Encinitas may wish to follow and consider if it appears to be a successful approach.

87

Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Age and Condition of Homes A measure of the condition and prospective life of the homes in the Encinitas parks is whether the homes were built to the HUD standards that have been in effect for construction of manufactured homes since June 15, 1976. In the MHP zoned parks – which are expected to remain well into the future as mobilehome parks – residents who responded to the survey reported the year of manufacture of their homes as: Park Encinitas HUD Code homes: 17 Pre-1976 homes: 21 Green Valley HUD Code homes: 30 Pre-1976 homes: 10 Riviera HUD Code homes: 12 Pre-1976 homes: 27 By contrast, the dwelling units in the Leucadia Beach Lifestyle parks are older: Valley of Dreams, Beacon’s Beach, Wee, Hilltop HUD Code homes: 6 1970 to 1975 homes: 27 1960 to 1969 homes: 11 Before 1960: 5 Programs can be made available to lower-income residents for repair and improvement of their homes. Residents were asked to rate the condition of their homes. The responses of residents whose primary residence is one of the Encinitas parks and whose incomes would fall within the qualifying categories were tabulated: Condition of Mobilehomes as rated by owners Extremely Low, Very Low and Lower Income: Primary Residence MHP zoned parks Very Poor: 1 Poor: 5 Fair 18 Good 38 Very Good: 23

Beach Lifestyle parks Very Poor 0 Poor 2 Fair: 7 Good: 5 Very Good 1

While 28 per cent of income-qualifying residents in the MHP zoned parks classify their homes as in Fair, Poor, or Very Poor condition, 60% of respondents in the Beach Lifestyle parks say their dwellings are Fair or Poor.

88

Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


The number of households in the MHP zoned parks needing work to improve the condition of their homes is greater (24) than in the Beach Lifestyle parks (9). As the homes in the MHP zoned parks are likely to be newer and manufactured to higher safety and construction standards, the return on investment in those homes is likely to be better than on the older units in the Beach Lifestyle parks. Housing Rehabilitation and Maintenance Assistance A rehabilitation program can provide assistance to park residents to repair and rehabilitate deteriorating housing and to address a wide range of health and safety issues. Information concerning the scope of and sources of funding for a rehabilitation program was presented to the Encinitas City Council by Gayle Bloomingdale, president of Comprehensive Housing Services, Inc. Ms. Bloomingdale also assisted City staff in developing options for Council consideration. Assistance can be provided for minor repairs as well as for substantial structural, heating, electrical, or plumbing modifications. Households targeted for assistance include lower-income and special needs -- disabled, large families, and seniors. Assistance is based on annual income. Assistance can include financial aid in the form of rebates or grants, or low interest loans. Low interest financing can be in the form of forgivable loans discounted over time or deferred payment loans that are not due until the property is sold, leased, or no longer owner occupied. Maximum loan or grant amounts vary depending on the level of funding commitment but typically range from $1,000 to $10,000, and are most typically at the higher end of the range. Recreational vehicles (RVs) including travel trailers and Park Model RVs installed as permanent structures are eligible for Community Development Block Grant Funds. Mobilehomes and manufactured homes meet the criteria for HOME funding. A rehabilitation program can also assist homeowners with technical assistance in the form of an assessment of rehabilitation needs, detailed work write-ups, help in obtaining contractors’ bids, and preparation of loan documents and contracts, and monitoring and inspections of the rehab work.

89

Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


Estimates of Costs of Repairs to Mobilehomes Exterior Repairs Exterior Painting Interior Painting Roof replacement Interior Repairs Bathroom: Bathroom Faucet/Sink Bathroom Countertop Toilet Tub replacement Shower replacement Kitchen: Kitchen Faucet/Sink Kitchen Countertop Kitchen Cabinets new Kitchen Cabinets paint Built In Stove/Oven Range Hood Garbage Disposal Dishwasher

$3,000 $2,000 $3,500

$ 500 $ 800 $ 400 $ 600 $1,500 $ 700 $1,500 $4,000 $1,500 $1,000 $ 500 $ 350 $ 700

Window replacement

$6,000

Vinyl Flooring ($4.50 sq ft) Carpet ($4.50 sq ft)

$2,500 $2,500

Furnace A/C replacement

$2,400 $2,500

Water Heater (40 gal) Replumb w/Copper

$1,000 $6,000

Electrical Redistribution GFCI Receptacles

$ 800 $ 600

Other Repairs Leveling Marriage Line

$1,500 $ 700

(Repair the joining of two-section home)

Driveway/Carport concrete repairs

90

$1,500

Mobilehome and Trailer Parks – relatively affordable housing in Encinitas


AttachmentA mailedfor Surveyof ParkResidents Questionnaire


City o/'Encinitas Planningand BuildingDepartnrent 505 S. VulcanAvcnue,Encinitas.Califonrra92024-3633

Octobcr18,2001

Dcar Rcsidcnt. 'l'hc

City of Bncinitashas urtdertakena study of thc elevenrnobilchorneparks in the communities of Encinitasand Lcucaclia. Thcsc mobilchonrcparks arc an inrpoftantpart of the fabric of the Encinitascommunity aud provide a uniquc fomr ol housing. The purposeof tlre stLrdyis to develop recornmertdationsfor the Bncinitas City Council on sustairlng long-term affordable housingopportuniticsin rnobilchomcparks. An irnporlant part o1'this stucl,vis to lcarl about thc ncerlsand ooncelrrsoI nrobilchomc park resitlcnts. Completing thc crtclosedsurvcy rvill proviclc inforrnation to Cil.y stafF and help dctcnrine what policicsand progranrsto recomntcnd. 'fhe

survey shor-rlci be corrpleted by the head of the houschold. Plcasc try to answcr all of the qucstions. If you chooseto not answera question,pleascconrpletethc rest of the questionnaire and retum the survcy in the encloscdpostage-paidenvclopc. If you need hclp with thc survcy, you may call Mikc Strong,AssistantPlanncr,at (760) 943-2101. All responses will be treated confidentially and will not be used for any other purpose once the sLlrveyprocess has been will not be sharedwith any outsidcpartics. concluded.Individualrcsponses Pleascrctum the con-rpletedsuwey in the pre-addressed cnvelopeprovided by Novembcr 12. 2007. ll-you prefer, you can also drop off the cornpletedsurvey to thc Planning and Building Dcpartmurtat thc EncinitasCivic Centcr,505 S. VulcanAvenue. Again, thar* you in advancclor complctingthis surucy. Your fccdbackis important. Sincerelv.

Davidde Cordova PrincipalPlanncr City of Encinitas

0 1- 0 0 1


City of Encinitas MobilehomeParksResidentSurveY

1.

Park? When did you firstmove intothisMobilehome '1999 I 1990to D 2000to present tr 1970to 1979

2.

! No, I /we livedin (nameof city):

Park,in whattypeof housingdid you live? Beforemovingintothis Mobilehome i Townhouse tr Condominium D Apartment house u Single-family tl Mobilehome

4.

tr before1970

Parkdid you livein Encinitas? Beforemovingto this Mobilehome I Yes

3.

! 1980to 1989

tl RV

fl Other,pleasespecify:

parkbefore? Haveyou everlivedin a mobilehome DNo

! Yes, in (nameof city). 5.

Park? How longdo you thinkyou will remainat thisMobilehome '1 of moving I lraveno intention I Lessthan year Il 1-5years f 6-'10years I Indefinitely,

6.

Whattypeof unitis locatedon yourspaceor lot? tl Motorhome D 5'nWheelTrailer tr TravelTrailer

E Park ModelRV

I-,-lMobilehomeor ManufacturedHome: (Do not includeadd-onrooms) Ll Doublewide I Triplewide I Singlewide Numberof bedrooms: feetlong feetwide by Size: 7.

B.

trailer,or RV ntartufactured? Whenwas yourmobilehome, '1999 iJ 1980to 1989 t l '1990to I 2000to present I before1960 tl 1960to 1969 tr '1970to 1975

D 1976to 1979 n Don'tknow

I No ls thisyour primaryresidence? tf Yes lf No, what is the zip code of yourprimaryresidence? is it: lf this is notyourprimaryresidence, ! for vacationuse

I rentedto someoneelse

Ll temporarilyherefor work

''No",this is not yourprimaryresidence, pleaseskipto Question17. Othenvise lf you answered continuebelow. 9.

yourself)? How manypeoplelivein your home(including I6 tr5 n4 tl 3 a2 il 1

f

morethan6

'10. Of the totalnumberof personscheckedabove,how manyare: Under18 yearsof age

62 or older

11. Are you or any of the peoplelivingwithyou disabled?U Yes,

peopleare disabled

! No


12. Do you own or rentthe housingyou havecheckedin Question6? !

manufactured homeor RV | own or am purchasing the mobilehome,

!

| rentthe dwellingunitfrom:

D the Park

D someoneelse

1 3 What are yourmonthly housing costs? /mo. UnitRent(if renting)

imo. SpaceRent /mo. Mortgagepayments(tf you own)

/mo. for HOA fees

$

water,sewer,trash,cable) /mo. utilities(gas,electric,

D

14. What are the sourcesof incomefor your household?(Checkall that apply) u Employment tl SocialSecurity

program tl State,federal,or otherdisability

! RetiremenUPension t Other,pleasespecify. n Savings/lnvestment yourself). 15. In the chartbelow,findthe row withthe numberof peoplelivingin yourhousehold(including yourhousehold's totalannualincome,without Thenpleasecirclethe numberthatbestrepresents pensions, goingover. IncludeSocialSecurity, AFDC,or similarpayments, and interestfrom disability, your whenestimating and incomefromotherinvestments savingsor CDs,stockdividends, totalincome.beforetaxes. household's Up to

t4

1 person q) 2 people 0. g 3 people o 4 people o a â‚Ź .S 5 people o

e â‚Ź!

lL

z

6 people

Up to

22,750

24,550 28,0 10 31,600 35,0 10 37,900

24,400

40,700

14,750 16,850 18,950 21,050

Up to

Up to

Up to

More than

75,000

58,300 66,600 75,000 83,300 90,000

58,300 66,600 75,000 83,300 90,000

80,500

96,600

96,600

39,300

48,600

44,900

55,500

An ,inn

62,500

qA 1qn

69,400

60,650

pleaseindicateyourhousehold's totalannualincome, lf morethan 6 peoplelive in yourhousehold, beforetaxes:$ how many: 16. Amongthe membersof your household, Work in Encinitas: Pleaselist(citiesor counties): Work elsewhere: 1 7 . What is the generalconditionof your home? I Verv good - no (or very few) repairsor upgradesneededat this time withinthe nextyear n Good- may needsomeminorrepairsor upgrading now ! Fair- needssome minorrepairsor upgrading now I Poor- needssomemajorrepairsor upgrading now f Very Poor- needsmanymajorrepairsor upgrading 1 8 . Havetherebeenany majorrepairsor upgradesto the exteriorof yourhome? (Forexample:new roof; roomaddition;installednew windows;etc.) ! Yes

tr No

lf yes, pleaseidentifywork done:

19. Does your home need any new exteriorrepairsor upgrading?(forexample:new roofingor recoating; etc.) new skirtingor new sidingor repair;new stepsor deckrepair;exteriorpainting; ! Yes

n No

lf yes, pleaseidentifyrepairsneeded:


20. Haveyoumadeanymajorrepairs or upgrades to theinterior of yourhome?(Forexample: replaced kitchen cabinets andappliances; upgraded bathroom withnewplumbing, fixtures, andcabinets; replaced wiringwithcopper aluminum wiring, etc.) ! Yes

lf yes, pleaseidentify workdone:

f No

21. Doesyourhomeneedanynewinterior (Forexample: repairs or upgrading? newplumbing; new electrical; newfaucets, shower, tub,toilet,sink;newfurnace or repair; newvinylflooring or carpet; newkitchen painting; cabinets, stove,oven,disposal; interior etc.) I Yes

lf yes, pleaseidentifyrepairsneeded:

t] No

22. Arethereany otherrepairsthat needto be madeto yourhome? (Forexample:leveling;reattach marriagelineof two-section home;underhomerepairs; walkways.) tl Yes

lf yes, pleaseidentifyotherrepairsneeded:

I No

23. Haveyou had any problemswithany of thefollowing Parkutilitysystemsduringthe pastyear? (Check all that apply) tl Electricalsystem

tr Gassystem

D Watersystem

fl Sewagesystem

tr CableW

! Phone/lnternet

No problems

!

Pleasebrieflydescribeproblemsyou checkedabove,if any, 24. What is the overallconditionof the facilitiesin the Mobilehome Park? VeryGood Fair Good Park Streets tl t l f l ParkLighting

!

!

ParkLandscaping

I

D

ParkCleanliness

n

LaundryRoom Recreation Building/Pool

Poor t-l

l

NotApplicable

n

!

I

t,t

L]

ll

l_t

tl

Ll

U

T

r

n

n

LI

T

t-_t

r

r

n

25. What are the best thingsabout havinga mobilehome?(Checkallthat apply) tr | own my own unit Ll I like my neighbors D I can afford it

D I'm closeto importantthings

I

I feel safe

Il Comfortable livingspace I Other,pleasespecify:

26. What are your greatestconcernsrelatedto your mobilehome?(Checkallthat apply) !

Not owningmy space f, Housepayments ! Spacerent

!

Payingfor utilities

I

Homerepairs I

Feelingsafe

tJ Futureparkownership I Other,pleasespecify:

27. OPTIONAL:Pleaseuse thisspaceto provideadditional information aboutyourcurrenthousing(you may includeadditional sheetsif necessary). Thismay includeadditional concernsor opinionsyou wouldliketo express,but were not addressed in the survey.Your information will be keptconfidential.

Thank you for assistingin this survey. Pleasereturnin the enclosedpostaqe-paidenvelopeto: Cityof Encinitas Plannina gn dB u i i d i n g Department 505 S. VulcanAve. Encinitas, CA 92024-3633


AttachmentB Survey to Resident Summaryof Responses


CITYOF ENCINITAS MOBILEHOME PARKSSTUDY ResidentSurveySummary(Octoberto December2007)

A total of 786 surveyswere sent to mobilehomepark residents.Of these,303 individuals responded to the request to participate in the survey and returned completed questionnaires to the City (39%of the total). However,due to non-response to individual questions, the effective sample sizes for most questions ranged from 275 to 298 respondents. The overall responserate of 39 percentappearsto be a good representationof residents from each mobilehomepark. Responseratesfrom the 11 mobilehomeparks rangedfrom 27 percent(ShamrockMobilehomePark)to 63 percent(GreenValleyMobilehomePark). The only other parks that demonstratedresponse rates below the 39 percent overall averagewere Park Encinitas(30%1,TrailerRancho(35%)Valleyof Dreams(36%),Riviera (37%),and The Sands(37%)Mobilehome Parks. In this survey summary,the responsedataare presentedin the order that the questions appearedon the questionnaire.ln additionto presentingthe overallresponserates,the data was also analfzedon a park-by-park basisto examinethe park's demographicand geographicsetting(by joint use of two or morevariables).ln order to cross-tabulate, the distributionof two or more variableswere used simultaneously.For this part of the analysis,incomecategoriesof the householdwereused. Due to the small number of respondentsin some of the parks,a park-by-parkanalysis (andcross tabulation)has beenomittedfrom this reportto preservethe confidentiality of i n d i v i d u ahl o u s e h o l d s .


1.

Park? Whendid you first moveinto this Mobilehome

1 9 9 0t o 1 9 9 9 1 9 8 0t o 1 9 8 9 1970to 1979

A t o t a l o f 5 7 p e r c e n t o f s u r v e y p a r t i c i p a n t si n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y h a v e l i v e d i n t h e i r m o b i l e h o m e s i n c e 2 0 0 0 o r l e s s ; w h e r e a s ,o n l y 1 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s h a v e lived in their mobilehome for more than 18 years (before 1989). When basing length of residency on the different income categoriesof the household (refer to q u e s t i o n n o . 1 5 ) , t h e l o n g e r t e r m e d m a j o r i t y a r e a l s o p r e d o m i n a t e l yl o w e r i n c o m e households. A number of parks also provide relativelyaffordable housing opportunities for residents that have recently moved into the park. Of the survey participants that have moved into the park since 2000, 65 percent indicate that their household income is less than 80 percent of the Area Median Income (AMl) and consists of extremely low, very low, and low-income households. This survey finding is generally consistent throughout all of the mobilehome parks. According to the response rates, only The Sands (73%r, Green Valley (76%1, and Sea Aire (90%) h a v e a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g eo f l o w e r i n c o m e h o u s e h o l d s t h a t h a v e r e c e n t l y m o v e d into the park (since 2000).

2.

B e f o r e m o v i n g t o t h i s M o b i l e h o m eP a r k d i d y o u l i v e i n E n c i n i t a s ?

114

3.

B e f o r e m o v i n g i n t o t h i s M o b i l e h o m eP a r k , i n w h a t t y p e o f h o u s i n g d i d y o u l i v e ? No. of responses

house _S_!n9lqlqlxity Apartment Condominium/Townhouse Mobilehome RV

Other

1t?_

52 42 ___3_0_ 9 13 Total289

49% 18'/o

15% 11% 3"h 4% '100%

Only 14 percent of survey participants reported that they have moved from another mobilehome or RV park. More than 82 percentof survey respondents came from a l t e r n a t i v ef o r m s o f h o u s i n g . A p p r o x i m a t e l y4 9 p e r c e n t o f m o b i l e h o m e r e s i d e n t s m o v e d t o t h e p a r k f r o m a s i n g l e - f a m i l yr e s i d e n c e .


4.

parkbefore? Haveyou everlivedin a mobilehome

haveneverlived in a mobilehome Approximately 78 percentof surveyparticipants park before. This responserateis consistentwith other surveyfindings (validating the responserate conveyedfrom questionno. 3). 5.

Park? How long do you think you will remainat this Mobilehome -l

+_!!

r-esi ttranone 1-5years 6-10

^f ro-**o.-o.q-! relPg:gr I--

t\t^

-P-et99

13 46

4t/t

16V"

_,9, 224

l n d e f i n i t e l y ,I h a v e n o

intentionof movi Total292 A majority of survey participants(77%) indicatethat mobilehomeresidency is a permanentlifestyle. This is indicativeof a housing preferenceor unable to relocate(e.9.financiallyunableto relocate).A smallgroup of respondents(20%) indicatedthat the lifestyleis only temporary(lessthan 5 years)or the residentsare housingor anothermobilehomepark. in transitionto moveto alternative 6.

Whattypeof unit is locatedon yourspaceor lot? TravelTrailer -d-Wrr-eet

rra'rter -Motorftome Park ModelR!!_ Mobilehome

ryo.d ry:pq:ee

36 13 11

26 202 Total288

P,el994gge1zYo 5% 40

9% 70%

100%


7.

trailer,or RV manufactured? Whenwas your mobilehome,

1 e 8 0t o 1 e 8 e _ _ _ j 1976to 1979

eI 59 I

1 9 7 0t o 1 9 7 5 1 9 6 0t o 1 9 6 9

59

_

_-

3% 20%

9%

A majorityof respondentsindicatethat their unit was manufacturedbefore1979 (62%of the total). Whencombinedwith conditiondata,age data can be important in evaluatingwhetheror not a unit is suitablefor rehabilitation.Only 22 percentof recently(since2000). thosesurveyedindicatethat theirunitwas manufactured 57 However,the surveyfindings(from questionno. 1) conveythat approximately percentof survey participantshaverecentlymoved into the park (since2000)and 5 percenthave lived in their mobilehomefor more than 28 years (before1979). Since a majority of respondents(55%of the total) indicatethat their unit was manufacturedbefore1979,the surveyfindingssuggestthat a high percentageof older units serverelativelyneweroccupants.That is, the age of most mobilehome occupants. unitsgenerallypredatethe mobilehome dateon householdincomecategories(refer When basingthe unit's manufactured to question no. 15), the age of the unit does not predicatehouseholdincomes. Household income categoriesare generallyevenly distributed between unit manufacturedates. Although lower incorne categories occupy more recently constructedmobilehomes,it is quite clear that a majority of lower income that reporttheirunit householdsoccupythe olderunits. Of the surveyparticipants was manufacturedbefore1979,74percentare lower incomehouseholds(earning less than 80 percentAMI). This surveyfindingis generallyconsistentthroughout basis, all of the mobilehomeparks. Accordingto responserateson a park-by-park GreenValley(88%),and Beacon'sBeach(75%\,Hilltop(75%),ParkEncinitas(770/"1, of lower income householdresidents Sea Aire (100%)have a higherpercentage before1979. were manufactured units that mobilehome occupying 8.

ls this your primaryresidence? Yes

-]__

is it: lf this is not your primaryresidence, No.of responses For vacationuse Rentedto someone else


9.

H o w m a n y p e o p l e l i v e i n y o u r h o m e ( i n c l u d i n gy o u r s e l f ) ?

No.of responses 1 2

3 4 5 6 More than 6

_

15sI 100

55% 3s%

221

8%

41 1 i 1l

2%

ol

v/"

Totaf283 |

0o/o

o% 1O0Y"

The survey findings show that the average household size of survey participants is approximately '1.55persons. Approximately 55 percent indicate a one-person household; and 35 percent indicate a two-person household. Of those surveyed with primary residency in Encinitas, Valley of Dreams, Riviera, and Wee have the largest numbers of people per household (1.92,1.97,and 2.0 respectively). The Sands, Sea Aire, and Beacon's Beach have the least persons per household (1.2, 1.2, and 1.25 respectively). Household incomes were generally evenly distributed between household sizes with a tendency to be weighted to the lower income categories. Note: The averagenumber of persons per household in the San Diego region was 2.8 persons per household (in 2004). Encinitashad an averageof 2.6 persons per household, representing a small increase from 2000, when 2.52 persons per householdwas the average.

10.

Of the total number of persons checked above,how many are:

Two mobilehomeparks are age restrictedfor residents55 years or older (Park Encinitasand Green Valley). When basing age of residentswith the various incomecategories(referto questionno. 15),71%of the households,with at least one person older than 62 years of age, indicatetheir total householdincome is less than 80 percent of the AMI (extremely low, very low, and low-income categories).This findingis generallyconsistentthroughoutall of the mobilehome parks. Note: Accordingto the 2000Census,10 percentof the total citywidepopulationis 65 yearsor older;the proportionis slightlyhigherin the region(11%\.


11.

Are you or any of the peoplelivingwith you disabled?

Personswith disabilitiesmake up a relativelylarge percentageof park residents. Approximately11 percentof surveyparticipantsansweredthat someonein their householdhas a disability.Somehouseholdsreportmorethan one occupantwith a disability. Most of these householdsalso indicatethat their total household incomefell below 80 percentof the AMl. The high rate of disabledresidentsin mobilehomeparks appearsto be an importantfactor in the lower incomes of mobilehomehouseholdsin Encinitas. Note; Accordingto the 2000Census,13 percentof the total citywidepopulation has a disability. 12.

Do you own or rent the housingyou havecheckedin Question6? No.of I own or am purchasingthe manufactured mobilehome, h o m eo r R V 31 Total 281 I rent the dwelling unit from:

13.

Whatare your monthlyhousingcosts? Responsesvary with a range of $250to $1045for space rent, $0 to $2,400for mortgagepayments,and $25 to $100for utilityservice(if not includedin rent or HomeownerAssociation fees). A total of 31 respondents indicated that their monthlyhousingcosts includedan HOAfee,rangingfrom $135to $200.


14.

What are the sourcesof incomefor your household? (Checkall that apply) Percenta 163 131 21

Emplgy,ngl1!_ Social Securit S t a t e , F e d e r a l ,o r o t h e r disability program Savings/lnvestmgnt

tnl

61

13o/o

RetiremenUPension

13% lyo

Total 452 Total no. of dents286

100%

Of those responding,286 mobilehomeresidentsreported452 sourcesof income. Survey results indicate a majority of income comes from sources of (suchas socialsecurity,savings,retirement, unemployment etc.) Informationfrom residentsindicatesthat many older adultsor personswith disabilitiesrely solely on socialsecurityand/orsupplemental securityincomes. 15.

Find the row with the number of peopleliving in your household(including yourself).Then pleasecirclethe numberthat best representsyour household's total annual income,without going over. lncludeSocial Security,pensions, disability,AFDC,or similarpayments,and interestfrom savingsor CDs, stock dividends, and income from other investments when estimating your household'stotal income.beforetaxes. Perce AMI (extremelylowit 30% . income

O+

|

25%

e!Le-)_ 107,.4rvtlygty Io_w-!Ig 80%AMI(loq4sgfnrl_

28%

25%

100%AMI{m_eglenl 120%AMI(moderate Above 120% AMa

7o/o

5% 1O'/o

Total 262

100T0

The household income limits were adjusted by household size, based on the Area Median Income (AMl) limits as determined by the U.S. Department of H o u s i n g a n d U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t( H U D ) f o r t h e S a n D i e g o R e g i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , b a s e d o n a t w o - p e r s o n h o u s e h o l dt h e f o l l o w i n g i n c o m e c a t e g o r i e s can be referenced:

Income Category

] Extremely j tow

mif"

] $''u,ruo $ 2 8 , 1 0 0

I Llmit

Very low

Lower

$44,900

Median

$55,500

S e e A t t a c h m e n t " L " o f t h e s t a f f r e p o r t f o r a d d i t i o n a li n c o m e l i m i t s f o r S a n D i e g o County in 2Q07. When individual household incomes (with primary residency in Encinitas) were e x a m i n e d o n a p a r k - b y - p a r kb a s i s , t h e r e s p o n s e s a l i g n e d c l o s e l y w i t h t h e o v e r a l l r e s p o n s e r a t e s . T h i s s u r v e y f i n d i n g w a s g e n e r a l l yc o n s i s t e n t t h r o u g h o u t a l l o f t h e


parks, except Trailer Rancho (80%), Shamrock (93%) and Sea Aire (100%) MobilehomeParksreporta higherpercentage of lowerincomehouseholds. Note: Householdincomesin Encinitastend to be higherthan those in the region as a whole. Gitywidemedianhouseholdincomein Encinitaswas $71,384in 2004, $19,192higherthan the medianincomefor all householdsin the San Diegoregion, accordingto SANDAG'sCurrentEstimates. 16.

Amongthe membersof your household,how many: Work in Encinitas Work elsewhere

17.

Whatis the generalconditionof your home?

Good

In general, satisfaction with housing condition is very high. An overwhelming majority of respondents, approximately 73 percent of those surveyed, indicate that only minor repairs would be neededwithin the next year, However, 8 percent of t h o s e s u r v e y e d i n d i c a t et h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e h o m e w a s " p o o r " o r " v e r y p o o r " , with major repairs needed now. These survey finding are generally consistent throughout the mobilehomeparks. When basing the reported condition of the unit with the year the unit was manufactured (refer to question no. 7), there is a strong relationship between a u n i t ' s a g e a n d t h e a m o u n t o f r e p a i r s n e e d e d . M o r e o v e r ,a g e d a t a c a n b e i m p o r t a n t in evaluating whether or not a unit is suitable for rehabilitation since repairing older units in fair or poor condition may not be economically feasible. ln other words, since extensive repairs are needed, the value of an older unit after rehabilitation may be less than the cost of rehabilitation. The survey findings c o n v e y t h a t a s t h e a g e o f t h e u n i t i n c r e a s e s ,t h e m o r e l i k e l y s u b s t a n t i a l e x t e r i o r and interior repairs are needed (see question nos. 18 through 22). However, the survey responses indicatethat repairs are also needed on newer units (made or m a n u f a c t u r e ds i n c e 1 9 8 0 ) .

18.

H a v e t h e r e b e e n a n y m a j o r r e p a i r s o r u p g r a d e st o t h e e x t e r i o r o f y o u r h o m e ? ( F o r e x a m p l e : n e w r o o f ; r o o m a d d i t i o n ; i n s t a l l e dn e w w i n d o w s ; e t c . )

Residentswere also askedaboutthe typesof exteriorrepairsor upgradesthat have been made (if a "yes" responsewas indicated).Of those responding,149 openended comments were received. Responsesindicate that "new windows and


doors", "room and deck additions",and "roof repair" were the most common repairsand upgradesmadeto the exteriorof the home. 19.

Does your home need any new exteriorrepairsor upgrading?(for example:new roofingor recoating;new skirtingor new sidingor repair;new stepsor deck repair; exteriorpainting;etc.)

The resident survey revealed that exterior home repairs are needed (44ohot respondents). Residentswere also asked about the types of exterior repairs or upgrades that are needed (if a "yes" response was indicated). Of those responding,119 open-endedcommentswere received, Responsesindicatethat "exterior painting", "new skirting and siding", "roof repair", "deck and step repair",and "generalmaintenance"are the most common repairsand upgrades needed. 20.

Haveyou made any major repairsor upgradesto the interiorof your home? (For example:replacedkitchencabinetsand appliances;upgradedbathroomwith new plumbing,fixtures,and cabinets;replacedaluminumwiring with copper wiring; etc.)

R e s i d e n t sw e r e a l s o a s k e d a b o u t t h e t y p e s o f i n t e r i o r r e p a i r s o r u p g r a d e s t h a t h a v e been made (if a "yes" response was received). Of those responding, 159 openended comments were received. Responsesindicate that "plumbing", "bathroom and kitchen fixtures", "copper wiring", and "flooring" were the most common r e p a i r s a n d u p g r a d e s m a d e t o t h e i n t e r i o ro f t h e h o m e .

21

Does your home need any new interiorrepairsor upgrading? (For example: new plumbing; new electrical; new faucets, shower, tub, toilet, sink; new furnace or repair; new vinyl flooring or carpet; new kitchen cabinets, stove, oven, disposal; interiorpainting; etc.)

The resident survey revealed that interior home repairs are needed (47% o'f respondents). Residents were also asked about the types of interior repairs or upgrades that are needed (if a "yes" responsewas received). Of those counted, 127 open-ended comments were received. Responses indicate that a "new furnace", "plumbing", "bathroom and kitchen fixtures", "copper wiring", "flooring", and "painting" are the most common repairsand upgrades needed.


22.

Are there any other repairsthat needto be made to your h o m e ? ( F o r e x a m p l e : leveling; reattach marriage line of two-section home; u n d e r h o m e r e p a i r s ; walkways.)

Residentswere also asked about the other types of repairsthat are needed(if a "yes" responsewas received). Of those responding,50 open'endedcomments were received. Responsesindicatethat walkways,driveways,and leveling are the most commonrepairsneeded, Note: The reportedneededrepairsfrom questionnos. 19,21, and22 of this survey were generallyfound consistentin all mobilehomeparks. 23.

Haveyou had any problemswith any of the followingPark utility systemsduring the past year? (Checkall that apply) No.of responses

Percenl

No problelns (Response indicatinga roblem Total no. of

nts 281

Electrical svstem Gas syst_em__ Water sVstem

No.of responses Relative 47 7 - 4 8

63

Sewaoesvstem CableTV Phone/lnternet

34 3b Total 234

20% 3% 27% 20% 15o/o 15o/o

100%

Total no. of r e s p o n d e n t s1 4 3

residentsrespondedto the question.Of those Of thosesurveyed,281mobilehome responding,138 individuals(49% of the total) reportedno problemswith Park '143respondents utility systems during the past year. However,approximately (51%of the total) identifiedat leastone park utility problem. Survey responses report 234 problemsin six categories:electricalsystem,gas system,water system, sewage system, cable TV, and phone/internet. While some parks have been updated and are well maintained,the survey findings report that many need investmentin infrastructure.The responserateswere examinedon a park-by-park basisto determinethe utilitysystemconditionof eachmobilehomepark. . .

The "electricalutilitysystem"is reportedas a problemin GreenValley(17 and The Sands(6 Hilltop(4 out of 10 respondents), out of 45 respondents), Mobilehome Parks. out of 21 respondents) The "waterutilitysystem"is reportedas a problemin ParkEncinitas(7 out


.

of 471,GreenValley(20 out of 45),Hilltop(5 out of 10),and The Sands(9 out of 21) MobilehomeParks. The "sewer utility system" is reportedas a problem in Riviera(11 out of 46),Valleyof Dreams(8 out of 14),The Sands(11out of 211,and SeaAire (4 out of 19)MobilehomeParks. The "cable TV utility system" is reportedas a problem in Green Valley MobilehomePark(21out of 45). The "phone utilitysystem"is reportedas a problemin GreenValleyGreen Valley(10 out of 45).

Note: The above is not necessarilyreflectiveof a problem,but a reflectionof the responsesreceived. 24.

Whatis the overallconditionof the facilitiesin the MobilehomePark? N o . of responses

Very

Fair

Good

Good

ParkStreets

87

(3q%) ]

Park Lighting

88

(30%)

l-t"rt Landscaping I earx I Cleanliness Laundry Room

Recreation Buildinq/Pool

97 (337j) 116 (40%) 97 (34%l

92 32

125

eooi

I

l 541

(43J1 --U!:1t L 98 (34%l

98

(3_l :14 94 %l 98

84

761 26%l |

551 (19%)

Not Anplicable 26 1

(9i14 25 (9%l

28

- 1t('.tOo/")

rc%l 3 (1%l 12 (4%l 2

Total 293 (100%) 290 (100%) 290 _(100%) 289 {100%)

60l(2',1%t l

rc%l

{0o/o)

50 | (18%)_l

15 (t"/"1

$o/ol

286 100%l

81 (28%l

288 nO0o/.1

271

(9%t i

4 (20 1

26

Overall the park facilities were rated "very good" and "good". The response rates a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t a n d e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e dt h r o u g h o u t a l l o f t h e p a r k s . 25.

What are the best things about having a mobllehome? (Check allthat apply)

No.of res I own my own unit I'm close tg intpg4elr! I can afford it

229

18o/o

162

13%

205 166 242 t60 72

17o/o

Total296

13% 20% 13o/o

6%

100%

Of those surveyed, 296 mobilehome residents responded to the question. According to the responses, the best things about having a mobilehome are g e n e r a l l y e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d b e t w e e n t h e a l t e r n a t i v e st h r o u g h o u t t h e m o b i l e h o m e parks. The top three, best things about having a mobilehome were identifiedas: " o w n i n g t h e u n i t " , " b e i n g c l o s e t o i m p o r t a n tt h i n g s " , a n d " b e i n g a b l e t o a f f o r d t h e unit".


Residentswere also asked to identifyother enjoyablequalitiesto mobilehome residency. Of those responding,72 open.endedcomments were received. Responsesexpressedthe quiet lifestyle,qualityof the unit, and managementas otherbestthings abouthavinga mobilehome. 26.

What are your greatestconcernsrelatedto your mobilehome?(Checkall that applv) No. of responses Not owninq mv soace

't28

Housepayments Spacerent Homerepairg

12 153

F e e l i n gs a f e Pavinq for utilities

18

Fqlutg-pgtt rtylg:llp Other

48 18 45

69 Total281

Percentage

26% 2"/o

31% 10% 4% 4% 9o/o

14%

1oo"/"

Of those surveyed, 281 mobilehome residents responded to the question. According to the response rate, the greatest concerns related to the mobilehome were identified as "space rent", "not owning my space", "home repairs", and " f u t u r e p a r k o w n e r s h i p " . " S p a c e r e n t " ( 3 1 o ho f r e s p o n d e n t s ) a n d " N o t o w n i n g m y space" appear to be key issues of concern for participating mobilehome park residents. On a park-by-parkanalysis, some issues of concern seem to be more salient in specificmobilehome parks: .

. .

.

"Space rent" and "not owning my space" appear to be a relatively important concern expressed by residents from Green Valley, Riviera, Valley of Dreams, Beacon's Beach, Hilltop, The Sands, and Sea Aire MobilehomeParks. " H o m e r e p a i r s " w a s i d e n t i f i e da s r e l a t i v e l yi m p o r t a n t i n P a r k E n c i n i t a s a n d Riviera. "Ftiture park ownership" was identified as relatively important in Green Valley, Riviera, Valley of Dreams, Beacon's Beach, The Sands, Trailer R a n c h o , a n d S e a A i r e M o b i l e h o m eP a r k s . "House payment", "feeling safe", and "paying for utilities" were reported e v e n l y b e t w e e n t h e m o b i l e h o m ep a r k s .

Residents were also asked to identify other concerns related to mobilehome residency. Of those responding, 69 open-ended comments were received. R e s p o n s e s e x p r e s s e d t h a t c o s t o f g e n e r a l l i v i n g ( a f f o r d a b i l i t y ) ,n o i s y n e i g h b o r s , m a n a g e m e n t p r a c t i c e s , H o m e o w n e r A s s o c i a t i o n s ,a n d t r a f f i c a s o t h e r c o n c e r n s t o having a mobilehome,


27.

OPTIONAL;Pleaseusethis spaceto provideadditionalinformationaboutyour currenthousing(you may includeadditionalsheetsif necessary).This may includeadditionalconcernsor opinionsyou would liketo express,but were not addressedin the survey.Your information will be kept confidential. Residentswere also askedaboutotherconcernsthey would liketo voice. A total of 129respondentsprovidedopen-ended comments.

[Part< Name

Open-Ended Comments;Key lssueso Concern

ts

Green Va Park Encinitas

18

I Rent I Condo. N e w C h a n g e Res. Park o w n e r s of land Owner- M a i n t . "onu"* use ship | -l

s

l

2

J

2

2

"l

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

I 15

0

24

8

0

0

0

4

0

6

1

0

0

2

0

2

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

_l l

' I ' L ' 1 l ' l ',_J i

Hilltop The

Park Mgt.

] _' ' _ l _ ' _ 'l ' i 1 _r 1_:_ l_'__l' _l_i _ _ l _ ' _fl _ ' _ l I :

_ l ' _ l _ ' l1 z' l ' _ 1 0 i ' Il f l i o 0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

while many respondentsreiterated theirconcernsthat wereaddressedby the survey;residentsalso expressedtheirgeneralsatisfaction and appreciation of the lifestyle,or expressedconcernsbasedon healthand safetyissues or park management. '

'

"space rent" seemedto be a concernexpressedfrom survey participants that residein GreenValley(9 of 18totalcomments,50%),Riviera(g of 24 totalcomments,33%),TheSands(8 of 19 totalcomments,42lol, Valleyof Dreams(4 out of 9 total comments,44%),and Shamrock(4 out of 10 total comments,40%)Mobilehome Parks. "condominiumconversions"wereexpressedas a concernfrom survey participantsthat residein TheSandsMobilehome Park(11out of 19 total comments,58%). "Changeof land use" was a concernexpressedfrom survey participants that residein Valleyof DreamsMobilehome Park(3 out of 9, 33%).


AttachmentC C a l i f o r n iJau r i s d i c t i o nwsi t h M o b i l e h o mR e e n tS t a b i l i z a t i oOnr d i n a n c e s T h e s o u rceo f th i sd o cu me n its unknownand its accur acyand completeness is unknown.lt is believedto havefirstappearedin documentsused by the Cityof CitrusHeightsin 2006,and has subsequently appearedin reportsin othercities. Whilethe sourceand accuracyis not known,the tabledoes providesome representative samplingof ordnances.


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Contents P a r tI

E xp l a n a ti oonf In d ustr yTer msand Tr ends

Page 1

P a r tll

S u rve yo f E n ci n i ta Mobilehom s e Tr ailerPar ks and

Page11

P a r tll l T re n d si n E n ci n i ta sM obilehome and Tr ailerPar ks

Page56

Pa r tlV E n ci n i ta sR e si d e n ts' Concer nsand R e g u l a to ry a n d N o n- Regulator Alter y natives

Page66

Attachments A ma i l edfor Sur veyof Par kResidents Qu e sti o n n a i re B S u mma ryo f R e sp onses to ResidentSur vey withM obilehome RentStabilization C C a l i fo rn i Ju a ri sd i ctions Or dinanc es r elatingto D C o mp a ri so o n f S ta telawand localor dinances Mo b i l e h o me P a rkC losur es Thom asP. Ker r ,Inc. E Qu a l i fi ca ti oonf C o nsultant.


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AttachmentE of Consultant: ThomasP. Kerr,Inc. Qualifications


^N Y

THOMASP. KERR, Inc. lvlonogementand ConsultingSeruices

3807 Pasadena Ave., Suite100 Sacramento. California 95821 Telephone:1976\97I 0489

Summary of Qualifications T h o m a sP K e r r i s a r e a l e s t a t ea n d h o u s i n gc o n s u l t a nst p e c i a l i z i nign m o b i i l e h o m e parksand otherprojectsutilizingmanufactured housing. He is the editorand publisherof Mobilehome Pqrks Report, a widely-readmonthly reporton trends,issues,and legislationof interestto park owners,developers,lenders,local and stategovernmentofficials,and attorneys. F o r t h e C a l i f o r n i aS a v i n g sa n d L o a n L e a g u e ,h e p r o v i d e dl e g i s l a t i v ea n a l y s i sa n d c o n s u l t i nogn l a w sc h a n g i n gt h e r e g u l a t i o nt i t l i n ga, n df i n a n c i n g o f m a n u f i c t u r e dh o u s i h g . As Vice Presidentof ParklifeCorporation, he was responsible for trainingprogramsfor m o b i l e h o m ed e a l e r sa n d s a l e s p e o p l e . H e h a s b e e n d e s i g n a t e da s a M o b i l e h o m eF e e A p p r a i s ebr y t h e U . S .V e t e r a n sA d m i n i s t r a t i o n . From 1972 through 1978, Kerr was ExecutiveDirectorof the Western Mobilehome A s s o c i a t i o nt h, e b u s i n e s so r g a n i z a t i oonf C a l i f o r n i a 'm s o b i l e h o m ep a r k s . H e i s c u r r e n l ya memberof the boardof directorsof the OregonPark OwnersAllianceand an advisoryboard m e m b e ro f t h e C a l i f o r n i M a o b i l e h o mP e a r k o w n e rAs l l i a n c e .H e l s a l s o a l o n g - t i m em e m b e ro f t h e G o l d e nS t a t e M a n u f a c t u r e d - H o m Oew n e r sL e a g u e ,t h e a s s o c i a t i o o nf mobilehome park residents. Kerr has been a consultantand speakerfor the CaliforniaAssociationof Realtorsand f o r m a n u f a c t u r ehdo u s i n gt r a d ea s s o c i a t i o ni sn C a l i f o r n i aA,r i z o n a O , r e g o n ,a n d W a s h i n g t o n . He has instructedreal estate conttnuingeducationcourseson the sublectof manufactured housingfor campusesof the Universityof California,a real estatefranchisecorporatron, and t h e S a nF e r n a n d o V a l l e yB o a r do f R e a l t o r s . H e h a s b e e n a S e n i o rC o n s u l t a nt to t h e C a l i f o r n l S a t a t eA s s e m b l yo n t w o o c c a s i o n s , including s e r v i c ea s t h e R e p u b l i c a cn o n s u l t a nt to t h e C o m m i t t e eo n H o u s i n ga n d C o m m u n i t y Development. He earnedMasterof Arts and Bachelorof Arts degreesfrom the University of California at santa Barbara,and is a licensedcaliforniaRealEstateBroker Kerr is a memberof the SacramentoCountyAssessmentAppealsBoard,havingheard propertytax appeals of propertiesranging from single-familyresidencesand multi-family complexesto Nordstrom's,and personalpropertyappealsincludingprintingequipmentand helicopters. T o m K e r ri s a m o b i l e h o mpea r k so w n e ra n d i n v e s t ohr i m s e l af s t h e M a n a g i n gG e n e r a l Partnerof mobilehomeparksin Oregon,and of partnerships that ownedmobilehome and trailer p a r k si n C a l i f o r n iaan d T e x a s .

Encinitas Mobilehome and Trailer Park Study - 2007-08  

The City of Encinitas was interested in knowing more about the 11 mobilehome and trailer parks there to develop strategies to preserve them...

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